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1

Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Hair and Severity of Symptoms among Children with Autism  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the levels of ten toxic metals and essential elements in hair samples of children with autism, and to correlate the level of these elements with the severity of autism. Method: The participants were 44 children, age 3 to 9 years, with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition, (DSM-IV). The severity of autistic symptomatology was measured by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Hair analysis was performed to evaluate the long term metal exposure and mineral level. Results: By comparing hair concentration of autistic vs nonautistic children, elevated hair concentrations were noted for aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, antimony, nickel, lead, and vanadium. Hair levels of calcium, iron, iodine, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, and selenium were considered deficient. There was a significant positive correlation between lead & verbal communication (p = 0.020) and general impression (p = 0.008). In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between zinc & fear and nervousness (p = 0.022). Conclusion: Our data supports the historic evidence that heavy metals play a role in the development of ASD. In combination with an inadequate nutritional status the toxic effect of metals increase along with the severity of symptoms.

BLAUROCK-BUSCH, Eleonor; AMIN, Omnia R.; DESSOKI, Hani H.; RABAH, Thanaa

2012-01-01

2

Symptom severity and distress in advanced cancer.  

PubMed

We determined the relationship between symptom severity and distress for multiple cancer symptoms, and examined patient demographic influences on severity and distress in advanced cancer. A Cochran-Armitage trend test determined whether symptom distress increased with severity. Chi-square, Fisher's exact test and logistic regression analysis examined moderate/severe ('clinically important') and distressful symptoms by age (65), gender, primary site group, and ECOG performance status. Forty-six symptoms were analyzed in 181 individuals. More than 50% of individuals with clinically important symptoms rated them as distressful. The median percentage of individuals with mild but still distressful symptoms was 25%, with a range of 0% (bad dreams) to 73% (sore mouth). In both univariate and multivariate analysis, younger (symptoms (only anxiety was more frequently distressful to older individuals). Clinically important symptoms and two of those considered distressful varied by primary site group. After control for severity, symptom distress did not differ by primary site group. The prevalence of distress increased with greater symptom severity. Younger individuals, those with poor performance status, and females had greater symptom severity and distress. Mild symptoms were often distressful. After adjustment for severity, age, gender, and performance status all influenced symptom distress. PMID:20015920

Kirkova, Jordanka; Walsh, Declan; Rybicki, Lisa; Davis, Mellar P; Aktas, Aynur; Tao Jin; Homsi, Jade

2009-12-16

3

Ozone toxicity symptoms among flight attendants  

SciTech Connect

Because of persistent complaints of ozone-toxicity type symptoms among crew members of commercial airlines, we undertook a survey to determine the extent of the problem and the associated flight factors. Self-reported questionnaires and flight diaries were completed by 1,330 flight attendants, (FAs) working for three different airlines. Ozone-toxicity type symptoms were reported three or four times more frequently by FAs with airlines flying at high altitudes than by those with low-flying airlines. When examined by characteristics of flights, the ozone-toxicity type symptoms were significantly associated with flight altitude, duration and type of aircraft, but not with years worked, sex, medical history, or home residence. Other symptoms indicative of fatigue or stress were mainly associated with flight duration. While these indirect data cannot implicate ozone specifically, they offer evidence that ozone-related health problems do exist among a large proportion of FAs.

Reed, D.; Glaser, S.; Kaldor, J.

1980-01-01

4

Severe amiodarone induced pulmonary toxicity  

PubMed Central

A known complication of Amiodarone therapy is Amiodarone induced Pulmonary Toxicity (APT). Several features of this adverse effect make it difficult to diagnosis and treat. The case of a 63-year-old male with classic radiographic and histologic findings of APT is discussed. Clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnostic findings, and treatment strategies are reviewed. The patient was successfully managed with pulse high dose steroid therapy.

Nacca, Nicholas; Yuhico, Luke S; Pinnamaneni, Sowmya; Szombathy, Tamas

2012-01-01

5

Symptom & Toxicity Management - National Cancer Institute  

Cancer.gov

With the help of the CCOPs, MB-CCOPs and Research Bases, more clinical trials than ever before are incorporating patient-reported outcomes to better capture the clinical benefit and risks of cancer therapies. CCOP network studies include symptom management, toxicity reduction, supportive and palliative care, and quality of life.

6

Impact of ADHD symptoms on autism spectrum disorder symptom severity.  

PubMed

Despite the official exclusion criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the DSM-IV and ICD-10, patients with ASD often show ADHD symptoms. We aimed to examine the potential influence of ADHD symptoms on autistic psychopathology in a large sample of patients with ASD. We tested the hypothesis that patients with ASD and an additional ADHD (ASD+) would show a higher severity of autistic symptoms than those with ASD only (ASD-). We measured autistic symptoms using the autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS-G), the autism diagnostic interview (ADI-R), and the social responsiveness scale (SRS). To measure overall psychopathology and ADHD symptoms, we used the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and the ADHD rating scale (FBB-ADHS), respectively. Group differences between the ASD+ and the ASD- group (group division was conducted according to the results of the FBB-ADHS) were calculated using a univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ASD+ group showed a greater severity of autistic symptoms than the ASD- group, measured by the SRS and the ADI-R. Especially in the social interaction subscale (ADI-R), a significantly higher symptom severity was found in the ASD+ group. No significant group differences were found regarding autistic symptoms measured by the ADOS-G. Patients with ASD and an additional ADHD expressed a stronger severity of autistic symptoms than patients with ASD only. According to our results, the possibility of a co-diagnosis of ADS and ADHD, as is being planned in the DSM-5, is in line with earlier studies, is highly reasonable, will simplify research, and have therapeutic implications. PMID:23973801

Sprenger, Linda; Bühler, Eva; Poustka, Luise; Bach, Christiane; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Bachmann, Christian

2013-08-22

7

9 CFR 309.4 - Livestock showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...infectious equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage...

2013-01-01

8

Symptom and Toxicity Drug Development Task Force (DDTF)  

Cancer.gov

The DDTF was formed by the NCI Symptom Management and Quality of Life Steering Committee (SxQOL SC) in response to a lack of agents for amelioration of cancer treatment-related toxicity and cancer-related symptoms. Its purpose is to increase the availability of biologically plausible, pharmacologic interventions for clinical trial assessment that have the potential to reduce cancer treatment-related toxicity or cancer disease-related symptoms.

9

Severe toxic hepatitis associated with dronedarone.  

PubMed

Dronedarone was introduced in 2009 as a new antiarrhythmic agent and since then has been increasingly prescribed in atrial fibrillation or flutter. To date, two cases of severe toxic hepatitis have been reported in patients treated with dronedarone, both requiring emergency liver transplantation, and the FDA as well as the EMA have issued warnings about possible severe hepatotoxicity of dronedarone. Here we report an additional case of toxic hepatitis associated with dronedarone presenting with acute liver failure, followed by spontaneous recovery, in a 69-year old woman. PMID:23789833

Jahn, Stephan; Zollner, Gernot; Lackner, Carolin; Stauber, Rudolf E

2013-07-01

10

Dieting Severity and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in College Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young women report symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), such as pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements, more often than young men. Young women with eating disorders also report these gastrointestinal symptoms frequently. We hypothesized that if dieting behaviors were associated with these symptoms, the prevalence and frequency of the symptoms would be positively related to dieting severity

Dean Krahn; Candace Kurth; Karen Nairn; Lezli Redmond; Adam Drewnowski; Edith Gomberg

1996-01-01

11

Neuropsychiatric symptom assessments in toxic exposure.  

PubMed

The goal of this review is to provide guidelines for evaluating psychiatric and mood changes that result from neurotoxicity. Mood changes that are often seen to varying degrees in neurotoxicity include increased anxiety, depression, irritability, impulsiveness, and psychosis. Some common agents that induce neurotoxicity include drugs, heavy metals, and organophosphates with presentations varying somewhat depending upon the mechanism of toxicity. The authors discuss in detail psychiatric assessment for patients with suspected of having neurotoxicologic syndrome. PMID:23688687

Mason, Lisa H; Mathews, Melissa J; Han, Dong Y

2013-04-15

12

URD and Severity of Withdrawal Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional methods of opioid detoxification: ion with opioid agonist such as methadone or non- opioid drugs such as clonidine hydrochloride involve relatively long processes compared to rapid or ultra rapid detoxification. Using new methods, clients are detoxified in a shorter period of time with less relapse rate and they don't experience withdrawal symptoms. This is a clinical analytic outcome study,

M. Yassini; H. Khosravy Larigani; A. Rafati

2006-01-01

13

Self-compassion and PTSD symptom severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neff 's (2003a, 2003b) notion of self-compassion emphasizes kindness towards one's self, a feeling of connectedness with others, and mindful awareness of distressing experiences. Because exposure to trauma and subsequent posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS) may be associated with self-criticism and avoidance of internal experiences, the authors examined the relationship between self-compassion and PSS. Out of a sample of 210 university

Brian L. Thompson; Jennifer Waltz

2008-01-01

14

Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity\\u000a disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore,\\u000a 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and ASD symptoms. OCD patients showed\\u000a increased ADHD and autism symptom frequencies, OCD + ADHD patients reporting more autism symptoms

Gideon E. Anholt; Danielle C. Cath; Patricia van Oppen; Merijn Eikelenboom; Johannes H. Smit; Harold van Megen

2010-01-01

15

Autism and ADHD symptoms in patients with OCD: are they associated with specific OC symptom dimensions or OC symptom severity?  

PubMed

In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and ASD symptoms. OCD patients showed increased ADHD and autism symptom frequencies, OCD + ADHD patients reporting more autism symptoms (particularly attention switching and social skills problems) than OCD - ADHD patients. Attention switching problems were most significant predictors of OC symptom dimensions (except hoarding) and of symptom severity. Hoarding was not associated with elevated autism scale scores, but with inattention. In conclusion, attention switching problems may reflect both symptom overlap and a common etiological factor underlying ASD, ADHD and OCD. PMID:20039111

Anholt, Gideon E; Cath, Danielle C; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J L M

2010-05-01

16

Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?  

PubMed Central

In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and ASD symptoms. OCD patients showed increased ADHD and autism symptom frequencies, OCD + ADHD patients reporting more autism symptoms (particularly attention switching and social skills problems) than OCD ? ADHD patients. Attention switching problems were most significant predictors of OC symptom dimensions (except hoarding) and of symptom severity. Hoarding was not associated with elevated autism scale scores, but with inattention. In conclusion, attention switching problems may reflect both symptom overlap and a common etiological factor underlying ASD, ADHD and OCD.

Anholt, Gideon E.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

2009-01-01

17

Female hormones affect symptom severity in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

There is circumstantial evidence that reproductive events can influence symptom severity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We sent self-report questionnaires to 350 female outpatients with OCD to examine the relationship between the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, menopause, hormonal contraceptives, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and symptom severity of OCD. Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores were used at three serial time points during the menstrual cycle to assess symptom severity. One hundred and one out of 350 questionnaires (29%) were returned and completed. Forty-nine patients reported an exacerbation of OCD symptoms during the premenstrual period, nine during the menopause and 17 patients during pregnancy, whereas 11 patients mentioned improvement of OCD symptoms during pregnancy. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder could only partly explain a premenstrual exacerbation of OCD symptoms. Exacerbation of OCD could be related to reproductive events in a considerable number of patients, especially the premenstrum. Because reproductive cycle events influence the symptom severity of OCD, the menstrual cycle should be taken into account when assessing the severity of OCD symptoms during pharmacological studies. PMID:16528139

Vulink, Nienke C C; Denys, Damiaan; Bus, Léonie; Westenberg, Herman G M

2006-05-01

18

Hypnosis to alleviate the symptoms of ciguatera toxicity: a case study.  

PubMed

Ciguatera toxicity is a poisoning from consuming reef fish that had fed on dinoflagellates such as Gambierdiscus toxicus found along coral reefs. The toxin is oil soluble, odorless, colorless, tasteless, heat stable, and is concentrated in larger carnivorous fish such as amberjack, barracuda, eel, grouper, red snapper, sea bass, and Spanish mackerel. Onset of symptoms is usually within 6-12 hours after ingestion. Gastrointestinal symptoms lasting 1-2 days include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Neurological symptoms may persist for weeks or several months or--rarely--years and include circumoral and extremity paresthesias, temperature sensation reversal, itching, weakness, ataxia, and others. A patient with burning hands and feet who had not found relief using other methods had diagnosis of ciguatera toxicity assisted by hypnotically refreshed memory followed by rapid relief with hypnotic suggestions in 1 session and remained free of symptoms. PMID:22443020

Laser, Eleanor D; Shenefelt, Philip D

2012-01-01

19

Psychosocial correlates of PTSD symptom severity in sexual assault survivors.  

PubMed

This study's goal was to assess the effects of preassault, assault, and postassault psychosocial factors on current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms of sexual assault survivors. An ethnically diverse sample of over 600 female sexual assault survivors was recruited from college, community, and mental health agency sources (response rate = 90%). Regression analyses tested the hypothesis that postassault psychosocial variables, including survivors' responses to rape and social reactions from support providers, would be stronger correlates of PTSD symptom severity than preassault or assault characteristics. As expected, few demographic or assault characteristics predicted symptoms, whereas trauma histories, perceived life threat during the assault, postassault characterological self-blame, avoidance coping, and negative social reactions from others were all related to greater PTSD symptom severity. The only protective factor was survivors' perception that they had greater control over their recovery process in the present, which predicted fewer symptoms. Recommendations for intervention and treatment with sexual assault survivors are discussed. PMID:17955534

Ullman, Sarah E; Filipas, Henrietta H; Townsend, Stephanie M; Starzynski, Laura L

2007-10-01

20

9 CFR 309.4 - Livestock showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous...infectious or parasitic diseases. 309.4 Section...showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous...infectious or parasitic diseases. (a) All...

2010-01-01

21

9 CFR 309.4 - Livestock showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous...infectious or parasitic diseases. 309.4 Section...showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous...infectious or parasitic diseases. (a) All...

2009-01-01

22

Peripheral oxytocin is associated with reduced symptom severity in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Emerging evidence from clinical trials suggests that oral estrogen and intranasal oxytocin might reduce symptom severity in schizophrenia. Whether increases in endogenous hormones are similarly associated with improved symptoms is unknown. We investigated the effects of menstrual cycle phase and related fluctuations in peripheral hormone levels on clinical symptoms in women with chronic schizophrenia. Method Twenty-three women with schizophrenia were administered the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), a measure of clinical symptom severity, at two menstrual cycle phases: 1) early follicular (Days 2–4; low estrogen/progesterone) and 2) midluteal (Days 20–22; high estrogen/progesterone). Twenty-seven males with schizophrenia and 58 controls (31 female) completed testing at comparable intervals. Men were included to examine whether the relationships between clinical symptoms and hormone levels in women generalize to men. Plasma hormone assays of estrogen, oxytocin, progesterone, and testosterone were obtained. Results Female patients showed less severe symptoms during the midluteal versus early follicular phase (p’s<0.01). Oxytocin did not fluctuate across phases, but in female patients (p’s<0.01) higher oxytocin levels were associated with less severe positive symptoms and overall psychopathology. In both sexes, higher oxytocin levels were associated with more prosocial behaviors (p<0.05). Conclusion Consistent with previous findings in acutely ill patients, our results suggest that clinical symptoms vary across the menstrual cycle in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Similar to recent findings regarding benefits of intranasal oxytocin, these new findings indicate that high levels of endogenous oxytocin might improve positive symptom severity and general psychopathology in women and social behaviors in both sexes.

Rubin, Leah H.; Carter, C. Sue; Drogos, Lauren; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Sweeney, John A.; Maki, Pauline M.

2010-01-01

23

Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and…

Anholt, Gideon E.; Cath, Danielle C.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

2010-01-01

24

Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and…

Anholt, Gideon E.; Cath, Danielle C.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

2010-01-01

25

Eating Disorder Symptom Severity Scale: A New Clinician Rated Measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the development and validation of the clinician-rated Eating Disorder Symptom Severity Scale (EDS), created to address a gap in measurement options for youth with eating disorders. The EDS is modeled on the Childhood Severity and Acuity of Psychiatric Illness Scales (Lyons, J. S, 1998). Factor analysis revealed a 5-factor solution and accounted for 78% of the variance,

Katherine A. Henderson; Annick Buchholz; Julie Perkins; Sarah Norwood; Nicole Obeid; Wendy Spettigue; Stephen Feder

2010-01-01

26

Linguistic Correlates of Asymmetric Motor Symptom Severity in Parkinson's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Asymmetric motor severity is common in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and provides a method for examining the neurobiologic mechanisms underlying cognitive and linguistic deficits associated with the disorder. In the present research, PD participants (N = 31) were assessed in terms of the asymmetry of their motor symptoms. Interviews with the…

Holtgraves, Thomas; McNamara, Patrick; Cappaert, Kevin; Durso, Raymond

2010-01-01

27

Gynecologic oncology patients' satisfaction and symptom severity during palliative chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Research on quality and satisfaction with care during palliative chemotherapy in oncology patients has been limited. The objective was to assess the association between patient's satisfaction with care and symptom severity and to evaluate test-retest of a satisfaction survey in this study population. METHODS: A prospective cohort of patients with recurrent gynecologic malignancies receiving chemotherapy were enrolled after a

Vivian E von Gruenigen; Jessica R Hutchins; Anne Marie Reidy; Heidi E Gibbons; Barbara J Daly; Elisa M Eldermire; Nancy L Fusco

2006-01-01

28

Symptom severity and QOL scales for urinary incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symptoms of incontinence are common, particularly among older people, and incontinence can have a severe effect on the quality of life of some individuals at any age. A number of treatments are available, most of which aim to reduce the occurrence of incontinent episodes or to limit the effects of the disorder on everyday life. In research and clinical practice,

Michelle J Naughton; Jenny Donovan; Xavier Badia; Jacques Corcos; Momokazu Gotoh; Con Kelleher; Bertrand Lukacs; Christine Shaw

2004-01-01

29

Caregiver Life Satisfaction: Relationship to Youth Symptom Severity through Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study utilized the Satisfaction with Life Scale to investigate the life satisfaction of caregivers for youth receiving mental health services (N = 383). Specifically, this study assessed how caregiver life satisfaction relates to youth symptom severity throughout treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling with a time-varying covariate was used…

Athay, M. Michele

2012-01-01

30

Caregiver Life Satisfaction: Relationship to Youth Symptom Severity Through Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study utilized the Satisfaction with Life Scale to investigate the life satisfaction of caregivers for youth receiving mental health services (N = 383). Specifically, this study assessed how caregiver life satisfaction relates to youth symptom severity throughout treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling with a time-varying covariate was used to estimate the linear trajectory of caregiver life satisfaction and how it relates to

M. Michele Athay

2012-01-01

31

Linguistic Correlates of Asymmetric Motor Symptom Severity in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Asymmetric motor severity is common in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and provides a method for examining the neurobiologic mechanisms underlying cognitive and linguistic deficits associated with the disorder. In the present research, PD participants (N = 31) were assessed in terms of the asymmetry of their motor symptoms. Interviews with the participants were analyzed with the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program. Three measures of linguistic complexity – the proportion of verbs, proportion of function words, and sentence length – were found to be affected by symptom asymmetry. Greater left-side motor severity (and hence greater right hemisphere dysfunction) was associated with the production of significantly fewer verbs, function words, and shorter sentences. Hence, the production of linguistic complexity in a natural language context was associated with relatively greater right hemisphere involvement. The potential neurobiological mechanisms underlying this effect are discussed.

Holtgraves, Thomas; McNamara, Patrick; Cappaert, Kevin; Durso, Raymond

2009-01-01

32

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Predict Symptom Severity of Autism Spectrum Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism is widely believed to be a heterogeneous disorder; diagnosis is currently based solely on clinical criteria, although\\u000a genetic, as well as environmental, influences are thought to be prominent factors in the etiology of most forms of autism.\\u000a Our goal is to determine whether a predictive model based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can predict symptom severity\\u000a of autism spectrum disorder

Yun Jiao; Rong Chen; Xiaoyan Ke; Lu Cheng; Kangkang Chu; Zuhong Lu; Edward H. Herskovits

33

Serum testosterone and depressive symptoms in severe OSA patients.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), also characterised by hypoxia-related sleep- fragmentation, has been studied in relation to depression and serum testosterone deficit. In middle-aged men, it has been reported the association between depressive mood and low serum testosterone level; however, no data are available about this association in OSA patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate in adult obese males, affected by severe OSA, the relationship between serum testosterone concentration and depressive symptoms, in order to identify among all measured parameters (serum testosterone morning concentration, polysomnography parameters, body mass index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale) those predictors for OSA-related depression. Forty patients diagnosed with severe OSA and forty subjects for the control-matched group were enroled in the study. The results indicated that the serum testosterone in OSA group was significantly lower than in controls. In addition, the OSA group presented a level of depression although moderate, yet significantly higher than controls. Furthermore, a statistically significant inverse correlation has been found between serum testosterone level and depressive symptoms. Among all variables, serum testosterone level was shown to be the only independent variable significantly predictor for depression in OSA patients. PMID:22998358

Bercea, R M; Patacchioli, F R; Ghiciuc, C M; Cojocaru, E; Mihaescu, T

2012-09-23

34

Symptom Cluster Analyses Based on Symptom Occurrence and Severity Ratings Among Pediatric Oncology Patients During Myelosuppressive Chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Symptom cluster research is an emerging field in symptom management. The ability to identify symptom clusters that are specific to pediatric oncology patients may lead to improved understanding of symptoms’ underlying mechanisms among patients of all ages. Objective The purpose of this study, in a sample of children and adolescents with cancer who underwent a cycle of myelosuppressive chemotherapy, was to compare the number and types of symptom clusters identified using patients’ ratings of symptom occurrence and symptom severity. Interventions/Methods Children and adolescents with cancer (10 to 18 years of age; N=131) completed the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale 10–18 on the day they started a cycle of myelosuppressive chemotherapy, using a one week recall of experiences. Symptom data based on occurrence and severity ratings were examined using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). The defined measurement model suggested by the best EFA model was then examined with a latent variable analysis. Results Three clusters were identified when symptom occurrence ratings were evaluated which were classified as a chemotherapy sequelae cluster, mood disturbance cluster, and a neuropsychological discomforts cluster. Analysis of symptom severity ratings yielded similar cluster configurations. Conclusions Cluster configurations remained relatively stable between symptom occurrence and severity ratings. The evaluation of patients at a common point in the chemotherapy cycle may have contributed to these findings. Implications for Practice Additional uniformity in symptom clusters investigations is needed to allow appropriate comparisons among studies. The dissemination of symptom clusters research methodology through publication and presentation may promote uniformity in this field.

Baggott, Christina; Cooper, Bruce A.; Marina, Neyssa; Matthay, Katherine K.; Miaskowski, Christine

2011-01-01

35

Differences in Shoot Boron Concentrations, Leaf Symptoms, and Yield of Turkish Barley Cultivars Grown on Boron?Toxic Soil in Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 10 barley Turkish cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) field experiments were carried out on soils containing normal and very high soluble boron (B) concentration to study genotypic variation in tolerance to B toxicity in soil and the relationships between the shoot or leaf concentrations of B, severity of B?toxicity symptoms and yield. As judged by differences in degree of severity

B. Torun; M. Kalayci; L. Ozturk; A. Torun; M. Aydin; I. Cakmak

2002-01-01

36

On the limits of effort testing: Symptom validity tests and severity of neurocognitive symptoms in nonlitigant patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern symptom validity tests (SVTs) use empirical cutoffs for decision making. However, limits to the applicability of these cutoffs may arise when severe cognitive symptoms are present. The purpose of the studies presented here was to explore these limits of applicability. In Experiment 1, a group of 24 bona fide neurological patients without clinically obvious cognitive symptoms was compared to

Thomas Merten; Linda Bossink; Ben Schmand

2007-01-01

37

[Severe toxic diarrhoea in cyclosporin treated 11-years old girl with nephrotic syndrome].  

PubMed

A 11-years old cyclosporin-treated girl with nephrotic syndrome, complicated by severe toxic diarrhoea with excessive metabolic alkalosis and dyselektrolitemia (hyponatremia, hypokaliemia, hypochloremia) and transient immunoglobulin deficiency is reported. Ultrasonography shows thickeness of the colonic wall as a symptom of colonic inflammation. After discontinuation of cyclosporin therapy, excluding infectious origin of diarrhoea (bacterial, viral and fungal infection), partial parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition (Peptisorb), probiotics and antidiarrhoeal drugs were used in the treatment. After introducing steroids orally (Entocort) complete resolution of symptoms were observed. PMID:17874629

Stawarski, Andrzej; Iwa?czak, Barbara; Wawro, Anna; Iwa?czak, Franciszek; Piasecka, Agata; Sarnowska, Marta; Makulska, Irena

2007-06-01

38

Evaluation of serum sodium changes in tricyclic antidepressants toxicity and its correlation with electrocardiography, serum pH, and toxicity severity  

PubMed Central

Background: Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) is a group of drugs used for the depression treatment. One of the effects of these drugs is Na (sodium) channel blocking ability causing cardiac complications such as ventricular tachycardia and Torsades de pointes Arrhythmia. Sodium bicarbonate is used for treatment of these complications which may have some effect on serum sodium levels. Considering no specific research on Na changes on these patients, the serum Na changes and its correlation with ECG changes, serum pH, and TCA toxicity severity were evaluated. Materials and Methods: A prospective descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study was done on TCA-poisoning patients who were admitted in Noor hospital in Esfahan in last 2 years. Serum sodium levels, ECG changes, and TCA severity toxicity of 92 patients were evaluated five times during first 24 h of admission. Results: A total of 92 patients were studied. The most common symptoms were conscious level changes (81.52%) and mydriasis (64.1%). Based on toxicity severity by these symptoms the patients were classified into three groups: 12% of the patients had mild toxicity, 50% moderate, and 38% severe toxicity. There were no significant differences in mean serum Na during the time. There was not found any correlation between serum Na level, and serum pH, ECG, and toxicity severity. Conclusions: Using sodium bicarbonate in TCA-poisoning cases does not change the serum Na levels significantly.

Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Emamikhah-Abarghooeii, Soodabeh; Arzani-Shamsabadi, Mahdi

2012-01-01

39

Network Analysis of Toxic Chemicals and Symptoms: Implications for Designing First-Responder Systems  

PubMed Central

The rapid and accurate identification of toxic chemicals is critical for saving lives in emergency situations. However, first-responder systems such as WISER typically require a large number of inputs before a chemical can be identified. To address this problem, we used networks to visualize and analyze the complex relationship between toxic chemicals and their symptoms. The results explain why current approaches require a large number of inputs and help to identify regularities related to the co-occurrence of symptoms. This understanding provides implications for the design of future first-responder systems, with the goal of rapidly identifying toxic chemicals in emergency situations.

Bhavnani, Suresh K.; Abraham, Annie; Demeniuk, Christopher; Gebrekristos, Messeret; Gong, Abe; Nainwal, Satyendra; Vallabha, Gautam K.; Richardson, Rudy J.

2007-01-01

40

Red clover causing symptoms suggestive of methotrexate toxicity in a patient on high-dose methotrexate.  

PubMed

The case report discusses a very serious interaction between red clover and methotrexate not previously documented. It highlights the potential pitfalls of concomitant use of herbal remedies and conventionally prescribed drugs and the importance of advising our patients about OTC drugs. A 52-year-old woman attended her general practitioner for advice on menopausal flushing. She was on methotrexate weekly injections for severe psoriasis and was not keen to consider anything that would possibly affect her skin. Alternative therapies were discussed and red clover was suggested. This was bought OTC. After the third day of taking red clover capsules (430 mg), the patient developed severe vomiting and epigastric pain. She contacted the dermatology clinic that administers the methotrexate injection and was thought to have symptoms suggestive of methotrexate toxicity even though her liver function tests remained within normal levels. She had been receiving methotrexate injections for nearly two years with no adverse effects. The only new drug that had been started was red clover and this was thought to be the probable cause of the toxicity. It was withdrawn. The patient made a full recovery and received her next injection of methotrexate with no adverse effects. The interaction was reported to the MHRA with a yellow card. PMID:24072635

Orr, Ancel; Parker, Rachel

2013-09-01

41

Asthma Severity and PTSD Symptoms Among Inner City Children: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the association between posttraumatic stress symptoms and asthma severity among children has been hypothesized, it has yet to be explored rigorously. This study sought to describe the posttraumatic stress symptoms of children with asthma and explore the relationship between asthma severity and posttraumatic stress symptoms in an inner city sample with high rates of traumatic exposures. Children aged 7

Douglas Vanderbilt; Robin Young; Helen Z. MacDonald; Wanda Grant-Knight; Glenn Saxe; Barry Zuckerman

2008-01-01

42

Children with Autism: Sleep Problems and Symptom Severity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Relationships between the specific sleep problems and specific behavioral problems of children with autism were evaluated. Mothers' reports of sleep habits and autism symptoms were collected for 109 children with autism. Unlike previous research in this area, only children diagnosed with autism without any commonly comorbid diagnoses (e.g.,…

Tudor, Megan E.; Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.

2012-01-01

43

Gay male sexual assault survivors: the relations among internalized homophobia, experiential avoidance, and psychological symptom severity.  

PubMed

This study explored the relations among internalized homophobia (IH), experiential avoidance, and psychological symptom severity in a community sample of 74 gay male sexual assault survivors. Results indicated that IH is associated with both depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. IH accounted for more variance than assault severity in predicting both PTSD and depression symptom severity. IH and experiential avoidance similarly predicted PTSD symptom severity. In comparison with IH, however, experiential avoidance is a stronger predictor of depression symptom severity. Results also showed that experiential avoidance partially mediated the relation between IH and both depressive and PTSD symptom severity. The implications of these findings are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:17258041

Gold, Sari D; Marx, Brian P; Lexington, Jennifer M

2007-03-01

44

Assessment of Plant Toxicity Threshold of Several Heat Transfer and Storage Fluids and Eutectic Salts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plant toxicity threshold levels of several heat transfer and storage fluids and eutectic salts were determined by using a modified Neubauer technique. Barley seed germination and seedling growth were used for the toxicity tests. The general order of toxic...

H. Nishita

1980-01-01

45

The Association between Pain, Radiographic Severity, and Centrally-mediated Symptoms in Women with Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relationship between pain, radiographic severity, and a common set of co-occurring centrally-mediated symptoms in women with knee osteoarthritis. Methods Participants underwent knee radiographs, and had repeated assessments of pain severity and other centrally-mediated symptoms, such as fatigue, sleep quality, and depression, during a five day home monitoring period. To examine associations between pain severity (the average of pain over the home monitoring period), measures of osteoarthritis radiographic severity (Kellgren Lawrence grade, minimum joint space width), centrally-mediated symptoms, and demographics (age) were used. Symptoms of fatigue, depression, and sleep efficiency were used in a composite measure representing centrally-mediated symptoms. Results Using a series of linear regression models in which each variable was entered hierarchically (N = 54), the final model showed 27% of the variance in pain severity was explained by age, radiographic severity, and centrally-mediated symptoms. Centrally-mediated symptoms explained an additional 10% of the variance in pain severity after the other two variables were entered. Conclusions Both radiographic severity and centrally-mediated symptoms were independently and significantly associated with pain severity in women with knee osteoarthritis. In addition to more severe radiographic features, women with higher centrally-mediated symptoms had greater pain severity. Treatments for women with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis may be optimized by addressing both peripheral and central sources of pain.

Murphy, Susan L.; Lyden, Angela K.; Phillips, Kristine; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

2011-01-01

46

Neuropsychological approaches for the detection and evaluation of toxic symptoms.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is 3-fold: a) to review briefly the neuropsychological tests that have been used to evaluate the effects of neurotoxicants; b) to identify individual factors that may create heightened sensitivity to neurotoxicants; and c) to discuss test parameters that will increase the sensitivity of neuropsychological tests for detecting symptoms in low-level exposure situations. While the body of literature on neurobehavioral toxicology has increased dramatically during the past 10 years, it remains difficult to discern which tests are most effective in detecting behavioral effects even among workers with significant exposures. Few investigators have evaluated the interactions between individual differences, such as gender and psychiatric function, and exposure to neurotoxicants. Detection of behavioral performance decrements among uniquely susceptible populations such as those with sensitivities to low-level exposures (e.g., multiple chemical sensitivities) will require more difficult tests than are frequently used in current neuropsychological test batteries.

Fiedler, N

1996-01-01

47

Late respiratory effects of sulfur mustard: how is the early symptoms severity involved?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between severity of exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) and late respiratory complications is not clear. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of late pulmonary complications in patients with mild, moderate, and severe initial symptoms of sulfur mustard exposure. This was a retrospective cohort study on patients with mild, moderate, and severe initial symptoms of

M Ghanei; I Adibi; F Farhat; J Aslani

2008-01-01

48

Severity of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Symptom Differences Between men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several aspects of childhood sexual abuse were investigated to deterrmine the “best model” for predicting long-term symptoms found both in male and female survivors. Level of severity accounted for the most variation for both men and women for each of the five measures of trauma symptoms (dissociation, anxiety, depression, sexual dysfunction, and sleep disturbance). The most severe level of sexual

Vaughn Heath; Roy Bean; Leslie Feinauer

1996-01-01

49

Posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity and HIV-risk behaviors among substance-dependent inpatients.  

PubMed

Despite findings that the co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) is associated with heightened risk for a variety of risky behaviors, few studies have examined behaviors linked to heightened risk for HIV infection and transmission in particular, or explored the unique associations between specific PTSD symptom clusters and these HIV-risk behaviors. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the associations between PTSD symptom severity and HIV-risk behaviors (i.e., risky sexual behavior [RSB] and injection drug use [INJ]) within an ethnically diverse sample of 85 SUD patients in residential SUD treatment. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires assessing PTSD symptom severity and HIV-risk behaviors, including RSB and INJ. Results demonstrated significant positive associations between PTSD symptom severity and RSB; however, no significant relationship between PTSD symptom severity and INJ was found. Furthermore, the severity of hyperarousal symptoms in particular was found to significantly predict RSB above and beyond age and all other PTSD symptom clusters. Results of this study suggest that PTSD symptoms (and, more specifically, the hyperarousal symptoms of PTSD) may heighten the risk for some forms of HIV-risk behaviors (RSB) but not others (INJ). Results highlight the importance of identifying and targeting hyperarousal symptoms in the treatment of SUD patients experiencing symptoms of PTSD in order to reduce HIV infection or transmission risk. PMID:23356590

Weiss, Nicole H; Tull, Matthew T; Borne, Meghan E R; Gratz, Kim L

2013-01-29

50

Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and daily ambient exposures to toxic and criteria air pollutants.  

PubMed Central

Although acute adverse effects on asthma have been frequently found for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's principal criteria air pollutants, there is little epidemiologic information on specific hydrocarbons from toxic emission sources. We conducted a panel study of 22 Hispanic children with asthma who were 10-16 years old and living in a Los Angeles community with high traffic density. Subjects filled out symptom diaries daily for up to 3 months (November 1999 through January 2000). Pollutants included ambient hourly values of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide and 24-hr values of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm (PM10, and elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) PM10 fractions. Asthma symptom severity was regressed on pollutants using generalized estimating equations, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) was regressed on pollutants using mixed models. We found positive associations of symptoms with criteria air pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, PM10), EC-OC, and VOCs (benzene, ethylbenzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 1,3-butadiene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene). Selected adjusted odds ratios for bothersome or more severe asthma symptoms from interquartile range increases in pollutants were, for 1.4 ppb 8-hr NO2, 1.27 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.54]; 1.00 ppb benzene, 1.23 (95% CI, 1.02-1.48); 3.16 ppb formaldehyde, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.04-1.80); 37 microg/m3 PM10, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.11-1.90); 2.91 microg/m3 EC, 1.85 (95% CI, 1.11-3.08); and 4.64 microg/m3 OC, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.12-3.17). Two-pollutant models of EC or OC with PM10 showed little change in odds ratios for EC (to 1.83) or OC (to 1.89), but PM10 decreased from 1.45 to 1.0. There were no significant associations with PEF. Findings support the view that air toxins in the pollutant mix from traffic and industrial sources may have adverse effects on asthma in children.

Delfino, Ralph J; Gong, Henry; Linn, William S; Pellizzari, Edo D; Hu, Ye

2003-01-01

51

Two Surgically Treated Patients With Severe Symptoms of Takayasu Arteritis  

PubMed

Takayasu arteritis, also known as the aortitis syndrome, is a panarteritis that affects the arcus aorta and its major branches, seen usually in young women. As Takayasu arteritis has a progressive nature, surgery is usually indicated only in complications of the arteritis. In this report we present two surgically treated cases with severe complications of Takayasu arteritis. We also review the syndrome. PMID:9585454

Sarigül; Mercan; Koramaz; Demirtürk; Böke

1998-05-01

52

Severe theophylline toxicity. Role of conservative measures, antiarrhythmic agents, and charcoal hemoperfusion.  

PubMed

The presenting symptoms, course, and treatment of 10 patients with severe theophylline toxicity (heart rate above 120, multifocal atrial tachycardia or premature ventricular contractions, hypotension, seizures) are described. Theophylline levels at presentation averaged 66 micrograms/ml (range 30 to 180 micrograms/ml). All patients had marked tachycardia; 80 percent had gastrointestinal symptoms, 50 percent were hypotensive, and 20 percent had seizures. A known history of poor compliance or other risk factors to overdosage was present in 60 percent. Of the five patients in whom drug clearances were determined, two had uniform first-order drug elimination. Three had biphasic elimination with an initial period of delayed elimination due to either zero-order kinetics or continued drug absorption. During the first-order elimination period, mean plasma theophylline clearance was 28.0 +/- 4.3 ml per minute with a half-life of 8.2 hours. In the patients with initially delayed elimination, the mean clearance during the slow phase was 9.6 +/- 3.3 ml per minute with an apparent half-life of 31 hours. One patient was treated with charcoal hemoperfusion but the others received conservative management alone; all recovered without permanent sequelae. Propranolol and verapamil were useful in controlling supraventricular tachycardia. It appears that most patients with severe theophylline toxicity can be managed without hemoperfusion, which should be considered only when drug clearance is reduced, and hypotension, tachycardia, ventricular ectopy, or seizures are refractory to conservative measures. PMID:6720731

Greenberg, A; Piraino, B H; Kroboth, P D; Weiss, J

1984-05-01

53

Cortical neuroanatomic correlates of symptom severity in primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To test the validity and reliability of a new measure of clinical impairment in primary progressive aphasia (PPA), the Progressive Aphasia Severity Scale (PASS), and to investigate relationships with MRI-based cortical thickness biomarkers for localizing and quantifying the severity of anatomic abnormalities. Methods: Patients with PPA were rated using the PASS and underwent performance-based language testing and MRI scans that were processed for cortical thickness measures. Results: The level of impairment in PASS fluency, syntax/grammar, and word comprehension showed strong specific correlations with performance-based measures of these domains of language, and demonstrated high interrater reliability. Left inferior frontal thinning correlated with impairment in fluency and grammar/syntax, while left temporopolar thinning correlated with impairment in word comprehension. Discriminant function analysis demonstrated that a combination of left inferior frontal, left temporopolar, and left superior temporal sulcal thickness separated the 3 PPA subtypes from each other with 100% accuracy (87% accuracy in a leave-one-out analysis). Conclusions: The PASS, a novel measure of the severity of clinical impairment within domains of language typically affected in PPA, demonstrates reliable and valid clinical-behavioral properties. Furthermore, the presence of impairment in individual PASS domains demonstrates specific relationships with focal abnormalities in particular brain regions and the severity of impairment is strongly related to the severity of anatomic abnormality within the relevant brain region. These anatomic imaging biomarkers perform well in classifying PPA subtypes. These data provide robust support for the value of this novel clinical measure and the new imaging measure as markers for potential use in clinical research and trials in PPA. GLOSSARY AD = Alzheimer disease; BDAE = Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination; CDR = Clinical Dementia Rating; CSB = Cambridge Semantic Battery; ICC = intraclass correlation coefficient; NACC UDS = National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set; OC = older control participants; PASS = Progressive Aphasia Severity Scale; PPA = primary progressive aphasia; PPA-G = agrammatic primary progressive aphasia; PPA-L = logopenic primary progressive aphasia; PPA-S = semantic primary progressive aphasia; ROI = region of interest; WAB = Western Aphasia Battery.

Sapolsky, D.; Bakkour, A.; Negreira, A.; Nalipinski, P.; Weintraub, S.; Mesulam, M.-M.; Caplan, D.; Dickerson, B.C.

2010-01-01

54

Asthma knowledge, subjective assessment of severity and symptom perception in parents of children with asthma.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives: This study aimed to confirm the tendency for parents to underestimate the severity of symptoms and the poor consistency between parents' reports of symptoms and the physicians' evaluation of asthma control. Additionally, the relationship between parents' asthma knowledge and their report of symptoms and estimation of asthma severity was explored. Methods: Fifty children (M?=?10.5 years) and their caregivers were recruited from two Portuguese hospitals. A measure of asthma symptoms report (Severity of Chronic Asthma, SCA) and a subjective evaluation of asthma severity were collected and compared with physicians' ratings of asthma control, as well as parents' knowledge about asthma (Asthma Knowledge Questionnaire, AKQ) and emotional disturbance (Brief Symptom Inventory, BSI). Results: Although parents' evaluation of perceived asthma severity was moderately correlated to symptoms reported, results confirm an inconsistency between parents' reports of symptoms, their subjective rating of asthma severity and the physician's rating of clinical control, revealing a tendency for parents to underestimate disease severity and to underreport asthma symptoms. Asthma knowledge was not significantly correlated to SCA or to parents' subjective evaluation of asthma severity. Parents with poorer knowledge reported fewer symptoms. Conclusions: Portuguese parents revealed a tendency to overestimate their child's level of asthma control and a low level of asthma knowledge. Parents' education, psychological disturbance and time since diagnosis were associated with asthma knowledge. Parents' knowledge was not related to the child's asthma outcomes or to their subjective evaluation of asthma severity or symptoms reports. Parents' asthma knowledge deficits, underreporting of symptoms and underestimation of asthma severity, may affect parent-provider communication and impede asthma control. PMID:23859138

Silva, Cláudia Mendes; Barros, Luísa

2013-08-09

55

Testing the Effects of Treatment Complications on a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Reducing Symptom Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients (n=231) diagnosed with solid tumors and undergoing chemotherapy were randomly assigned to the experimental arm (n=114) or to conventional care (n=117). A symptom severity index based on summed severity scores across 15 symptoms was the primary outcome. Building on previously published work, an analysis was undertaken to determine the effects of patient characteristics and treatment complications on reductions in

Alla Sikorskii; Charles Given; Barbara Given; Sangchoon Jeon; Ruth McCorkle

2006-01-01

56

Description of Symptom Severity in Heart FailureReview of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to critically analyze research that describes symptom severity in heart failure. Medline, CINAHL, Psych Info, and Science Direct databases (2000 to July 2006) were searched to locate published studies that described or defined symptom severity or like terms in heart failure. A total of 323 publications were initially reviewed, from which 21 articles (6.51%)

Laurie Landrum

2009-01-01

57

Predictors of PTSD Symptom Severity and Social Reactions in Sexual Assault Victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demographics, assault variables, and postassault responses were analyzed as correlates of PTSD symptom severity in a sample of 323 sexual assault victims. Regression analyses indicated that less education, greater perceived life threat, and receipt of more negative social reactions upon disclosing assault were each related to greater PTSD symptom severity. Ethnic minority victims reported more negative social reactions from others.

Sarah E. Ullman; Henrietta H. Filipas

2001-01-01

58

Beta blocker toxicity after overdose: when do symptoms develop in adults?  

PubMed

Published reports of beta blocker ingestions in adults are retrospectively reviewed to determine at what point postingestion symptoms develop. Thirty-nine symptomatic beta blocker ingestions were found. The patients ranged from 14 to 67 years of age. Thirty-one (80%) of those who demonstrated symptoms did so within 2 h of ingestion. This number rose to thirty-eight (97%) by 4 h postingestion. Only one patient developed symptoms after more than 4 h of asymptomatic observation. The development of bradycardia and first degree atrioventricular block during observation appeared to predict toxicity in this patient who suddenly developed hypotension 6 h postingestion. No patient required treatment for delayed cardiovascular depression if they remained asymptomatic during a 4-h period of observation postingestion and demonstrated a normal electrocardiogram throughout. Whether the risk of delayed onset of toxicity after 6 h of asymptomatic observation is sufficiently low to warrant "medical clearance" requires further investigation. PMID:7884199

Love, J N

59

Influence of the Dose on the Severity of Opiate Withdrawal Symptoms during Methadone Detoxification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: This study investigates factors influencing the severity of opiate withdrawal symptoms, focusing on the relationship between methadone dose and withdrawal severity among opiate-dependent in-patients receiving methadone detoxification. Methods: The sample comprised 48 opiate-dependent patients admitted to a specialist in-patient drug treatment service and withdrawn from opiates, using a 10-day methadone reduction schedule. The severity of withdrawal symptoms was assessed

Anthony Glasper; Michael Gossop; Cornelis de Wet; Laurence Reed; Jennifer Bearn

2008-01-01

60

Effectiveness of propranolol for cocaine dependence treatment may depend on cocaine withdrawal symptom severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propranolol may reduce symptoms of autonomic arousal associated with early cocaine abstinence and improve treatment outcome. This trial was an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of propranolol in 108 cocaine dependent subjects. The primary outcome measure was quantitative urinary benzoylecgonine levels. Secondary outcome measures included treatment retention, addiction severity index results, cocaine craving, mood and anxiety symptoms, cocaine withdrawal symptoms, and

Kyle M. Kampman; Joseph R. Volpicelli; Frank Mulvaney; Arthur I. Alterman; James Cornish; Peter Gariti; Avital Cnaan; Sabrina Poole; Eric Muller; Thalia Acosta; Douglas Luce; Charles O'Brien

2001-01-01

61

HIV Medication Adherence and HIV Symptom Severity: The Roles of Sleep Quality and Memory.  

PubMed

Abstract The purpose of the current study was to examine the extent to which self-reported sleep quality, a clinically malleable factor, is associated with both HIV medication adherence and self-reported HIV symptom severity. In addition, we sought to examine whether sleep quality may explain the association between HIV medication adherence and symptom severity, as well as the role of self-reported memory functioning in terms of the above relations. This study took place from April 2010 to March 2012. Participants were 129 HIV-positive individuals who completed an ART pill count and series of structured clinical interviews and self-report questionnaires on sleep, memory, and HIV symptom severity. A series of regressions were conducted to test study hypotheses. After accounting for covariates (i.e., problematic alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis use, and mood disorder diagnosis), results indicated that self-reported sleep quality was associated with HIV medication adherence and self-reported HIV symptom severity, and that sleep quality partially mediated the relation between medication adherence and self-reported HIV symptom severity. In addition, memory functioning moderated the relation between self-reported sleep quality and HIV symptom severity, such that the interaction of poor sleep quality and relatively good memory functioning was associated with heightened self-reported HIV symptom severity. This study highlights the importance of assessing sleep and memory among HIV-infected individuals as they may represent treatment targets for those experiencing poor medication adherence or particularly severe HIV symptoms. Such information could lead to the inclusion of adjunct brief interventions to target sleep and memory functioning in order to reduce symptom severity among HIV-positive individuals with poor medication adherence. PMID:24032625

Babson, Kimberly A; Heinz, Adrienne J; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

2013-09-13

62

Validation of the Psoriasis Symptom Inventory (PSI), a patient-reported outcome measure to assess psoriasis symptom severity.  

