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1

Flu Symptoms & Severity  

MedlinePLUS

... PCR and Other Molecular Assays for Diagnosis of Influenza Virus Infection Clinical Signs and Symptoms of Influenza International ... Assessment and Biosafety Level Recommendations Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus H5N1 In Birds and Other Animals H5N1 In ...

2

Employment outcomes and PTSD symptom severity.  

PubMed

A diagnosis of chronic war-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked consistently to poor employment outcomes. This study investigates the relation further, analyzing how symptom severity correlates with work status, occupation type, and earnings. Study participants were male Vietnam veterans with severe or very severe PTSD who received treatment in the Department of Veterans Affairs system (N = 325). Veterans with more severe symptoms were more likely to work part-time or not at all. Among workers, more severe symptoms were weakly associated with having a sales or clerical position. Conditional on employment and occupation category, there was no significant relation between PTSD symptom level and earnings. Alternative PTSD symptom measures produced similar results. Our findings suggest that even modest reductions in PTSD symptoms may lead to employment gains, even if the overall symptom level remains severe. PMID:15974155

Smith, Mark W; Schnurr, Paula P; Rosenheck, Robert A

2005-06-01

3

Impact of ADHD symptoms on autism spectrum disorder symptom severity.  

PubMed

Despite the official exclusion criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the DSM-IV and ICD-10, patients with ASD often show ADHD symptoms. We aimed to examine the potential influence of ADHD symptoms on autistic psychopathology in a large sample of patients with ASD. We tested the hypothesis that patients with ASD and an additional ADHD (ASD+) would show a higher severity of autistic symptoms than those with ASD only (ASD-). We measured autistic symptoms using the autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS-G), the autism diagnostic interview (ADI-R), and the social responsiveness scale (SRS). To measure overall psychopathology and ADHD symptoms, we used the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and the ADHD rating scale (FBB-ADHS), respectively. Group differences between the ASD+ and the ASD- group (group division was conducted according to the results of the FBB-ADHS) were calculated using a univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ASD+ group showed a greater severity of autistic symptoms than the ASD- group, measured by the SRS and the ADI-R. Especially in the social interaction subscale (ADI-R), a significantly higher symptom severity was found in the ASD+ group. No significant group differences were found regarding autistic symptoms measured by the ADOS-G. Patients with ASD and an additional ADHD expressed a stronger severity of autistic symptoms than patients with ASD only. According to our results, the possibility of a co-diagnosis of ADS and ADHD, as is being planned in the DSM-5, is in line with earlier studies, is highly reasonable, will simplify research, and have therapeutic implications. PMID:23973801

Sprenger, Linda; Bühler, Eva; Poustka, Luise; Bach, Christiane; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Bachmann, Christian

2013-10-01

4

Employment Outcomes and PTSD Symptom Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diagnosis of chronic war-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked consistently to poor employment outcomes. This study investigates the relation further, analyzing how symptom severity correlates with work status, occupation type, and earnings. Study participants were male Vietnam veterans with severe or very severe PTSD who received treatment in the Department of Veterans Affairs system (N = 325).

Mark W. Smith; Paula P. Schnurr; Robert A. Rosenheck

2005-01-01

5

9 CFR 309.4 - Livestock showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...infectious equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage...

2010-01-01

6

Symptom and Toxicity Drug Development Task Force (DDTF)  

Cancer.gov

The DDTF was formed by the NCI Symptom Management and Quality of Life Steering Committee (SxQOL SC) in response to a lack of agents for amelioration of cancer treatment-related toxicity and cancer-related symptoms. Its purpose is to increase the availability of biologically plausible, pharmacologic interventions for clinical trial assessment that have the potential to reduce cancer treatment-related toxicity or cancer disease-related symptoms.

7

ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY OF SEVERAL TOXIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The hydroxyl radical initiated gas phase oxidation of several toxic compounds in nitrous acid, oxides of nitrogen, in air mixtures were investigated. The chemical species studied were: formaldehyde, acrylonitrile, vinylidene chloride, trichloroethylene, allyl chloride, acetaldehy...

8

Clinical Features and Severity of Nonspecific Symptoms in Dialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonspecific symptoms are common in dialysis patients but few methods are available to measure their severity and their response to alteration in dialysis therapy. To determine the clinical features and measure the severity of the most important symptoms in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, 97 dialysis patients were interviewed, 63 of whom were reinterviewed 1 year later. For comparison 82

P. S. Parfrey; H. M. Vavasour; S. Henry; M. Bullock; M. H. Gault

1988-01-01

9

Hypnosis to alleviate the symptoms of ciguatera toxicity: a case study.  

PubMed

Ciguatera toxicity is a poisoning from consuming reef fish that had fed on dinoflagellates such as Gambierdiscus toxicus found along coral reefs. The toxin is oil soluble, odorless, colorless, tasteless, heat stable, and is concentrated in larger carnivorous fish such as amberjack, barracuda, eel, grouper, red snapper, sea bass, and Spanish mackerel. Onset of symptoms is usually within 6-12 hours after ingestion. Gastrointestinal symptoms lasting 1-2 days include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Neurological symptoms may persist for weeks or several months or--rarely--years and include circumoral and extremity paresthesias, temperature sensation reversal, itching, weakness, ataxia, and others. A patient with burning hands and feet who had not found relief using other methods had diagnosis of ciguatera toxicity assisted by hypnotically refreshed memory followed by rapid relief with hypnotic suggestions in 1 session and remained free of symptoms. PMID:22443020

Laser, Eleanor D; Shenefelt, Philip D

2012-01-01

10

Brief report: concurrent validity of autism symptom severity measures.  

PubMed

The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic classifications, according to the DSM-5, include a severity rating. Several screening and/or diagnostic measures, such as the autism diagnostic and observation schedule (ADOS), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and social responsiveness scale (SRS) (teacher and parent versions), include an assessment of symptom severity. The purpose of this study was to examine whether symptom severity and/or diagnostic status of preschool-aged children with ASD (N = 201) were similarly categorized on these measures. For half of the sample, children were similarly classified across the four measures, and scores on most measures were correlated, with the exception of the ADOS and SRS-P. While the ADOS, CARS, and SRS are reliable and valid measures, there is some disagreement between measures with regard to child classification and the categorization of autism symptom severity. PMID:23807205

Reszka, Stephanie S; Boyd, Brian A; McBee, Matthew; Hume, Kara A; Odom, Samuel L

2014-02-01

11

Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and…

Anholt, Gideon E.; Cath, Danielle C.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

2010-01-01

12

Eating Disorder Symptom Severity Scale: A New Clinician Rated Measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the development and validation of the clinician-rated Eating Disorder Symptom Severity Scale (EDS), created to address a gap in measurement options for youth with eating disorders. The EDS is modeled on the Childhood Severity and Acuity of Psychiatric Illness Scales (Lyons, J. S, 1998). Factor analysis revealed a 5-factor solution and accounted for 78% of the variance,

Katherine A. Henderson; Annick Buchholz; Julie Perkins; Sarah Norwood; Nicole Obeid; Wendy Spettigue; Stephen Feder

2010-01-01

13

Caregiver Life Satisfaction: Relationship to Youth Symptom Severity through Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective This study utilized the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) to investigate the life satisfaction of caregivers for youth receiving mental health services (N = 383), specifically how it relates to youth symptom severity throughout treatment. Method Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) with a time-varying covariate was used to estimate the linear trajectory of caregiver life satisfaction and how it relates to youth symptom severity as rated by caregivers, youth, and clinicians. Results Initial caregiver life satisfaction was inversely related to caregiver and clinician rated youth symptom severity. Additionally, subsequent caregiver life satisfaction demonstrated a small but significant relationship to changes in youth symptom severity during treatment where a decrease in youth symptoms corresponded to an increase in caregiver life satisfaction, and vice versa. Caregiver background characteristics related to higher life satisfaction include being: married, a birth-parent, under 40 years old and having the absence of previous diagnoses of an emotional, behavioral or substance use disorder. Conclusion Caregivers of clinically-referred youth report low levels of life satisfaction throughout youth treatment. Given the bi-directional influences on one another, tending to the well-being of caregivers may positively influence both caregivers and youths. PMID:22571285

Athay, M. Michele

2013-01-01

14

Tonic Immobility Does Not Uniquely Predict Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tonic immobility (TI) is an involuntary state of temporary motor inhibition believed to occur in response to events that provoke extreme fear and the perception of inescapability. Human TI has been documented in a range of traumatic events and several researchers have reported associations between TI and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS); however, it remains unclear if TI is a unique

Murray P. Abrams; R. Nicholas Carleton; Gordon J. G. Asmundson

2012-01-01

15

Linguistic Correlates of Asymmetric Motor Symptom Severity in Parkinson's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asymmetric motor severity is common in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and provides a method for examining the neurobiologic mechanisms underlying cognitive and linguistic deficits associated with the disorder. In the present research, PD participants (N = 31) were assessed in terms of the asymmetry of their motor symptoms. Interviews with the…

Holtgraves, Thomas; McNamara, Patrick; Cappaert, Kevin; Durso, Raymond

2010-01-01

16

Caregiver Life Satisfaction: Relationship to Youth Symptom Severity through Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study utilized the Satisfaction with Life Scale to investigate the life satisfaction of caregivers for youth receiving mental health services (N = 383). Specifically, this study assessed how caregiver life satisfaction relates to youth symptom severity throughout treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling with a time-varying covariate was used…

Athay, M. Michele

2012-01-01

17

Indicate severe toxicity of highway runoff.  

PubMed

Road runoff is recognized as a substantial nonpoint source of contamination to the aquatic environment. Highway seasonal first flushes contain particularly high concentrations of pollutants. To fully account for the toxicity potential of the runoff, the cumulative effects of the pollutants should be assessed, ideally by biological analyses. Acute toxicity tests with were used to measure the toxicity of runoff from three major highway sections in Israel for 2 yr. Highway first flushes resulted in the mortality of all tested individuals within 24 to 48 h. A first flush collected from Highway 4 (traffic volume: 81,200 cars d) remained toxic even after dilution to <5% (48 h EC <5%). Synthetic solutions with metal concentrations corresponding to highways' first flushes revealed a synergistic adverse effect on survival and a potential additive effect of nonmetal pollutants in the runoff. Because daphnids and other invertebrates constitute the base of the aquatic food chain, detrimental effects of highway runoff may propagate to higher levels of biological organization. The observed high potential of environmental contamination warrants the control of highway runoff in proximity to natural watercourses. PMID:24216417

Dorchin, Achik; Shanas, Uri

2013-09-01

18

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Predict Symptom Severity of Autism Spectrum Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism is widely believed to be a heterogeneous disorder; diagnosis is currently based solely on clinical criteria, although\\u000a genetic, as well as environmental, influences are thought to be prominent factors in the etiology of most forms of autism.\\u000a Our goal is to determine whether a predictive model based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can predict symptom severity\\u000a of autism spectrum disorder

Yun Jiao; Rong Chen; Xiaoyan Ke; Lu Cheng; Kangkang Chu; Zuhong Lu; Edward H. Herskovits

19

Single nucleotide polymorphisms predict symptom severity of autism spectrum disorder  

PubMed Central

Autism is widely believed to be a heterogeneous disorder; diagnosis is currently based solely on clinical criteria, although genetic, as well as environmental, influences are thought to be prominent factors in the etiology of most forms of autism. Our goal is to determine whether a predictive model based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can predict symptom severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We divided 118 ASD children into a mild/moderate autism group (n = 65) and a severe autism group (n = 53), based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). For each child, we obtained 29 SNPs of 9 ASD-related genes. To generate predictive models, we employed three machine-learning techniques: decision stumps (DSs), alternating decision trees (ADTrees), and FlexTrees. DS and FlexTree generated modestly better classifiers, with accuracy = 67%, sensitivity = 0.88 and specificity = 0.42. The SNP rs878960 in GABRB3 was selected by all models, and was related associated with CARS assessment. Our results suggest that SNPs have the potential to offer accurate classification of ASD symptom severity. PMID:21786105

Jiao, Yun; Chen, Rong; Ke, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Lu; Chu, Kangkang; Lu, Zuhong; Herskovits, Edward H

2011-01-01

20

Single nucleotide polymorphisms predict symptom severity of autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Autism is widely believed to be a heterogeneous disorder; diagnosis is currently based solely on clinical criteria, although genetic, as well as environmental, influences are thought to be prominent factors in the etiology of most forms of autism. Our goal is to determine whether a predictive model based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can predict symptom severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We divided 118 ASD children into a mild/moderate autism group (n = 65) and a severe autism group (n = 53), based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). For each child, we obtained 29 SNPs of 9 ASD-related genes. To generate predictive models, we employed three machine-learning techniques: decision stumps (DSs), alternating decision trees (ADTrees), and FlexTrees. DS and FlexTree generated modestly better classifiers, with accuracy = 67%, sensitivity = 0.88 and specificity = 0.42. The SNP rs878960 in GABRB3 was selected by all models, and was related associated with CARS assessment. Our results suggest that SNPs have the potential to offer accurate classification of ASD symptom severity. PMID:21786105

Jiao, Yun; Chen, Rong; Ke, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Lu; Chu, Kangkang; Lu, Zuhong; Herskovits, Edward H

2012-06-01

21

Asthma Symptom Burden: Relationship to Asthma Severity and Anxiety and Depression Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this work was to examine the relationship between youth-reported asthma symptoms, presence of anxiety or depressive disorders, and objective measures of asthma severity among a population-based sample of youth with asthma. METHODS. We conducted a telephone survey of 767 youth with asthma (aged 11-17 years) enrolled in a staff model health maintenance organization. The Diagnostic Interview

Laura P. Richardson; Paula Lozano; Joan Russo; Elizabeth McCauley; Terry Bush; Wayne Katon

2010-01-01

22

Role of Folic Acid on Symptoms of Chronic Arsenic Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic arsenic toxicity (Arsenicosis) due to drinking of arsenic contaminated ground water is a global problem. However, its treatment is unsatisfactory. Methylation of arsenic facilitates its urinary excretion. Persons with relatively lower proportion of urinary dimethyl arsenic acid (DMA) are found to have at greater risk of developing symptoms of arsenicosis including its complications. The biochemical pathway responsible for methylation of arsenic is a folate-dependent pathway. Studies in rodents and humans suggest that folate nutritional status influences the metabolism of arsenic. Methods: The present study compares the effect of giving folic acid on 32 arsenicosis patients during a 6-month period and comparing the results with clinical effect of taking only arsenic-free safe water on 45 age and sex-matched arsenic-affected people for the same period. Results: There was significant improvement of arsenical skin lesion score of both patients treated with folic acid (2.96 ± 1.46 to 1.90 ± 0.90, P < 0.001) and arsenic free safe water (2.91 ± 1.26 to 1.62 ± 1.05, P < 0.001) for a period of 6 months. Significant improvement in systemic disease score was also observed from the baseline systemic score in folic acid treated group (4.78 ± 3.43 to 1.00 ± 1.56, P < 0.001) and the group treated with arsenic-free water (1.87 ± 2.11 to 0.82 ± 1.62, P < 0.001). However, there was a significant increased improvement of systematic disease score in the folic acid treated group compared to the control group taking arsenic free water (P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study provides evidence that folic acid treatment in arsenicosis cases could help in reducing clinical symptoms of arsenicosis. PMID:24554997

Ghose, Nelima; Majumdar, Kunal Kanti; Ghose, A. K.; Saha, C. K.; Nandy, A. K.; Mazumder, D. N. Guha

2014-01-01

23

Combined radiotherapy and bleomycin in patients with inoperable head and neck cancer with unfavourable prognostic factors and severe symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of concurrent split course radiotherapy and low-dose bleomycin in the treatment of unresectable head and neck cancer with unfavourable prognostic factors and severe syptoms. The clinical outcome of the treatment was assessed in terms of local disease control, symptom relief and toxicity. Between 1990 and 1996, 58 patients with squamous

E. Minatel; M. Gigante; G. Franchin; C. Gobitti; M. Mascarin; L. Bujor; L. Barzan; M. G. Trovò

1998-01-01

24

Psychiatric symptom severity in cocaine-dependent outpatients: demographics, drug use characteristics and treatment outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychiatric symptom severity and associated characteristics were assessed in 185 individuals seeking outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence. The sample was divided into groups of low, medium and high psychiatric symptom severity based on Addiction Severity Index psychiatric composite scores. Patients with high symptom severity reported poorer pre-treatment functioning and more adverse consequences of cocaine use than the lower severity groups.

Jennifer W Tidey; Lewis Mehl-Madrona; Stephen T Higgins; Gary J Badger

1998-01-01

25

The interpretation of symptoms of severe dietary restraint  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent cognitive-behavioural theory of eating disorders proposes that people with eating disorders interpret symptoms of dietary restraint in terms of control. The primary aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis. A second aim was to test the hypothesis derived from clinical observation that people with eating disorders view these symptoms positively. Forty-four participants meeting DSM-IV criteria

R Shafran; C. G Fairburn; L Nelson; P. H Robinson

2003-01-01

26

Children with Autism: Sleep Problems and Symptom Severity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships between the specific sleep problems and specific behavioral problems of children with autism were evaluated. Mothers' reports of sleep habits and autism symptoms were collected for 109 children with autism. Unlike previous research in this area, only children diagnosed with autism without any commonly comorbid diagnoses (e.g.,…

Tudor, Megan E.; Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.

2012-01-01

27

Frequency, severity, and effect on life of physical symptoms experienced during pregnancy.  

PubMed

This study aimed to: 1) describe the number, frequency, severity of discomfort and effect of symptoms on life of 29 physical symptoms women experienced at 15 to 25 weeks of gestation; 2) explore whether experiencing this group of physical symptoms more frequently and intensely was associated with a higher score of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem; (3) examine whether discomfort and effect ratings aided prediction of well being over and above symptom frequency; and (4) investigate which individual physical symptoms contributed most to predicting depressive symptoms and self-esteem. Pregnant women (n = 215) completed the Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and a physical symptoms questionnaire. Frequency, discomfort, and the effect of physical symptoms all consistently correlated with higher scores for depressive symptoms, but less consistently with lower self-esteem. Discomfort and the effect of symptoms predicted variance in depressive symptoms after accounting for symptom frequency. Higher frequency, more discomfort, and the effect of fatigue and effect of flatulence were related to depressive symptoms. Relationships between pregnancy-related physical symptoms, depressive symptoms, and low self-esteem suggest that when women report any of these constellation of factors, further screening is indicated. A comprehensive assessment of physical symptoms includes frequency, discomfort, and effect on life. PMID:19114238

Kamysheva, Ekaterina; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Skouteris, Helen; Paxton, Susan J; Milgrom, Jeannette

2009-01-01

28

Red clover causing symptoms suggestive of methotrexate toxicity in a patient on high-dose methotrexate.  

PubMed

The case report discusses a very serious interaction between red clover and methotrexate not previously documented. It highlights the potential pitfalls of concomitant use of herbal remedies and conventionally prescribed drugs and the importance of advising our patients about OTC drugs. A 52-year-old woman attended her general practitioner for advice on menopausal flushing. She was on methotrexate weekly injections for severe psoriasis and was not keen to consider anything that would possibly affect her skin. Alternative therapies were discussed and red clover was suggested. This was bought OTC. After the third day of taking red clover capsules (430 mg), the patient developed severe vomiting and epigastric pain. She contacted the dermatology clinic that administers the methotrexate injection and was thought to have symptoms suggestive of methotrexate toxicity even though her liver function tests remained within normal levels. She had been receiving methotrexate injections for nearly two years with no adverse effects. The only new drug that had been started was red clover and this was thought to be the probable cause of the toxicity. It was withdrawn. The patient made a full recovery and received her next injection of methotrexate with no adverse effects. The interaction was reported to the MHRA with a yellow card. PMID:24072635

Orr, Ancel; Parker, Rachel

2013-09-01

29

Severity of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Symptom Differences Between men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several aspects of childhood sexual abuse were investigated to deterrmine the “best model” for predicting long-term symptoms found both in male and female survivors. Level of severity accounted for the most variation for both men and women for each of the five measures of trauma symptoms (dissociation, anxiety, depression, sexual dysfunction, and sleep disturbance). The most severe level of sexual

Vaughn Heath; Roy Bean; Leslie Feinauer

1996-01-01

30

Brief Report: Concurrent Validity of Autism Symptom Severity Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic classifications, according to the DSM-5, include a severity rating. Several screening and/or diagnostic measures, such as the autism diagnostic and observation schedule (ADOS), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and social responsiveness scale (SRS) (teacher and parent versions), include an…

Reszka, Stephanie S.; Boyd, Brian A.; McBee, Matthew; Hume, Kara A.; Odom, Samuel L.

2014-01-01

31

Erectile function and late-onset hypogonadism symptoms related to lower urinary tract symptom severity in elderly men  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs), erectile dysfunction (ED) and symptomatic late-onset hypogonadism (SLOH) in ageing men in the Aegean region of Turkey. Five hundred consecutive patients >40 years old who had been in a steady sexual relationship for the past 6 months and were admitted to one of six urology clinics were included in the study. Serum prostate-specific antigen and testosterone levels and urinary flow rates were measured. All patients filled out the International Prostate Symptom Score and Quality of Life (IPSS–QoL), International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale forms. Of the patients, 23.9% had mild LUTSs, 53.3% had moderate LUTSs and 22.8% had severe LUTSs. The total testosterone level did not differ between groups. Additionally, 69.6% had ED. The presence of impotence increased with increasing LUTS severity. Symptomatic late-onset hypogonadism (AMS >27) was observed in 71.2% of the patients. The prevalence of severe hypogonadism symptoms increased with the IPSS scores. A correlation analysis revealed that all three questionnaire scores were significantly correlated. In conclusion, LUTS severity is an age-independent risk factor for ED and SLOH. LUTS severity and SLOH symptoms appear to have a strong link that requires etiological and biological clarification in future studies. PMID:23817501

Bozkurt, Ozan; Bolat, Deniz; Demir, Omer; Ucer, Oktay; Sahin, Ali; Ozcift, Burak; Pektas, Abdulkadir; Turan, Tahir; Gumus, Bilal H; Can, Ertan; Bolukbasi, Ahmet; Erol, Haluk; Esen, Adil

2013-01-01

32

Erectile function and late-onset hypogonadism symptoms related to lower urinary tract symptom severity in elderly men.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs), erectile dysfunction (ED) and symptomatic late-onset hypogonadism (SLOH) in ageing men in the Aegean region of Turkey. Five hundred consecutive patients >40 years old who had been in a steady sexual relationship for the past 6 months and were admitted to one of six urology clinics were included in the study. Serum prostate-specific antigen and testosterone levels and urinary flow rates were measured. All patients filled out the International Prostate Symptom Score and Quality of Life (IPSS-QoL), International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale forms. Of the patients, 23.9% had mild LUTSs, 53.3% had moderate LUTSs and 22.8% had severe LUTSs. The total testosterone level did not differ between groups. Additionally, 69.6% had ED. The presence of impotence increased with increasing LUTS severity. Symptomatic late-onset hypogonadism (AMS >27) was observed in 71.2% of the patients. The prevalence of severe hypogonadism symptoms increased with the IPSS scores. A correlation analysis revealed that all three questionnaire scores were significantly correlated. In conclusion, LUTS severity is an age-independent risk factor for ED and SLOH. LUTS severity and SLOH symptoms appear to have a strong link that requires etiological and biological clarification in future studies. PMID:23817501

Bozkurt, Ozan; Bolat, Deniz; Demir, Omer; Ucer, Oktay; Sahin, Ali; Ozcift, Burak; Pekta?, Abdulkadir; Turan, Tahir; Gümü?, Bilal H; Can, Ertan; Bolukbasi, Ahmet; Erol, Haluk; Esen, Adil

2013-11-01

33

SYMPTOM SEVERITY AMOUNT OF TREATMENT AND 1YEAR OUTCOMES AMONG DUAL DIAGNOSIS PATIENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: This study reports on associations among symptom severity, amount of treat- ment, and 1-year outcomes in a national sample of 8,622 dual diagnosis patients, who were classified at treatment entry into low-, moderate-, and high-severity groups. Patients with more,severe symptoms,at intake had,poorer,1-year outcomes. Higher severity patients did not receive adequate “doses” of care: Compared with low-severity patients, they had

Christine Timko; Rudolf H. Moos

2002-01-01

34

Symptom Severity, Amount of Treatment, and 1Year Outcomes Among Dual Diagnosis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on associations among symptom severity, amount of treatment, and 1-year outcomes in a national sample of 8,622 dual diagnosis patients, who were classified at treatment entry into low-, moderate-, and high-severity groups. Patients with more severe symptoms at intake had poorer 1-year outcomes. Higher severity patients did not receive adequate “doses” of care: Compared with low-severity patients,

Christine Timko; Rudolf H. Moos

2002-01-01

35

Relationships Between Attribution Style, Child Abuse History, and PTSD Symptom Severity in Vietnam Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between learned helplessness, locus of control, child abuse histories, adult trauma exposure and subsequent PTSD symptom severity in a clinical sample of male Vietnam veterans were examined. Learned helplessness and external locus of control were not only reliably associated with each other, but also differentially associated with childhood abuse and PTSD symptom severity. Learned helplessness, in particular, evidenced significant

Victoria M. McKeever; Benedict T. McWhirter; Maureen E. Huff

2006-01-01

36

The epidemiology of anal incontinence and symptom severity scoring  

PubMed Central

For many patients, anal incontinence (AI) is a devastating condition that can lead to social isolation and loss of independence, contributing to a substantial economic health burden, not only for the individual but also for the allocation of healthcare resources. Its prevalence is underestimated because of poor patient reporting, with many unrecorded but symptomatic cases residing in nursing homes. Endosonography has improved our understanding of the incidence of post-obstetric sphincter tears that are potentially suitable for repair and those cases resulting from anorectal surgery, most notably after fistula and hemorrhoid operations. The clinical scoring systems assessing the severity of AI are discussed in this review, along with their limitations. Improvements in the standardization of these scales will advance our understanding of treatment response in an era where the therapeutic options have multiplied and will permit a better comparison between specific therapies. PMID:24759339

Nevler, Avinoam

2014-01-01

37

Influence of the Dose on the Severity of Opiate Withdrawal Symptoms during Methadone Detoxification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: This study investigates factors influencing the severity of opiate withdrawal symptoms, focusing on the relationship between methadone dose and withdrawal severity among opiate-dependent in-patients receiving methadone detoxification. Methods: The sample comprised 48 opiate-dependent patients admitted to a specialist in-patient drug treatment service and withdrawn from opiates, using a 10-day methadone reduction schedule. The severity of withdrawal symptoms was assessed

Anthony Glasper; Michael Gossop; Cornelis de Wet; Laurence Reed; Jennifer Bearn

2008-01-01

38

Eating Disorder Symptoms Among Adults with Severe and Persistent Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents pilot data examining the: (1) prevalence of eating disorder symptoms among adults with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) and (2) clinical and demographic predictors of eating disorder symptoms. Participants were 149 adults with SPMI who were receiving community mental health services. The Eating Attitudes Test, Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire, purging questions, and Body Mass Index were

DEBRA SREBNIK; KATE COMTOIS; JENNIFER STEVENSON; HOLLY HOFF; MARK SNOWDEN; JOAN RUSSO; RICHARD RIES

2003-01-01

39

[Severe toxic acute liver failure: etiology and treatment].  

PubMed

Many substances, drugs or not, can be responsible for acute hepatitis. Nevertheless, toxic etiology, except when that is obvious like in acetaminophen overdose, is a diagnosis of elimination. Major causes, in particular viral etiologies, must be ruled out. Acetaminophen, antibiotics, antiepileptics and antituberculous drugs are the first causes of drug-induced liver injury. Severity assessment of the acute hepatitis is critical. Acute liver failure (ALF) is defined by the factor V, respectively more than 50% for the mild ALF and less than 50% for the severe ALF. Neurological examination must be extensive to the search for encephalopathy signs. According to the French classification, fulminant hepatitis is defined by the presence of an encephalopathy in the two first weeks and subfulminant between the second and 12th week after the advent of the jaundice. During acetaminophen overdose, with or without hepatitis or ALF, intravenous N-acetylcysteine must be administered as soon as possible. In the non-acetaminophen related ALF, N-acetylcysteine improves transplantation-free survival. Referral and assessment in a liver transplantation unit should be discussed as soon as possible. PMID:23683460

Amathieu, R; Levesque, E; Merle, J-C; Chemit, M; Costentin, C; Compagnon, P; Dhonneur, G

2013-06-01

40

Factors associated with severity of symptoms in patients with chronic unexplained muscular aching.  

PubMed Central

Subjects with chronic, diffuse, unexplained muscular aching were recruited--21 from a primary care practice, nine from a rheumatology practice, and two from a pain clinic. No additional criteria were used to select subjects. Subjects with mild or moderate symptoms differed from those with severe symptoms with respect to the following characteristics: the presence of fatigue on awakening, the number of tender points, difficulty in sleeping, and the degree of tenderness in typical fibromyalgia areas as measured by a dolorimeter. These findings suggest that muscular aching is likely to be of greater severity if other symptoms or signs of fibromyalgia are also present. PMID:2712612

Kolar, E; Hartz, A; Roumm, A; Ryan, L; Jones, R; Kirchdoerfer, E

1989-01-01

41

Drinking motives as mediators between PTSD symptom severity and alcohol consumption in persons with severe mental illnesses.  

PubMed

Research has consistently shown that drinking to alleviate negative emotional states predicts alcohol use and relapse among clients with co-occurring disorders including depressive and posttraumatic stress disorders. However, studies examining the mediating role of drinking motives in persons with severe mental illness (SMI) are few. The current survey of 116 community mental health clients (51.7% men; 47.4% women) diagnosed with either a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (41, 35.3%) or major mood disorder (75, 64.7%) tested the hypothesis that convivial drinking and drinking to cope with negative emotions would mediate posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS-I) and alcohol consumption (QF). A series of path models revealed that convivial drinking fully mediated hyper-arousal symptoms and alcohol consumption, and negative coping fully mediated total posttraumatic stress symptoms, avoidance and hyper-arousal symptoms and alcohol consumption. The results support an emotional distress reduction model of alcohol use in people with severe mental illness, and highlight the need to assess specific drinking motives and target them in cognitive-behavioral treatment approaches. The cross sectional design employed limits cause-effect inferences regarding mediation, and highlights the need for longitudinal designs to sort out causal pathways among symptoms, drinking motives and alcohol consumption in clients with SMI. PMID:21315519

O'Hare, Thomas; Sherrer, Margaret

2011-05-01

42

Aggression inoculates against PTSD symptom severity--insights from armed groups in the eastern DR Congo  

PubMed Central

Background In the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), combatants are exposed to massive forms of violence and other traumatic stressors. Nevertheless, many combatants do not suffer from trauma-related disorders, although they have experienced numerous traumatizing events. Perceiving aggressive behavior as fascinating and arousing might be a defense against trauma-related disorders in the violent environment of war and conflict. Objective Thus, in this study we investigated the relationship between the exposure to traumatic stressors, appetitive aggression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. We hypothesized that cumulative traumatic experiences correlated positively and appetitive aggression negatively with PTSD symptom severity. Method In total, 105 voluntary male combatants from different armed groups in the eastern DRC took part in this study. In a semistructured interview, respondents were questioned about their exposure to traumatic stressors, the extent of appetitive aggression (Appetitive Aggression Scale) and their PTSD symptom severity (PTSD Symptom Scale - Interview). Results A multiple sequential regression analysis showed that traumatic events were positively related to PTSD symptom severity. For participants with low to medium PTSD symptom severity, appetitive aggression correlated negatively with PTSD symptom severity. Conclusions The results of this study provide further support for earlier findings that repeated exposure to traumatic stressors cumulatively heightens the risk of PTSD and revealed that appetitive aggression buffers the risk of developing PTSD symptoms under certain circumstances. Thus, the perception of aggressive behavior as fascinating and arousing seem to help combatants to adapt to violent environments but may also be one reason for recurrent failure of reintegration programs for excombatants. PMID:23671766

Hecker, Tobias; Hermenau, Katharin; Maedl, Anna; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

2013-01-01

43

Fluoroquinolone toxicity symptoms in a patient presenting with low back pain  

PubMed Central

Fluoroquinolone medications have been shown to contribute to tendinopathies, cardiotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal condition for which chiropractic treatment is most often sought. This case report details a patient presenting with low back pain and a history of fluoroquinolone toxicity. The patient was initially treated with chiropractic manipulation, which increased her symptoms. She was then referred to an osteopathic physician who treated the patient with intravenous antioxidants and amino acids, an elimination diet, and probiotic supplementation. Within 4 months of therapy, the patient reported a decrease in pain, a resolution of her dizziness, shortness of breath, panic attacks, tachycardia, and blurred vision. After an additional 8 weeks of antioxidant therapy, she reported further reductions in pain and improved disability. People susceptible to fluoroquinolone toxicity may present with common musculoskeletal symptoms. A past medical history and medication history may help to identify this population of patients. People presenting with fluoroquinolone toxicity may have unidentified contributing factors that predispose them to this anomaly. This patient reported improvements in pain and disability following antioxidant amino acid therapy for a total of 6 months. The natural history of fluoroquinolone toxicity is unknown and may account for the observed improvements. PMID:24765486

Strauchman, Megan; Morningstar, Mark W.