PubMed

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Psoriasis Symptom Inventory (PSI), an eight-item patient-reported outcome measure for assessing severity of plaque psoriasis symptoms. Methods: In this prospective, randomized study using data from adults with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, patients completed the PSI, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), SF-36v2 Acute, and Patient Global Assessment (PtGA). PSI construct validity was assessed using Spearman rank correlations between PSI and DLQI and SF-36; test-retest reliability and sensitivity to change were evaluated using PtGA as an anchor. Daily 24-h and weekly 7-day PSI versions were evaluated. Results: Eight US sites enrolled 143 patients; 139 (97.2%) completed the study. All symptoms (itch, redness, scaling, burning, cracking, stinging, flaking, and pain) were reported across all response options (not at all severe, mild, moderate, severe, very severe). Test-retest reliability was acceptable (intraclass correlation coefficients range = 0.70-0.80). A priori hypotheses of convergent and discriminant validity were confirmed by correlations of PSI with DLQI items and SF-36 domains. The PSI demonstrated good construct validity and was sensitive to within-subject change (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The PSI is brief, valid, reproducible, and responsive to change and has the potential to be a useful PRO measure in psoriasis clinical trials. PMID:23092173

Bushnell, Donald M; Martin, Mona L; McCarrier, Kelly; Gordon, Kenneth; Chiou, Chiun-Fang; Huang, Xingyue; Ortmeier, Brian; Kricorian, Gregory

2012-12-08

63

Validating the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale with Persons Who Have Severe Mental Illnesses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Interview data collected from 275 clients with severe mental illnesses are used to test the construct and criterion validity of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (PSS). Method: First, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses are used to test whether the scale reflects the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom

O'Hare, Thomas; Shen, Ce; Sherrer, Margaret

2007-01-01

64

Brain injury severity, litigation status, and self-report of postconcussive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Postconcussive Symptom Questionnaire (PCSQ) was developed to assess the symptoms associated with the controversial diagnosis of postconcussion syndrome. We examined item endorsement on the PCSQ in two groups. The first group was made up of individuals diagnosed with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. The second group was made up of individuals meeting criteria for mild traumatic brain injury

John Tsanadis; Eduardo Montoya; Robin A. Hanks; Scott R. Millis; Norman L. Fichtenberg; Bradley N. Axelrod

2008-01-01

65

Validating the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale with Persons Who Have Severe Mental Illnesses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Interview data collected from 275 clients with severe mental illnesses are used to test the construct and criterion validity of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (PSS). Method: First, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses are used to test whether the scale reflects the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom

O'Hare, Thomas; Shen, Ce; Sherrer, Margaret

2007-01-01

66

Severe group a streptococcal infection and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To review the literature on group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, (STSS).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Data source: Medline and EMBASE searches were conducted using the key words group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, alone and in combination\\u000a with anesthesia; and septic shock, combined with anesthesia. Medline was also searched using key words intravenous immunoglobulin,\\u000a (IVIG) and group A streptococcus, (GAS); and group

Fred Baxter; Jim McChesney

2000-01-01

67

Multimethod Study of Distress Tolerance and PTSD Symptom Severity in a Trauma-Exposed Community Sample*  

PubMed Central

Despite initial evidence linking distress tolerance to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, there is a need for the investigation of interrelations among multiple measures of distress tolerance and PTSD symptom severity. Therefore, the present study investigated concurrent relations among multiple measures of distress tolerance, as well as the relations between these measures and PTSD symptom severity, within a trauma-exposed community sample. The sample consisted of 81 trauma-exposed adults (63.1% women). Results indicated that Distress Tolerance Scale (Simons & Gaher, 2005) scores, but no other measures of distress tolerance were significantly related to PTSD symptom severity above and beyond the variance accounted for by number of traumas, trait-level neuroticism, and participant sex. Implications and future directions are discussed.

Marshall-Berenz, Erin C.; Vujanovic, Anka A.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Bernstein, Amit; Zvolensky, Michael J.

2011-01-01

68

Multimethod study of distress tolerance and PTSD symptom severity in a trauma-exposed community sample.  

PubMed

Despite initial evidence linking distress tolerance to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, there is a need for the investigation of interrelations among multiple measures of distress tolerance and PTSD symptom severity. Therefore, the present study investigated concurrent relations among multiple measures of distress tolerance, as well as the relations between these measures and PTSD symptom severity, within a trauma-exposed community sample. The sample consisted of 81 trauma-exposed adults (63.1% women). Results indicated that Distress Tolerance Scale (Simons & Gaher, 2005) scores, but no other measures of distress tolerance were significantly related to PTSD symptom severity above and beyond the variance accounted for by number of traumas, trait-level neuroticism, and participant sex. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:20848616

Marshall-Berenz, Erin C; Vujanovic, Anka A; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Bernstein, Amit; Zvolensky, Michael J

2010-10-01

69

Symptoms and Pathology Produced By Toxic Microcystis Aeruginosa NRC-1 In Laboratory and Domestic Animals  

PubMed Central

Toxicity tests with lyophilized M. aeruginosa NRC-1 cells have been conducted using mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, chickens, ducks, two calves and one lamb as the test animals. The symptoms and pathological changes are described. On an equivalent weight basis it required three to five times the oral dosage to kill the large animals and birds as it did to kill the laboratory animals. The symptoms were less pronounced and the survival times were longer in the more resistant animals. Enlargement and congestion of the liver with necrosis of the hepatic cells were constant and pathognomonic. These findings are in general agreement with the observations of other workers who have examined the toxicity of naturally occurring Microcystis waterblooms. The toxicities and structures of microcystin and of six other biologically active cyclic polypeptides are summarized. The pathological effects produced by microcystin in laboratory and domestic animals resemble those produced in man but differ from those produced in animals by the toxic peptides of Amanita phalloides.

Konst, H.; McKercher, P. D.; Gorham, P. R.; Robertson, A.; Howell, J.

1965-01-01

70

Fear of anxiety as a partial mediator of the relation between trauma severity and PTSD symptoms.  

PubMed

Fear of anxiety has previously been found to be a predictor of overall symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current exploratory study examines the relationship between fear of anxiety and symptoms of PTSD in a sample of adults exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Fear of anxiety was found to partially mediate the relationship between the severity of trauma and the severity of PTSD. Further, this mediation was found to operate differently by gender, with the mediation holding true for men but not for women. For both men and women, fear of anxiety was positively correlated with PTSD symptoms. PMID:20684018

Reuther, Erin T; Davis, Thompson E; Matthews, Russell A; Munson, Melissa S; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E

2010-08-01

71

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Severity, Psychiatric Symptoms, and Functional Outcomes in Perinatally Infected Youth  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate associations between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease severity and psychiatric and functional outcomes in youth with perinatal HIV infection. Design Cross-sectional analysis of entry data from an observational, prospective 2-year study. Logistic and linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders were used. Setting Twenty-nine sites of the International Maternal Pediatrics Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group study in the United States and Puerto Rico. Participants Youth aged 6 to 17 years who had HIV infection (N=319). Main Exposures Antiretroviral treatment and perinatal HIV infection. Main Outcome Measures Youth and primary care-givers were administered an extensive battery of measures that assessed psychiatric symptoms; cognitive, social, and academic functioning; and quality of life. Results Characteristics of HIV were a current CD4 percentage of 25% or greater (74% of participants), HIV RNA levels of less than 400 copies/mL (59%), and current highly active antiretroviral therapy (81%). Analyses indicated associations of past and current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention class C designation with less severe attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention symptoms, older age at nadir CD4 percentage and lower CD4 percentage at study entry with more severe conduct disorder symptoms, higher RNA viral load at study entry with more severe depression symptoms, and lower CD4 percentage at study entry with less severe symptoms of depression. There was little evidence of an association between specific antiretroviral therapy and severity of psychiatric symptoms. A lower nadir CD4 percentage was associated with lower quality of life, worse Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Coding Recall scores, and worse social functioning. Conclusion Human immunodeficiency virus illness severity markers are associated with the severity of some psychiatric symptoms and, notably, with cognitive, academic, and social functioning, all of which warrant additional study. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00100542

Nachman, Sharon; Chernoff, Miriam; Williams, Paige; Hodge, Janice; Heston, Jerry; Gadow, Kenneth D.

2012-01-01

72

Assessment of plant toxicity threshold of several heat transfer and storage fluids and eutectic salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant toxicity threshold levels of several heat transfer and storage fluids and eutectic salts were determined by using a modified Neubauer technique. Barley seed germination and seedling growth were used for the toxicity tests. The general order of toxicity of the fluids applied to three mineral soils was ethylene gloycol > Dow 200 much greater than Caloria HT43 > Therminol

Nishita

1980-01-01

73

Toxicities of Several Pesticides to Two Species of Cladocerans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory bioassays were conducted with some chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, organophosphate insecticides, other insecticides and acaricides, and with herbicides to determine their relative toxicities and immobilization values for two species of daphnids, Daphnia pulex and Simocephalus serrulatus. Both species are satisfactory bioassay organisms for the determination of a wide variety of pesticides, with D. pulex being the more sensitive.The organophosphate insecticides

Herman O. Sanders; Oliver B. Cope

1966-01-01

74

Current recommendations for treatment of severe toxic alcohol poisonings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Ethylene glycol (EG) and methanol are responsible for accidental, suicidal, and epidemic poisonings, resulting in death or permanent sequelae. Toxicity is due to the metabolic products of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Conventional management of these intoxications consists of ethanol and hemodialysis. Fomepizole, a potent ADH inhibitor, has largely replaced antidotal ethanol use in France and two recent

Bruno Mégarbane; Stephen W. Borron; Frédéric J. Baud

2005-01-01

75

UPTAKE AND TOXICITY OF TOXAPHENE IN SEVERAL ESTUARINE ORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The organochlorine insecticide, toxaphene, was tested in flow-through bioassays to evaluate its toxicity to estuarine organisms. The organisms tested and their respective 96-hr LC50s (based on measured concentrations) are: pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), 1.4 micrograms/L; grass s...

76

Toxicity of several important agricultural antibiotics to Artemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible effects of antibiotic drug contamination in marine and brackish systems were evaluated using a new methodological approach. Five drugs, namely aminosidine (A), bacitracin (B), erythromycin (E), flumequine (F) and lincomycin (L), were subjected to toxicity tests using nauplii and cysts of Artemia as a model of drug contamination from intensive farming. Tests on nauplii were performed by the

Luciana Migliore; Cinzia Civitareale; Gianfranco Brambilla; Gianluigi Dojmi Di Delupis

1997-01-01

77

CBT for Insomnia in Patients with High and Low Depressive Symptom Severity: Adherence and Clinical Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To evaluate whether depressive symptom severity leads to poorer response and perceived adherence to cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) and to examine the impact of CBTI on well-being, depressive symptom severity, and suicidal ideation. Design: Pre- to posttreatment case replication series comparing low depression (LowDep) and high depression (HiDep) groups (based on a cutoff of 14 on the Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]). Participants: 127 men and 174 women referred for the treatment of insomnia. Interventions: Seven sessions of group CBTI. Measurements and Results: Improvement in the insomnia severity, perceived energy, productivity, self-esteem, other aspects of wellbeing, and overall treatment satisfaction did not differ between the HiDep and LowDep groups (p > 0.14). HiDep patients reported lower adherence to a fixed rise time, restricting time in bed, and changing expectations about sleep (p < 0.05). HiDep participants experienced significant reductions in BDI, after removing the sleep item. Levels of suicidal ideation dropped significantly among patients with pretreatment elevations (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Results suggest that pre- to post CBTI improvements in insomnia symptoms, perceived energy, productivity, self-esteem, and other aspects of well-being were similar among patients with and without elevation in depressive symptom severity. Thus, the benefits of CBTI extend beyond insomnia and include improvements in non-sleep outcomes, such as overall well-being and depressive symptom severity, including suicidal ideation, among patients with baseline elevations. Results identify aspects of CBTI that may merit additional attention to further improve outcomes among patients with insomnia and elevated depressive symptom severity. Citation: Manber R; Bernert RA; Suh S; Nowakowski S; Siebern AT; Ong JC. Cbt for insomnia in patients with high and low depressive symptom severity: adherence and clinical outcomes. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(6):645-652.

Manber, Rachel; Bernert, Rebecca A.; Suh, Sooyeon; Nowakowski, Sara; Siebern, Allison T.; Ong, Jason C.

2011-01-01

78

Genetic variation throughout the folate metabolic pathway influences negative symptom severity in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Low serum folate levels previously have been associated with negative symptom risk in schizophrenia, as has the hypofunctional 677C>T variant of the MTHFR gene. This study examined whether other missense polymorphisms in folate-regulating enzymes, in concert with MTHFR, influence negative symptoms in schizophrenia, and whether total risk allele load interacts with serum folate status to further stratify negative symptom risk. Medicated outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 219), all of European origin and some included in a previous report, were rated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. A subset of 82 patients also underwent nonfasting serum folate testing. Patients were genotyped for the MTHFR 677C>T (rs1801133), MTHFR 1298A>C (rs1801131), MTR 2756A>G (rs1805087), MTRR 203A>G (rs1801394), FOLH1 484T>C (rs202676), RFC 80A>G (rs1051266), and COMT 675G>A (rs4680) polymorphisms. All genotypes were entered into a linear regression model to determine significant predictors of negative symptoms, and risk scores were calculated based on total risk allele dose. Four variants, MTHFR 677T, MTR 2756A, FOLH1 484C, and COMT 675A, emerged as significant independent predictors of negative symptom severity, accounting for significantly greater variance in negative symptoms than MTHFR 677C>T alone. Total allele dose across the 4 variants predicted negative symptom severity only among patients with low folate levels. These findings indicate that multiple genetic variants within the folate metabolic pathway contribute to negative symptoms of schizophrenia. A relationship between folate level and negative symptom severity among patients with greater genetic vulnerability is biologically plausible and suggests the utility of folate supplementation in these patients. PMID:22021659

Roffman, Joshua L; Brohawn, David G; Nitenson, Adam Z; Macklin, Eric A; Smoller, Jordan W; Goff, Donald C

2011-10-20

79

Plasma Copper and Zinc Concentration in Individuals with Autism Correlate with Selected Symptom Severity  

PubMed Central

Aim: To assess plasma zinc and copper concentration in individuals with autism and correlate these levels with symptom severity. Subjects and methods: Plasma from 102 autistic individuals, and 18 neurotypical controls, were tested for plasma zinc and copper using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Copper and zinc levels and Cu/Zn were analyzed for possible correlation with severity of 19 symptoms. Results: Autistic individuals had elevated plasma levels of copper and Cu/Zn and lower, but not significantly lower, plasma Zn compared to neurotypical controls. There was a correlation between Cu/Zn and expressive language, receptive language, focus attention, hyperactivity, fine motor skills, gross motor skills and Tip Toeing. There was a negative correlation between plasma zinc concentration and hyperactivity, and fine motor skills severity. Discussion: These results suggest an association between plasma Cu/Zn and severity of symptoms associated with autism.

Russo, Anthony J.; Bazin, Andrea P.; Bigega, Richard; Carlson, Robert S.; Cole, Martin G.; Contreras, Dilenia C.; Galvin, Matthew B.; Gaydorus, Sayde S.; Holik, Sierra D.; Jenkins, Gavin P.; Jones, Brandon M.; Languell, Penelope A.; Lyman, Padraic J.; March, Kareem P.; Meuer, Katie A.; Peterson, Serena R.; Piedmonte, Matthew T.; Quinn, Michael G.; Smaranda, Nicole C.; Steves, Patrick L.; Taylor, Heather P.; Waddingham, Teagan E.; Warren, Janine S.

2012-01-01

80

Depressive Symptom Severity Is Related to Poorer Cognitive Performance in Prodromal Huntington Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Depression is associated with more severe cognitive deficits in many neurological disorders, though the investigation of this relationship in Huntington disease (HD) has been limited. This study examined the relationship between depressive symptom severity and measures of executive functioning, learning\\/memory, and attention in prodromal HD. Method: Participants (814 prodromal HD, 230 gene-negative) completed a neuropsychological test battery and the

Megan M. Smith; James A. Mills; Eric A. Epping; Holly J. Westervelt; Jane S. Paulsen

2012-01-01

81

Symptom Profile and Severity in a Sample of Nigerians with Psychotic versus Nonpsychotic Major Depression.  

PubMed

The therapeutic strategies in managing patients with psychotic major depression (PMD) differ from those with non-psychotic major depression (NMD), because of differences in clinical profile and outcome. However, there is underrecognition of psychotic symptoms in depressed patients. Previous studies in Western population suggest that certain symptom patterns, apart from psychosis which may be concealed, can facilitate the discrimination of PMD from NMD. These studies may have limited applicability to sub-Saharan Africa due to cross-cultural differences in the phenomenology of depression. This study compared the rates and severity of depressive symptoms in outpatients with PMD (n = 129) and NMD (n = 117) using the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression (SCID) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). Patients with PMD had statistically significantly higher rates of suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt, psychomotor agitation, insomnia, and reduced appetite. Patients with NMD were more likely to manifest psychomotor retardation and somatic symptoms. PMD was associated with greater symptom severity. On logistic regression analysis, suicidal ideation, psychomotor disturbances, insomnia, and somatic symptoms were predictive of diagnostic status. The presence of these symptoms clusters may increase the suspicion of occult psychosis in patients with depression, thereby informing appropriate intervention strategies. PMID:24027633

Adeosun, Increase Ibukun; Jeje, Oyetayo

2013-08-21

82

Symptom Profile and Severity in a Sample of Nigerians with Psychotic versus Nonpsychotic Major Depression  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic strategies in managing patients with psychotic major depression (PMD) differ from those with non-psychotic major depression (NMD), because of differences in clinical profile and outcome. However, there is underrecognition of psychotic symptoms in depressed patients. Previous studies in Western population suggest that certain symptom patterns, apart from psychosis which may be concealed, can facilitate the discrimination of PMD from NMD. These studies may have limited applicability to sub-Saharan Africa due to cross-cultural differences in the phenomenology of depression. This study compared the rates and severity of depressive symptoms in outpatients with PMD (n = 129) and NMD (n = 117) using the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression (SCID) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). Patients with PMD had statistically significantly higher rates of suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt, psychomotor agitation, insomnia, and reduced appetite. Patients with NMD were more likely to manifest psychomotor retardation and somatic symptoms. PMD was associated with greater symptom severity. On logistic regression analysis, suicidal ideation, psychomotor disturbances, insomnia, and somatic symptoms were predictive of diagnostic status. The presence of these symptoms clusters may increase the suspicion of occult psychosis in patients with depression, thereby informing appropriate intervention strategies.

Adeosun, Increase Ibukun; Jeje, Oyetayo

2013-01-01

83

Gender Differences in the Correlation between Symptom and Radiographic Severity in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The effects of gender on the relationship between symptom manifestations and radiographic grades of knee osteoarthritis are\\u000a not well understood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  We therefore determined the increments of symptom progression with regard to radiographic grades of knee osteoarthritis and\\u000a asked if those increments differed by gender and whether symptom severity was differentially manifested by gender within the\\u000a same grade.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We recruited 660

Hyung Joon Cho; Chong Bum Chang; Jae Ho Yoo; Sung Ju Kim; Tae Kyun Kim

2010-01-01

84

Satisfaction with allergy treatments depends on symptom severity but not on allergen specificity in patients with allergic rhinitis.  

PubMed

Allergic rhinitis is characterized by troublesome symptoms that may be particularly severe. Most of rhinitics are dissatisfied with drug treatments. The dissatisfaction level depends on symptoms severity, but not on the type of causal allergen. PMID:22507347

Ciprandi, G; Incorvaia, C; Scurati, S; Puccinelli, P; Rossi, O; Frati, F

85

Influence of ZNF804a on brain structure volumes and symptom severity in individuals with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

CONTEXT The single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1344706 in the gene ZNF804a has been associated with schizophrenia and with quantitative phenotypic features, including brain structure volume and the core symptoms of schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE To evaluate associations of rs1344706 with brain structure and the core symptoms of schizophrenia. DESIGN Case-control analysis of covariance. SETTING University-based research hospital. PARTICIPANTS Volunteer sample of 335 individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (306 with core schizophrenia) and 198 healthy volunteers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Cerebral cortical gray matter and white matter (WM) volumes (total and frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes), lateral ventricular cerebrospinal fluid volume, and symptom severity from the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms divided into 3 domains: psychotic, negative, and disorganized. RESULTS The rs1344706 genotype produced significant main effects on total, frontal, and parietal lobe WM volumes (F = 3.98, P = .02; F = 4.95, P = .007; and F = 3.08, P = .05, respectively). In the schizophrenia group, rs1344706 produced significant simple effects on total (F = 3.93, P = .02) and frontal WM volumes (F = 7.16, P < .001) and on psychotic symptom severity (F = 6.07, P = .003); the pattern of effects was concordant with risk allele carriers having larger volumes and more severe symptoms of disease than nonrisk homozygotes. In the healthy volunteer group, risk allele homozygotes had increased total WM volume compared with nonrisk allele carriers (F = 4.61, P = .03), replicating a previously reported association. CONCLUSIONS A growing body of evidence suggests that the risk allele of rs1347706 is associated with a distinctive set of phenotypic features in healthy volunteers and individuals with schizophrenia. Our study supports this assertion by finding that specific genotypes of the polymorphism are associated with brain structure volumes in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy volunteers and with symptom severity in schizophrenia. PMID:22945618

Wassink, Thomas H; Epping, Eric A; Rudd, Danielle; Axelsen, Michael; Ziebell, Stephen; Fleming, Frank W; Monson, Eric; Ho, Beng Choon; Andreasen, Nancy C

2012-09-01

86

Prediction of work functioning following accidental injury: The contribution of PTSD symptom severity and other established risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses to a mail survey were used to investigate the contribution of PTSD symptom severity to work functioning in 69 previously employed adult survivors of accidental injury approximately 8 months post?hospitalization. Associations of PTSD symptom severity with other established risk factors for poor work functioning were also examined. Participants were initially divided into three groups based on PTSD symptom severity

Lynda R. Matthews; Darien Chinnery

2005-01-01

87

Effects of three types of potentially biasing information on symptom severity judgments for major depressive episode.  

PubMed

Two experiments examined the effects of potentially biasing information on judgments of symptom severity pertaining to the diagnosis of major depressive episode (MDE). In both experiments, clinicians viewed videotapes of two actor-simulated patients responding to questions from a standardized diagnostic interview. In Study 1, an expectancy effect was found for both patients such that prior information about a clear-cut history of depression resulted in lower rated severity of current symptoms. In addition, a halo effect was observed for one patient in Study 1 and both patients in Study 2: Clear-cut depressive nonverbal behavior (DNVB) resulted in greater rated severity for symptoms that should not have been affected (e.g., appetite/weight change, suicidal ideation). Clear-cut versus near-threshold information for the two essential criteria for MDE did not affect subsequent judgments in either study. Implications for diagnostic interviewing are discussed. PMID:12357447

Mumma, Gregory H

2002-10-01

88

Child Sexual Abuse Severity and Disclosure Predict PTSD Symptoms and Biomarkers in Ethnic Minority Women  

PubMed Central

Objective Adult posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS) and a biomarker index of current health risk in childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors was investigated in relation to CSA severity, disclosure and other peri-and post-trauma factors. Methods A community sample of 94 African American and Latina women CSA survivors was assessed. Results Severe CSA predicted PSS overall, avoidance/numbing symptoms and greater biomarker risk, and was not mediated by post-trauma variables. Moderate CSA severity was mediated by post-trauma disclosure, predicted re-experiencing symptoms but was unrelated to biomarker risk. No overall ethnic differences were found. Conclusions Results suggest targets for interventions to improve the well-being of minority women CSA survivors.

Glover, Dorie A.; Loeb, Tamra Burns; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas; Sciolla, Andres; Zhang, Muyu; Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.

2010-01-01

89

[Ciguatera: neurophysiological demonstration of toxicity of several ciquatoxic fractions].  

PubMed

Raw extracts from one Polynesian, frequently ciguatera-inducing fish were submitted to fractional distillation by means of a chromatographic process using a silicic acid column. Three out of the seven fractions split this way exhibited either anticholinesterasic properties, or directly toxic properties at the muscle-cell level: fraction 5, which is not antagonized by atropine, presumably accounts for this direct action, as it competes with calcium at membrane sites. Fraction 6 appears to be more specially responsible for the anticholinesterasic action. It revealed a quaternary ammonium ion in its 6-2 sub-fraction. Fraction 7 shows the same properties as fraction 6, but on a smaller scale. PMID:1242114

Faucomprez, C; Ferezou, J P; Bagnis, R; Chanfour, B; Niaussat, P M; Drouet, J

90

Severe fatigue after kidney transplantation: a highly prevalent, disabling and multifactorial symptom.  

PubMed

Fatigue is a common symptom of patients with chronic kidney disease, but seldom investigated after transplantation. We determined the prevalence, impact and related factors of severe fatigue in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Medical records and questionnaires were used to assess kidney function, donor characteristics, fatigue (Checklist Individual Strength), functional impairments (Sickness Impact Profile), work status, body mass index (BMI), pain, depressive symptoms, social support and sleeping problems in 180 participating KTRs. KTRs were compared with sex- and age-matched population-based controls. KTRs were significantly more often severely fatigued (39%) compared to matched controls (22%; P = 0.001). Severely fatigued KTRs had significantly more functional impairments than nonseverely fatigued recipients (effect size ? 0.7) P < 0.001, and less often a paid job (27% vs. 48%, P = 0.005). Univariate analysis showed that severely fatigued KTRs received more often a kidney from a deceased donor, had a higher BMI, more pain, discrepancy in social support, depressive symptoms and sleeping problems. In a multivariate analysis (n = 151) the latter two associations remained significant. Severe fatigue is a highly prevalent and disabling symptom in KTRs. Moreover, severe fatigue after kidney transplantation is more strongly related to behavioural and psychosocial factors than specific transplantation-related factors. Findings have implications for fatigue management. PMID:23952141

Goedendorp, Martine M; Hoitsma, Andries J; Bloot, Lotte; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Knoop, Hans

2013-08-17

91

Relationship between painful physical symptoms and severity of depressive symptomatology and suicidality.  

PubMed

We examined the prevalence of painful physical symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), clinical correlations therewith, and associations between painful symptoms and depression severity, quality of life, and suicidality, in a clinical sample in Korea. A total of 414 psychiatric outpatients at least 18years of age, with a primary diagnosis of MDD based on the DSM-IV-TR, were enrolled at the discretion of their treating psychiatrist. Patients were assessed for the presence or absence of painful physical symptoms (PPS+ and PPS-, respectively), defined by a total score ?5 on the pain subscale (PS) of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS). DSSS and the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale (CGI-S) determined depression severity, and the EuroQoL Questionnaire-5 dimensions (EQ-5D) determined perceived quality of life. Questions about suicidality during current depressive episode were also asked to the participants. Overall, 30.4% of patients were classified as PPS+. PPS+ patients were older, less educated, less frequently unmarried, and more frequently widowed/divorced/separated compared to PPS- patients. PPS+ patients showed a significantly greater depression severity (CGI-S mean difference 0.92; 95% CI=0.68 to 1.16; DSSS mean difference 18.39; 95% CI=16.28 to 20.50), a significantly lower quality of life (EQ-5D VAS mean difference -18.15; 95% CI=-22.68 to -13.62), and significantly higher suicidal ideation (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.04-2.86) during the current depressive episode. This study suggests that assessment of depressive patients should include detailed questions about painful physical symptoms, and treatment of MDD should involve management targeting painful physical symptoms as well as emotional and non-painful physical symptoms. PMID:21329990

Bahk, Won-Myong; Park, Subin; Jon, Duk-In; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Min, Kyung Joon; Hong, Jin Pyo

2011-02-16

92

Correlates of Depressive Symptom Severity in Problem and Pathological Gamblers in Couple Relationships.  

PubMed

Problem and pathological gamblers (PPG) often suffer from depressive symptoms. Gambling problems have negative consequences on multiple aspects of gamblers' lives, including family and marital relationships. The objectives of the current study were to (1) replicate the results of studies that have suggested a stronger and more significant relationship between gambling and depression in PPG than in non-problem gamblers (NPG) and (2) explore specific correlates of depressive symptom severity in PPG in couple relationships. Variables demonstrated to be significantly correlated with depressive symptoms in the general population were selected. It was hypothesized that gender, age, gambler's mean annual income, perceived poverty, employment status, clinical status (i.e., problem or pathological gambler versus non-problem gambler), trait anxiety, alcoholism, problem-solving skills, and dyadic adjustment would be significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Sixty-seven PPG were recruited, primarily from an addiction treatment center; 40 NPG were recruited, primarily through the media. Results revealed that PPG reported significantly greater depressive symptoms than did NPG. Further, elevated trait anxiety and poor dyadic adjustment were demonstrated to be significant and specific correlates of depressive symptom severity in PPG. These findings contribute to the literature on depressive symptomatology in PPG in relationships, and highlight the importance of the influence of the couple relationship on PPG. PMID:23149512

Poirier-Arbour, Alisson; Trudel, Gilles; Boyer, Richard; Harvey, Pascale; Goldfarb, Maria Rocio

2012-11-13

93

Severe menopausal symptoms in middle-aged women are associated to female and male factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The frequency and intensity of menopausal symptoms within a given population, as assessed by several tools, may vary and depend\\u000a on several factors, such as age, menopausal status, chronic conditions and personal and partner socio-demographic profile.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To determine the frequency and intensity of menopausal symptoms and related risk factors among middle-aged women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this cross-sectional study a total of 404

Peter Chedraui; Faustino R. Pérez-López; Marcela Mendoza; Bella Morales; María A. Martinez; Ana M. Salinas; Luis Hidalgo

2010-01-01

94

Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms vs toxic epidermal necrolysis: the dilemma of classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to contemporary vernacular, when the cutaneous manifestations of drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic signs (DRESS) syndrome are those of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), the condition is defined as “DRESS syndrome with severe cutaneous reactions”. In this article, we have presented arguments for and against including patients with skin lesions of the SJS\\/TEN syndromes who

Ronni Wolf; Hagit Matz; Batsheva Marcos; Edith Orion

2005-01-01

95

The Relationship Between Symptom Prevalence and Severity and Cancer Primary Site in 796 Patients With Advanced Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of differences in symptom experience between cancer sites may help better understand symptom pathophysiology. A total of 38 symptoms in 796 consecutive patients with advanced cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Symptom prevalence and severity were compared among the 12 primary site groups (PSGs) by the chi-square test. Pairwise comparisons determined which sites differed. Pain, fatigue, weakness, lack of energy, and

Jordanka Kirkova; Lisa Rybicki; Declan Walsh; Aynur Aktas; Mellar P. Davis; Matthew T. Karafa

2011-01-01

96

Severity of Symptoms and Quality of Life in Medical Students With ADHD.  

PubMed

Objective: In this study, the authors examined the severity of ADHD symptoms and related quality of life in 1st and 2nd year medical students diagnosed with ADHD. Method: The sample consists of 33 preclinical medical students previously diagnosed with ADHD. The Adult ADHD Quality of Life Scale (AAQoL) and Adult ADHD Self-Reported Checklist were administered. Results: Participants' ADHD-related quality of life and life productivity were negatively correlated with the severity of their ADHD symptoms. Students receiving academic accommodations reported significantly higher ADHD symptoms. The presence of a comorbid condition contributed to significantly lower psychological health scores. Unexpectedly, women had significantly lower quality of life (AAQoL total score) and significantly lower psychological health scores than men. Conclusion: Since the majority of the sample reported severe ADHD symptoms while receiving medication treatment, the authors have concluded that it is important to develop psychosocial treatments to manage the associated distress from residual symptoms in medical students with ADHD. (J. of Att. Dis. 2012; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:22582348

O'Callaghan, Pamela; Sharma, Davendranand

2012-05-11

97

Effortful Cognitive Resource Allocation and Negative Symptom Severity in Chronic Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background: The relationship between negative symptoms, early visual information–processing deficits, and effortful processing resource allocation was investigated. Methods: Older patients with chronic schizophrenia (n = 58) and healthy controls (n = 71) participated. Pupillary responses were recorded during performance of the span of apprehension task (blocks of 3- and 10-letter arrays) as an index of resource allocation or mental effort during the task. Results: Patients and controls showed larger pupillary responses in higher relative to lower processing loads both during array processing and just prior to array onset (preparation). Both groups, therefore, invested more cognitive effort preparing for and then processing larger arrays. A subgroup of patients with abnormally small pupillary responses and impaired performance showed greater negative symptom severity relative to a subgroup of patients with normal pupillary responses. Smaller pupillary responses in the patients were also significantly correlated with greater negative symptom severity, independent of positive symptom severity. Patients with reduced effortful resource allocation, therefore, exhibited greater negative symptomatology. A subgroup of patients with normal pupillary responses still showed impaired detection accuracy relative to controls, suggesting that reduced cognitive effort or resource allocation problems cannot account for impairments in early visual information processing in this subgroup. Conclusions: The study illustrates important relationships between cognitive effort and performance that can impact conclusions about the nature of cognitive impairments and associations between negative symptoms and neurocognition in schizophrenia.

Granholm, Eric; Verney, Steven P.; Perivoliotis, Dimitri; Miura, Tamie

2007-01-01

98

Toxicity of methylenebisthiocyanate (MBT) to several freshwater organisms  

SciTech Connect

The organo-sulfur compound methylenebisthiocyanate (MBT) has successfully been used as preservative in latex emulsions, starches and gums, acrylic fibers, coatings, curing salts for hide and leather and cutting oil systems. The greatest application of MBT is for cooling water systems and paper mill systems as effective inhibitor of algae, fungi and bacteria, in particular the sulfate reducing anaerobic Desulfovibrio sp. Because MBT is not substantive to cellulose or other particulate matter, or to debris in systems, it remains in the water. However, MBT hydrolyzes rapidly above pH 8.0. No data are available on residues of MBT in the aquatic environment. Information on the toxicity of MBT, except for its effects on bacteria and algae, is scarce. Therefore research was carried out to evaluate its risk to aquatic life.

Maas-Diepeveen, L.; van Leeuwen, C.J. (Ministry of Transport and Public Works, Lelystad (Netherlands))

1988-05-01

99

Toxicity of methylenebisthiocyanate (MBT) to several freshwater organisms  

SciTech Connect

The organo-sulfur compound methylenebisthiocyanate (MBT) has successfully been used as preservative in latex emulsions, starches and gums, acrylic fibers, coatings, curing salts for hide and leather and cutting oil systems. The greatest application of MBT is for cooling water systems and paper mill systems as effective inhibitor of algae, fungi and bacteria, in particular the sulfate reducing anaerobic Desulfovibrio sp. However, MBT hydrolyzes rapidly above pH 8.0. The half-conversion time at pH 8.0 is about 4.5. No data are available on residues of MBT in the aquatic environment. Information on the toxicity of MBT, except for its effects on bacteria and algae, is scarce. Therefore research was carried out to evaluate its risk to aquatic life.

Maas-Diepeveen, J.L.; van Leeuwen, C.J.

1988-04-01

100

Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... at increased risk for having type 2 diabetes . Gestational Diabetes Women with gestational diabetes often have no symptoms , which is why it's ... the proper time during pregnancy. Learn more about gestational diabetes. Symptoms of Diabetes Complications Have you already been ...

101

Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

Kelsey, Chris R., E-mail: kelse003@mc.duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Horwitz, Mitchell E. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cellular Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Folz, Rodney J. [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Disorders Medicine, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY (United States); Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cellular Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2011-11-01

102

The severity of ADHD and eating disorder symptoms: a correlational study  

PubMed Central

Background Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and eating disorders (ED) share several clinical features. Research on the association between ADHD and ED is still quite sparse and findings are ambiguous. Methods Correlations between the severity of ADHD key features (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Self-Rating questionnaire) and the severity of specific ED symptoms (Structured Interview for Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa) were examined in 32 female patients diagnosed with ED. Results Most correlations between the severity of ADHD features and the severity of ED symptoms were low (r<0.30) and did not reach statistical significance. The only exception was a statistically significant, but counterintuitive association between impulsivity and the avoidance of fattening food. Conclusions The findings in this small sample suggest a weak link between the severity of ADHD key features and the severity of single ED symptoms in female patients with ED. The role of ADHD features for the development, maintenance, and treatment of EDs seems to be intricate and requires further study.

2013-01-01

103

Hand and wrist problems in general practice - Patient characteristics and factors related to symptom severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Hand and wrist problems are common, but little is known about characteristics of patients consulting the general practitioner (GP) for these problems. The objectives are: (i) to describe wrist and hand problems presented to the GP in terms of severity of symptoms, and their impact on physical, emotional and social functioning; (ii) to describe patient and disease characteristics across

M. N. Dorgelo-Spies; Windt van der D. A. W. M; Horst van der H. E; A. P. A. Prins; W. A. B. Stalman

2007-01-01

104

Trajectories of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Significant Others of Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term psychological distress has been reported for significant others of patients who sustained traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study examined the course and potential predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms in a relative sample (N = 135) drawn from a national cohort study on severe TBI in Switzerland. Latent growth mixture model analyses revealed two main groups: Across 3, 6, and 12 months

Laura Pielmaier; Anne Milek; Fridtjof W. Nussbeck; Bernhard Walder; Andreas Maercker

2012-01-01

105

Relationship between Nocturnal Urinary Cortisol Excretion and Symptom Severity in Subgroups of Patients with Depressive Episodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The aim of this naturalistic study was to gain more information about the elevation of basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity in relationship to symptom severity in specific subtypes of depressive episodes. Method: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores and aggregated nocturnal urinary cortisol excretion were measured in 4 groups of inpatients with depressive episodes (n = 48; monopolar nonpsychotic, monopolar psychotic,

Dirk Wedekind; Birgit Preiss; Stefan Cohrs; Eckart Ruether; Gerald Huether; Lothar Adler

2007-01-01

106

Severity of depressive symptoms and response to antidepressants and placebo in antidepressant trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although increased pre-treatment severity of depressive symptoms is thought to suggest better outcome with tricyclic antidepressants, it is unclear if such a pattern exists among those depressed patients treated with newer antidepressants. If such a pattern with newer antidepressants were observed, it would have implications for the design and conduct of future antidepressant trials. We reviewed the data from 329

Arif Khan; Amy E. Brodhead; Russell L. Kolts; Walter A. Brown

2005-01-01

107

Brain electrical tomography in depression: the importance of symptom severity, anxiety, and melancholic features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The frontal lobe has been crucially involved in the neurobiology of major depression, but inconsistencies among studies exist, in part due to a failure of considering modulatory variables such as symptom severity, comorbidity with anxiety, and distinct subtypes, as codeterminants for patterns of brain activation in depression.Methods: Resting electroencephalogram was recorded in 38 unmedicated subjects with major depressive disorder

Diego A. Pizzagalli; Jack B. Nitschke; Terrence R. Oakes; Andrew M. Hendrick; Kathryn A. Horras; Christine L. Larson; Heather C. Abercrombie; Stacey M. Schaefer; John V. Koger; Ruth M. Benca; Roberto D. Pascual-Marqui; Richard J. Davidson

2002-01-01

108

Brain activation mediates the association between structural abnormality and symptom severity in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thought disorder is a symptom of schizophrenia expressed as disorganized or incoherent speech. Severity of thought disorder correlates with decreased left superior temporal gyrus grey matter volume and cortical activation in posterior temporal regions during the performance of language tasks. The goal of this study was to determine whether language-related activation mediates the associa- tion between thought disorder and left

Sara Weinstein; Todd S. Woodward; Elton T. C. Ngan

2007-01-01

109

Styles of pulling in trichotillomania: Exploring differences in symptom severity, phenomenology, and functional impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has examined possible phenomenological differences between “focused” (i.e., with a compulsive quality) and “automatic” (i.e., with decreased awareness) pulling associated with trichotillomania (TTM), but these constructs have not been assessed using psychometrically sound measures. In the current study, differences in TTM severity, phenomenology, comorbid psychiatric symptoms, and functional impact were examined across individuals with varying combinations of “focused”

Christopher A. Flessner; Christine A. Conelea; Douglas W. Woods; Martin E. Franklin; Nancy J. Keuthen; Susan E. Cashin

2008-01-01

110

Incidence and Prediction of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Severely Injured Accident Victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was designed to as- sess the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in severely injured acci- dent victims and to predict the presence of PTSD symptoms at a 12-month follow-up. Method: A longitudinal, 1-year follow-up study was carried out with 106 consecu- tive patients with severe accidental inju- ries who were admitted to the trauma surgeons' intensive

Ulrich Schnyder; Hanspeter Moergeli; Richard Klaghofer; D. Claus Buddeberg

2001-01-01

111

Trajectories and Predictors of Symptom Occurrence, Severity, and Distress in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy  

PubMed Central

Context Radiation therapy (RT) is a common treatment for prostate cancer. Despite available research, prostate cancer patients report that information about side effects is their most important unmet need. Additional research is needed that focuses on specific dimensions of the patient’s symptom experience. Objectives The study’s purposes were to evaluate the trajectories of occurrence, severity, and distress of the six most prevalent symptoms reported by patients undergoing RT for prostate cancer and to evaluate the effects of selected demographic and clinical characteristics on these trajectories. Methods Patients completed the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale eleven times before, during, and after RT. For problems with urination, pain, lack of energy, feeling drowsy, difficulty sleeping, and diarrhea, the trajectories of occurrence, severity, and distress were evaluated using multilevel generalized linear models. Results Across all three dimensions, pain, lack of energy, feeling drowsy, and difficulty sleeping followed a decreasing linear trend. Problems with urination and diarrhea demonstrated more complex patterns of change over time. Conclusion Although longitudinal data on pain, lack of energy, feeling drowsy, and difficulty sleeping are limited, they are highly prevalent symptoms in these patients. In addition, diarrhea becomes a significant problem for these patients over the course of RT. A number of demographic and clinical characteristics affects the trajectories of these common symptoms differentially.

Knapp, Katie; Cooper, Bruce; Koetters, Theresa; Cataldo, Janine; Dhruva, Anand; Paul, Steven M.; West, Claudia; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Miaskowski, Christine

2012-01-01

112

[Toxicity and bioactivity of several alternative nematocides against Ditylenchus destructor].  

PubMed

By the methods of fumigation and contact assay, this paper determined the toxicity of four kinds of soil fumigants and six kinds of non-fumigants against Ditylenchus destructor. In the meantime, the bioactivity of the agents was evaluated by the corrected mortality rate of D. destructor after treated with the LC50 dose of each agent for different time. The LC50 values of soil fumigants dazomet, 1, 3-dichloropropene, metham-sodium, and chloropicrin were 0.49, 0.89, 0.91, and 3.60 mg x L(-1), and those of non-fumigants emamectin benzoate, abamectin, ethoprophos, fosthiazate, aldicarb, and carbosulfan were 31.2, 48.1, 224.3, 288.4, 632.3, and 823.9 mg x L(-1), respectively. The corrected mortality rate increased with treating time. After treated with LC50 dose, the inhibitory effects of dazomet, 1,3-dichloropropene, abamectin, and emamectin benzoate kept on a higher level at the time, and the corrected mortality rate did not decline after breaking away from the treatment, but the D. destructor recovered when exposed to natural state after treated with ethoprophos and aldicarb for 48h. It was suggested that dazomet, 1,3-dichloropropene, abamectin, and emamectin benzoate were the potential alternative nematicides used for the control of D. destructor. PMID:22303683

Gao, De-Liang; Yu, Wei-Li; Miao, Jian-Qiang; Liu, Feng

2011-11-01

113

ADHD and comorbid disorders in relation to family environment and symptom severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  To examine the comorbidity of ADHD in association with family environment and the severity of ADHD.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A screening for ADHD symptoms was conducted among adolescents in the Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort (N = 6622). A sample of those adolescents (n = 457), aged 16–18 years, with and without ADHD symptoms was assessed with a diagnostic interview (Kiddie-SADS-PL) and ADHD\\u000a and comorbid disorders were studied

Tuula Hurtig; Hanna Ebeling; Anja Taanila; Jouko Miettunen; Susan Smalley; James McGough; Sandra Loo; Marjo-Riitta Järvelin; Irma Moilanen

2007-01-01

114

Sex Differences in Stroke Severity, Symptoms, and Deficits After First-Ever Ischemic Stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of the study was to assess whether there were sex differences in stroke severity, infarct characteristics, symptoms, or the symptoms-deficit relationship at the time of acute stroke presentation. Methods In a prospective study of 505 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke (the Ischemic Stroke Genetics Study), stroke subtype was centrally adjudicated and infarcts were characterized by imaging. Deficits were assessed by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and stroke symptoms were assessed using a structured interview. Kappa statistics were generated to assess agreement between the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and the structured interview, and a ?2 test was used to assess agreement between the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and the structured interview by sex. Results Two hundred seventy-six patients (55%) were men and 229 (45%) were women. Ages ranged from 19 to 94 years (median, 65 years). The mean (±SD) National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 3.8 (±4.5) for men and 4.3 (±5.2) for women was similar (P=.15). No sex difference was observed for the symptoms of numbness, visual deficits, or language. Weakness occurred in a greater proportion of women (69%) than men (59%) (P=.03). Stroke subtype did not differ significantly between sexes (P=.79). Infarct size and location were similar for each sex. The association between symptoms and neurologic deficits did not differ by sex. Conclusions We found no sex difference in stroke severity, stroke subtype, or infarct size and location in patients with incident ischemic stroke. A greater proportion of women presented with weakness; however, similar proportions of men and women presented with other traditional stroke symptoms.

Barrett, Kevin M.; Brott, Thomas G.; Brown, Robert D.; Frankel, Michael R.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Silliman, Scott L.; Case, L. Douglas; Rich, Stephen S.; Meschia, James F.

2007-01-01

115

The relationship between symptom prevalence and severity and cancer primary site in 796 patients with advanced cancer.  