2012-01-01

44

Fluoroquinolone toxicity symptoms in a patient presenting with low back pain.  

PubMed

Fluoroquinolone medications have been shown to contribute to tendinopathies, cardiotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal condition for which chiropractic treatment is most often sought. This case report details a patient presenting with low back pain and a history of fluoroquinolone toxicity. The patient was initially treated with chiropractic manipulation, which increased her symptoms. She was then referred to an osteopathic physician who treated the patient with intravenous antioxidants and amino acids, an elimination diet, and probiotic supplementation. Within 4 months of therapy, the patient reported a decrease in pain, a resolution of her dizziness, shortness of breath, panic attacks, tachycardia, and blurred vision. After an additional 8 weeks of antioxidant therapy, she reported further reductions in pain and improved disability. People susceptible to fluoroquinolone toxicity may present with common musculoskeletal symptoms. A past medical history and medication history may help to identify this population of patients. People presenting with fluoroquinolone toxicity may have unidentified contributing factors that predispose them to this anomaly. This patient reported improvements in pain and disability following antioxidant amino acid therapy for a total of 6 months. The natural history of fluoroquinolone toxicity is unknown and may account for the observed improvements. PMID:24765486

Strauchman, Megan; Morningstar, Mark W

2012-10-12

45

The severity of depressive symptoms vs. serum Mg and Zn levels in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the severity of depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women, depending on serum Mg and Zn levels. The study involved 171 postmenopausal women from Poland, who were not using menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). The intensity of depressive symptoms was evaluated using a standard research technique, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The plasma Mg and Zn concentrations were measured. Depressive symptoms of different severity levels were diagnosed in 36.8 % of the women. The mean serum Mg level was 1.53?±?0.28 mg/dL, and Zn level was 72?±14 ?g/dL. The women with higher serum Mg and Zn levels had less depressive symptoms, and this observation is a precious information which can be used when planning depressive disorder prevention programmes. PMID:24271492

Stanis?awska, M; Szkup-Jab?o?ska, M; Jurczak, A; Wieder-Huszla, S; Samochowiec, A; Jasiewicz, A; Noce?, I; Augustyniuk, K; Brodowska, A; Karakiewicz, B; Chlubek, D; Grochans, E

2014-01-01

46

Pseudorecombination between Two Distinct Strains of Cucumber mosaic virus Results in Enhancement of Symptom Severity  

PubMed Central

Recently, a Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) strain, named as CMV-209, was isolated from Glycine soja. In this study, symptom expression of CMV-209 was analyzed in detail in Nicotiana benthamiana by comparing with that of CMV-Fny, which is a representative strain of CMV. Using infectious cDNA clones of CMV strains 209 and Fny, symptom expression of various pseudorecombinants between these two strains were examined in the early and late infection stages. In the early infection stage, the pseudorecombinants containing Fny-RNA2 induced stunting and leaf distortion on the newly emerged leaves whereas the pseudorecombinants containing 209-RNA2 caused no obvious symptoms. In the late infection stage, the pseudorecombinants containing 209-RNA1 and Fny-RNA2 induced severe leaf distortion and stunting, while CMV-209 induced mild symptom and CMV-Fny caused typical mosaic, general stunting, and leaf distortion symptoms, indicating that RNA 2 encodes a symptom determinant(s) of CMV, which is capable of enhancing symptoms. Furthermore, our results support the possibility that natural recombination between compatible viruses can result in emergence of novel viruses causing severe damages in crop fields.

Phan, Mi Sa Vo; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Choi, Hong-Soo; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Kook-Hyung

2014-01-01

47

Biological and psychosocial environmental risk factors influence symptom severity and psychiatric comorbidity in children with ADHD.  

PubMed

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a genetically as well as environmentally determined disorder with a high rate of psychiatric comorbidity. In this study, non-genetic biological and psychosocial risk factors for ADHD symptom severity and comorbid disorders were assessed in 275 children with ADHD, aged 5-13 years, mean age 9.7 (SD 1.9). Pre-/perinatal biological and lifetime psychosocial risk factors as well as data on parental ADHD were obtained. A different pattern of risk factors emerged for inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms. Inattentive symptoms were strongly influenced by psychosocial risk factors, whereas for hyperactive-impulsive symptoms, predominantly biological risk factors emerged. Hyperactive-impulsive symptoms also were a strong risk factor for comorbid oppositional defiant (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). Smoking during pregnancy was a risk factor for comorbid CD but not ODD and further differential risk factors were observed for ODD and CD. Comorbid anxiety disorder (AnxD) was not related to ADHD symptoms and additional biological and psychosocial risk factors were observed. This study adds to the body of evidence that non-genetic biological and psychosocial risk factors have an impact on ADHD symptom severity and differentially influence comorbid disorders in ADHD. The findings are relevant to the prevention and treatment of ADHD with or without comorbid disorders. PMID:21626412

Freitag, Christine M; Hänig, Susann; Schneider, Anna; Seitz, Christiane; Palmason, Haukur; Retz, Wolfgang; Meyer, Jobst

2012-01-01

48

Plasma Copper and Zinc Concentration in Individuals with Autism Correlate with Selected Symptom Severity  

PubMed Central

Aim: To assess plasma zinc and copper concentration in individuals with autism and correlate these levels with symptom severity. Subjects and methods: Plasma from 102 autistic individuals, and 18 neurotypical controls, were tested for plasma zinc and copper using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Copper and zinc levels and Cu/Zn were analyzed for possible correlation with severity of 19 symptoms. Results: Autistic individuals had elevated plasma levels of copper and Cu/Zn and lower, but not significantly lower, plasma Zn compared to neurotypical controls. There was a correlation between Cu/Zn and expressive language, receptive language, focus attention, hyperactivity, fine motor skills, gross motor skills and Tip Toeing. There was a negative correlation between plasma zinc concentration and hyperactivity, and fine motor skills severity. Discussion: These results suggest an association between plasma Cu/Zn and severity of symptoms associated with autism. PMID:23882147

Russo, Anthony J.; Bazin, Andrea P.; Bigega, Richard; Carlson, Robert S.; Cole, Martin G.; Contreras, Dilenia C.; Galvin, Matthew B.; Gaydorus, Sayde S.; Holik, Sierra D.; Jenkins, Gavin P.; Jones, Brandon M.; Languell, Penelope A.; Lyman, Padraic J.; March, Kareem P.; Meuer, Katie A.; Peterson, Serena R.; Piedmonte, Matthew T.; Quinn, Michael G.; Smaranda, Nicole C.; Steves, Patrick L.; Taylor, Heather P.; Waddingham, Teagan E.; Warren, Janine S.

2012-01-01

49

Poor quality of life among untreated Thai and Cambodian children without severe HIV symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are limited data on quality of life (QOL)1in untreated HIV-infected children who do not have severe HIV symptoms. Moreover, such data do not exist for Asian children. Poor QOL could be a factor in deciding if antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be initiated. Thai and Cambodian children (n=294), aged 1–11 years, naïve to ART, with mild to moderate HIV symptoms

Torsak Bunupuradah; Thanyawee Puthanakit; Pope Kosalaraksa; Stephen J. Kerr; Azar Kariminia; Rawiwan Hansudewechakul; Suparat Kanjanavanit; Chaiwat Ngampiyaskul; Jurai Wongsawat; Wicharn Luesomboon; Theshinee Chuenyam; Saphonn Vonthanak; Mean Chhi Vun; Ung Vibol; Bun Vannary; Kiat Ruxrungtham; Jintanat Ananworanich

2012-01-01

50

High prevalence of symptoms in a severely abused “non-patient” women population  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this article is to assess the prevalence of somatic symptoms and of gastrointestinal (GI) syndromes in abused “non-patient” women and the association with the time of perpetration, type, and severity of abuse. Methods Sixty-seven women, 18–58 years, receiving shelter in anti-violence associations were invited to fill out an anonymous questionnaire with a medical and an abuse section. The severity of abuse was expressed as the 0–6 Abuse Severity Measure (ASM). The association between abuse characteristics and the number of symptoms, and GI syndromes was assessed by Poisson regression model. Results Most women suffered from childhood and adulthood sexual and physical abuse. They reported a mean of 5.1 GI symptoms (range 0–13; median 5; IQR 6) and of 1.3 extra-GI symptoms (range 0–6; median 1; IQR 2); 30% of women matched the Rome II Criteria for one, 36% for two, and 4.4% for three or more syndromes, respectively. Women with an ASM of 5–6, having suffered from both sexual and physical abuse, reported significantly (p?=?0.02) more GI symptoms, but not extra-GI ones (p?=?0.07), and met criteria for more GI syndromes than women with an ASM ?4 and those reporting only one type of abuse. No association was found between the time of perpetration of the abuse and the number of GI and extra-GI symptoms. Conclusions Symptoms in abused “non-patient” women mainly concern the abdomen and the GI tract. A history of severe, combined physical and sexual abuse is associated with a higher number of GI symptoms.

Pallotta, N; Piacentino, D; Ciccantelli, B; Rivera, M; Golini, N; Spagnoli, A; Vincoli, G; Farchi, S

2014-01-01

51

Prediction of work functioning following accidental injury: The contribution of PTSD symptom severity and other established risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses to a mail survey were used to investigate the contribution of PTSD symptom severity to work functioning in 69 previously employed adult survivors of accidental injury approximately 8 months post?hospitalization. Associations of PTSD symptom severity with other established risk factors for poor work functioning were also examined. Participants were initially divided into three groups based on PTSD symptom severity

Lynda R. Matthews; Darien Chinnery

2005-01-01

52

The Association Between Alzheimer's Disease Symptom Severity and Caregiver Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) symptom severity and caregiver outcomes. Method: This was a database analysis of the Alzheimer's Disease Caregiver Study, a cross-sectional, caregiver-reported study conducted in 2007. Data were collected nationwide via the Internet and in 8 cities: Detroit, Michigan; Knoxville, Tennessee; Los Angeles, California; Miami, Florida; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Phoenix, Arizona; St Louis, Missouri; and Washington, DC. Participants were unpaid adult caregivers of AD patients (N = 1,077). Symptom severity was measured using the Revised Memory and Behavioral Problem Checklist (RMBPC). Caregiver outcomes included the Caregiver Burden Scale, diagnosis of anxiety and depression, use of the emergency room, hospitalization, number of physician visits, and missed workdays in the past 6 months. Linear and logistic regression models were developed to assess effects of AD symptom severity on outcomes. Covariates included caregiver and patient characteristics and interactions of AD symptom severity with covariates based on previous analyses. Results: Of the 1,077 respondents, 1,034 had valid RMBPC overall symptom severity scores. AD symptom severity was a significant (P < .01) predictor of all caregiver outcomes except physician visits. Each unit increase in RMBPC severity score corresponded with an increase of 0.328 (95% CI, 0.101?0.554) units in caregiver burden. Each unit increase in severity resulted in increases in physician visits (b = 0.343; 95% CI, 0.052?0.635) and absenteeism (b = 1.722; 95% CI, 0.694?2.749). For each unit increase in RMBPC severity score, caregivers had greater likelihood of emergency room use (odds ratio = 1.506; 95% CI, 1.230?1.845), hospitalization (OR = 1.393; 95% CI, 1.091?1.777), anxiety (OR = 1.506; 95% CI, 1.257?1.805), and depression (OR = 1.811; 95% CI, 1.505?2.179). Conclusions: AD symptom severity is significantly associated with poorer caregiver outcomes. Therefore, treatments that slow AD symptom progression may be beneficial to caregiver outcomes. PMID:21977376

Kannan, Hema; Bolge, Susan C.; del Valle, Megan; Alvir, Jose

2011-01-01

53

Severe methotrexate toxicity precipitated by intravenous radiographic contrast.  

PubMed

Methotrexate (MTX), a widely used anticancer agent, and intravenous iodinated contrast used for radiographic studies can both cause acute renal failure. Their combined exposure may place patients at higher risk for renal failure. This report describes 2 pediatric patients with MTX toxicity precipitated by the use of intravenous radiographic contrast. One patient recovered with leucovorin rescue therapy, whereas the second patient responded to carboxypeptidase-G2. Both patients suffered MTX-related toxicities including myelosuppression and mucositis, but recovered full renal function and tolerated further high-dose MTX therapy. These cases suggest that intravenous iodinated contrast should be avoided in patients receiving high-dose MTX. PMID:17609630

Harned, Theresa M; Mascarenhas, Leo

2007-07-01

54

Predicting posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and pain intensity following severe injury: the role of catastrophizing  

PubMed Central

Background A number of theories have proposed possible mechanisms that may explain the high rates of comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and persistent pain; however, there has been limited research investigating these factors. Objective The present study sought to prospectively examine whether catastrophizing predicted the development of PTSD symptoms and persistent pain following physical injury. Design Participants (N=208) completed measures of PTSD symptomatology, pain intensity and catastrophizing during hospitalization following severe injury, and 3 and 12 months postinjury. Cross-lagged path analysis explored the longitudinal relationship between these variables. Results Acute catastrophizing significantly predicted PTSD symptoms but not pain intensity 3 months postinjury. In turn, 3-month catastrophizing predicted pain intensity, but not PTSD symptoms 12 months postinjury. Indirect relations were also found between acute catastrophizing and 12-month PTSD symptoms and pain intensity. Relations were mediated via 3-month PTSD symptoms and 3-month catastrophizing, respectively. Acute symptoms did not predict 3-month catastrophizing and catastrophizing did not fully account for the relationship between PTSD symptoms and pain intensity. Conclusions Findings partially support theories that propose a role for catastrophizing processes in understanding vulnerability to pain and posttrauma symptomatology and, thus, a possible mechanism for comorbidity between these conditions. PMID:22893804

Carty, Jessica; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Evans, Lynette; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Creamer, Mark

2011-01-01

55

PTSD symptom clusters, feelings of revenge, and perceptions of perpetrator punishment severity in victims of interpersonal violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feelings of revenge have often been found to correlate with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Which PTSD symptom cluster prevails in this association is, however, unknown. Furthermore, previous studies suggest that revenge may be satisfied by perceptions of perpetrator punishment severity, but did not control for concurrent symptoms of PTSD. Therefore, this study explored associations between PTSD symptom clusters,

M. J. J. Kunst

2011-01-01

56

Psychopathology and alexithymia in severe mental illness: the impact of trauma and posttraumatic stress symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To empirically investigate whether or not symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are essential for transferring\\u000a the negative effects of trauma on the severity of severe mental illness (SMI) as recently suggested by an interactive model.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  About 122 inpatients with either schizophrenia or major affective disorder were administered the Posttraumatic Diagnostic\\u000a Scale, the Symptom Checklist and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale.

Carsten Spitzer; Matthias Vogel; Sven Barnow; Harald J. Freyberger; Hans Joergen Grabe

2007-01-01

57

Rotenone Toxicity to Rainbow Trout and Several Mountain Stream Insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The piscicide rotenone has been used for over 70 years to eradicate unwanted fish, but controversy exists regarding its impacts on nontarget organisms, particularly aquatic invertebrates. We evaluated the toxicity of synergized Nusyn-Noxfish and nonsynergized CFT Legumine rotenone formulations in 4- and 8-h exposures to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and six species of mountain stream caddisflies, mayflies, and stoneflies. We

Brian Finlayson; William L. Somer; Mark R. Vinson

2010-01-01

58

Severity and duration of nausea and vomiting symptoms in pregnancy and spontaneous abortion  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Earlier studies have shown an inverse association between the presence of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) and spontaneous abortion (SAB), but no study to date has examined the effects of symptom duration on the risk of SAB. METHODS We examined NVP symptom severity and duration in relation to the occurrence of SAB. Data were collected from 2407 pregnant women in three US cities between 2000 and 2004 through interviews, ultrasound assessments and medical records abstractions. Discrete-time continuation ratio logistic survival models were used to examine the association between NVP and pregnancy loss. RESULTS Lack of NVP symptoms was associated with increased risk for SAB [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): (2.4, 4.3)], compared with having any symptoms. Reduced risks for SAB were found across most maternal age groups for those with NVP for at least half of their pregnancy, but the effects were much stronger in the oldest maternal age group [OR = 0.2, 95% CI: (0.1, 0.8)]. CONCLUSIONS The absence of NVP symptoms is associated with an increased risk of early pregnancy loss. As symptom duration decreases, the likelihood of early loss increases, especially among women in the oldest maternal age group. PMID:20861299

Chan, Ronna L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Savitz, David A.; Herring, Amy H.; Daniels, Julie L.; Peterson, Herbert B.; Martin, Sandra L.

2010-01-01

59

Brain electrical tomography in depression: the importance of symptom severity, anxiety, and melancholic features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The frontal lobe has been crucially involved in the neurobiology of major depression, but inconsistencies among studies exist, in part due to a failure of considering modulatory variables such as symptom severity, comorbidity with anxiety, and distinct subtypes, as codeterminants for patterns of brain activation in depression.Methods: Resting electroencephalogram was recorded in 38 unmedicated subjects with major depressive disorder

Diego A. Pizzagalli; Jack B. Nitschke; Terrence R. Oakes; Andrew M. Hendrick; Kathryn A. Horras; Christine L. Larson; Heather C. Abercrombie; Stacey M. Schaefer; John V. Koger; Ruth M. Benca; Roberto D. Pascual-Marqui; Richard J. Davidson

2002-01-01

60

The Relationship Among Personality Variables, Exposure to Traumatic Events, and Severity of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In examining predictors of posttraumatic stress, researchers have focused on trauma intensity and devoted less attention to other variables. This study examined how personality and demographic variables are related to the likelihood of experiencing a trauma, and to the severity of posttraumatic symptoms in a sample of 402 college students reporting a wide range of trauma. Elevations in antisocial and

Dean Lauterbach; Scott Vrana

2001-01-01

61

Severity of children's ADHD symptoms and parenting stress: a multiple mediation model of self-regulation.  

PubMed

The goal of the current study was to determine the extent to which the perceived self-regulation deficits across behavioral, cognitive, and emotional domains seen in children with ADHD explain the association between the severity of ADHD symptoms and parenting stress. Participants for this study included 80 children (mean age = 10 years, 9 months) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD confirmed by a comprehensive clinical diagnostic assessment. Parents reported their own stress levels as well as the severity of their children's ADHD symptoms, aggression, emotional lability, and executive functioning difficulties. Results indicated that the severity of children's hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms but not their inattention related to parenting stress. Multiple mediational analyses indicated that the association between hyperactivity/impulsivity and parenting stress was explained by children's perceived comorbid aggression levels, emotional lability, and executive functioning difficulties. No significant differences in the strength of the mediators were found. The current study provides initial data showing that the perceived impairments in children's self-regulation across emotional, cognitive, and behavioral domains are what parents report as stressful, not simply the severity of ADHD symptoms. Due to the cross-sectional nature of this study and shared variance from relying solely on parent report, it will be critical for future research to replicate our findings using longitudinal and multi-informant data such as teacher reports and standardized assessments. PMID:21629991

Graziano, Paulo A; McNamara, Joseph P; Geffken, Gary R; Reid, Adam

2011-10-01

62

Creative thinking in schizophrenia: The role of executive dysfunction and symptom severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. This study examines the notion of enhanced creative thinking in schizophrenia and determines the mediating role of executive dysfunction and symptom severity in this relationship. Method. Patients with chronic schizophrenia (n=28) were assessed on varied facets of creative cognition and standard tests of executive control relative to matched healthy control participants (n=18). Results. Multivariate analyses revealed poorer performance by

Anna Abraham; Sabine Windmann; Peter McKenna; Onur Güntürkün

2007-01-01

63

Symptom severity and lifetime and prospective health service use among military veterans evaluated for PTSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used structural equation modeling with 174 treatment-seeking military trauma survivors evaluated for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at a VA Medical Center PTSD clinic to examine relationships among lifetime mental health service use, PTSD symptom severity and medical problems (from self- report), as well as prospective (1-year) mental health and medical care use visit counts extracted from medical records. We

Jon D. Elhai; Todd B. Kashdan; Jessica J. Snyder; Terry C. North; Christopher J. Heaney; B. Christopher Frueh

2007-01-01

64

Differences between physician and patient in the perception of symptoms and their severity in COPD.  

PubMed

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) impairs quality of life and presents symptoms that affect the lives of patients. Our study analysed the degree of concordance between the patients and their pulmonologists in the perception of the severity of symptoms. A cross-sectional, descriptive, multicentre study was conducted in patients with COPD. From a list of 10 symptoms (cough, dry mouth, chest pain, expectoration, wheezing/whistling in the lungs, depression/sadness/discouragement, fatigue/tiredness/general lack of energy, anxiety/nervousness, breathlessness/shortness of breath upon exertion and difficulty sleeping/sleep disorders) each investigator and patient assessed those which, in their opinion, most concerned or affected the patient. A total of 450 patients were included in the study (91.3% males, 66.7 years old (SD = 10.2), FEV1(%) 51.7% (SD = 12.7%)). At an aggregate level, breathlessness/shortness of breath, fatigue/tiredness and coughing were identified by patients and physicians as being the most relevant symptoms. However, according to the concordance analysis conducted with individual pairs (each pulmonologist with his/her patient), only 52.8% coincided when identifying the symptom that most concerned or affected the life of the patient. The concordance analysed by the Kappa index between patients and physicians was poor (<0.42). The degree of physician-patient concordance was greater in patients with more severe COPD. The patients and their pulmonologists identified the same three main symptoms of COPD but showed low concordance when assessing the impact of the symptoms of the illness. PMID:23890959

Miravitlles, Marc; Ferrer, Jaume; Baró, Eva; Lleonart, Marta; Galera, Jordi

2013-12-01

65

Genitourinary Toxicity After High-Dose-Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy Combined With Hypofractionated External Beam Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: An Analysis to Determine the Correlation Between Dose-Volume Histogram Parameters in HDR Brachytherapy and Severity of Toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the severity of genitourinary (GU) toxicity in high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer and to explore factors that might affect the severity of GU toxicity. Methods and Materials: A total of 100 Japanese men with prostate cancer underwent {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Mean (SD) dose to 90% of the planning target volume was 6.3 (0.7) Gy per fraction of HDR. After 5 fractions of HDR treatment, EBRT with 10 fractions of 3 Gy was administrated. The urethral volume receiving 1-15 Gy per fraction in HDR brachytherapy (V1-V15) and the dose to at least 5-100% of urethral volume in HDR brachytherapy (D5-D100) were compared between patients with Grade 3 toxicity and those with Grade 0-2 toxicity. Prostate volume, patient age, and International Prostate Symptom Score were also compared between the two groups. Results: Of the 100 patients, 6 displayed Grade 3 acute GU toxicity, and 12 displayed Grade 3 late GU toxicity. Regarding acute GU toxicity, values of V1, V2, V3, and V4 were significantly higher in patients with Grade 3 toxicity than in those with Grade 0-2 toxicity. Regarding late GU toxicity, values of D70, D80, V12, and V13 were significantly higher in patients with Grade 3 toxicity than in those with Grade 0-2 toxicity. Conclusions: The severity of GU toxicity in HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT for prostate cancer was relatively high. The volume of prostatic urethra was associated with grade of acute GU toxicity, and urethral dose was associated with grade of late GU toxicity.

Ishiyama, Hiromichi [Department of Radiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan)], E-mail: hishiyam@kitasato-u.ac.jp; Kitano, Masashi [Department of Radiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Satoh, Takefumi [Department of Urology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Kotani, Shouko [Department of Radiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Uemae, Mineko [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kitasato University Hospital, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Okusa, Hiroshi; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Baba, Shiro [Department of Urology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Hayakawa, Kazushige [Department of Radiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan)

2009-09-01

66

Angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory system SNPs moderate the association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity.  

PubMed

Low birth weight is associated with increased risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); however, the etiological underpinnings of this relationship remain unclear. This study investigated if genetic variants in angiogenic, dopaminergic, neurotrophic, kynurenine, and cytokine-related biological pathways moderate the relationship between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity. A total of 398 youth from two multi-site, family-based studies of ADHD were included in the analysis. The sample consisted of 360 ADHD probands, 21 affected siblings, and 17 unaffected siblings. A set of 164 SNPs from 31 candidate genes, representing five biological pathways, were included in our analyses. Birth weight and gestational age data were collected from a state birth registry, medical records, and parent report. Generalized Estimating Equations tested for main effects and interactions between individual SNPs and birth weight centile in predicting ADHD symptom severity. SNPs within neurotrophic (NTRK3) and cytokine genes (CNTFR) were associated with ADHD inattentive symptom severity. There was no main effect of birth weight centile on ADHD symptom severity. SNPs within angiogenic (NRP1 & NRP2), neurotrophic (NTRK1 & NTRK3), cytokine (IL16 & S100B), and kynurenine (CCBL1 & CCBL2) genes moderate the association between birth weight centile and ADHD symptom severity. The SNP main effects and SNP?×?birth weight centile interactions remained significant after adjusting for multiple testing. Genetic variability in angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory systems may moderate the association between restricted prenatal growth, a proxy for an adverse prenatal environment, and risk to develop ADHD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25346392

Smith, Taylor F; Anastopoulos, Arthur D; Garrett, Melanie E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Oades, Robert D; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Philip; Gill, Michael; Buitelaar, Jan K; Sergeant, Joseph A; Kollins, Scott H; Faraone, Stephen V; Ashley-Koch, Allison

2014-12-01

67

Effect of Treatment with Ginger on the Severity of Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common disorder. Although the etiology of PMS is not clear, to relieve from this syndrome different methods are recommended. One of them is use of medicinal herbs. This study was carried out to evaluate effects of ginger on severity of symptoms of PMS. This study was a clinical trial, double-blinded work, and participants were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 35) and control (n = 35) groups. To determine persons suffering from PMS, participants completed daily record scale questionnaire for two consecutive cycles. After identification, each participant received two ginger capsules daily from seven days before menstruation to three days after menstruation for three cycles and they recorded severity of the symptoms by daily record scale questionnaire. Data before intervention were compared with date 1, 2, and 3 months after intervention. Before intervention, there were no significant differences between the mean scores of PMS symptoms in the two groups, but after 1, 2, and 3 months of treatment, there was a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.0001). Based on the results of this study, maybe ginger is effective in the reduction of severity of mood and physical and behavioral symptoms of PMS and we suggest ginger as treatment for PMS. PMID:24944825

Khayat, Samira; Kheirkhah, Masoomeh; Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra; Fanaei, Hamed; Kasaeian, Amir; Javadimehr, Mani

2014-01-01

68

Predictors of PTSD Symptom Severity and Social Reactions in Sexual Assault Victims  

PubMed Central

Demographics, assault variables, and postassault responses were analyzed as correlates of PTSD symptom severity in a sample of 323 sexual assault victims. Regression analyses indicated that less education, greater perceived life threat, and receipt of more negative social reactions upon disclosing assault were each related to greater PTSD symptom severity. Ethnic minority victims reported more negative social reactions from others. Victims of more severe sexual victimization reported fewer positive, but more negative reactions from others. Greater extent of disclosure of the assault was related to more positive and fewer negative social reactions. Telling more persons about the assault was related to more negative and positive reactions. Implications of these results for developing contextual theoretical models of rape-related PTSD are discussed. PMID:11469163

Ullman, Sarah E.; Filipas, Henrietta H.

2013-01-01

69

Toxicity of methylenebisthiocyanate (MBT) to several freshwater organisms  

SciTech Connect

The organo-sulfur compound methylenebisthiocyanate (MBT) has successfully been used as preservative in latex emulsions, starches and gums, acrylic fibers, coatings, curing salts for hide and leather and cutting oil systems. The greatest application of MBT is for cooling water systems and paper mill systems as effective inhibitor of algae, fungi and bacteria, in particular the sulfate reducing anaerobic Desulfovibrio sp. However, MBT hydrolyzes rapidly above pH 8.0. The half-conversion time at pH 8.0 is about 4.5. No data are available on residues of MBT in the aquatic environment. Information on the toxicity of MBT, except for its effects on bacteria and algae, is scarce. Therefore research was carried out to evaluate its risk to aquatic life.

Maas-Diepeveen, J.L.; van Leeuwen, C.J.

1988-04-01

70

Toxicity of methylenebisthiocyanate (MBT) to several freshwater organisms  

SciTech Connect

The organo-sulfur compound methylenebisthiocyanate (MBT) has successfully been used as preservative in latex emulsions, starches and gums, acrylic fibers, coatings, curing salts for hide and leather and cutting oil systems. The greatest application of MBT is for cooling water systems and paper mill systems as effective inhibitor of algae, fungi and bacteria, in particular the sulfate reducing anaerobic Desulfovibrio sp. Because MBT is not substantive to cellulose or other particulate matter, or to debris in systems, it remains in the water. However, MBT hydrolyzes rapidly above pH 8.0. No data are available on residues of MBT in the aquatic environment. Information on the toxicity of MBT, except for its effects on bacteria and algae, is scarce. Therefore research was carried out to evaluate its risk to aquatic life.

Maas-Diepeveen, L.; van Leeuwen, C.J. (Ministry of Transport and Public Works, Lelystad (Netherlands))

1988-05-01

71

Source activation of P300 correlates with negative symptom severity in patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

It is well known that the P300 amplitude is reduced in schizophrenia patients, which may reflect the pathophysiology and symptom severity of schizophrenia, particularly related to negative symptoms. However, the relationship between the underlying neural generator of the P300 and symptomatic outcomes are not yet fully understood. This study aimed to verify the abnormal P300 of schizophrenia in terms of its source activation to and further examine the relationship between reduced source activation and symptom severity of patients. For this purpose, the P300 was recorded from 34 patients with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls using an auditory oddball paradigm. We found that the P300 amplitude of schizophrenia patients was significantly decreased along the midline electrodes and both bilateral temporal areas compared with healthy controls. In comparing the source activation between the two groups, schizophrenia patients showed decreased source activation predominantly over the left hemisphere, including the cingulate, inferior occipital gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, posterior cingulate, precuneus, and superior occipital gyrus. Furthermore, we found that the decreased activation of the contrasted areas showed significant negative correlation with PANSS negative symptom scores in the middle temporal gyrus, posterior cingulate, precuneus, and superior occipital gyrus. Our findings suggest that the reduced P300 source activation in schizophrenia might reflect deficits in fronto-temporal-parietal circuit. PMID:23897409

Kim, Do-Won; Shim, Miseon; Kim, Jeong-In; Im, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Hwan

2014-03-01

72

Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

Kelsey, Chris R., E-mail: kelse003@mc.duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Horwitz, Mitchell E. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cellular Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Folz, Rodney J. [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Disorders Medicine, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY (United States); Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cellular Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2011-11-01

73

When Parents With Severe Mental Illness Lose Contact With Their Children: Are Psychiatric Symptoms or Substance Use to Blame?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month research interviews over a total 30-month period following each participant's entry into

Danson Jones; Rosemarie Lillianne Macias; Paul B. Gold; Paul Barreira; William Fisher

2008-01-01

74

When Parents with Severe Mental Illness Lose Contact with Their Children: Are Psychiatric Symptoms or Substance Use to Blame?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month…

Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William

2008-01-01

75

A Severe Hellenic CMV Tomato Isolate: Symptom Variability in Tobacco, Characterization and Discrimination of Variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A severe strain of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) originating from an infected tomato plant (Gastouni-Olympia, Greece) was isolated in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi nc), after three serial local lesion passages in Chenopodium quinoa and designated CMV-G. CMV-G induces yellow mosaic (YM) symptoms in tobacco. When CMV-G was passed mechanically through C. quinoa, phenotypic variants inducing YM or green mild

A. P. Sclavounos; A. E. Voloudakis; Ch. Arabatzis; P. E. Kyriakopoulou

2006-01-01

76

Poor quality of life among untreated Thai and Cambodian children without severe HIV symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are limited data on quality of life (QOL) in untreated HIV-infected children who do not have severe HIV symptoms. Moreover, such data do not exist for Asian children. Poor QOL could be a factor in deciding if antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be initiated. Thai and Cambodian children (n=294), aged 1–11 years, naïve to ART, with mild to moderate HIV

Torsak Bunupuradah; Thanyawee Puthanakit; Pope Kosalaraksa; Stephen J. Kerr; Azar Kariminia; Rawiwan Hansudewechakul; Suparat Kanjanavanit; Chaiwat Ngampiyaskul; Jurai Wongsawat; Wicharn Luesomboon; Theshinee Chuenyam; Saphonn Vonthanak; Mean Chhi Vun; Ung Vibol; Bun Vannary; Kiat Ruxrungtham; Jintanat Ananworanich

2011-01-01

77

Acute Toxicity of Zinc to Several Aquatic Species Native to the Rocky Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

National water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life are based on toxicity tests, often using organisms that\\u000a are easy to culture in the laboratory. Species native to the Rocky Mountains are poorly represented in data sets used to derive\\u000a national water-quality criteria. To provide additional data on the toxicity of zinc, several laboratory acute-toxicity tests\\u000a were conducted with a

Stephen F. BrinkmanWalter; Walter D. Johnston

78

Anxiety Sensitivity and PTSD Symptom Severity Are Reciprocally Related: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study of Physical Trauma Survivors  

PubMed Central

Cross-lagged panel analysis of interview data collected from survivors of traumatic physical injury (N = 677) was used to examine the temporal relationship between anxiety sensitivity and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. The two constructs were assessed at three time points: within days of physical injury, at 6-month follow-up and at 12-month follow-up. Results indicated that anxiety sensitivity and PTSD symptom severity were reciprocally related such that anxiety sensitivity predicted subsequent PTSD symptom severity and symptom severity predicted later anxiety sensitivity. Findings have both theoretical and clinical implications. PMID:20141251

Marshall, Grant N.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Stewart, Sherry H.

2009-01-01

79

Multi-voxel pattern analysis of fMRI data predicts clinical symptom severity  

PubMed Central

Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) has been applied successfully to a variety of fMRI research questions in healthy participants. The full potential of applying MVPA to functional data from patient groups has yet to be fully explored. Our goal in this study was to investigate whether MVPA might yield a sensitive predictor of patient symptoms. We also sought to demonstrate that this benefit can be realized from existing datasets, even when they were not designed with MVPA in mind. We analyzed data from an fMRI study of the neural basis for face processing in individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), who often show fusiform gyrus hypoactivation when presented with unfamiliar faces, compared to controls. We found reliable correlations between MVPA classification performance and standardized measures of symptom severity that exceeded those observed using a univariate measure; a relation that was robust across variations in ROI definition. A searchlight analysis across the ventral temporal lobes identified regions with relationships between classification performance and symptom severity that were not detected using mean activation. These analyses illustrate that MVPA has the potential to act as a sensitive functional biomarker of patient severity. PMID:21513803

Coutanche, Marc N.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.; Schultz, Robert T.

2011-01-01

80

Association of life threat and betrayal with posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity.  

PubMed

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000) emphasizes life threat as the defining feature of psychological trauma. Recent theoretical and empirical work, however, indicates the need to identify and evaluate other key aspects of trauma. Betrayal has been proposed as a pertinent, distinct, and complementary factor that can explain effects of trauma not accounted for by life threat alone. This study examined the relationship between injury, perceived life threat (PLT), and betrayal with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. Trauma-exposed college students (N = 185) completed self-report measures of trauma exposure and PTSD, as well as items regarding life threat, betrayal, and level of medical care received. In hierarchical regressions incorporating injury, PLT, and betrayal, betrayal was associated with all PTSD symptom clusters and PTSD total severity (f(2) = .08), whereas PLT was associated with hyperarousal (f(2) = .05) and PTSD total (f(2) = .03), and injury had no association with PTSD symptoms. In a revised model with trauma type as an additional variable, betrayal was associated with avoidance (f(2) = .03), numbing (f(2) = .04), and PTSD total (f(2) = .03), whereas PLT was associated with reexperiencing (f(2) = .04), hyperarousal (f(2) = .04), and PTSD total (f(2) = .03), and injury was associated with avoidance (f(2) = .03). These findings support the idea that betrayal is a core dimension of psychological trauma that may play an important role in the etiology of PTSD. PMID:22821682

Kelley, Lance P; Weathers, Frank W; Mason, Elizabeth A; Pruneau, Genevieve M

2012-08-01

81

Contributions of pain sensitivity and colonic motility to IBS symptom severity and predominant bowel habits  

PubMed Central

Objectives Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients show pain hypersensitivity and hypercontractility in response to colonic or rectal distention. Aims were to determine whether predominant bowel habits and IBS symptom severity are related to pain sensitivity, colon motility, or smooth muscle tone. Methods 129 patients classified as IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D, n=44), IBS with constipation (IBS-C, n=29), mixed IBS (IBS-M, n=45) and unspecified IBS (IBS-U, n=11) based on stool consistency, and 30 healthy controls (HC) were studied. A manometric catheter containing a 600-ml capacity plastic bag was positioned in the descending colon. Pain threshold was assessed using a barostat. Motility was assessed for 10 min with the bag minimally inflated (individual operating pressure or IOP), 10 min at 20 mmHg above the IOP, and for 15-min recovery following bag inflation. Motility was also recorded for 30 min following an 810-kcal meal. Results Compared to HC, IBS patients had lower pain thresholds (medians: 30 vs. 40 mmHg, p<0.01), but IBS subtypes were not different. IBS symptom severity was correlated with pain thresholds (rho=-0.36, p<0.001). During distention, the motility index (MI) was significantly higher in IBS compared to HC (909±73 vs. 563±78, p<0.01). Average barostat bag volume at baseline was higher (muscle tone lower) in HC compared to IBS-D and IBS-M but not compared to IBS-C. The baseline MI and bag volume differed between IBS-D and IBS-C and correlated with symptoms of abdominal distention and dissatisfaction with bowel movements. Pain thresholds and MI during distention were uncorrelated. Conclusions Pain sensitivity and colon motility are independent factors contributing to IBS symptoms. Treatment may need to address both and to be specific to predominant bowel habit. PMID:18684175

Kanazawa, Motoyori; Palsson, Olafur S; Thiwan, Syed IM; Turner, Marsha J; van Tilburg, Miranda AL; Gangarosa, Lisa M; Chitkara, Denesh K; Fukudo, Shin; Drossman, Douglas A; Whitehead, William E

2013-01-01

82

A Preliminary Examination of Trauma History, Locus of Control, and PTSD Symptom Severity in African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research has established a relationship between external locus of control and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity among Caucasians. There is also evidence that African Americans tend to exhibit an elevated external locus of control. However, the relationship between external control and PTSD symptom severity has not been…

Hood, Sarah K.; Carter, Michele M.

2008-01-01

83

A Preliminary Examination of Trauma History, Locus of Control, and PTSD Symptom Severity in African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research has established a relationship between external locus of control and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity among Caucasians. There is also evidence that African Americans tend to exhibit an elevated external locus of control. However, the relationship between external control and PTSD symptom severity has not been examined among African American women. Using a sample of African American

Sarah K. Hood; Michele M. Carter

2008-01-01

84

Efficacy of Atomoxetine in Children with Severe Autistic Disorders and Symptoms of ADHD: An Open-Label Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study aims to examine the efficacy of atomoxetine in treating symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with severe autistic disorder. Method: Children with severe autistic disorder who had symptoms of ADHD were given atomoxetine for 10 weeks. The efficacy of atomoxetine was evaluated by using the…

Charnsil, Chawanun

2011-01-01

85

Rotavirus gastroenteritis in Italian children: can severity of symptoms be related to the infecting virus?  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to determine whether the severity of rotavirus gastroenteritis may be related to the different characteristics of infecting viral strains. The severity of clinical symptoms in 401 children with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis was assessed using a scoring system for frequency and duration of vomiting, diarrhea, and fever, as well as the patients' requirements for intravenous rehydration. Rotavirus strains were characterized by determining the electropherotype of their double-stranded RNA, the G type and subgroup by a panel of monoclonal antibodies, and the P type by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Strains with a short electropherotype, G2P[4] type, and subgroup I were associated with more-severe gastroenteritis and affected children older than those infected with strains with a long electropherotype, G1P[8] or G4P[8] type, and subgroup II. Minor differences in clinical symptoms were also detected in children infected with different long electropherotypes and with G1P[8] and G4P[8] specificities. PMID:11283801

Cascio, A; Vizzi, E; Alaimo, C; Arista, S

2001-04-15

86

Activity Parameters of Subthalamic Nucleus Neurons Selectively Predict Motor Symptom Severity in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous disorder that leads to variable expression of several different motor symptoms. While changes in firing rate, pattern, and oscillation of basal ganglia neurons have been observed in PD patients and experimental animals, there is limited evidence linking them to specific motor symptoms. Here we examined this relationship using extracellular recordings of subthalamic nucleus neurons from 19 PD patients undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation. For each patient, ?10 single units and/or multi-units were recorded in the OFF medication state. We correlated the proportion of neurons displaying different activities with preoperative Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale subscores (OFF medication). The mean spectral power at sub-beta frequencies and percentage of units oscillating at beta frequencies were positively correlated with the axial and limb rigidity scores, respectively. The percentage of units oscillating at gamma frequency was negatively correlated with the bradykinesia scores. The mean intraburst rate was positively correlated with both bradykinesia and axial scores, while the related ratio of interspike intervals below/above 10 ms was positively correlated with these symptoms and limb rigidity. None of the activity parameters correlated with tremor. The grand average of all the significantly correlated subthalamic nucleus activities accounted for >60% of the variance of the combined bradykinetic-rigid and axial scores. Our results demonstrate that the occurrence of alterations in the rate and pattern of basal ganglia neurons could partly underlie the variability in parkinsonian phenotype. PMID:24790198

Gulberti, Alessandro; Zittel, Simone; Tudor Jones, Adam A.; Fickel, Ulrich; Münchau, Alexander; Köppen, Johannes A.; Gerloff, Christian; Westphal, Manfred; Buhmann, Carsten; Hamel, Wolfgang; Engel, Andreas K.

2014-01-01

87

Activity parameters of subthalamic nucleus neurons selectively predict motor symptom severity in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous disorder that leads to variable expression of several different motor symptoms. While changes in firing rate, pattern, and oscillation of basal ganglia neurons have been observed in PD patients and experimental animals, there is limited evidence linking them to specific motor symptoms. Here we examined this relationship using extracellular recordings of subthalamic nucleus neurons from 19 PD patients undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation. For each patient, ? 10 single units and/or multi-units were recorded in the OFF medication state. We correlated the proportion of neurons displaying different activities with preoperative Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale subscores (OFF medication). The mean spectral power at sub-beta frequencies and percentage of units oscillating at beta frequencies were positively correlated with the axial and limb rigidity scores, respectively. The percentage of units oscillating at gamma frequency was negatively correlated with the bradykinesia scores. The mean intraburst rate was positively correlated with both bradykinesia and axial scores, while the related ratio of interspike intervals below/above 10 ms was positively correlated with these symptoms and limb rigidity. None of the activity parameters correlated with tremor. The grand average of all the significantly correlated subthalamic nucleus activities accounted for >60% of the variance of the combined bradykinetic-rigid and axial scores. Our results demonstrate that the occurrence of alterations in the rate and pattern of basal ganglia neurons could partly underlie the variability in parkinsonian phenotype. PMID:24790198

Sharott, Andrew; Gulberti, Alessandro; Zittel, Simone; Tudor Jones, Adam A; Fickel, Ulrich; Münchau, Alexander; Köppen, Johannes A; Gerloff, Christian; Westphal, Manfred; Buhmann, Carsten; Hamel, Wolfgang; Engel, Andreas K; Moll, Christian K E

2014-04-30

88

Psychosocial stress predicts future symptom severities in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Background The goals of this prospective longitudinal study were to monitor levels of psychosocial stress in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to healthy control subjects and to examine the relationship between measures of psychosocial stress and fluctuations in tic, obsessive-compulsive (OC), and depressive symptom severity. Methods Consecutive ratings of tic, OC and depressive symptom severity were obtained for 45 cases and 41 matched healthy control subjects over a two-year period. Measures of psychosocial stress included youth self-report, parental report, and clinician ratings of long-term contextual threat. Structural equation modeling for unbalanced repeated measures was used to assess the temporal sequence of psychosocial stress with the severity of tic, OC and depressive symptoms. Results Subjects with TS and OCD experienced significantly more psychosocial stress than did the controls. Estimates of psychosocial stress were predictive of future depressive symptoms. Current levels of psychosocial stress were also a significant predictor of future OC symptom severity, but not vice versa. Current OC symptom severity was a predictor of future depressive symptom severity, but not vice versa. Current levels of psychosocial stress and depression were independent predictors of future tic severity, even after controlling for the effect of advancing chronological age. Conclusions The impact of antecedent psychosocial adversity is greater on future depressive symptoms than for tic and/or OC symptoms. Worsening OC symptoms are also a predictor of future depressive symptoms. Advancing chronological age is robustly associated with reductions in tic severity. PMID:17300554

Lin, Haiqun; Katsovich, Liliya; Ghebremichael, Musie; Findley, Diane B.; Grantz, Heidi; Lombroso, Paul J.; King, Robert A.; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F.

2011-01-01

89

Comparing baseline symptom severity and demographics over two time periods in an outpatient palliative radiotherapy clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The primary objective of this study was to compare the symptom severity in two different patient populations assessed in an\\u000a outpatient palliative radiotherapy clinic over two time periods spanning 10 years. The secondary objective was to assess any\\u000a changes in the baseline demographics of these patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data were collected from 1999 to 2009. Upon initial presentation to the clinic, the Edmonton

Luluel Khan; Justin Kwong; Janet Nguyen; Edward Chow; Liying Zhang; Shaelyn Culleton; Liang Zeng; Florencia Jon; May Tsao; Elizabeth Barnes; Cyril Danjoux; Arjun Sahgal; Lori Holden

90

Smoking Withdrawal Symptoms Are More Severe Among Smokers With ADHD and Independent of ADHD Symptom Change: Results From a 12-Day Contingency-Managed Abstinence Trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have greater difficulty quitting than those without ADHD, but preliminary data (McClernon, Kollins, Lutz, Fitzgerald, Murray, Redman, et al., 2008) suggest equivalent severity of withdrawal symptoms following brief abstinence. The objective of this study was to characterize the differential effects of intermediate term smoking abstinence on self-reported withdrawal and ADHD symptoms in adult smokers with and without ADHD. Methods: Forty adult (50% female), nontreatment seeking moderate-to-heavy smokers with and without ADHD were enrolled in a 12-day quit study in which monetary incentives were provided for maintaining biologically verified abstinence. Self-reported withdrawal, mood, and ADHD symptoms were measured pre- and post-quitting. Results: ADHD and controls did not vary on smoking or demographic variables. Significant Group × Session interactions were observed across a broad range of withdrawal symptoms and were generally characterized by greater withdrawal severity among ADHD smokers, particularly during the first 5 days of abstinence. In addition, Group × Sex × Session interactions were observed for craving, somatic symptoms, negative affect, and habit withdrawal; these interactions were driven by greater withdrawal severity among females with ADHD. Group × Session interactions were not observed for ADHD symptom scales. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that smokers with ADHD, and ADHD females in particular, experience greater withdrawal severity during early abstinence—independent of effects on ADHD symptoms. Whereas additional research is needed to pinpoint mechanisms, our findings suggest that smoking cessation interventions targeted at smokers with ADHD should address their more severe withdrawal symptoms following quitting. PMID:21571687

Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; English, Joe; Hallyburton, Matt; Holdaway, Alex; Kollins, Scott H.

2011-01-01

91

Hair Toxic Metal Concentrations and Autism Spectrum Disorder Severity in Young Children  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have found a higher body-burden of toxic metals, particularly mercury (Hg), among subjects diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in comparison to neurotypical controls. Moreover, Hg body-burden was associated with ASD severity. This cross-sectional study examined the potential correlation between hair toxic metal concentrations and ASD severity in a prospective cohort of participants diagnosed with moderate to severe ASD. The Institutional Review Board at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (Dallas, TX) approved the present study. Qualifying study participants (n = 18) were evaluated for ASD severity using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and quantitatively for arsenic, Hg, cadmium, lead, chromium, cobalt, nickel, aluminum, tin, uranium, and manganese using hair toxic element testing by Doctor’s Data (a CLIA-approved laboratory). CARS scoring and hair toxic element testing were blinded to one another. Increasing hair Hg concentrations significantly correlated with increased ASD severity. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between any other of the hair toxic metals examined and ASD severity. This study helps to provide additional mechanistic support for Hg in the etiology of ASD severity, and is supported by an increasing number of recent critical reviews that provide biological plausibility for the role of Hg exposure in the pathogenesis of ASDs. PMID:23222182

Geier, David A.; Kern, Janet K.; King, Paul G.; Sykes, Lisa K.; Geier, Mark R.

2012-01-01

92

Effects of Fenugreek Seed on the Severity and Systemic Symptoms of Dysmenorrhea  

PubMed Central

Background Primary dysmenorrhea is a prevalent disorder and its unfavorable effects deteriorates the quality of life in many people across the world. Based on some evidence on the characteristics of fenugreek as a medical plant with anti-inflammato-ry and analgesic properties, this double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial was conducted. The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of fenugreek seeds on the severity of primary dysmenorrhea among students. Methods Unmarried Students were randomly assigned to two groups who received fenugreek (n = 51) or placebo (n = 50). For the first 3 days of menstruation, 2–3 capsules containing fenugreek seed powder (900 mg) were given to the subjects three times daily for two consecutive menstrual cycles. Pain severity was evaluated using a visual analog scale and systemic symptoms were assessed using a multidimensional verbal scale. Results Pain severity at baseline did not differ significantly between the two groups. Pain severity was significantly reduced in both groups after the intervention; however, the fenugreek group experienced significantly larger pain reduction (p < 0.001). With respect to the duration of pain, there was no meaningful difference between the two cycles in the placebo group (p = 0.07) but in the fenugreek group, the duration of pain decreased between the two cycles (p < 0.001). Systemic symptoms of dysmenorrhea (fatigue, headache, nausea, vomiting, lack of energy, syncope) decreased in the fenugreek seed group (p < 0.05). No side effects were reported in the fenugreek group. Conclusion These data suggest that prescription of fenugreek seed powder during menstruation can reduce the severity of dysmenorrhea. PMID:24695380

Younesy, Sima; Amiraliakbari, Sedigheh; Esmaeili, Somayeh; Alavimajd, Hamid; Nouraei, Soheila

2014-01-01

93

Longitudinal Changes in Total Brain Volume in Schizophrenia: Relation to Symptom Severity, Cognition and Antipsychotic Medication  

PubMed Central

Studies show evidence of longitudinal brain volume decreases in schizophrenia. We studied brain volume changes and their relation to symptom severity, level of function, cognition, and antipsychotic medication in participants with schizophrenia and control participants from a general population based birth cohort sample in a relatively long follow-up period of almost a decade. All members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with any psychotic disorder and a random sample not having psychosis were invited for a MRI brain scan, and clinical and cognitive assessment during 1999–2001 at the age of 33–35 years. A follow-up was conducted 9 years later during 2008–2010. Brain scans at both time points were obtained from 33 participants with schizophrenia and 71 control participants. Regression models were used to examine whether brain volume changes predicted clinical and cognitive changes over time, and whether antipsychotic medication predicted brain volume changes. The mean annual whole brain volume reduction was 0.69% in schizophrenia, and 0.49% in controls (p?=?0.003, adjusted for gender, educational level, alcohol use and weight gain). The brain volume reduction in schizophrenia patients was found especially in the temporal lobe and periventricular area. Symptom severity, functioning level, and decline in cognition were not associated with brain volume reduction in schizophrenia. The amount of antipsychotic medication (dose years of equivalent to 100 mg daily chlorpromazine) over the follow-up period predicted brain volume loss (p?=?0.003 adjusted for symptom level, alcohol use and weight gain). In this population based sample, brain volume reduction continues in schizophrenia patients after the onset of illness, and antipsychotic medications may contribute to these reductions. PMID:25036617

Veijola, Juha; Guo, Joyce Y.; Moilanen, Jani S.; Jaaskelainen, Erika; Miettunen, Jouko; Kyllonen, Merja; Haapea, Marianne; Huhtaniska, Sanna; Alaraisanen, Antti; Maki, Pirjo; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Nikkinen, Juha; Starck, Tuomo; Remes, Jukka J.; Tanskanen, Paivikki; Tervonen, Osmo; Wink, Alle-Meije; Kehagia, Angie; Suckling, John; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Barnett, Jennifer H.; Barnes, Anna; Koponen, Hannu J.; Jones, Peter B.; Isohanni, Matti; Murray, Graham K.

2014-01-01

94

Relationship between imaging biomarkers, age, progression and symptom severity in Alzheimer's disease?  

PubMed Central

The early diagnostic value of glucose hypometabolism and atrophy as potential neuroimaging biomarkers of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been extensively explored using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The vast majority of previous imaging studies neglected the effects of single factors, such as age, symptom severity or time to conversion in MCI thus limiting generalisability of results across studies. Here, we investigated the impact of these factors on metabolic and structural differences. FDG-PET and MRI data from AD patients (n = 80), MCI converters (n = 65) and MCI non-converters (n = 64) were compared to data of healthy subjects (n = 79). All patient groups were split into subgroups by age, time to conversion (for MCI), or symptom severity and compared to the control group. AD patients showed a strongly age-dependent pattern, with younger patients showing significantly more extensive reductions in gray matter volume and glucose utilisation. In the MCI converter group, the amount of glucose utilisation reduction was linked to the time to conversion but not to atrophy. Our findings indicate that FDG-PET might be more closely linked to future cognitive decline whilst MRI being more closely related to the current cognitive state reflects potentially irreversible damage. PMID:24179852

Dukart, Juergen; Mueller, Karsten; Villringer, Arno; Kherif, Ferath; Draganski, Bogdan; Frackowiak, Richard; Schroeter, Matthias L.

2013-01-01

95

PTSD symptom severity as a predictor of cue-elicited drug craving in victims of violent crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity as a predictor of cue-elicited craving among alcohol- and cocaine-dependent individuals with a history of at least one physical and\\/or sexual assault. Approximately half of the sample had current PTSD. Severity of PTSD symptoms was measured via the Impact of Events Scale—Revised (IES-R) total severity score. Subjects listened to four trials

Michael E Saladin; David J Drobes; Scott F Coffey; Bonnie S Dansky; Kathleen T Brady; Dean G Kilpatrick

2003-01-01

96

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Hispanic Immigrants After the September 11th Attacks: Severity and Relationship to Previous Traumatic Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity in Hispanic immigrants exposed to September 11th attacks through television, ascertained the relationship between previous traumatic exposure and September 11th-related symptoms, and investigated the effect of television exposure of the attacks on symptoms. A total of 110 Hispanic immigrant adults (22 males, 88 females) living more than 1,000 miles from the

Hilda M. Pantin; Seth J. Schwartz; Guillermo Prado; Daniel J. Feaster; José Szapocznik

2003-01-01

97

[Formula: see text]Effects of Severity of Dementia on a Symptom Validity Measure.  

PubMed

While prior research has shown symptom validity tests (SVTs) to have clinical utility with cognitively impaired individuals, these studies typically excluded those diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of an SVT, the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), in those with MCI and moderate to severe dementia. Participants included 30 cognitively intact individuals (Control Group), 28 diagnosed with MCI (MCI Group), and 31 diagnosed with moderate to severe dementia (Moderate-Severe Group). The range of Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) Total Standard Scores were then calculated for each group and all participants were administered the TOMM. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) revealed no significant differences on TOMM Trail 2 scores between the Control Group and the MCI Group. While all group means were above established cut-off scores, approximately 20% of participants in the Moderate-Severe Group failed the TOMM according to established criteria. Results suggest that the TOMM may be an appropriate test of effort in older adults diagnosed with MCI, but is not recommended for assessing potential malingering in those with at least moderate to severe dementia. PMID:25249229

Walter, Jamie; Morris, Jeri; Swier-Vosnos, Amy; Pliskin, Neil

2014-10-01

98

Association between alcohol consumption and symptom severity and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although alcohol consumption is a common lifestyle behavior with previous studies reporting positive effects of alcohol on chronic pain and rheumatoid arthritis, no studies to this date have examined alcohol consumption in patients with fibromyalgia. We examined the association between alcohol consumption and symptom severity and quality of life (QOL) in patients with fibromyalgia. Methods Data on self-reported alcohol consumption from 946 patients were analyzed. Subjects were grouped by level of alcohol consumption (number of drinks/week): none, low (?3), moderate (>3 to 7), and heavy (>7). Univariate analyses were used to find potential confounders, and analysis of covariance was used to adjust for these confounders. Tukey HSD pairwise comparisons were used to determine differences between alcohol groups. Results Five hundred and forty-six subjects (58%) did not consume alcohol. Low, moderate, and heavy levels of alcohol consumption were reported for 338 (36%), 31 (3%), and 31 patients (3%), respectively. Employment status (P <0.001), education level (P = 0.009), body mass index (P = 0.002) and opioid use (P = 0.002) differed significantly among groups with drinkers having higher education, a lower BMI, and a lower frequency of unemployment and opioid use than nondrinkers. After adjusting for these differences, the measures including the number of tender points (P = 0.01), FIQ total score (P = 0.01), physical function (P <0.001), work missed (P = 0.005), job ability (P = 0.03), and pain (P = 0.001) differed across groups, as did the SF-36 subscales of physical functioning (P <0.001), pain index (P = 0.002), general health perception (P = 0.02), social functioning (P = 0.02), and the physical component summary (P <0.001). Pairwise comparison among the 4 groups showed that the moderate and low alcohol drinkers had lower severity of fibromyalgia symptoms and better physical QOL than nondrinkers. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that low and moderate alcohol consumption was associated with lower fibromyalgia symptoms and better QOL compared to no alcohol consumption. The reasons for these results are unclear. Since recent studies have demonstrated that ?-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) levels are low in fibromyalgia, and alcohol is known to be a GABA-agonist, future studies should examine whether alcohol could have a salutary effect on pain and other symptoms in fibromyalgia. PMID:23497427

2013-01-01

99

Group a streptococcal toxic shock syndrome with severe necrotizing fasciitis following hysterectomy — a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last 10 years an increasing number of cases of group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome have appeared in various\\u000a clinical settings. The manifestation of this syndrome includes rapidly progressive multiorgan failure and soft-tissue necrosis.\\u000a \\u000a This report presents a case of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by Streptococcus pyogenes with severe necrotizing fasciitis of the abdominal wall following hysterectomy.

M. Loscar; G. Schelling; M. Haller; J. Polasek; C. Stoll; U. Kreimeier; U. Finsterer; J. Briegel; H. O. Steitz; R. Baumeister; R. Kimmig; B. Grabein

1998-01-01

100

Decreased Mitogen Inducible Gene 6 (MIG-6) Associated with Symptom Severity in Children with Autism  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) demonstrate impairment in social interactions and problems in verbal and nonverbal communication. Autism spectrum disorders are thought to affect 1 in 88 children in the US. Recent research has shown that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation is associated with nerve cell development and repair. Mitogen inducible gene 6 (MIG-6) is a 58-kDa non-kinase scaffolding adaptor protein consisting of 462 amino-acids, which has been shown to be a negative feedback regulator of EGFR and Met receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling. SUBJECTS AND METHODS In this study, we determined plasma levels of MIG-6, which suppresses the EGFR RTK pathway in autistic children, and compared MIG-6 levels with the EGFR ligand, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and the cMET ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). MIG-6 levels were also compared to the symptom severity of 19 different autistic behaviors. Plasma MIG-6 concentration was measured in 40 autistic children and 39 neurotypical, age, and gender similar controls using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Plasma MIG-6 levels were compared to putative biomarkers known to be associated with EGFR and cMET and severity levels of 19 autism related symptoms [awareness, expressive language, receptive language, (conversational) pragmatic language, focus/attention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, perseveration, fine motor skills, gross motor skills, hypotonia (low muscle tone), tip toeing, rocking/pacing, stimming, obsessions/fixations, eye contact, sound sensitivity, light sensitivity, and tactile sensitivity]. RESULTS In this study, we found that plasma MIG-6 levels in autistic children (182.41 ± 24.3 pg/ml) were significantly lower than neurotypical controls (1779.76 ± 352.5; P = 1.76E ? 5). Decreased MIG-6 levels correlated with serotonin, dopamine, Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and urokinase receptor (uPAR) concentration, but not with other tested putative biomarkers. MIG-6 levels also correlated significantly with severity of expressive language, receptive language, tip toeing, rocking/pacing, and hand flapping/stimming. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest a relationship between decreased plasma MIG-6 levels, biomarkers associated with the EGFR pathway, and symptom severity in autism. A strong correlation between plasma MIG-6 and dopamine and serotonin levels suggest that decreased MIG-6 levels may be associated with abnormal neurotransmitter synthesis and/or action. A strong correlation between MIG-6 and uPAR and the inflammatory marker TNF-alpha suggests that low MIG-6 levels may be associated with the HGF/Met signaling pathway, as well as inflammation in autistic children. PMID:25342879

Russo, AJ

2014-01-01

101

The effect of silicon on the symptoms of manganese toxicity in maize plants.  