PubMed

Knowledge of differences in symptom experience between cancer sites may help better understand symptom pathophysiology. A total of 38 symptoms in 796 consecutive patients with advanced cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Symptom prevalence and severity were compared among the 12 primary site groups (PSGs) by the chi-square test. Pairwise comparisons determined which sites differed. Pain, fatigue, weakness, lack of energy, and anorexia had the highest overall prevalence but did not differ among PSGs. The 3 most common neuropsychological symptoms (insomnia, depression, and anxiety) also did not vary among PSGs. Nineteen (50%) symptoms varied significantly between PSGs, in prevalence (17), severity (14), or both (12). Nine of 17, 6 of 14, and 6 of 12 were gastrointestinal symptoms. Symptoms which varied by PSGs can be included in cancer site-specific symptom assessment instruments. PMID:21148160

Kirkova, Jordanka; Rybicki, Lisa; Walsh, Declan; Aktas, Aynur; Davis, Mellar P; Karafa, Matthew T

2010-12-08

116

A pharmacokinetic-based test to prevent severe 5-fluorouracil toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) plays a key role in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to 5-fluoro-5,6-dihydrouracil (5-FDHU), and as such, an impairment of DPD has been recognized as an important factor for altered 5-FU and 5-FDHU pharmacokinetics, predisposing patients to the development of severe 5-FU–associated toxicity. Our objectives were to avoid severe 5-FU toxicities in patients with greatly

Guido Bocci; Cecilia Barbara; Francesca Vannozzi; Antonello Di Paolo; Alessandro Melosi; Gemma Barsanti; Giacomo Allegrini; Alfredo Falcone; Mario Del Tacca; Romano Danesi

2006-01-01

117

PHARMACOKINETICS AND DRUG DISPOSITION A pharmacokinetic-based test to prevent severe 5-fluorouracil toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) plays a key role in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to 5-fluoro-5,6-dihydrouracil (5-FDHU), and as such, an impairment of DPD has been recognized as an important factor for altered 5-FU and 5-FDHU pharmacokinetics, predisposing patients to the development of severe 5-FU-associated toxicity. Our objectives were to avoid severe 5-FU toxicities in patients with greatly

Guido Bocci; Cecilia Barbara; Francesca Vannozzi

118

Anxiety Sensitivity and Breath-Holding Duration in Relation to PTSD Symptom Severity among Trauma Exposed Adults  

PubMed Central

The present investigation examined the main and interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and behavioral distress tolerance, indexed using the breath-holding task, in relation to PTSD symptom severity among trauma-exposed adults. Participants were 88 adults (63.6% women; Mage = 22.9, SD = 9.1, Range = 18-62), recruited from the community, who met DSM-IV-TR PTSD Criterion A for lifetime trauma exposure. Covariates included number of potentially traumatic events, nonclinical panic attack history, and participant sex. Anxiety sensitivity was significantly incrementally associated with PTSD total symptom severity, as well as Avoidance and Hyperarousal symptom severity (p's < .01). Breath-holding duration was not significantly related to PTSD symptom severity (p's > .05). However, breath-holding duration emerged as a significant moderator of the association between anxiety sensitivity and PTSD Avoidance symptom severity, such that lower breath-holding duration exacerbated the effect of heightened anxiety sensitivity with regard to PTSD Avoidance symptom severity.

Berenz, Erin C.; Vujanovic, Anka A.; Coffey, Scott F.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

2011-01-01

119

Is ideology a risk factor for PTSD symptom severity among Israeli political evacuees?  

PubMed

To study the role of ideology in situations of extreme stress, a research questionnaire, measuring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), settlement ideology (the importance of Jewish settlement in Gaza), and type of evacuation was administered to 326 Jewish residents who were evacuated from Gaza settlements by the Israeli government. Forty percent of the participants met the criteria of probable PTSD. Forcibly evicted individuals reported higher levels of settlement ideology and higher levels of PTSD symptom severity compared to voluntarily evacuated individuals. Contrary to previous studies, ideology was found to be positively associated with PTSD symptom severity. The results are explained by the conservation of resources and terror management theories. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:20623597

Oren, Lior; Possick, Chaya

2010-08-01

120

Executive Dysfunction and Depressive Symptoms Associated With Reduced Participation of People With Severe Congestive Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE We investigated participation levels and relationships among cognition, depression, and participation for people with severe congestive heart failure (CHF). METHOD People with severe CHF (New York Heart Association Class III or IV) awaiting heart transplantation (N = 27) completed standardized tests of cognition and self-report measures of executive dysfunction, depressive symptoms, and participation. RESULTS Possible depression (64%) and cognitive impairment (15%–59%) were prevalent. Participants reported significant reductions in participation across all activity domains since CHF diagnosis (ps < .001). Worse executive dysfunction and depressive symptoms were associated with reduced participation and together accounted for 35%–46% of the variance in participation (ps < .01). CONCLUSION Participation restrictions associated with CHF are not limited to physically demanding activities and are significantly associated with executive dysfunction and depression. Cardiac rehabilitation should address cognitive and psychological functioning in the context of all life situations instead of focusing solely on physical function and disability.

Foster, Erin R.; Cunnane, Kathleen B.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Morrison, M. Tracy; Ewald, Gregory A.; Geltman, Edward M.; Zazulia, Allyson R.

2011-01-01

121

Contributions of Pain Sensitivity and Colonic Motility to IBS Symptom Severity and Predominant Bowel Habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients show pain hypersensitivity and hypercontractility in response to colonic or rectal distention. Aims were to determine whether predominant bowel habits and IBS symptom severity are related to pain sensitivity, colon motility, or smooth muscle tone.METHODS:One hundred twenty-nine patients classified as IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D, N = 44), IBS with constipation (IBS-C, N = 29), mixed

Motoyori Kanazawa; Olafur S. Palsson; Syed I. M. Thiwan; Marsha J. Turner; Miranda A. L. van Tilburg; Lisa M. Gangarosa; Denesh K. Chitkara; Shin Fukudo; Douglas A. Drossman; William E. Whitehead

2008-01-01

122

Correlation of C-reactive protein to severity of symptoms in acute influenza A infection  

PubMed Central

Background: Currently there is no objective measure to determine disease severity in patients with acute influenza infection. During acute viral infections, C-reactive protein (CRP) has been shown to be elevated. Aim: To study the relationship between the symptoms of acute influenza A infection and correlate them with the level of inflammation as measured by serum CRP levels. Settings and Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: We enrolled a convenience sample of adults presenting to an urban academic emergency department (ED), who had positive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection of the influenza A antigen. The subjects were excluded if they had immunosuppression, liver disease or were currently taking antiviral medication. A previously validated severity of symptom (SOS) score was calculated by asking the participants to record the severity of seven symptoms associated with influenza infection. The subjects had the serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels tested during their ED visit. Statistical Analysis: A linear regression model was used with CRP as a predictor of the SOS score. Pearson's product-moment coefficient was used to measure the dependence between the two quantities. Results: Thirty-two subjects were enrolled from January through March 2009, and of those, eight patients were excluded from the analysis, leaving 24 study subjects: 58% were women, of ages 18 to 63 years, with a mean age of 31 years (95% CI 25, 37). The mean SOS score was 14.1 ranging from 6 to 21 (95% CI 12.6, 26.4). The mean CRP score was 24.6 ranging from 0 to 64.7 (95% CI 15.8, 33.4). The correlation coefficient between the SOS score and CRP levels was r = 0.65 (P=0.00056). Conclusion: The severity of symptoms associated with acute influenza A infection correlateswith the serum CRP levels.

Haran, John P; Suner, Selim; Gardiner, Fenwick

2012-01-01

123

A manifesting carrier of Duchenne muscular dystrophy with severe myocardial symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 42-year-old so-called manifesting carrier of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), whose first complaints were severe myocardial symptoms, is described. Immunohistochemical study using anti-dystrophin antiserum and analysis of cloned segments of X chromosome DNA were performed. Her two sons and one of her brothers appear to have had the same disease. She was admitted to hospital complaining of dyspnoea, back pain

K. Kamakura; M. Kawai; K. Arahata; H. Koizumi; K. Watanabe; H. Sugita

1990-01-01

124

When Parents with Severe Mental Illness Lose Contact with Their Children: Are Psychiatric Symptoms or Substance Use to Blame?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month…

Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William

2008-01-01

125

Emotion regulation difficulties in trauma survivors: the role of trauma type and PTSD symptom severity.  

PubMed

Two different hypotheses regarding the relationship between emotion regulation and PTSD are described in the literature. First, it has been suggested that emotion regulation difficulties are part of the complex sequelae of early-onset chronic interpersonal trauma and less common following late-onset or single-event traumas. Second, PTSD in general has been suggested to be related to emotion regulation difficulties. Bringing these two lines of research together, the current study aimed to investigate the role of trauma type and PTSD symptom severity on emotion regulation difficulties in a large sample of trauma survivors (N=616). In line with the hypotheses, PTSD symptom severity was significantly associated with all variables assessing emotion regulation difficulties. In addition, survivors of early-onset chronic interpersonal trauma showed higher scores on these measures than survivors of single-event and/or late-onset traumas. However, when controlling for PTSD symptom severity, the group differences only remained significant for 2 out of 9 variables. The most robust findings were found for the variable "lack of clarity of emotions." Implications for future research, theoretical models of trauma-related disorders, and their treatment will be discussed. PMID:21035621

Ehring, Thomas; Quack, Dorothea

2010-06-30

126

Nocturnal heart rate variability parameters as potential fibromyalgia biomarker: correlation with symptoms severity  

PubMed Central

Introduction At present, there is neither a laboratory test nor an imaging technique able to differentiate people with fibromyalgia (FM) from healthy controls. This lack of an objective biomarker has hampered FM recognition and research. Heart rate variability (HRV) analyses provide a quantitative marker of autonomic nervous system activity. Nighttime is a stable period in which most people are resting. Sleep is modulated by autonomic activity. Sleeping problems are prominent in FM. The objectives of this study are: 1) to explore different nocturnal HRV parameters as potential FM biomarkers and 2) to seek correlation between such HRV parameters and diverse FM symptoms. Methods We studied 22 women suffering from FM and 22 age-matched controls. All participants filled out several questionnaires related to FM symptoms. All participants used a Holter monitor over 24 hours while undertaking their routine activities during the day and while sleeping at their homes at night. Time-domain HRV parameters analyzed from 0000 to 0600 hours included, among others: mean normal-normal interbeat intervals (mean NN), standard deviation of the NN intervals (SDNN), and standard deviation of the successive NN differences (SDSD). Results Nocturnal SDNN of less than 114 ms had the greatest predictive value to set apart patients from controls with an odds ratio of 13.6 (95% confidence interval: 3.9 to 47.8). In patients, decreased nighttime HRV markers indicative of sympathetic predominance had significant correlations with several FM symptoms: SDSD was associated with pain intensity (r = - 0.65, P = 0.001). SDNN correlated with constipation (r = - 0.53, P = 0.001), and mean NN with depression (r = - 0.53, P = 0.001). Controls displayed an opposite behavior. For them, increased nighttime SDNN correlated with Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire scores (r = 0.69, P = 0.001) and with other FM symptoms. Conclusions Nocturnal HRV indices indicative of sympathetic predominance are significantly different in FM women when compared to healthy individuals. In FM patients, these HRV parameters correlated with several symptoms including pain severity. Opposite associations were seen in controls. FM may not be just one end of a continuous spectrum of common symptoms. Nocturnal HRV analyses are potential FM biomarkers.

2011-01-01

127

THE OVERACTIVE BLADDER-SYMPTOM COMPOSITE SCORE: A COMPOSITE SYMPTOM SCORE OF TOILET VOIDS, URGENCY SEVERITY AND URGE URINARY INCONTINENCE IN PATIENTS WITH OVERACTIVE BLADDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:To our knowledge there is no index in urology that yields a single, quantifiable and clinically interpretable measure of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms, including urgency, 24-hour voiding frequency and urge urinary incontinence (UUI). Urgency is the most difficult of these symptoms to measure. The Indevus Urgency Severity Scale (Indevus Pharmaceuticals, Lexington, Massachusetts) was recently developed and validated to capture urgency

NORMAN ZINNER; MARK HARNETT; LuANN SABOUNJIAN; BOBBY SANDAGE; ROGER DMOCHOWSKI; DAVID STASKIN

2005-01-01

128

Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Advanced MS Pediatric MS Related Conditions Symptoms In multiple sclerosis , damage to the myelin in the central nervous ... Depression Depression is common during the course of multiple sclerosis. In fact, studies have suggested that clinical depression, ...

129

Hair toxic metal concentrations and autism spectrum disorder severity in young children.  

PubMed

Previous studies have found a higher body-burden of toxic metals, particularly mercury (Hg), among subjects diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in comparison to neurotypical controls. Moreover, Hg body-burden was associated with ASD severity. This cross-sectional study examined the potential correlation between hair toxic metal concentrations and ASD severity in a prospective cohort of participants diagnosed with moderate to severe ASD. The Institutional Review Board at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (Dallas, TX) approved the present study. Qualifying study participants (n = 18) were evaluated for ASD severity using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and quantitatively for arsenic, Hg, cadmium, lead, chromium, cobalt, nickel, aluminum, tin, uranium, and manganese using hair toxic element testing by Doctor's Data (a CLIA-approved laboratory). CARS scoring and hair toxic element testing were blinded to one another. Increasing hair Hg concentrations significantly correlated with increased ASD severity. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between any other of the hair toxic metals examined and ASD severity. This study helps to provide additional mechanistic support for Hg in the etiology of ASD severity, and is supported by an increasing number of recent critical reviews that provide biological plausibility for the role of Hg exposure in the pathogenesis of ASDs. PMID:23222182

Geier, David A; Kern, Janet K; King, Paul G; Sykes, Lisa K; Geier, Mark R

2012-12-06

130

Do gastrointestinal and respiratory signs and symptoms correlate with the severity of gastroesophageal reflux?  

PubMed Central

Background Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a disorder that is common by seen in childhood and may lead to severe complications. In this study, we ascertained the incidence of GER among the children who had typical and atypical complaints of GER and whether there was a difference between two groups comparing the findings of 24-hour pH-meter. Methods 39 out of 70 patients with typical and atypical GER symptoms were diagnosed as GER by 24-hour pH-meter monitoring. The patients were divided into three groups, those having gastrointestinal complaints, those having respiratory complaints and those having both gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms. Results Evaluated the GER prevalence in these groups, it was found to be 60% in the gastrointestinal group, 48.6% in the respiratory group and 75% in the mixed group. When pH-meter measurements of GER positive patients were compared within the clinical groups, the fraction of time that pH was lower than 4 was found to be significantly higher in the mixed group (p = 0.004). Conclusions The coexistence of gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms in the patients with GER may be related to the severe reflux.

2012-01-01

131

Development of Late Toxicity and International Prostate Symptom Score Resolution After External-Beam Radiotherapy Combined With Pulsed Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the development of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity, genitourinary (GU) toxicity, erectile dysfunction, and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) resolution in a cohort of patients treated with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) followed by a brachytherapy pulsed dose rate (PDR) boost. Methods and Materials: Between 2002 and 2008, 110 patients were treated with 46-Gy EBRT followed by PDR brachytherapy (24.96-28.80 Gy). The investigated outcome variables, GI toxicity, GU toxicity, erectile dysfunction, and IPSS were prospectively scored at several time points during follow-up. Association between time (as continuous and categorical variable) and the outcome variables was assessed using generalized linear models. Results: No statistically significant association was found between time (continuous) and GI toxicity (odds ratio [OR], 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89-1.06), GU toxicity (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.91-1.03), erectile dysfunction (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.99-1.11), and IPSS (-0.11; 95% CI, -0.41-0.20). Also, no statistically significant association was found between these variables and time as a categorical variable. GU toxicity was associated with IPSS resolution (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.09-1.24). Posttreatment IPSS was associated with pretreatment IPSS (0.52; 95% CI, 0.25-0.79). Conclusions: No accumulation of high-grade toxicity over time could be established for a group of patients treated with EBRT and PDR brachytherapy for prostate cancer, probably because high-grade late toxicity resolves with time. Also, differences in IPSS values among patients are smaller after treatment than before treatment.

Pieters, Bradley R., E-mail: b.r.pieters@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rezaie, Elisa; Geijsen, Elisabeth D.; Koedooder, Kees; Grient, Johan N.B. van der; Blank, Leo E.C.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reijke, Theo M. de [Department of Urology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Caro C.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2011-11-01

132

Plasma free polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are associated with symptom severity in acute mania  

PubMed Central

Objectives Nutritionally essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been implicated as potentially important factors in mood disorders. For instance, n-3 PUFA supplementation is reported to improve outcomes in major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. However, the role of PUFAs in acute mania has been minimally investigated. We performed a pilot study to compare plasma levels of free (non-esterified) and esterified PUFAs between patients in an acute manic episode and healthy volunteers, and to explore associations between symptom severity and levels of fatty acids and of the arachidonic acid metabolite, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Methods Patients (n = 10) who were medication-free for at least two weeks and seeking inpatient admission for an acute manic episode were compared with healthy volunteers (n = 10). Symptom severity was assessed at admission and after six weeks of naturalistic treatment. Fasting baseline free and esterified plasma levels of docosahexaneoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), arachidonic acid (AA,20:4n-6) and the AA metabolite PGE2 were determined, and PGE2 levels were tested again at six weeks. Results No between-group differences were found in levels of individual or total fatty acids, or of PGE2. Among subjects, manic symptom severity correlated negatively with levels of free AA and free EPA, and positively with the free AA:EPA ratio. PGE2 levels did not differ between groups or in subjects pre- and post-treatment. Conclusions Our preliminary results suggest that, in susceptible persons, low plasma levels of free EPA compared with AA are related to the severity of mania.

Sublette, M Elizabeth; Bosetti, Francesca; DeMar, James C; Ma, Kaizong; Bell, Jane M; Fagin-Jones, Stephanie; Russ, Mark J; Rapoport, Stanley I

2008-01-01

133

Assessment of plant toxicity threshold of several heat transfer and storage fluids and eutectic salts  

SciTech Connect

Plant toxicity threshold levels of several heat transfer and storage fluids and eutectic salts were determined by using a modified Neubauer technique. Barley seed germination and seedling growth were used for the toxicity tests. The general order of toxicity of the fluids applied to three mineral soils was ethylene gloycol > Dow 200 much greater than Caloria HT43 > Therminol 66. The toxicity order of the fluids applied to an organic soil was ethylene glycol > Caloria HT43 > Dow 200 > Therminol 66. Thus, Therminol 66 was the least toxic among the fluids used. Among the eutectic salts tested Dupont HITEC was more toxic than 8.4 percent NaCl-86.3 percent NaNO/sub 3/-5.3 percent Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ mixture in three of the four soils used. In the fourth soil there was no apparent difference of toxicity between the two salt mixtures. Depending on the fluid and the salt mixture, the toxicity threshold levels for barley seedlings ranged from 4451 to 317,488 ppM in the soils used.

Nishita, H.

1980-10-01

134

Effects of Temperament, Symptom Severity and Level of Functioning on Maternal Stress in Greek Children and Youth with ASD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the effect of child temperament, symptom severity, verbal ability and level of functioning on maternal stress in 43 Greek mothers of children and young people with autism spectrum disorder. Symptom severity was assessed by the CARS, level of functioning by the PEP, temperament by the Dimensions of Temperament Scale (DOTS-R)…

Konstantareas, M. Mary; Papageorgiou, Vaya

2006-01-01

135

Predictors of Posttraumatic Distress 1 Year After Exposure to Community Violence: The Importance of Acute Symptom Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this longitudinal study of 333 primarily male, Hispanic survivors of community violence, the authors investigated the effects of 4 categories of risk factors on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity: demographic characteristics, pretraumatic psychological factors, characteristics of the trauma, and reactions to the trauma. Replicating past research, exemplars from all 4 categories predicted PTSD symptom severity at 12-month follow-up.

Thomas F. Denson; Grant N. Marshall; Terry L. Schell; Lisa H. Jaycox

2007-01-01

136

A Preliminary Examination of Trauma History, Locus of Control, and PTSD Symptom Severity in African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research has established a relationship between external locus of control and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity among Caucasians. There is also evidence that African Americans tend to exhibit an elevated external locus of control. However, the relationship between external control and PTSD symptom severity has not been examined among African American women. Using a sample of African American

Sarah K. Hood; Michele M. Carter

2008-01-01

137

Efficacy of Atomoxetine in Children with Severe Autistic Disorders and Symptoms of ADHD: An Open-Label Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: This study aims to examine the efficacy of atomoxetine in treating symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with severe autistic disorder. Method: Children with severe autistic disorder who had symptoms of ADHD were given atomoxetine for 10 weeks. The efficacy of atomoxetine was evaluated by using the…

Charnsil, Chawanun

2011-01-01

138

Anterior cingulate cortex and symptom severity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

The cause of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to abnormalities in prefrontal-striatal-cerebellar networks, but the brain-behavioral correlates are relatively equivocal. Children with ADHD and healthy controls underwent MRI and neuropsychological testing. Brain cortical thickness was analyzed for the bilateral rostral and caudal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Inhibitory control was assessed with the Stroop Inhibition test, and ADHD symptom severity was assessed with parent and teacher behavioral questionnaires. Brain-behavior relationships were calculated between cortical thickness and behavioral measures with regression models. Children with ADHD had significant cortical thinning in the right rostral ACC but nonsignificant thinning in right caudal, left caudal, or left rostral ACC compared with healthy control children after statistical correction for multiple comparisons. Further, right rostral ACC thickness predicted a significant amount of the variance in parent- and teacher-reported symptoms of ADHD. Exploratory analysis showed that cortical thickness was not related to psychostimulant medication history. Symptoms of ADHD may be related to reductions in cortical thickness in the right anterior attention network, a region implicated in behavioral error detection, impulsivity, and inhibitory control. PMID:23713508

Bledsoe, Jesse C; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Pliszka, Steven R

2013-05-01

139

Symptom Severity Predicts Degree of T Cell Activation In Adult Women Following Childhood Maltreatment  

PubMed Central

Although depression is often associated with a reduction in cellular immune responses, other types of emotional disturbance and psychopathology can activate certain aspects of immunity. Activation markers on T cells, in particular, have been found to be elevated in post-traumatic stress states. However, little is known about the relationship between the severity of PTSD symptoms and the degree of change in T cell phenotypes, or about the potential role of neuroendocrine factors in mediating the association. Twenty-four women with a history of sexual trauma during childhood, including 11 who met diagnostic criteria for PTSD, were compared to 12 age-matched, healthy women without a history of maltreatment. The women provided fasted blood samples for enumeration of cell subsets by immunofluorescence and 24-hour urine samples for analysis of catecholamine and cortisol levels. The percent of T cells expressing CD45RA, an early activation marker, was higher in the PTSD diagnosed women, and the levels correlated positively with intrusive symptoms and negatively with avoidant symptoms. These alterations in cell surface markers did not appear to be mediated by norepinephrine (NE) or cortisol, making them a distinctive and independent biomarker of arousal and disturbance in PTSD.

Lemieux, Andrine; Coe, Christopher L.; Carnes, Molly

2008-01-01

140

Biological and psychosocial environmental risk factors influence symptom severity and psychiatric comorbidity in children with ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a genetically as well as environmentally determined disorder with a high\\u000a rate of psychiatric comorbidity. In this study, non-genetic biological and psychosocial risk factors for ADHD symptom severity\\u000a and comorbid disorders were assessed in 275 children with ADHD, aged 5–13 years, mean age 9.7 (SD 1.9). Pre-\\/perinatal biological\\u000a and lifetime psychosocial risk factors as well as data

Christine M. FreitagSusann; Susann Hänig; Anna Schneider; Christiane Seitz; Haukur Palmason; Wolfgang Retz; Jobst Meyer

141

Clinical Features of Idiopathic Gastroparesis Vary with Sex, Body Mass, Symptom Onset, Delay in Gastric Emptying, and Gastroparesis Severity  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Idiopathic gastroparesis (IG) is a common but poorly understood condition with significant morbidity. We studied characteristics of patients with IG enrolled in the NIDDK Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium Registry. Methods Data from medical histories, symptom questionnaires, and 4-hour gastric emptying scintigraphy studies were obtained from patients with IG. Results The mean age of 243 IG patients studied was 41 years; 88% were female, 46% were overweight, 50% had acute onset of symptoms, and 19% reported an initial infectious prodrome. Severe delay in gastric emptying (>35% retention at 4 hours) was present in 28% of patients. Predominant presenting symptoms were nausea (34%), vomiting (19%), and abdominal pain (23%). Women had more severe nausea, satiety, constipation and overall gastroparesis symptoms. Patients who experienced acute onset IG had worse nausea than those with insidious onset. Overweight patients had more bloating and gastric retention at 2 hours, but less severe loss of appetite. Patients with severely delayed gastric emptying had worse vomiting, more severe loss of appetite and overall gastroparesis symptoms. Severe anxiety and depression was present in 36% and 18%, respectively. 86% met criteria for functional dyspepsia, primarily postprandial distress syndrome. Conclusions IG is a disorder that primarily affects young women, beginning acutely in 50% of cases; unexpectedly, many patients are overweight. Severe delay in gastric emptying was associated with more severe symptoms of vomiting and loss of appetite. IG is a diverse syndrome that varies by sex, body mass, symptom onset, and delay in gastric emptying.

2011-01-01

142

Relationship between imaging biomarkers, age, progression and symptom severity in Alzheimer's disease?  

PubMed Central

The early diagnostic value of glucose hypometabolism and atrophy as potential neuroimaging biomarkers of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been extensively explored using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The vast majority of previous imaging studies neglected the effects of single factors, such as age, symptom severity or time to conversion in MCI thus limiting generalisability of results across studies. Here, we investigated the impact of these factors on metabolic and structural differences. FDG-PET and MRI data from AD patients (n = 80), MCI converters (n = 65) and MCI non-converters (n = 64) were compared to data of healthy subjects (n = 79). All patient groups were split into subgroups by age, time to conversion (for MCI), or symptom severity and compared to the control group. AD patients showed a strongly age-dependent pattern, with younger patients showing significantly more extensive reductions in gray matter volume and glucose utilisation. In the MCI converter group, the amount of glucose utilisation reduction was linked to the time to conversion but not to atrophy. Our findings indicate that FDG-PET might be more closely linked to future cognitive decline whilst MRI being more closely related to the current cognitive state reflects potentially irreversible damage.

Dukart, Juergen; Mueller, Karsten; Villringer, Arno; Kherif, Ferath; Draganski, Bogdan; Frackowiak, Richard; Schroeter, Matthias L.

2013-01-01

143

Impaired functioning and quality of life in severe migraine: the role of catastrophizing and associated symptoms  

PubMed Central

Migraine characteristics are associated with impaired functioning and quality of life (Fn/QoL), but the impact of other factors on Fn/QoL in headache patients is largely unexplored. We examined catastrophizing, comorbid anxiety/depression and migraine characteristics as related to Fn/QoL, and explored the consistency of these relationships across five Fn/QoL measures. We evaluated 232 frequent migraine sufferers for comorbid psychiatric diagnosis, and they completed anxiety, depression and catastrophizing measures, recorded migraine characteristics in a diary and completed five Fn/QoL measures (four self-report questionnaires, one diary disability measure). Backward regression revealed catastrophizing and severity of associated symptoms (photophobia, phonophobia, nausea) independently predicted Fn/QoL across all five measures (? weights 0.16–0.50, all P < 0.01). This is the first demonstration that a psychological response to migraines (catastrophizing) is associated with impaired Fn/QoL independent of migraine characteristics and other demographic and psychological variables. Severity of associated symptoms also emerged as an important contributor to Fn/QoL.

Holroyd, KA; Drew, JB; Cottrell, CK; Romanek, KM; Heh, V

2007-01-01

144

Anticipated discrimination is related to symptom severity, functionality and quality of life in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate a possible relationship between the level of anticipated discrimination with severity of symptoms and functionality. We included 103 patients with schizophrenia. Severity of symptoms was measured by PANSS and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. Quality of life (QL) and functionality were measured by using QLS, PSP and Functional Remission of General Schizophrenia Scale (FROGS). Anticipated/experienced discrimination was evaluated with four selected items from Discrimination and Stigma Scale. First, variables related to each item were determined by using t-test and later the variables that have an independent contribution to anticipated discrimination subscale of DISC were evaluated with linear regression analysis. Results showed that those who stated that they felt the need to conceal their diagnosis more had shorter duration of illness, lower PANNS scores, higher scores on professional performance subscale of QLS, a lower number of suicide attempts and higher current employment rates. Participants who reported that they had been avoided or shunned more had higher depression scores. While patients with lower level of functionality tended to stop themselves more, patients with high level of functionality tended to conceal their diagnosis. PMID:23528519

Uçok, Alp; Karaday?, Gül?ah; Emiro?lu, Birgül; Sartorius, Norman

2013-03-23

145

Molecular Neurobiology of Depression: PET Findings on the Elusive Correlation with Symptom Severity  

PubMed Central

Molecular mechanisms in the brain are assumed to cause the symptoms and severity of neuropsychiatric disorders. This review concerns the elusive nature of relationships between the severity of depressive disorders and neuromolecular processes studied by positron emission tomography (PET). Recent PET studies of human depression have focused on serotonergic, dopaminergic, muscarinic, nicotinic, and GABAergic receptors, as well as central processes dependent on monoamine oxidase, phosphodiesterase type 4, amyloid plaques, neurofibrillar tangles, and P-glycoprotein. We find that reliable causal links between neuromolecular mechanisms and relief from depressive disorders have yet to be convincingly demonstrated. This situation may contribute to the currently limited use of PET for exploring the neuropathways that are currently viewed as being responsible for beneficial effects of antidepressant treatment regimes.

Smith, Donald F.; Jakobsen, Steen

2013-01-01

146

Suboptimal management of severe menopausal symptoms by Nigerian Gynaecologists: a call for mandatory continuing medical education for physicians  

PubMed Central

Background Effective management of menopause is an important way to improve the quality of life of the increasing number of older women. The study sought to find out if Nigerian Gynaecologists offer effective treatment for severe menopausal symptoms. Methods 126 Nigerian Gynaecologists representing the six health zones of Nigeria were interviewed to determine the menopausal symptoms they had ever encountered in their practices, frequency of the symptoms, treatments ever offered for severe symptoms including their attitude to, and practice of hormone replacement therapy. Results A Nigerian Gynaecologist encountered an average of one patient with menopausal symptoms every three months (range: 0-3 patients per month). The commoner symptoms they encountered were hot flushes (88%), insomnia (75.4%), depression (58.0%), irritability (56.3%), night sweats (55.6%) and muscle pains (54.8%) while urinary symptoms (16.7%) and fracture (1.6%) were less common. Treatments ever offered for severe symptoms were reassurance (90.5%), anxiolytics (68.3%), analgesics (14.3), HRT (7.9%), Vitamins (4%), Beta-blockers (3.2%) and Danazol (2.4%). These treatments were offered as a matter of institutional traditions rather than being based on any evidence of their efficacy. Conclusion The result revealed that most Nigerian Gynaecologists prefer reassurance and anxiolytics for managing severe menopausal symptoms instead of evidence-based effective therapies. A policy of mandatory continuing medical education for Nigerian physicians is recommended to ensure evidence-based management of gynaecological problems, including menopause.

Nkwo, Peter O

2009-01-01

147

The impact of pathological narcissism on psychotherapy utilization, initial symptom severity, and early-treatment symptom change: a naturalistic investigation.  

PubMed

The impact of pathological narcissism on psychotherapy has seldom been investigated empirically, despite extensive clinical theory proposing that highly narcissistic individuals should be reluctant to engage in treatment and derive smaller benefits from therapy. In this study, we investigate the relationship between scores on the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009), which assesses both narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability, and clinical variables in a sample of outpatients (N=60) at a community mental health center. Results indicated that grandiosity, but not vulnerability, was negatively related to the use of adjunctive services and positively predicted client-initiated termination of psychotherapy. In addition, grandiosity and vulnerability were related to initial levels of different symptoms in multilevel models using a subsample (n=41) but not generally related to the linear rate of symptom change in early psychotherapy. The results highlight the clinical utility of assessing pathological narcissism in a real-world psychotherapeutic context. PMID:23186259

Ellison, William D; Levy, Kenneth N; Cain, Nicole M; Ansell, Emily B; Pincus, Aaron L

2012-11-27

148

Do Postconcussive Symptoms Discriminate Injury Severity in Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury?  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess whether postconcussive symptoms (PCS) can be used to discriminate injury severity among children with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants One hundred eighty-six children with mild TBI, divided into high and low injury severity depending on whether the injury was associated with a loss of consciousness (LOC), and a comparison group of 99 children with orthopedic injuries (OI), all aged 8 to 15 years at the time of injury. Main Measures Parent-rated frequency and severity of PCS at initial assessment within 2 weeks postinjury and again at 3 and 12 months postinjury. Results Ratings of PCS obtained at the initial and 3-month assessments differentiated children with mild TBI from OI, although only ratings at the initial assessment discriminated among all 3 groups. Somatic PCS accounted for most of the discriminatory power. Conclusions Overall, the accuracy of group classification was relatively modest, with a large proportion of misclassifications of children in the mild-TBI groups. Although children with mild TBI have more PCS than children with OI, PCS do not permit sufficiently accurate discrimination of mild TBI and injury severity to warrant diagnostic decisions at this time.

Moran, Lisa M.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Rusin, Jerome; Bangert, Barbara; Dietrich, Ann; Nuss, Kathryn E.; Wright, Martha; Yeates, Keith Owen

2011-01-01

149

Chemotherapy-induced toxic leukoencephalopathy causes a wide range of symptoms: a series of four autopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed an increasing number of autopsies on patients with chemotherapy-related complications. One complication is toxic leukoencephalopathy, which is due to a direct toxic effect of chemotherapeutic agents on the central nervous system white matter. Autopsies of four cases of toxic leukoencephalopathy were performed following standard protocols. The brain and spinal cord were examined routinely, and histological sections were

Crystal A Moore-Maxwell; Michael B Datto; Christine M Hulette

2004-01-01

150

EFFECTS OF SODIUM PENTACHLOROPHENATE ON SEVERAL ESTUARINE ANIMALS: TOXICITY, UPTAKE, AND DEPURATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Several estuarine animals were exposed to sodium pentachlorophenate (Na-PCP), in flowthrough toxicity tests. The following are test animals and their 96-hour LC50 values; grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio), >515 micrograms/l; brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus), >195 micrograms/l; long...

151

Discriminant value of psychological distress, symptom profiles, and segmental colonic dysfunction in outpatients with severe idiopathic constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe idiopathic constipation can be categorised based on physiological testing into subgroups including slow transit constipation and pelvic floor dysfunction. This study aimed to determine if colonic and psychological symptoms, or rectosigmoid transit times, could discriminate among these subgroups. Patients, categorised according to total colonic transit times and pelvic floor function testing, completed a self report questionnaire that recorded symptoms

R L Grotz; J H Pemberton; N J Talley; D M Rath; A R Zinsmeister

1994-01-01

152

Influenza-Like Illness among University Students: Symptom Severity and Duration Due to Influenza Virus Infection Compared to Other Etiologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: University students with influenza-like illness (ILI) were assessed to determine whether symptom severity, duration, or missed days of school or work varied according to etiology. Participants: Sixty persons presenting to a university health clinic with ILI symptoms during 3 consecutive influenza seasons completed baseline survey and…

Mullins, Jocelyn; Cook, Robert; Rinaldo, Charles; Yablonsky, Eric; Hess, Rachel; Piazza, Paolo

2011-01-01

153

Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity: an under-recognized and severe adverse effect?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several forms of pulmonary disease occur among patients treated with amiodarone, i.e. chronic interstitial pneumonitis, organizing\\u000a pneumonia, ARDS, a solitary pulmonary mass of fibrosis. The prevalence is estimated to be about 5%. Two major hypotheses of\\u000a amiodarone-induced pulmonary injury include direct cytotoxicity and a hypersensitivity reaction. Given the frequency and potential\\u000a severity of amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity, early detection is desirable.

Martin Schwaiblmair; Thomas Berghaus; Thomas Haeckel; Theodor Wagner; Wolfgang von Scheidt

2010-01-01

154

Severe toxicity and polymerase-? gene abnormalities in Malawian adults on stavudine-based antiretroviral therapy.  

PubMed

In a cohort study of Malawian adults who were followed up through their second year of stavudine-containing antiretroviral therapy, we sequenced the polymerase-? gene (POLG) of 10 of the 14 patients with the most severe stavudine side effects. No mutations were observed, suggesting that monogenic POLG mutations are not a common pathogenic determinant of severe stavudine-associated mitochondrial toxicity in Malawians. PMID:23962909

van Oosterhout, Joep J; Gardner, Kristian; Mallewa, Jane; Kaunda, Symon; Kampira, Elizabeth; Payne, Brendan; Heyderman, Robert S; Chinnery, Patrick

2013-11-01

155

Severe Late Toxicities Following Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy Compared to Radiotherapy Alone in Cervical Cancer: An Inter-era Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare rates of severe late toxicities following concomitant chemoradiotherapy and radiotherapy alone for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials Patients with cervical cancer were treated at a single institution with radiotherapy alone or concomitant chemoradiotherapy for curative intent. Severe late toxicity was defined as grade ?3 vaginal, urologic, or gastrointestinal toxicity or any pelvic fracture, using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 (CTCAE), occurring ?6 months from treatment completion and predating any salvage therapy. Severe late toxicity rates were compared after adjusting for pertinent covariates. Results At 3 years, probability of vaginal severe late toxicity was 20.2% for radiotherapy alone and 35.1% for concomitant chemoradiotherapy (P=.026). At 3 years, probability of skeletal severe late toxicity was 1.6% for radiotherapy alone and 7.5% for concomitant chemoradiotherapy (P=.010). After adjustment for case mix, concomitant chemoradiotherapy was associated with higher vaginal (hazard ratio [HR] 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–5.2, P<001), and skeletal (HR 7.0, 95% CI 1.4–34.1, P=.016) severe late toxicity. Compared to high dilator compliance, moderate (HR 3.6, 95% CI 2.0–6.5, P<.001) and poor (HR 8.5, 95% CI 4.3–16.9, P<.001) dilator compliance was associated with higher vaginal severe late toxicity. Age >50 was associated with higher vaginal (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.0, P=.013) and skeletal (HR 5.7, 95% CI 1.2–27.0, P=.028) severe late toxicity. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy was not associated with higher gastrointestinal (P=.886) or urologic (unadjusted, P=.053; adjusted, P=.063) severe late toxicity. Conclusion Compared to radiotherapy alone, concomitant chemoradiotherapy is associated with higher rates of severe vaginal and skeletal late toxicities. Other predictive factors include dilator compliance for severe vaginal late toxicity and age for severe vaginal and skeletal late toxicities.

Gondi, Vinai; Bentzen, S?ren M.; Sklenar, Kathryn L.; Dunn, Emily F.; Petereit, Daniel G.; Tannehill, Scott P.; Straub, Margaret; Bradley, Kristin A.

2013-01-01

156

A fatal case of cutaneous adverse drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with severe rhabdomyolysis.  

PubMed

Toxic epidermal necrolysis represents an immunologic reaction to a foreign antigen and is most often caused by drugs. Atorvastatin, a blood cholesterol-lowering agent, is a recognized cause of rhabdomyolysis; while naproxen, a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is a known cause of photo-induced skin lesions. We report the first fatal case of drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with severe muscle necrosis due to the use of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and a statin with very high levels of creatine phosphokinase leading to acute kidney injury, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and complete skin necrosis leading to death. PMID:22588445

Noordally, Sheik Oaleed; Sohawon, Schoeb; Vanderhulst, Julien; Duttmann, Ruth; Corazza, Francis; Devriendt, Jacques

157

Cluster Analysis of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS): Symptom Dimensions and Clinical Correlates in an Outpatient Youth Sample  

PubMed Central

Tic disorders are heterogeneous, with symptoms varying widely both within and across patients. Exploration of symptom clusters may aid in the identification of symptom dimensions of empirical and treatment import. This article presents the results of two studies investigating tic symptom clusters using a sample of 99 youth (M age = 10.7, 81% male, 77% Caucasian) diagnosed with a primary tic disorder (Tourette’s disorder or chronic tic disorder), across two university-based outpatient clinics specializing in tic and related disorders. In Study 1, a cluster analysis of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) identified four symptom dimensions: predominantly complex tics; simple head/face tics; simple body tics; and simple vocal/facial tics. In Study 2, these clusters were shown to be differentially associated with demographic and clinical characteristics. Findings lend support to prior research on tic phenomenology, help to organize treatment goals, and suggest symptom dimensions of tic disorders for further evaluation.

Woods, Douglas W.; Chang, Susanna W.; Ricketts, Emily J.; Piacentini, John C.

2010-01-01

158

Symptom differences in moderate to severe IBS patients based on predominant bowel habit  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:We sought to determine if irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients with different bowel habit predominance differ in self-reported viscerosensory symptoms related to the upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract, somatosensory symptoms, and constitutional functions.METHODS:Six hundred and twenty-five Rome criteria-positive IBS patients completed a bowel symptom questionnaire (BSQ), psychological symptom checklist (SCL-90), and health status (SF-36). Bowel habit predominance for IBS

Max Schmulson; Oh-Young Lee; Lin Chang; Bruce Naliboff; Emeran A Mayer

1999-01-01

159

Parent Alcoholism Impacts the Severity and Timing of Children’s Externalizing Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous studies show that children of alcoholic parents have higher rates of externalizing symptoms compared to\\u000a their peers, it remains unclear whether the timing of children’s externalizing symptoms is linked to that of their parent’s\\u000a alcohol-related symptoms. Using a multilevel modeling approach, we tested whether children aged 2 through 17 showed elevated\\u000a mother-, father- and child-reported externalizing symptoms (a)

Andrea M. Hussong; Wenjing Huang; Patrick J. Curran; Laurie Chassin; Robert A. Zucker

2010-01-01

160

Emotional benefits of mindfulness-based stress reduction in older adults: the moderating roles of age and depressive symptom severity.  

PubMed

Objectives: To examine the effects of age and depressive symptom severity on changes in positive affect among older adults randomly assigned to a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program or a Waitlist Control group. Drawing from the Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development, we hypothesized that lower levels of depressive symptom severity and older age would be associated with greater positive affect in response to the MBSR intervention. Methods: Data were collected from a sample of community-dwelling English-speaking adults (n = 200) aged ? 65, randomly assigned to an eight-week MBSR program or a Waitlist Control group. Our main outcome variable was a five-item measure of positive affect, which was measured at study entry as well as eight weeks and six months later. Results: At the six-month follow-up, we observed group by baseline depressive symptom severity (? = -.17, p = .02) and group by baseline depressive symptom severity by age (? = -.14, p = .05) interactions. Among MBSR participants, greater baseline depressive symptom severity was also associated with less improvement in positive affect at the six-month follow-up (? = -.30, p = .003). Findings were qualified by a significant depressive symptom severity by age interaction (? = -.25, p = .01), such that MBSR participants who were 70 and over with lower baseline depressive symptom severity having the greatest improvement in positive affect at the six-month follow-up. Conclusion: MBSR improves positive affect for older adults with lower depressive symptom severity, perhaps because it capitalizes on naturalistic changes in control strategies. PMID:23697871

Gallegos, Autumn M; Hoerger, Michael; Talbot, Nancy L; Moynihan, Jan A; Duberstein, Paul R

2013-05-22

161

Parent Alcoholism Impacts the Severity and Timing of Children's Externalizing Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous studies show that children of alcoholic parents have higher rates of externalizing symptoms compared to their peers, it remains unclear whether the timing of children's externalizing symptoms is linked to that of their parent's alcohol-related symptoms. Using a multilevel modeling approach, we tested whether children aged 2…

Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie; Zucker, Robert A.

2010-01-01

162

Anxiety sensitivity and breath-holding duration in relation to PTSD symptom severity among trauma exposed adults.  

PubMed

The present investigation examined the main and interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and behavioral distress tolerance, indexed using the breath-holding task, in relation to PTSD symptom severity among trauma-exposed adults. Participants were 88 adults (63.6% women; M(age)=22.9, SD=9.1, range=18-62), recruited from the community, who met DSM-IV-TR PTSD Criterion A for lifetime trauma exposure. Covariates included number of potentially traumatic events, nonclinical panic attack history, and participant sex. Anxiety sensitivity was significantly incrementally associated with PTSD total symptom severity, as well as Avoidance and Hyperarousal symptom severity (p's<.01). Breath-holding duration was not significantly related to PTSD symptom severity (p's>.05). However, breath-holding duration emerged as a significant moderator of the association between anxiety sensitivity and PTSD Avoidance symptom severity, such that lower breath-holding duration exacerbated the effect of heightened anxiety sensitivity with regard to PTSD Avoidance symptom severity. PMID:22047652

Berenz, Erin C; Vujanovic, Anka A; Coffey, Scott F; Zvolensky, Michael J

2011-10-17

163

Effect of Body Weight and Esophageal Damage on the Severity of Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms. Mexican GERD Working Group  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Several studies have demonstrated overweight and obesity are strong independent risk factor of GERD symptoms and esophageal erosions. Our aim was to analyze the joint effect of BMI with the grade of esophageal damage over symptoms’ intensity of GERD. Methods We used a questionnaire with a Likert scale for severity of symptoms related to GERD. The distal portion of the esophagus was evaluated to determine the presence of mucosal injury, classified by Los Angeles criteria (LA). Results We included 917 subjects (53.76% females) with average age 36.8 ± 7 years. Males had higher BMI than females (26.8 ± 3.5 vs. 25.2 ± 4.5, p <0.001). Severe damage (C–D ulcers) was associated with overweight (BMI 25–30), severity of heartburn, retching, halitosis, regurgitation, and chest oppression. BMI >30 had high score for heartburn and retching, but low score for nausea, compared with lower weight. The model with interaction showed a non-linear association between BMI and LA. Overweight (but not obese) patients with damage scored C–D had the highest score for intensity of heartburn and retching. Conclusions BMI and LA do not have additive effects on the severity of symptoms of GERD. Those with BMI between 25 and 30 had severe symptoms score, but those with BMI >30 showed lower scores. These findings could explain controversial results found in other studies.

Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Vargas, Jose Antonio; Lopez, Luis Humberto; Fass, Ronnie; Sobrino-Cossio, Sergio; Higgins, Paul; Comuzzie, Anthony

2010-01-01

164

[Difficulties in the differential diagnosis of hyponatremia presenting with severe neuropsychiatric symptoms - case presentation].  

PubMed

Hyponatremia is the most frequent eletrolyte imbalance in hospitalized geriatric patient. The accompanying signs and symptoms can run a wide range and, therefore, these patients are usually admitted to various departments, i.e. neurology and/or traumatology first. Directed laboratory investigations demonstrate severe hyponatremia. Differential diagnosis can be very difficult and complex in the clinical settings. Firstly, spurious forms of hyponatremia have to be excluded, then the underlying cause should elucidated based on the patients hydration status and serum osmolarity. Hyponatremia can be divided into hyper-, hypo- and normovolemic forms. Moreover, it can be further classified as hypo-, iso- and hyperosmolar hyponatremias. The differentiation between renal and extrarenal salt wasting forms is hinged on the urine sodium concentration. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion is the most common cause of normovolemic, hypoosmolar forms (named also as Schwartz-Bartter syndrome). The authors aimed to shed light on the often insurmountable difficulties of the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this very frequent electrolyte imbalance by presenting a clinical case report. Their purported aim reflects upon the wide array of ethiopathogenesis of hyponatremia: various endocrine, renal diseases, inappropriateness of antidiuretic hormone secretion as well as the role of different medications (e.g. diuretics). This fine-tuned and intricate physiology of sodium metabolism could fortuitously be overturned by these mechanisms. PMID:23895992

Steiner, Tamás; Oláh, Roland; Németh, Attila; Winkler, Gábor

2013-08-01

165

Quantitative evaluation of severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in patients with vascular dementia.  

PubMed

To quantitatively evaluate severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) for vascular dementia (VD). Changes of 51 patients with VD in BPSD between the first and 24th week were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and the behavioral pathology in Alzheimer's disease (BEHAVE-AD) rating scale, in detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) represented by diurnal activity (DA), evening activity (EA), and nocturnal activity (NA), and the relationships were analyzed. The subscores of activity disturbances, diurnal rhythm disturbances, and anxieties and phobias in the BEHAVE-AD score, and that of agitation, irritability, and sleep disorder in the NPI score were significantly increased compared with the first week, as was for the changes for EA in the DFA value. A linear correlation was observed between the changes of activity disturbances plus anxieties and phobias, and those of DA, and between the development of diurnal rhythm and those of EA, the vehement and autism scores and those of DA, and the difference in sleep disorder scores and those of EA, respectively. Analysis of DA, NA, and EA may reflect the fluctuational degrees of VD-BPSD, can provide a useful assessment of VD-BPSD accompanied by clinical scores for VD. PMID:23607744

Pan, Wei-Dong; Yoshida, Sohei; Liu, Qian; Wu, Chun-Lan; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Jin; Cai, Ding-Fang

2013-04-22

166

Type and Severity of Abuse as Predictors of Psychiatric Symptoms in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been little previous research about histories of child maltreatment and psychological symptoms in adolescent psychiatric patients. This study investigated whether type and characteristics of child physical and\\/or sexual abuse predicted individual differences in symptoms. Participants were 187 patients in day or residential treatment facilities. Abuse was assessed using structured interviews with the adolescent, the therapist, and the caseworker.

Sylvie Naar-King; Louise Silvern; Victor Ryan; Deborah Sebring

2002-01-01

167

MODERATE TO SEVERE DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AMONG ADOLESCENT MOTHERS FOLLOWED FOUR YEARS POSTPARTUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to examine race/ethnic differences in depressive symptoms among adolescent mothers during the first four years postpartum. A prospective study of 623 adolescent mothers, 18 years or younger followed four years after delivery. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Beck Depress...

168

The association of quality of social relations, symptom severity and intelligence with anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Limited quality of social relations, milder symptom severity and higher intelligence were shown to account for higher anxiety levels in autism spectrum disorders. The current study replicated and extended earlier findings by combining these three determinants of anxiety in autism spectrum disorders in one study. The sample consisted of 134 school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders, of whom 58 (43%) had a co-morbid anxiety disorder according to the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Parent version. In this sample, we tested associations between these determinants and anxiety univariately and multivariately to clarify the unique contribution of all determinants. Since we hypothesized that the association between limited quality of social relations and anxiety would be amplified by low symptom severity and/or high intelligence, we additionally tested for moderating effects. We found that higher anxiety levels were associated with a lower quality of social relations and lower symptom severity. In this mainly high-functioning sample, intelligence was not related to anxiety levels. No moderation effects were found. Since lower quality of social relations and lower symptom severity are associated with higher anxiety levels in children with autism spectrum disorders, therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing anxiety in autism spectrum disorders should pay attention to improving social relations, and presumably children with a lower symptom severity could benefit most from such interventions. PMID:22917843

Eussen, Mart Ljm; Van Gool, Arthur R; Verheij, Fop; De Nijs, Pieter Fa; Verhulst, Frank C; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

2012-08-23

169

ABCC11/MRP8 polymorphisms affect 5-fluorouracil-induced severe toxicity and hepatic expression.  

PubMed

Aim: Because 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate (5-FdUMP), an anabolic active metabolite of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), is a substrate of MRP8 (encoded by ABCC11), we investigated whether ABCC11 polymorphisms play a role in severe toxicity of 5-FU. Patients & methods: Genomic DNA from 672 cancer patients treated with 5-FU monotherapy and with documented toxicity according to WHO criteria was genotyped for 12 ABCC11 tag SNPs. Functional impact of polymorphisms was assessed in a Caucasian human liver cohort (n = 150) and by recombinant expression of MRP8 protein variants. Results: Univariate and multivariate analysis identified rs17822471 (G>A, T546M) as risk factor of severe leukopenia (p = 0.021, odds ratio [95%CI]: 3.31 [1.26-8.66]) but not of other toxicity types. MRP8 protein expression in human liver was 1.7-fold lower in carriers compared with wild-type (p = 0.02). Recombinant expression confirmed the effect of T546M on protein expression. Conclusion: Since MRP8 is expressed in bone marrow blasts and leukocytes, lower expression may lead to intracellular accumulation of 5-FdUMP and increased risk of leukopenia. Original submitted 25 April 2013; Revision submitted 17 July 2013. PMID:24024896

Magdy, Tarek; Arlanov, Rudolf; Winter, Stefan; Lang, Thomas; Klein, Kathrin; Toyoda, Yu; Ishikawa, Toshihisa; Schwab, Matthias; Zanger, Ulrich M

2013-09-01

170

Acute toxicity of zinc to several aquatic species native to the Rocky Mountains.  

PubMed

National water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life are based on toxicity tests, often using organisms that are easy to culture in the laboratory. Species native to the Rocky Mountains are poorly represented in data sets used to derive national water-quality criteria. To provide additional data on the toxicity of zinc, several laboratory acute-toxicity tests were conducted with a diverse assortment of fish, benthic invertebrates, and an amphibian native to the Rocky Mountains. Tests with fish were conducted using three subspecies of cutthroat trout (Colorado River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus, greenback cutthroat trout O. clarkii stomias, and Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. clarkii virginalis), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi), longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), and flathead chub (Platygobio gracilis). Aquatic invertebrate tests were conducted with mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus, Drunella doddsi, Cinygmula sp. and Ephemerella sp.), a stonefly (Chloroperlidae), and a caddis fly (Lepidostoma sp.). The amphibian test was conducted with tadpoles of the boreal toad (Bufo boreas). Median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s) ranged more than three orders of magnitude from 166 ?g/L for Rio Grande cutthroat trout to >67,000 ?g/L for several benthic invertebrates. Of the organisms tested, vertebrates were the most sensitive, and benthic invertebrates were the most tolerant. PMID:21811884

Brinkman, Stephen F; Johnston, Walter D

2011-08-03

171

Severe toxicity of capecitabine following uncomplicated treatment with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin.  

PubMed

Colorectal carcinomas are among the most common tumor types and are generally treated with palliative chemotherapy in case of metastatic disease. Here, we describe the case of a 58 year old woman with metastatic rectal carcinoma who developed severe gastrointestinal toxicity when the thus far well-tolerated intravenous 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/leucovorin containing chemotherapeutic regimen was replaced by the same chemotherapeutic regimen in combination with the oral 5-FU prodrug capecitabine. This increased toxicity is probably due to the intracellular retention of polyglutamated folates induced by prior leucovorin therapy which, upon subsequent administration of capecitabine, will result in an enhanced and prolonged inhibition of the, for DNA synthesis important, enzyme thymidylate synthase, essentially creating a situation equivalent to overdosing. PMID:20567941

Schneiders, Famke L; van den Berg, H Pieter; Peters, Godefridus J; Verheul, Henk M W; van der Vliet, Hans J

2010-06-22

172

Negative parenting behavior, combat exposure, and PTSD symptom severity. Test of a person-event interaction model.  

PubMed

The "personal characteristics" and "extreme event" hypotheses have been proposed as alternative explanations for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among combat veterans. The person-event interaction model attempts to integrate both perspectives by hypothesizing that premilitary individual vulnerability characteristics play a greater role in influencing risk of PTSD or PTSD symptom severity at lower than at higher levels of exposure to traumatic combat stressors. Focusing on a sample of 57 Vietnam veterans undergoing inpatient treatment for diagnosed PTSD, we assessed this model by examining interactions between negative parenting behaviors in childhood (e.g., inconsistent love) and degree of combat exposure in predicting PTSD symptom severity. Hierarchical regression analyses supported the model, indicating that the father's negative parenting behaviors were more predictive of PTSD symptom severity at relatively lower levels of combat exposure. Implications of the findings for further research on multivariate, interactional models of PTSD etiology among Vietnam combat veterans are discussed. PMID:1624924

McCranie, E W; Hyer, L A; Boudewyns, P A; Woods, M G

1992-07-01

173

Successful treatment of severe amiodarone pulmonary toxicity with polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column direct hemoperfusion.  

PubMed

Amiodarone pulmonary toxicity (APT) is the most serious side effect of amiodarone. Although severe APT, such as ARDS, is rare, mortality of severe APT is high. Polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column direct hemoperfusion (PMX-DHP) is a medical device that reduces blood endotoxin levels in sepsis. Recent reports have shown that PMX-DHP improves oxygenation in patients with acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and drug-induced severe interstitial pneumonia. Here, we present a case study of a patient with severe APT treated with PMX-DHP with complete recovery. The patient rapidly developed respiratory failure and required mechanical ventilation. Despite corticosteroid pulse therapy, no clinical improvement was noted. PMX-DHP was then started, and severe respiratory failure improved with reduction of serum levels of amiodarone and its metabolite monodesethylamiodarone. The patient was weaned from mechanical ventilation and has done well without recurrence. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of PMX-DHP therapy for severe APT. We speculate that PMX-DHP could be a new treatment strategy for severe APT. PMID:23546489

Sato, Nahoko; Kojima, Keisuke; Horio, Yuko; Goto, Eisuke; Masunaga, Aiko; Ichiyasu, Hidenori; Kohrogi, Hirotsugu

2013-04-01

174

Not your usual diarrhoea: severe colonic toxicity of mycophenolate due to intestinal CMV and EBV infection.  

PubMed

We report a case of a 52-year-old woman, on immunosuppressive treatment with mycophenolate due to a history of giant cell myocarditis (GCM), who presented with new-onset severe blood-tinged diarrhoea after a cytomegalovirus (CMV) primoinfection. An extensively prolonged mycophenolate-related colitis was seen after withdrawal of mycophenolate due to an intestinal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection-a rarely seen event itself. We postulate that colonic toxicity was triggered by CMV infection and perpetuated by intestinal EBV replication/infection. PMID:23845678

Seifert, Heike; Hess, Christoph; Terracciano, Luici; Eckstein, Jens

2013-07-10

175

An exploratory examination of risk-taking behavior and PTSD symptom severity in a veteran sample.  

PubMed

The present study conducted an exploratory examination of the relationship between self-reported symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and an expanded definition of risk-taking behaviors among 395 veterans at a large Midwestern Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were associated with elevated rates of substance use, thrill seeking, aggression, risky sexual practices, and firearm possession. Results indicated that suicidal ideation and aggressive driving behavior were among the most frequently reported. The present findings hold significant public health implications and highlight the need to attend to risk-taking behaviors in treatment planning. PMID:22594128

Strom, Thad Q; Leskela, Jennie; James, Lisa M; Thuras, Paul D; Voller, Emily; Weigel, Rebecca; Yutsis, Maya; Khaylis, Anna; Lindberg, Jamie; Holz, Kenna Bolton

2012-04-01

176

Longitudinal course of symptom severity and fluctuation in patients with treatment-resistant unipolar and bipolar depression.  

PubMed

Little is currently known about the long-term course of symptom severity and fluctuation in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). We assessed this using the longitudinal interval follow-up evaluation in 115 patients with TRD (84 unipolar, 31 bipolar) with 1-7 years (median 36 months) of follow-up. Of the follow-up months, 39.2% were spent asymptomatic and 21.1% at sub-threshold symptom level, while 15.8% were spent at mild, 13.9% at moderate, and 10.0% at severe depressive episode level. Significantly more unipolar than bipolar patients were continuously symptomatic during follow-up (43% vs. 29%). Patients had a mean of 1.0 (S.D.=1.2) symptom severity level fluctuations per year. High fluctuating patients had significantly poorer global functioning and quality of life. Although most patients with TRD achieve an asymptomatic state, they continue to fluctuate and experience depressive symptoms in the majority of months, mostly at subclinical or mild severity. However, there are important differences between unipolar and bipolar TRD, with unipolar patients more likely to experience an unremitting depressive state. Additionally, a more fluctuating longitudinal illness course is associated with poorer function and quality of life, and with a bipolar diagnosis. We suggest that the longitudinal illness course is an important outcome to be considered in future TRD research. PMID:23601791

Vergunst, Francis K; Fekadu, Abebaw; Wooderson, Sarah C; Tunnard, Catherine S; Rane, Lena J; Markopoulou, Kalypso; Cleare, Anthony J

2013-04-17

177

Emergency Medical Service and In-Hospital Vital Signs as Predictors of Subsequent PTSD Symptom Severity in Pediatric Injury Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The present study investigated the extent to which heart rate (HR) levels soon after a traumatic event predicted posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity assessed 6 weeks and 6 months later in child trauma victims. Methods: Participants consisted of 82 children (56 boys, 26 girls) aged 8-18 who were admitted to a…

Nugent, Nicole R.; Christopher, Norman C.; Delahanty, Douglas L.

2006-01-01

178

What Symptoms Predict the Diagnosis of Mania in Persons with Severe/Profound Intellectual Disability In Clinical Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: While researchers have attempted to address the difficulties of diagnosing affective disorders in the intellectually disabled population, diagnosing bipolar disorder in an individual with severe intellectual disability (ID) remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to identify what symptoms can predict a diagnosis of mania in the…

Matson, J. L.; Gonzalez, M. L.; Terlonge, C.; Thorson, R. T.; Laud, R. B.

2007-01-01

179

What Symptoms Predict the Diagnosis of Mania in Persons with Severe/Profound Intellectual Disability In Clinical Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: While researchers have attempted to address the difficulties of diagnosing affective disorders in the intellectually disabled population, diagnosing bipolar disorder in an individual with severe intellectual disability (ID) remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to identify what symptoms can predict a diagnosis of mania in the…

Matson, J. L.; Gonzalez, M. L.; Terlonge, C.; Thorson, R. T.; Laud, R. B.

2007-01-01

180

The Impact of Child Symptom Severity on Stress among Parents of Children with ASD: The Moderating Role of Coping Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the impact of autism severity and parental coping strategies on stress in parents of children with ASD. Children's autism symptoms and parental coping strategies (task-oriented, emotion-oriented, social diversion, and distraction) were evaluated as predictors of four types of parental stress (parent and family problems, pessimism,…

Lyons, Amy M.; Leon, Scott C.; Roecker Phelps, Carolyn E.; Dunleavy, Alison M.

2010-01-01

181

The Impact of Child Symptom Severity on Stress among Parents of Children with ASD: The Moderating Role of Coping Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examined the impact of autism severity and parental coping strategies on stress in parents of children with ASD. Children's autism symptoms and parental coping strategies (task-oriented, emotion-oriented, social diversion, and distraction) were evaluated as predictors of four types of parental stress (parent and family problems, pessimism,…

Lyons, Amy M.; Leon, Scott C.; Roecker Phelps, Carolyn E.; Dunleavy, Alison M.

2010-01-01

182

Lifetime Traumatic Events and High-Risk Behaviors as Predictors of PTSD Symptoms in People with Severe Mental Illnesses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research is limited regarding the role of high-risk behaviors, trauma, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in people with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The current survey of 276 community mental health clients diagnosed with either a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or a major mood disorder examined the mediating role of lifetime…

O'Hare, Thomas; Sherrer, Margaret V.

2009-01-01

183

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms are Associated with the Frequency and Severity of Delinquency Among Detained Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trauma and posttraumatic stress symptoms increasingly are recognized as risk factors for involvement with the juvenile justice system, and detained youth evidence higher rates of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to their nondetained peers. Using a sample of 83 detained boys aged 12 to 17, we tested the hypothesis that degree of PTSD symptomatology would be positively

Stephen P. Becker; Patricia K. Kerig

2011-01-01

184

The Relationship of Challenging Behaviors to Severity and Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Challenging behaviors were assessed in 313 children, and it was demonstrated that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibited greater levels of challenging behavior than both normally developing controls and children with psychopathology or atypical development. Next, we examined the relation between challenging behaviors and symptoms

Matson, Johnny L.; Wilkins, Jonathan; Macken, Jennifer

2009-01-01

185

IMAGE ANALYSIS VERSUS VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF CITRUS CANKER SYMPTOMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri causes citrus canker. Disease assessment is important for monitoring epidemics. Visual assessment (VA) is presently the only reliable means of detection. To investigate how VA of symptoms compared to image analysis we used digital images of 214 citrus le...

186

Inflammatory Cytokine Expression Is Associated with Chikungunya Virus Resolution and Symptom Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chikungunya virus infection zones have now quickly spread from Africa to parts of Asia, North America and Europe. Originally thought to trigger a disease of only mild symptoms, recently Chikungunya virus caused large-scale fatalities and widespread economic loss that was linked to recent virus genetic mutation and evolution. Due to the paucity of information on Chikungunya immunological progression, we

Alyson A. Kelvin; David Banner; Giuliano Silvi; Maria Luisa Moro; Nadir Spataro; Paolo Gaibani; Francesca Cavrini; Anna Pierro; Giada Rossini; Mark J. Cameron; Jesus F. Bermejo-Martin; Stéphane G. Paquette; Luoling Xu; Ali Danesh; Amber Farooqui; Ilaria Borghetto; David J. Kelvin; Vittorio Sambri; Salvatore Rubino

2011-01-01

187

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Are Associated with the Frequency and Severity of Delinquency among Detained Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Trauma and posttraumatic stress symptoms increasingly are recognized as risk factors for involvement with the juvenile justice system, and detained youth evidence higher rates of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to their nondetained peers. Using a sample of 83 detained boys aged 12 to 17, we tested the hypothesis…

Becker, Stephen P.; Kerig, Patricia K.

2011-01-01

188

ADHD Symptom Severity following Participation in a Pilot, 10-Week, Manualized, Family-Based Behavioral Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation examined the effectiveness of a pilot, manualized 10-week intervention of family skills training for ADHD-related symptoms. The intervention combined behavioral parent training and child focused behavioral activation therapy. Participants were families with children ages 7-10 diagnosed with ADHD-Combined Type. This pilot…

Curtis, David F.

2010-01-01

189

Sexual minority status and trauma symptom severity in men living with HIV/AIDS.  

PubMed

Traumatic experiences are common among populations living with HIV; furthermore, the minority stress model indicates that sexual minority group members, such as men who have sex with men (MSM), are more likely to experience negative psychological outcomes after exposure to trauma, given the stress of minority stigma. The current study examined the prevalence of traumatic events and the impact of these events on trauma symptoms in a sample of 113 MSM and 51 men who have sex with women (MSW) who are living with HIV/AIDS. Rates of experiencing trauma were similar for both MSM and MSW. However, MSM, as sexual minority group members, were more likely to report symptoms of trauma and dissociation than MSW. The current study indicates that MSM may experience additional negative psychological outcomes after exposure to trauma. Findings are discussed in the context of implications for HIV prevention with sexual minority group members. PMID:21344319

Kamen, Charles; Flores, Sergio; Taniguchi, Stacy; Khaylis, Anna; Lee, Susanne; Koopman, Cheryl; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

2011-02-23

190

Insulin versus Lipid Emulsion in a Rabbit Model of Severe Propranolol Toxicity: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background and objective. Beta-blocker overdose may result in intractable cardiovascular collapse despite conventional antidotal treatments. High dose insulin/glucose (ING), and more recently intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE), have been proposed as potentially beneficial therapies in beta blocker intoxication. We compare efficacy of the novel antidotes ING, with ILE, in a rabbit model of combined enteric/intravenous propranolol toxicity. Methods. Sedated, mechanically ventilated and invasively monitored New Zealand White rabbits underwent mini-laparotomy and enterostomy formation with 40?mg/kg propranolol instilled into the proximal small bowel. At 30 minutes propranolol infusion was commenced at 4?mg/kg/hr and continued to a target mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 50% baseline MAP. Animals were resuscitated with insulin at 3?U/kg plus 0.5?g/kg glucose (ING group), or 10?mL/kg 20% Intralipid (ILE group). Results. Rate pressure product (RPP; RPP?=?heart rate × mean arterial pressure) was greatest in the ING group at 60 minutes (P < .05). A trend toward greater heart rate was observed in the ING group (P = .06). No difference was observed in survival between groups (4/5 ING versus 2/5 ILE; P = .524). Conclusions. High dose insulin resulted in greater rate pressure product compared with lipid emulsion in this rabbit model of severe enteric/intravenous propranolol toxicity.

Harvey, Martyn; Cave, Grant; Lahner, Daniel; Desmet, Jan; Prince, Gaynor; Hopgood, Gary

2011-01-01

191

The ecological validity of neuropsychological assessment and the role of depressive symptoms in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Evaluating the ecological validity of neuropsychological tests has become an increasingly important topic. Previous research suggests that neuropsychological tests have a moderate level of ecological validity when predicting everyday functioning. The presence of depressive symptoms, however, may impact the relationship between neuropsychological tests and real world performance. The current study empirically tests this hypothesis in a sample of 216 participants with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) who completed neuropsychological testing, self-report of mood symptoms, and report of everyday functioning six months post-injury. Contrary to some previous research and clinical lore, results indicated that depression was weakly related to neuropsychological test performance, although it was more strongly related to everyday functioning. Neuropsychological test performance was also significantly related to everyday functioning. The ecological validity of the neuropsychological tests together was not impacted by depressive symptoms, when predicting significant other ratings of functional status. However, patient self-report seems somewhat less related to neuropsychological performance in those with significant depressive symptoms. Neuropsychological test performance was equally related to self and other report of everyday functioning in patients without significant depressive symptoms. PMID:17445285

Chaytor, Naomi; Temkin, Nancy; Machamer, Joan; Dikmen, Sureyya

2007-05-01

192

Patient and surgeon ranking of the severity of symptoms associated with fecal incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate a severity rating score for fecal incontinence, the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index. METHODS: The Fecal Incontinence Severity Index is based on a type × frequency matrix. The matrix includes four types of leakage commonly found in the fecal incontinent population: gas, mucus, and liquid and solid stool and five

Todd H. Rockwood; James M. Church; James W. Fleshman; Robert L. Kane; Constantinos Mavrantonis; Alan G. Thorson; Steven D. Wexner; Ann C. Lowry

1999-01-01

193

Exacerbation of symptom severity of pelvic floor disorders in women who report a history of sexual abuse.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To examine the effect of previous sexual abuse or assault (SAA) on symptom severity, quality of life, and physiologic measures in women with fecal incontinence or constipation. DESIGN A cross-sectional study of a prospectively maintained clinical database. SETTING A tertiary referral center for evaluation and physiologic testing for pelvic floor disorders. PATIENTS Women with fecal incontinence or constipation examined during a 6-year period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Symptom severity and quality of life were measured with the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI), Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (FIQL), Constipation Severity Instrument (CSI), Constipation-Related Quality of Life measure (CR-QOL), and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). Physiologic variables were ascertained with anorectal manometry, electromyography, and endoanal ultrasonography. RESULTS Of the 1781 women included, 213 (12.0%) reported SAA. These women were more likely to be white, to report a psychiatric illness, and to have a prior hysterectomy or episiotomy. On bivariate analysis, women with prior SAA had increased symptom severity on the FISI (P = .002) and CSI (P < .001) and diminished quality of life on the FIQL (P < .001), CR-QOL (P = .009), and SF-12 (P = .002 to P = .004). Physiologic variables did not differ significantly between patients with and without prior SAA. CONCLUSIONS A history of SAA significantly alters disease perception in fecal incontinence and constipation, but the disorders do not result from increased physiologic alterations. We must elicit a history of SAA in these patients, because the history may play a role in the discrepancy between symptom reporting and objective measurements and may modify treatment recommendations. PMID:23248015

Imhoff, Laurel R; Liwanag, Loriel; Varma, Madhulika

2012-12-01

194

Fear Extinction in Traumatized Civilians with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Relation to Symptom Severity  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The symptoms of PTSD can be explained, at least in part, as an inability to inhibit learned fear during conditions of safety. Our group has shown that fear inhibition is impaired in both combat and civilian PTSD populations. Based on our earlier findings, we employed an established fear extinction paradigm to further explore fear dysregulation in a civilian traumatized population. METHODS Fear-potentiated startle was examined in 127 trauma-exposed individuals with and without PTSD. We used a protocol in which conditioned fear was first acquired through the presentation of one colored shape (reinforced conditioned stimulus, CS+) that was paired with an aversive airblast to the larynx (unconditioned stimulus, US) and a different colored shape that was not paired to the airblast (nonreinforced condition stimulus, CS?). Fear was extinguished 10 minutes later through repeated presentations of the CSs without reinforcement. RESULTS Both groups demonstrated successful fear conditioning based on startle and US-expectancy ratings, however, participants with PTSD displayed greater fear-potentiated startle responses to the CS+ and CS? compared to the group without PTSD. During fear extinction, the PTSD group showed elevated fear-potentiated startle responses to the previously reinforced CS+ during the early and middle stages of extinction. During the acquisition and extinction phases, PTSD participants with higher levels of re-experiencing symptoms exhibited greater potentiated startle responses to the CS+ compared to PTSD participants with lower re-experiencing symptoms. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that PTSD is associated with enhanced fear learning and a greater “fear load” to extinguish after conditioned fear is acquired.

Norrholm, Seth D.; Jovanovic, Tanja; Olin, Ilana W.; Sands, Lauren A.; Karapanou, India; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J.

2010-01-01

195

Psychiatric disorders and symptom severity in referred versus non-referred overweight children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This study aimed firstly to investigate whether youngsters referred for overweight treatment differ from non-referred overweight\\u000a youngsters on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and psychological symptoms. Secondly, the potentially moderating role\\u000a of age, gender, socio-economic status and degree of overweight in the association of referral status and mental disorder in\\u000a overweight youth was explored.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Participants were 155 overweight youngsters enrolled

Leen Van Vlierberghe; Caroline Braet; Lien Goossens; Saskia Mels

2009-01-01

196

Caring for medically unexplained physical symptoms after toxic environmental exposures: effects of contested causation.  

PubMed

Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are persistent idiopathic symptoms that drive patients to seek medical care. MUPS syndromes include chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia syndrome, and multiple chemical sensitivities. When MUPS occur after an environmental exposure or injury, an adversarial social context that we call "contested causation" may ensue. Contested causation may occur publicly and involve media controversy, scientific disagreement, political debate, and legal struggles. This adversarial social context may diminish the effectiveness of the provider-patient relationship. Contested causation also may occur privately, when disagreement over the causes of MUPS takes place in the patient-provider context. These patient-provider disagreements over causation often occur because of the enigmatic nature of MUPS. We suggest that a context of contested causation may have serious negative effects on healthcare for individuals with MUPS. Context plays a larger role in MUPS care than it does for most medical care because of the uncertain nature of MUPS, the reliance of standard MUPS therapies on a potentially tenuous patient-provider partnership, and the clinical need to rely routinely on subjective MUPS assessments that often yield discordant patient and provider conclusions. Contested causation may erode patient-provider trust, test the provider's self-assurance and capacity to share power with the patient, and raise problematic issues of compensation, reparation, and blame. These issues may distract patients and providers from therapeutic goals. In occupational and military settings, the adverse impact of contested causation on the patient-provider partnership may diminish therapeutic effectiveness to a greater degree than it does in other medical settings. Contested causation therefore raises questions regarding generalizability of standard therapies for MUPS and related syndromes to these settings. Future research is needed to learn whether intuitively sensible and evidence-based MUPS therapies benefit occupational and military medical patients who are afforded care in the context of contested causation. PMID:12194900

Engel, Charles C; Adkins, Joyce A; Cowan, David N

2002-08-01

197

Correlation between testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin and severity of negative symptoms in male patients with chronic schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between plasma levels of testosterone, FSH, LH and prolactin and the severity of negative symptoms in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Fifty-four male inpatients with chronic schizophrenia participated in this cross-sectional study. Twenty-five age-matched men without a history of psychiatric disorders or endocrine illnesses were used as controls. All patients were

Shahin Akhondzadeh; Farzin Rezaei; Bagher Larijani; Ali-Akbar Nejatisafa; Ladan Kashani; Seyed Hesameddin Abbasi

2006-01-01

198

Severity of Children’s ADHD Symptoms and Parenting Stress: A Multiple Mediation Model of Self-Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the current study was to determine the extent to which the perceived self-regulation deficits across behavioral,\\u000a cognitive, and emotional domains seen in children with ADHD explain the association between the severity of ADHD symptoms\\u000a and parenting stress. Participants for this study included 80 children (mean age = 10 years, 9 months) with a DSM-IV diagnosis\\u000a of ADHD confirmed by

Paulo A. Graziano; Joseph P. McNamara; Gary R. Geffken; Adam Reid

199

Coping with Severe Mental Illness: Relations of the Brief COPE with Symptoms, Functioning, and Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way patients cope with the experience of having an episode and being hospitalized for psychiatric disorder may relate to symptom severity, social functioning, and psychological well-being. Coping was assessed among 70 psychiatric inpatients diagnosed primarily with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and schizoaffective disorder. The Brief COPE—a questionnaire developed in health psychology (C. S. Carver, 1997)—was administered in interviewer-assisted format

Björn Meyer

2001-01-01

200

Pilot Neuroimaging Study in Civilian Trauma Survivors: Episodic Recognition Memory, Hippocampal Volume, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its hypothesized role in the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little research has investigated neural correlates of episodic memory impairment in trauma survivors. This pilot study utilized a correlational design to investigate the association between PTSD symptom severity, hippocampal volume, episodic memory, and brain activation during the Remember-Know task. Eleven non-medicated, right-handed survivors of civilian trauma participated in

Denise Dörfel; Annett Werner; Michael Schaefer; Anke Karl

2010-01-01

201

Anxiety Sensitivity and PTSD Symptom Severity Are Reciprocally Related: Evidence From a Longitudinal Study of Physical Trauma Survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-lagged panel analysis of interview data collected from survivors of traumatic physical injury (N = 677) was used to examine the temporal relationship between anxiety sensitivity and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. The 2 constructs were assessed at 3 time points: within days of physical injury, at 6-month follow-up, and at 12-month follow-up. Results indicated that anxiety sensitivity and

Grant N. Marshall; Jeremy N. V. Miles; Sherry H. Stewart

2010-01-01

202

Psychiatric Symptoms Vary With the Severity of Dementia in Probable Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional study examines relationships among the constellation of psychiatric syndromes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a function of de- mentia severity in 1155 patients with probable AD. The frequency of major depression decreased in severe stages, while agitation, aggression, and psychosis were more frequent in late stages. Major depression was associated with anhedonia, sleep disorders, depressed mood, low self-esteem,

Oscar L. Lopez; James T. Becker; Robert A. Sweet; William Klunk; Daniel I. Kaufer; Judith Saxton; D. Miguel Habeych; Steven T. DeKosky

2003-01-01

203

[Severe anemia caused by haemorrhoids: the casae of a young man with toxic cirrhosis].  

PubMed

A 38-year-old alcoholic man with severe iron deficient anaemia, and bloody-mucous stool was found to have haemorrhoidal bleeding. In spite of intravenous iron supplements haemoglobin levels were falling. He was admitted because of deteriorating condition, jaundice, severe anaemia (haemoglobin, 38 g/l) and iron deficiency. Except of toxic (alcohol) agent all other causes of liver disease could be excluded. Sclero-, and medical therapy, and abstinence resulted in a rapid improvement in his condition and subsequently rectal bleeding also disappeared. Bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract is a well known and serious complication in liver cirrhosis, however, a voluminous blood loss resulting in a life-threatening anaemia from lower gastrointestinal tract or haemorrhoids, as it was detected in this patient, is quite rare. Sclerotherapy seems to be an effective method with only minor complications when compared with other invasive techniques. However, the patient's compliance even in liver cirrhosis with haemorrhoidal nodes is essential for long-term success. PMID:23461979

Kovács, Erzsébet; Palatka, Károly; Németh, Attila; Pásztor, Éva; Pfliegler, György

2013-03-10

204

Comparison of intranasal azelastine to intranasal fluticasone propionate for symptom control in moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis.  

PubMed

Intranasal corticosteroids are considered the most effective therapy for moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) and recommended first line in guidelines. It is uncertain whether intranasal antihistamines have comparable efficacy. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of azelastine (AZE; 137 ?g/spray) and fluticasone propionate (FP; 50 ?g/spray), both given as 1 spray/nostril bid (i.e., approved dosing regimen in the United States), in SAR via a post hoc analysis of data from a previously published direct-comparison study. Six hundred ten moderate-to-severe SAR patients (?12 years old) were randomized into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. The primary efficacy variable was change from baseline in reflective total nasal symptom score (rTNSS (morning and evening), over 14 days. Reflective total ocular symptom score (rTOSS) was a key secondary variable. Reflective total of seven symptom scores (rT7SS [nasal plus ocular symptoms]) and time to ?50% reduction from baseline in these key parameters were also analyzed. AZE and FP reduced rTNSS from baseline by a similar degree (-3.25 versus -3.84; p = 0.2014). Patients experienced comparable improvement in rTOSS (-2.62 versus -2.17; p = 0.2371) and rT7SS (-5.83 versus -6.05; p = 0.7820). FP was superior to AZE in alleviating rhinorrhea (-1.15 versus -0.87; p = 0.0433), but AZE showed comparable efficacy for all other nasal and ocular symptoms. There was no clinically or statistically significant difference between AZE (-1.17) and FP (-1.43) for reduction in the overall rhinitis quality of life questionnaire score (although FP, but not AZE, significantly differed from placebo). A similar proportion of patients in the AZE and FP groups achieved a 50% reduction in rTNSS. However, more AZE patients (53.0%) exhibited a 50% reduction in rTOSS by day 14 versus FP (39.6%), and ?3 days faster (p = 0.028). Intranasal AZE (137 micrograms/spray) and intranasal FP (50 micrograms/spray), both 1 spray/nostril b.i.d., had comparable efficacy in symptom control in moderate-to-severe SAR. PMID:23127291

Carr, Warner W; Ratner, Paul; Munzel, Ullrich; Murray, Ruth; Price, David; Canonica, G Walter; Mullol, Joaquim; Virchow, J Christian; Lieberman, Phil; Meltzer, Eli; Bachert, Claus

2012-11-02

205

Toxicity of a glufosinate- and several glyphosate-based herbicides to juvenile amphibians from the Southern High Plains, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesticide toxicity is often proposed as a contributing factor to the world-wide decline of amphibian populations. We assessed acute toxicity (48 h) of a glufosinate-based herbicide (Ignite® 280 SL) and several glyphosate-based herbicide formulations (Roundup WeatherMAX®, Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Super Concentrate®, Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Ready-To-Use Plus®) on two species of amphibians housed on soil or moist paper

Simon K. Dinehart; Loren M. Smith; Scott T. McMurry; Todd A. Anderson; Philip N. Smith; David A. Haukos

2009-01-01

206

Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndromes: Severe Neurological Symptoms Resulting from Relatively Benign or Occult Tumours--Two Case Reports  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Paraneoplastic syndromes represent rare symptom complexes resulting from the ability of tumour cells to disrupt the homeostatic processes of various bodily systems. Here we present two cases to demonstrate how such tumours may evade detection even after extensive investigation and how even relatively benign tumours can produce severe neurological symptoms. Case 1. A 69-year-old female was admitted with a subacute onset of dysarthria, ataxia, and cerebellar signs. Workup revealed a relatively benign Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. Case 2. A 64-year-old female was admitted with acute leg weakness, which progressed to quadriplegia and was eventually fatal over the ensuing months. Her Ca-125 was elevated, though three different CT views of her pelvis and surgical exploration failed to demonstrate any malignancy. Discussion. These cases highlight how even relatively benign or very small tumours may result in severe neurological symptoms. Suspecting and investigating paraneoplastic syndromes (PNSs) are crucial as up to 80% of patients present with PNS before there is any other indication of malignancy. A PET scan and regular surveillance may reveal occult malignancies better than CT or MRI. Neuromodulatory therapies and treatment of the underlying malignancy remain the best management options in these patients.

Ghadiri-Sani, M.; Smith, Dave; Doran, Mark

2013-01-01

207

Behaviorally-inhibited temperament is associated with severity of PTSD symptoms and faster eyeblink conditioning in veterans  

PubMed Central

Prior studies have sometimes demonstrated facilitated acquisition of classically-conditioned responses and/or resistance to extinction in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unclear whether these behaviors are acquired as a result of PTSD or exposure to trauma, or reflect pre-existing risk factors that confer vulnerability for PTSD. Here, we examined classical eyeblink conditioning and extinction in veterans self-assessed for current PTSD symptoms, exposure to combat, and the personality trait of behavioral inhibition (BI), a risk factor for PTSD. 128 veterans were recruited (mean age 51.2 years; 13.3% female); 126 completed self-assessment, with 25.4% reporting a history of exposure to combat and 30.9% reporting severe, current PTSD symptoms (PTSS). PTSD symptom severity was correlated with current BI (R2=0.497) and PTSS status could be predicted based on current BI and combat history (80.2% correct classification). A subset of the veterans (n=87) also completed eyeblink conditioning. Among veterans without PTSS, childhood BI was associated with faster acquisition; veterans with PTSS showed delayed extinction, under some conditions. These data demonstrate a relationship between current BI and PTSS, and suggest that the facilitated conditioning sometimes observed in PTSD patients may partially reflect personality traits such as childhood BI that pre-date and contribute to vulnerability for PTSD.

Myers, Catherine E.; VanMeenen, Kirsten M.; McAuley, J. Devin; Beck, Kevin D.; Pang, Kevin C. H.; Servatius, Richard J.

2012-01-01

208

Hypnosis Treatment for Severe Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Investigation of Mechanism and Effects on Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypnosis improves irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but the mechanism is unknown. Possible physiological and psychological mechanisms were investigated in two studies. Patients with severe irritable bowel syndrome received seven biweekly hypnosis sessions and used hypnosis audiotapes at home. Rectal pain thresholds and smooth muscle tone were measured with a barostat before and after treatment in 18 patients (study I), and

Olafur S. Palsson; Marsha J. Turner; David A. Johnson; Charles K. Burnett; William E. Whitehead

2002-01-01

209

Prevalence and Severity of Menstrual Symptoms among Institutionalised Women with an Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Perimenstrual syndrome (PMS) among women with an intellectual disability (ID) has not been investigated in Taiwan. This study explores the prevalence/severity of PMS experienced by women with ID who are institutionalised. Method: Ninety two female residents aged 15 to 54 at six public institutions completed a structured interview…

Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Jane Zxy-Yann; Pu, Cheng-Yun

2009-01-01

210

Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Hispanics: Symptom Characteristics and Prediction of Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature suggests that an increasing number of Hispanic people suffer with GAD, and possible associated problems include high costs for treatment and elevated risk of severe impairment. The current study examined components of anxiety, as measured by currently available assessment instruments in both English and Spanish languages, among bilingual Hispanic individuals with GAD. Participants completed all instruments in both languages.

Michiyo Hirai; Melinda A. Stanley; Diane M. Novy

2006-01-01

211

Bilingualism and psychosis: a linguistic analysis of a patient with differential symptom severity across languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lines of evidence suggest important links between language and schizophrenia. Individuals with schizophrenia show numerous abnormalities related to language function, including disorganised speech and verbal memory impairments. Psychotic patients who communicate in two or more languages provide an opportunity to study the relationships between language and psychosis in more detail. This is a case report of a 27-year-old late

Frenette Southwood; Renata Schoeman; Robin Emsley

2010-01-01

212

A Case of Severe Esophageal Intramural Pseudodiverticulosis Whose Symptoms Were Ameliorated by Oral Administration of Anti-Fungal Medicine  

PubMed Central

Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIPD) is a rare disease of unknown etiology that displays multiple pseudodiverticula radiologically, leading to benign esophageal stricture. Dysphagia, which sometimes slowly progresses, is the main symptom in the majority of cases. We here report a 59-year-old male EIPD patient who suffered from severe dysphagia. Radiography and endoscopy of this patient disclosed a severe constriction in the upper thoracic esophagus. Although we tried several endoscopic procedures including frequent endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD), the effect was very limited and his dysphagia relapsed shortly after the treatments. During the procedures, we noticed some white, thick, creamy liquid emerging from the orifices of EIPD, and PAS staining of biopsy specimens revealed infection with Candida albicans. Hence, the patient was given anti-fungal medicine in addition to EBD. The additional treatment with anti-fungal medicine dramatically improved his symptoms and the esophageal constriction. This case suggests that anti-fungal treatment is an effective first-line therapy even against a severe form of esophageal constriction in EIPD.

Chiba, Takashi; Iijima, Katsunori; Koike, Tomoyuki; Uno, Kaname; Asano, Naoki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

2012-01-01

213

Emotional competence in children with ADHD: The contribution of symptom severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated the emotional competence in children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), explored the possibility of differences between the behavior of parents of children with and without ADHD, and considered the relevance of classifying children into groups of normal\\/nonpathological, mild\\/moderate ADHD, and severe ADHD. It was hypothesized that, compared to normal children, children with ADHD would demonstrate specific deficits

Patricia Jean Bonello

1998-01-01

214

Child Victims' Attributions about Being Physically Abused: An Examination of Factors Associated with Symptom Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the present study was to examine a conceptual attributional model for the development of psychopathology after child physical abuse. Physically abused or maltreated children referred for treatment completed a series of measures to assess parent-to-child violence, abuse-specific attributions and general attributional style, other potential predictors, and children's psychopathology. Results revealed that the severity of current parent-to-child violence

Elissa J. Brown; David J. Kolko

1999-01-01

215

Prevalence and Functional Consequences of Severe Insomnia Symptoms in Mood and Anxiety Disorders: Results from a Nationally Representative Sample  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of severe insomnia symptoms and the extent to which they are associated with daytime impairments in comorbid mood and anxiety disorders. Design: Nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Setting: National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R). Participants: There were 5,692 NCS-R respondents with no mood or anxiety disorder (n = 3,711), mood disorders only (n = 327), anxiety disorders only (n = 1,137), and coexisting mood and anxiety disorders (n = 517). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition disorders and severe insomnia symptoms in the past year were assessed using the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS) indexed eight domains of daytime impairment in the past 30 days, which included self-care, mobility, cognition, social functioning, time out of role, and four components of productive role functioning. Respondents with comorbid mood and anxiety disorders had significantly higher rates of severe insomnia complaints (42.1-62.8%) relative to the three other groups. Severe insomnia complaints were also significantly more prevalent in individuals with mood (25.2-45.6%) or anxiety disorders only (24.9-45.5%) relative to those with no disorder (12.4-24.3%). Moreover, endorsing a severe insomnia complaint in the past year was associated with increased days of impairment across all past-month WHO-DAS domains for respondents with mood-anxiety comorbidity. For the remaining groups, severe insomnia complaints were related to increased days of impairment across all domains except self-care, and additionally mobility for the group with mood disorders only. Conclusions: Comorbid mood and anxiety disorders are associated with high rates of severe insomnia complaints, which were independently associated with substantial functional impairment. Citation: Soehner AM; Harvey AG. Prevalence and functional consequences of severe insomnia symptoms in mood and anxiety disorders: results from a nationally representative sample. SLEEP 2012;35(10):1367–1375.

Soehner, Adriane M.; Harvey, Allison G.

2012-01-01

216

Severe Antiretroviral Therapy-Induced Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in a Child  

PubMed Central

Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare and life-threatening condition characterised by extensive epidermal detachment and mucosal erosion. Adverse drug reaction is a strongly correlated causative factor and TEN is currently considered the most severe end of a spectrum of drug-induced mucocutaneous diseases, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Attaining an accurate and detailed patient history is critical for identifying potential causative agents, which can prove challenging; particularly in cultures such as that of Malawi. TEN lacks definitive management and the use of immunomodulation, such as with corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin, remains controversial. We report a fascinating case of TEN associated with antiretroviral therapy. A 10-year-old female was given a combination of antiretroviral drugs (lamivudine, nevirapine and stavudine) as postexposure prophylaxis, having been raped. The child subsequently developed TEN and presented to our remote hospital in Malawi, where she was treated entirely with supportive therapy. This is an excellent example of difficult disease management in a limited-resource setting and provides reassuring evidence to clinicians of similar circumstance. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of antiretroviral therapy-induced TEN in a child.

Norris, Joseph M.; Stuttaford, Laura H.; Dowds, Lyn F.

2012-01-01

217

Intra-arterial cisplatin in malignant brain tumors: incidence and severity of otic toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intra-arterial (IA) cisplatin is used to treat gliomas with the goal of maximizing drug concentration in the brain while minimizing systemic toxicity. The present study is based on the author's experience with IA cisplatin administration in 12 patients. The primary goal of the study was to document the extent of otic toxicity in these individuals. Hearing was tested clinically and

Roberto Assietti; Jeffrey J. Olson

1996-01-01

218

Comparative Effects of Several Chelating Agents on the Toxicity, Distribution and Excretion of Aluminium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative efficacy of citric, malic, malonic, oxalic and succinic acids, and deferoxamine mesylate (DFOA) on the toxicity, distribution and excretion in mice exposed to aluminium were compared. Chelating agents were administered intraperitoneally at a dose equal to one-fourth of their respective LD50. To determine the effect of the various chelators on the toxicity of aluminium, various doses of aluminium

J. L. Domingo; M. Gómez; J. M. Llobet; J. Corbella

1988-01-01

219

COMPARATIVE ACUTE TOXICITIES OF SEVERAL PESTICIDES AND METALS TO MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA AND POSTLARVAL PENAEUS DUORARUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of toxic chemicals on estuarine and marine crustaceans are often evaluated using the mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. n a literature survey of results of acute toxicity tests with estuarine crustaceans, Mysidae and Penaeidae were generally the two most sensitive families. owever,...

220

The Capability of Several Toxic Plants to Condition Taste Aversions in Sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grazing livestock frequently ingest toxic plants, occasionally with fatal results. Behavioral adjustments by livestock may reduce toxin intake; for example they can develop food aversions which may protect animals from over-ingestion of toxic plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three...

221

CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT LINKED TO GREATER SYMPTOM SEVERITY AND POORER QUALITY OF LIFE AND FUNCTION IN SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER  

PubMed Central

Background There is a paucity of data examining the prevalence and impact of childhood maltreatment in patients presenting with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (SAD). We thus examined the presence of a broad spectrum of childhood maltreatment, including physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and neglect, in treatment-seeking individuals with the generalized subtype of SAD (GSAD). We hypothesized that a history of childhood maltreatment would be associated with greater SAD symptom severity and poorer associated function. Methods One hundred and three participants with a primary diagnosis of GSAD (mean age 37±14; 70% male) completed the well-validated, self-rated Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), as well as measures of SAD symptom severity and quality of life. Results Fully 70% (n = 72) of the GSAD sample met severity criteria for at least one type of childhood abuse or neglect as measured by the CTQ subscales using previously established thresholds. CTQ total score adjusted for age and gender was associated with greater SAD severity, and poorer quality of life, function, and resilience. Further, the number of types of maltreatment present had an additive effect, with specific associations for emotional abuse and neglect with SAD severity. Conclusions Despite the use of validated assessments, our findings are limited by the retrospective and subjective nature of self-report measures used to assess childhood maltreatment. Nonetheless, these data suggest a high rate of childhood maltreatment in individuals seeking treatment for GSAD, and the association of maltreatment with greater disorder severity suggests that screening is clinically prudent.

Simon, Naomi M.; Herlands, Nannette N.; Marks, Elizabeth H.; Mancini, Catherine; Letamendi, Andrea; Li, Zhonghe; Pollack, Mark H.; Van Ameringen, Michael; Stein, Murray B.

2010-01-01

222

Comparisons of Exercise Dose and Symptom Severity Between Exercisers and Nonexercisers in Women During and After Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

Context Although numerous studies of the efficacy of exercise are reported, few studies have evaluated changes in characteristics of exercise dose in women with cancer both during and after cancer treatment. Objectives To describe the characteristics of exercise dose (i.e., frequency, duration, and intensity), and to evaluate for differences in symptom severity (i.e., fatigue, sleep disturbance, depression, pain) between women who did and did not exercise during and after cancer treatment. Methods In a sample of 119 women, two groups were classified: exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers were defined as women who met specific criteria for frequency (three times per week), duration (20 minutes per session), intensity (moderate), and mode (aerobic). Nonexercisers were defined as women who did not meet all of these criteria. Evaluation of exercise dose was completed at baseline (T1: the week before chemotherapy cycle two), at the end of cancer treatment (T2), and at the end of the study (T3: approximately one year after the T1 assessment) using self-report exercise questionnaires. Results Approximately 50% of the participants exercised during and 70% exercised after treatment. At T1, exercisers had lower total fatigue, lower behavioral and sensory subscale fatigue scores, and lower depression scores (P =0.038) than nonexercisers. No significant differences in sleep disturbance or pain were found between groups. At T2, exercisers had lower cognitive/mood subscale fatigue and depression scores than nonexercisers (P =0.047). At T3, no significant differences were found between groups in any symptom severity scores. Conclusion Both during and after cancer treatment, achieving or maintaining exercise guideline levels were met by most patients. Further study is needed to examine the link between exercise dose and symptom severity.