PubMed

The effect of exogenously applied silicon (Si) on plant growth, lipid peroxidation, total phenolic compounds and non-protein thiols was studied in two maize varieties (Zea mays L. vars. Kneja 605, 434) differing in sensitivity to excess manganese (Mn). Based on the density of brown spots per leaf area and relative shoot weight (RSW) used to define Mn tolerance var. Kneja 434 was found to be more Mn-tolerant than Kneja 605. The lipid peroxidation level and total phenolic compounds were enhanced with increasing Mn concentration in the nutrient solution. In addition, the Mn-sensitive var. Kneja 605 with markedly expressed first visible Mn toxicity symptoms had higher levels of total phenolic acids than var. Kneja 434 thus supporting the hypothesis that a stimulating effect of Mn on phenol content reflected rather a stress response to Mn excess than a tolerance mechanism. In contrast, non-protein SH content increased to a higher extent in the Mn-tolerant var. Kneja 434. The increased amount of non-protein SH compounds was accompanied by a much stronger oxidative stress in the Mn-sensitive plants when compared with the Mn-tolerant variety, thus suggesting that non-protein SH compounds may play a role in Mn tolerance in maize. The addition of silicon (Si) reduced the density of brown spots per leaf area as well as lipid peroxidation level and improved plant growth in Mn-treated plants. PMID:19133503

Stoyanova, Zlatimira; Zozikova, Ekaterina; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Barcelo, J; Doncheva, Snejana

2008-12-01

102

Influenza-Like Illness Among University Students: Symptom Severity and Duration Due to Influenza Virus Infection Compared to Other Etiologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: University students with influenza-like illness (ILI) were assessed to determine whether symptom severity, duration, or missed days of school or work varied according to etiology. Participants: Sixty persons presenting to a university health clinic with ILI symptoms during 3 consecutive influenza seasons completed baseline survey and viral testing; 51 (85%) completed follow-up. Methods: Influenza viral culture and polymerase chain

Jocelyn Mullins; Robert Cook; Charles Rinaldo; Eric Yablonsky; Rachel Hess; Paolo Piazza

2011-01-01

103

Influenza-Like Illness among University Students: Symptom Severity and Duration Due to Influenza Virus Infection Compared to Other Etiologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: University students with influenza-like illness (ILI) were assessed to determine whether symptom severity, duration, or missed days of school or work varied according to etiology. Participants: Sixty persons presenting to a university health clinic with ILI symptoms during 3 consecutive influenza seasons completed baseline survey and…

Mullins, Jocelyn; Cook, Robert; Rinaldo, Charles; Yablonsky, Eric; Hess, Rachel; Piazza, Paolo

2011-01-01

104

Non-Ophthalmic Symptoms Secondary to Ocular Torticollis From Severe Blepharoptosis: An Underappreciated But Treatable Condition  

PubMed Central

Purpose Identify systemic symptoms associated with ocular torticollis due to bilateral blepharoptosis. Methods Retrospective chart review identified patients with ocular torticollis due to bilateral congenital or acquired blepharoptosis who underwent surgical correction (levator resection or frontalis sling). Pre-operative and post-operative assessment of systemic symptoms in adults and developmental milestones are reported. Results We present 4 cases, one adult and three young children, with severe bilateral upper eyelid ptosis. In the adult patient, it caused debilitating back pain that required orthopedic evaluation, but was completely relieved with ptosis repair surgery. In the toddlers, subjective developmental motor delay was rapidly reversed following ptosis repair surgery. Conclusions We suggest that primary care physicians, as well as spine and neuromuscular specialists, consider the possibility of ocular torticollis due to eyelid ptosis in the evaluation of patients with unexplained back and/or neck pain, or with gross motor developmental delay. We propose that symptomatic ocular torticollis is an indication for ptosis repair. PMID:21562438

Bohnsack, Brenda L.; Bhatt, Rina; Kahana, Alon

2012-01-01

105

Inflammatory Cytokine Expression Is Associated with Chikungunya Virus Resolution and Symptom Severity  

PubMed Central

The Chikungunya virus infection zones have now quickly spread from Africa to parts of Asia, North America and Europe. Originally thought to trigger a disease of only mild symptoms, recently Chikungunya virus caused large-scale fatalities and widespread economic loss that was linked to recent virus genetic mutation and evolution. Due to the paucity of information on Chikungunya immunological progression, we investigated the serum levels of 13 cytokines/chemokines during the acute phase of Chikungunya disease and 6- and 12-month post-infection follow-up from patients of the Italian outbreak. We found that CXCL9/MIG, CCL2/MCP-1, IL-6 and CXCL10/IP-10 were significantly raised in the acute phase compared to follow-up samples. Furthermore, IL-1?, TNF-?, Il-12, IL-10, IFN-? and IL-5 had low initial acute phase levels that significantly increased at later time points. Analysis of symptom severity showed association with CXCL9/MIG, CXCL10/IP-10 and IgG levels. These data give insight into Chikungunya disease establishment and subsequent convalescence, which is imperative to the treatment and containment of this quickly evolving and frequently re-emerging disease. PMID:21858242

Kelvin, Alyson A.; Banner, David; Silvi, Giuliano; Moro, Maria Luisa; Spataro, Nadir; Gaibani, Paolo; Cavrini, Francesca; Pierro, Anna; Rossini, Giada; Cameron, Mark J.; Bermejo-Martin, Jesus F.; Paquette, Stephane G.; Xu, Luoling; Danesh, Ali; Farooqui, Amber; Borghetto, Ilaria; Kelvin, David J.; Sambri, Vittorio; Rubino, Salvatore

2011-01-01

106

Salience Network-Based Classification and Prediction of Symptom Severity in Children With Autism  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects 1 in 88 children and is characterized by a complex phenotype, including social, communicative, and sensorimotor deficits. Autism spectrum disorder has been linked with atypical connectivity across multiple brain systems, yet the nature of these differences in young children with the disorder is not well understood. OBJECTIVES To examine connectivity of large-scale brain networks and determine whether specific networks can distinguish children with ASD from typically developing (TD) children and predict symptom severity in children with ASD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Case-control study performed at Stanford University School of Medicine of 20 children 7 to 12 years old with ASD and 20 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched TD children. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Between-group differences in intrinsic functional connectivity of large-scale brain networks, performance of a classifier built to discriminate children with ASD from TD children based on specific brain networks, and correlations between brain networks and core symptoms of ASD. RESULTS We observed stronger functional connectivity within several large-scale brain networks in children with ASD compared with TD children. This hyperconnectivity in ASD encompassed salience, default mode, frontotemporal, motor, and visual networks. This hyperconnectivity result was replicated in an independent cohort obtained from publicly available databases. Using maps of each individual’s salience network, children with ASD could be discriminated from TD children with a classification accuracy of 78%, with 75% sensitivity and 80% specificity. The salience network showed the highest classification accuracy among all networks examined, and the blood oxygen–level dependent signal in this network predicted restricted and repetitive behavior scores. The classifier discriminated ASD from TD in the independent sample with 83% accuracy, 67% sensitivity, and 100% specificity. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Salience network hyperconnectivity may be a distinguishing feature in children with ASD. Quantification of brain network connectivity is a step toward developing biomarkers for objectively identifying children with ASD. PMID:23803651

Uddin, Lucina Q.; Supekar, Kaustubh; Lynch, Charles J.; Khouzam, Amirah; Phillips, Jennifer; Feinstein, Carl; Ryali, Srikanth; Menon, Vinod

2014-01-01

107

Interdisciplinary Residential Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects on Symptom Severity and Occupational Performance and Satisfaction  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. This study examined outcomes of an 8-wk residential treatment program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHOD. Twenty-six veterans completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory–2nd Edition, and PTSD Checklist before and after treatment. RESULTS. Veterans demonstrated significant improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction with their performance, as well as in PTSD and depression symptom severity after residential PTSD/TBI treatment. Additionally, improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction were associated with decreases in depression symptom severity. CONCLUSION. Although preliminary, results suggest that veterans with PTSD and a history of TBI experienced significant decreases in PTSD and depression symptom severity and improvement in self-perception of performance and satisfaction in problematic occupational areas. Changes in occupational areas and depression symptom severity were related, highlighting the importance of interdisciplinary treatment. PMID:25005504

Speicher, Sarah M.; Walter, Kristen H.

2014-01-01

108

Interdisciplinary residential treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury: effects on symptom severity and occupational performance and satisfaction.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. This study examined outcomes of an 8-wk residential treatment program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHOD. Twenty-six veterans completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-2nd Edition, and PTSD Checklist before and after treatment. RESULTS. Veterans demonstrated significant improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction with their performance, as well as in PTSD and depression symptom severity after residential PTSD/TBI treatment. Additionally, improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction were associated with decreases in depression symptom severity. CONCLUSION. Although preliminary, results suggest that veterans with PTSD and a history of TBI experienced significant decreases in PTSD and depression symptom severity and improvement in self-perception of performance and satisfaction in problematic occupational areas. Changes in occupational areas and depression symptom severity were related, highlighting the importance of interdisciplinary treatment. PMID:25005504

Speicher, Sarah M; Walter, Kristen H; Chard, Kathleen M

2014-01-01

109

Severe reversible myocardial injury associated with aluminium phosphide toxicity: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Aluminium phosphide is commonly used as an insecticide and can be toxic to humans at the cellular level by interfering with mitochondrial energy metabolism. We report on three cases of severe aluminium phosphide cardio-toxicity, resulting in severe decrease in both ventricular heart functions. The first case succumbed to intractable ventricular arrhythmias complicated by multi-organ failure before she died; while the other two cases required invasive hemodynamic support and eventually improved over the course of 10–14 days. We describe our experience and the challenges faced while managing one of them.

Elabbassi, Wael; Chowdhury, Mohammed Andaleeb; Fachtartz, Arif Al Nooryani

2013-01-01

110

Parent Alcoholism Impacts the Severity and Timing of Children’s Externalizing Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous studies show that children of alcoholic parents have higher rates of externalizing symptoms compared to\\u000a their peers, it remains unclear whether the timing of children’s externalizing symptoms is linked to that of their parent’s\\u000a alcohol-related symptoms. Using a multilevel modeling approach, we tested whether children aged 2 through 17 showed elevated\\u000a mother-, father- and child-reported externalizing symptoms (a)

Andrea M. Hussong; Wenjing Huang; Patrick J. Curran; Laurie Chassin; Robert A. Zucker

2010-01-01

111

Incidence and Trends in Psychopathology Symptoms over Time in Adults with Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have a high risk for developing comorbid psychopathology. While researchers have shown that symptoms of psychopathology remain relatively stable in children with ID over time, little research has been conducted to demonstrate symptom stability for adults with ID. Incidence of psychopathology symptoms

Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Shoemaker, Mary; Belva, Brian; Bamburg, Jay W.

2011-01-01

112

Effects of colpocleisis on bowel symptoms among women with severe pelvic organ prolapse  

PubMed Central

Introduction and hypothesis Our objective was to evaluate bowel symptoms after colpocleisis. Methods This was a planned ancillary analysis of a prospective, colpocleisis cohort study of 152 women. Those with baseline and 1-year questionnaires (Colorectal-Anal Distress Inventory (CRADI) and the Colorectal-Anal Impact Questionnaire (CRAIQ)) were included. “Bothersome” CRADI symptoms (score>2(“moderately”, “quite a bit”)) were identified. CRADI and CRAIQ scores were compared, and postoperative symptom resolution and new symptom development were measured. Results Of 121 (80%) subjects with complete data, mean age was 79.2±5.4 years and all had stage 3–4 prolapse. Procedures performed: partial colpocleisis (61%), total colpocleisis (39%), levator myorrhaphy (71%), and perineorrhaphy (97%). Bothersome bowel symptom(s) were present in 77% at baseline (obstructive (17–26%), incontinence (12–35%) and pain/irritation (3–34%)). All bothersome obstructive and most bothersome incontinence symptoms were less prevalent 1 year after surgery. CRADI and CRAIQ scores significantly improved. The majority of bothersome symptoms resolved (50–100%) with low rates of de novo symptoms (0–14%). Conclusions Most bothersome bowel symptoms resolve after colpocleisis, especially obstructive and incontinence symptoms, with low rates of de novo symptoms. PMID:19960182

Bradley, Catherine S.; Ye, Wen; Markland, Alayne D.; Whitehead, William E.; Fitzgerald, Mary P.

2010-01-01

113

New onset obsessive-compulsive symptoms in children and adolescents with severe traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a major source of psychiatric morbidity and disability. This study examines new onset of obsessions and compulsions (OCS) within 1 year of severe pediatric TBI. Eighty children and adolescents ages 6-18 years with severe TBI were interviewed by a child psychiatrist using the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-Revised to diagnose OCS and comorbidities. A brain magnetic resonance imaging used a 1.5 T scanner 3 months after injury with a T1-weighted spoiled gradient-recalled-echo sequence to provide high spatial resolution and T1- and T2(*)-contrast sensitivity. Race, sex, socioeconomic status, psychosocial adversity, and injury severity were used to predict new onset OCS. Psychiatric comorbidities and brain lesion volumes in orbitofrontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal lobe, basal ganglia, and thalamus were examined in relation to new onset OCS. Twenty-one children (21/72, 29.2%) had OCS after TBI. Most common were worries about disease, cleanliness, and inappropriate actions as well as excessive cleaning, doing things a certain way and ordering. Anxiety disorders, mania, dysthymia, depressive symptoms, and posttraumatic stress disorder were significantly associated with new onset OCS. Injury severity was not associated with new onset OCS. Greater psychosocial adversity (P=0.009), and being female (P=0.005) were associated with OCS while mesial prefrontal and temporal lobe lesions were associated with new onset obsessions (P<0.05). OCS are common after severe pediatric TBI and are associated with greater comorbidities. New onset obsessions are associated with female sex, psychosocial adversity, and mesial prefrontal and temporal lesions. PMID:17957806

Grados, Marco A; Vasa, Roma A; Riddle, Mark A; Slomine, Beth S; Salorio, Cynthia; Christensen, James; Gerring, Joan

2008-01-01

114

Severe thoracic spinal fracture-dislocation without neurological symptoms and costal fractures: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Only a high-energy force can cause thoracic spinal fracture-dislocation injuries, and such injuries should always be suspected in patients with polytrauma. The injury is usually accompanied by neurological symptoms. There are only a few cases of severe thoracic spinal fracture-dislocation without neurological symptoms in the literature, and until now, no case of severe thoracic spinal fracture-dislocation without neurological symptoms and without costal fractures has been reported. Case presentation A 30-year-old Han Chinese man had T6 to T7 vertebral fracture and anterolateral dislocation without neurological symptoms and costal fractures. The three-dimensional reconstruction by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging indicated the injuries in detail. A patient with thoracic spinal fracture-dislocation without neurological symptoms inclines to further dislocation of the spine and secondary neurological injury; therefore, laminectomy, reduction and internal fixations with rods and screws were done. The outcome was good. Severe spinal fracture-dislocation without neurological symptoms should be evaluated in detail, especially with three-dimensional reconstruction by computed tomography. Although treatment is individualized, reduction and internal fixation are advised for the patient if the condition is suitable for operation. Conclusions Severe thoracic spinal fracture-dislocation without neurological symptoms and costal fractures is frighteningly rare; an operation should be done if the patient's condition permits. PMID:25316002

2014-01-01

115

Chemotherapy-induced toxic leukoencephalopathy causes a wide range of symptoms: a series of four autopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed an increasing number of autopsies on patients with chemotherapy-related complications. One complication is toxic leukoencephalopathy, which is due to a direct toxic effect of chemotherapeutic agents on the central nervous system white matter. Autopsies of four cases of toxic leukoencephalopathy were performed following standard protocols. The brain and spinal cord were examined routinely, and histological sections were

Crystal A Moore-Maxwell; Michael B Datto; Christine M Hulette

2004-01-01

116

ACUTE TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO SEVERAL DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF RAINBOW TROUT, SALMO GAIRDNERI  

E-print Network

of Salmo trutta. Penaz observed an increase in sensitivity of the eggs with age to brief (120 minACUTE TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO SEVERAL DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF RAINBOW TROUT, SALMO GAIRDNERI STANLEY to determine the stage of development at which eggs and larvae of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, were most

117

Propylthiouracyl-induced severe liver toxicity: An indication for alanine aminotransferase monitoring?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propylthiouracyl (PTU)-related liver toxicity is likely to oc- cur in about 1% of treated patients. In case of acute or subacute hepatitis, liver failure may occur in about one third. We report two further cases of PTU-induced sub- acute hepatitis, in whom the delay between occurrence of liver damage after the initiation of treatment, the un- derestimation of its severity

M Benyounes; C Sempoux; C Daumerie; J Rahier; AP Geubel

118

Symptom Severity Predicts Prolonged Recovery after Sport-Related Concussion: Age and Amnesia Do Not  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify predictors of prolonged symptoms for athletes who sustain concussions. Study design We conducted a multi-center, prospective, cohort study of patients in 2 sport concussion clinics. Possible predictors of prolonged symptoms from concussion were compared between two groups: those whose symptoms resolved within 28 days and those whose symptoms persisted beyond 28 days. Candidate predictor variables were entered into a logistic regression model that was used to generate adjusted odds ratios. Results During the study period, 182 patients met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 15.2 years (SD 3.04 years). Over a third (N=65) of patients underwent computerized neurocognitive testing on their initial visit. In univariate analyses, Post Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) score and all composite scores on computerized neurocognitive testing appeared to be associated with prolonged symptom duration. Sex, age, loss of consciousness at time of injury and amnesia at time of injury were not associated with prolonged symptom duration. After adjusting for potential confounding, however, only total score on the PCSS score was associated with the odds of suffering prolonged symptoms. Conclusions After adjusting for other potential confounding variables, only total score on the PCSS was associated with the odds of suffering prolonged symptoms from sport-related concussions; age and amnesia were not. Further efforts to develop clinical tools for predicting which athletes will suffer prolonged recoveries after concussion should focus on initial symptom score. PMID:23628374

Meehan, William P.; Mannix, Rebekah C.; Stracciolini, Andrea; Elbin, R.J.; Collins, Michael W.

2013-01-01

119

Influence of injection timing on severity of cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in mice.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the endocrine disrupter and is a well-known testicular toxicant. Recently, we reported that Cd-induced mortality was markedly different by injection timing. In this report, we investigated whether severity of testicular toxicity was affected by injection timing of Cd. C57BL/6J mice (male, 7 w) were received single intraperitoneal injection of CdCl(2) (4.5 mg/kg) at zeitgeber time 6 (ZT6) or ZT18; these injection timings showed highest (ZT6) or lowest (ZT18) mortality in our previous study (Miura, 2012). After one week of the injection, several parameters for testicular toxicity such as epididymal sperm motility and numbers of sperm head both in cauda epididymidis and testis were measured. At ZT6 injection group, all parameters examined were significantly reduced compared to the control group. However, very interestingly, no significant changes were observed at ZT18 injection group. We obtained similar results by another experiment in which mice were received single subcutaneous injection of CdCl(2) (4 or 6 mg/kg) followed by measuring the parameters ten days after the injection. This diurnal variation was not contradictory to the result of the lethal toxicity which we showed earlier. Therefore, our results indicate that the testicular toxicity of Cd is also influenced by the injection timing. PMID:23358149

Ohtani, Katsumi; Yanagiba, Yukie; Ashimori, Atsushige; Takeuchi, Asuka; Takada, Naoko; Togawa, Masako; Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Ikeda, Masayuki; Miura, Nobuhiko

2013-02-01

120

A defect in carbohydrate metabolism ameliorates symptom severity in virus-infected Arabidopsis thaliana .  

E-print Network

??Altered starch accumulation is a characteristic biochemical symptom of virus infection in plants. To assess its biological importance, infection of Arabidopsis thaliana with Turnip vein-clearing… (more)

Handford, Michael

2006-01-01

121

9 CFR 309.4 - Livestock showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...inspection, symptoms of anaplasmosis, ketosis, leptospirosis, listeriosis, parturient paresis, pseudorabies, rabies, scrapie, tetanus, grass tetany, transport tetany, strangles, purpura hemorrhagica, azoturia, infectious equine encephalomyelitis,...

2013-01-01

122

9 CFR 309.4 - Livestock showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...  

...inspection, symptoms of anaplasmosis, ketosis, leptospirosis, listeriosis, parturient paresis, pseudorabies, rabies, scrapie, tetanus, grass tetany, transport tetany, strangles, purpura hemorrhagica, azoturia, infectious equine encephalomyelitis,...

2014-01-01

123

9 CFR 309.4 - Livestock showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...inspection, symptoms of anaplasmosis, ketosis, leptospirosis, listeriosis, parturient paresis, pseudorabies, rabies, scrapie, tetanus, grass tetany, transport tetany, strangles, purpura hemorrhagica, azoturia, infectious equine encephalomyelitis,...

2012-01-01

124

Insular Dysfunction Reflects Altered Between-Network Connectivity and Severity of Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia during Psychotic Remission  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is characterized by aberrant intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) within and between intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs), including the Default Mode- (DMN), Salience- (SN), and Central Executive Network (CEN). The anterior insula (AI) of the SN has been demonstrated to modulate DMN/CEN interactions. Recently, we found that the dependence of DMN/CEN interactions on SN’s right AI activity is altered in patients with schizophrenia in acute psychosis and related to psychotic symptoms, indicating a link between aberrant AI, DMN, CEN, and psychosis. However, since structural alterations of the insula are also present during psychotic remission and associated with negative symptoms, impaired AI interaction might be relevant even for psychotic remission and corresponding symptoms. Twelve patients with schizophrenia during psychotic remission (SR) and 12 healthy controls were assessed using resting-state fMRI and psychometric examination. High-model-order independent component analysis of fMRI data revealed ICNs including DMN, SN, and CEN. Scores of iFC within (intra-iFC) and between (inter-iFC) distinct subsystems of the DMN, SN, and CEN were calculated, compared between groups and correlated with the severity of symptoms. Intra-iFC was altered in patients’ SN, DMN, and CEN, including decreased intra-iFC in the left AI within the SN. Patients’ inter-iFC between SN and CEN was increased and correlated with the severity of negative symptoms. Furthermore, decreased intra-iFC of the left AI correlated with both severity of negative symptoms and increased inter-iFC between SN and CEN. Our result provides first evidence for a relationship between AI dysfunction and altered between-network interactions in schizophrenia during psychotic remission, which is related to the severity of negative symptoms. Together with our previous results, data suggest specific SN/DMN/CEN reorganization in schizophrenia with distinct insular pathways for distinct symptom dimensions. PMID:23730284

Manoliu, Andrei; Riedl, Valentin; Doll, Anselm; Bauml, Josef Georg; Muhlau, Mark; Schwerthoffer, Dirk; Scherr, Martin; Zimmer, Claus; Forstl, Hans; Bauml, Josef; Wohlschlager, Afra M.; Koch, Kathrin; Sorg, Christian

2013-01-01

125

Propafenone associated severe central nervous system and cardiovascular toxicity due to mirtazapine: a case of severe drug interaction.  

PubMed

We describe a rare case of severe drug-drug interaction between propafenone and mirtazapine leading to propafenone toxicity. A 69-year-old Caucasian male taking propafenone for atrial fibrillation was prescribed mirtazapine for insomnia. Subsequent to the first dose of mirtazapine the patient experienced seizures, bradycardia and prolonged QRS as well as QTc intervals on EKG. The patient was admitted to the ICU and recovered after supportive management. Propafenone is an established class IC antiarrhythmic drug commonly used in the treatment of atrial fibrillation. It is metabolized through the CYP4502D6 pathway. Five to 10 percent of Caucasians are poor metabolizers. Mirtazapine is a commonly prescribed antidepressant drug, which is also metabolized through and may modulate the CYP4502D6 pathway leading to altered metabolism of propafenone and possible adverse effects. In this case, toxicity was reversed once the offending drugs were discontinued. An extensive review of the literature revealed this to be the first described case of drug interaction between propafenone and mirtazapine. PMID:24791374

Rajpurohit, Naveen; Aryal, Sudeep Raj; Khan, Muhammad A; Stys, Adam T; Stys, Tomasz P

2014-04-01

126

WHEN PARENTS WITH SEVERE MENTAL ILLNESS LOSE CONTACT WITH THEIR CHILDREN: ARE PSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOMS OR SUBSTANCE USE TO BLAME?  

PubMed Central

This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month research interviews over a total 30-month period following each participant’s entry into the project. Severe substance abuse was documented as present or absent for the 6-month interval preceding each interview. Results revealed that incidence of severe substance abuse was repeatedly associated with less frequent parent-child contact, even after controlling for psychiatric symptoms, diagnosis, gender, age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Neither psychiatric diagnosis nor symptom severity predicted frequency of child contact when substance abuse was taken into account. Mental health agencies offering parenting classes for adults with serious mental illness should incorporate substance use interventions to reduce loss of child custody and strengthen parent-child relationships. PMID:20011665

Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William

2009-01-01

127

Effects of Ambient Pollen Concentrations on Frequency and Severity of Asthma Symptoms Among Asthmatic Children  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies on the associations between ambient pollen exposures and daily respiratory symptoms have produced inconsistent results. We investigated these relationships in a cohort of asthmatic children, using pollen exposure models to estimate individual ambient exposures. Methods Daily symptoms of wheeze, night symptoms, shortness of breath, chest tightness, persistent cough and rescue medication use were recorded in a cohort of 430 children age 4-12 years with asthma in Connecticut, Massachusetts and New York. Daily ambient exposures to tree, grass, weed and all-type pollen were estimated using mixed effects models. We stratified analyses by asthma maintenance medication and sensitization to grass or weed pollens. Separate logistic regression analysis using generalized estimating equations were performed for each symptom outcome and pollen type. We adjusted analyses for maximum daily temperature, maximum 8-hr average ozone, fine particles (PM2.5), season and antibiotic use. Results Associations were observed among children sensitized to specific pollens; these associations varied by use of asthma maintenance medication. Exposures to even relatively low levels of weed pollen (6-9 grains/m3) were associated with increased shortness of breath, chest tightness, rescue medication use, wheeze, and persistent cough, compared with lower exposure among sensitized children taking maintenance medication. Grass pollen exposures ?2 grains/m3 were associated with wheeze, night symptoms, shortness of breath and persistent cough compared with lower exposure among sensitized children who did not take maintenance medication. Conclusion Even low-level pollen exposure was associated with daily asthmatic symptoms. PMID:22082997

Triche, Elizabeth W.; Leaderer, Brian P.; Bell, Michelle L.

2011-01-01

128

Improved Chronic Fatigue Symptoms after Removal of Mercury in Patient with Increased Mercury Concentration in Hair Toxic Mineral Assay: A Case  

PubMed Central

Clinical manifestations of chronic exposure to organic mercury usually have a gradual onset. As the primary target is the nervous system, chronic mercury exposure can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, headache, and poor recall and concentration. In severe cases chronic exposure leads to intellectual deterioration and neurologic abnormality. Recent outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and pathogenic avian influenza have increased fish consumption in Korea. Methyl-mercury, a type of organic mercury, is present in higher than normal ranges in the general Korean population. When we examine a patient with chronic fatigue, we assess his/her methyl-mercury concentrations in the body if environmental exposure such as excessive fish consumption is suspected. In the current case, we learned the patient had consumed many slices of raw tuna and was initially diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome. Therefore, we suspected that he was exposured to methyl-mercury and that the mercury concentration in his hair would be below the poisoning level identified by World Health Organization but above the normal range according to hair toxic mineral assay. Our patient's toxic chronic fatigue symptoms improved after he was given mercury removal therapy, indicating that he was correctly diagnosed with chronic exposure to organic mercury. PMID:23115707

Han, A-Lum

2012-01-01

129

9 CFR 309.4 - Livestock showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 309.4 Section 309.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), dourine, acute influenza, generalized...

2011-01-01

130

The severity of Internet addiction risk and its relationship with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish University Students.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) risk with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. A total of 271 Turkish university students participated in this study. The students were assessed through the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The rates of students were 19.9% (n=54) in the high IA risk group, 38.7% (n=105) in the mild IA risk group and 41.3% (n=112) in the group without IA risk. Correlation analyses revealed that the severity of IA risk was related with BPI, DES, emotional abuse, CTQ-28, depression and anxiety scores. Univariate covariance analysis (ANCOVA) indicated that the severity of borderline personality features, emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms were the predictors of IAS score, while gender had no effect on IAS score. Among childhood trauma types, emotional abuse seems to be the main predictor of IA risk severity. Borderline personality features predicted the severity of IA risk together with emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. PMID:25023365

Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Evren, Bilge

2014-11-30

131

Anxiety Associations with Cardiac Symptoms, Angiographic Disease Severity, & Healthcare Utilization: The NHLBI-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Anxiety is common among patients presenting with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). In a sample of women with signs and symptoms of ischemia, we examined three anxiety markers as predictors of CAD endpoints including: 1) cardiac symptom indicators; 2) angiographic CAD severity; and 3) healthcare utilization (cardiac hospitalizations & 5-year cardiovascular [CVD] healthcare costs). Methods Participants completed a baseline protocol including coronary angiogram, cardiac symptoms, psychosocial measures and a median 5.9-year follow-up to track hospitalizations. We calculated CVD costs based on cardiac hospitalizations, treatment visits, and CVD medications. Anxiety measures included anxiolytic medication use, Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores, and anxiety disorder treatment history. Results The sample numbered 514 women with anxiety measure data and covariates (mean age=57.5[11.1]). One in five (20.4%) women reported using anxiolytic agents. Anxiety correlated with cardiac symptom indicators (anxiolytic use with nighttime angina & nitroglycerine use; STAI scores & anxiety disorder treatment history with nighttime angina, shortness of breath, & angina frequency). Anxiety disorder treatment history (but not STAI scores or anxiolytics) predicted less severe CAD. Anxiolytic use (but not STAI scores or anxiety disorder treatment history) predicted hospitalizations for chest pain and coronary catheterization (HR’s=2.0, 95% CI’s=1.1–4.7). Anxiety measures predicted higher 5-year CVD costs (+9.0–42.7%) irrespective of CAD severity. Conclusions Among women with signs and symptoms of myocardial ischemia, anxiety measures predict cardiac endpoints ranging from cardiac symptom severity to healthcare utilization. Based on these findings, anxiety may warrant greater consideration among women with suspected CAD. PMID:23410495

Rutledge, Thomas; Kenkre, Tanya S.; Bittner, Vera; Krantz, David S.; Thompson, Diane V.; Linke, Sarah E.; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Eteiba, Wafia; Cornell, Carol E.; Vaccarino, Viola; Pepine, Carl J.; Johnson, B. Delia; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

2013-01-01

132

Implications of using different cut-offs on symptom severity scales to define remission from depression.  

PubMed

A fundamental question in the medical management of disease is how well treatment works. Although there are many ways of defining improvement, one endpoint of definite interest is the resolution or remission of the disorder. In short-term antidepressant treatment trials, remission is usually defined according to post-treatment scores on symptom severity measures, such as the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). However, there is uncertainty as to what cut-offs should be used on these measures to define remission. During the past 2 years, as part of the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, our laboratory has examined the question of how to define remission on the HRSD and MADRS. In the present report from the MIDAS project, we examined the impact of the cut-off score used to define remission on the percentage of depressed outpatients in ongoing treatment who are considered to be in remission. In addition, we examined the association between remission status and psychosocial impairment for different cut-off scores. Three hundred and three depressed psychiatric outpatients were rated on the MADRS, 17-item HRSD, and an index of DSM-IV remission status. Approximately one-third of patients completed a measure of psychosocial impairment. For both the HRSD and the MADRS, we examined four cut-off scores for remission. For each cut-off, we determined the percentage of patients who met the definition of remission, the percentage of patients who continued to meet DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD), and the percentage of patients without any self-reported impairment from depression. For both scales, the range of cut-off scores was associated with more than a two-fold difference in prevalence of remission. Based on higher thresholds to define remission, a small percentage of patients met criteria for MDD, whereas no patients scoring below the low thresholds had MDD. The threshold to define remission was associated with psychosocial impairment: higher cut-off scores were associated with lower rates of no impairment. The cut-offs used to define remission from depression considerably influence the percentage of patients considered to be in remission. Lower cut-off scores than those most commonly used to define remission appear to be more valid. PMID:15201568

Zimmerman, Mark; Posternak, Michael A; Chelminski, Iwona

2004-07-01

133

An exploratory examination of risk-taking behavior and PTSD symptom severity in a veteran sample.  