Cho, Maria H.; Dodd, Marylin J.; Cooper, Bruce A.; Miaskowski, Christine

2012-01-01

223

MRI-Based Analysis of Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice Reveals Relationship between Hematoma Expansion and the Severity of Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is featured by poor prognosis such as high mortality rate and severe neurological dysfunction. In humans, several valuables including hematoma volume and ventricular expansion of hemorrhage are known to correlate with the extent of mortality and neurological dysfunction. However, relationship between hematoma conditions and the severity of symptoms in animal ICH models has not been clarified. Here we addressed this issue by using 7-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on collagenase-induced ICH model in mice. We found that the mortality rate and the performance in behavioral tests did not correlate well with the volume of hematoma. In contrast, when hemorrhage invaded the internal capsule, mice exhibited high mortality and showed poor sensorimotor performance. High mortality rate and poor performance in behavioral tests were also observed when hemorrhage invaded the lateral ventricle, although worsened symptoms associated with ventricular hemorrhage were apparent only during early phase of the disease. These results clearly indicate that invasion of the internal capsule or the lateral ventricle by hematoma is a critical determinant of poor prognosis in experimental ICH model in mice as well as in human ICH patients. MRI assessment may be a powerful tool to refine investigations of pathogenic mechanisms and evaluations of drug effects in animal models of ICH.

Matsushita, Hideaki; Hijioka, Masanori; Hisatsune, Akinori; Isohama, Yoichiro; Iwamoto, Shigeto; Terasawa, Hiroaki; Katsuki, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

224

Social conflict versus social support: what is more influential in mental health symptom severity for female service members?  

PubMed

Research has validated the importance of postdeployment social support in mitigating the effects of combat deployment on mental health for female service members. However, the influence of social conflict on mental health during this period has not been explored. The purposes of this descriptive correlational study were (a) to examine the strength and direction of the relationships between social support, social conflict, and stressful life events to depression, anxiety, and posstraumatic stress disorder and (b) to determine whether the absence of social support or the presence social conflict was more influential to the severity of these symptoms. PMID:22114800

Nayback-Beebe, Ann M; Yoder, Linda H

2011-06-22

225

Altered empathic responding in major depressive disorder: relation to symptom severity, illness burden, and psychosocial outcome.  

PubMed

Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) demonstrate deficits in multiple social cognitive domains; however, systematic investigations of empathic responding have not been performed. Twenty patients with MDD completed two measures of empathy, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI: Davis, 1980, 1983) and the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ: Spreng et al., 2009). Relative to matched controls, patients with MDD reported significantly reduced levels of empathy measured broadly on the TEQ and specifically in cognitive ('Perspective Taking') and affective ('Empathic Concern') domains captured by the IRI. A higher illness burden (i.e., greater number of past depressive episodes) was associated with greater reductions in perspective taking ability. This study provides early evidence of impaired empathic abilities in patients with MDD that may worsen with illness progression. Alternatively, reductions in perspective taking ability may contribute to a more severe course of illness in this population. Further longitudinal work is needed to characterize the relation between social cognitive performance and social functioning in this population. PMID:21592584

Cusi, Andrée M; Macqueen, Glenda M; Spreng, R Nathan; McKinnon, Margaret C

2011-05-17

226

Is there an association between mastalgia and fibromyalgia? Comparing prevalence and symptom severity.  

PubMed

To determine the prevalence of mastalgia in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and the prevalence of FM in patients with mastalgia in order to investigate coexistence, and to compare the pain patterns in the case of mastalgia or FM alone versus the two in combination. Fifty consecutive patients with mastalgia and 50 consecutive patients with FM were assessed and examined both for the existence and severity of mastalgia and FM. A high proportion of patients with mastalgia (36%) fulfilled the criteria for FM and 42% had mastalgia in the FM group. Two distinctive entities mastalgia and FM, being both unexplained pain syndromes, seem to frequently coexist. Patients with mastalgia or FM should be thoroughly questioned considering each of the diseases so that in case of coexistence an appropriate therapy might be implemented for a successful pain management. PMID:21345678

Genc, Volkan; Genc, Aysun; Ustuner, Evren; Dusunceli, Ebru Bilge; Oztuna, Derya; Bayar, Sancar; Kurtais, Yesim

2011-02-22

227

Relationship between severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and schizotypy in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Purpose Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients exhibit a noninhibition response pattern very similar to that observed in schizotypy patients in cognitive tasks. It has been suggested that the reduced cognitive inhibition observed in both schizotypy and OCD may result in the frequent entry into awareness of unacceptable urges and intrusive thoughts. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the severity of obsession or compulsion and schizotypy in OCD. Patients and methods Sixty subjects (25 males and 35 females) who were OCD outpatients in the University Hospital at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine during the period 2008–2010 were enrolled in the study. Assessments of these patients were made using the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). The Pearson correlation coefficients between Y-BOCS and SPQ scores were calculated. Furthermore, hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to assess whether schizotypy predicted the severity of obsession and compulsion. Results By calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient, it was found that the Y-BOCS obsession score, not the Y-BOCS compulsion score, was correlated with the SPQ total score. Results of the hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis showed that SPQ total score was a significant predictor of the Y-BOCS obsession score, after accounting for control variables (ie, HAM-D and HAM-A). Conclusion Results of this study showed that the Y-BOCS obsession score, not the Y-BOCS compulsion score, was correlated with the SPQ total score. This finding suggests that OCD patients with an elevated SPQ total score experience a reduction of cognitive inhibition, resulting in the frequent entry into obsession. Future longitudinal studies are recommended to clarify the effect of schizotypy on the clinical course of OCD.

Yamamoto, Haruka; Tsuchida, Hideto; Nakamae, Takashi; Nishida, Seiji; Sakai, Yuki; Fujimori, Akihito; Narumoto, Jin; Wada, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Takafumi; Taga, Chiaki; Fukui, Kenji

2012-01-01

228

Radiotherapy Does Not Influence the Severe Pulmonary Toxicity Observed With the Administration of Gemcitabine and Bleomycin in Patients With Advanced-Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treated With the BAGCOPP Regimen: A Report by the German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of radiotherapy on the severe pulmonary toxicity observed in the pilot study of BAGCOPP (bleomycin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone, and gemcitabine) for advanced-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. Methods and Materials: Patients with Stage III or IV Hodgkin's lymphoma or Stage IIB with risk factors participated in this single-arm, multicenter pilot study. Results: Twenty-seven patients were enrolled on the study before its premature closure as a result of the development of serious pulmonary toxicity in 8 patients. The pulmonary toxicity occurred either during or immediately after the BAGCOPP chemotherapy course. Pulmonary toxicity contributed to one early fatality but resolved in the other 7 patients after cessation of gemcitabine and bleomycin, allowing continuation of therapy. Fifteen patients received consolidative radiotherapy, including 4 who previously had pulmonary toxicity. There were no reported cases of radiation pneumonitis and no exacerbation of pulmonary symptoms in the 4 patients who had had previous pulmonary toxicity. Conclusions: The severe pulmonary toxicity observed in this study has been attributed to an interaction between gemcitabine and bleomycin. Gemcitabine (when administered without bleomycin) remains of interest in Hodgkin's lymphoma and is being incorporated into a new German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group protocol that also includes consolidative radiotherapy. This study supports the concept of the integration of radiotherapy in gemcitabine-containing regimens in Hodgkin's lymphoma if there is an interval of at least 4 weeks between the two modalities and with a schedule whereby radiotherapy follows the chemotherapy.

Macann, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland Regional Cancer and Blood Service, Auckland (New Zealand); Bredenfeld, Henning [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Mueller, Rolf-Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Diehl, Volker [German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group, Cologne (Germany); Engert, Andreas [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Eich, Hans Theodor [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)], E-mail: hans-theodor.eich@medizin.uni-koeln.de

2008-01-01

229

Depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in relation to nutritional status and outcome in severe anorexia nervosa.  

PubMed

Depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder are frequently reported to co-occur with anorexia nervosa (AN). There is clinical consensus that depressive symptoms and anxiety may in part be sequelae of malnutrition in AN. However, evidence-based data are still very rare. The present study among severe AN patients investigates links between these psychological variants and nutritional status at admission and subsequent to nutritional rehabilitation. Twenty-four women with AN diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) were included prospectively and consecutively at hospitalisation. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI). Several psychological aspects were assessed using various scales for depression, anxiety, social phobia, obsessive and eating behaviour symptoms. Follow-up weights and heights at 4-12 years after hospital discharge were measured in 18 patients. BMI and all the scores except the Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale (Y-BOCS) showed significant improvement between admission and discharge. This study highlights the fact that some of the depressive and anxiety symptoms at least partially decrease with nutrition rehabilitation. The improvement in the scores on the psychometric scales between admission and discharge was not correlated with BMI improvement. Psychometric scores at admission and at discharge were not correlated with BMI at follow-up. BMI at follow-up was correlated with minimum lifetime BMI (r=0.486, P=0.04). Future studies should use a better indicator for nutritional status than BMI alone, and should also consider the initial degree of weight loss and the rate at which weight was lost. PMID:22703719

Mattar, Lama; Thiébaud, Marie-Raphaele; Huas, Caroline; Cebula, Christelle; Godart, Nathalie

2012-06-15

230

An association between both low and high birth weight and increased disorganized and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia and other psychoses.  

PubMed

Longitudinal cohort studies have implicated an association between both low and high birth weight and increased schizophrenia risk. In this study, we investigated the effect of birth weight on the symptom severity of psychotic disorders including schizophrenia in a Finnish schizophrenia family study sample. We used a multivariate GEE (General Estimating Equation) regression model to investigate the association of birth weight and symptom severity in 282 subjects with a primary psychotic disorder, 178 of whom had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS and SANS) were used as a measure of symptom severity. Sex, place of birth and year of birth were adjusted for in the model. Both low and high birth weight were associated with more severe symptoms with respect to bizarre behaviour, affective flattening and attentional impairment. In addition, low birth weight was associated with more severe symptoms with respect to positive formal thought. Our findings suggest that both low and high birth weight can influence the symptom severity of psychotic disorders. Our results implicate an association between both low and high birth weight and disorganized and negative symptoms. PMID:22985549

Wegelius, Asko; Pankakoski, Maiju; Lehto, Ulriika; Suokas, Jaana; Häkkinen, Laura; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Paunio, Tiina; Suvisaari, Jaana

2012-09-15

231

DISINFECTION EFFICIENCY AND RESIDUAL TOXICITY OF SEVERAL WASTEWATER DISINFECTANTS. VOLUME II. WYOMING, MICHIGAN  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of chlorine, bromine chloride, and ozone as wastewater disinfectants, and to determine any residual toxicity associated with wastewater disinfection with these agents or with chlorinated wastewater which had been...

232

Disinfection Efficiency and Residual Toxicity of Several Wastewater Disinfectants. Volume II. Wyoming, Michigan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of chlorine, bromine chloride, and ozone as wastewater disinfectants, and to determine any residual toxicity associated with wastewater disinfection with these agents or with chlorinated ...

R. W. Ward R. D. Giffin G. M. DeGraeve

1977-01-01

233

DISINFECTION EFFICIENCY AND RESIDUAL TOXICITY OF SEVERAL WASTEWATER DISINFECTANTS. VOLUME I. GRANDVILLE, MICHIGAN  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of chlorine, bromine chloride, and ozone as wastewater disinfectants, and to determine any residual toxicity associated with wastewater disinfection with these agents or with chlorinated wastewater which had been...

234

Toxicity and Fate Comparison between Several Brass and Titanium Dioxide Powders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Brass flakes (MD Both Industries, Ashland, MA), SF-150 Rich Gold, and four brands of titanium dioxide were tested to determine their toxicities to Daphnia magna (water flea), Ankistrodesmus falcatus (green algae), and Selenastrum capricornutum (green alga...

M. V. Haley C. W. Kurnas

1993-01-01

235

Psychometric evaluation and normative data for a Swedish version of the Patient Health Questionnaire 15-Item Somatic Symptom Severity Scale.  

PubMed

The lack of an available Swedish version of the Patient Health Questionnaire 15-Item Somatic Symptom Severity Scale (PHQ-15) motivated the present psychometric evaluation of such a version as well as providing normative data for the PHQ-15. Data from 3,406 individuals who took part in the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study in Sweden were used. The respondents constitute a random sample, aged 18 to 79 years, stratified for age and sex. They responded to a Swedish translation of the PHQ-15 as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire for assessment of convergent validity. The distribution of PHQ-15 scores was positively skewed and mesokurtic in shape, and the internal consistency of the PHQ-15 was satisfactory. Correlation coefficients between PHQ-15 score and the measures of anxiety, depression, stress and mental/physical exhaustion indicate satisfactory validity. Normative data for PHQ-15 scores as well as for categories of somatic symptom severity are provided. The favorable psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the PHQ-15 suggest use of this instrument for quantification of somatization in Swedish and similar populations, and has the advantage of available normative data. PMID:23294182

Nordin, Steven; Palmquist, Eva; Nordin, Maria

2013-01-07

236

Anal sphincter repair for fecal incontinence: effect on symptom severity, quality of life, and anal sphincter squeeze pressures  

PubMed Central

Introduction and hypothesis The objective of this study was to determine the effect of external anal sphincter repair on fecal incontinence symptoms, quality of life, and anal sphincter squeeze pressures. Methods The fecal incontinence symptoms and impact on quality of life, patient satisfaction, and anorectal manometry were assessed pre- and post-operatively. Results One hundred four women were eligible and 74/104 (71%) returned post-operative questionnaires. Fifty-four of 74 (73%) had pre- and post-operative questionnaires. Twenty-five of 74 (34%) had pre- and post-operative anorectal manometry measures. Mean length of follow-up for participants (n=54) was 32±19 months. Modified Manchester Health Questionnaire scores decreased from 47.3±21.9 to 28.4±24.3 (p<0.01) and Fecal Incontinence Severity Index scores from 30.6±13.0 to 21.6±15.5 (p<0.01). Seventy-seven percent of the participants was satisfied. Sphincter squeeze pressures increased from 53.4±25.0 to 71.8±29.1 mmHg (p<0.01). Conclusions External anal sphincter repair resulted in sustained improvements in fecal incontinence severity and quality of life along with improved anal sphincter squeeze pressures.

Gleason, Jonathan Lee; Markland, Alayne; Greer, Wm Jerod; Szychowski, Jeff M.; Gerten, Kimberly A.; Richter, Holly E.

2011-01-01

237

Escitalopram is Associated with Reductions in Pain Severity and Pain Interference in Opioid Dependent Patients with Depressive Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Pain is common among opioid dependent patients, yet pharmacologic strategies are limited. The aim of this study was to explore whether escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was associated with reductions in pain. The study used longitudinal data from a randomized, controlled trial that evaluated the effects of escitalopram on treatment retention in patients with depressive symptoms who were initiating buprenorphine/naloxone for treatment of opioid dependence. Participants were randomized to take escitalopram 10mg or placebo daily. Changes in pain severity, pain interference and depression were assessed at 1, 2 and 3 months visits using the Visual Analog Scale, Brief Pain Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory II, respectively. Fixed-effects estimator for panel regression models were used to assess the effects of intervention on changes in outcomes over time. Additional models were estimated to explore whether the intervention effect was mediated by within-person changes in depression. In this sample of 147 adults, we found that participants randomized to escitalopram had significantly larger reductions on both pain severity (b = ?14.34, t = ?2.66, p < .01) and pain interference (b = ?1.20, t = ?2.23, p < .05) between baseline and follow-up. After adjusting for within-subject changes in depression, the estimated effects of escitalopram on pain severity and pain interference were virtually identical to the unadjusted effects. In summary, this study of opioid-dependent patients with depressive symptoms found that treatment with escitalopram was associated with clinically meaningful reductions in pain severity and pain interference during the first three months of therapy.

Tsui, Judith I.; Herman, Debra S.; Kettavong, Malyna; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

2011-01-01

238

Progesterone for hot flush and night sweat treatment--effectiveness for severe vasomotor symptoms and lack of withdrawal rebound.  

PubMed

A controlled trial recently showed that oral micronized progesterone (Progesterone, 300 mg at h.s. daily) was effective for vasomotor symptoms (VMS) in 133 healthy early postmenopausal women. Here, we present subgroup data in women with severe VMS (50 VMS of moderate-severe intensity/wk) and also 1-mo withdrawal study outcomes. Women with severe VMS (n = 46) resembled the full cohort but experienced 10 VMS/d of 3 of 4 intensity. On therapy, the progesterone VMS number (#) decreased significantly more than placebo # to 5.5/day (d) versus 8/d (ANCOVA -2.0 95% CI: -3.5 to -0.4). Just after trial mid-point, a withdrawal substudy (D/C) was added--56 women were invited and 34 (61%) took part (progesterone 17; placebo 17). Those in the D/C cohort resembled the whole cohort. On stopping, VMS gradually increased--at D/C week 4, on progesterone, VMS daily # reached 78% and significantly less than baseline (-3.0 to -0.8) but placebo VMS # did not differ from run-in. In summary, progesterone is effective for severe VMS and does not cause a rebound increase in VMS when stopped. That progesterone may be used alone for severe VMS and unlike estrogen does not appear to cause a withdrawal rebound increases VMS treatment options. PMID:22849758

Prior, Jerilynn C; Hitchcock, Christine L

2012-08-01

239

Hypermethylation of the DPYD promoter region is not a major predictor of severe toxicity in 5-fluorouracil based chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The activity of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), the key enzyme of pyrimidine catabolism, is thought to be an important determinant for the occurrence of severe toxic reactions to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which is one of the most commonly prescribed chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of solid cancers. Genetic variation in the DPD gene (DPYD) has been proposed as a main factor

Ursula Amstutz; Simone Farese; Stefan Aebi; Carlo R Largiadèr

2008-01-01

240

Impact of baseline symptom severity on future risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia-related outcomes and long-term response to finasteride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To evaluate the long-term effects of finasteride on symptoms, acute urinary retention (AUR), and the need for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-related surgery in relationship to baseline symptom severity.Methods. A total of 3040 men with BPH were treated for 4 years with finasteride or placebo. The changes from baseline in symptoms and the incidence of BPH-related surgery and AUR were

Steven Kaplan; Dennis Garvin; Patricia Gilhooly; Max Koppel; Richard Labasky; Richard Milsten; Pratap Reddy; Steven Rosenberg; David Sussman; Charles White; Michael Lee; Frances Pappas; Joanne Waldstreicher

2000-01-01

241

Toxic effects of several phthalate esters on the embryos and larvae of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the most widely used plasticizers in the world, phthalate esters (PAEs) are potential endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs). In the present study, the toxicity of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on embryogenesis and larvae development of the marine univalve Haliotis diversicolor supertexta was examined in laboratory. The results show that the malformation of embryos appeared during the experiment, such as embryos died or lysed, small transparent flocculent rings studded on the periphery of the embryo, and the larvae could failed to hatch. In embryo toxic test, embryos incubated at the highest concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions showed significantly high abnormal rate compared with the control, while DEHP solutions displayed no significant difference. In larval toxic test, in all concentrations of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions, larval settlement rates were low significantly than that of the control. Similarly, DEHP solutions show nearly no effect on the larval settlement. The order of toxicity on embryos and larvae is DBP>DEP>DMP>DEHP. Being a simple and easy stimulation to indoor spawn, sensitive to environmental factors, and short culture time, the embryos of H. diversicolor supertexta can be used to indicate toxicity of the PAEs.

Yang, Zhihui; Zhang, Xiangjing; Cai, Zhonghua

2009-05-01

242

Identifying and determining the symptom severity associated with polyvictimization among psychiatrically impaired children in the outpatient setting.  

PubMed

Polyvictimization involves experiencing multiple forms of maltreatment or other interpersonal victimization, and places children at risk for severe psychosocial impairment. Children with psychiatric problems are at risk for polyvictimization, and polyvictimized child psychiatric inpatients have been found to have particularly severe psychiatric symptoms. Cluster analysis was used to identify a polyvictimized subgroup (N = 22, 8%) among 295 outpatient admissions in 2007-2009 to a child psychiatry outpatient clinic, based on chart review of documented maltreatment, parental impairment (history of arrest, psychiatric illness, and substance use), and multiple out-of-home placements. Polyvictimization was associated with severe parent-reported externalizing problems and clinician-rated psychosocial impairment, independent of demographics and psychiatric diagnoses. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was the only psychiatric diagnosis associated with polyvictimization. Polyvictimization merits further clinical and research assessment with child psychiatry outpatients. Evidence-based PTSD assessment and treatment for polyvictimized children with adaptations to address their severe impairment and externalizing problems also warrants empirical evaluation. PMID:21493616

Ford, Julian D; Wasser, Tobias; Connor, Daniel F

2011-04-13

243

Item Response Theory Analysis of Binge Drinking and its Relationship to Lifetime Alcohol Use Disorder Symptom Severity in an American Indian Community Sample  

PubMed Central

Background Item Response Theory (IRT) has been used to examine alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms and their psychometric properties but has not been previously applied to AUD symptoms from an American Indian sample. Methods Lifetime DSM-IV AUD symptoms and binge drinking (5+ drinks men/4+ drinks women) at ?1, ?4, ?8, ?15 days per month during the period of heaviest lifetime drinking criteria were assessed in 530 American Indian participants. Exploratory (EFA) factor analysis was used to examine the factor structure of the ten AUD symptoms and each alcohol consumption criterion. Two-parameter IRT models generated marginal maximum likelihood estimates for discrimination (a) and threshold (b) parameters for ten DSM-IV AUD symptoms and each consumption criterion. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis was used to assess AUD symptom severity in groups defined by gender and age at interview. Results The AUD symptoms of “Withdrawal” and “Activities Given Up” were the most severe symptoms. “Tolerance” and “Social/Interpersonal Problems” were the least severe. All AUD symptoms fell on the moderate portion of the severity continuum, except “Withdrawal”, which fell at the lower end of the severe portion. The consumption criterion of 5+/4+ (male/female) at ?8 times per month demarcated the portion of the severity continuum where AUD symptoms began to occur at a probability of 50%. DIF analysis showed significant gender and age at interview differences for “Hazardous Use,” “Tolerance,” and “Activities Given Up,” but not for the other AUD symptoms. Conclusions In this American Indian community sample, alcohol abuse and dependence did not represent distinct disorders. Only one AUD symptom was found outside the moderate portion of the underlying AUD severity continuum. Drinking 5+/4+ (male/female) drinks at a frequency of ?8 times per month during the period of heaviest lifetime drinking was found to function well as both a risk and a diagnostic criterion for lifetime DSM-IV AUD. DSM-IV AUD symptom criteria, as currently assessed, may be limited in their ability to capture the full range of symptom severity of AUDs, at least in this high risk population.

Gilder, David A.; Gizer, Ian R.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

2011-01-01

244

Association between severity of behavioral phenotype and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is sometimes comorbid with autism spectrum disorder. In the current study, we examined rates of parent-reported clinically significant symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in school-aged children (4-8 years) with autism spectrum disorder, most of whom were first enrolled in our research protocols as toddlers. Results revealed that children with autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had lower cognitive functioning, more severe social impairment, and greater delays in adaptive functioning than children with autism spectrum disorder only. Implications for clinical practice include the need to assess for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms at an early age in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Research is needed to determine efficacious interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to optimize outcomes. PMID:23739542

Rao, Patricia A; Landa, Rebecca J

2013-06-01

245

Severe olfactory dysfunction is a prodromal symptom of dementia associated with Parkinson's disease: a 3 year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Dementia is one of the most debilitating symptoms of Parkinson's disease. A recent longitudinal study suggests that up to 80% of patients with Parkinson's disease will eventually develop dementia. Despite its clinical importance, the development of dementia is still difficult to predict at early stages. We previously identified olfactory dysfunction as one of the most important indicators of cortical hypometabolism in Parkinson's disease. In this study, we investigated the possible associations between olfactory dysfunction and the risk of developing dementia within a 3-year observation period. Forty-four patients with Parkinson's disease without dementia underwent the odour stick identification test for Japanese, memory and visuoperceptual assessments, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging scans at baseline and 3 years later. A subgroup of patients with Parkinson's disease who exhibited severe hyposmia at baseline showed more pronounced cognitive decline at the follow-up survey. By the end of the study, 10 of 44 patients with Parkinson's disease had developed dementia, all of whom had severe hyposmia at baseline. The multivariate logistic analysis identified severe hyposmia and visuoperceptual impairment as independent risk factors for subsequent dementia within 3 years. The patients with severe hyposmia had an 18.7-fold increase in their risk of dementia for each 1 SD (2.8) decrease in the score of odour stick identification test for Japanese. We also found an association between severe hyposmia and a characteristic distribution of cerebral metabolic decline, which was identical to that of dementia associated with Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging analyses demonstrated close relationships between olfactory dysfunction and the atrophy of focal brain structures, including the amygdala and other limbic structures. Together, our findings suggest that brain regions related to olfactory function are closely associated with cognitive decline and that severe hyposmia is a prominent clinical feature that predicts the subsequent development of Parkinson's disease dementia. PMID:22287381

Baba, Toru; Kikuchi, Akio; Hirayama, Kazumi; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Kanno, Shigenori; Hasegawa, Takafumi; Sugeno, Naoto; Konno, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Kyoko; Takahashi, Shoki; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Aoki, Masashi; Itoyama, Yasuto; Mori, Etsuro; Takeda, Atsushi

2012-01-01

246

Comparison of several toxicity tests applied to complex wastewaters and mussel biomarkers in receiving waters.  

PubMed

In this study, the complex wastewaters/effluents discharged to coastal regions of Turkey and Greece were sampled, and various toxicity tests were applied. The bioassays used included the assessment of the luminescence inhibition of the bacterium Vibrio fisheri, the photosynthesis inhibition (14C uptake rate) and growth inhibition of the algal species Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and the mortality of the crustacean Artemia franciscana and rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. Additionally, "neutral red retention" and "filtration rate" sublethal biomarker techniques were performed by utilizing the mussel species Mytilus galloproviancialis, inhabiting the points of discharges in Turkey. All discharges tested were found to be acutely toxic to P. tricornutum and slightly toxic to V. fisheri, A. franciscana, and B. plicatilis. Test results showed that the 14C uptake rate toxicity test was the most sensitive one among the other bioassays. The biomarker results showed that the health status of mussels in the coastal areas decreased significantly, indicating the pollution of the receiving waters in Turkey. The conclusions drawn highlight the necessity for an intesive ecotoxicological monitoring scheme that will incorporate the most suitable bioassays and biomarkers to adequately contribute to the upgrading and maintenance of the ecological quality of the coastal waters in Greece and in Turkey. PMID:15991721

Okay, Oya S; Tolun, Leyla; Tüfekçi, Vildan; Karacik, Burak; Kungolos, A; Samaras, P; Papadimitriou, C; Petala, M; Tsiridis, V

2005-01-01

247

Report of a Study on the Toxicity of Several Food Preserving Agents1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deterioration of some foods caused by the activity of microorganisms may be prevented and the keeping quality of the foods greatly improved by the addition of certain chemical compounds. It is obvious that preserva- tives which produce a marked toxic effect should not be used in food intended for human consumption. On the other hand, even when a marked

K. E. Harshbarger

1942-01-01

248

Predictors of the severity of depressive symptoms among intravenous heroin users receiving methadone maintenance treatment in Taiwan: an 18-month follow-up study.  

PubMed

This 18-month follow-up study examined the predictors of the severity of depressive symptoms among intravenous heroin users receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Taiwan. The severity of depressive symptoms in 368 intravenous heroin users receiving MMT in southern Taiwan was assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 months of treatment. Demographic and substance-using characteristics, severity of heroin use, HIV serostatus, criminal record, and family function were collected during baseline interviews. Data on methadone dosage at each follow-up interview and the duration of retention in the MMT program were also collected. A generalized estimating equation was used to determine independent predictors of depressive symptoms during the 18-month period of MMT. Female gender, lack of fixed employment, severe heroin use, concurrent methamphetamine use, low family function at baseline, heroin use during the MMT, low methadone dosage, and short duration of participation in MMT predicted more severe depressive symptoms during the 18-month MMT. This study found that sociodemographic and substance-using characteristics at baseline predicted the severity of depressive symptoms among heroin users receiving MMT. Methadone dosage and MMT duration were also predictive of depression severity. The predictors found in this study can be used to identify heroin users who are at risk for depressive symptoms in the MMT program. PMID:21859169

Wang, Peng-Wei; Wu, Hung-Chi; Yen, Chia-Nan; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Chung, Kuan-Sheng; Chang, Hsun-Cheng; Yen, Cheng-Fang

2011-08-22

249

Toxic Hepatitis  

MedlinePLUS

... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Toxic hepatitis By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/toxic-hepatitis/DS00811 Definition Symptoms Causes Risk factors Complications ...

250

A severe symptom phenotype in tomato in Mali is caused by a reassortant between a novel recombinant begomovirus (Tomato yellow leaf curl Mali virus) and a betasatellite.  

PubMed

Tomato production in West Africa has been severely affected by begomovirus diseases, including yellow leaf curl and a severe symptom phenotype, characterized by extremely stunted and distorted growth and small deformed leaves. Here, a novel recombinant begomovirus from Mali, Tomato yellow leaf curl Mali virus (TYLCMLV), is described that, alone, causes tomato yellow leaf curl disease or, in combination with a betasatellite, causes the severe symptom phenotype. TYLCMLV is an Old World monopartite begomovirus with a hybrid genome composed of sequences from Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Mild (TYLCV-Mld) and Hollyhock leaf crumple virus (HoLCrV). A TYLCMLV infectious clone induced leaf curl and yellowing in tomato, leaf curl, crumpling and yellowing in Nicotiana benthamiana and common bean, mild symptoms in N. glutinosa, and a symptomless infection in Datura stramonium. In a field-collected sample from a tomato plant showing the severe symptom phenotype in Mali, TYLCMLV was detected together with a betasatellite, identified as Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB). Tomato plants co-agroinoculated with TYLCMLV and CLCuGB developed severely stunted and distorted growth and small crumpled leaves. These symptoms were more severe than those induced by TYLCMLV alone, and were similar to the severe symptom phenotype observed in the field in Mali and in other West African countries. TYLCMLV and CLCuGB also induced more severe symptoms than TYLCMLV in the other solanaceous hosts, but not in common bean. The increased symptom severity was associated with hyperplasia of phloem-associated cells, but relatively little increase in TYLCMLV DNA levels. In surveys of tomato virus diseases in West Africa, TYLCMLV was commonly detected in plants with leaf curl and yellow leaf curl symptoms, whereas CLCuGB was infrequently detected and always in association with the severe symptom phenotype. Together, these results indicate that TYLCMLV causes tomato yellow leaf curl disease throughout West Africa, whereas TYLCMLV and CLCuGB represent a reassortant that causes the severe symptom phenotype in tomato. PMID:19400843

Chen, Li-Fang; Rojas, Maria; Kon, Tatsuya; Gamby, Kadiatou; Xoconostle-Cazares, Beatriz; Gilbertson, Robert L

2009-05-01

251

The association of pain severity and pain interference levels with abuse experiences and mental health symptoms among 300 mothers: baseline data analysis for a 7-year prospective study.  

PubMed

Women who experience interpersonal violence are at increased risk for anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and chronic pain and other physical disorders. Although the effects of mental health disorders on women's functioning and well-being are well established, less is known about the effects of pain. We examined participants' (n = 300 mothers) experiences of pain severity and pain interference. Higher levels of pain severity and pain interference were significantly associated with anxiety, PTSD, and depression symptoms. Mental health symptoms compounded by pain, may leave abused women less able to access resources or practice safety behaviors to protect themselves and their children. PMID:23301564

Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith; Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John

2013-01-01

252

Gonorrhea Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... severe Swollen or painful testicles If left untreated, men could experience prostate complications and epididymitis (inflammation of the testicles). Symptoms of rectal infection include discharge, anal itching, and occasional painful bowel movements with fresh blood in the feces. Symptoms typically ...

253

The Toxicity of Glyphosate and Several Glyphosate Formulations to Four Species of Southwestern Australian Frogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The acute toxicity of technical-grade glyphosate acid, glyphosate isopropylamine, and three glyphosate formulations was\\u000a determined for adults of one species and tadpoles of four species of southwestern Australian frogs in 48-h static\\/renewal\\u000a tests. The 48-h LC50 values for Roundup? Herbicide (MON 2139) tested against tadpoles of Crinia insignifera, Heleioporus eyrei, Limnodynastes dorsalis, and Litoria moorei ranged between 8.1 and

R. M. Mann; J. R. Bidwell

1999-01-01

254

Acute toxicity studies of aluminium compounds: antidotal efficacy of several chelating agents.  

PubMed

Four aluminum compounds--nitrate, chloride, sulphate and bromide--were administered orally and intraperitoneally to rats and mice. The LD50-values (14 days) were determined. The majority of deaths occurring during the first four days. The clinical and physical signs appearing after intoxication include among other lethargy, decreased locomotor activity, piloerection, weight loss and perorbital bleeding. After 14 days no alterations in liver and renal functions were detected in the animals which received intraperitoneally the LD50-values of aluminum nitrate as a single dose. Aluminum concentrations were highest in liver and spleen. No histopathological lesions could be observed. To compare the efficacies of nine chelating agents on the toxicity of aluminum in mice, the therapeutic index and the therapeutic effectiveness of each chelating agent have been calculated. Malic, succinic, oxalic and malonic acids showed the best results with malic and succinic acids being the most effective. Deferoxamine mesylate (DFOA), sodium salicylate, L-cysteine and citric acid were not so effective as antidotes for acute aluminum toxicity. Aurin tricarboxylic acid (ATCA) should not be used due to its high toxicity. PMID:3588526

Llobet, J M; Domingo, J L; Gómez, M; Tomás, J M; Corbella, J

1987-04-01

255

Resistance to boron toxicity amongst several barley and wheat cultivars: A preliminary examination of the resistance mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of resistance toB toxicity in barley and wheat was studied in a solution culture experiment using several cultivars displaying a large range of sensitivity to excessB supply. Plants were cultured for 35 d atB concentrations ranging from normal to excessive (15 to 5000 ?M, respectively) then examined for dry matter production and theB distribution between roots and shoots.

Ross O. Nable; Glen Osmond

1988-01-01

256

Self-perceived symptoms and care needs of patients with severe to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure or chronic renal failure and its consequences for their closest relatives: the research protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent research shows that the prevalence of patients with very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure (CHF) and chronic renal failure (CRF) continues to rise over the next years. Scientific studies concerning self-perceived symptoms and care needs in patients with severe to very severe COPD, CHF and CRF are scarce. Consequently, it will be difficult to

Daisy JA Janssen; Emiel FM Wouters; Jos MGA Schols; Martijn A Spruit

2008-01-01

257

Psychological Dysfunction Is Associated With Symptom Severity but Not Disease Etiology or Degree of Gastric Retention in Patients With Gastroparesis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Gastroparesis patients may have associated psychological distress. This study aimed to measure depression and anxiety in gastroparesis in relation to disease severity, etiology, and gastric retention. METHODS Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores for state (Y1) and trait (Y2) anxiety were obtained from 299 gastroparesis patients from 6 centers of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium. Severity was investigator graded as grades 1, 2, or 3 and patient reported by Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI) scores. Antiemetic/prokinetic medication use, anxiolytic and antidepressant medication use, supplemental feedings, and hospitalizations were recorded. BDI, Y1, and Y2 scores were compared in diabetic vs. idiopathic etiologies and mild (?20%) vs. moderate (>20–35%) vs. severe (>35–50%) vs. very severe (>50%) gastric retention at 4h. RESULTS BDI, Y1, and Y2 scores were greater with increasing degrees of investigator-rated gastroparesis severity (P<0.05). BDI, Y1, and Y2 scores were higher for GCSI >3.1 vs. ?3.1 (P<0.05). Antiemetic and prokinetic use and ?6 hospitalizations/year were more common with BDI ?20 vs. <20 (P<0.05). Anxiolytic use was more common with Y1 ?46; antidepressant use and ?6 hospitalizations/year were more common with Y2 ?44 (P<0.05). BDI, Y1, and Y2 scores were not different in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis and did not relate to degree of gastric retention. On logistic regression, GCSI >3.1 was associated with BDI ?20 and Y1 ?46; antiemetic/prokinetic use was associated with BDI ?20; anxiolytic use was associated with Y1 ?46; and antidepressant use was associated with Y2 ?44. CONCLUSIONS Higher depression and anxiety scores are associated with gastroparesis severity on investigator- and patient-reported assessments. Psychological dysfunction does not vary by etiology or degree of gastric retention. Psychological features should be considered in managing gastroparesis.

Hasler, William L.; Parkman, Henry P.; Wilson, Laura A.; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Koch, Kenneth L.; Abell, Thomas L.; Snape, William J.; Farrugia, Gianrico; Lee, Linda; Tonascia, James; Unalp-Arida, Aynur; Hamilton, Frank

2011-01-01

258

Cytoplasmic Expression of Mouse Prion Protein Causes Severe Toxicity in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

To test if Caenorhabditis elegans could be established as a model organism for prion study, we created transgenic C. elegans expressing the cytosolic form of the mouse prion .protein, MoPrP(23-231), which lacks the N-terminal signal sequence and the C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinisotol (GPI) anchor site. We report here that transgenic worms expressing MoPrP(23-231)–CFP exhibited a wide range of distinct phenotypes: from normal growth and development, reduced mobility and development delay, complete paralysis and development arrest, to embryonic lethality. Similar levels of MoPrP (23-231)-CFP were produced in animals exhibiting these distinct phenotypes, suggesting that MoPrP (23-231)-CFP might have misfolded into distinct toxic species. In combining with the observation that mutations in PrP that affect prion pathogenesis also affect the toxic phenotypes in C. elegans, we conclude that the prion protein folding mechanism is similar in mammals and C. elegans. Thus, C. elegans can be a useful model organism for prion research.

Park, Kyung-Won; Li, Liming

2008-01-01

259

Insomnia as a sequela of sarin toxicity several years after exposure in Tokyo subway trains.  

PubMed

More than 5,000 passengers on Tokyo subway trains were injured with toxic chemicals including the nerve gas "sarin" on March 20, 1995. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of sarin exposure on insomnia in a cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire concerning sleep-related items was distributed to victims of sarin exposure in October and November, 2003. Questionnaires were completed by 161 of the 163 participants (98.8%), who were selected from 1,500 subjects. Among them, the authors selected 75 women 30 to 69 years of age. Control participants were collected from inhabitants living in Maebachi City, Gunma Prefecture, Japan. For the younger exposed group (under 50 yr. of age), percentages of poor sleep, difficulty falling asleep, intermittent awakening, early morning awakening, a feeling of light overnight sleep, and insomnia were significantly higher than those for the control group. In contrast, the older exposed group (ages 50 to 69 years) had significantly higher prevalence of poor sleep, a feeling of light overnight sleep, and early morning awakening for the exposed group when compared with the control group. The high prevalence of insomnia and insomnia-related factors for victims especially under 50 years of age suggests a need for research on sleep quality after sarin exposure. Although posttraumatic stress disorder is assumed to be a psychological effect of exposure to a toxic substance, a cause-and-effect relationship has not been established. PMID:16158698

Kawada, Tomoyuki; Katsumata, Masao; Suzuki, Hiroko; Li, Qing; Inagaki, Hirofumi; Nakadai, Ari; Shimizu, Takako; Hirata, Kimiko; Hirata, Yukiyo

2005-06-01

260

Quality of life and psychiatric work impairment in compulsive buying: increased symptom severity as a function of acquisition behaviors.  

PubMed

The aims of the current study were to determine if compulsive acquisition behaviors are meaningfully related to quality of life and psychiatric work impairment and to determine if compulsive buyers who engage in 2 forms of acquisition (buying and excessive acquisition of free items) are more impaired than individuals who only engage in 1 form of acquisition. In a community-recruited sample, analysis of covariance conducted between groups identified as noncompulsive buyers (NCB) (n = 30), compulsive buyers who did not acquire free items (CBB) (n = 30), and compulsive buyers who also acquired free items (CBF) (n = 35) revealed that both acquisition groups reported higher levels of depression and stress and lower quality of psychological well-being than the NCB group, despite a comparable number of individuals self-reporting a current mental health disorder in each group. The CBF group reported higher levels of anxiety and general distress as well as greater work inefficiency days compared with the NCB and CBB groups. Furthermore, regression analyses supported the unique contribution of acquisition of free items to the prediction of psychiatric work impairment. Taken together, the findings highlight the serious impact of compulsive buying on work functioning, general quality of life, and psychological well-being and provide avenues for future research to investigate the role of acquisition of free items in symptom severity. Limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:22197214

Williams, Alishia D

2011-12-22

261

Nonlinear speech analysis algorithms mapped to a standard metric achieve clinically useful quantification of average Parkinson's disease symptom severity  

PubMed Central

The standard reference clinical score quantifying average Parkinson's disease (PD) symptom severity is the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). At present, UPDRS is determined by the subjective clinical evaluation of the patient's ability to adequately cope with a range of tasks. In this study, we extend recent findings that UPDRS can be objectively assessed to clinically useful accuracy using simple, self-administered speech tests, without requiring the patient's physical presence in the clinic. We apply a wide range of known speech signal processing algorithms to a large database (approx. 6000 recordings from 42 PD patients, recruited to a six-month, multi-centre trial) and propose a number of novel, nonlinear signal processing algorithms which reveal pathological characteristics in PD more accurately than existing approaches. Robust feature selection algorithms select the optimal subset of these algorithms, which is fed into non-parametric regression and classification algorithms, mapping the signal processing algorithm outputs to UPDRS. We demonstrate rapid, accurate replication of the UPDRS assessment with clinically useful accuracy (about 2 UPDRS points difference from the clinicians' estimates, p < 0.001). This study supports the viability of frequent, remote, cost-effective, objective, accurate UPDRS telemonitoring based on self-administered speech tests. This technology could facilitate large-scale clinical trials into novel PD treatments.

Tsanas, Athanasios; Little, Max A.; McSharry, Patrick E.; Ramig, Lorraine O.

2011-01-01

262

Symptom severity scale of the DSM5 for schizophrenia, and other psychotic disorders: diagnostic validity and clinical feasibility.  

PubMed

Innovations in DSM5 include dimensional diagnosis of schizophrenia (SZ) and other psychotic (OP) disorders using the symptom severity scale (SS-DSM5). We evaluated the psychometric properties and diagnostic validity of the SS-DSM5 scale using a cross-sectional design and an unselected convenience unselected sample of 314 inpatients and outpatients with SZ/OP and mood disorders who received standard care in routine clinical practice. The SS-DSM5 scale, the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale (CGI-S), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Scale (BRMS) were administered. Factor structure, reliability, internal consistency, convergent and diagnostic ability of the DSM5-SS were evaluated. Factor analysis indicated two latent factors underlying the SS-DSM5 (Psychotic and Deficit sub-scales). Cronbach's alpha was >0.70. Convergent validity of the SS-DSM5 was highly significant. Patients with SZ/PO disorders were correctly diagnosed (77.9%) using the SS-DSM5 scale (72% using PANSS). The agreement of the diagnostic decisions between the SS-DSM5 and PANSS was substantial for SZ/PO disorders (Kappa=0.75). Classifying participants with SZ/PO versus mood disorders using SS-DSM5 provided a sensitivity of 95%, and specificity of 34%. Thus, this study suggests that the SS-DSM5 has acceptable psychometric properties and that its use in clinical practice and research is feasible in clinical settings. The dimensional option for the diagnosis of schizophrenia and related disorders using SS-DSM5 is discussed. PMID:23582209

Ritsner, Michael S; Mar, Maria; Arbitman, Marina; Grinshpoon, Alexander

2013-04-10

263

The Frequencies of Gastroesophageal and Extragastroesophageal Symptoms in Patients with Mild Erosive Esophagitis, Severe Erosive Esophagitis, and Barrett's Esophagus in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may present with gastroesophageal and extraesophageal symptoms. Currently, the frequencies of gastroesophageal and extragastroesophageal symptoms in Asian patients with different categories of GERD remain unclear. Aim. To investigate the frequencies of gastroesophageal and extragastroesophageal symptoms in patients with mild erosive esophagitis, severe erosive esophagitis, and Barrett's esophagus of GERD. Methods. The symptoms of symptomatic subjects with (1) Los Angeles grade A/B erosive esophagitis, (2) Los Angeles grade C/D erosive esophagitis, and (3) Barrett's esophagus proven by endoscopy were prospectively assessed by a standard questionnaire for gastroesophageal and extragastroesophageal symptoms. The frequencies of the symptoms were compared by Chi-square test. Result. Six hundred and twenty-five patients (LA grade A/B: 534 patients; LA grade C/D: 37 patients; Barrett's esophagus: 54 patients) were assessed for gastroesophageal and extragastroesophageal symptoms. Patients with Los Angeles grade A/B erosive esophagitis had higher frequencies of symptoms including epigastric pain, epigastric fullness, dysphagia, and throat cleaning than patients with Los Angeles grade C/D erosive esophagitis. Patients with Los Angeles grade A/B erosive esophagitis also had higher frequencies of symptoms including acid regurgitation, epigastric acidity, regurgitation of food, nausea, vomiting, epigastric fullness, dysphagia, foreign body sensation of throat, throat cleaning, and cough than patients with Barrett's esophagus. Conclusion. The frequencies of some esophageal and extraesophageal symptoms in patients with Los Angeles grade A/B erosive esophagitis were higher than those in patients with Los Angeles grade C/D erosive esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus. The causes of different symptom profiles in different categories of GERD patients merit further investigations.

Kao, Sung-Shuo; Chen, Wen-Chih; Hsu, Ping-I; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Lu, Ching-Liang; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Tsai, Feng-Woei; Chang, Chun-Chao; Tai, Wei-Chen

2013-01-01

264

Toward a Threshold for Subthreshold Depression: An Analysis of Correlates of Depression by Severity of Symptoms Using Data From an Elderly Community Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The prevalence of depressive symptoms in el- derly adults is high, yet the criteria to identify clinically significant depression may leave many elders undiag- nosed and untreated. We explored the demographic and risk factor profiles of two groups, one with more severe depression and one with less severe depression. Design and Methods: The data come from the Duke University

Celia F. Hybels; Dan G. Blazer; Carl F. Pieper

265

Benzonatate toxicity in a teenager resulting in coma, seizures, and severe metabolic acidosis.  

PubMed

We report a benzonatate overdose in a teenager resulting in life-threatening toxicity to increase awareness of this overdose, and discuss recent pediatric warnings and labeling information provided by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). After an overdose of benzonatate, a 13-yr-old female presented to our emergency department with coma, seizures, hypotension, prolonged QT interval on electrocardiogram, and metabolic acidosis. Benzonatate is an antitussive medication with sodium channel-blocking properties and local anesthetic effects on the respiratory stretch receptors due to a tetracaine-like metabolite. Overdose is reported to cause coma, seizures, hypotension, tachycardia, ventricular dysrhythmias, and cardiac arrest. The FDA recently issued a Drug Safety Communication warning that accidental benzonatate ingestion in children younger than 10 years of age have increased risk of death and added the new information to the Warnings and Precautions section of benzonatate's label. PMID:23258970

Thimann, Daniel A; Huang, Craig J; Goto, Collin S; Feng, Sing-Yi

2012-07-01

266

Benzonatate Toxicity in a Teenager Resulting in Coma, Seizures, and Severe Metabolic Acidosis  

PubMed Central

We report a benzonatate overdose in a teenager resulting in life-threatening toxicity to increase awareness of this overdose, and discuss recent pediatric warnings and labeling information provided by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). After an overdose of benzonatate, a 13-yr-old female presented to our emergency department with coma, seizures, hypotension, prolonged QT interval on electrocardiogram, and metabolic acidosis. Benzonatate is an antitussive medication with sodium channel-blocking properties and local anesthetic effects on the respiratory stretch receptors due to a tetracaine-like metabolite. Overdose is reported to cause coma, seizures, hypotension, tachycardia, ventricular dysrhythmias, and cardiac arrest. The FDA recently issued a Drug Safety Communication warning that accidental benzonatate ingestion in children younger than 10 years of age have increased risk of death and added the new information to the Warnings and Precautions section of benzonatate's label.

Thimann, Daniel A.; Huang, Craig J.; Goto, Collin S.; Feng, Sing-Yi

2012-01-01

267

Effects of several variables on whole effluent toxicity test performance and interpretation  

SciTech Connect

Protocol changes and options contained within US Environmental Protection Agency whole effluent toxicity tests represent variables that have the potential to affect bioassay performance and interpretation of results. Variables evaluated in this study include: the change in allowable age in the Pimephales promelas acute bioassay from up to 90 d to a maximum of 14 d, age-specific acute responses of P. promelas among the allowable ages of 1 to 14 d, change in the chronic growth endpoint definition from final mass to biomass, differences between hemacytometer and fluorometer measurements in the Selenastrum capricornutum protocol, and options for statistical interpretation of species sensitivity in multiple test/species screening bioassays. Clear age-related sensitivity and precision differences were observed in acute responses of P. promelas. Results obtained using the younger age classes were typically more variable in studies of both 1- to 14-d-old and 14- to 90-d-old P. promelas. In the experiments on 1- to 14-d-old organisms, larvae at 1 d of age were significantly less sensitive. In the tests on 14- to 90-d-old organisms, the 14-d-old organisms were significantly less sensitive. The change in endpoint definition in the P. promelas chronic bioassay resulted in an apparent increase in toxic response in the inhibition concentration (ICp) value for each bioassay, evaluated by the biomass method, with no general improvement in statistical interest precision estimates and no predictable impact on the no-observed-effect concentration endpoint. Fluorometric scoring in the Selenastrum bioassay was significantly more precise and better capable of estimating counts than hemacytometer measurements. Discrepancies associated with commonly used statistical endpoints used to determine the most sensitive species were identified, and potential solutions were proposed.

Markle, P.J.; Gully, J.R.; Baird, R.B.; Nakada, K.M.; Bottomley, J.P.

2000-01-01

268

Main and interactive effects of a nonclinical panic attack history and distress tolerance in relation to PTSD symptom severity.  

PubMed

The current study investigated the main and interactive effects of a nonclinical panic attack history and distress tolerance in relation to PTSD symptoms. The sample consisted of 91 adults (62.6% women; M(age)=23.45, SD=9.56) who met DSM-IV criteria for trauma exposure, 53.8% of whom met criteria for a recent (past 2 years) history of nonclinical panic attacks. Results indicated that distress tolerance, as measured by the Distress Tolerance Scale (Simons & Gaher, 2005), was significantly related to all PTSD symptom clusters, and a nonclinical panic attack history was significantly related to PTSD re-experiencing and hyperarousal symptoms. The interaction of a nonclinical panic attack history and distress tolerance significantly predicted unique variance in only PTSD hyperarousal symptoms. Implications and future directions are discussed for the role of nonclinical panic attacks and distress tolerance in PTSD symptom expression. PMID:20888732

Marshall-Berenz, Erin C; Vujanovic, Anka A; Zvolensky, Michael J

2010-09-15

269

Main and Interactive Effects of a Nonclinical Panic Attack History and Distress Tolerance in Relation to PTSD Symptom Severity  

PubMed Central

The current study investigated the main and interactive effects of a nonclinical panic attack history and distress tolerance in relation to PTSD symptoms. The sample consisted of 91 adults (62.6% women; Mage = 23.45, SD = 9.56) who met DSM-IV criteria for trauma exposure, 53.8% of whom met criteria for a recent (past two years) history of nonclinical panic attacks. Results indicated that distress tolerance, as measured by the Distress Tolerance Scale (Simons & Gaher, 2005), was significantly related to all PTSD symptom clusters, and a nonclinical panic attack history was significantly related to PTSD re-experiencing and hyperarousal symptoms. The interaction of a nonclinical panic attack history and distress tolerance significantly predicted unique variance in only PTSD hyperarousal symptoms. Implications and future directions are discussed for the role of nonclinical panic attacks and distress tolerance in PTSD symptom expression.

Marshall-Berenz, Erin C.; Vujanovic, Anka A.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

2010-01-01

270

A Case of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (Ten) With Severe Chronic Ocular Complications in a Healthy 46-Year-Old Woman  

PubMed Central

Summary Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), also known as Lyell's syndrome, is a severe drug reaction characterized by extensive destruction of the epidermis and mucosal epithelia. The eyes are typically involved in TEN. The precise pathomechanisms involved remain unknown. We present a case of toxic epidermal necrolysis in a healthy 46-yr-old female patient who had inhaled glycophosphate (herbicide) and was treated with paracetamol, aspirin, and chlorpheniramine. Thirty-five per cent of the skin area was affected by the syndrome, with involvement of conjunctival, gastrointestinal, and respiratory mucous membranes. Topical treatment was performed every day and the patient did not undergo surgery. Complete wound healing was achieved in 47 days. There were acute complications, consisting of infection of the skin areas ( Candida), gastrointestinal bleeding, pleural effusion, and severe ocular mucous membrane damage. The most serious chronic complication was the presence of significant opacity of the corneal epithelium, causing almost complete loss of vision. According to the data in the literature, ocular complications in TEN are frequent and are present in the majority of the patients studied, but are not often severe. Risk factors for the development of ocular complications are not known. Ocular sequelae may appear after the acute period and they can be extremely disabling, even causing almost complete loss of vision. Treatment includes corticosteroids and topical antibiotic therapy in the acute phase and if necessary corneal transplantation in the event of chronic damage to the corneal epithelium.

Voltan, A.; Azzena, B.

2010-01-01

271

Toxicities and synergistic effects of several insecticides against the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a serious insect pest that causes large losses to orchards globally. In this study, we conducted experiments to investigate the susceptibility of two populations (Kunming of Yunnan and Dongguan of Guangdong province) of B. dorsalis to nine insecticides. Bioassay results demonstrated that fipronil was the most effective insecticide, followed by phoxim, abamectin, triazophos, beta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, malathion, and imidacloprid against the Kunming of Yunnan province population, with LD50 values that ranged from 1.55 to 187.48 ng/fly. For the Dongguan of Guangdong province population, fipronil was also most toxic, followed by triazophos, phoxim, chlorpyrifos, abamectin, deltamethrin, beta-cypermethrin, malathion, and imidacloprid, with LD50 values from 2.07 to 439.11 ng/fly. The addition of synergists triphenyl phosphate, piperonyl butoxide, and diethyl maleate yielded different levels of synergistic effects on different insecticides against each population. However, the synergistic effects on the nine insecticides against the two populations are different. The treatment of a sublethal dose (LD2o) of beta-cypermethrin together with three synergists could induce increased specific activity of carboxylesterases at the beginning of exposure, followed by a decline within 24 h. The specific activity of carboxylesterases was higher in the fat body, midgut, and Malpighian tubules, suggesting these are important tissues for detoxification. Overall, the data developed in this study provide useful information for designing an insecticide management strategy for controlling this insect in the field. PMID:23786089

Wang, Jing-Jing; Wei, Dong; Dou, Wei; Hu, Fei; Liu, Wei-Feng; Wang, Jin-Jun

2013-04-01

272

Magnitutde and Characterization of Toxicity in Sediments from Several Ukrainian Estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

During the Soviet era, Ukraine was one of the most important industrial and agricultural regions of the Soviet Union. A consequence of this industrial and agricultural activity was the contamination of several areas of the country, including the estuaries, with pollutants includ...

273

Perceived discrimination is associated with severity of positive and depression\\/anxiety symptoms in immigrants with psychosis: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Immigration status is a significant risk factor for psychotic disorders, and a number of studies have reported more severe\\u000a positive and affective symptoms among immigrant and ethnic minority groups. We investigated if perceived discrimination was\\u000a associated with the severity of these symptoms among immigrants in Norway with psychotic disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Cross-sectional analyses of 90 immigrant patients (66% first-generation, 68% from Asia\\/Africa)

Akiah O Berg; Ingrid Melle; Jan Ivar Rossberg; Lie Kristin Romm; Sara Larsson; Trine V Lagerberg; Ole A Andreassen; Edvard Hauff

2011-01-01

274

Frequency of symptoms, determinants of severe symptoms, validity of and cut-off score for Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) as a screening tool: A cross-sectional survey among midlife Nepalese women  

PubMed Central

Background Majority of Nepalese women live in remote rural areas, where health services are not easily accessible. We determined the validity of Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) as a screening tool for identification of women with severe menopausal symptoms and cut-off MRS score for referral. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between February and August, 2008. Trained health workers administered MRS and a questionnaire to 729 women (40 to 65 years) attending health screening camps in Kaski district of Western Development Region of Nepal. Information about demographics, menopausal status, and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), chronic disease, self-perceived general health and reproductive history was also collected. Menopausal status was classified according to the Staging of Reproductive Ageing Workshop (STRAW). We calculated rates of menopausal symptoms, sensitivity, and specificity and likelihood ratios of MRS scores for referral to a gynaecologist. We also carried out multivariate analyses to identify the predictors for referral to a gynaecologist for severe symptoms. Results A total 729 women were interviewed. Mean age at menopause was 49.9 years (SD 5.6). Most frequently reported symptoms were, sleeping problems (574, 78.7%), physical and mental exhaustion (73.5%), hot flushes (508, 69.7%), joint and muscular discomfort (500, 68.6%) and dryness of vagina (449, 61.6%). Postmenopausal women (247, 33.9%) and perimenopausal (215, 29.5%) women together experienced significantly higher prevalence of all symptoms than the premenopausal (267, 36.6%) women. MRS score of ?16 had highest ratio for (sensitivity + specificity)/2. Women who reported urogenital symptoms [OR 5.29, 95% CI 2.59, 10.78], and self perceived general health as poor [OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11, 1.53] were more likely to be referred to a gynaecologist for severe menopausal symptoms. While women reporting somatic [OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.63, 0.82] and psychological [OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74, 0.99] symptoms were less likely to be referred. Conclusion MRS may be used as a screening tool at a cut-off score of ?16 with least misclassification rate. However, its utility may be limited by woman's general health status and occurrence of urogenital symptoms.

2011-01-01

275

Disease Severity Measures in a Population of Psoriasis Patients: The Symptoms of Psoriasis Correlate With Self-Administered Psoriasis Area Severity Index Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the difficulty and expense of objectively measuring psoriasis severity, very little information exists on the severity of psoriasis in populations. We determined severity in a psoriasis patient population using the validated self-administered psoriasis are and severity index (SAPASI). This population consisted of 578 university dermatology clinic psoriasis patient, and data were analyzed from 317 (55%) questionnaire respondents. The

Alan B. Fleischer Jr.; Steven R. Feldman; Stephen R. Rapp; David M. Reboussin; M. Lyn Exum; Adele R. Clark; Veena Rajashekhar

1996-01-01

276

Propylene Glycol Toxicity: A Severe Iatrogenic Illness in ICU Patients Receiving IV Benzodiazepines* A Case Series and Prospective, Observational Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objectives: Benzodiazepines are commonly administered to medical ICU (MICU) patients. Propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol) is the solvent used to deliver lorazepam and diazepam IV. Although propylene glycol toxicity is increasingly recognized and reported, its incidence is unknown. Herein, we describe five MICU patients who acquired severe propylene glycol toxicity due to IV lorazepam or diazepam administration. Additionally, we evaluate the

Kevin C. Wilson; Christine Reardon; Arthur C. Theodore; Harrison W. Farber

277

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Physical Health, and Health Care Utilization 50 Years After Repeated Exposure to a Toxic Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The posttraumatic sequelae of contaminant exposure are a contemporary international concern due to the threats posed to military personnel and civilians by war and bioterrorism. The role of PTSD symptoms as a mediator between potentially traumatic toxin exposure and physical health outcomes was examined with structural equation modeling in a probability sample of 302 male World War II-era U.S. military

Julian D. Ford; Paula P. Schnurr; Matthew J. Friedman; Bonnie L. Green; Gary Adams; Steve Jex

2004-01-01

278

Hepatoprotective effect of Bathysa cuspidata in a murine model of severe toxic liver injury.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of a bark extract of Bathysa cuspidata extract (BCE) in a murine model of severe liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4) ). Forty-two Wistar rats were randomized into six groups of seven animals each: Group 1(G1): CCl(4) ; Group 2 (G2): dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) + CCl(4) ; Group 3 (G3): BCE 400 mg/kg alone; Group 4 (G4): BCE 200 mg/kg + CCl(4) ; Group 5 (G5): BCE 400 mg/kg + CCl(4) ; Group 6 (G6): DMSO alone. The extract was administered by gavage for 18 days beginning 6 days prior to the first application of CCl(4) . After completing CCl(4) administration, the animals were euthanized. The animals in G1, G2, G4 and G5 experienced significant body weight loss and had an increased liver somatic index compared with G3 and G6 (P < 0.05). A significant reduction in serum aspartate and alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase (P < 0.05) and a significant increase in the activity of the anti-oxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase were found in G5 (P < 0.05). Lower proportions of cellular necrosis and lipid droplets were found in the livers of animals in G4 and G5 compared with G1 and G2 (P < 0.05). These results confirm the marked hepatoprotective activity of the bark extract of Bathysa cuspidata in severe injuries induced by CCl(4) in rats and suggest that this effect may be associated with the inhibition of oxidative damage. PMID:22974218

Gonçalves, Reggiani V; Novaes, Rômulo D; Leite, João P V; Vilela, Emerson F; Cupertino, Marli C; Nunes, Líria G; Matta, Sérgio L P

2012-10-01

279

Hepatoprotective effect of Bathysa cuspidata in a murine model of severe toxic liver injury  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of a bark extract of Bathysa cuspidata extract (BCE) in a murine model of severe liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Forty-two Wistar rats were randomized into six groups of seven animals each: Group 1(G1): CCl4; Group 2 (G2): dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) + CCl4; Group 3 (G3): BCE 400 mg/kg alone; Group 4 (G4): BCE 200 mg/kg + CCl4; Group 5 (G5): BCE 400 mg/kg + CCl4; Group 6 (G6): DMSO alone. The extract was administered by gavage for 18 days beginning 6 days prior to the first application of CCl4. After completing CCl4 administration, the animals were euthanized. The animals in G1, G2, G4 and G5 experienced significant body weight loss and had an increased liver somatic index compared with G3 and G6 (P < 0.05). A significant reduction in serum aspartate and alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase (P < 0.05) and a significant increase in the activity of the anti-oxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase were found in G5 (P < 0.05). Lower proportions of cellular necrosis and lipid droplets were found in the livers of animals in G4 and G5 compared with G1 and G2 (P < 0.05). These results confirm the marked hepatoprotective activity of the bark extract of Bathysa cuspidata in severe injuries induced by CCl4 in rats and suggest that this effect may be associated with the inhibition of oxidative damage.

Goncalves, Reggiani V; Novaes, Romulo D; Leite, Joao P V; Vilela, Emerson F; Cupertino, Marli C; Nunes, Liria G; Matta, Sergio L P

2012-01-01

280

The cancer pain experience of Israeli adults 65 years and older: the influence of pain interference, symptom severity, and knowledge and attitudes on pain and pain control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goals: Little is known about Israeli elders' cancer pain ex- perience. The purpose of this study was to explore the cancer pain expe- rience, including pain intensity, pain management index, pain interference, symptom severity, and knowledge and attitudes toward pain and pain control. Patients and methods: Descriptive cross-sectional methods were used to obtain data with four instruments. The patients were

Marlene Z. Cohen; Catherine F. Musgrave; Deborah B. McGuire; Neville E. Strumpf; Mark F. Munsell; Tito R. Mendoza; Maya Gips

2005-01-01

281

Psychiatric Diagnoses and Neurobehavioral Symptom Severity among OEF\\/OIF VA Patients with Deployment-Related Traumatic Brain Injury: A Gender Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTraumatic brain injury (TBI) has substantial negative implications for the post-deployment adjustment of veterans who served in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF); however, most research on veterans has focused on males. This study investigated gender differences in psychiatric diagnoses and neurobehavioral symptom severity among OEF\\/OIF veterans with deployment-related TBI.

Katherine M. Iverson; Ann M. Hendricks; Rachel Kimerling; Maxine Krengel; Mark Meterko; Kelly L. Stolzmann; Errol Baker; Terri K. Pogoda; Jennifer J. Vasterling; Henry L. Lew

2011-01-01

282

Challenging Current Asthma Treatment Guidelines: Improved Control of Asthma Symptoms with Nebulised Budesonide in Patients with Severe Asthma Receiving Continuous Oral Steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: British Thoracic Society guidelines advocate the use of oral steroid therapy as a means of controlling symptoms in patients with severe asthma. However, it is well established that there are a number of undesirable adverse effects associated with this form of treatment. The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of nebulised budesonide reduced oral steroid

Kevin C. Connolly; Michael D. Peake; David M. G. Halpin; Lynda Golightly; Marlyn L. Turbitt

2000-01-01

283

Total exposure duration and proximity of cessation of cannabis use predict severity of sub-clinical psychotic symptoms among former users.  

PubMed

In a non-clinical military enrolment setting, former cannabis users (N=81), compared to substance-naïve controls (N=132), endorsed markedly elevated rates of schizotypy subscale scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Total duration of exposure and proximity of cessation of cannabis use also had an important impact on the severity of psychosis-like symptoms. PMID:22436347

Baskak, Bora; Munir, Kerim; Ozguven, Halise Devrimci; Koc, Ersin; Gedik, Gulumser; Erkan, Derya; Atbasoglu, Cem E

2012-03-20

284

Reproducibility and responsiveness of the Symptom Severity Scale and the hand and finger function subscale of the Dutch arthritis impact measurement scales (Dutch-AIMS2HFF) in primary care patients with wrist or hand problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To determine the clinimetric properties of two questionnaires assessing symptoms (Symptom Severity Scale) and physical functioning (hand and finger function subscale of the AIMS2) in a Dutch primary care population. METHODS: The first 84 participants in a 1-year follow-up study on the diagnosis and prognosis of hand and wrist problems completed the Symptom Severity Scale and the hand and

Marinda N Spies-Dorgelo; Caroline B Terwee; Wim AB Stalman; Daniëlle AWM van der Windt

2006-01-01

285

Systematic variation of the severity of motor vehicle accident-related traumatic brain injury vignettes produces different post-concussion symptom reports.  

PubMed

This study investigated the specificity of the post-concussion syndrome (PCS) expectation-as-etiology hypothesis. Undergraduate students (n?=?551) were randomly allocated to one of three vignette conditions. Vignettes depicted either a very mild (VMI), mild (MI), or moderate-to-severe (MSI) motor vehicle-related traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants reported the PCS and PTSD symptoms that they imagined the depicted injury would produce. Secondary outcomes (knowledge of mild TBI, and the perceived undesirability of TBI) were also assessed. After data screening, the distribution of participants by condition was: VMI (n?=?100), MI (n?=?96), and MSI (n?=?71). There was a significant effect of condition on PCS symptomatology, F(2, 264)?=?16.55, p??VMI; medium effect, r?=?.33; MSI?> MI; small-to-medium effect, r?=?.22). The same pattern of group differences was found for PTSD symptoms, F(2, 264)?=?17.12, p?symptoms by condition; and the perceived undesirability of TBI was only associated with reported PCS symptomatology in the MSI condition. Systematic variation in the severity of a depicted TBI produces different PCS and PTSD symptom expectations. Even a very mild TBI vignette can elicit expectations of PCS symptoms. PMID:23186297

Sullivan, Karen A; Edmed, Shannon L

2012-01-01

286

Anxiety and Avoidance in Infants and Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evidence for Differing Symptom Severity and Presentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Little is known about the symptoms of anxiety in very young children with autism spectrum disorders, particularly comparisons between Autistic Disorder (AD) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). In the current study, toddlers (i.e., 17-37 months of age) with diagnoses of either AD (N = 159) or PDD-NOS (N = 154)…

Davis, Thompson E., III; Fodstad, Jill C.; Jenkins, Whitney S.; Hess, Julie A.; Moree, Brittany N.; Dempsey, Tim; Matson, Johnny L.

2010-01-01

287

Blood Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Correlate with Several Psychopathological Symptoms in Anorexia Nervosa Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Evidence of a role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathophysiology of eating disorders (ED) has been provided by association studies and by murine models. BDNF plasma levels have been found altered in ED and in psychiatric disorders that show comorbidity with ED. Aims: Since the role of BDNF levels in ED-related psychopathological symptoms has not been tested,

Josep M. Mercader; Fernando Fernández-Aranda; Mònica Gratacòs; Marta Ribasés; Anna Badía; Cynthia Villarejo; Raquel Solano; Juan R. González; Julio Vallejo; Xavier Estivill

2007-01-01

288

The relationship of theory of mind and executive functions to symptom type and severity in children with autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although neurocognitive impairments in theory of mind and in executive functions have both been hypothesized to play a causal role in autism, little research has investigated the explanatory power of these impairments with regard to autistic symptomatology. The present study examined the degree to which individual differences in theory of mind and executive functions could explain variation in autism symptom

ROBERT M. JOSEPH

2004-01-01

289

Analysis of the relationship between psoriasis symptom severity and quality of life, work productivity, and activity impairment among patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis using structural equation modeling  

PubMed Central

Background Plaque psoriasis is a chronic disease characterized by scaly plaques on the skin that can itch and bleed. Psoriasis covering over 10% of the body is classified as moderate to severe, and can impact patient quality of life. Objectives To assess the relationship between plaque psoriasis self-reported severity symptoms and health-related quality of life, work productivity, and activity impairment among patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Methods The study sample included 199 patients recruited from internet panels, of which 179 respondents had plaque psoriasis and 20 had plaque and inverse psoriasis. Itching, pain, and scaling symptoms were studied. A structural equation modeling framework was used to estimate the effect of these symptoms on patient outcomes. First, each severity variable was regressed on a set of covariates to generate a predicted severity score. These predicted values were placed in a second-stage model with patient mental and physical scores (Short-Form 12 questionnaire), work productivity, and activity impairment indicators as dependent variables. Results Itching severity had a marginal negative effect (P < 0.06) on patients’ Short-Form 12 physical and mental component scores. Pain severity also negatively affected physical and mental health scores (P < 0.02). Patients were more likely to miss work because of itching (odds ratio [OR]: 2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30, 4.10), pain (OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.25, 2.52), and scaling (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.31, 3.52) symptoms. These symptoms also lowered self-reported productivity. As itching (OR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.95), scaling (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.90), and pain symptoms (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.09) increased, so did the odds that a patient would be less productive at work. Conclusion Plaque psoriasis significantly affects patient quality of life. In addition to greater mental and physical pain, patients are more likely to miss work and have diminished productivity as symptom severity increases.

Lewis-Beck, Colin; Abouzaid, Safiya; Xie, Lin; Baser, Onur; Kim, Edward

2013-01-01

290

[Spasmodic torticollis, substantiating Manto syndrome, of possible toxic aethiology, with alterations of brainstem acoustic evoked potentials (BAEPs). Treatment with L-5-hydroxytryptophan. Follow up of 18 months, during which high degree resolution of symptoms and normalization of BAEPs took place].  

PubMed

A case of very severe spasmodic torticollis observed for 18 months is presented and discussed. Head was so rotated that permitted only backward seeing and compressed brachial plexus between scaleni muscles with sensory, motor and trophic troubles in the hand. A toxic aethiology from parathion is likely. Brainstem Acoustic Evoked Potentials (BAEPs) showed in the beginning abnormal responses, especially as refers to waves originating in the mesencephalon. Therapy with L-5-hydroxytryptophan subdued neurological symptoms; a parallel normalization of BAEPs recording was observed. The Authors propose to call this syndrome (spasmodic torticollis with thoracic outlet syndrome) after the mythical diviner Manto, which Dante Alighieri refers to in his "Divina Commedia" (Inferno, XX, 55 e segg.). PMID:6985243

Disertori, B; Ducati, A; Piazza, M

291

Suppression of neuropil aggregates and neurological symptoms by an intracellular antibody implicates the cytoplasmic toxicity of mutant huntingtin  

PubMed Central

Mutant huntingtin accumulates in the neuronal nuclei and processes, which suggests that its subcellular localization is critical for the pathology of Huntington's disease (HD). However, the contribution of cytoplasmic mutant huntingtin and its aggregates in neuronal processes (neuropil aggregates) has not been rigorously explored. We generated an intracellular antibody (intrabody) whose binding to a unique epitope of human huntingtin is enhanced by polyglutamine expansion. This intrabody decreases the cytotoxicity of mutant huntingtin and its distribution in neuronal processes. When expressed in the striatum of HD mice via adenoviral infection, the intrabody reduces neuropil aggregate formation and ameliorates neurological symptoms. Interaction of the intrabody with mutant huntingtin increases the ubiquitination of cytoplasmic huntingtin and its degradation. These findings suggest that the intrabody reduces the specific neurotoxicity of cytoplasmic mutant huntingtin and its associated neurological symptoms by preventing the accumulation of mutant huntingtin in neuronal processes and promoting its clearance in the cytoplasm.

Wang, Chuan-En; Zhou, Hui; McGuire, John R.; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Lee, Brendan; Li, Shi-Hua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

2008-01-01

292

Toxicity of a glufosinate- and several glyphosate-based herbicides to juvenile amphibians from the Southern High Plains, USA.  

PubMed

Pesticide toxicity is often proposed as a contributing factor to the world-wide decline of amphibian populations. We assessed acute toxicity (48 h) of a glufosinate-based herbicide (Ignite 280 SL) and several glyphosate-based herbicide formulations (Roundup WeatherMAX, Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Super Concentrate, Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Ready-To-Use Plus on two species of amphibians housed on soil or moist paper towels. Survival of juvenile Great Plains toads (Bufo cognatus) and New Mexico spadefoots (Spea multiplicata) was reduced by exposure to Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Ready-To-Use Plus on both substrates. Great Plains toad survival was also reduced by exposure to Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Super Concentrate on paper towels. New Mexico spadefoot and Great Plains toad survival was not affected by exposure to the two agricultural herbicides (Roundup WeatherMAX and Ignite 280 SL) on either substrate, suggesting that these herbicides likely do not pose an immediate risk to these species under field conditions. PMID:19000631

Dinehart, Simon K; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T; Anderson, Todd A; Smith, Philip N; Haukos, David A

2008-11-08

293

Tryptophan catabolism in females with irritable bowel syndrome: relationship to interferon-gamma, severity of symptoms and psychiatric co-morbidity.  

PubMed

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been linked with abnormal serotonin functioning and immune activation. Tryptophan forms the substrate for serotonin biosynthesis, but it can alternatively be catabolized to kynurenine (Kyn) by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the main inducer of which is interferon-gamma. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that IBS is associated with increased tryptophan (Trp) catabolism along the Kyn pathway due to increased IFN-gamma levels. Plasma Kyn, Trp and IFN-gamma levels were measured in 41 female IBS subjects and 33 controls. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity was assessed using the Kyn to Trp ratio. Psychiatric co-morbidity was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire, and severity of IBS assessed using self-report ordinal scales. Irritable bowel syndrome subjects had increased Kyn concentrations compared with controls (P = 0.039) and there was a trend for Kyn:Trp to be increased in the IBS group (P = 0.09). There was a positive correlation between IBS severity and Kyn:Trp (r = 0.57, P < 0.001). Those with severe IBS symptoms had increased Kyn:Trp (P < 0.005) compared to those with less severe symptoms and controls, and were over twice as likely to have depression or anxiety compared to those with less severe IBS (RR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-3.9). No difference in IFN-gamma levels was observed between groups; however, IFN-gamma was positively correlated with Kyn:Trp in IBS (r = 0.58, P = 0.005) but not controls (r = 0.12, P = 0.5). Females with IBS have abnormal Trp catabolism. The Kyn:Trp is related to symptom severity, and those with severe IBS symptoms have increased shunting of Trp along the Kyn pathway which contributes to the abnormal serotonergic functioning in this syndrome. PMID:18823288

Fitzgerald, P; Cassidy Eugene, M; Clarke, G; Scully, P; Barry, S; Quigley Eamonn, M M; Shanahan, F; Cryan, J; Dinan Timothy, G

2008-09-24

294

Psychiatric Diagnoses and Neurobehavioral Symptom Severity Among OEF/OIF VA Patients with Deployment-Related Traumatic Brain Injury: A Gender Comparison  

PubMed Central

Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has substantial negative implications for the post-deployment adjustment of Veterans who served in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF); however, most research on Veterans has focused on males. This study investigated gender differences in psychiatric diagnoses and neurobehavioral symptom severity among OEF/OIF Veterans with deployment-related TBI. Methods This population-based study examined psychiatric diagnoses and self-reported neurobehavioral symptom severity from administrative records for 12,605 United States OEF/OIF Veterans evaluated as having deployment-related TBI. Men (n = 11,951) and women (n = 654) who were evaluated to have deployment-related TBI during a standardized comprehensive TBI evaluation in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities were compared on the presence of psychiatric diagnoses and severity of neurobehavioral symptoms. Findings Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was the most common psychiatric condition for both genders, although women were less likely than men to have a PTSD diagnosis. In contrast, relative to men, women were 2 times more likely to have a depression diagnosis, 1.3 times more likely to have a non-PTSD anxiety disorder, and 1.5 times more likely to have PTSD with comorbid depression. Multivariate analyses indicated that blast exposure during deployment may account for some of these differences. Additionally, women reported significantly more severe symptoms across a range of neurobehavioral domains. Conclusions Although PTSD was the most common condition for both men and women, it is also critical for providers to identify and treat other conditions, especially depression and neurobehavioral symptoms, among women Veterans with deployment-related TBI.

Iverson, Katherine M.; Hendricks, Ann M.; Kimerling, Rachel; Krengel, Maxine; Meterko, Mark; Stolzmann, Kelly L.; Baker, Errol; Pogoda, Terri K.; Vasterling, Jennifer J.; Lew, Henry L.

2011-01-01

295

Age of Onset of RNA Toxicity Influences Phenotypic Severity: Evidence from an Inducible Mouse Model of Myotonic Dystrophy (DM1).  

PubMed

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most common muscular dystrophy in adults. It is caused by an expanded (CTG)n tract in the 3' UTR of the Dystrophia Myotonica Protein Kinase (DMPK) gene. This causes nuclear retention of the mutant mRNA into ribonuclear foci and sequestration of interacting RNA-binding proteins (such as muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1)). More severe congenital and childhood-onset forms of the disease exist but are less understood than the adult disease, due in part to the lack of adequate animal models. To address this, we utilized transgenic mice over-expressing the DMPK 3' UTR as part of an inducible RNA transcript to model early-onset myotonic dystrophy. In mice in which transgene expression was induced during embryogenesis, we found that by two weeks after birth, mice reproduced cardinal features of myotonic dystrophy, including myotonia, cardiac conduction abnormalities, muscle weakness, histopathology and mRNA splicing defects. Notably, these defects were more severe than in adult mice induced for an equivalent period of exposure to RNA toxicity. Additionally, the utility of the model was tested by over-expressing MBNL1, a key therapeutic strategy being actively pursued for treating the disease phenotypes associated with DM1. Significantly, increased MBNL1 in skeletal muscle partially corrected myotonia and splicing defects present in these mice, demonstrating the responsiveness of the model to relevant therapeutic interventions. Furthermore, these results also represent the first murine model for early-onset DM1 and provide a tool to investigate the effects of RNA toxicity at various stages of development. PMID:24039817

Gladman, Jordan T; Mandal, Mahua; Srinivasan, Varadamurthy; Mahadevan, Mani S

2013-09-05

296

Age of Onset of RNA Toxicity Influences Phenotypic Severity: Evidence from an Inducible Mouse Model of Myotonic Dystrophy (DM1)  

PubMed Central

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most common muscular dystrophy in adults. It is caused by an expanded (CTG)n tract in the 3? UTR of the Dystrophia Myotonica Protein Kinase (DMPK) gene. This causes nuclear retention of the mutant mRNA into ribonuclear foci and sequestration of interacting RNA-binding proteins (such as muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1)). More severe congenital and childhood-onset forms of the disease exist but are less understood than the adult disease, due in part to the lack of adequate animal models. To address this, we utilized transgenic mice over-expressing the DMPK 3? UTR as part of an inducible RNA transcript to model early-onset myotonic dystrophy. In mice in which transgene expression was induced during embryogenesis, we found that by two weeks after birth, mice reproduced cardinal features of myotonic dystrophy, including myotonia, cardiac conduction abnormalities, muscle weakness, histopathology and mRNA splicing defects. Notably, these defects were more severe than in adult mice induced for an equivalent period of exposure to RNA toxicity. Additionally, the utility of the model was tested by over-expressing MBNL1, a key therapeutic strategy being actively pursued for treating the disease phenotypes associated with DM1. Significantly, increased MBNL1 in skeletal muscle partially corrected myotonia and splicing defects present in these mice, demonstrating the responsiveness of the model to relevant therapeutic interventions. Furthermore, these results also represent the first murine model for early-onset DM1 and provide a tool to investigate the effects of RNA toxicity at various stages of development.

Gladman, Jordan T.; Mandal, Mahua; Srinivasan, Varadamurthy; Mahadevan, Mani S.

2013-01-01

297

Anxiety and avoidance in infants and toddlers with autism spectrum disorders: Evidence for differing symptom severity and presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the symptoms of anxiety in very young children with autism spectrum disorders, particularly comparisons between Autistic Disorder (AD) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). In the current study, toddlers (i.e., 17–37 months of age) with diagnoses of either AD (N=159) or PDD-NOS (N=154) were compared to atypically developing toddlers who did not meet criteria for

Thompson E. Davis III; Jill C. Fodstad; Whitney S. Jenkins; Julie A. Hess; Brittany N. Moree; Tim Dempsey; Johnny L. Matson

2010-01-01

298

A critical review of caffeine withdrawal: empirical validation of symptoms and signs, incidence, severity, and associated features  

Microsoft Academic Search

RationaleAlthough reports of caffeine withdrawal in the medical literature date back more than 170 years, the most rigorous experimental investigations of the phenomenon have been conducted only recently.ObjectivesThe purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review and analysis of the literature regarding human caffeine withdrawal to empirically validate specific symptoms and signs, and to appraise important features of the

Laura M. Juliano; Roland R. Griffiths

2004-01-01

299

Has the prevalence and severity of symptoms of asthma changed among children in New Zealand? ISAAC Phase Three  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To investigate time trends in prevalence of symptoms of asthma by repeating, during 2001-3 (Phase Three), the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase One study that was conducted in New Zealand in 1992-3. Methods ISAAC Phase Three involved repeating the cross-sectional questionnaire survey of two age groups of school children (6-7 years and 13-14 years,

M Innes Asher; Alistair W Stewart; Tadd Clayton; Julian Crane; Philippa Ellwood; Richard MacKay; Ed Mitchell; Chris Moyes; Philip K Pattemore; Neil Pearce

300

The Impact of Pretreatment Prostate Volume on Severe Acute Genitourinary Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the impact of pretreatment prostate volume on the development of severe acute genitourinary toxicity in patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2007, a consecutive sample of 214 patients who underwent IMRT (75.6 Gy) for prostate cancer at two referral centers was analyzed. Prostate volumes were obtained from computed tomography scans taken during treatment simulation. Genitourinary toxicity was defined using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 3.0 guidelines. Acute toxicity was defined as any toxicity originating within 90 days of the completion of radiation therapy. Patients were characterized as having a small or large prostate depending on whether their prostate volume was less than or greater than 50 cm{sup 3}, respectively. Genitourinary toxicity was compared in these groups using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to further assess the impact of prostate volume on severe (Grade 3) acute genitourinary toxicity. Results: Patients with large prostates (>50 cm{sup 3}) had a higher rate of acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity (p = .02). Prostate volume was predictive of the likelihood of developing acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity on bivariate (p = .004) and multivariate (p = .006) logistic regression. Every 27.0 cm{sup 3} increase in prostate volume doubled the likelihood of acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity. Conclusions: Patients with larger prostates are at higher risk for the development of severe acute genitourinary toxicity when treated with IMRT for prostate cancer.

Aizer, Ayal A., E-mail: Ayal.Aizer@yale.ed [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Anderson, Nicole S.; Oh, Steven C.; Yu, James B.; McKeon, Anne M.; Decker, Roy H.; Peschel, Richard E. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

2011-02-01

301

Passive coping response to depressive symptoms among low-income homebound older adults: does it affect depression severity and treatment outcome?  

PubMed

Due to their homebound state, lack of financial resources, and/or other life demands, a significant proportion of depressed, low-income homebound older adults experience depression. Because of their limited access to psychotherapy, most of these older adults self-manage their depressive symptoms. The purposes of this study were to examine (1) the relationship between homebound older adults' coping responses to depressed mood and the severity of their depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 121), and (2) the moderating effect of passive coping responses on the relationship between participation in problem-solving therapy (PST: in-person or telehealth delivery) and depressive symptoms at 12- and 24-week follow-ups. Controlling for the effects of demographic and disability characteristics, cognitive passive coping was significantly associated with baseline depressive symptoms, while behavioral passive coping was not. The main effect of baseline cognitive passive coping response was also significant in mixed-effects regression analysis, but the interaction between coping pattern and group was not significant. The results point to a possibility that cognitive passive copers may have benefited as much from PST as the rest of the PST participants. Further research needs to examine the moderating effect of coping responses to depressive symptoms on treatment efficacy of PST and other psychosocial interventions for late-life depression. PMID:22982081

Choi, Namkee G; Hegel, Mark T; Sirrianni, Leslie; Marinucci, Mary Lynn; Bruce, Martha L

2012-08-11

302

A comparison of intranasal corticosteroid, leukotriene receptor antagonist, and topical antihistamine in reducing symptoms of perennial allergic rhinitis as assessed through the Rhinitis Severity Score.  

PubMed

Rhinitis symptom complex consists of rhinorrhea, congestion, itchy mucosa, itchy eyes, and sneezing. Available medications vary in their benefit for each of these symptoms. It was the purpose of this article to compare symptom reduction with three different classes of medications. Montelukast, azelastine, and budesonide were compared to determine the effect on individual, as well as total, symptom scores using the Rhinitis Severity Score (RSS). All three medications were compared with placebo and showed efficacy in prior studies using Balaam's crossover design. The inclusion and exclusion criteria and all procedures were identical for all three studies. In analyzing the data from the RSS questionnaire, we used the procedure PROC MIXED in SAS specific for Balaam's crossover design (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC). Although all three medications were effective compared with placebo, montelukast had the greatest effect of the three medications on reduction of ocular itching and throat and palate itching. Azelastine's effect was greater than budesonide and montelukast for reduction of rhinorrhea. Systemic medication, montelukast, as expected, provided better relief for symptoms distant from the nasal cavity, and the antihistamine, azelastine, reduced rhinorrhea, more than either montelukast or budesonide. PMID:20167140

Sardana, Niti; Santos, Carah; Lehman, Erik; Craig, Timothy

303

Postconcussion symptoms.  

PubMed

Research pertaining to the self-report of symptoms after traumatic brain injury was reviewed. Cognitive, emotional, and motivational factors have more relevance than demographic (except for female sex) and personality factors. Specific neuropsychological deficits in attention and memory have been found in the early stages after head injury of even mild severity. This is unlikely to be the only factor affecting symptom persistence. Exaggeration of cognitive dysfunction occurs in some cases, but appears unrelated to symptom overreport. Increased emotional distress typically accompanies symptom persistence. The psychological reaction of preoccupation with symptoms and emotional distress is not unique to concussion, but also occurs after severe head injury and back injury and relates more to the personal interpretation of the effect of the trauma than to objective indicators of brain injury severity. PMID:9253770

Gasquoine, P G

1997-06-01

304

Early Altered Resting-State Functional Connectivity Predicts the Severity of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Acutely Traumatized Subjects  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between resting-state functional connectivity and the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 15 people who developed PTSD following recent trauma. Fifteen participants who experienced acute traumatic events underwent a 7.3-min resting functional magnetic resonance imaging scan within 2 days post-event. All the patients were diagnosed with PTSD within 1 to 6 months after trauma. Brain areas in which activity was correlated with that of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were assessed. To assess the relationship between the severity of PTSD symptoms and PCC connectivity, contrast images representing areas positively correlated with the PCC were correlated with the subject’s Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale scores (CAPS) when they were diagnosed. Furthermore, the PCC, medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral amygdala were selected to assess the correlation of the strength of functional connectivity with the CAPS. Resting state connectivity with the PCC was negatively correlated with CAPS scores in the left superior temporal gyrus and right hippocampus/amygdala. Furthermore, the strength of connectivity between the PCC and bilateral amygdala, and even between the bilateral amygdala could predict the severity of PTSD symptoms later. These results suggest that early altered resting-state functional connectivity of the PCC with the left superior temporal gyrus, right hippocampus and amygdala could predict the severity of the disease and may be a major risk factor that predisposes patients to develop PTSD.

Qin, Ling-di; Wan, Jie-qing; Sun, Ya-wen; Su, Shan-shan; Ding, Wei-na; Xu, Jian-rong

2012-01-01

305

Acute genitourinary toxicity after high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer: Second analysis to determine the correlation between the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy and the severity of acute genitourinary toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We have been treating localized prostate cancer with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) at our institution. We recently reported the existence of a correlation between the severity of acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity and the urethral radiation dose in HDR brachytherapy by using different fractionation schema. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the urethral dose in the development of acute GU toxicity more closely than in previous studies. For this purpose, we conducted an analysis of patients who had undergone HDR brachytherapy with a fixed fractionation schema combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Methods and Materials: Among the patients with localized prostate cancer who were treated by 192-iridium HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT at Gunma University Hospital between August 2000 and November 2004, we analyzed 67 patients who were treated by HDR brachytherapy with the fractionation schema of 9 Gy x two times combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Hypofractionated EBRT was administered at a fraction dose of 3 Gy three times weekly, and a total dose of 51 Gy was delivered to the prostate gland and seminal vesicles using the four-field technique. No elective pelvic irradiation was performed. After the completion of EBRT, all the patients additionally received transrectal ultrasonography-guided HDR brachytherapy. The planning target volume was defined as the prostate gland with a 5-mm margin all around, and the planning was conducted based on computed tomography images. The tumor stage was T1c in 13 patients, T2 in 31 patients, and T3 in 23 patients. The Gleason score was 2-6 in 12 patients, 7 in 34 patients, and 8-10 in 21 patients. Androgen ablation was performed in all the patients. The median follow-up duration was 11 months (range 3-24 months). The toxicities were graded based on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: The main symptoms of acute GU toxicity were dysuria and increase in the urinary frequency or nocturia. The grade distribution of acute GU toxicity in the patients was as follows: Grade 0-1, 42 patients (63%); Grade 2-3, 25 patients (37%). The urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy was determined using the following dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters: V30 (percentage of the urethral volume receiving 30% of the prescribed radiation dose), V80, V90, V100, V110, V120, V130, and V150. In addition, the D5 (dose covering 5% of the urethral volume), D10, D20, and D50 of the urethra were also estimated. The V30-V150 values in the patients with Grade 2-3 acute GU toxicity were significantly higher than those in patients with Grade 0-1 toxicity. The D10 and D20, but not D5 and D50, values were also significantly higher in the patients with Grade 2-3 acute GU toxicity than in those with Grade 0-1 toxicity. Regarding the influence of the number of needles implanted, there was no correlation between the number of needles implanted and the severity of acute GU toxicity or the V30-V150 values and D5-D50 values. Conclusions: It was concluded that HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT is feasible for localized prostate cancer, when considered from the viewpoint of acute toxicity. However, because the urethral dose was closely associated with the grade of severity of the acute GU toxicity, the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy must be kept low to reduce the severity of acute GU toxicity.

Akimoto, Tetsuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)]. E-mail: takimoto@showa.gunma-u.ac.jp; Katoh, Hiroyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Noda, Shin-ei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Ito, Kazuto [Department of Urology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Yamamoto, Takumi [Department of Urology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Kashiwagi, Bunzo [Department of Urology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)

2005-10-01

306

[Butylglycol toxicity].  

PubMed

Basing on literature, the authors evaluate the toxicity of butylglycol, especially its narcotic effects and action inducing parenchymatous organs lesions, symptoms of inhalant, oral and percutaneous intoxications and their treatment. PMID:514071

Jaraczewska, W; Szyma?ska, S; Starzy?ski, Z; My?lak, Z

1979-01-01

307

[Memantine for treatment of behavioural disturbances and psychotic symptoms in moderate to moderately severe Alzheimer dementia: a naturalistic study in outpatient services in Austria].  