PubMed

The present study conducted an exploratory examination of the relationship between self-reported symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and an expanded definition of risk-taking behaviors among 395 veterans at a large Midwestern Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were associated with elevated rates of substance use, thrill seeking, aggression, risky sexual practices, and firearm possession. Results indicated that suicidal ideation and aggressive driving behavior were among the most frequently reported. The present findings hold significant public health implications and highlight the need to attend to risk-taking behaviors in treatment planning. PMID:22594128

Strom, Thad Q; Leskela, Jennie; James, Lisa M; Thuras, Paul D; Voller, Emily; Weigel, Rebecca; Yutsis, Maya; Khaylis, Anna; Lindberg, Jamie; Holz, Kenna Bolton

2012-04-01

134

The Association of Quality of Social Relations, Symptom Severity and Intelligence with Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited quality of social relations, milder symptom severity and higher intelligence were shown to account for higher anxiety levels in autism spectrum disorders. The current study replicated and extended earlier findings by combining these three determinants of anxiety in autism spectrum disorders in one study. The sample consisted of 134…

Eussen, Mart L. J. M.; Van Gool, Arthur R.; Verheij, Fop; De Nijs, Pieter F. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

2013-01-01

135

A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Childhood Trauma on Symptoms and Functioning of People with Severe Mental Health Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationship between childhood trauma and the psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial functioning of adults with severe mental health problems. Participants (n?=?31) were recruited from the caseloads of community mental health services in Northern Ireland and assessed at baseline, 9 months, and 18 months. More than half had a history of childhood trauma (n?=?17). There were no differences

Gavin Davidson; Ciaran Shannon; Ciaran Mulholland; Jim Campbell

2009-01-01

136

Impact of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Observed Autism Symptom Severity during School Recess: A Preliminary Randomized, Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and treatment-as-usual (TAU) in terms of effects on observed social communication-related autism symptom severity during unstructured play time at school for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirteen children with ASD (7-11 years old) were randomly assigned to 32 sessions of CBT…

Wood, Jeffrey J.; Fujii, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Van Dyke, Marilyn

2014-01-01

137

The Impact of Child Symptom Severity on Stress among Parents of Children with ASD: The Moderating Role of Coping Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the impact of autism severity and parental coping strategies on stress in parents of children with ASD. Children's autism symptoms and parental coping strategies (task-oriented, emotion-oriented, social diversion, and distraction) were evaluated as predictors of four types of parental stress (parent and family problems, pessimism,…

Lyons, Amy M.; Leon, Scott C.; Roecker Phelps, Carolyn E.; Dunleavy, Alison M.

2010-01-01

138

Inverted U shaped effect of nicotine on the severity of depressive symptoms: A population-based survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate whether that nicotine concentration represented by the degree of smoking dependence variably influence the rate and severity of depressive symptoms. Methods Cross-sectional, analytical study, involving 300 medical students selected by random sampling techniques were asked to complete a questionnaire contains three parts: demographic information, Beck Depression Inventory with cutoff point for depression is 17 and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine dependence with cutoff point for severe dependence is five. Results A total of 233 medical students completed the questionnaire; their mean age was (21.38 ± 1.74). The rate of smoking was 22.7% while that of depression was 32.2%. Low dependent smokers in contrast to other groups of smokers and non-smokers display the lowest rate of depressive symptoms (15%), while the highest rate recorded among severely dependent smokers (71.4%, p = 0.0001). After adjustment of other risk factors, regression analysis reveal that severe dependent smokers associated with 12.5 odds of depressive symptoms than non-smokers (p = 0.0001, C.I. 4.10-38.29). Conclusion In comparison with light and moderate smokers, heavy smokers demonstrate higher risk of depressive symptoms in medical students. PMID:24023456

Ashor, Ammar W.

2013-01-01

139

Severity of Depressive Symptoms and Accuracy of Dietary Reporting among Obese Women with Major Depressive Disorder Seeking Weight Loss Treatment  

PubMed Central

An elevation in symptoms of depression has previously been associated with greater accuracy of reported dietary intake, however this association has not been investigated among individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. The purpose of this study was to investigate reporting accuracy of dietary intake among a group of women with major depressive disorder in order to determine if reporting accuracy is similarly associated with depressive symptoms among depressed women. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake was calculated based on three 24-hour phone-delivered dietary recalls from the baseline phase of a randomized trial of weight loss treatment for 161 obese women with major depressive disorder. Regression models indicated that higher severity of depressive symptoms was associated with greater reporting accuracy, even when controlling for other factors traditionally associated with reporting accuracy (coefficient ?=? 0.01 95% CI?=?0.01 – 0.02). Seventeen percent of the sample was classified as low energy reporters. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake increases along with depressive symptoms, even among individuals with major depressive disorder. These results suggest that any study investigating associations between diet quality and depression should also include an index of reporting accuracy of dietary intake as accuracy varies with the severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:24587338

Whited, Matthew C.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Appelhans, Bradley M.; Ma, Yunsheng; Waring, Molly E.; DeBiasse, Michele A.; Busch, Andrew M.; Oleski, Jessica L.; Merriam, Philip A.; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Ockene, Ira S.; Lemon, Stephenie C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.

2014-01-01

140

Symptom severity is more closely associated with social functioning status in inpatients with schizophrenia than cognitive deficits  

PubMed Central

Background Prior research has determined that impairment in neurocognition and psychiatric symptoms contribute to reduced occupational and social functioning in schizophrenia. Objective Evaluate the relationships of neurocognition, psychiatric symptoms, and psychosocial functioning in male inpatients with schizophrenia in China. Methods Fifty-one male patients currently hospitalised at the Shanghai Mental Health Center with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited and 40 of them were included in the final analysis. Participants were assessed with Chinese versions of the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP), Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scale, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), Letter-Number Sequencing Task, and Hong Kong List Learning Test. Results Robust negative correlations were found between three clinical subscale scores derived from the PANSS and the global measures of social function (the total PSP score and the CGI-S score). Performance on the neurocognitive tasks was not associated with either symptoms or social functioning status. Conclusions Among inpatients in the acute phase of schizophrenia, the severity of the clinical symptoms—not the degree of the neurocognitive impairment—is closely associated with the level of social functioning.

Zuo, Sai; Byrne, Linda K.; Peng, Daihui; Mellor, David; McCabe, Marita; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Jia; Xu, Yifeng

2012-01-01

141

Severity of Child Sexual Abuse and Revictimization: The Mediating Role of Coping and Trauma Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child sexual abuse (CSA) has consistently been associated with the use of avoidant coping; these coping methods have been associated with increased trauma symptoms, which have, in turn, been linked to increased risk for adult sexual revictimization. Given these previous findings, the purpose of the current study was to test a model that…

Fortier, Michelle A.; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Peugh, James; DeNardi, Kathleen A.; Gaffey, Kathryn J.

2009-01-01

142

Autism in Adults with Severe Intellectual Disability: An Empirical Study of Symptom Presentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Autism is one of the most intriguing and highly studied conditions in the field of mental health. However, most research has been carried out with young children to the exclusion of adults, particularly adults with intellectual disability (ID). The present study represents a first attempt to describe symptom patterns of autism for…

Matson, Johnny L.; Wilkins, Jonathan; Ancona, Martin

2008-01-01

143

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms are Associated with the Frequency and Severity of Delinquency Among Detained Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trauma and posttraumatic stress symptoms increasingly are recognized as risk factors for involvement with the juvenile justice system, and detained youth evidence higher rates of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to their nondetained peers. Using a sample of 83 detained boys aged 12 to 17, we tested the hypothesis that degree of PTSD symptomatology would be positively

Stephen P. Becker; Patricia K. Kerig

2011-01-01

144

Predictor of Severe Gastroduodenal Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Abdominopelvic Malignancies  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To identify the predictors for the development of severe gastroduodenal toxicity (GDT) in patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using 3 fractionations for abdominopelvic malignancies. Methods and Materials: From 2001 to 2011, 202 patients with abdominopelvic malignancies were treated with curative-intent SBRT. Among these patients, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 40 patients with the eligibility criteria as follows: 3 fractionations, follow-up period {>=}1 year, absence of previous radiation therapy (RT) history or combination of external-beam RT and the presence of gastroduodenum (GD) that received a dose higher than 20% of prescribed dose. The median SBRT dose was 45 Gy (range, 33-60 Gy) with 3 fractions. We analyzed the clinical and dosimetric parameters, including multiple dose-volume histogram endpoints: V{sub 20} (volume of GD that received 20 Gy), V{sub 25}, V{sub 30}, V{sub 35}, and D{sub max} (the maximum point dose). The grade of GDT was defined by the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 4.0, and GDT {>=}grade 3 was defined as severe GDT. Results: The median time to the development of severe GDT was 6 months (range, 3-12 months). Severe GDT was found in 6 patients (15%). D{sub max} was the best dosimetric predictor for severe GDT. D{sub max} of 35 Gy and 38 Gy were respectively associated with a 5% and 10% probability of the development of severe GDT. A history of ulcer before SBRT was the best clinical predictor on univariate analysis (P=.0001). Conclusions: We suggest that D{sub max} is a valuable predictor of severe GDT after SBRT using 3 fractionations for abdominopelvic malignancies. A history of ulcer before SBRT should be carefully considered as a clinical predictor, especially in patients who receive a high dose to GD.

Bae, Sun Hyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi-Sook, E-mail: mskim@kcch.re.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chul Koo; Kang, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Sang Yeob; Lee, Kyung-Nam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Han [CyberKnife Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [CyberKnife Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Chul Ju; Yang, Ki Young [Department of Internal Medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Bum [Department of General Surgery, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of General Surgery, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-15

145

Hypopharyngeal Dose is Associated with Severe Late Toxicity in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer: An RTOG Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background/Purpose Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) increases local tumor control, but at the expense of increased toxicity. We recently showed that several clinical/pre-treatment factors were associated with the occurrence of severe late toxicity. This study evaluates the potential relationship between radiation dose delivered to the pharyngeal wall and toxicity. Methods This was an analysis of long-term survivors from three previously reported RTOG trials of concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced SCCHN (RTOG 91–11; 97–03; and 99–14). Severe late toxicity was defined in this secondary analysis as chronic Grade 3–4 pharyngeal/laryngeal toxicity and/or requirement for a feeding tube ? 2 years after registration and/or potential treatment-related death (e.g. pneumonia) within 3 years. Radiation dosimetry (2-dimensional) analysis was performed centrally at RTOG Headquarters to estimate doses to four regions of interest along the pharyngeal wall (superior oropharynx, inferior oropharynx, superior hypopharynx, and inferior hypopharynx). Case-control analysis was performed, with a multivariate logistic regression model that included pre-treatment and treatment potential factors. Results A total of 154 patients were evaluable for this analysis, 71 cases (patients with severe late toxicities) and 83 controls; thus 46% of evaluable patients had a severe late toxicity. On multivariate analysis, significant variables correlated with the development of severe late toxicity; older age (odds ratio 1.062 per year; p = 0.0021) and radiation dose received by the inferior hypopharynx (odds ratio 1.023 per Gy; p=0.016). The subgroup of patients receiving < 60 Gy to the inferior hypopharynx had a 40% rate of severe late toxicity, compared with 56% for patients receiving > 60 Gy. Oropharyngeal dose was not associated with this outcome. Conclusions Severe late toxicity following CCRT is common in long term survivors. Age is the most significant factor, but hypopharyngeal dose also was associated. PMID:23078898

Machtay, Mitchell; Moughan, Jennifer; Farach, Andrew; Martin-O'Meara, Elizabeth; Galvin, James; Garden, Adam S.; Weber, Randal S.; Cooper, Jay S.; Forastiere, Arlene; Ang, K. Kian

2012-01-01

146

Hypopharyngeal Dose Is Associated With Severe Late Toxicity in Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Cancer: An RTOG Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) increases local tumor control but at the expense of increased toxicity. We recently showed that several clinical/pretreatment factors were associated with the occurrence of severe late toxicity. This study evaluated the potential relationship between radiation dose delivered to the pharyngeal wall and toxicity. Methods and Materials: This was an analysis of long-term survivors from 3 previously reported Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials of CCRT for locally advanced SCCHN (RTOG trials 91-11, 97-03, and 99-14). Severe late toxicity was defined in this secondary analysis as chronic grade 3-4 pharyngeal/laryngeal toxicity and/or requirement for a feeding tube {>=}2 years after registration and/or potential treatment-related death (eg, pneumonia) within 3 years. Radiation dosimetry (2-dimensional) analysis was performed centrally at RTOG headquarters to estimate doses to 4 regions of interest along the pharyngeal wall (superior oropharynx, inferior oropharynx, superior hypopharynx, and inferior hypopharynx). Case-control analysis was performed with a multivariate logistic regression model that included pretreatment and treatment potential factors. Results: A total of 154 patients were evaluable for this analysis, 71 cases (patients with severe late toxicities) and 83 controls; thus, 46% of evaluable patients had a severe late toxicity. On multivariate analysis, significant variables correlated with the development of severe late toxicity, including older age (odds ratio, 1.062 per year; P=.0021) and radiation dose received by the inferior hypopharynx (odds ratio, 1.023 per Gy; P=.016). The subgroup of patients receiving {<=}60 Gy to the inferior hypopharynx had a 40% rate of severe late toxicity compared with 56% for patients receiving >60 Gy. Oropharyngeal dose was not associated with this outcome. Conclusions: Severe late toxicity following CCRT is common in long-term survivors. Age is the most significant factor, but hypopharyngeal dose also was associated.

Machtay, Mitchell, E-mail: mitchell.machtay@uhhospitals.org [University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)] [University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Moughan, Jennifer [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Headquarters and Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Headquarters and Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Farach, Andrew [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States) [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); University of Texas Health Science Center/Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Martin-O'Meara, Elizabeth [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Headquarters and Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Headquarters and Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Galvin, James [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Headquarters and Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States) [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Headquarters and Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Garden, Adam S.; Weber, Randal S. [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Cooper, Jay S. [Maimonides Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Maimonides Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Forastiere, Arlene [Johns Hopkins University Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Johns Hopkins University Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Ang, K. Kian [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2012-11-15

147

Plasma neuropeptide Y: a biomarker for symptom severity in chronic fatigue syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex, multi-symptom illness with a multisystem pathogenesis involving alterations in the nervous, endocrine and immune systems. Abnormalities in stress responses have been identified as potential triggers or mediators of CFS symptoms. This study focused on the stress mediator neuropeptide Y (NPY). We hypothesized that NPY would be a useful biomarker for CFS. Methods The CFS patients (n = 93) were from the Chronic Fatigue and Related Disorders Clinic at the University of Miami and met the 1994 case definition of Fukuda and colleagues. Healthy sedentary controls (n = 100)) were from NIH or VA funded studies. Another fatiguing, multi-symptom illness, Gulf War Illness (GWI), was also compared to CFS. We measured NPY in plasma using a radioimmunoassay (RIA). Psychometric measures, available for a subset of CFS patients included: Perceived Stress Scale, Profile of Mood States, ATQ Positive & Negative Self-Talk Scores, the COPE, the Beck Depression Inventory, Fatigue Symptom Inventory, Cognitive Capacity Screening Examination, Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36, and the Quality of Life Scale. Results Plasma NPY was elevated in CFS subjects, compared to controls (p = .000) and to GWI cases (p = .000). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analyses indicated that the predictive ability of plasma NPY to distinguish CFS patients from healthy controls and from GWI was significantly better than chance alone. In 42 patients with CFS, plasma NPY had significant correlations (<0.05) with perceived stress, depression, anger/hostility, confusion, negative thoughts, positive thoughts, general health, and cognitive status. In each case the correlation (+ or -) was in the anticipated direction. Conclusions This study is the first in the CFS literature to report that plasma NPY is elevated compared to healthy controls and to a fatigued comparison group, GWI patients. The significant correlations of NPY with stress, negative mood, general health, depression and cognitive function strongly suggest that this peptide be considered as a biomarker to distinguish subsets of CFS. PMID:21190576

2010-01-01

148

Postprandial oxytocin secretion is associated with severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in anorexia nervosa  

PubMed Central

Objective Anorexia nervosa, a psychiatric disorder characterized by self-induced starvation, is associated with endocrine dysfunction and comorbid anxiety and depression. Animal data suggest that oxytocin may have anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. We have reported increased postprandial oxytocin levels in women with active anorexia nervosa (AN), and decreased levels in weight-recovered women with anorexia nervosa (ANWR) compared to healthy controls (HC). A meal may represent a significant source of stress in patients with disordered eating. We therefore investigated the association between post-prandial oxytocin secretion and symptoms of anxiety and depression in anorexia nervosa. Method We performed a cross-sectional study of 35 women (13 AN, 9 ANWR and 13 HC). Serum oxytocin and cortisol and plasma leptin levels were measured fasting and 30, 60, and 120min after a standardized mixed meal. The area under the curve (AUC), and for oxytocin, postprandial nadir and peak levels were determined. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). Results In women with anorexia nervosa, oxytocin AUC and post-prandial nadir and peak levels were positively associated with STAI scores. Oxytocin AUC and nadir levels were positively associated with BDI-II scores. After controlling for cortisol AUC, most relationships remained significant. After controlling for leptin AUC, all of the relationships remained significant. Oxytocin secretion explained up to 51% of the variance in STAI trait and 24% of BDI-II scores. Conclusions Abnormal post-prandial oxytocin secretion in women with anorexia nervosa is associated with increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. This may represent an adaptive response of oxytocin secretion to food-related symptoms of anxiety and depression. PMID:23759466

Lawson, Elizabeth A.; Holsen, Laura M.; Santin, McKale; DeSanti, Rebecca; Meenaghan, Erinne; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Herzog, David B.; Goldstein, Jill M.; Klibanski, Anne

2013-01-01

149

Pre-abstinence smoke intake and smoking motivation as predictors of severity of cigarette withdrawal symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-nine cigarette smokers completed a smoking motivation questionnaire and had expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) and plasma nicotine concentrations measured prior to abstaining from smoking for 24 h. Before and after the abstinence period, the subjects rated mood and physical symptoms known to be affected by cigarette abstinence (e.g. irritability, restlessness). Scores on the “dependent smoking” subscale of the smoking motivation

Robert J. West; Michael A. H. Russell

1985-01-01

150

Direct and indirect symptom severity indicators of alcohol dependence and the personality concept of the biosocial model.  

PubMed

Temperament and character factors are strongly related to the developmental, clinical, and treatment aspects of alcohol dependence. This study had the aim of revealing the underlying personality structure and individual differences in the symptoms of alcohol dependence measured by multiple severity indicators. Patients with alcohol dependence exhibited higher levels of novelty seeking and harm avoidance, and lower levels of persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness. Especially novelty seeking was connected with more severe alcohol dependence. These characteristics could be useful targets of interventions and Temperament and Character Inventory is therefore a useful measurement to identify patients with more severe alcohol-related problems. PMID:24093524

Andó, Bálint; Rózsa, Sándor; Kurgyis, Eszter; Szkaliczki, Andrea; Demeter, Ildikó; Szikszay, Petronella; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Janka, Zoltán; Álmos, Péter Z

2014-03-01

151

Impact of non-cardiovascular disease comorbidity on cardiovascular disease symptom severity: A population-based study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Non-cardiovascular comorbidity is common in cardiovascular disease (CVD) populations but its influence on chest pain (CP) and shortness of breath (SOB) symptom-specific physical limitations is unknown. We wanted to test the a priori hypothesis that an unrelated comorbidity would influence symptom-specific physical limitations and to investigate this impact in different severities of CVD. Method and results The study was based on 5426 patients from ten family practices, organised into eight a priori exclusive severity groups: (i) no CVD or osteoarthritis (OA) (reference), (ii) index hypertension, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and heart failure (HF) without OA, (iii) index OA without CVD and (iv) same CVD groups with comorbid OA. The measure of CP physical limitations was Seattle Angina Questionnaire and for SOB physical limitations was the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. Adjusted baseline associations between the cohorts and symptom-specific physical limitations were assessed using linear regression methods. In the study population, 1443 (27%) reported CP and 2097 (39%) SOB. CP and SOB physical limitations increased with CVD severity in the index and comorbid groups. Compared with the respective index CVD group, the CP physical limitation scores for comorbid CVD groups with OA were lower by: ? 14.7 (95% CI ? 21.5, 7.8) for hypertension, ? 5.5 (? 10.4, ? 0.7) for IHD and ? 22.1 (? 31.0, ? 6.7) for HF. For SOB physical limitations, comorbid scores were lower by: ? 9.2 (? 13.8, ? 4.6) for hypertension, ? 6.4 (? 11.1, ? 1.8) for IHD and ? 8.8 (? 19.3, 1.65) for HF. Conclusions CP and SOB are common symptoms, and OA increases the CVD symptom-specific physical limitations additively. Comorbidity interventions need to be developed for CVD specific health outcomes. PMID:24856803

Rushton, C.A.; Kadam, U.T.

2014-01-01

152

Effects of Wheat Germ Extract on the Severity and Systemic Symptoms of Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the most common disorders in women and the main cause of absenteeism from work and school. Objectives: Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of wheat germ, the present study examined the effects of wheat germ extract on the severity and systemic symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea. Patients and Methods: This triple-blinded clinical trial was performed on 80 employed women in hospitals affiliated with Hamadan University of Medical Sciences (Hamadan, IR Iran). Subjects were allocated to two groups of 45 patients. Three 400-mg capsules of wheat germ extract or placebo were used daily? between the 16th day of the menstrual cycle to the fifth day of the next menstrual cycle for two consecutive months. Pain intensity was measured by a visual analogue scale thrice a day and a four-point verbal rating scale was employed to assess systemic symptoms. Results: Pain severity decreased only in the wheat germ extract group (P < 0.001) and there was no statistically significant change in the placebo group. In the wheat germ extract group, the pain severity decreased from 4.701 at baseline to 1.120 at the second cycle. The reduction in total scores of systemic symptoms of dysmenorrhea was statistically significant only in the wheat germ extract group (P < 0.001) and there was not a statistically significant change in the placebo group. It revealed statistically significant differences in systemic symptoms associated with dysmenorrhea including fatigue, headache, and mood swings in experimental group. Conclusions: Wheat germ extract seems to be an effective treatment for dysmenorrhea and its systemic symptoms, probably because of its anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25389490

Atallahi, Maryam; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Mojab, Faraz; Alavi Majd, Hamid

2014-01-01

153

Severity of Children’s ADHD Symptoms and Parenting Stress: A Multiple Mediation Model of Self-Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the current study was to determine the extent to which the perceived self-regulation deficits across behavioral,\\u000a cognitive, and emotional domains seen in children with ADHD explain the association between the severity of ADHD symptoms\\u000a and parenting stress. Participants for this study included 80 children (mean age = 10 years, 9 months) with a DSM-IV diagnosis\\u000a of ADHD confirmed by

Paulo A. Graziano; Joseph P. McNamara; Gary R. Geffken; Adam Reid

154

Relationship between clinical sinusitis symptoms and sinus CT severity in pediatric post bone marrow transplant and immunocompetent patients  

PubMed Central

Since typical inflammatory responses may be diminished in children following bone marrow transplant (BMT), computed tomography (CT) imaging of the sinuses has been increasingly ordered to diagnose sinusitis in this group. The objective of this study was to determine the association between clinical sinusitis symptoms and sinus opacification on CT scans in post BMT versus immunocompetent children. Our sample was comprised of 64 post BMT and 86 immunocompetent children with sinus CT scans. CT sinus opacification was scored using the modified Lund–Mackay staging system. The relationship between clinical sinusitis symptoms (rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, cough, headache, and facial pain) and opacification was compared for the two groups. The severity of sinus opacification in the BMT group was significantly higher compared to the immunocompetent group. In combined patient groups the odds ratio (OR) for moderate/severe sinusitis was significantly elevated for rhinorrhea (OR=3.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27–7.12), cough (OR=2.80; 95% CI, 1.22–6.42), and having either rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, or cough (OR= 4.76; 95% CI, 1.71–13.24). While the immunocompetent group had a greater number of sinusitis symptoms compared to the post BMT group, both groups had a significant increase in the severity on CT with increasing number of symptoms. Conclusion In post BMT patients, our data demonstrated higher odds of moderate/severe sinusitis on CT scans associated with rhinorrhea, cough or nasal congestion. These finding suggest that in post BMT children, detailed sinus history may still play a vital role in the diagnosis of sinusitis. PMID:21904829

Arulrajah, Sahayini; Symons, Heather; Cahoon, Elizabeth Khaykin; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A. G. M.

2014-01-01

155

IMRT for Sinonasal Tumors Minimizes Severe Late Ocular Toxicity and Preserves Disease Control and Survival  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report late ocular (primary endpoint) and other toxicity, disease control, and survival (secondary endpoints) after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for sinonasal tumors. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2009, 130 patients with nonmetastatic sinonasal tumors were treated with IMRT at Ghent University Hospital. Prescription doses were 70 Gy (n = 117) and 60-66 Gy (n = 13) at 2 Gy per fraction over 6-7 weeks. Most patients had adenocarcinoma (n = 82) and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 23). One hundred and one (101) patients were treated postoperatively. Of 17 patients with recurrent tumors, 9 were reirradiated. T-stages were T1-2 (n = 39), T3 (n = 21), T4a (n = 38), and T4b (n = 22). Esthesioneuroblastoma was staged as Kadish A, B, and C in 1, 3, and 6 cases, respectively. Results: Median follow-up was 52, range 15-121 months. There was no radiation-induced blindness in 86 patients available for late toxicity assessment ({>=}6 month follow-up). We observed late Grade 3 tearing in 10 patients, which reduced to Grade 1-2 in 5 patients and Grade 3 visual impairment because of radiation-induced ipsilateral retinopathy and neovascular glaucoma in 1 patient. There was no severe dry eye syndrome. The worst grade of late ocular toxicity was Grade 3 (n = 11), Grade 2 (n = 31), Grade 1 (n = 33), and Grade 0 (n = 11). Brain necrosis and osteoradionecrosis occurred in 6 and 1 patients, respectively. Actuarial 5-year local control and overall survival were 59% and 52%, respectively. On multivariate analysis local control was negatively affected by cribriform plate and brain invasion (p = 0.044 and 0.029, respectively) and absence of surgery (p = 0.009); overall survival was negatively affected by cribriform plate and orbit invasion (p = 0.04 and <0.001, respectively) and absence of surgery (p = 0.001). Conclusions: IMRT for sinonasal tumors allowed delivering high doses to targets at minimized ocular toxicity, while maintaining disease control and survival. Avoidance of severe dry eye syndrome and radiation-induced blindness suggests IMRT as a standard treatment for sinonasal tumors.

Duprez, Frederic, E-mail: frederic.duprez@ugent.be [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Madani, Indira; Morbee, Lieve [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Bonte, Katrien; Deron, Philippe; Domjan, Vilmos [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Boterberg, Tom; De Gersem, Werner; De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

2012-05-01

156

The Factor Structure and Severity of DSM-IV Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Symptoms in Psychiatric Outpatients  

PubMed Central

The goal of the present study was to examine the factor structure and estimated severity of alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms in a sample of treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatients. Participants (n = 1027, 51.2% women) met the screening criteria for the lifetime assessment of alcohol use disorders according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID-I/P; First et al., 1995) and as a result completed an assessment of alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms. The average age of the sample was 36.6 (SD = 11.4) and 71% of participants met lifetime DSM-IV criteria for an alcohol use disorder. Exploratory factor analysis of the tetrachoric correlation matrix of alcohol abuse and dependence criteria revealed that a single factor best accounted for the data in this sample. Results of Rasch model analyses indicated that the severity ordering of the DSM-IV abuse and dependence symptoms was not consistent with the hierarchical structure suggested by the DSM-IV. Instead, abuse items were found to be spread across a full range of the AUD continuum and were not consistently in the lower ranges of severity. This study extends the literature by examining a treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatient sample and using a semi-structured diagnostic interview administered by mental health professionals. Methodological considerations and implications for the conceptualization of AUD are discussed. PMID:18612564

Ray, Lara A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Zimmerman, Mark

2013-01-01

157

Evaluation of toxic effects of several carboxylic acids on bacterial growth by toxicodynamic modelling  

PubMed Central

Background Effects of organic acids on microbial fermentation are commonly tested in investigations about metabolic behaviour of bacteria. However, they typically provide only descriptive information without modelling the influence of acid concentrations on bacterial kinetics. Results We developed and applied a mathematical model (secondary model) to capture the toxicological effects of those chemicals on kinetic parameters that define the growth of bacteria in batch cultures. Thus, dose-response kinetics were performed with different bacteria (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Carnobacterium pisicola, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Listonella anguillarum) exposed at increasing concentrations of individual carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic). In all bioassays the acids affected the maximum bacterial load (Xm) and the maximum growth rate (vm) but only in specific cases the lag phase (?) was modified. Significance of the parameters was always high and in all fermentations the toxicodynamic equation was statistically consistent and had good predictability. The differences between D and L-lactic acid effects were significant for the growth of E. coli, L. mesenteroides and C. piscicola. In addition, a global parameter (EC50,?) was used to compare toxic effects and provided a realistic characterization of antimicrobial agents using a single value. Conclusions The effect of several organic acids on the growth of different bacteria was accurately studied and perfectly characterized by a bivariate equation which combines the basis of dose-response theory with microbial growth kinetics (secondary model). The toxicity of carboxylic acids was lower with the increase of the molecular weight of these chemicals. PMID:22118421

2011-01-01

158

Caring for medically unexplained physical symptoms after toxic environmental exposures: effects of contested causation.  

PubMed Central

Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are persistent idiopathic symptoms that drive patients to seek medical care. MUPS syndromes include chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia syndrome, and multiple chemical sensitivities. When MUPS occur after an environmental exposure or injury, an adversarial social context that we call "contested causation" may ensue. Contested causation may occur publicly and involve media controversy, scientific disagreement, political debate, and legal struggles. This adversarial social context may diminish the effectiveness of the provider-patient relationship. Contested causation also may occur privately, when disagreement over the causes of MUPS takes place in the patient-provider context. These patient-provider disagreements over causation often occur because of the enigmatic nature of MUPS. We suggest that a context of contested causation may have serious negative effects on healthcare for individuals with MUPS. Context plays a larger role in MUPS care than it does for most medical care because of the uncertain nature of MUPS, the reliance of standard MUPS therapies on a potentially tenuous patient-provider partnership, and the clinical need to rely routinely on subjective MUPS assessments that often yield discordant patient and provider conclusions. Contested causation may erode patient-provider trust, test the provider's self-assurance and capacity to share power with the patient, and raise problematic issues of compensation, reparation, and blame. These issues may distract patients and providers from therapeutic goals. In occupational and military settings, the adverse impact of contested causation on the patient-provider partnership may diminish therapeutic effectiveness to a greater degree than it does in other medical settings. Contested causation therefore raises questions regarding generalizability of standard therapies for MUPS and related syndromes to these settings. Future research is needed to learn whether intuitively sensible and evidence-based MUPS therapies benefit occupational and military medical patients who are afforded care in the context of contested causation. PMID:12194900

Engel, Charles C; Adkins, Joyce A; Cowan, David N

2002-01-01

159

Behaviorally-inhibited temperament is associated with severity of PTSD symptoms and faster eyeblink conditioning in veterans  

PubMed Central

Prior studies have sometimes demonstrated facilitated acquisition of classically-conditioned responses and/or resistance to extinction in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unclear whether these behaviors are acquired as a result of PTSD or exposure to trauma, or reflect pre-existing risk factors that confer vulnerability for PTSD. Here, we examined classical eyeblink conditioning and extinction in veterans self-assessed for current PTSD symptoms, exposure to combat, and the personality trait of behavioral inhibition (BI), a risk factor for PTSD. 128 veterans were recruited (mean age 51.2 years; 13.3% female); 126 completed self-assessment, with 25.4% reporting a history of exposure to combat and 30.9% reporting severe, current PTSD symptoms (PTSS). PTSD symptom severity was correlated with current BI (R2=0.497) and PTSS status could be predicted based on current BI and combat history (80.2% correct classification). A subset of the veterans (n=87) also completed eyeblink conditioning. Among veterans without PTSS, childhood BI was associated with faster acquisition; veterans with PTSS showed delayed extinction, under some conditions. These data demonstrate a relationship between current BI and PTSS, and suggest that the facilitated conditioning sometimes observed in PTSD patients may partially reflect personality traits such as childhood BI that pre-date and contribute to vulnerability for PTSD. PMID:21790343

Myers, Catherine E.; VanMeenen, Kirsten M.; McAuley, J. Devin; Beck, Kevin D.; Pang, Kevin C. H.; Servatius, Richard J.