PubMed

We conducted an open, 16-week study on the efficacy of memantine on behavioral disturbances and psychotic symptoms in moderate to moderately severe Alzheimer s disease in daily routine. Fifty-three patients of 20 outpatient centers in Austria were recruited. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) was defined as main outcome measure. After 16 weeks the total NPI score improved by 4,6 points (p<0.01). The caregiver distress score was also significantly reduced. The most pronounced improvements were seen in the NPI components depression (-24,6%), aberrant motor behavior (-16,9%), agitation/agression, fear, apathy, disinhibition and disturbances in appetite and eating behavior (-11,3%, each). Our naturalistic study is in line with the results of controlled trials in moderate and severe Alzheimer dementia stages. Controlled clinical trials which have behavioral disturbances and psychotic symptoms as primary endpoint are needed to define the true potential of memantine in mild dementia stages. PMID:20605008

Schmidt, Reinhold; Baumhackl, Ulf; Berek, Klaus; Brücke, Thomas; Kapeller, Peter; Lechner, Anita; Rainer, Michael; Stögerer, Eva-Maria

2010-01-01

308

Concordance between severity of disease, prevalence of nonmotor symptoms, patient-reported quality of life and disability and use of medication in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to test the concordance between disease severity, prevalence of nonmotor symptoms, age, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), disability and medication use in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Severity was classified with the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) scale and Levodopa Equivalent Daily Dose (LEDD) calculated. HRQoL was evaluated with the SF-36, disability with the WHO-DAS II and nonmotor symptoms with the NMSQuest. Patients were clustered using SF-36 and WHO-DAS II into three groups covering the continuum from low disability and HRQoL, to severe disability and HRQoL decrement. Contingency Coefficient were used to verify the relationships between clusters and HY stage; ANOVA to evaluate differences in NMS, age and LEDD between clusters; odds ratio to test the likelihood of taking levodopa or dopamine agonist and being member of the three clusters; t test to evaluate differences in LEDD between patients with HY ?3 or ?2. Eighty-six patients were clustered: 48 had low disability and HRQoL decrement, 18 intermediate disability and HRQoL decrement and 20 high disability and HRQoL decrement. A significant relationship was found between PD severity groups, HRQoL and disability profiles. No differences for age and LEDD were observed in the three groups, and those with more disability and lower HRQoL reported a higher number of nonmotor symptoms; patients in HY ?3 were prescribed higher doses of drugs. In conclusion, we found a substantial concordance between PD staging, prevalence of nonmotor symptoms and patient-reported HRQoL and disability measures. In our opinion, the SF-36 and the WHO-DAS II can be used for profiling patients. PMID:22071794

Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde; Covelli, Venusia; Albanese, Alberto; Soliveri, Paola; Carella, Francesco; Romito, Luigi

2011-11-10

309

Severe hypoglycemia symptoms, antecedent behaviors, immediate consequences and association with glycemia medication usage: Secondary analysis of the ACCORD clinical trial data  

PubMed Central

Background Hypoglycemia is a common complication of diabetes treatment. This paper describes symptoms, predecessors, consequences and medications associated with the first episode of severe hypoglycemia among ACCORD participants with type 2 diabetes, and compares these between intensive (Int: goal A1C <6.0%) and standard (Std, goal A1C 7–7.9%) glycemia intervention groups. Methods Information about symptoms, antecedents, and consequences was collected at the time participants reported an episode of severe hypoglycemia. Data on medications prescribed during the clinical trial was used to determine the association of particular diabetes drug classes and severe hypoglycemia. Results The most frequently reported symptoms in both glycemia group were weakness/fatigue (Int 29%; Std 30%) and sweating (Int 26%; Std 27%), followed by confusion/disorientation (Int 22%; Std 29%) and shakiness (Int 21%; Std 19%). Approximately half of all events were preceded by a variation in food intake (Int 48%; Std 58%). The most common consequences were confusion (Int 37%; Std 34%), loss of consciousness (Int 25%; Std 25%), and hospitalization (Int 18%; Std 24%). The highest rates of hypoglycemia were found among those participants treated with insulin only (Int 6.09/100 person yrs; Std 2.64/100 person yrs) while the lowest were among those prescribed oral agents only (Int 1.93/100 person yrs; Std 0.20/100 person yrs). Conclusions Severe hypoglycemia episodes were frequently preceded by a change in food intake, making many episodes potentially preventable. Symptoms of confusion/disorientation and loss of consciousness were frequently seen. The highest rates of hypoglycemia were seen with prescription of insulin, either alone or in combination with other medications. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT00000620

2012-01-01

310

The 2010 American college of rheumatology fibromyalgia survey diagnostic criteria and symptom severity scale is a valid and reliable tool in a French speaking fibromyalgia cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a pain condition with associated symptoms contributing to distress. The Fibromyalgia Survey Diagnostic Criteria and Severity Scale (FSDC) is a patient-administered questionnaire assessing diagnosis and symptom severity. Locations of body pain measured by the Widespread Pain Index (WPI), and the Symptom Severity scale (SS) measuring fatigue, unrefreshing sleep, cognitive and somatic complaints provide a score (0–31), measuring a composite of polysymptomatic distress. The reliability and validity of the translated French version of the FSDC was evaluated. Methods The French FSDC was administered twice to 73 FM patients, and was correlated with measures of symptom status including: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), and a visual analogue scale (VAS) for global severity and pain. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity were evaluated. Results Test-retest reliability was between .600 and .888 for the 25 single items of the FSDC, and .912 for the total FSDC, with all correlations significant (p?

2012-01-01

311

A cost-effectiveness evaluation of two continuous-combined hormone therapies for the management of moderate-to-severe vasomotor symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: After the release of the results of the Women's Health Initiative, an emerging con- sensus suggests that continuous-combined hormone therapy (CCHT) should be limited to short- term management of moderate-to-severe vasomotor symptoms. This, in turn, raises the important question of the economic value, if any, of short-term CCHT for this indication. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing a 1-year

Marc F. Botteman; Nisha P. Shah; Jean Lian; Chris L. Pashos; James A. Simon

2004-01-01

312

Pru p 3-Sensitised Italian Peach-Allergic Patients Are Less Likely to Develop Severe Symptoms When Also Presenting IgE Antibodies to Pru p 1 and Pru p 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The roles played by different peach allergens with respect to symptom severity have not been completely ascertained. We have evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of peach recombinant allergens ImmunoCAP compared to peach in the identification of subjects at an increased risk for severe reactions to peaches. Methods: 148 peach-allergic patients were divided based on their symptom severity into 2 groups:

Elide A. Pastorello; Laura Farioli; Valerio Pravettoni; Joseph Scibilia; Ambra Mascheri; Linda Borgonovo; Marta Piantanida; Laura Primavesi; Chrysi Stafylaraki; Sara Pasqualetti; Jan Schroeder; Michele Nichelatti; Alessandro Marocchi

2011-01-01

313

Neuroticism-related personality traits are related to symptom severity in patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder and to the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphism 5-HTTPLPR  

PubMed Central

Neuroticism has been linked to a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), with short-allele carriers being overrepresented among high-scorers on neuroticism. Studies evaluating neuroticism-related personality traits in relation to the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism among patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and are lacking. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PMDD and neuroticism-related personality traits, and secondly, to relate the personality trait scores of PMDD patients to experienced symptom severity and to the 5-HTTLPR short allele. Thirty PMDD patients and 55 asymptomatic healthy controls were included in the study. The Swedish Universities Scale of Personality was used to evaluate personality traits. Genotype analyses were available in 27 PMDD patients and 18 healthy controls. Women with PMDD displayed higher levels of neuroticism-related personality traits (psychic trait anxiety, somatic trait anxiety, embitterment, stress susceptibility and mistrust) than healthy controls, and these effects were most prominent in women with more severe luteal phase symptoms. Furthermore, PMDD patients with at least one copy of the short allele of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism scored higher on psychic trait anxiety and lack of assertiveness than PMDD patients who were homozygous for the long allele. PMDD patients who suffer from more severe luteal phase symptoms also display increased scores of neuroticism-related personality traits in comparison with healthy controls. Within the group of PMDD patients, differences in certain personality trait scores are associated with the short allele of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism.

Comasco, Erika; Oreland, Lars; Fredrikson, Mats; Sundstrom-Poromaa, Inger

2010-01-01

314

Self-perceived symptoms and care needs of patients with severe to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure or chronic renal failure and its consequences for their closest relatives: the research protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Recent research shows that the prevalence of patients with very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure (CHF) and chronic renal failure (CRF) continues to rise over the next years. Scientific studies concerning self-perceived symptoms and care needs in patients with severe to very severe COPD, CHF and CRF are scarce. Consequently, it will be difficult to develop an optimal patient-centred palliative care program for patients with end-stage COPD, CHF or CRF. The present study has been designed to assess the symptoms, care needs, end-of-life care treatment preferences and communication needs of patients with severe to very severe COPD, CHF or CRF. Additionally, family distress and care giving burden of relatives of these patients will be assessed. Methods/design A cross-sectional comparative and prospective longitudinal study in patients with end-stage COPD, CHF or CRF has been designed. Patients will be recruited by their treating physician specialist. Patients and their closest relatives will be visited at baseline and every 4 months after baseline for a period of 12 months. The following outcomes will be assessed during home visits: self-perceived symptoms and care needs; daily physical functioning; general health status; end-of-life care treatment preferences; end-of-life care communication and care-giver burden of family caregivers. Additionally, end-of-life care communication and prognosis of survival will be assessed with the physician primarily responsible for the management of the chronic organ failure. Finally, if patients decease during the study period, the baseline preferences with regard to life-sustaining treatments will be compared with the real end-of-life care. Discussion To date, the symptoms, care needs, caregiver burden, end-of-life care treatment preferences and communication needs of patients with very severe COPD, CHF or CRF remain unknown. The present study will increase the knowledge about the self-perceived symptoms, care-needs, caregiver burden, end-of-life care treatment preferences and communication needs from the views of patients, their loved ones and their treating physician. This knowledge is necessary to optimize palliative care for patients with COPD, CHF or CRF. Here, the design of the present study has been described. A preliminary analysis of the possible strengths, weaknesses and clinical consequences is outlined.

Janssen, Daisy JA; Wouters, Emiel FM; Schols, Jos MGA; Spruit, Martijn A

2008-01-01

315

Intensive observation of toxic side effects after several-year of cyclosporin treatment in kidney transplant patient.  

PubMed

In this work we are going to show results of intensive observation of adverse reactions of cyclosporine therapy during 18 months. The research was applied on 30 patients with kidney transplant. The medium time of kidney transplant survival was 9,7+/-2,3 years, with time span of 6 to 15 years. All the patients were subjects to several years' cyclosporine treatment, which was applied on a daily basis with a dosage of 2 to 5 mg/kg of body weight. The concentration of cyclosporine in blood was measured once a month. The concentration of cyclosporine in blood in 19 patients was in referent values of 122,50 nag/ml up to 280,50 nag/ml of blood. In 4 of the patients the concentration was heightened up to 370 to 538 nag/ml (X=766,37 nag/ml), and in 7 patients cyclosporine was below normal dosage down to 30,78 to 96,30 nag/ml in blood (x=77,12 nag/ml). We noticed these toxic side effects: increased values of systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure in 5 patients, neurotoxic tremor effects in 4 patients, hyperplasia gingival and hirsute in 1 patient each. PMID:17489748

As?eri?, Mensura; Avdi?, Sevleta; Nuki?, Sabrija; Vrabac-Mujcinagi?, Muamera

2007-05-01

316

Anxiety Sensitivity and Panic Reactivity to Bodily Sensations: Relation to Quit-Day (Acute) Nicotine Withdrawal Symptom Severity Among Daily Smokers Making a Self-Guided Quit Attempt  

PubMed Central

The current investigation explored the main and interactive effects of panic attacks in response to laboratory-induced bodily sensations and anxiety sensitivity in predicting acute nicotine withdrawal symptoms among daily smokers making a self-guided quit attempt. Participants were 99 daily smokers (58% women; Mage = 28.4 years, SD = 11.7) who completed a battery of questionnaires, a voluntary hyperventilation challenge, and a measure of nicotine withdrawal symptoms 12 hr after making a self-guided quit attempt. Results indicated that the interaction of anxiety sensitivity and panic responsivity to the challenge predicted quit-day nicotine withdrawal symptom severity above and beyond the main effects (p < .05). The form of the interaction indicated that the relationship between postchallenge panic attack status and acute nicotine withdrawal was more robust among individuals who were low in anxiety sensitivity. Individuals who did not experience a panic attack posthyperventilation who were also low in anxiety sensitivity reported the lowest levels of nicotine withdrawal. Results suggest that anxiety sensitivity may be less relevant with regard to acute nicotine withdrawal severity among individuals with panic-related problems.

Marshall, Erin C.; Johnson, Kirsten; Bergman, Jenna; Gibson, Laura E.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

2010-01-01

317

Anxiety sensitivity and panic reactivity to bodily sensations: relation to quit-day (acute) nicotine withdrawal symptom severity among daily smokers making a self-guided quit attempt.  

PubMed

The current investigation explored the main and interactive effects of panic attacks in response to laboratory-induced bodily sensations and anxiety sensitivity in predicting acute nicotine withdrawal symptoms among daily smokers making a self-guided quit attempt. Participants were 99 daily smokers (58% women; M(age) = 28.4 years, SD = 11.7) who completed a battery of questionnaires, a voluntary hyperventilation challenge, and a measure of nicotine withdrawal symptoms 12 hr after making a self-guided quit attempt. Results indicated that the interaction of anxiety sensitivity and panic responsivity to the challenge predicted quit-day nicotine withdrawal symptom severity above and beyond the main effects (p < .05). The form of the interaction indicated that the relationship between postchallenge panic attack status and acute nicotine withdrawal was more robust among individuals who were low in anxiety sensitivity. Individuals who did not experience a panic attack posthyperventilation who were also low in anxiety sensitivity reported the lowest levels of nicotine withdrawal. Results suggest that anxiety sensitivity may be less relevant with regard to acute nicotine withdrawal severity among individuals with panic-related problems. PMID:19803635

Marshall, Erin C; Johnson, Kirsten; Bergman, Jenna; Gibson, Laura E; Zvolensky, Michael J

2009-10-01

318

Coping Style Use Predicts Posttraumatic Stress and Complicated Grief Symptom Severity Among College Students Reporting a Traumatic Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem-focused coping, and active and avoidant emotional coping were examined as correlates of grief and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity among 123 college students reporting the unexpected death of an immediate family member, romantic partner, or very close friend. The authors administered to participants, via the Internet, 5 survey instruments that measured demographic characteristics, traumatic event exposure (Stressful Life Events

Kimberly R. Schnider; Jon D. Elhai; Matt J. Gray

2007-01-01

319

Propranolol in the Control of Schizophrenic Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

All schizophrenic symptoms remitted completely in six out of 14 adults who had not responded to phenothiazine drugs and who were then given propranolol. Another patient improved markedly and four improved moderately. Two had minimal or transient improvement, and one left hospital unchanged after a short, severe, toxic reaction. The six with complete remissions all began to improve within a

N. J. Yorkston; Saniha A. Zaki; M. K. U. Malik; R. C. Morrison; C. W. H. Havard

1974-01-01

320

Increase in exhaled nitric oxide levels in patients with difficult asthma and correlation with symptoms and disease severity despite treatment with oral and inhaled corticosteroids  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Patients with difficult asthma suffer chronic moderate to severe persistent asthma symptoms despite high doses of inhaled and oral corticosteroid therapy. These patients suffer a high level of treatment and disease related morbidity but little is known about the degree of airway inflammation in these patients.?METHODS—Fifty two patients were examined to assess levels of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) as a surrogate marker of inflammatory activity in this condition. From this group, 26 patients were defined with severe symptoms and current physiological evidence of reversible airway obstruction requiring high dose inhaled (?2000 µg beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) equivalent) or oral steroid therapy to maintain disease control.?RESULTS—Exhaled NO levels were higher in subjects with difficult asthma (mean 13.9 ppb, 95% CI 9.3 to 18.5) than in normal controls (7.4 ppb, 95% CI 6.9 to 7.8; p<0.002), but lower than levels in steroid naive mild asthmatics (36.9 ppb, 95% CI 34.6 to 39.3; p<0.001). Prednisolone treated patients had higher exhaled NO levels than patients only requiring inhaled corticosteroids (17.5ppb, 95% CI 11.1 to 24.0 versus 7.2 ppb, 95% CI 4.6 to 9.8; p= 0.016), suggesting greater disease severity in this group. Non-compliance with prednisolone treatment was observed in 20% of patients but this did not explain the difference between the treatment groups. Exhaled NO levels were closely correlated with symptom frequency (p = 0.03) and with rescue ? agonist use (p<0.002), but they did not correlate with lung function.?CONCLUSIONS—Exhaled NO may serve as a useful complement to lung function and symptomatology in the assessment of patients with chronic severe asthma, and in the control and rationalisation of steroid therapy in these patients.??

Stirling, R; Kharitonov, S; Campbell, D; Robinson, D; Durham, S; Chung, K; Barnes, P

1998-01-01

321

The Impact of Severe Stalking Experienced by Acutely Battered Women: An Examination of Violence, Psychological Symptoms and Strategic Responding  

PubMed Central

Stalking has been relatively understudied compared to other dimensions of intimate partner violence. The purpose of this article was to examine concurrent and subsequent intimate partner abuse, strategic responses and symptomatic consequences of severe stalking experienced by battered women. Thirty-five battered women classified as “relentlessly stalked” and 31 infrequently stalked battered women were compared. Compared to infrequently stalked battered women, relentlessly stalked battered women reported: (a) more severe concurrent physical violence, sexual assault and emotional abuse: (b) increased post-separation assault and stalking; (c) increased rates of depression and PTSD; and (d) more extensive use of strategic responses to abuse. Results underscore the scope and magnitude of stalking faced by battered women and have implications for assessment and intervention strategies.

Mechanic, Mindy B.; Uhlmansiek, Mary H.; Weaver, Terri L.; Resick, Patricia A.

2010-01-01

322

Basal ganglia dysfunction in OCD: subthalamic neuronal activity correlates with symptoms severity and predicts high-frequency stimulation efficacy.  

PubMed

Functional and connectivity changes in corticostriatal systems have been reported in the brains of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); however, the relationship between basal ganglia activity and OCD severity has never been adequately established. We recently showed that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a central basal ganglia nucleus, improves OCD. Here, single-unit subthalamic neuronal activity was analysed in 12 OCD patients, in relation to the severity of obsessions and compulsions and response to STN stimulation, and compared with that obtained in 12 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). STN neurons in OCD patients had lower discharge frequency than those in PD patients, with a similar proportion of burst-type activity (69 vs 67%). Oscillatory activity was present in 46 and 68% of neurons in OCD and PD patients, respectively, predominantly in the low-frequency band (1-8?Hz). In OCD patients, the bursty and oscillatory subthalamic neuronal activity was mainly located in the associative-limbic part. Both OCD severity and clinical improvement following STN stimulation were related to the STN neuronal activity. In patients with the most severe OCD, STN neurons exhibited bursts with shorter duration and interburst interval, but higher intraburst frequency, and more oscillations in the low-frequency bands. In patients with best clinical outcome with STN stimulation, STN neurons displayed higher mean discharge, burst and intraburst frequencies, and lower interburst interval. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis of a dysfunction in the associative-limbic subdivision of the basal ganglia circuitry in OCD's pathophysiology. PMID:22832400

Welter, M-L; Burbaud, P; Fernandez-Vidal, S; Bardinet, E; Coste, J; Piallat, B; Borg, M; Besnard, S; Sauleau, P; Devaux, B; Pidoux, B; Chaynes, P; Tézenas du Montcel, S; Bastian, A; Langbour, N; Teillant, A; Haynes, W; Yelnik, J; Karachi, C; Mallet, L

2011-05-03

323

[Severe mitral regurgitation as the first symptom of systemic lupus erythematosus in a young women required mitral valve replacement].  

PubMed

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder resulting in multiorgan inflammatory damage. The heart is frequently involved in SLE. The best known cardiac manifestations are pericarditis and Libman-Saks endocarditis. Severe valvular impairment is rather rare and occurs in few years and in advanced stage of the disease. In this study we report a case of a young women with SLE and heart failure due to mitral regurgitation as the first manifestation of the disease. PMID:22528724

Nowicka, Anna; Pi?tkowska, Anna; Biegalski, Wojciech; Dankowski, Rafa?; Michalski, Marek; Szymanowska, Katarzyna; Szyszka, Andrzej; Jemielity, Marek; Seniuk, Wojciech; Sosnowski, Piotr

2012-01-01

324

Premenstrual symptoms: another look.  

PubMed Central

A collection of over 200 symptoms has been labeled premenstrual syndrome. Common belief is that most women experience a marked increase in symptoms premenses. Cyclic variations in the prevalence of commonly cited perimenstrual symptoms were estimated from daily symptom recording. A community-based, multiethnic sample of 345 women recorded symptom severity from "not present" to "extreme" for 90 days. Maximum total reported symptom score occurred during menses, not during premenses. When individual symptoms are considered, the prevalence of those rated as moderate to extreme during menses is less than 15 percent. A method for identifying symptom severity patterns throughout the menstrual cycle is described. Six symptom severity patterns were identified. Only 13 percent of the women exhibited a pattern of increased symptom severity in the premenses. Another 13 percent had a pattern of decreased symptom severity in the premenses.

Woods, N F

1987-01-01

325

Severe radiation therapy-related soft tissue toxicity in a patient with porphyria cutanea tarda: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Some porphyrias are associated with cutaneous phototoxicity due to photoactivation of porphyrins, but whether ionizing radiation can have an additive effect is not clear. We report a case of severe radiation therapy-related toxicity in a patient with porphyria cutanea tarda and review the literature. Methods A 50 year-old man with porphyria cutanea was treated for lower lip squamous cell carcinoma with definitive radiation therapy. During radiation therapy acute toxicity was of an expected onset and severity. Six months after treatment completion, he developed skin hypopigmentation, soft tissue fibrosis, and areas of painful denuded skin and crusting within the previous treatment field. Results Reports of 7 porphyria patients receiving radiation therapy to at least 9 separate sites were reviewed, with only one previous report suggestive of increased radiation therapy-related toxicity. Conclusions Based on this report and one other, caution is warranted when considering radiation therapy in patients with active porphyria.

Gunn, G. Brandon; Anderson, Karl E.; Patel, Abhilasha J.; Gallegos, Juan; Hallberg, Csilla K.; Sood, Gagan; Hatch, Sandra S.; Sanguineti, Giuseppe

2009-01-01

326

Neuroticism-related personality traits are related to symptom severity in patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder and to the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphism 5-HTTPLPR.  

PubMed

Neuroticism has been linked to a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), with short-allele carriers being overrepresented among high-scorers on neuroticism. Studies evaluating neuroticism-related personality traits in relation to the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism among patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and are lacking. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PMDD and neuroticism-related personality traits, and secondly, to relate the personality trait scores of PMDD patients to experienced symptom severity and to the 5-HTTLPR short allele. Thirty PMDD patients and 55 asymptomatic healthy controls were included in the study. The Swedish Universities Scale of Personality was used to evaluate personality traits. Genotype analyses were available in 27 PMDD patients and 18 healthy controls. Women with PMDD displayed higher levels of neuroticism-related personality traits (psychic trait anxiety, somatic trait anxiety, embitterment, stress susceptibility and mistrust) than healthy controls, and these effects were most prominent in women with more severe luteal phase symptoms. Furthermore, PMDD patients with at least one copy of the short allele of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism scored higher on psychic trait anxiety and lack of assertiveness than PMDD patients who were homozygous for the long allele. PMDD patients who suffer from more severe luteal phase symptoms also display increased scores of neuroticism-related personality traits in comparison with healthy controls. Within the group of PMDD patients, differences in certain personality trait scores are associated with the short allele of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. PMID:20440524

Gingnell, Malin; Comasco, Erika; Oreland, Lars; Fredrikson, Mats; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

2010-05-04

327

Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity and Marijuana Use Coping Motives: A Test of the Mediating Role of Non-Judgmental Acceptance within a Trauma-Exposed Community Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the role of non-judgmental acceptance in the relation between posttraumatic stress symptom severity and marijuana\\u000a use coping motives. These relations were examined among 97 (46 women) adults (M\\u000a age?=?21.57 years, SD?=?6.32) who met DSM-IV-defined PTSD Criterion A for at least one traumatic event exposure and reported using marijuana in the past 30 days. Consistent\\u000a with expectation, greater levels of posttraumatic

Marcel O. Bonn-Miller; Anka A. Vujanovic; Michael P. Twohig; Johnna L. Medina; Jennifer L. Huggins

2010-01-01

328

Tobacco smoking in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients is associated with impaired cognitive functioning, more severe negative symptoms, and poorer social adjustment  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking is common in schizophrenia patients. It has been reported that schizophrenia patients who are tobacco smokers have better cognitive performances compared to those who are nonsmokers. However, little is known on the effects of tobacco smoking in treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) patients. The aim of this study was to compare cognitive performances, psychotic symptoms, and social adjustment in tobacco smoker TRS patients compared to nonsmoker TRS patients. Smoker and nonsmoker TRS patients did not differ in demographics and in mean daily antipsychotic dose. Smoker TRS patients had significantly higher scores than nonsmoker patients on the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and on the negative symptoms subscale. These patients also performed worse than nonsmoker patients on problem-solving cognitive domain. Social adjustment was not significantly different between the two groups. In both groups of patients, worse cognitive performances were mostly predicted by higher severity of negative symptoms. Worse performances on the verbal memory and problem-solving cognitive domains were correlated with social-functioning impairment in tobacco smoker TRS patients but not in nonsmoker ones. The results showed that tobacco smoking was not significantly associated with better cognitive performances in TRS patients, while it was significantly associated with higher negative symptoms. Even if a direct causative mechanism cannot be inferred and despite the fact that these patients may use tobacco to self-medicate, it could be speculated that these associations may, at least partially, be related to a tobacco-smoking–induced worsening of abnormal dopamine dysfunction, which has been suggested to occur in TRS patients.

Iasevoli, Felice; Balletta, Raffaele; Gilardi, Valentina; Giordano, Sara; de Bartolomeis, Andrea

2013-01-01

329

An exploratory study of the relationship of symptom domains and diagnostic severity to PET scan imaging in borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

The purpose of this report is to describe the relationship between clinical rating assessments of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and regional brain metabolism as measured by positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucuse-F18 (PET-FDG). Fourteen women with BPD underwent PET-FDG scanning in a medication-free state. Correlations were performed on a voxel-by-voxel basis with Buss-Durkee Hostility Index (BDHI) and the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder (ZAN-BPD) which provides a score for BPD severity. There was a significant negative correlation between glucose metabolism in frontal brain areas and the BDHI. Correlations of brain metabolic changes and diagnostic behavioral rating scale scores (ZAN-BPD) were small and seen mostly in posterior areas. The assessment of the statistical relationship of the BDHI to brain regions was substantially more robust than the correlations of the total ZAN-BPD. This exploratory study illustrates regional metabolic values that are highly related to hostile behavior. Our findings replicate some prior studies that have identified a negative relationship between frontal metabolism and aggression in personality disorders. We have also identified a range of other areas that relate to both positive (representing increased drive) and negative (representing impaired control) hostility scores. The substantially greater correlations of the BDHI compared with the ZAN-BPD provide information about the neural underpinnings of BPD. PMID:24011393

Charles Schulz, S; Camchong, Jazmin; Romine, Ann; Schlesinger, Amanda; Kuskowski, Michael; Pardo, Jose V; Cullen, Kathryn R; Lim, Kelvin O

2013-09-03

330

How do you feel? Self-esteem predicts affect, stress, social interaction, and symptom severity during daily life in patients with chronic illness.  

PubMed

Self-esteem has been demonstrated to predict health and well-being in a number of samples and domains using retrospective reports, but little is known about the effect of self-esteem in daily life. A community sample with asthma (n = 97) or rheumatoid arthritis (n = 31) completed a self-esteem measure and collected Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data 5x/day for one week using a palmtop computer. Low self-esteem predicted more negative affect, less positive affect, greater stress severity, and greater symptom severity in daily life. Naturalistic exploration of mechanisms relating self-esteem to physiological and/or psychological components in illness may clarify causal relationships and inform theoretical models of self-care, well-being, and disease management. PMID:18809639

Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua M; Santuzzi, Alecia M

2008-10-01

331

Propranolol in the Control of Schizophrenic Symptoms  

PubMed Central

All schizophrenic symptoms remitted completely in six out of 14 adults who had not responded to phenothiazine drugs and who were then given propranolol. Another patient improved markedly and four improved moderately. Two had minimal or transient improvement, and one left hospital unchanged after a short, severe, toxic reaction. The six with complete remissions all began to improve within a few days of starting propranolol and the florid symptoms remitted completely after three to 26 days. They were stabilized on a daily dose of 500-3,500 mg of propranolol and at the time of writing had remained well for up to six months. Two patients who stopped propranolol after their symptoms remitted relapsed severely within a few days. Toxic effects (ataxia, visual hallucinations, and confusional states) were related to the rate of increase rather than to the absolute dose of propranolol. After the procedure was modified unwanted effects were usually mild or absent.

Yorkston, N. J.; Zaki, Saniha A.; Malik, M. K. U.; Morrison, R. C.; Havard, C. W. H.

1974-01-01

332

Prevalence of pain and association with psychiatric symptom severity in perinatally HIV-infected children as compared to controls living in HIV-affected households  

PubMed Central

This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of pain and psychiatric symptoms in perinatally HIV-infected children at entry into P1055, a multicenter investigation of the prevalence and severity of psychiatric symptoms in HIV-infected children. Subjects 6–17 years of age and their primary caregivers were recruited from 29 International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials sites in the USA and Puerto Rico. A total of 576 children (320 HIV+ and 256 HIV? children) were enrolled from June 2005 to September 2006. Subject self-reports of pain were measured by the Wong–Baker visual analog scale and Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Symptomatology for anxiety, depression, and dysthymia was assessed through Symptom Inventory instruments. Caregiver's assessment of their child's pain and psychiatric symptomatology was similarly measured. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate predictors of pain. We found that a higher proportion of HIV-infected than uninfected subjects reported pain in the last two months (41% vs 32%, p=0.04), last two weeks (28% vs 19%, p=0.02), and lasting more than one week (20% vs 11%, p=0.03). Among HIV-infected youth, females (OR=1.53, p=0.09), White race (OR=2.15, p=0.04), and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Class C (OR=1.83, p=0.04) were significantly more likely to report pain. For all subjects, only 52% of caregivers recognized their child's pain and just 22% were aware that pain affected their child's daily activities. The odds of reported pain in HIV+ increased with higher symptom severity for generalized anxiety (OR=1.14, p=0.03), major depression (OR=1.15, p=0.03), and dysthymia (OR=1.18, p=0.01). This study underscores the importance of queries concerning pain and emotional stressors in the care of HIV+ and uninfected children exposed to HIV+ individuals. The discordance between patient and caregiver reports of pain and its impact on activities of daily living highlights that pain in children is under-recognized and therefore potentially under-treated.

Serchuck, Leslie K.; Williams, Paige L.; Nachman, Sharon; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Chernoff, Miriam; Schwartz, Lynnae

2011-01-01

333

Prevalence of pain and association with psychiatric symptom severity in perinatally HIV-infected children as compared to controls living in HIV-affected households.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of pain and psychiatric symptoms in perinatally HIV-infected children at entry into P1055, a multicenter investigation of the prevalence and severity of psychiatric symptoms in HIV-infected children. Subjects 6-17 years of age and their primary caregivers were recruited from 29 International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials sites in the USA and Puerto Rico. A total of 576 children (320 HIV and 256 HIV- children) were enrolled from June 2005 to September 2006. Subject self-reports of pain were measured by the Wong-Baker visual analog scale and Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Symptomatology for anxiety, depression, and dysthymia was assessed through Symptom Inventory instruments. Caregiver's assessment of their child's pain and psychiatric symptomatology was similarly measured. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate predictors of pain. We found that a higher proportion of HIV-infected than uninfected subjects reported pain in the last two months (41% vs 32%, p=0.04), last two weeks (28% vs 19%, p=0.02), and lasting more than one week (20% vs 11%, p=0.03). Among HIV-infected youth, females (OR=1.53, p=0.09), White race (OR=2.15, p=0.04), and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Class C (OR=1.83, p=0.04) were significantly more likely to report pain. For all subjects, only 52% of caregivers recognized their child's pain and just 22% were aware that pain affected their child's daily activities. The odds of reported pain in HIV increased with higher symptom severity for generalized anxiety (OR=1.14, p=0.03), major depression (OR=1.15, p=0.03), and dysthymia (OR=1.18, p=0.01). This study underscores the importance of queries concerning pain and emotional stressors in the care of HIV and uninfected children exposed to HIV individuals. The discordance between patient and caregiver reports of pain and its impact on activities of daily living highlights that pain in children is under-recognized and therefore potentially under-treated. PMID:20401767

Serchuck, Leslie K; Williams, Paige L; Nachman, Sharon; Gadow, Kenneth D; Chernoff, Miriam; Schwartz, Lynnae

2010-05-01

334

Quinine toxicity.  

PubMed

The currently recognized toxic effects of quinine in humans are identified and the problems of management of overdosage of quinine are discussed. Quinine, available therapeutically as sulphate or hydrochloride salts, also is widely used in tonic water, and there are several case reports of allergic reactions to the drug when a patient has consumed the drug in this way. Another unintentional source of poisoning is its use as an adulterant in heroin for "street" use. This appears to be a problem in the US. Quinine, termed a "general protoplasmic poison" is toxic to many bacteria, yeasts, and trypanosomes, as well as to malarial plasmodia. Quinine has local anesthetic action but also is an irritant. The irritant effects may be responsible in part for the nausea associated with its clinical use. In addition it has a mild antipyretic effect. Several features are common to both an acute single overdose in self-poisoning and accumulation of quinine during therapy for malaria: together they are termed cinchonism. Auditory symptoms, gastrointestinal disturbances, vasodilatation, sweating, and headache occur with moderately elevated plasma quinine concentration. As these rise, increasingly severe visual disturbances and then cardiac and neurologic features occur. Mild nausea may be the only symptom, but with large overdoses profuse vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea may occur. These result from a combination of the local irritant effect of quinine on the gut and the central effects of quinine on the chemoreceptor trigger zone. Vasodilatation and sweating are well recognized, and tinnitus is common. Visual symptoms usually are delayed, and blindness may not be discovered for a day or more. Aspirin-sensitive patients, and others, may develop angioedema by nonimmunological mechanisms in response to drugs, and quinine has been reported to produce pseudo-allergic reactions in aspirin-sensitive patients. Quinine also can cause drug-induced thrombocytopenia and purpura. In patients suffering with malaria due to "Plasmodium falciparum," anemia and acute intravascular hemolysis with renal failure are recognized complications. There appears to be little evidence in the literature in support of the folk tradition of quinine as an inducer of abortion. Quinine is known to cause deterioration in patients with myasthenia gravis and erythema multiforme, to stimulate insulin release in patients receiving treatment for falicparum malaria, and to be responsible at times for ataxia following moderate overdosage. Clinically, quinine poisoning is observed in 3 situations: self-poisoning; accidentally; and following use of quinine in excessive doses in the hope of achieving abortion. Treatment courses are reviewed. PMID:3548270

Bateman, D N; Dyson, E H

1986-01-01

335

A Novel Form of 4-1BBL Has Better Immunomodulatory Activity than an Agonistic Anti-4-1BB Ab without Ab Associated Severe Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Agonistic Abs to select costimulatory members of CD28 and TNFR family have shown efficacy in various preclinical cancer immunotherapeutic settings. However, the use of agonistic Abs is often associated with severe toxicity due to nonspecific activation of lymphocytes. We hypothesized that natural costimulatory ligands may serve as more potent and safer alternative to agonistic Abs for immunotherapy. In this communication, we focused on 4-1BBL as the molecule of choice because of the pleiotropic effects of 4-1BB signaling in the immune system and the demonstrated therapeutic efficacy of 4-1BB agonistic Abs in preclinical cancer and infection models. We report that a novel form of soluble ligand, SA-4-1BBL, delivered more potent and qualitatively different signals to T cells than an agonistic Ab. Importantly, while treatment of naïve mice with the agonistic Ab resulted in severe toxicity, as assessed by enlarged spleen and peripheral LNs, non-specific T cell proliferation, hepatitis, and systemic inflammatory cytokine production, treatment with SA-4-1BBL lacked these immune anomalies. Agonistic Ab treatment produced full toxicity in Fc?R?/? or complement C1q?/? or C3?/? knockout mice, suggesting lack of involvement of stimulatory Fc?Rs or complement system in the observed toxicity. Naïve and memory T cells served as direct targets of anti-4-1BB Ab mediated toxicity. Potent immunostimulatory activity combined with lack of toxicity rationalizes further development of soluble SA-4-1BBL as an immunomodulatory component of therapeutic vaccines against cancer and chronic infections.

Schabowsky, Rich-Henry; Elpek, Kutlu G; Madireddi, Shravan; Sharma, Rajesh K; Yolcu, Esma S.; Bandura-Morgan, Laura; Miller, Robert; MacLeod, Kathryn J; Mittler, Robert S.; Shirwan, Haval

2009-01-01

336

Self-reported urinary incontinence and factors associated with symptom severity in community dwelling adult women: implications for women's health promotion  

PubMed Central

Background Urinary incontinence (UI) continues to affect millions of women worldwide and those living in resource poor settings seem to be more affected. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of UI and factors associated with UI symptom severity (UISS) among women in a selected district in India. Methods A cross-sectional design was used to collect data from a sample of 598 community dwelling women in the age range of 20 to 60 years. Data was collected using a questionnaire survey of participants who were found in their homes. Results The prevalence of UI was 33.8% and the majority of women had negative attitudes about the condition. For instance most women were in agreement with statements such as: UI cannot be prevented or cured (98%); women with UI are cursed (97%); women are not supposed to tell anyone about the problem (90%) and others. Of the 202 women with self-reported UI, the majority reported having moderate UISS (78%) and others rated the symptoms as mild (22%). The woman’s age at first birth (p<.01) was negatively associated with UISS, while the number of pregnancies (p<.01) and weight of the largest baby ever delivered (p<.01), were positively associated with UISS. The weight of the largest baby delivered had the strongest impact on predicting UISS. Conclusions Many community dwelling women are suffering from UI at proportions which warrant significant public health consideration. Therefore public health programs to prevent UI or worsening of symptoms are required and should emphasize health education, because of the pervasive negative attitudes among affected and unaffected women. The predictors reported here can be used to priotize care for affected women and to encourage early uptake of health actions and behaviors that promote pelvic floor strengthening in at risk women who may be reluctant to disclose UI.

2013-01-01

337

Progression, Symptoms and Psychosocial Concerns among Those Severely Affected by Multiple Sclerosis: A Mixed-Methods Cross-Sectional Study of Black Caribbean and White British People  

PubMed Central

Objective Multiple sclerosis is now more common among minority ethnic groups in the UK but little is known about their experiences, especially in advanced stages. We examine disease progression, symptoms and psychosocial concerns among Black Caribbean (BC) and White British (WB) people severely affected by MS. Design Mixed methods study of 43 BC and 43 WB people with MS (PwMS) with an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) ?6 involving data from in clinical records, face-to-face structured interviews and a nested-qualitative component. Progression Index (PI) and Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) were calculated. To control for selection bias, propensity scores were derived for each patient and adjusted for in the comparative statistical analysis; qualitative data were analysed using the framework approach. Results Median EDSS for both groups was (6.5; range: 6.0–9.0). Progression Index (PI) and Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) based on neurological assessment of current EDSS scores identified BC PwMS were more likely to have aggressive disease (PI F?=?4.04, p?=?0.048, MSSS F?=?10.30, p<0.001). Patients’ reports of the time required to reach levels of functional decline equivalent to different EDSS levels varied by group; EDSS 4: BC 2.7 years v/s WB 10.2 years (U?=?258.50, p?=?0.013), EDSS 6?6.1 years BC v/s WB 12.7 years (U?=?535.500, p?=?0.011), EDSS 8: BC 8.7 years v/s WB 10.2 years. Both groups reported high symptom burden. BC PwMS were more cognitively impaired than WB PwMS (F?=?9.65, p?=?0.003). Thematic analysis of qualitative interviews provides correspondence with quantitative findings; more BC than WB PwMS referred to feelings of extreme frustration and unresolved loss/confusion associated with their rapidly advancing disease. The interviews also reveal the centrality, meanings and impact of common MS-related symptoms. Conclusions Delays in diagnosis should be avoided and more frequent reviews may be justified by healthcare services. Culturally acceptable interventions to better support people who perceive MS as an assault on identity should be developed to help them achieve normalisation and enhance self-identity.

Koffman, Jonathan; Gao, Wei; Goddard, Cassie; Burman, Rachel; Jackson, Diana; Shaw, Pauline; Barnes, Fiona; Silber, Eli; Higginson, Irene J.

2013-01-01

338

Toxic Encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

This article schematically reviews the clinical features, diagnostic approaches to, and toxicological implications of toxic encephalopathy. The review will focus on the most significant occupational causes of toxic encephalopathy. Chronic toxic encephalopathy, cerebellar syndrome, parkinsonism, and vascular encephalopathy are commonly encountered clinical syndromes of toxic encephalopathy. Few neurotoxins cause patients to present with pathognomonic neurological syndromes. The symptoms and signs of toxic encephalopathy may be mimicked by many psychiatric, metabolic, inflammatory, neoplastic, and degenerative diseases of the nervous system. Thus, the importance of good history-taking that considers exposure and a comprehensive neurological examination cannot be overemphasized in the diagnosis of toxic encephalopathy. Neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging typically play ancillary roles. The recognition of toxic encephalopathy is important because the correct diagnosis of occupational disease can prevent others (e.g., workers at the same worksite) from further harm by reducing their exposure to the toxin, and also often provides some indication of prognosis. Physicians must therefore be aware of the typical signs and symptoms of toxic encephalopathy, and close collaborations between neurologists and occupational physicians are needed to determine whether neurological disorders are related to occupational neurotoxin exposure.

Kim, Jae Woo

2012-01-01

339

Biased Treg/Th17 balance away from regulatory toward inflammatory phenotype in relapsed multiple sclerosis and its correlation with severity of symptoms.  

PubMed

The opposing immune functions of Treg and Th17 lymphocytes and the plasticity of Treg/Th17 differentiation, has led us to investigate the effects of their fluctuations and counterbalance in autoimmune condition of multiple sclerosis (MS). Evaluation of Treg and Th17 frequency in peripheral blood of a group of relapsed MS patients, showed a decrease in Treg/Th17 ratio compared to that of healthy controls. A reverse correlation between these subsets was observed in controls but not in patient groups. Both Treg frequency and Treg/Th17 ratio were negatively correlated with severity of symptoms. There was shown to be an enduring increase in Treg frequency associated with MS disease. PMID:23845464

Jamshidian, Azam; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Pourazar, Abbasali; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed-Hamid; Gharagozloo, Marjan

2013-07-09

340

Hydrogen-Cyanamide-Related Severe Cutaneous Reactions Simulating Erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome\\/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen grapevine workers developed skin reactions resembling erythema multiforme (EM) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome\\/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS\\/TEN) following exposure to Dormex, a plant growth regulator, the active ingredient of which is hydrogen cyanamide. Five patients needed hospitalization, and all recovered following treatment. Whether these were contact EM-like reactions due to hydrogen cyanamide or classical EM, SJS-TEN induced by this chemical remains

Arun C. Inamadar; Aparna Palit

2004-01-01

341

Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Symptoms of Severe Agitation and Aggression: Consensus Statement on Treatment Options, Clinical Trials Methodology, and Policy  

PubMed Central

Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been used off-label in clinical practice for treatment of serious dementia-associated agitation and aggression. Following reports of cerebrovascular adverse events associated with the use of atypical antipsychotic in elderly patients with dementia, the FDA issued black box warnings for several atypical antipsychotics, titled “Cerebrovascular Adverse Events, including Stroke, in Elderly Patients with Dementia.” Subsequently, the FDA initiated a meta-analysis of safety data from 17 registration trials across six antipsychotic drugs (five atypical antipsychotics and haloperidol). In 2005, the Agency issued a black box warning regarding increased risk of mortality associated with the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs in this patient population. Geriatric mental health experts participating in a 2006 consensus conference reviewed evidence on the safety and efficacy of antipsychotics, as well as nonpharmacologic approaches, in treating dementia-related symptoms of agitation and aggression. They concluded that, while problems in clinical trials design may have been one of the contributors to the failure to find a signal of drug efficacy, the findings related to drug safety should be taken seriously by clinicians in assessing the potential risks and benefits of treatment in a frail population, and in advising families about treatment. Information provided to patients and family members should be documented in the patient’s chart. Drugs should be used only when non-pharmacologic approaches have failed to adequately control behavioral disruption. Participants also agreed that that there is a need for an FDA-approved medication for the treatment of severe, persistent or recurrent dementia-related symptoms of agitation and aggression (even in the absence of psychosis), that are unresponsive to nonpharmacologic intervention. The authors have outlined methodological enhancements to better evaluate treatment approaches in future registration trials, and they provided an algorithm for improving the treatment of these patients in nursing home and non-nursing home settings.

Salzman, C; Jeste, D; Meyer, RE; Cohen-Mansfield, J; Cummings, J; Grossberg, G; Jarvik, L; Kraemer, H; Lebowitz, B; Maslow, K; Pollock, B; Raskind, M; Schultz, S; Wang, P; Zito, JM; Zubenko, GS

2009-01-01

342

Symptoms and Symptom Management in Long-term Cancer Survivors.  

PubMed

It is estimated that there are 13 million cancer survivors in the United States, and more than 65% of them are 5 or more years beyond their diagnosis. The majority are "cancer-free and free of cancer," although some survivors have late or long-term effects of treatment or develop second or secondary cancers. Late and long-term effects for survivors of childhood cancers have been well studied, but less is known about the "seasons of survivorship" for adult cancer survivors.Symptoms during diagnosis, treatment, and then extending through the first several years of survivorship were reported in more than half of a large and heterogeneous group of cancer survivors. The incidence of late and/or long-term symptoms and health problems of long-term cancer survivors is less well characterized. These persistent symptoms are related to survivors' cancer diagnosis and the treatment they received, as well as age and other comorbidities. Health-related quality of life generally is stable for many years, although some cancer survivors experience a significant drop in health-related quality of life years after treatment, although the etiology is not clear yet.This article provides an overview of the natural history of cancer survivorship ("The seasons of survivorship"), disease-specific toxicities, and changes in symptoms in cancer survivors over time. Several common symptoms are used as examples including pain, fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. PMID:24051613

Gosain, Rahul; Miller, Kenneth

343

Predictors of severe gastrointestinal toxicity after external beam radiotherapy and interstitial brachytherapy for advanced or recurrent gynecologic malignancies  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this retrospective review of patients with gynecologic malignancies treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and interstitial brachytherapy was to determine the rate of Grade {>=}2 rectovaginal fistula and Grade {>=}4 small bowel obstruction as defined by the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with primary and recurrent gynecologic cancers were treated with EBRT and interstitial brachytherapy. Median doses to tumor, bladder, and rectum were 75 Gy, 61 Gy, and 61 Gy, respectively. A univariate analysis was performed to identify variables that correlated with toxicity. Results: At median follow-up of 19 months, the 3-year risk of small bowel obstruction was 6%. Those patients with prior abdomino-pelvic surgery who received EBRT with antero-posterior fields had higher rates of obstruction than patients without prior abdomino-pelvic surgery or those who received EBRT with four fields (50% vs. 0%, p < 0.0001). The 3-year risk of rectovaginal fistula was 18% and was significantly higher in patients who received >76 Gy to the rectum compared with those who received {<=}76 Gy (100% vs. 7%, p = 0.009). Conclusions: Patients treated with EBRT and interstitial brachytherapy after abdomino-pelvic surgery should receive EBRT with four fields and the cumulative rectal dose should be {<=}76 Gy.

Kasibhatla, Mohit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Hanover, NH (United States)]. E-mail: Mohit.S.Kasibhatla@Hitchcock.org; Clough, Robert W. B.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Montana, Gustavo S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Oleson, James R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Light, Kim C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Steffey, Beverley A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Jones, Ellen L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

2006-06-01

344

Females and Toxic Leadership.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Is there a gender component in toxic leadership. To adequately answer this primary research question, several other secondary research questions must be addressed: What is the definition of toxic leadership; What are the specific characteristics of toxic ...

N. Carrington

2012-01-01

345

Oxygen Toxicity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prolonged exposure to increased partial pressure of oxygen can result in toxic effects which become progressively more severe as the inspired partial pressure and/or duration of exposure is increased. The most dramatic of these are toxic effects upon the ...

T. C. Schmidt R. W. Hamilton

1973-01-01

346

Bortezomib-induced severe hepatitis in multiple myeloma: a case report.  

PubMed

Bortezomib is a novel proteasome inhibitor with significant antimyeloma activity. Its toxicity is manageable, and the most frequent adverse effects mainly consist of gastrointestinal symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, neuropatic pain, and thrombocytopenia. Severe liver toxicity has not been previously recognized. A patient with relapsed multiple myeloma who developed bortezomib-induced severe recurrent hepatitis is described. The importance of recognizing this rare potential toxicity is highlighted in order to discontinue this agent if liver adverse reaction is suspected. PMID:15738379

Rosiñol, Laura; Montoto, Silvia; Cibeira, Maria Teresa; Bladé, Joan

2005-02-28

347

Associations between omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids from fish consumption and severity of depressive symptoms: an analysis of the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Fish is the primary source of dietary omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids EPA and DHA, which have been reported to reduce depressive symptoms in clinical trials. We assessed the association between fish consumption and depressive symptoms in a nationally representative sample of 10,480 adults from the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Depressive symptoms were classified by severity using the Patient Health Questionnaire. Fish meal consumption reported in 30-day food frequency questionnaires, and EPA+DHA intake computed from 24-hour dietary recalls were evaluated in relation to depressive symptoms using multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Consumption of breaded fish showed an increased risk of greater depressive symptom severity, while all fish, non-breaded fish, and shell fish were not associated. Any EPA+DHA intake was significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Exposure-response analyses revealed no clear patterns for any intake measures. Inconsistent patterns of associations in our study may be partially explained by exposure misclassification.

Hoffmire, Claire A.; Block, Robert C.; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

2012-01-01

348

Toxic gases.  

PubMed Central

An overview of the widespread use of gases and some volatile solvents in modern society is given. The usual circumstances in which undue exposure may occur are described. The most prominent symptoms and general principles of diagnosis and treatment are given and are followed by more specific information on the commoner, more toxic materials. While acute poisonings constitute the greater part of the paper, some indication of chronic disorders arising from repeated or prolonged exposure is also given.

Matthews, G.

1989-01-01

349

The Relationship Between Parenting Style, Cognitive Style, and Anxiety and Depression: Does Increased Early Adversity Influence Symptom Severity Through the Mediating Role of Cognitive Style?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the central role accorded to cognitive style in mediating the relationship between negative parenting and the development of anxiety and depression, few studies have empirically examined this relationship. Using a clinical sample, this study examined the relationship between early experiences with low care, increased control, abuse and neglect, and symptoms of anxiety and depression, via the mediating effects of

Lata K. McGinn; Daniel Cukor; William C. Sanderson

2005-01-01

350

Comparison of Work-related Symptoms and Visual Contrast Sensitivity between Employees at a Severely Water-damaged School and a School without Significant Water Damage  

EPA Science Inventory

NIOSH received a request for a health hazard evaluation at a water-damaged school in New Orleans, Louisiana. Employees submitted the request because of concerns about exposure to mold in their school building. We administered a work history and health symptom questionnaire. We al...

351

Racial Identity as Mediator of the Relationship Between Gender Role Conflict and Severity of Psychological Symptoms in Black, Latino, and Asian Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the extent to which racial identity attitudes mediate the relationship between gender role conflict and psychological symptoms in Men of Color. The mediating role of racial identity was tested in Study 1 with a sample of Black men and in Study 2 with a sample of Asian and Latino men. The results

Robert T. Carter; Bryant Williams; Heather L. Juby; Tamara R. Buckley

2005-01-01

352

Five-Year Risk of Cardiac Mortality in Relation to Initial Severity and One-Year Changes in Depression Symptoms After Myocardial Infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Although previous research demonstrated an independent link between depression symptoms and cardiac mortality after myocardial infarction (MI), depression was assessed only once, and a dose-response relationship was not evaluated. Methods and Results—We administered the Beck Depression Inventory to 896 post-MI patients during admission and at 1 year. Five-year survival was ascertained using Medicare data. We observed a significant long-term dose-response

François Lespérance; Nancy Frasure-Smith; Mario Talajic; Martial G. Bourassa

353

Construct validation of patient global impression of severity (PGI-S) and improvement (PGI-I) questionnaires in the treatment of men with lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Background Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in aging men are often associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). While regulatory evaluations of treatment benefit require an assessment of specific symptoms, a simpler approach to measuring patients’ perceptions of severity and symptom change may be particularly useful for clinical practice. The aim of this study was to provide evidence of the validity of the 1-item Patient Global Impression of Severity (PGI-S) and Improvement (PGI-I) questionnaires for use as outcome measures in the treatment of BPH-LUTS. Methods This was a secondary analysis of data from 4 randomized placebo-controlled 12-week trials evaluating tadalafil for the treatment of BPH-LUTS (N=1694). Visit 2 (V2 [beginning of a 4-week placebo lead-in period]) and endpoint assessments included International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS Quality of Life Index (IPSS-QoL), BPH Impact Index (BII), and peak urine flow (Qmax). PGI-S was only administered at V2 and PGI-I only at endpoint. Associations between the PGI-S or the PGI-I and the other assessments were analyzed by calculating Spearman rank correlation coefficients and performing analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.43, 0.43, 0.53, and ?0.09, between the PGI-S and IPSS, IPSS-QoL, BII, and Qmax baseline results (all P<0.001). Similar results were seen across race, ethnicity, and baseline severity (moderate LUTS versus severe LUTS). IPSS, IPSS-QoL, BII baseline scores (P <0.001) and Qmax values (P=0.003) were significantly different among the 4 PGI-S severity levels. Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.56, 0.53, 0.47 and ?0.15 between the PGI-I and change in IPSS, IPSS-QoL, BII scores, and Qmax values from baseline to endpoint (all P<0.001). Similar results were seen across race, ethnicity, and baseline severity. Change in IPSS, IPSS-QoL, BII scores, and Qmax values (P<0.001) were significantly different among the PGI-I levels (i.e., patient perception of change in urinary symptoms). Conclusions This study demonstrated patients’ overall perceptions of their severity and change in BPH-LUTS can be captured in a way that is simple, valid, and easily administered in a research setting or clinical practice. Clinical parameters are weakly associated with patients’ perception of urinary symptoms, emphasizing the importance of a patient-reported assessment in the evaluation of BPH-LUTS treatment benefit.

2012-01-01

354

Symptoms associated with tamoxifen treatment in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Adjuvant breast cancer therapy with tamoxifen is associated with greater disease-free survival and possibly overall survival. Long-term treatment, possibly of indefinite duration, is being evaluated. Compliance with long-term therapy will depend largely on the nature and severity of tamoxifen's side effects. We evaluated the symptoms associated with tamoxifen therapy in 140 postmenopausal women with axillary node negative breast cancer in remission (mean years since menopause, 9.3) enrolled in a placebo-controlled, randomized toxicity study. Tamoxifen recipients reported moderated or severe vasomotor symptoms up to 17%, and gynecologic symptoms up to 4% more frequently than placebo subjects. Persistent vasomotor, gynecologic, or other major side effects were reported by 48% of tamoxifen recipients, and by 21% of placebo subjects. These carefully collected data suggest significant perceived symptom 'cost' of tamoxifen therapy in postmenopausal women, of a magnitude likely to compromise long-term compliance. PMID:1888251

Love, R R; Cameron, L; Connell, B L; Leventhal, H

1991-09-01

355

Syphilis Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... the infection will move to the next stages. Latent syphilis The latent (hidden) stage of syphilis begins when symptoms of secondary syphilis are over. In early latent syphilis, you might notice that signs and symptoms ...

356

Recognizing Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... My Cart | Register | Sign In Home What Is IBS? Introduction to IBS Facts About IBS Frequently Asked Questions Post-infectious IBS Other Disorders Signs & Symptoms Overview Recognizing Symptoms Pain ...

357

Visual Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... that JavaScript is enabled in your browser. National Multiple Sclerosis Society Accessibility Navigation: Skip to resource navigation Skip ... Pages Assistance Animals Book: Managing the Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis Optic Neuritis Visual Symptoms Related Documents Article - Low ...

358

Acute toxicity of arsenobetaine  

SciTech Connect

The acute toxicity of arsenobetaine was studied in male mice. No deaths were observed with oral administration of 10 g/kg of arsenobetaine. Therefore the LD/sub 50/ value was higher than 10 g/kg. This compound was found in urine in the non-metabolized form. No particular toxic symptoms were observed following administration. These suggest that arsenobetaine has low toxicity and is not metabolized in mice.

Kaise, T.; Watanabe, S.; Itoh, K.

1985-01-01

359

Comparing a ciliate and a fish cell lin e for their sensitivity to several classes of toxicants by the novel application of multiwell filter plates to Tetrahymena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although ciliated protozoa such as Tetrahymena have many desirable properties as toxicological test organisms, their attributes would be better realized if multiple cultures could be simultaneously exposed to toxicants, quickly washed to terminate toxicant exposure, and conveniently evaluated for changes in cellular functions. Therefore, multiwell filter plates (MWFPs), manufactured primarily for biochemical applications, were used to expose Tetrahymena thermophilato copper,

Vivian R. Dayeh; Sherri Grominsky; Stephanie J. DeWitte-Orr; Dana Sotornik

360

Behavioral effects of ketamine and toxic interactions with psychostimulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The anesthetic drug ketamine (KT) has been reported to be an abused drug and fatal cases have been observed in polydrug users. In the present study, considering the possibility of KT-enhanced toxic effects of other drugs, and KT-induced promotion of an overdose without making the subject aware of the danger due to the attenuation of several painful subjective symptoms,

Tamaki Hayase; Yoshiko Yamamoto; Keiichi Yamamoto

2006-01-01

361

Symptom burden in cancer survivorship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The subjective experience of cancer survivorship can be assessed by various patient-reported outcome (PRO) methods, including\\u000a measures of symptom burden and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Symptom burden includes the presence and severity of\\u000a multiple symptoms and the level of distress caused by symptoms that go untreated or unrelieved. The concept of symptom burden\\u000a is more limited in scope than

V. Shannon Burkett; Charles S. Cleeland

2007-01-01

362

Beta-blocker toxicity: a clinical diagnosis.  

PubMed

An overdose of the beta-blocking agent metoprolol is presented in which the patient remained asymptomatic despite blood levels that were more than 25 times that reported to be the upper limit of therapeutic. This case emphasizes the need to diagnose beta-blocker toxicity on clinical grounds, not on blood levels that correlate poorly with the severity of symptoms. Furthermore, the question is raised as to whether patients are at any subsequent risk for morbidity, if they have not demonstrated signs or symptoms within 4 hours of ingestion. PMID:8179751

Love, J N

1994-05-01

363

Some cases of severe normal tissue toxicity can be anticipated with ablated fractionated radiation with appropriate long-term follow-up.  

PubMed

As new technologies have allowed physicians to both better image and characterize malignant disease as well as deliver radiation dose with high precision and accuracy, there has been a resurgence in interest in hypofractionated or even single-fraction radiation therapy schemas. Late-reacting tissues have a low alpha/beta ratio (compared with early reacting tissues) and are therefore more sensitive to increments in fraction size. When we hypofractionate, we may lose some of the biological advantages associated with fractionation while we may simultaneously increase our risk of damaging late-responding normal tissues. The ideal 4 R's for tumor cells are exactly opposite those 4 R's ideally desired for normal tissues, and this represents the major dilemma to the practicing radiation oncologist. The long-term safety profile for modern hypofractionated radiation schemes will depend on the area and volume treated, the total dose delivered, and the level of baseline function observed before initiating radiation therapy. These issues are raised in the context of hypofractionation for central nervous system malignancies, lung cancers, pelvic malignancies, head and neck cancers, and breast cancers. If we are careful when choosing the site (and most importantly the volume), it is likely that hypofractionation may benefit our patients. However, history has taught us to be very careful when using hypofractionation to large volumes or when incorporating critical structures. With appropriate long-term follow-up, some cases of severe normal tissue toxicity can be anticipated. Hypofractionation should continue to be studied in randomized clinical trials, with a particular focus on careful follow-up. PMID:18725108

Dolinsky, Christopher; Glatstein, Eli

2008-10-01

364

Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Primarily through the use of engaging graphics, this resource outlines where Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) occur in U.S. waters. It also addresses the differences between toxic and non-toxic HABs, which organisms in the food web are affected, how specific toxins work and the symptoms associated with them, and the causative phytoplankton species.

Laboratory, Bigelow

365

Adaptive Behaviors in High-Functioning Taiwanese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Investigation of the Mediating Roles of Symptom Severity and Cognitive Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We investigated the relationship among cognitive level, autistic severity and adaptive function in a Taiwanese sample of 94 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (mean full scale intelligent quotients FSIQ = 84.8). Parents and teachers both completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II and the Social Responsiveness…

Chang, Chen-Lin; Lung, For-Wey; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen

2013-01-01

366

Language and Communication Skills in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Contribution of Cognition, Severity of Autism Symptoms, and Adaptive Functioning to the Variability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the contribution of cognitive function, severity of autism, and adaptive functioning to the variability in language and communication skills in 129 preschool children (aged 24-63 months) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were selected from a representative research cohort of 208 preschool children on the basis…

Kjellmer, Liselotte; Hedvall, Asa; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher; Norrelgen, Fritjof

2012-01-01

367

Analysis of the Effect of Memantine in Reducing the Worsening of Clinical Symptoms in Patients with Moderate to Severe Alzheimer’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and delaying disease worsening is a relevant treatment outcome. Methods: Data from 6 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-month studies were pooled and a subgroup of patients (867 on placebo, 959 on memantine) with moderate to severe AD (Mini- Mental State Examination <20) was analyzed. ‘Any clinical worsening’ was defined as a decline

David Wilkinson; Henning Friis Andersen

2007-01-01

368

Inhibition of several strains of influenza virus in vitro and reduction of symptoms by an elderberry extract (Sambucus nigra L.) during an outbreak of influenza B Panama.  

PubMed

A standardized elderberry extract, Sambucol (SAM), reduced hemagglutination and inhibited replication of human influenza viruses type A/Shangdong 9/93 (H3N2), A/Beijing 32/92 (H3N2), A/Texas 36/91 (H1N1), A/Singapore 6/86 (H1N1), type B/Panama 45/90, B/Yamagata 16/88, B/Ann Arbor 1/86, and of animal strains from Northern European swine and turkeys, A/Sw/Ger 2/81, A/Tur/Ger 3/91, and A/Sw/Ger 8533/91 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. A placebo-controlled, double blind study was carried out on a group of individuals living in an agricultural community (kibbutz) during an outbreak of influenza B/Panama in 1993. Fever, feeling of improvement, and complete cure were recorded during 6 days. Sera obtained in the acute and convalescent phases were tested for the presence of antibodies to influenza A, B, respiratory syncytial, and adenoviruses. Convalescent phase serologies showed higher mean and mean geometric hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers to influenza B in the group treated with SAM than in the control group. A significant improvement of the symptoms, including fever, was seen in 93.3% of the cases in the SAM-treated group within 2 days, whereas in the control group 91.7% of the patients showed an improvement within 6 days (p < 0.001). A complete cure was achieved within 2 to 3 days in nearly 90% of the SAM-treated group and within at least 6 days in the placebo group (p < 0.001). No satisfactory medication to cure influenza type A and B is available. Considering the efficacy of the extract in vitro on all strains of influenza virus tested, the clinical results, its low cost, and absence of side-effects, this preparation could offer a possibility for safe treatment for influenza A and B. PMID:9395631

Zakay-Rones, Z; Varsano, N; Zlotnik, M; Manor, O; Regev, L; Schlesinger, M; Mumcuoglu, M

1995-01-01

369

Diphtheria Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Basics Describes symptoms of infection as well as benefits and risks of vaccination. English [400 KB, 2 pages] | Spanish [170 KB, ... about recent diphtheria outbreaks. Describes symptoms of infection, benefits and risks of vaccination, details about the vaccine, and history of the ...

370

How useful are screening instruments for toddlers to predict outcome at age 4? General development, language skills, and symptom severity in children with a false positive screen for autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Screening instruments for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often generate many false positives. It is argued that these children may have other developmental difficulties and are also in need of thorough assessment and early intervention. The current study looked at the predictive validity of positive screens on the Checklist for Early Signs of Developmental Disorders (CESDD) and the Early Screening of Autistic Traits questionnaire (ESAT) at age 2 towards language, cognitive function, and symptom severity at age 4. Children who screened positive on the ESAT scored lower for both language and cognitive functioning at age 4 compared with children who screened negative on the ESAT. Also, the more signs of ASD that were recognized on the CESDD or ESAT, the lower the scores for language and cognitive functioning at age 4. False positive screens could be differentiated from true positive screens on the CESDD only in symptom severity score on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). It seems that early screeners for ASD also detect children with other developmental disorders and that diagnostic instruments such as the ADOS are warranted to differentiate between children with ASD and other developmental problems. PMID:22580987

Dereu, Mieke; Roeyers, Herbert; Raymaekers, Ruth; Meirsschaut, Mieke; Warreyn, Petra

2012-05-13

371

Acute genitourinary toxicity after high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer: Second analysis to determine the correlation between the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy and the severity of acute genitourinary toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We have been treating localized prostate cancer with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) at our institution. We recently reported the existence of a correlation between the severity of acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity and the urethral radiation dose in HDR brachytherapy by using different fractionation schema. The purpose of this study was to evaluate

Tetsuo. Akimoto; Hiroyuki Katoh; Shin-ei Noda; Kazuto Ito; Takumi Yamamoto; Bunzo Kashiwagi; Takashi Nakano

2005-01-01

372

Depression symptoms during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Pregnancy impacts common symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), such as energy, appetite, weight change, and sleep and\\u000a somatic complaints. However, it is not known whether the presentation of depression during pregnancy is different from that\\u000a at other times in women’s lives. This study compares the severity of symptoms of depression in 61 pregnant women with MDD\\u000a (PD), 50 nonpregnant

R. Manber; C. Blasey; J. J. B. Allen

2008-01-01

373

Fibromyalgia Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

Donate | Join | Shop | eAlert | Contact Us About Fibromyalgia Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prevalence Causes Prognosis Science of FM Newly Diagnosed Patients FM Fact Sheet Economic Burden Research Abstract Clinical Trials Home > Fibromyalgia > ...

374

Lead Toxicity  

MedlinePLUS

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Lead Toxicity Case Studies in Environmental Medicine (CSEM) Patient Information Sheet What is lead? • ... water often. Page 1 of 2 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Lead Toxicity Case Studies ...

375

Multi-institutional use of defibrotide in 88 patients after stem cell transplantation with severe veno-occlusive disease and multisystem organ failure: response without significant toxicity in a high-risk population and factors predictive of outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

present in 84%, and abnormal hepatic portal venous flow was present in 35%. At DF initiation, median bilirubin had in- creased to 215.46 M (12.6 mg\\/dL), and MOF was present in 97%. DF was adminis- tered intravenously in doses ranging from 5 to 60 mg\\/kg per day for a median of 15 days. No severe hemorrhage or other serious toxicity

Paul G. Richardson; Carol Murakami; Zhezhen Jin; Diane Warren; Parisa Momtaz; Deborah Hoppensteadt; Anthony D. Elias; Joseph H. Antin; Robert Soiffer; Thomas Spitzer; David Avigan; Scott I. Bearman; Paul L. Martin; Joanne Kurtzberg; James Vredenburgh; Allen R. Chen; Sally Arai; Georgia Vogelsang; George B. McDonald; Eva C. Guinan

376

An assessment of chemical and physical parameters, several contaminants including metals, and toxicity in the seven major wastewater treatment plants in the state of Aguascalientes, Mexico.  

PubMed

Forty-eight hours acute toxicity tests were employed with Daphnia magna and Lecane quadridentata to assess the influents and effluents of the seven most important wastewater treatment plants (WTP) in the state of Aguascalientes, Mexico, during the 2006 dry and rainy seasons. The WTP of the City of Aguascalientes treated 1948 Ls(-1). The remaining six plants treated wastewater in the range from 28 to 93 Ls(-1). Plants efficiently removed toxicity when Daphnia magna was used as a model organism, but performed poorly when the freshwater rotifer Lecane quadridentata was employed. It was observed that biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)), chemical oxygen demand (COD), conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, phenol, methylene blue active substances (MBAS), temperature, and total suspended solids (TSS) were within the maximum allowed levels (MAL) in the effluents during the rainy season. Whereas the BOD(5), total nitrogen, total dissolved solids (TDS) and TSS showed levels greater than the MAL in effluents during the dry season. The levels of BOD, MBAS, and total nitrogen were greater than the MAL in influents. In contrast, the values of TDS and TSS in influents were above the MAL during the rainy season. In the dry season the levels of aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in influents and Fe, Mn and Pb in effluents were above the MAL. During the rainy season the levels of Mn, Cr and Hg in influents and those of Mn in effluents were above the MAL. When D. magna was used as model organism, acute toxicity units (aTU) for influents ranged from 0.2 to 4.4 and from 0.1 to 0.2 for effluents. These values for effluents are acceptable according to international guidelines. However, when L. quadridentata was the model organism, ranges were from 2.0 to 8.3 aTU in influents and from 1.6 to 2.6 aTU in effluents. The treated water that discharges into the San Pedro River would be considered toxic. The results of the toxicity tests demonstrated that the freshwater rotifer Lecane quadridentata was more sensitive (in 89.3% of the samples) than the cladoceran Daphnia magna when both organisms were exposed to the influents and effluents of the wastewater treatment plants. PMID:20390835

Torres-Guzman, Felix; Avelar-Gonzalez, Francisco Javier; Rico-Martinez, Roberto

2010-01-01

377

Violence Severity and Psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine whether severity of violence was associated with specific types of psychotic symptoms a retrospective file review of men found of unsound mind by the Queensland Mental Health Tribunal was conducted. The association between symptoms and three levels of violence were examined. Capgras delusions and command hallucinations were associated with homicide; acute danger; and threat\\/control-override symptoms with serious violence,

Bob Green; T. Mark Schramm; Katrina Chiu; Ness McVie; Steven Hay

2009-01-01

378

Foliar Symptoms of Nutrient Disorders in 'Chloris gayana'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Foliar symptoms of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, and boron deficiencies and manganese and boron toxicities in Chloris gayana cv. Pioneer are described. Colour photographs of the foliar symptom...

F. W. Smith

1973-01-01

379

Predicting toxicity in aquatic ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ash leachates and other utility wastes that may enter lakes or streams contain mixtures of chemicals that include several kinds of toxicants. The toxic properties of these mixtures vary with the chemical form and concentration of their constituents. EPRI is developing a general toxicity model (GTM) to simulate environmental conditions in bodies of water where toxicants are present, and to

Porcella

1992-01-01

380

Comparison Between Patient-Reported and Clinician-Observed Symptoms in Oncology.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND:: Symptom assessment is critical to understand the effectiveness of cancer treatment. Traditionally, clinicians have provided the information about cancer patients' symptoms. However, current research has shown that there are discrepancies on symptom assessment results reported by patients themselves and clinicians. OBJECTIVE:: The objective of this study was to present an integrative review on studies comparing patient-reported symptoms and clinician-observed symptoms in patients with a diagnosis of cancer. METHODS:: This was a review of published articles from PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Database, using the key words symptom or toxicity, and patient-reported, patient-rated, patient-assessed or patient-evaluated, which were combined with cancer, oncology, neoplasm, or tumor. RESULTS:: Clinicians have the propensity to underestimate the incidence, severity, or distress of symptoms experienced by cancer patients. These discrepancies appear to be consistently demonstrated over time and become even more apparent when symptoms are more severe and distressing to patients. In addition, patients report both symptom frequency and severity earlier than clinicians do; patients' symptom assessments are more predictable for daily health status, whereas clinicians' symptom measurements are more related to clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:: Healthcare professionals must appreciate that there can be discordance between what they perceive and what patients experience and report. Further research needs to address methodological limitations and weaknesses of existing literature. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:: Symptoms reported by patients themselves provide the necessary and different insight into cancer and its treatment, compared with those observed by clinicians. The use of patient-reported symptoms should be incorporated into routine clinical practice and not just research studies. PMID:23047799

Xiao, Canhua; Polomano, Rosemary; Bruner, Deborah Watkins

2012-10-01

381

Health Care Resource Utilization and Costs of NSAID-Induced Gastrointestinal Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims: The well-recognized gastrointestinal toxicity of NSAIDs ranges from mild symptoms to severe complications requiring medical attention and leading to work loss. The present study evaluates the economic burden derived from health care resource utilization and work loss caused by NSAID-induced gastrointestinal toxicity in the Swiss population. The costs induced by conventional and COX2-selective NSAIDs were calculated separately,

Fabiola Delcò; Pierre Michetti; Christoph Beglinger; Michael Fried; Thomas D. Szucs

2004-01-01

382

Methods for Aquatic Toxicity Identification Evaluations. Phase 3. Toxicity Confirmation Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various procedures are described that provide evidence that the suspected toxicants in effluents are the actual toxicants. These procedures include: correlation, symptoms, relative sensitivity, spiking, mass balance, and miscellaneous procedures.

D. I. Mount

1989-01-01

383

Toxic shock syndrome.  

PubMed

Presenting features and clinical manifestations of six patients with toxic shock syndrome are reported. In four of the six cutaneous injury, sometimes trivial, occurred before the onset of symptoms and may have been a causal factor. All six children recovered. The need for early recognition and intensive management in this life threatening condition is discussed. PMID:4015173

Buchdahl, R; Levin, M; Wilkins, B; Gould, J; Jaffe, P; Matthew, D J; Dillon, M J

1985-06-01

384

Validation and application of HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of RBBR decolorization, a model for highly toxic molecules, using several fungi strains.  

PubMed

A novel analytical method using HPLC-MS/MS operating in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) for evaluation of fungi efficacy to decolorize Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) dye solution was developed, validated and applied. The method shows high sensibility allowing the detection of 4.6 pM of RBBR. Four fungal strains were tested in liquid medium, three strains of Aspergillus (Aspergillus aculeatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus) and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. All fungi were able to degrade the dye, with efficiencies ranging from 40% for P. chrysosporium up to 99% for A. flavus during a 30-day incubation period. During the experiment, increased accumulation of degradation products was observed in A. flavus cultures containing RBBR. Through the use of full scan HPLC-MS technique it was possible to propose the biogenesis of the microbial metabolic degradation pathway. Screening using microorganisms and RBBR may be hereafter used to investigate microbial biodegradation of high toxicity molecules such as dioxins. PMID:22985849

Perlatti, Bruno; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Forim, Moacir Rossi

2012-08-19

385

Toxic Synovitis  

MedlinePLUS

... goes away within a week or two. About Toxic Synovitis Toxic synovitis, also known as transient synovitis , is the ... the virus can pass to the other hip. Toxic synovitis is more common in boys and affects ...

386

Severe quadriparesis caused by wasp sting.  

PubMed

Besides the typical symptoms of allergic reaction after wasp sting, unusual and unexpected reactions may also develop. In this report, a case of severe peripheral quadriparesis and sphincteric disorder (urinary incontinence) in a 10-year-old boy occurring within 24 hours after wasp sting is presented. Corticosteroids had very good therapeutic effect, and improvement in clinical status was observed within 72 hours. The exact pathogenic mechanism of peripheral nervous system damage is not very well known. Several studies have suggested that besides the neurotoxic effect of wasp venom, delayed immunological response to wasp antigens followed by an allergy-triggered autoimmune reaction is possible. Wasp venom may activate an allergic reaction or effects by toxic impacts; however, typical clinical symptoms of allergic reaction are not necessarily present. PMID:20112605

Bánovcin, Peter; Havlíceková, Zuzana; Jesenák, Milos; Nosál, Slavomír; Durdík, Peter; Ciljaková, Miriam; Mikler, Ján

387

Azithromycin induced hepatocellular toxicity and hepatic encephalopathy in asymptomatic dilated cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Azithromycin is a widely used macrolide derivative and has generally been considered to be a very safe medication. Though gastrointestinal symptoms and reversible hearing loss are common, potentially serious side effects including angioedema and cholestatic jaundice occurred in less than one percent of patients. We report a case of asymptomatic dilated cardiomyopathy with Azithromycin induced severe hepatocellular toxicity and hepatic encephalopathy.

Das, Bidyut Kumar

2011-01-01

388

Toxicity of cycads  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a review of the literature on the use of cycads as food and medicine, with special attention to their toxic properties.\\u000a In the tropics and subtropics, where the plants are indigenous, their toxicity has long been known. Both gastrointestinal\\u000a and neurological effects have been reported. Although several toxic components of the plants have been investigated, none\\u000a has yet

Marjorie Grant Whiting

1963-01-01

389

Acute and late gastrointestinal toxicity after radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients: Consequential late damage  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Late gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity after radiotherapy can be partly explained by late effects of acute toxicity (consequential late damage). We studied whether there is a direct relationship between acute and late GI toxicity. Patients and Methods: A total of 553 evaluable patients from the Dutch dose escalation trial (68 Gy vs. 78 Gy) were included. We defined three outcomes for acute reactions: 1) maximum Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute toxicity, 2) maximum acute mucous discharge (AMD), and 3) maximum acute proctitis. Within a multivariable model, late endpoints (overall toxicity and five toxicity indicators) were studied as a function of acute toxicity, pretreatment symptoms, and relevant dose parameters. Results: At multivariable analysis, AMD and acute proctitis were strong predictors for overall toxicity, 'intermittent bleeding,' and 'incontinence pads' (p {<=} 0.01). For 'stools {>=}6/day' all three were strong predictors. No significant associations were found for 'severe bleeding' and 'use of steroids.' The predictive power of the dose parameters remained at the same level or became weaker for most late endpoints. Conclusions: Acute GI toxicity is an independent significant predictor of late GI toxicity. This suggests a significant consequential component in the development of late GI toxicity.

Heemsbergen, Wilma D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: w.heemsbergen@nki.nl; Peeters, Stephanie T.H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Koper, Peter [Department of Radiotherapy, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiotherapy, Haga Hospital, Den Haag (Netherlands); Hoogeman, Mischa S. [Department of Radiotherapy, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lebesque, Joos V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2006-09-01

390

Physiology of metal toxicity in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum toxicity is discussed, including general effects (symptoms and physiological effects), differential aluminum tolerance in plants, beneficial effects of aluminum, and the genetic control of aluminum tolerance. Manganese and iron toxicity are discussed in the same framework. The toxicity of other metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, and Pb) is also discussed, though not as extensively as aluminum, manganese, and iron.

C. D. Foy; R. L. Chaney; M. C. White

1978-01-01

391

Detection of prenatal exposure to several classes of environmental toxicants and their metabolites by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in maternal and umbilical cord blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a sensitive method to detect several classes of pesticides and their metabolites in maternal and cord whole blood using electron-impact gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The method can detect parent and metabolite compounds at levels of <0.10 and 0.20?g\\/mL, respectively, with high accuracy and recovery. Analysis of blood from mother–infant dyads from an area of high pesticide use in

M. L. Corrion; E OSTREAJR; D. M. Bielawski; N POSECIONJR; J. J. Seagraves

2005-01-01

392

Indoor environmental exposures and symptoms.  

PubMed Central

The label "sick building syndrome" is often used to imply the absence of a physiologic basis for symptoms in the built environment. Although building-related illness is widely recognized but considered rare, several well-studied mechanisms may be responsible for many symptoms in buildings. These mechanisms do not explain why some individuals perceive disability. Until researchers distinguish physiologic mechanisms from other aspects of disease and study them systematically, poorly defined symptoms will remain poorly understood. The disability associated with such symptoms and syndromes, not the physiology, is the primary interest and generates controversy.

Hodgson, Michael

2002-01-01

393

Myeloma Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... caused by accumulation of plasma cells and weakened bone structures Proper positioning and support; increasing physical activity in ... immunoglobulin therapy Nervous system dysfunction Weakening and collapsing bone structures may impinge on nerves, producing severe pain, tingling ...

394

Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil (CMF)-induced ocular toxicity.  

PubMed

Ocular toxicity is a common, but poorly understood, sequela from CMF chemotherapy. We investigated this toxicity in patients receiving CMF therapy. Detailed interviews in 210 patients revealed that new, unpleasant ocular symptoms developed in 42% of patients receiving CMF, in 39% of subjects receiving other regimens containing 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and only in 18% of subjects receiving a variety of chemotherapy regimens not containing 5-FU. CMF-associated ocular symptoms usually consisted of mild to marked tearing, ocular pruritus, and/or burning. These toxicities usually began 11-17 days after starting a cycle of CMF and lasted for 10-15 days. 5-FU was detected in the tears of 12 tested patients within several minutes after intravenous 5-FU (peak concentrations as high as 60 micrograms/ml). 5-FU tear concentrations did not correlate with the presence or absence of ocular toxicity. There is no established antidote for this toxicity although some patients have reported subjective benefit from cryotherapy, applied around the period of 5-FU injections, or cromolyn sodium eye drops. PMID:2124943

Loprinzi, C L; Love, R R; Garrity, J A; Ames, M M

1990-01-01

395

Pediatric Asthma: Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... MD Dept. of Pediatrics View full profile Pediatric Asthma: Symptoms Asthma symptoms can range from very mild ... for exercise Downward trend in peak flow numbers Asthma Symptoms Asthma symptoms indicate that an asthma episode ...

396

Asbestos Toxicity  

MedlinePLUS

Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry Search The CDC Search Button Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your ... Transcript Presentation CE Posttest Contact Us: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry 4770 Buford Hwy NE ...

397

[Symptoms of frontotemporal dementia].  

PubMed

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD)-a common clinical manifestation of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD)--is characterized by alterations in personality and social conduct. Its symptoms include inertia, loss of volition, social disinhibition, and distractibility, with relative preservation of memory and visuospatial function. We present the typical case of patient with typical clinical symptoms including "going my way" behavior, inactivity, lack of awareness of illness, stereotypic behavior, perseveration, and environmental dependency syndrome. These clinical symptoms can be interpreted on the basis of extent of damage to the frontal lobes and the interaction between the frontal lobes and other neural systems such as the posterior association cortices, basal ganglia or limbic systems. We also address several complex clinical issues, including the relationship between clinical manifestations and pathological findings, underestimation of FTD in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and/or motor neuron disease (MND), and impairment in a single cognitive domain such as isolated agraphia in ALS/MND and FTD. To address these problems, it is essential to observe the clinical symptoms in patients with FTD and ALS/MND in detail and to compare clinical characteristics with pathological findings. It is also critical to develop clinical tests that minimize the impact of speech and motor dysfunction on performance, particularly on the basis of a longitudinal analysis. PMID:19938679

Ichikawa, Hiroo; Kawamura, Mitsuru

2009-11-01

398

Cancer of the Anal Canal and HIV Infection: Toxicity and Results of Organ Preservation with Radiochemotherapy or Radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground: Anal cancer is an evolving problem in HIV-infected patients. In fear of excessive toxicity in patients with HIV infection, aggressive therapy is often withheld. Patients and Methods: From January 1995 to October 1997, 6 patients with epidermoid cancer of the anal canal and a long history of HIV infection but without symptoms of AIDS or repeated severe infections were

S. Höcht; T. Wiegel; N. Runkel; W. Schmidt; W. Hinkelbein

2000-01-01

399

Opioid rotation for toxicity reduction in terminal cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulation of active (toxic) metabolites of opioids might explain cases of opioid toxicity when high doses are used for long periods of time. Other mechanisms of late toxicity of opioids may be found at the receptor level. Whatever the cause, a change of opioids using equianalgesic doses can be expected to improve symptoms of toxicity in some patients, while maintaining

Noe´mi D. de Stoutz; Eduardo Bruera; Maria Suarez-Almazor

1995-01-01

400

Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

2011-01-01

401

Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

2011-01-01

402

Symptoms of atypical depression.  

PubMed

Studies examining the demographic and clinical features of depressed patients who meet criteria for the atypical features subtype have often yielded conflicting results. The present study sought to evaluate the demographic and clinical correlates associated with each of the five symptoms (mood reactivity, hypersomnia, hyperphagia, leaden paralysis and rejection sensitivity) that constitute the DSM-IV criteria set of atypical depression. Symptom prevalence rates were determined for 661 psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with a major depressive disorder, and were analyzed as a function of age, sex, severity, and episode duration. We found that: (1) younger age was positively associated with hypersomnia and negatively associated with leaden paralysis, while middle age was positively associated with both hyperphagia and rejection sensitivity; (2) female sex was associated with all of the atypical symptoms except rejection sensitivity; (3) a greater severity of illness was positively associated with leaden paralysis and rejection sensitivity, and negatively associated with mood reactivity; and (4) a duration of illness of greater than 3 months was positively associated with hyperphagia, leaden paralysis, and rejection sensitivity. Thus, the five atypical features do not appear to be associated with the same clinical profiles. PMID:11711170

Posternak, M A; Zimmerman, M

2001-11-01

403

Neuropsychological correlates of negative, disorganized and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that three dimensions (negative, disorganized and psychotic) categorize schizophrenic symptoms. A developing literature indicates distinct cerebral correlates of each symptom cluster, but few investigations have determined their neuropsychological correlates. In the present study, the Schedules of Negative and Positive Symptoms measured symptom severity in 62 schizophrenics, and a subsequent principal components analysis revealed three symptom dimensions. Factor

Michael R. Basso; Henry A. Nasrallah; Stephen C. Olson; Robert A. Bornstein

1998-01-01

404

Tools to assess negative symptoms in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Although effective treatments for negative symptoms are currently limited, clinicians still need to assess and monitor them because of their impact on patient functioning. Further, documenting patients' negative symptoms provides a complete clinical record that the clinician can use to make systematic and careful treatment decisions. Several tools for assessing negative symptoms in schizophrenia are available, including the Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI), the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the 16-item Negative Symptoms Assessment (NSA-16), and the Schedule for Deficit Syndrome (SDS). Additionally, newer instruments are in development-the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) and the Brief Negative Symptoms Scale (BNSS)-and are yielding promising results. This overview outlines these assessment tools so that clinicians can measure negative symptom severity and track treatment response for their patients with schizophrenia. PMID:23842020

Kane, John M

2013-06-01

405

Case 26: Severe Systemic Local Anesthetic Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A 42 year old man (ASA 1) is scheduled for an elective elbow surgery. He is 72 kg and 6 ft). He consents to an interscalene\\u000a block as he would prefer not to have a general anesthetic. In the preoperative holding area an IV is placed. Sedation, consisting\\u000a of 2 mg midazolam and 50 mcg of fentanyl is given. The

John G. Brock-Utne

406

Metabolic, nutritional, and toxic myelopathies.  

PubMed

This review article identifies and describes the clinical manifestations of various metabolic, nutritional, and toxic conditions that result in symptoms of myelopathy and, in some cases, myeloneuropathy. It includes discussions of the clinical pictures that occur secondary to these causes. Familiarity with the clinical symptoms may lead to accurate diagnosis through laboratory and imaging studies and to treatment with successful identification of the underlying causes. PMID:23186901

Schwendimann, Robert N

2013-02-01

407

Analyzing Toxicity Through Electrophilicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The toxicological structure-activity relationships are investigated using conceptual DFT based descriptors like global and\\u000a local electrophilicities. In the present work the usefulness of electrophilicity in predicting toxicity of several polyaromatic\\u000a hydrocarbons (PAH) is assessed. The toxicity is expressed through biological activity data (pIC50) defined as molar concentration of those chemicals necessary to displace 50% of radiolabeled tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin\\u000a (TCDD) from the

D. R. Roy; U. Sarkar; P. K. Chattaraj; A. Mitra; J. Padmanabhan; R. Parthasarathi; V. Subramanian; S. Van Damme; P. Bultinck

2006-01-01

408

Toxic Shock Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Eight cases of toxic shock syndrome, confirmed by Center for Disease Control criteria, involved women who were menstruating and were tampon users. Each patient had severe febrile illness with rash, associated hypotension, renal and liver function abnormalities, pharyngitis and vaginitis. An examination of the literature indicates that cases that were reported as adult Kawasaki disease may actually have been toxic shock syndrome. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.

Tanner, Martha H.; Pierce, Barbara J.; Hale, DeVon C

1981-01-01

409

The Relationship Among Diet, Exercise, and Perimenstrual Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that 30-90% of women suffer from mild to moderate perimenstrual symptoms while 2-10% experience severe symptoms. Yet, after decades of study, neither a definite etiology for symptom development, nor an encompassing and effective treatment has been found. To reduce symptom severity and prevalence researchers are currently suggesting a combination of lifestyle modifications including, moderate exercise, stress management,

D. Novak; M. Archuleta; J. Benson; E. Trunnel; G. Yipchuck

1995-01-01

410

Medically unexplained symptoms and neuropsychological assessment.  

PubMed

Several illnesses expressed somatically that do not have clearly demonstrated pathophysiological origin and that are associated with neuropsychological complaints are reviewed. Among them are nonepileptic seizures, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, Persian Gulf War unexplained illnesses, toxic mold and sick building syndrome, and silicone breast implant disease. Some of these illnesses may be associated with objective cognitive abnormalities, but it is not likely that these abnormalities are caused by traditionally defined neurological disease. Instead, the cognitive abnormalities may be caused by a complex interaction between biological and psychological factors. Nonepileptic seizures serve as an excellent model of medically unexplained symptoms. Although nonepileptic seizures clearly are associated with objective cognitive abnormalities, they are not of neurological origin. There is evidence that severe stressors and PTSD are associated with immune system problems, neurochemical changes, and various diseases; these data blur the distinctions between psychological and organic etiologies. Diagnostic problems are intensified by the fact that many patients are poor historians. Patients are prone to omit history of severe stressors and psychiatric problems, and the inability to talk about stressors increases the likelihood of suffering from physiological forms of stress. PMID:15512927

Binder, Laurence M; Campbell, Keith A

2004-05-01

411

Texas A&M University System Extension: Toxic Plant Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Toxic Plant Database was developed by a team of Professors working through Texas Cooperative Extension, a division of the Texas A&M University System. Although the database focuses on toxic plants in Texas, many of the plants are found in other states as well as Mexico. This is a well-organized website containing pictures, maps, plant descriptions, information on the toxic agent, symptoms of poisoning, habitat, distribution, and "Integrated Toxic Plant Management for each toxic plant." Site users may search this extensive listing of Toxic Plants by the following categories: Common or Scientific Name, Region, Symptom, Livestock, or Plant Images. This site also links to a glossary of relevant terms.

412

Prediction of withdrawal symptoms during opioid detoxification  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The severity of self-reported withdrawal symptoms varies during detoxification of opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study is to identify subgroups of withdrawal symptoms within the detoxification trajectory and to predict the severity of withdrawal symptoms on the basis of drug-related and sociodemographic characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective study carried out in an in-patient setting in four addiction

B. A. G. Dijkstra; P. F. M. Krabbe; C. A. J. de Jong; C. P. F. van der Staak

2008-01-01

413

Prediction of withdrawal symptoms during opioid detoxification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The severity of self-reported withdrawal symptoms varies during detoxification of opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study is to identify subgroups of withdrawal symptoms within the detoxification trajectory and to predict the severity of withdrawal symptoms on the basis of drug-related and sociodemographic characteristics. Design and setting: A prospective study carried out in an in-patient setting in four addiction

B. A. G. Dijkstra; P. F. M. Krabbe; C. A. J. de Jong; C. P. F. van der Staak

2008-01-01

414

Symptoms of Ankylosing Spondylitis  

MedlinePLUS

Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS): Quick Links Overview >>> Symptoms >>> Diagnosis >>> Treatment >>> Medication >>> Doctor Q&A From Spondylitis Plus >>> ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS Most Common Symptoms It is important to note ...

415

Effect of Manganese Toxicity on the Indoleacetic Acid Oxidase System of Cotton 12  

PubMed Central

The effect of substrate manganese on tissue manganese levels and activity of the indoleacetic acid (IAA)-oxidase system of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) was investigated. A sand culture technique was used with 1, 3, 9, 27 and 81 mg manganese (MnSO4) per liter nutrient solution applied in various experiments. The following relationships held for both long-term (126 days) and short-term (12-14 days) exposures to manganese treatment: A) There was a direct relationship between substrate and tissue manganese. B) Only the 81 mg/liter Mn plants exhibited severe manganese toxicity symptoms. C) At the toxic level of manganese an increased IAA-oxidase activity and decreased IAA-oxidase inhibitor activity was observed. There was a direct relationship between degree of enzyme response and severity of visible symptoms. D) With the manganese toxicity plants, but none of the other treatments, extracts of the young leaves contained as much IAA-oxidase activity as extracts of much older leaves. E) Crude extracts from the plants grown with 81 mg manganese per liter solution, in contrast to those of other treatments, destroyed IAA without addition of MnCl2 to the assay medium. A hypothesis is advanced stating that manganese toxicity symptoms in cotton are expressions of auxin deficiency caused by IAA-oxidase activity increased by the abnormal tissue levels of manganese. Images

Morgan, Page W.; Joham, Howard E.; Amin, J. V.

1966-01-01

416

Foliar Symptoms of Mineral Disorders in Desmodium intortum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Foliar symptoms of twelve mineral deficiencies and two toxicities in Desmodium intortum cv. Greenleaf grown in water culture are described and recorded photographically. Information is also given on the concentrations of the various mineral elements in th...

C. S. Andrew W. H. J. Pieters

1972-01-01

417

Lamotrigine toxicity secondary to sertraline.  

PubMed

Blood level monitoring helps to determine the therapeutic and toxic ranges for anticonvulsants and antidepressants. We investigated initial drug-drug interactions between lamotrigine and sertraline. We report on case histories of two epileptic patients who were initially on lamotrigine and to whom sertraline was added to control psychiatric features. In case 1, a total daily dose of 25 mg sertraline, with nondetectable sertraline and desmethylsertraline blood levels, resulted in a doubling of the lamotrigine blood level with symptoms of toxicity. In case 2, a 25 mg reduction in the total daily dose of sertraline resulted in halving of the lamotrigine blood level even though the lamotrigine dosage was increased by 33%. This shows that sertraline has potent interactions with lamotrigine metabolism. The authors hypothesize that inhibition of glucuronidation is responsible. Clinicians are advised to observe for symptoms of toxicity and to do serial blood levels to monitor this interaction. PMID:9627209

Kaufman, K R; Gerner, R

1998-04-01

418

[The symptoms in family medicine are not symptoms of disease, they are symptoms of life].  

PubMed

The symptoms in family medicine are not signs of disease, but "signs of life"; in the consultation "all patient life comes together with him". Every consultation is primarily a biopsicosocial problem: the person perceives a dysfunction or alteration in relation with himself and his context. To do a diagnosis only with physical symptoms, can be a mistake because these do not identify the real problem. The different types of symptoms are "entangled" or chained some in others: the symptoms can be fitted or inevitable; to be expressions of biochemical alterations, symbols for the patient, group context expressions, or kinds of facing the facts; and they depend on the previous psychological patient performance, the severity of the deficit of the psychological function associated with the disease, the residual skills, the adjustment and the confrontation of the functional limitations, the relation doctor-patient, as well as on the influence of the context. PMID:21782291

Turabián, José Luis; Pérez Franco, Benjamín; Turabián Fernández, José Luis; Pérez Franco, Benjamin

2011-07-22

419

Dimethylnitrosamine; its Hepatotoxic Effect in Sheep and its Occurrence in Toxic Batches of Herring Meal  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the years 1961 and 1962 there were in Norway outbreaks of toxic hepatosis in ruminants, giving rather characteristic symptoms and liver lesions1,2. Experiments indicated a possible connexion between the disease and the feeding of meal made from herring preserved with sodium nitrite3. As the hepatotoxic properties of dimethyl-nitrosamine have been established for several species4,5, we decided to investigate the

Johan Sakshaug; Erling Sögnen; MAGNE AAS HANSEN; NILS KOPPANG

1965-01-01

420

Beryllium Toxicity  

MedlinePLUS

... icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Beryllium Toxicity Patient Education Care Instruction Sheet Course : WB ... Patient Education Sheet [PDF - 48 KB] What Is Beryllium? Beryllium is a mineral found in nature. It ...

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