2012-01-01

160

Stroke Severity Score based on Six Signs and Symptoms The 6S Score: A Simple Tool for Assessing Stroke Severity and In-hospital Mortality  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Ascertaining stroke severity and predicting risk of in-hospital mortality is crucial to advise patients and families about medical decisions. We developed and tested the validity of a new stroke score, the 6S Score (Stroke Severity Score based on Six Signs and Symptoms), for quantifying ischemic stroke severity and predicting in-hospital mortality. Methods We prospectively assessed 210 consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients. The cohort was further divided into a derivation (n=120) and a validation (n=90) sample. From a total of 10 stroke signs and symptoms, we selected those with likelihood ratio's P<0.005. We tested the validity of the score for predicting in-hospital mortality by using receiver operating characteristic curves. We used a scatterplot and the Spearman's test to evaluate the correlation between the 6S Score and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale as a marker of stroke severity. We used principal component and exploratory factor analyses for assessing qualitative aspects of the 6S Score. Results The C statistic for in-hospital mortality was 0.82 for the 6S Score and 0.86 for the National Institutes of health Stroke Scale, respectively, with no significant differences between each other (P=0.79). The correlation between both scores was strong (Spearman's rho 0.68, P<0.001). The factor analyses showed a good balance between left/right hemispheres and anterior/posterior circulations. Conclusions The 6S Score may constitute a tool for easily assessing stroke severity and predicting stroke mortality. Further research is needed for further assessing its external validity. PMID:25328876

Racosta, Juan Manual; Di Guglielmo, Federico; Klein, Francisco Ricardo; Riccio, Patricia Mariana; Giacomelli, Francisco Munoz; Gonzalez Toledo, Maria Eugenia; Pagani Cassara, Fatima; Tamargo, Agustina; Delfitto, Matias

2014-01-01

161

Assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder in Cambodian refugees using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale: psychometric properties and symptom severity.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed by using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) in a consecutive sample of Cambodian refugees attending a psychiatric clinic in the United States. Psychometric properties of the translated CAPS and severity of PTSD-related symptoms were examined. The CAPS demonstrated adequate psychometric properties, including coefficient alpha (.92) and item-total correlations (.48-.85). Of the sample 56% (101/179) met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, criteria for current PTSD. Those patients who met criteria for current PTSD had significantly higher CAPS total scores (M = 65.3, SD = 18.1) than those who did not meet the criteria (M = 13.9, SD = 16.7). PMID:16788999

Hinton, Devon E; Chhean, Dara; Pich, Vuth; Pollack, M H; Orr, Scott P; Pitman, Roger K

2006-06-01

162

The capability of several toxic plants to condition taste aversions in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grazing livestock frequently ingest toxic plants, occasionally with fatal results. Behavioral adjustments by livestock may reduce toxin intake; for example they can develop food aversions which may protect animals from over-ingestion of toxic plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three plants with different mechanisms of toxicity for their efficacy in conditioning a taste aversion: (1) a seleniferous

James A. Pfister; Dale R. Gardner; Carl. C. Cheney; Kip E. Panter; Jeffery O. Hall

2010-01-01

163

Reduced Heart Rate Variability in Social Anxiety Disorder: Associations with Gender and Symptom Severity  

PubMed Central

Background Polyvagal theory emphasizes that autonomic nervous system functioning plays a key role in social behavior and emotion. The theory predicts that psychiatric disorders of social dysfunction are associated with reduced heart rate variability, an index of autonomic control, as well as social inhibition and avoidance. The purpose of this study was to examine whether heart rate variability was reduced in treatment-seeking patients diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, a disorder characterized by social fear and avoidance. Methods Social anxiety patients (n?=?53) were recruited prior to receiving psychological therapy. Healthy volunteers were recruited through the University of Sydney and the general community and were matched by gender and age (n?=?53). Heart rate variability was assessed during a five-minute recording at rest, with participants completing a range of self-report clinical symptom measures. Results Compared to controls, participants with social anxiety exhibited significant reductions across a number of heart rate variability measures. Reductions in heart rate variability were observed in females with social anxiety, compared to female controls, and in patients taking psychotropic medication compared to non-medicated patients. Finally, within the clinical group, we observed significant associations between reduced heart rate variability and increased social interaction anxiety, psychological distress, and harmful alcohol use. Conclusions The results of this study confirm that social anxiety disorder is associated with reduced heart rate variability. Resting state heart rate variability may therefore be considered a marker for social approach-related motivation and capacity for social engagement. Additionally, heart rate variability may provide a useful biomarker to explain underlying difficulties with social approach, impaired stress regulation, and behavioral inhibition, especially in disorders associated with significant impairments in these domains. PMID:23936207

Alvares, Gail A.; Quintana, Daniel S.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Van Zwieten, Anita; Balleine, Bernard W.; Hickie, Ian B.; Guastella, Adam J.

2013-01-01

164

Symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease in severely mentally retarded people: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs when stomach acid frequently backs up (or refluxes) into the gullet (or esophagus), and it has serious consequences for the quality of life. Usually this is felt as heartburn. Because severely mentally retarded people usually do not utter complaints of heartburn, it requires a high index of suspicion to discover possible GERD. Therefore it

Anke JE de Veer; Judith T Bos; Riet C Niezen-de Boer; Clarisse JM Böhmer; Anneke L Francke

2008-01-01

165

Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Hispanics: Symptom Characteristics and Prediction of Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature suggests that an increasing number of Hispanic people suffer with GAD, and possible associated problems include high costs for treatment and elevated risk of severe impairment. The current study examined components of anxiety, as measured by currently available assessment instruments in both English and Spanish languages, among bilingual Hispanic individuals with GAD. Participants completed all instruments in both languages.

Michiyo Hirai; Melinda A. Stanley; Diane M. Novy

2006-01-01

166

Hypnosis Treatment for Severe Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Investigation of Mechanism and Effects on Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypnosis improves irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but the mechanism is unknown. Possible physiological and psychological mechanisms were investigated in two studies. Patients with severe irritable bowel syndrome received seven biweekly hypnosis sessions and used hypnosis audiotapes at home. Rectal pain thresholds and smooth muscle tone were measured with a barostat before and after treatment in 18 patients (study I), and

Olafur S. Palsson; Marsha J. Turner; David A. Johnson; Charles K. Burnett; William E. Whitehead

2002-01-01

167

Child Victims' Attributions about Being Physically Abused: An Examination of Factors Associated with Symptom Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the present study was to examine a conceptual attributional model for the development of psychopathology after child physical abuse. Physically abused or maltreated children referred for treatment completed a series of measures to assess parent-to-child violence, abuse-specific attributions and general attributional style, other potential predictors, and children's psychopathology. Results revealed that the severity of current parent-to-child violence

Elissa J. Brown; David J. Kolko

1999-01-01

168

Regular article Short-term outcomes of matching dual diagnosis patients' symptom severity to treatment intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated a patient-treatment matching strategy intended to improve the effectiveness of hospital-inpatient and community- residential treatment for dual diagnosis patients. Matching variables were the severity of patient disorders and the program's service intensity. Each of three high-intensity hospital programs was paired with a nearby high-intensity community program; there were also four low- intensity pairs. Patients (N = 230)

Christine Timko; Jill M. Sempel

169

Outcomes and costs of matching the intensity of dual-diagnosis treatment to patients' symptom severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated a patient–treatment matching strategy intended to improve the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of acute treatment for dual-diagnosis patients. Matching variables were the severity of the patient's disorders and the program's service intensity. Patients (N = 230) with dual substance use and psychiatric disorders received low or high service-intensity acute care in 1 of 14 residential programs and were

Shuo Chen; Paul G. Barnett; Jill M. Sempel; Christine Timko

2006-01-01

170

Gut toxicity during hemopoietic stem cell transplantation may predict acute graft-versus-host disease severity in patients.  

PubMed

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the primary complication of allogeneic, hemopoietic, stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Murine models suggest that gut toxicity, induced by the intensive chemotherapy preceding hematopoietic stem cell infusion, aggravates systemic GVHD. In HSCT patients gut toxicity correlates with chemotherapy intensity. The present study investigates acute GVHD severity and intestinal toxicity in patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT. In 38 patients intestinal permeability was assessed before and after chemotherapy (on days -1, +4, +7 and +14 as related to the stem cell infusion). Cumulative acute GVHD (days 0-100) and clinical intestinal toxicity (days 0-14) were evaluated in parallel. Patients with mild, acute GVHD (grades 0-I) had better-preserved intestinal barrier function (P=0.04) and less pronounced cumulative clinical intestinal toxicity (P=0.02) compared with patients with more severe acute GVHD (grades II-IV). Gut toxicity predicts acute GVHD severity. Therefore, gut protective strategies may diminish GVHD severity in allogeneic HSCT patients. PMID:17415646

Johansson, Jan-Erik; Ekman, Tor

2007-09-01

171

Toxicity of a glufosinate- and several glyphosate-based herbicides to juvenile amphibians from the Southern High Plains, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesticide toxicity is often proposed as a contributing factor to the world-wide decline of amphibian populations. We assessed acute toxicity (48 h) of a glufosinate-based herbicide (Ignite® 280 SL) and several glyphosate-based herbicide formulations (Roundup WeatherMAX®, Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Super Concentrate®, Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Ready-To-Use Plus®) on two species of amphibians housed on soil or moist paper

Simon K. Dinehart; Loren M. Smith; Scott T. McMurry; Todd A. Anderson; Philip N. Smith; David A. Haukos

2009-01-01

172

[Toxicity of several pesticides used in Tunisia, for Aphanius fasciatus Nardo, 1827 (Pisces, Cyprinodontidae.)].  

PubMed

The acute toxicity of some pesticides used in Tunisia is determined for the species Aphanius fasciatus (Pisces - Cyprinodontidae). Bioassays conducted at temperature (19-20 degrees C) and salinity (37-38%) have allowed to calculate the CL50 48 h and 96 h. The classification of these pesticides, based on the CL50 96 h, and according to their toxicity for the test species, shows that the organic phosphorus (Murphotox, Bazudin, Dursban, Zithiol, Lebaycid, Imidan, Oleoparathion, Folimat; Nuvan, Actellic, Carbicron, Nexion, Dimecron, Roxion) have all the degrees of toxicity, but the majority are among the most toxic; the carbamates (Betanal, Dimetilan, Baygon), are generally less toxic than the organic phosphorus tested, except Nexion which is less toxic than the Betanal and Roxion less toxic than the three carbamates tested; the herbicides (2,4-D, Basagran, Printan) have a very low toxicity, and are less toxic than the insecticides tested, except Betanal and Suffix of which the toxicity is higher than some insecticides (Nexion, Dimecron, Baygon, Dimetilan, Roxion); Calixin (Fongicide) is more toxic than the herbicides tested but it is generally less toxic than the insecticides used. At higher temperature (28-29 degrees C) A. fasciatus is more sensible to organic phosphorus (Dursban, Folimat) than to carbamate (Betanal). The variation change of salinity (from 37 to 6.5 %) don't modify the sensibility of the test species face to face of three pesticides: Dursban, Folimat (organic phosphorus insecticide) and Betanal (carbamate herbicide). A. fasciatus is suitable for acute and chronic bioassays. PMID:555295

Boumaiza, M; Ktari, M H; Vitiello, P

1979-09-01

173

Aberrant error processing in relation to symptom severity in obsessive–compulsive disorder: A multimodal neuroimaging study  

PubMed Central

Background Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by maladaptive repetitive behaviors that persist despite feedback. Using multimodal neuroimaging, we tested the hypothesis that this behavioral rigidity reflects impaired use of behavioral outcomes (here, errors) to adaptively adjust responses. We measured both neural responses to errors and adjustments in the subsequent trial to determine whether abnormalities correlate with symptom severity. Since error processing depends on communication between the anterior and the posterior cingulate cortex, we also examined the integrity of the cingulum bundle with diffusion tensor imaging. Methods Participants performed the same antisaccade task during functional MRI and electroencephalography sessions. We measured error-related activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the error-related negativity (ERN). We also examined post-error adjustments, indexed by changes in activation of the default network in trials surrounding errors. Results OCD patients showed intact error-related ACC activation and ERN, but abnormal adjustments in the post- vs. pre-error trial. Relative to controls, who responded to errors by deactivating the default network, OCD patients showed increased default network activation including in the rostral ACC (rACC). Greater rACC activation in the post-error trial correlated with more severe compulsions. Patients also showed increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the white matter underlying rACC. Conclusions Impaired use of behavioral outcomes to adaptively adjust neural responses may contribute to symptoms in OCD. The rACC locus of abnormal adjustment and relations with symptoms suggests difficulty suppressing emotional responses to aversive, unexpected events (e.g., errors). Increased structural connectivity of this paralimbic default network region may contribute to this impairment. PMID:25057466

Agam, Yigal; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Isom, Marlisa; Falkenstein, Martha J.; Jenike, Eric; Wilhelm, Sabine; Manoach, Dara S.

2014-01-01

174

Effects of Magnesium and Vitamin B6 on the Severity of Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The importance of resolving the problem of premenstrual syndrome for patients has been emphasized due to its direct and indirect economical effects on the society. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of magnesium and vitamin B6 on the severity of premenstrual syndrome in patients referring to health centers affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, during 2009-10. Methods: This two-stage double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 126 women who were randomly allocated into 3 groups to receive magnesium, vitamin B6, or placebo. The study was performed in 10 selected health centers in Isfahan and lasted for 4 months. To confirm premenstrual syndrome, the participants were asked to complete a menstrual diary for 2 months at home. Drug interventions were continued for two cycles and the results of before and after the intervention were compared. Results: The findings of this study showed that the mean scores of premenstrual syndrome significantly decreased after the intervention in all groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: According to our findings, vitamin B6 and placebo had the most and least efficiency in improving the mean premenstrual syndrome score.

Ebrahimi, Elham; Khayati Motlagh, Shiva; Nemati, Sima; Tavakoli, Zohreh

2012-01-01

175

Subgroup analysis of symptoms and their effect on functioning, exercise capacity, and physical activity in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about symptom clusters and their effect on outcomes in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Purposes To determine whether subgroups of patients with COPD could be identified by symptom ratings, whether they differed on selected demographic and clinical characteristics, and whether they differed on functioning, exercise capacity, and physical activity. Method Subjects with severe COPD (n = 596) were drawn from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial dataset. Data were drawn from questionnaires and clinical measures. Results Two subgroup clusters emerged from four symptoms. Mean age and the proportion of participants with higher education, higher income levels, and using oxygen at rest were significantly different between subgroups. Participants with high levels of symptoms had lower functioning and decreased exercise capacity. Symptom cluster subgroups were significantly associated with social functioning. Conclusion These findings suggest that screening for high levels of symptoms may be important in patients with severe COPD. PMID:24054947

Park, Soo Kyung; Meldrum, Catherine A.; Larson, Janet L.

2014-01-01

176

Dementia Neuropsychiatric Symptom Severity, Help-Seeking Patterns, and Family Caregiver Unmet Needs in the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine dementia neuropsychiatric symptom (1) severity, (2) help-seeking patterns, and (3) associated family unmet needs for professional help.Method: Family caregivers of 38 Latinos with dementia from an epidemiological cohort study were assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Follow-up probes assessed neuropsychiatric symptoms, help-seeking, and unmet need.Results: Of 122 neuropsychiatric symptoms reported 56.6% (69) were mild and 43.4% (53)

Ladson Hinton; Darin Chambers; Alexandra Velásquez; Hector Gonzalez; Mary Haan

2006-01-01

177

Radiotherapy Does Not Influence the Severe Pulmonary Toxicity Observed With the Administration of Gemcitabine and Bleomycin in Patients With Advanced-Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treated With the BAGCOPP Regimen: A Report by the German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of radiotherapy on the severe pulmonary toxicity observed in the pilot study of BAGCOPP (bleomycin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone, and gemcitabine) for advanced-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. Methods and Materials: Patients with Stage III or IV Hodgkin's lymphoma or Stage IIB with risk factors participated in this single-arm, multicenter pilot study. Results: Twenty-seven patients were enrolled on the study before its premature closure as a result of the development of serious pulmonary toxicity in 8 patients. The pulmonary toxicity occurred either during or immediately after the BAGCOPP chemotherapy course. Pulmonary toxicity contributed to one early fatality but resolved in the other 7 patients after cessation of gemcitabine and bleomycin, allowing continuation of therapy. Fifteen patients received consolidative radiotherapy, including 4 who previously had pulmonary toxicity. There were no reported cases of radiation pneumonitis and no exacerbation of pulmonary symptoms in the 4 patients who had had previous pulmonary toxicity. Conclusions: The severe pulmonary toxicity observed in this study has been attributed to an interaction between gemcitabine and bleomycin. Gemcitabine (when administered without bleomycin) remains of interest in Hodgkin's lymphoma and is being incorporated into a new German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group protocol that also includes consolidative radiotherapy. This study supports the concept of the integration of radiotherapy in gemcitabine-containing regimens in Hodgkin's lymphoma if there is an interval of at least 4 weeks between the two modalities and with a schedule whereby radiotherapy follows the chemotherapy.

Macann, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland Regional Cancer and Blood Service, Auckland (New Zealand); Bredenfeld, Henning [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Mueller, Rolf-Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Diehl, Volker [German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group, Cologne (Germany); Engert, Andreas [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Eich, Hans Theodor [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)], E-mail: hans-theodor.eich@medizin.uni-koeln.de

2008-01-01

178

Traumatic Severity and Trait Resilience as Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depressive Symptoms among Adolescent Survivors of the Wenchuan Earthquake  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the associations between trauma severity, trait resilience, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms among adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake, China. Methods 788 participants were randomly selected from secondary schools in the counties of Wenchuan and Maoxian, the two areas most severely affected by the earthquake. Participants completed four main questionnaires including the Child PTSD Symptom Scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children, the Connor and Davidson’s Resilience Scale, and the Severity of Exposure to Earthquake Scale. Results After adjusting for the effect of age and gender, four aspects of trauma severity (i.e., direct exposure, indirect exposure, worry about others, and house damage) were positively associated with the severity of PTSD and depressive symptoms, whereas trait resilience was negatively associated with PTSD and depressive symptoms and moderated the relationship between subjective experience (i.e., worry about others) and PTSD and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Several aspects (i.e., direct exposure, indirect exposure, worry about others, and house damage) of earthquake experiences may be important risk factors for the development and maintenance of PTSD and depression. Additionally, trait resilience exhibits the beneficial impact on PTSD and depressive symptoms and buffers the effect of subjective experience (i.e., worry about others) on PTSD and depressive symptoms. PMID:24586751

Ying, Liuhua; Wu, Xinchun; Lin, Chongde; Jiang, Lina

2014-01-01

179

Pain Severity and Neuropathic Pain symptoms in primary Sjogren's syndrome: A comparison study of seropositive and seronegative Sjogren's syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare clinical characteristics and patient-reported outcomes in seropositive versus seronegative primary Sjogren’s syndrome patients (pSS) and to investigate the effect of serological status on the prevalence of chronic pain, comorbidity and health quality. Methods Pain severity and neuropathic pain symptoms, comorbidity and health status were assessed in 108 pSS patients. Differences between patient groups were assessed by t-test and chi-square tests and adjusted pain-affect associations. The effect of predictor variables on pain severity was examined with multivariate regression. Results Pain severity was greater (p=.003) and physical function (p=.023) reduced in the seronegative patients. Prevalence of neuropathic pain, depression, anxiety and disability were similar between groups. Chronic pain, defined as daily pain for greater than 3 months, was reported by 65% of seropositive (N=65) and 75% of seronegative patients (N=40). After adjustment for age, sleep quality and psychological distress, the difference in pain severity between seropositive and seronegative patients remained significant. Conclusion Chronic pain is pervasive in both seropositive and seronegative pSS patients, while pain severity and functional impairment is greater in seronegative patients. Neuropathic pain is equally prevalent and is the predominant pain phenotype in patients with moderate to severe pain. Accurate assessment of pain phenotypes is needed for more effective management of chronic pain in pSS. The focus of future research should be to standardize assessment of pain and to identify the factors contributing to more severe pain in seronegative patients. PMID:23335582

Segal, Barbara M.; Pogatchnik, Brian; Henn, Lisa; Rudser, Kyle; Sivils, Kathy Moser

2014-01-01

180

Association between severity of behavioral phenotype and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is sometimes comorbid with autism spectrum disorder. In the current study, we examined rates of parent-reported clinically significant symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in school-aged children (4–8 years) with autism spectrum disorder, most of whom were first enrolled in our research protocols as toddlers. Results revealed that children with autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had lower cognitive functioning, more severe social impairment, and greater delays in adaptive functioning than children with autism spectrum disorder only. Implications for clinical practice include the need to assess for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms at an early age in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Research is needed to determine efficacious interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to optimize outcomes. PMID:23739542

Rao, Patricia A; Landa, Rebecca J

2014-01-01

181

DISINFECTION EFFICIENCY AND RESIDUAL TOXICITY OF SEVERAL WASTEWATER DISINFECTANTS. VOLUME I. GRANDVILLE, MICHIGAN  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of chlorine, bromine chloride, and ozone as wastewater disinfectants, and to determine any residual toxicity associated with wastewater disinfection with these agents or with chlorinated wastewater which had been...

182

The relative toxicities of several pesticides to naiads of three species of stoneflies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static bioassays were conducted to determine the relative acute toxicities of some insecti- cides, herbicides, fungicides, a defoliant, and a molluscicide to the naiads of three species of stonefly, Pteronarcys californica, Pteronarcella badia, and Claassenia sabulosa. Toxic effects were measured by determination of median lethal concn (~~50) for 24-, 48-, and 96-hr exposures, at 15.X Endrin and dieldrin were the

HERMAN O. SANDERS; OLIVER B. COPE

1968-01-01

183

THE RELATIVE TOXICITIES OF SEVERAL PESTICIDES TO NAIADS OF THREE SPECIES OF STONEFLIES  

E-print Network

Static bioassays were conducted to determine the relative acute toxicities of some insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, a defoliant, and a molluscicide to the naiads of three species of stonefly, Pteronarcys californica, Pteronarcella badia, and Claassenia sabulosa. Toxic effects were measured by determination of median lethal concn (~~50) for 24-, 48-, and 96-hr exposures, at 15.X Endrin and dieldrin were the most and DDT the least toxic of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insccticidcs tested. Parathion was the most toxic organophosphate insecticide to P. californica naiads, but dmsban was the most toxic to P. badia and C. sabulosa naiads. Trichlorofon (Dipterex) was the least toxic to all three species. P. badia, the species of smallest size, was the species most susceptible to most pcsticidcs, followed in descending order of sensitivity by C. sabulosa and P. californica. Smaller specimens of P. californica naiads were consistently more susceptible to some insecticides than larger specimens of the same species. INTBODUCTION The Plecoptcra are well-represented in

Herman S; Oliver B. Cope

184

Severe Genitourinary Toxicity Following Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: How Long Does it Last?  

PubMed Central

Purpose Radiation therapy (RT) is a common treatment for localized prostate cancer, but long-term data regarding treatment- related toxicities compared to observation is sparse. In this study, we evaluate the time course of grade 2–4 genitourinary (GU) toxicities in men treated with either primary radiation or observation for T1-T2 prostate cancer. Methods and Materials We performed a population-based cohort study, using Medicare claims data linked to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data. Cumulative incidence functions for time to first GU event were computed based on the competing risks model, with death before any GU event as a competing event. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) method was used to evaluate the risk ratios of recurrent events. Results Among patients in this study, 60,134 received RT and 25,904 underwent observation. The adjusted risk ratio for GU toxicity is 2.49 (95% CI 2.00–3.11) for 10 years and beyond. Patients who had required prior procedures for obstruction/stricture (including TURP) before RT experienced a significantly increased risk of GU toxicities: risk ratio 2.78 (95% CI 2.56–2.94) Conclusions This study demonstrates that the increased risk of grade 2–4 GU toxicity attributable to RT persists 10 years and beyond after treatment. Patients who had required prior procedures for obstruction/stricture experienced a higher risk of GU toxicity than those without these pre-existing conditions. PMID:23164376

Kim, Sung; Moore, Dirk F.; Shih, Weichung; Lin, Yong; Li, Hui; Shao, Yu-Hsuan; Shen, Shunhua; Lu-Yao, Grace L.

2013-01-01

185

High noon back pain- severe pseudoradicular pain as a lead symptom of superficial siderosis: a case report  

PubMed Central

A superficial siderosis of the central nervous system following a traumatic cervical nerve root avulsion usually leads to gait difficulties and hearing loss, whereas back pain is described only rarely. Here we report on the first case with circadian occurrence of severe back pain as the only symptom of a superficial siderosis. We present a case with the most severe pseudoradicular lumbosacral pain occurring daily at noon for the past 5 weeks. The 48-year-old male white patient did not complain of pain in the morning. A traumatic root avulsion 26 years earlier led to a brachial plexus palsy and Horner’s syndrome in this patient. Superficial hemosiderosis in cranial MRI and examination of the cerebrospinal fluid revealing massive red blood cells as well as xanthochromia and elevated protein levels (742 mg/l) led to the diagnosis of a superficial siderosis. A pseudomeningocele caused by a cervical nerve root avulsion is described as a rare reason for superficial siderosis. Surgery on a pseudomeningocele, diagnosed by MRI, led to an immediate disappearance of complaints in our case. Regular neurological investigation and possibly repeated lumbar puncture to exclude superficial siderosis should be considered in cases with severe back pain and a history of traumatic root avulsion. Modern susceptibility weighted MR imaging (SWI) techniques, sensible to the detection of superficial hemosiderosis, might be helpful in the making of a diagnosis. PMID:25371709

Siglienti, Ines; Gold, Ralf; Schlamann, Marc; Hindy, Nicolai El; Sure, Ulrich; Forsting, Michael

2014-01-01

186

Fever, rash, and systemic symptoms: understanding the role of virus and HLA in severe cutaneous drug allergy.  

PubMed

Drug hypersensitivity syndromes such as abacavir hypersensitivity and the severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions have been associated with significant short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. More recently, these immunologically mediated and previously unpredictable diseases have been shown to be associated with primarily class I but also class II HLA alleles. The case of the association of HLA-B*57:01 and abacavir hypersensitivity has created a translational roadmap for how this knowledge can be used in the clinic to prevent severe reactions. Although many hurdles exist to the widespread translation of such HLA screening approaches, our understanding of how drugs interact with the major histocompatibility complex has contributed to the discovery of new models that have provided considerable insights into the immunopathogenesis of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions and other T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity syndromes. Future translation of this knowledge will facilitate the development of preclinical toxicity screening to significantly improve efficacy and safety of drug development and design. PMID:24565765

Pavlos, Rebecca; Mallal, Simon; Ostrov, David; Pompeu, Yuri; Phillips, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

187

The association of pain severity and pain interference levels with abuse experiences and mental health symptoms among 300 mothers: baseline data analysis for a 7-year prospective study.  

PubMed

Women who experience interpersonal violence are at increased risk for anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and chronic pain and other physical disorders. Although the effects of mental health disorders on women's functioning and well-being are well established, less is known about the effects of pain. We examined participants' (n = 300 mothers) experiences of pain severity and pain interference. Higher levels of pain severity and pain interference were significantly associated with anxiety, PTSD, and depression symptoms. Mental health symptoms compounded by pain, may leave abused women less able to access resources or practice safety behaviors to protect themselves and their children. PMID:23301564

Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith; Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John

2013-01-01

188

The role of anxiety sensitivity and lack of emotional approach coping in depressive symptom severity among a non-clinical sample of uncued panickers.  

PubMed

Panic attacks and depression frequently co-occur, and the presence of this co-morbidity is often associated with worse outcomes compared with each disorder alone. Despite this, not everyone who experiences panic attacks also suffers from depression, suggesting that individual difference factors may play a role in this co-morbidity. The purpose of this study was to provide a preliminary investigation of two such individual difference factors, examining the role of anxiety sensitivity and lack of emotional approach coping in depressive symptom severity among a non-clinical sample of uncued panickers. A sample of 79 college students reporting the occurrence of uncued panic attacks within the past year completed a series of questionnaires assessing the lower-order factors of anxiety sensitivity, emotional approach coping, panic attack frequency, panic-related disability, panic symptom severity and depressive symptom severity. Participants with more severe depressive symptoms reported greater anxiety sensitivity, panic attack frequency, panic symptom severity, panic-related disability and lack of emotional approach coping. The particular anxiety sensitivity dimension of fear of cognitive dyscontrol and lack of emotional approach coping emerged as the best predictors of depressive symptom severity. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the improved understanding of this co-morbidity, as well as its treatment. PMID:16754263

Tull, Matthew T; Gratz, Kim L; Lacroce, Donna M

2006-01-01

189

Toxic effects of several phthalate esters on the embryos and larvae of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the most widely used plasticizers in the world, phthalate esters (PAEs) are potential endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs). In the present study, the toxicity of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on embryogenesis and larvae development of the marine univalve Haliotis diversicolor supertexta was examined in laboratory. The results show that the malformation of embryos appeared during the experiment, such as embryos died or lysed, small transparent flocculent rings studded on the periphery of the embryo, and the larvae could failed to hatch. In embryo toxic test, embryos incubated at the highest concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions showed significantly high abnormal rate compared with the control, while DEHP solutions displayed no significant difference. In larval toxic test, in all concentrations of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions, larval settlement rates were low significantly than that of the control. Similarly, DEHP solutions show nearly no effect on the larval settlement. The order of toxicity on embryos and larvae is DBP>DEP>DMP>DEHP. Being a simple and easy stimulation to indoor spawn, sensitive to environmental factors, and short culture time, the embryos of H. diversicolor supertexta can be used to indicate toxicity of the PAEs.

Yang, Zhihui; Zhang, Xiangjing; Cai, Zhonghua

2009-05-01

190

A Comparison of Symptom Severity and Bolus Retention to Chicago Classification Esophageal Pressure Topography Metrics in Patients with Achalasia  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims We compared findings from timed barium esophagrams (TBEs) and esophageal pressure topography (EPT) studies among achalasia subtypes and in relation to symptom severity. Method We analyzed data from 50 patients with achalasia (31 male, 20–79 years old) who underwent high-resolution manometry (HRM), had TBE following a 200ml barium swallow, and completed questionnaires that determine Eckardt Scores (ES). Twenty-five were not treated and 25 were treated (11 by pneumatic dilation, 14 by myotomy). Non-parametric testing was used to assess differences among groups of treated patients (10 had type-1 achalasia and 15 had type-2 achalasia), and the Pearson correlation was used to assess their relationship. Results There were no significant differences in TBE measurements between patient groups. Of the 25 patients who received treatment, 10 had a manometric pattern consistent with persistent achalasia after treatment (6 with type 1 and 4 with type 2 achalasia), whereas 15 appeared to have resolved the achalasia pattern (peristalsis was absent in 8 and weak in 7). The height of the barium column at 5 minutes and ES were significantly reduced in patients that had resolved their achalasia pattern, based on HRM. The integrated relaxation pressure (IRP) and the TBE column height correlated at 5 minutes (r=0.422; p<0.05). Discussion Patients that resolve their achalasia pattern, based on HRM, demonstrated improved emptying based on TBE measurements and improved symptom scores. There was no significant difference between patients with type-1 or 2 achalasia in TBEs. These findings indicate that normalization of the IRP on HRM is a clinically relevant objective of treatment for achalasia. PMID:23078890

Nicodeme, Frederic; de Ruigh, Annemijn; Xiao, Yinglian; Rajeswaran, Shankar; Teitelbaum, Ezra N.; Hungness, Eric S.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Pandolfino, John E.

2012-01-01

191

Self-perceived symptoms and care needs of patients with severe to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure or chronic renal failure and its consequences for their closest relatives: the research protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent research shows that the prevalence of patients with very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure (CHF) and chronic renal failure (CRF) continues to rise over the next years. Scientific studies concerning self-perceived symptoms and care needs in patients with severe to very severe COPD, CHF and CRF are scarce. Consequently, it will be difficult to

Daisy JA Janssen; Emiel FM Wouters; Jos MGA Schols; Martijn A Spruit

2008-01-01

192

Toxicity of the herbicide glyphosate and several of its formulations to fish and aquatic invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were initiated to determine the acute toxicity of technical grade glyphosate (MON0573), the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate (MON0139), the formulated herbicide Roundup® (MON02139), and the Roundup® surfactant (MON0818) to four aquatic invertebrates and four fishes: daphnids (Daphnia magna), scuds (Gammarus pseudolimnaeus), midge larvae (Chironomous plumosus), mayfly nymphs (Ephemerella walkeri), Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), channel catfish

L. C. Folmar; H. O. Sanders; A. M. Julin

1979-01-01

193

A longitudinal study of several potential mediators of the relationship between child maltreatment and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.  

PubMed

Child maltreatment is a reliable predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, not all maltreated children develop PTSD symptoms, suggesting that additional mediating variables explain how certain maltreated children develop PTSD symptoms and others do not. The current study tested three potential mediators of the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent PTSD symptoms: (a) respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity, (b) cortisol reactivity, and (c) experiential avoidance, or the unwillingness to experience painful private events, such as thoughts and memories. Maltreated (n = 51) and nonmaltreated groups (n = 59) completed a stressor paradigm, a measure of experiential avoidance, and a semistructured interview of PTSD symptoms. One year later, participants were readministered the PTSD symptoms interview. Results of a multiple mediator model showed the set of potential mediators mediated the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent PTSD symptoms. However, experiential avoidance was the only significant, specific indirect effect, demonstrating that maltreated children avoiding painful private events after the abuse were more likely to develop a range of PTSD symptoms 1 year later. These results highlight the importance of experiential avoidance in the development of PTSD symptoms for maltreated children, and implications for secondary prevention and clinical intervention models are discussed. PMID:24444173

Shenk, Chad E; Putnam, Frank W; Rausch, Joseph R; Peugh, James L; Noll, Jennie G

2014-02-01

194

Prediction of psychosis onset in Alzheimer disease: the role of depression symptom severity and the HTR2A T102C polymorphism.  

PubMed

Psychotic symptoms in Alzheimer disease (AD + P) identify a heritable phenotype associated with a more severe course. We recently found an association of AD + P with depression symptom severity. Reports have shown an association of a serotonin-2A receptor (HTR2A) gene T102C polymorphism with AD + P and with depression during AD. We examined the interaction of this common genetic polymorphism with depression and increased psychosis risk. Subjects with possible or probable AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) without psychosis at study entry were genotyped for the HTR2A T102C polymorphism and reassessed every 6 months until psychosis onset. Psychotic and depressive symptoms were rated using the CERAD behavioral rating scale (CBRS). Cox proportional hazard models with time-dependent covariates were used to examine associations with psychosis onset. A total of 324 Caucasian subjects completed at least one follow-up exam. Depressive symptom severity was a strong predictor of psychosis onset. Neither psychosis onset nor depression severity was associated with the HTR2A genotype. Genotype interacted with depression severity to moderate the risk of AD + P onset. This did not result from an interaction of HTR2A genotype with antidepressant use. Psychosis onset in AD is strongly associated with severity of depressive symptoms, an association that may be modified by HTR2A genotype. PMID:17525976

Wilkosz, Patricia A; Kodavali, Chowdari; Weamer, Elise A; Miyahara, Sachiko; Lopez, Oscar L; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; DeKosky, Steven T; Sweet, Robert A

2007-12-01

195

Prediction of Psychosis Onset in Alzheimer Disease: The Role of Depression Symptom Severity and the HTR2A T102C Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

Background Psychotic symptoms in Alzheimer Disease (AD+P) identify a heritable phenotype associated with a more severe course. We recently found an association of AD+P with depression symptom severity. Reports have shown an association of a serotonin-2A receptor (HTR2A) gene T102C polymorphism with AD+P and with depression during AD. We examined the interaction of this common genetic polymorphism with depression and increased psychosis risk. Methods Subjects with possible or probable AD or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) without psychosis at study entry were genotyped for the HTR2A T102C polymorphism and reassessed every 6 months until psychosis onset. Psychotic and depressive symptoms were rated using the CERAD Behavioral Rating Scale (CBRS). Cox proportional hazard models with time dependent covariates were used to examine associations with psychosis onset. Results A total of 324 Caucasian subjects completed at least one follow-up exam. Depressive symptom severity was a strong predictor of psychosis onset. Neither psychosis onset nor depression severity was associated with the HTR2A genotype. Genotype interacted with depression severity to moderate the risk of AD+P onset. This did not result from an interaction of HTR2A genotype with antidepressant use. Conclusion Psychosis onset in AD is strongly associated with severity of depressive symptoms, an association that may be modified by HTR2A genotype. PMID:17525976

Wilkosz, Patricia A.; Kodavali, Chowdari; Weamer, Elise A.; Miyahara, Sachiko; Lopez, Oscar L.; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.; DeKosky, Steven T.; Sweet, Robert A.

2009-01-01

196

The Toxicity of Glyphosate and Several Glyphosate Formulations to Four Species of Southwestern Australian Frogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The acute toxicity of technical-grade glyphosate acid, glyphosate isopropylamine, and three glyphosate formulations was\\u000a determined for adults of one species and tadpoles of four species of southwestern Australian frogs in 48-h static\\/renewal\\u000a tests. The 48-h LC50 values for Roundup? Herbicide (MON 2139) tested against tadpoles of Crinia insignifera, Heleioporus eyrei, Limnodynastes dorsalis, and Litoria moorei ranged between 8.1 and

R. M. Mann; J. R. Bidwell

1999-01-01

197

Measuring the prevalence of current, severe symptoms of mental health problems in a canadian correctional population: implications for delivery of mental health services for inmates.  

PubMed

This study measured the prevalence of current, severe symptoms of a mental health problem in an adult population of inmates in Ontario, Canada. The Resident Assessment Instrument-Mental Health was used to measure the prevalence of symptoms among a sample of 522 inmates. Propensity score weighting was used to adjust for nonrandom selection into the sample. Prevalence estimates were derived for the total inmate population, remand and sentenced, males and females, and Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal inmates. It is estimated that 41.1% of Ontario inmates will have at least one current, severe symptom of a mental health problem; of this group, 13.0%, will evidence two or more symptoms. The number of symptoms is strongly associated with presence of a psychiatric diagnosis and level of mental health care needs. Female (35.1%) and Aboriginal (18.7%) inmates are more likely to demonstrate two or more current, severe symptoms. Greater efforts must be made to bridge the gap between correctional and mental health care systems to ensure inmates in correctional facilities can access and receive appropriate mental health care services. PMID:24146355

Brown, Gregory P; Hirdes, John P; Fries, Brant E

2015-01-01

198

From sub cellular to community level: toxicity of glutaraldehyde to several aquatic organisms.  

PubMed

The biocide glutaraldehyde (GA) is widely used as a disinfectant and sterilizing agent against bacteria and virus in hospital and veterinary facilities. GA or its metabolites may reach aquatic ecosystems due to incomplete or inadequate treatment of wastewaters. Data about GA effects at lethal and a sub lethal level to non-target organisms is needed so that a risk assessment to aquatic ecosystems can be done. Thus, in this work a battery of toxicity tests with primary producers, primary consumers and secondary consumers were performed and a species sensitive distribution (SSD) for GA was built. Moreover, effects on biomarkers (catalase, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione-S-transferase, and cholinesterase) were measured in Danio rerio embryos and adults. Primary consumers (Thamnocephalus platyurus 24h - EC50=3.6 mg/l; Daphnia magna 48 h - EC50=6.6 mg/l) and D. rerio adults (96 h - LC50=5.5mg/l) were slightly more sensitive to GA than D. rerio embryos (96 h - LC50=22.2mg/l) and primary producers (Lemna minor 168 h - EC50=73.8 mg/l; Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata 72h - EC50=12.3mg/l; Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 72 h - EC50=14.6 mg/l; Chlorella vulgaris 72 h - EC50=31.3mg/l). However, no significant differences between the trophic levels were found and general HC5 and HC50 values of 0.6 and 11.4 mg/l were respectively estimated. Despite the low GA toxicity to D. rerio embryos, hatching delay and malformations were found (96 h - EC50=11.9 mg/l). For biomarkers, an inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase activity was observed in embryos whereas an inhibition in catalase, lactate dehydrogenase and glutathione-S-transferase activities was observed in adults. Thus, GA is moderately toxic (doses>1mg/l) to aquatic organisms, independently of the trophic level. However, considering the varied range of effects depending on the life stage and organism tested and relatively low HC5 value of 0.6 mg/l, mesocosm and chronic toxicity tests seem to be the next step in direction of more realistic scenarios of GA risk assessment in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24131562

Pereira, Susana P P; Oliveira, Rhaul; Coelho, Sónia; Musso, Carolina; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Domingues, Inês; Nogueira, António J A

2014-02-01

199

Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale-PTPB Version (BMSLSS-PTPB): psychometric properties and relationship with mental health symptom severity over time.  

PubMed

Youth life satisfaction is a component of subjective well-being, an important part of a strengths-based approach to treatment. This study establishes the psychometric properties of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale-PTPB Version (BMSLSS-PTPB). The BMSLSS-PTPB showed evidence of construct validity with significant correlations as expected to measures of youth hope and youth symptom severity, and no relationship as expected to youth treatment outcome expectations. A longitudinal analysis was conducted examining the relationship between youth-reported life satisfaction and mental health symptom severity (youth-, caregiver-, and clinician-report) for 334 youth (aged 11-18 years) receiving in-home treatment. Results indicated that life satisfaction consistently increased over the course of treatment but increased faster in youth whose symptom severity, as rated by all reporters, decreased over the course of treatment. Implications, future directions, and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:22407553

Athay, M Michele; Kelley, Susan Douglas; Dew-Reeves, Sarah E

2012-03-01

200

Factors relating to the severity of symptoms at 5 yrs in children with severe wheeze in the first 2 yrs of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheezing in early childhood covers a wide spectrum of morbidity. Since little is known about the factors determining either the pattern or the seve- rity of this range of symptoms, 51 children, admitted to hospital with acute wheeze in the first 2 yrs of life, were monitored prospectively between the ages of 4.5-5.5 yrs. Our hypothesis was that the predictors

N. M. Wilson; C. J. Doré; M. Silverman

1997-01-01

201

Protection against adriamycin (doxorubicin)-induced toxicity in mice by several clinically used drugs.  

PubMed

Protective effects of clinically used drugs against adriamycin (ADM)-induced toxicity were studied in ICR mice. The control mice, which were administered 15 mg/kg of ADM twice, survived 7.48 +/- 1.99 days (mean +/- S.D.). The survival times of mice treated with the following drugs, expressed as a percent of that of the control group, were 293.6% for coenzyme Q10 (Co Q10, 2 mg/kg), 402.2% for dextran sulfate (MDS, 300 mg/kg), 121.6% for flavin adenine dinucleotide (20 mg/kg), 236.3% for adenosine triphosphate disodium (50 mg/kg), 213.7% for reduced glutathione (100 mg/kg), 121.6% for phytonadione (50 mg/kg), 155.2% for inositol nicotinate (Ino-N, 500 mg/kg), 335.5% for nicomol (1000 mg/kg), 157.5% for nicardipine (10 mg/kg) and 123.3% for dipyridamol (50 mg/kg). Anti-hyperlipemic agents such as MDS, nicomol, Ino-N and Co Q10 strongly protected against the ADM-induced toxicity, and the mice administered these drugs lived significantly longer than the control mice. The mechanism of the protective effect was discussed. PMID:2436440

Shinozawa, S; Gomita, Y; Araki, Y

1987-02-01

202

Moderate-dose cyclophosphamide for severe aplastic anemia has significant toxicity and does not prevent relapse and clonal evolution.  

PubMed

First-line therapy of severe aplastic anemia (SAA) with high-dose cyclophosphamide causes toxicity and increased short-term mortality. We investigated cyclophosphamide at a lower, more moderate dose in combination with aggressive supportive care to determine whether severe infections might be avoided and hematologic outcomes defined for this regimen. From 2010 to 2012, 22 patients received cyclophosphamide at 120 mg/kg plus cyclosporine and antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal prophylaxis. Toxicity was considerable, mainly due to prolonged absolute neutropenia, which occurred regardless of pretherapy blood counts, and persisted an average of 2 months. Granulocyte transfusions for uncontrolled infection were required in 5 patients, confirmed fungal infections were documented in 6, and 9 patients died. Nine patients (41%) responded at 6 months. After a median follow-up of 2.2 years, relapse occurred in 2 patients, and cytogenetic abnormalities (including monosomy 7) were observed in 4 patients. Although cyclophosphamide has activity in SAA, its toxicity is not justified when far less dangerous alternatives are available. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01193283. PMID:25185712

Scheinberg, Phillip; Townsley, Danielle; Dumitriu, Bogdan; Scheinberg, Priscila; Weinstein, Barbara; Daphtary, Maithili; Rios, Olga; Wu, Colin O; Young, Neal S

2014-10-30

203

Benzonatate Toxicity in a Teenager Resulting in Coma, Seizures, and Severe Metabolic Acidosis  

PubMed Central

We report a benzonatate overdose in a teenager resulting in life-threatening toxicity to increase awareness of this overdose, and discuss recent pediatric warnings and labeling information provided by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). After an overdose of benzonatate, a 13-yr-old female presented to our emergency department with coma, seizures, hypotension, prolonged QT interval on electrocardiogram, and metabolic acidosis. Benzonatate is an antitussive medication with sodium channel-blocking properties and local anesthetic effects on the respiratory stretch receptors due to a tetracaine-like metabolite. Overdose is reported to cause coma, seizures, hypotension, tachycardia, ventricular dysrhythmias, and cardiac arrest. The FDA recently issued a Drug Safety Communication warning that accidental benzonatate ingestion in children younger than 10 years of age have increased risk of death and added the new information to the Warnings and Precautions section of benzonatate's label. PMID:23258970

Thimann, Daniel A.; Huang, Craig J.; Goto, Collin S.; Feng, Sing-Yi

2012-01-01

204

Effects of several variables on whole effluent toxicity test performance and interpretation  

SciTech Connect

Protocol changes and options contained within US Environmental Protection Agency whole effluent toxicity tests represent variables that have the potential to affect bioassay performance and interpretation of results. Variables evaluated in this study include: the change in allowable age in the Pimephales promelas acute bioassay from up to 90 d to a maximum of 14 d, age-specific acute responses of P. promelas among the allowable ages of 1 to 14 d, change in the chronic growth endpoint definition from final mass to biomass, differences between hemacytometer and fluorometer measurements in the Selenastrum capricornutum protocol, and options for statistical interpretation of species sensitivity in multiple test/species screening bioassays. Clear age-related sensitivity and precision differences were observed in acute responses of P. promelas. Results obtained using the younger age classes were typically more variable in studies of both 1- to 14-d-old and 14- to 90-d-old P. promelas. In the experiments on 1- to 14-d-old organisms, larvae at 1 d of age were significantly less sensitive. In the tests on 14- to 90-d-old organisms, the 14-d-old organisms were significantly less sensitive. The change in endpoint definition in the P. promelas chronic bioassay resulted in an apparent increase in toxic response in the inhibition concentration (ICp) value for each bioassay, evaluated by the biomass method, with no general improvement in statistical interest precision estimates and no predictable impact on the no-observed-effect concentration endpoint. Fluorometric scoring in the Selenastrum bioassay was significantly more precise and better capable of estimating counts than hemacytometer measurements. Discrepancies associated with commonly used statistical endpoints used to determine the most sensitive species were identified, and potential solutions were proposed.

Markle, P.J.; Gully, J.R.; Baird, R.B.; Nakada, K.M.; Bottomley, J.P.

2000-01-01

205

The effect of preoperative symptom severity on functional outcome of total knee replacement—patients with the lowest preoperative scores achieve the lowest marks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if the functional outcome of total knee replacement (TKR) was affected by the level of preoperative symptom severity, the association between preoperative Oxford Knee Scores (OKS), and 2 year OKS, American Knee Society clinical and function scores (AKSS) was assessed. Data were prospectively collected on 45 cases who had single joint osteoarthritis and no other comorbidities. We have

J. T. K. Lim; K. L. Luscombe; P. W. Jones; S. H. White

2006-01-01

206

Severe congestive heart failure as the main symptom of eosinophilic granulomatosis and polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome).  

PubMed

Patients with cardiovascular symptoms are mainly diagnosed in cardiological wards. However, sometimes the other reasons for acute coronary syndrome and heart failure are found. One of such reasons is hypereosinophilia which can be recognized if number of blood eosinophils exceeds 1500/mm3. High eosinophilia is connected with production of cytotoxic eosinophilic proteins which can cause eosinophilic vasculitis or eosinophilic myocarditis. One of the better known hypereosinophilic syndromes is EGPA described by the pathomorphologists Churg and Strauss. The further research works allowed for the clinical characteristics of patients with EGPA. In the course of this disease the following three phases were recognized : prodromal-allergic, eosinophilic, vasculitic. The definitive diagnosis can be established only in the third phase, when vasculitis causes organ involvement. Besides symptoms of the respiratory tract (asthma, nasal polyps, eosinophilic lung infiltrations) also cardiovascular symptoms, gastrointestinal tract symptoms, as well as skin lesions and kidneys involvement can appear. The most dangerous for patients is involvement of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. We present a patient with asthma and eosinophilia in whom EGPA was diagnosed in the course of acute recurrent substernal chest pain, with subsequent signs of cardiac insufficiency. PMID:25339570

Za??ska, Jolanta; Wiatr, El?bieta; Zych, Jacek; Szopi?ski, Janusz; Oniszh, Karina; Kober, Jaros?aw; Piotrowska-Kownacka, Dorota; Roszkowski-?li?, Kazimierz

2014-01-01

207

Magnitutde and Characterization of Toxicity in Sediments from Several Ukrainian Estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

During the Soviet era, Ukraine was one of the most important industrial and agricultural regions of the Soviet Union. A consequence of this industrial and agricultural activity was the contamination of several areas of the country, including the estuaries, with pollutants includ...

208

[Spasmodic torticollis, substantiating Manto syndrome, of possible toxic aethiology, with alterations of brainstem acoustic evoked potentials (BAEPs). Treatment with L-5-hydroxytryptophan. Follow up of 18 months, during which high degree resolution of symptoms and normalization of BAEPs took place].  

PubMed

A case of very severe spasmodic torticollis observed for 18 months is presented and discussed. Head was so rotated that permitted only backward seeing and compressed brachial plexus between scaleni muscles with sensory, motor and trophic troubles in the hand. A toxic aethiology from parathion is likely. Brainstem Acoustic Evoked Potentials (BAEPs) showed in the beginning abnormal responses, especially as refers to waves originating in the mesencephalon. Therapy with L-5-hydroxytryptophan subdued neurological symptoms; a parallel normalization of BAEPs recording was observed. The Authors propose to call this syndrome (spasmodic torticollis with thoracic outlet syndrome) after the mythical diviner Manto, which Dante Alighieri refers to in his "Divina Commedia" (Inferno, XX, 55 e segg.). PMID:6985243

Disertori, B; Ducati, A; Piazza, M

1982-01-01

209

Effectiveness of combined high-dosed trospium and solifenacin depending on severity of OAB symptoms in elderly men and women under cyclic therapy  

PubMed Central

Material and methods 313 patients, 196 women and 117 men over 65 (average age 68.6) were included in this study. All patients underwent urodynamic examination before enrollment and after the study was completed. For clinical evaluation of LUT state ICIQ-SF questionnaires and bladder diaries were used. Patients with moderate (?, n = 155) and severe (?, n = 158) symptoms of OAB. Each group was divided into subgroups in which patients received Trospium 60 mg/day and Solifenacin 20 mg/day during two cycles – 1.5 and 1 month with one month interval (?1 and ?1); subgroups in which second cycle was substituted with placebo (?2, ?2), and control groups (?3, ?3). Results In groups with moderate symptoms of OAB ratio of patients demonstrated decrease of frequency of EI ?1.5 a day remained at the level of 45-60% during all observation period. In subgroups with severe symptoms of OAB percentage of such patients was 55.3% for the subgroup which received two cycle therapy, and decreased to 26% in the subgroup which underwent 1 cycle therapy. Urodynamic indices for state of LUT correlated with clinical indicators (r =0.57-0.71 at p? 0.05). Conclusions Short single cycle of high-dosed Solifenacin and Trospium in elderly patients with moderate symptoms of OAB enables to maintain long therapeutic effect with acceptable level of side effects. This treatment algorithm applied in two cycle course is an effective and safe method for management of severe symptoms of OAB in elderly patients without increased risk of side effects. PMID:24982780

Loparev, Sergey; Iwanowskaya, Marina; Kosilova, Liliya

2014-01-01

210

Toxicity of a glufosinate- and several glyphosate-based herbicides to juvenile amphibians from the Southern High Plains, USA.  

PubMed

Pesticide toxicity is often proposed as a contributing factor to the world-wide decline of amphibian populations. We assessed acute toxicity (48 h) of a glufosinate-based herbicide (Ignite 280 SL) and several glyphosate-based herbicide formulations (Roundup WeatherMAX, Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Super Concentrate, Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Ready-To-Use Plus on two species of amphibians housed on soil or moist paper towels. Survival of juvenile Great Plains toads (Bufo cognatus) and New Mexico spadefoots (Spea multiplicata) was reduced by exposure to Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Ready-To-Use Plus on both substrates. Great Plains toad survival was also reduced by exposure to Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Super Concentrate on paper towels. New Mexico spadefoot and Great Plains toad survival was not affected by exposure to the two agricultural herbicides (Roundup WeatherMAX and Ignite 280 SL) on either substrate, suggesting that these herbicides likely do not pose an immediate risk to these species under field conditions. PMID:19000631

Dinehart, Simon K; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T; Anderson, Todd A; Smith, Philip N; Haukos, David A

2009-01-15

211

The 2010 American college of rheumatology fibromyalgia survey diagnostic criteria and symptom severity scale is a valid and reliable tool in a French speaking fibromyalgia cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a pain condition with associated symptoms contributing to distress. The Fibromyalgia Survey Diagnostic Criteria and Severity Scale (FSDC) is a patient-administered questionnaire assessing diagnosis and symptom severity. Locations of body pain measured by the Widespread Pain Index (WPI), and the Symptom Severity scale (SS) measuring fatigue, unrefreshing sleep, cognitive and somatic complaints provide a score (0–31), measuring a composite of polysymptomatic distress. The reliability and validity of the translated French version of the FSDC was evaluated. Methods The French FSDC was administered twice to 73 FM patients, and was correlated with measures of symptom status including: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), and a visual analogue scale (VAS) for global severity and pain. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity were evaluated. Results Test-retest reliability was between .600 and .888 for the 25 single items of the FSDC, and .912 for the total FSDC, with all correlations significant (p?

2012-01-01

212

The Impact of Pretreatment Prostate Volume on Severe Acute Genitourinary Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the impact of pretreatment prostate volume on the development of severe acute genitourinary toxicity in patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2007, a consecutive sample of 214 patients who underwent IMRT (75.6 Gy) for prostate cancer at two referral centers was analyzed. Prostate volumes were obtained from computed tomography scans taken during treatment simulation. Genitourinary toxicity was defined using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 3.0 guidelines. Acute toxicity was defined as any toxicity originating within 90 days of the completion of radiation therapy. Patients were characterized as having a small or large prostate depending on whether their prostate volume was less than or greater than 50 cm{sup 3}, respectively. Genitourinary toxicity was compared in these groups using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to further assess the impact of prostate volume on severe (Grade 3) acute genitourinary toxicity. Results: Patients with large prostates (>50 cm{sup 3}) had a higher rate of acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity (p = .02). Prostate volume was predictive of the likelihood of developing acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity on bivariate (p = .004) and multivariate (p = .006) logistic regression. Every 27.0 cm{sup 3} increase in prostate volume doubled the likelihood of acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity. Conclusions: Patients with larger prostates are at higher risk for the development of severe acute genitourinary toxicity when treated with IMRT for prostate cancer.

Aizer, Ayal A., E-mail: Ayal.Aizer@yale.ed [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Anderson, Nicole S.; Oh, Steven C.; Yu, James B.; McKeon, Anne M.; Decker, Roy H.; Peschel, Richard E. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

2011-02-01

213

The relationship between severity of Alzheimer's disease and prevalence of comorbid depressive symptoms and depression: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY OBJECTIVES To gain more insight into the association between severity of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and prevalence of comborbid depression. METHODS A systematic literature review based on the Cochrane methodology was performed. PubMed, PsychINFO and EMBASE databases were searched for existing studies that fulfilled predefined inclusion criteria. The studies were divided into: (1) those that analysed the association between severity

Renate Verkaik; Jasper Nuyen; François Schellevis; Anneke Francke

2007-01-01

214

Synovial pathology detected on ultrasound correlates with the severity of radiographic knee osteoarthritis more than with symptoms  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective To [1] compare the frequency and severity of ultrasound (US) features in people with normal knees (controls), knee pain (KP), asymptomatic radiographic OA (ROA), and symptomatic OA (SROA), [2] examine relationships between US features, pain and radiographic severity, [3] explore the relationship between change in pain and US features over a 3-month period. Method Community participants were recruited into a multiple group case–control study. All underwent assessment for pain, knee radiographs and US examination for effusion, synovial hypertrophy, popliteal cysts and power Doppler (PD) signal within the synovium. A 3-month follow-up was undertaken in over half of control and SROA participants. Results 243 participants were recruited (90 controls; 59 KP; 32 ROA; 62 SROA). Effusion and synovial hypertrophy were more common in ROA and SROA participants. Severity of effusion and synovial hypertrophy were greater in SROA compared to ROA (P < 0.05). Severity of US effusion and synovial hypertrophy were correlated with radiographic severity (r = 0.6 and r = 0.7, P < 0.01) but the relationship between pain severity and US features was weak (r = 0.3, P < 0.01). In SROA participants, pain severity did not change in tandem with a change in synovial hypertrophy over time. Conclusion US abnormalities are common in OA. Effusion and synovial hypertrophy were moderately correlated with radiographic severity but the relationship with pain is less strong. The degree to which these features reflect “active inflammation” is questionable and they may be better considered as part of the total organ pathology in OA. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:25278071

Hall, M.; Doherty, S.; Courtney, P.; Latief, K.; Zhang, W.; Doherty, M.

2014-01-01

215

Reduction of leaf area and symptom severity as proxies of disease-induced plant mortality: the example of the Cauliflower mosaic virus infecting two Brassicaceae hosts.  

PubMed

Disease induced effects on host survival are important to understand the evolution of parasitic virulence and host resistance/tolerance. Unfortunately, experiments evaluating such effects are in most cases logistically demanding justifying the measurement of survival proxies. For plant hosts commonly used proxies are leaf area and the nature and severity of visual qualitative disease symptoms. In this study we tested whether these traits are indeed correlated to the host mortality rate induced by viral infection. We infected Brassica rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana plants with different natural isolates of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and estimated over time the development of symptoms and the relative reduction of leaf area compared to healthy plants and followed plant mortality. We observed that the mortality of infected plants was correlated with the relative reduction of leaf area of both B. rapa and A. thaliana. Measures of mortality were also correlated with the severity of visual qualitative symptoms but the magnitude of the correlations and the time frame at which they were significant depended on the host plant: stronger and earlier correlations were observed on A. thaliana. PMID:23742852

Doumayrou, Juliette; Leblaye, Sophie; Froissart, Rémy; Michalakis, Yannis

2013-09-01

216

Acute genitourinary toxicity after high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer: Second analysis to determine the correlation between the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy and the severity of acute genitourinary toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We have been treating localized prostate cancer with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) at our institution. We recently reported the existence of a correlation between the severity of acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity and the urethral radiation dose in HDR brachytherapy by using different fractionation schema. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the urethral dose in the development of acute GU toxicity more closely than in previous studies. For this purpose, we conducted an analysis of patients who had undergone HDR brachytherapy with a fixed fractionation schema combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Methods and Materials: Among the patients with localized prostate cancer who were treated by 192-iridium HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT at Gunma University Hospital between August 2000 and November 2004, we analyzed 67 patients who were treated by HDR brachytherapy with the fractionation schema of 9 Gy x two times combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Hypofractionated EBRT was administered at a fraction dose of 3 Gy three times weekly, and a total dose of 51 Gy was delivered to the prostate gland and seminal vesicles using the four-field technique. No elective pelvic irradiation was performed. After the completion of EBRT, all the patients additionally received transrectal ultrasonography-guided HDR brachytherapy. The planning target volume was defined as the prostate gland with a 5-mm margin all around, and the planning was conducted based on computed tomography images. The tumor stage was T1c in 13 patients, T2 in 31 patients, and T3 in 23 patients. The Gleason score was 2-6 in 12 patients, 7 in 34 patients, and 8-10 in 21 patients. Androgen ablation was performed in all the patients. The median follow-up duration was 11 months (range 3-24 months). The toxicities were graded based on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: The main symptoms of acute GU toxicity were dysuria and increase in the urinary frequency or nocturia. The grade distribution of acute GU toxicity in the patients was as follows: Grade 0-1, 42 patients (63%); Grade 2-3, 25 patients (37%). The urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy was determined using the following dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters: V30 (percentage of the urethral volume receiving 30% of the prescribed radiation dose), V80, V90, V100, V110, V120, V130, and V150. In addition, the D5 (dose covering 5% of the urethral volume), D10, D20, and D50 of the urethra were also estimated. The V30-V150 values in the patients with Grade 2-3 acute GU toxicity were significantly higher than those in patients with Grade 0-1 toxicity. The D10 and D20, but not D5 and D50, values were also significantly higher in the patients with Grade 2-3 acute GU toxicity than in those with Grade 0-1 toxicity. Regarding the influence of the number of needles implanted, there was no correlation between the number of needles implanted and the severity of acute GU toxicity or the V30-V150 values and D5-D50 values. Conclusions: It was concluded that HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT is feasible for localized prostate cancer, when considered from the viewpoint of acute toxicity. However, because the urethral dose was closely associated with the grade of severity of the acute GU toxicity, the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy must be kept low to reduce the severity of acute GU toxicity.

Akimoto, Tetsuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)]. E-mail: takimoto@showa.gunma-u.ac.jp; Katoh, Hiroyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Noda, Shin-ei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Ito, Kazuto [Department of Urology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Yamamoto, Takumi [Department of Urology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Kashiwagi, Bunzo [Department of Urology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)

2005-10-01

217

Lack of Correlation between Severity of Clinical Symptoms, Skin Test Reactivity, and Radioallergosorbent Test Results in Venom-Allergic Patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose To retrospectively examine the relation between skin test reactivity, venom-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody levels, and severity of clinical reaction in patients with insect venom allergy. Method Thirty-six patients (including 15 females) who presented with a history of allergic reactions to insect stings were assessed. The mean age at the time of the reactions was 33.4 ± 15.1 years (range, 4-76 years), and patients were evaluated 43.6 ± 90 months (range, 1-300 months) after the reactions. Clinical reactions were scored according to severity, from 1 (cutaneous manifestations only) to 3 (anaphylaxis with shock). These scores were compared to scores for skin test reactivity (0 to 5, indicating the log increase in sensitivity from 1 ?g/mL to 0.0001 ?g/mL) and radioallergosorbent test (RAST) levels (0 to 4, indicating venom-specific IgE levels, from undetectable to >17.5 kilounits of antigen per litre [kUA/L]). Results No correlation was found between skin test reactivity (Spearman's coefficient = 0.15, p = .377) or RAST level (Spearman's coefficient = 0.32, p = .061) and the severity of reaction. Skin test and RAST scores both differed significantly from clinical severity (p < .05), but there was a significant correlation between skin test reactivity and RAST score (p = .042). There was no correlation between skin test reactivity and time since reaction (Spearman's coefficient = 0.18, p = .294) nor between RAST and time since reaction (r = 0.1353, p = .438). Elimination of patients tested more than 12 months after their reaction still produced no correlation between skin test reactivity (p = .681) or RAST score (p = .183) and the severity of the clinical reaction. Conclusion In venom-allergic patients (in contrast to reported findings in cases of inhalant IgE-mediated allergy), there appears to be no significant correlation between the degree of skin test reactivity or levels of venom-specific IgE (determined by RAST) and the severity of the clinical reaction. PMID:20525158

2006-01-01

218

The Quality of Spousal Social Support as a Moderator of the Associations Between Child Maltreatment Severity and Adult Trauma Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child maltreatment has been linked to a myriad of long-term difficulties, including trauma symptomatology. However, not all victims experience long-term distress. Thus, a burgeoning area of research focuses on factors that may impede or facilitate resiliency to the psychological correlates of child maltreatment. Specifically, the severity of the abusive acts may be associated with greater long-term difficulties. To date, however,

Sarah E Evans

2010-01-01

219

History of interpersonal violence, abuse, and nonvictimization trauma and severity of psychiatric symptoms among children in outpatient psychiatric treatment.  

PubMed

In a clinical sample of child psychiatry outpatients, chart review data were collected for 114 consecutive admissions over a 1-year period at a Child and Adolescent Outpatient Psychiatry Clinic. Data included history of documented maltreatment, potentially traumatic domestic or community violence, neglect or emotional abuse, and noninterpersonal stressors as well as demographics, psychiatric diagnoses, and parent-rated child emotional and disruptive behavior problems. On a bivariate and multivariate basis, any past exposure to interpersonal violence-but not to noninterpersonal traumas-was related to more severe disruptive behavior problems, independent of the effects of demographics and psychiatric diagnoses. Noninterpersonal trauma and psychiatric diagnoses were associated with emotional problems; exposure to interpersonal violence appeared to partially account for this relationship despite not being independently associated with emotional problem severity. History of exposure to interpersonal violence warrants clinical and research attention as a severity marker and potential treatment focus in psychiatric outpatient services for children, particularly those with disruptive behavior problems. PMID:21362676

Ford, Julian D; Gagnon, Kerry; Connor, Daniel F; Pearson, Geraldine

2011-11-01

220

Race and Ethnicity Do Not Contribute to Differences in Pre-operative Urinary Incontinence Severity or Symptom Bother In Women Undergoing Stress Incontinence Surgery  

PubMed Central

Aims To determine whether race/ethnicity affects urinary incontinence (UI) severity and bother, in women undergoing surgery for stress incontinence. Methods We used baseline data from participants in the Stress Incontinence Surgical Treatment Efficacy trial. UI severity was measured by the number of leakage episodes during a 3-day urinary diary and by urodynamic evaluation. UI bother was measured using the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI). Race/ethnicity classification was based on self report. Results Of the 654 women, 72(11%) were Hispanic, 480(73%) non-Hispanic White, 44 (6.7%) non-Hispanic Black and 58 (8.9%) ‘Other’. No differences were seen in any UI severity measures. Non-Hispanic Whites had lowest UDI scores on bivariate analysis, explained by socioeconomic status, BMI and age on multivariate analysis. Conclusion Factors other than racial/ethnic differences underlie variations in UI symptoms and bother in this group of women seeking surgery for stress incontinence. PMID:17618773

Kraus, Stephen R.; Markland, Alayne; Chai, Toby C.; Stoddard, Anne; FitzGerald, Mary Pat; Leng, Wendy; Mallett, Veronica; Tennstedt, Sharon L.

2007-01-01

221

Young child with severe brain volume loss easily passes the word memory test and medical symptom validity test: implications for mild TBI.  

PubMed

The Word Memory Test (WMT) and Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) are two commonly used free-standing measures of test-taking effort. The use of any test as a measure of effort is enhanced when evidence shows that it can be easily passed by patients with severe neurological conditions. The opportunity arose to administer the WMT and MSVT to a 9-year-old girl (referred to as CJ) with severe congenital bilateral brain tissue loss (shown via a compelling brain MRI image), chronic epilepsy, an extremely low Full Scale IQ, extremely low adaptive functioning, developmental delays, numerous severe cognitive impairments, and treatment with multiple high-dose benzodiazepines. She received extensive early intervention services and numerous academic accommodations. Despite this set of problems, CJ passed the WMT and MSVT at perfect to near perfect levels. Implications for failure on these tests among patients with known or alleged mild traumatic brain injury are discussed. PMID:24266623

Carone, Dominic A

2014-01-01

222

Evaluations of care by adults following a denial of an advertisement-related prescription drug request: the role of expectations, symptom severity, and physician communication style.  

PubMed

As patients continue to take a more active role in their health care, an understanding of patient requests of health care providers, including what happens when requests are not fulfilled, is becoming more important. Although its merits have been debated, direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs generates patient requests. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of physician communication style, respondents' expectations of receiving a requested prescription, and perceived symptom severity on respondents' evaluations of care following a physician denial of a prescription drug request stimulated by direct-to-consumer advertising. A 2 x 2 x 2, between-subjects experimental design was used. The respondents were made up of employees of the University of Mississippi. Physician communication style, respondents' expectations, and respondents' perceived symptom severity were manipulated using vignettes. Respondents' post-visit evaluations of care were assessed by measuring trust in the physician, visit-based satisfaction with the physician, and commitment toward the physician. Factorial analysis of variance procedures for a three-way design were used to test the hypotheses and assess the research questions. Manipulation checks suggested that the independent variables were appropriately manipulated. No significant first-order or second-order interactions were noted in any of the analyses. Post-visit evaluations of care were significantly associated with physician communication style (a partnership response led to better evaluations of care). There were no significant effects of either prior expectation of request fulfillment or perceived symptom severity. However, non-significant trends in mean scores suggested a potential role of these variables in the evaluation process following request denial. The manner in which a physician communicates with an individual is an important determinant of the evaluation of care following the denial of a request. The results suggest that health care providers attempting to minimize the effect of request denials on patient evaluations should make an effort to involve the patient in the decision-making process. PMID:16137813

Shah, Mansi B; Bentley, John P; McCaffrey, David J

2006-02-01

223

Relationship between Lifestyle and Health Factors and Severe Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) in 106,435 Middle-Aged and Older Australian Men: Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite growing interest in prevention of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) through better understanding of modifiable risk factors, large-scale population-based evidence is limited. Objective To describe risk factors associated with severe LUTS in the 45 and Up Study, a large cohort study. Design, Setting, and Participants A cross-sectional analysis of questionnaire data from 106,435 men aged ?45 years, living in New South Wales, Australia. Outcome Measures and Statistical Analysis LUTS were measured by a modified version of the International Prostate Symptom Score (m-IPSS). The strength of association between severe LUTS and socio-demographic, lifestyle and health-related factors was estimated, using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios, adjusted for a range of confounding factors. Results Overall, 18.3% reported moderate, and 3.6% severe, LUTS. Severe LUTS were more common among men reporting previous prostate cancer (7.6%), total prostatectomy (4.9%) or having part of the prostate removed (8.2%). After excluding men with prostate cancer or prostate surgery, the prevalence of moderate-severe LUTS in the cohort (n?=?95,089) ranged from 10.6% to 35.4% for ages 45–49 to ?80; the age-related increase was steeper for storage than voiding symptoms. The adjusted odds of severe LUTS decreased with increasing education (tertiary qualification versus no school certificate, odds ratio (OR?=?0.78 (0.68–0.89))) and increasing physical activity (high versus low, OR?=?0.83 (0.76–0.91)). Odds were elevated among current smokers versus never-smokers (OR?=?1.64 (1.43–1.88)), obese versus healthy-weight men (OR?=?1.27 (1.14–1.41)) and for comorbid conditions (e.g., heart disease versus no heart disease, OR?=?1.36 (1.24–1.49)), and particularly for severe versus no physical functional limitation (OR?=?5.17 (4.51–5.93)). Conclusions LUTS was associated with a number of factors, including modifiable risk factors, suggesting potential targets for prevention. PMID:25333345

Smith, David P.; Weber, Marianne F.; Soga, Kay; Korda, Rosemary J.; Tikellis, Gabriella; Patel, Manish I.; Clements, Mark S.; Dwyer, Terry; Latz, Isabel K.; Banks, Emily

2014-01-01

224

Insular dysfunction within the salience network is associated with severity of symptoms and aberrant inter-network connectivity in major depressive disorder  

PubMed Central

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by altered intrinsic functional connectivity within (intra-iFC) intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs), such as the Default Mode- (DMN), Salience- (SN) and Central Executive Network (CEN). It has been proposed that aberrant switching between DMN-mediated self-referential and CEN-mediated goal-directed cognitive processes might contribute to MDD, possibly explaining patients' difficulties to disengage the processing of self-focused, often negatively biased thoughts. Recently, it has been shown that the right anterior insula (rAI) within the SN is modulating DMN/CEN interactions. Since structural and functional alterations within the AI have been frequently reported in MDD, we hypothesized that aberrant intra-iFC in the SN's rAI is associated with both aberrant iFC between DMN and CEN (inter-iFC) and severity of symptoms in MDD. Twenty-five patients with MDD and 25 healthy controls were assessed using resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) and psychometric examination. High-model-order independent component analysis (ICA) of rs-fMRI data was performed to identify ICNs including DMN, SN, and CEN. Intra-iFC within and inter-iFC between distinct subsystems of the DMN, SN, and CEN were calculated, compared between groups and correlated with the severity of symptoms. Patients with MDD showed (1) decreased intra-iFC within the SN's rAI, (2) decreased inter-iFC between the DMN and CEN, and (3) increased inter-iFC between the SN and DMN. Moreover, decreased intra-iFC in the SN's rAI was associated with severity of symptoms and aberrant DMN/CEN interactions, with the latter losing significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Our results provide evidence for a relationship between aberrant intra-iFC in the salience network's rAI, aberrant DMN/CEN interactions and severity of symptoms, suggesting a link between aberrant salience mapping, abnormal coordination of DMN/CEN based cognitive processes and psychopathology in MDD. PMID:24478665

Manoliu, Andrei; Meng, Chun; Brandl, Felix; Doll, Anselm; Tahmasian, Masoud; Scherr, Martin; Schwerthoffer, Dirk; Zimmer, Claus; Forstl, Hans; Bauml, Josef; Riedl, Valentin; Wohlschlager, Afra M.; Sorg, Christian

2014-01-01

225

Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity and Marijuana Use Coping Motives: A Test of the Mediating Role of Non-Judgmental Acceptance within a Trauma-Exposed Community Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the role of non-judgmental acceptance in the relation between posttraumatic stress symptom severity and marijuana\\u000a use coping motives. These relations were examined among 97 (46 women) adults (M\\u000a age?=?21.57 years, SD?=?6.32) who met DSM-IV-defined PTSD Criterion A for at least one traumatic event exposure and reported using marijuana in the past 30 days. Consistent\\u000a with expectation, greater levels of posttraumatic

Marcel O. Bonn-Miller; Anka A. Vujanovic; Michael P. Twohig; Johnna L. Medina; Jennifer L. Huggins

2010-01-01

226

Tobacco smoking in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients is associated with impaired cognitive functioning, more severe negative symptoms, and poorer social adjustment  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking is common in schizophrenia patients. It has been reported that schizophrenia patients who are tobacco smokers have better cognitive performances compared to those who are nonsmokers. However, little is known on the effects of tobacco smoking in treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) patients. The aim of this study was to compare cognitive performances, psychotic symptoms, and social adjustment in tobacco smoker TRS patients compared to nonsmoker TRS patients. Smoker and nonsmoker TRS patients did not differ in demographics and in mean daily antipsychotic dose. Smoker TRS patients had significantly higher scores than nonsmoker patients on the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and on the negative symptoms subscale. These patients also performed worse than nonsmoker patients on problem-solving cognitive domain. Social adjustment was not significantly different between the two groups. In both groups of patients, worse cognitive performances were mostly predicted by higher severity of negative symptoms. Worse performances on the verbal memory and problem-solving cognitive domains were correlated with social-functioning impairment in tobacco smoker TRS patients but not in nonsmoker ones. The results showed that tobacco smoking was not significantly associated with better cognitive performances in TRS patients, while it was significantly associated with higher negative symptoms. Even if a direct causative mechanism cannot be inferred and despite the fact that these patients may use tobacco to self-medicate, it could be speculated that these associations may, at least partially, be related to a tobacco-smoking–induced worsening of abnormal dopamine dysfunction, which has been suggested to occur in TRS patients. PMID:23950651

Iasevoli, Felice; Balletta, Raffaele; Gilardi, Valentina; Giordano, Sara; de Bartolomeis, Andrea

2013-01-01

227

Selective Interaction Between Chloroplast ?-ATPase and TGB1L88 Retards Severe Symptoms Caused by Alternanthera mosaic virus Infection.  

PubMed

The multifunctional triple gene block protein 1 (TGB1) of the Potexvirus Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) has been reported to have silencing suppressor, cell-to-cell movement, and helicase functions. Yeast two hybrid screening using an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library with TGB1 as bait, and co-purification with TGB1 inclusion bodies identified several host proteins which interact with AltMV TGB1. Host protein interactions with TGB1 were confirmed by biomolecular fluorescence complementation, which showed positive TGB1 interaction with mitochondrial ATP synthase delta' chain subunit (ATP synthase delta'), light harvesting chlorophyll-protein complex I subunit A4 (LHCA4), chlorophyll a/b binding protein 1 (LHB1B2), chloroplast-localized IscA-like protein (ATCPISCA), and chloroplast ?-ATPase. However, chloroplast ?-ATPase interacts only with TGB1L88, and not with weak silencing suppressor TGB1P88. This selective interaction indicates that chloroplast ?-ATPase is not required for AltMV movement and replication; however, TRV silencing of chloroplast ?-ATPase in Nicotiana benthamiana induced severe tissue necrosis when plants were infected by AltMV TGB1L88 but not AltMV TGB1P88, suggesting that ?-ATPase selectively responded to TGB1L88 to induce defense responses. PMID:25288986

Seo, Eun-Young; Nam, Jiryun; Kim, Hyun-Seung; Park, Young-Hwan; Hong, Seok Myeong; Lakshman, Dilip; Bae, Hanhong; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub

2014-03-01

228

Selective Interaction Between Chloroplast ?-ATPase and TGB1L88 Retards Severe Symptoms Caused by Alternanthera mosaic virus Infection  

PubMed Central

The multifunctional triple gene block protein 1 (TGB1) of the Potexvirus Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) has been reported to have silencing suppressor, cell-to-cell movement, and helicase functions. Yeast two hybrid screening using an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library with TGB1 as bait, and co-purification with TGB1 inclusion bodies identified several host proteins which interact with AltMV TGB1. Host protein interactions with TGB1 were confirmed by biomolecular fluorescence complementation, which showed positive TGB1 interaction with mitochondrial ATP synthase delta? chain subunit (ATP synthase delta?), light harvesting chlorophyll-protein complex I subunit A4 (LHCA4), chlorophyll a/b binding protein 1 (LHB1B2), chloroplast-localized IscA-like protein (ATCPISCA), and chloroplast ?-ATPase. However, chloroplast ?-ATPase interacts only with TGB1L88, and not with weak silencing suppressor TGB1P88. This selective interaction indicates that chloroplast ?-ATPase is not required for AltMV movement and replication; however, TRV silencing of chloroplast ?-ATPase in Nicotiana benthamiana induced severe tissue necrosis when plants were infected by AltMV TGB1L88 but not AltMV TGB1P88, suggesting that ?-ATPase selectively responded to TGB1L88 to induce defense responses.

Seo, Eun-Young; Nam, Jiryun; Kim, Hyun-Seung; Park, Young-Hwan; Hong, Seok Myeong; Lakshman, Dilip; Bae, Hanhong; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub

2014-01-01

229

Influence of body size and developmental stage of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) on lethality of several toxicants.  

PubMed

Acute 96 h bioassays were conducted on coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to determine their sensitivity to each of four toxicants during development. Alevins, swim-up fry and juveniles (up to 175 days post-hatch) were exposed to lethal concentrations of copper, zinc, nickel, or pentachlorophenol each week to monitor changes in susceptibility as the fish grew. Fish exhibited a high degree of susceptibility to all of the toxicants during the alevin stage. Swim-up fry showed drastic changes in sensitivity followed by more sustained patterns of change in the subsequent juvenile stage. Lethality could be related to both concentration of toxicant (C) and some exponential function of body weight (W) by the use of the multiple regression equation, Y = a + b(lnC) + g(lnW) where Y is the percent mortality expressed in probits. Through the use of this weighted expression of toxicity it was observed that coho alevins were consistently more sensitive to the toxicants than the juveniles. An exponential relationship between toxicity and weight could be calculated as -g/b. This exponent was found to be specific for each toxicant tested and changed in magnitude as the fish progressed through the various stages of development. Results indicated that lethality (LC50's) varied from one stage of development to the next, but within any defined stage, the relationship between toxicity and body weight was relatively constant. PMID:7185603

Hedtke, J L; Robinson-Wilson, E; Weber, L J

1982-01-01

230

Systemic suppression of cluster-root formation and net P-uptake rates in Grevillea crithmifolia at elevated P supply: a proteacean with resistance for developing symptoms of 'P toxicity'.  

PubMed

Grevillea crithmifolia R. Br. is a species of Proteaceae that is resistant to developing P-toxicity symptoms at phosphorus supplies in the root environment that induce P-toxicity symptoms in the closely related Hakea prostrata (Proteaceae). It was discovered previously that development of P-toxicity symptoms in H. prostrata is related to its low capacity to down-regulate net P-uptake rates (i.e. its low plasticity). The plasticity of net P-uptake rates and whole-plant growth responses in G. crithmifolia has now been assessed in two separate experiments: (i) a range of P, from 0 to 200 micromol P d-1, was supplied to whole root systems; (ii) using a split-root design, one root half was supplied with 0, 3, 75, or 225 micromol P d-1, while the other root half invariably received 3 micromol P d-1. Fresh mass was significantly greater in G. crithmifolia plants that had received a greater daily P supply during the pretreatments, but symptoms of P toxicity were never observed. Cluster-root growth decreased from about half the total root fresh mass when the leaf [P] was lowest (c. 0.1 mg P g-1 DM) to complete suppression of cluster-root growth when leaf [P] was 1-2 mg P g-1 DM. Split-root studies revealed that cluster-root initiation and growth, and net P-uptake rates by roots were regulated systemically, possibly by shoot P concentration. It is concluded that, in response to higher P supply, G. crithmifolia does not develop symptoms of P toxicity because of (i) greater plasticity of its net P-uptake capacity, and (ii) its greater plasticity for allocating P to growth and P storage in roots. This ecologically important difference in plasticity is most probably related to a slightly higher nutrient availability in the natural habitat of G. crithmifolia when compared with that of H. prostrata. PMID:16356944

Shane, Michael W; Lambers, Hans

2006-01-01

231

Disturbances of spontaneous empathic processing relate with the severity of the negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: A behavioural pilot-study using virtual reality technology.  

PubMed

Behavioural and neuroimaging data have recently pointed out that empathy (feeling into someone else) is associated with mental imagery and transformation related to one's and other's visuo-spatial perspectives. Impairments of both empathic and visuo-spatial abilities have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. Especially, it has been suggested that schizophrenics are altered in spontaneously simulating another individual's first-person experience. However, there is so far only little evidence regarding the relationship between deficits in empathy and disturbances in spontaneous heterocentered coding in schizophrenia. In the present pilot-study, we tested with schizophrenic patients our behavioural paradigm that enables to measure from the bodily postures and movements whether individuals in ecologically more valid conditions are interacting with another individual by using egocentered - as in sympathy (feeling with someone else) - or heterocentered - as in empathy - visuo-spatial mechanisms. For that, ten patients and ten controls, standing and moving, interacted with a virtual tightrope walker, displayed life-sized, standing and moving as well. We show that patients with higher negative symptoms had, in most cases, deficits in spontaneously using heterocentered visuo-spatial mechanisms and employed preferentially an egocentered referencing to interact with the avatar. In contrast, preserved spontaneous heterocentered visuo-spatial strategies were not linked to a prevailing negative or positive symptomatology. Our data suggest that the severity of the negative symptoms in schizophrenia relates with disturbances of spontaneous ("on-line") empathic processing in association with lower scoring self-reported trait cognitive empathy. PMID:25014409

Thirioux, Bérangère; Tandonnet, Louis; Jaafari, Nematollah; Berthoz, Alain

2014-10-01

232

Multiple White Matter Volume Reductions in Patients with Panic Disorder: Relationships between Orbitofrontal Gyrus Volume and Symptom Severity and Social Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Numerous brain regions are believed to be involved in the neuropathology of panic disorder (PD) including fronto-limbic regions, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. However, while several previous studies have demonstrated volumetric gray matter reductions in these brain regions, there have been no studies evaluating volumetric white matter changes in the fiber bundles connecting these regions. In addition, although patients with PD typically exhibit social, interpersonal and occupational dysfunction, the neuropathologies underlying these dysfunctions remain unclear. A voxel-based morphometry study was conducted to evaluate differences in regional white matter volume between 40 patients with PD and 40 healthy control subjects (HC). Correlation analyses were performed between the regional white matter volumes and patients' scores on the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Patients with PD demonstrated significant volumetric reductions in widespread white matter regions including fronto-limbic, thalamo-cortical and cerebellar pathways (p<0.05, FDR corrected). Furthermore, there was a significant negative relationship between right orbitofrontal gyrus (OFG) white matter volume and the severity of patients' clinical symptoms, as assessed with the PDSS. A significant positive relationship was also observed between patients' right OFG volumes and their scores on the GAF. Our results suggest that volumetric reductions in widespread white matter regions may play an important role in the pathology of PD. In particular, our results suggest that structural white matter abnormalities in the right OFG may contribute to the social, personal and occupational dysfunction typically experienced by patients with PD. PMID:24663245

Konishi, Jun; Asami, Takeshi; Hayano, Fumi; Yoshimi, Asuka; Hayasaka, Shunsuke; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Whitford, Thomas J.; Inoue, Tomio; Hirayasu, Yoshio

2014-01-01

233

Streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections and psychosocial stress predict future tic and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Background: One goal of this prospective longitudinal study was to identify new group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to healthy control subjects. We then examined the power of GABHS infections and measures of psychosocial stress to predict future tic, obsessive-compulsive (OC), and depressive symptom severity. Methods: Consecutive ratings of tic, OC and depressive symptom severity were obtained for 45 cases and 41 matched control subjects over a two-year period. Clinical raters were blinded to the results of laboratory tests. Laboratory personnel were blinded to case or control status and clinical ratings. Structural equation modeling for unbalanced repeated measures was used to assess the sequence of new GABHS infections and psychosocial stress and their impact on future symptom severity. Results: Increases in tic and OC symptom severity did not occur after every new GABHS infection. However, the structural equation model found that these newly diagnosed infections were predictive of modest increases in future tic and OC symptom severity, but did not predict future depressive symptom severity. In addition, the inclusion of new infections in the model greatly enhanced, by a factor of three, the power of psychosocial stress in predicting future tic and OC symptom severity. Conclusions: Our data suggest that a minority of children with TS and early-onset OCD were sensitive to antecedent GABHS infections. These infections also enhanced the predictive power of current psychosocial stress on future tic and OC symptom severity. PMID:19833320

Lin, Haiqun; Williams, Kyle A.; Katsovich, Liliya; Findley, Diane B.; Grantz, Heidi; Lombroso, Paul J.; King, Robert A.; Bessen, Debra E.; Johnson, Dwight; Kaplan, Edward L.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F.

2009-01-01

234

EVALUATION OF DELAYED TOXIC EFFECTS OF SULFUR MUSTARD POISONING IN SEVERELY INTOXICATED IRANIAN VETERANS: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent (CWA) that was widely used during the World War I and by the Iraqi forces against the Iranian soldiers and even innocent civilians between 1983 and 1988. Early toxic effects of SM in Iranian veterans have already been published, but late complications in different organs and the relationship between local and

Mahdi Balali-Mood; Mehrdad Hefazi; Mahmoud Mahmoudi; Masoud Maleki; Mohammad-Reza Etezad Razavi; Gholamali Zare; Abbas Tabatabaee

2005-01-01

235

Implication of global environmental changes on chemical toxicity-effect of water temperature, pH, and ultraviolet B irradiation on acute toxicity of several pharmaceuticals in Daphnia magna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global environmental change poses emerging environmental health challenges throughout the world. One of such threats could\\u000a be found in chemical safety in aquatic ecosystem. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of several environmental factors,\\u000a such as water pH, temperature and ultraviolet light on the toxicity of pharmaceutical compounds in water, using freshwater\\u000a invertebrate Daphnia magna. Seven pharmaceuticals including

Jungkon Kim; Pan-Gyi Kim; Chulwoo Lee; Kyunghee Choi; Kyungho Choi

2010-01-01

236

Influence of the severity and location of bodily injuries on post-concussive and combat stress symptom reporting after military-related concurrent mild traumatic brain injuries and polytrauma.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) sustained in combat frequently co-occur with significant bodily injuries. Intuitively, more extensive bodily injuries might be associated with increased symptom reporting. In 2012, however, French et al. demonstrated an inverse relation between bodily injury severity and symptom reporting. This study expands on that work by examining the influence of location and severity of bodily injuries on symptom reporting after mild TBI. Participants were 579 US military service members who sustained an uncomplicated mild TBI with concurrent bodily injuries and who were evaluated at two military medical centers. Bodily injury severity was quantified using a modified Injury Severity Score (ISSmod). Participants completed the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C), on average, 2.5 months post-injury. There was a significant negative association between ISSmod scores and NSI (r=-0.267, p<0.001) and PCL-C (r=-0.273, p<0.001) total scores. Using linear regression to examine the relation between symptom reporting and injury severity across the six ISS body regions, three body regions were significant predictors of the NSI total score (face; p<0.001; abdomen; p=0.003; extremities; p<0.001) and accounted for 9.3% of the variance (p<0.001). For the PCL-C, two body regions were significant predictors of the PCL-C total score (face; p<0.001; extremities; p<0.001) and accounted for 10.5% of the variance. There was an inverse relation between bodily injury severity and symptom reporting in this sample. Hypothesized explanations include underreporting of symptoms, increased peer support, disruption of fear conditioning because of acute morphine use, or delayed expression of symptoms. PMID:24831890

French, Louis M; Lange, Rael T; Marshall, Kathryn; Prokhorenko, Olga; Brickell, Tracey A; Bailie, Jason M; Asmussen, Sarah B; Ivins, Brian; Cooper, Douglas B; Kennedy, Jan E

2014-10-01

237

Clinical Factors Predicting Late Severe Urinary Toxicity After Postoperative Radiotherapy for Prostate Carcinoma: A Single-Institute Analysis of 742 Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the clinical factors independently predictive of long-term severe urinary sequelae after postprostatectomy radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Between 1993 and 2005, 742 consecutive patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy with either adjuvant (n = 556; median radiation dose, 70.2 Gy) or salvage (n = 186; median radiation dose, 72 Gy) intent. Results: After a median follow-up of 99 months, the 8-year risk of Grade 2 or greater and Grade 3 late urinary toxicity was almost identical (23.9% vs. 23.7% and 12% vs. 10%) in the adjuvant and salvage cohorts, respectively. On univariate analysis, acute toxicity was significantly predictive of late Grade 2 or greater sequelae in both subgroups (p <.0001 in both cases), and hypertension (p = .02) and whole-pelvis radiotherapy (p = .02) correlated significantly in the adjuvant cohort only. The variables predictive of late Grade 3 sequelae were acute Grade 2 or greater toxicity in both groups and whole-pelvis radiotherapy (8-year risk of Grade 3 events, 21% vs. 11%, p = .007), hypertension (8-year risk, 18% vs. 10%, p = .005), age {<=} 62 years at RT (8-year risk, 16% vs. 11%, p = .04) in the adjuvant subset, and radiation dose >72 Gy (8-year risk, 19% vs. 6%, p = .007) and age >71 years (8-year risk, 16% vs. 6%, p = .006) in the salvage subgroup. Multivariate analysis confirmed the independent predictive role of all the covariates indicated as statistically significant on univariate analysis. Conclusions: The risk of late Grade 2 or greater and Grade 3 urinary toxicity was almost identical, regardless of the RT intent. In the salvage cohort, older age and greater radiation doses resulted in a worse toxicity profile, and younger, hypertensive patients experienced a greater rate of severe late sequelae in the adjuvant setting. The causes of this latter correlation and apparently different etiopathogenesis of chronic damage in the two subgroups were unclear and deserve additional investigation.

Cozzarini, Cesare, E-mail: cozzarini.cesare@hsr.it [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Fiorino, Claudio [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Da Pozzo, Luigi Filippo [Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Alongi, Filippo; Berardi, Genoveffa; Bolognesi, Angelo [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Briganti, Alberto [Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Broggi, Sara [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Deli, Aniko [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Guazzoni, Giorgio [Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Perna, Lucia [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Pasetti, Marcella; Salvadori, Giovannella [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Montorsi, Francesco; Rigatti, Patrizio [Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Di Muzio, Nadia [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy)

2012-01-01

238

Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions  

PubMed Central

Severe cutaneous drug reactions are one of the commonest medical challenges presenting to an emergency room in any hospital. The manifestations range from maculopapular rash to severe systemic symptoms like renal failure and cardiovascular compromise. Toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythroderma, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis and drug induced vasculitis are the common cutaneous drug reactions which can have severe morbidity and even mortality. Careful history taking of the lag period after drug intake and associated symptoms, along with detailed examination of the skin, mucosa and various systems, help in early diagnosis of these reactions. Early stoppage of the incriminating drug, specific therapy including corticosteroids, cyclosporine and intravenous immunoglobulin depending on the case along with supportive therapy and local measures help in salvaging most patients. An overview of these important cutaneous drug reactions along with their management is being reviewed in this article. PMID:24600147

Verma, Rajesh; Vasudevan, Biju; Pragasam, Vijendran

2013-01-01

239

Implication of global environmental changes on chemical toxicity-effect of water temperature, pH, and ultraviolet B irradiation on acute toxicity of several pharmaceuticals in Daphnia magna.  

PubMed

Global environmental change poses emerging environmental health challenges throughout the world. One of such threats could be found in chemical safety in aquatic ecosystem. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of several environmental factors, such as water pH, temperature and ultraviolet light on the toxicity of pharmaceutical compounds in water, using freshwater invertebrate Daphnia magna. Seven pharmaceuticals including ibuprofen, acetaminophen, lincomycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline and sulfathiazole were chosen as test compounds based on their frequent detection in water. The experimental conditions of environmental parameters were selected within the ranges that could be encountered in temperate environment, i.e., water temperature (15, 21, and 25 degrees C), pH (7.4, 8.3, and 9.2), and UV-B light intensity (continuous irradiation of 15.0 microW/cm(2)). For acetaminophen, enrofloxacin and sulfathiazole, decrease in water pH generally led to increase of acute lethal toxicity, which could be explained by the unionized fraction of pharmaceuticals. Increase of water temperature enhanced the acute toxicity of the acetaminophen, enrofloxacin and chlortetracycline, potentially due to alteration in toxicokinetics of chemicals as well as impact on physiological mechanisms of the test organism. The presence of UV-B light significantly increased the toxicity of sulfathiazole, which could be explained by photo-modification of this chemical that lead to oxidative stress. Under the UV light, however, acute toxicity of enrofloxacin decreased, which might be due to photo-degradation. Since changing environmental conditions could affect exposure and concentration-response profile of environmental contaminants, such conditions should be identified and evaluated in order to better manage ecosystem health under changing global environment. PMID:19936919

Kim, Jungkon; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Pan-Gyi; Lee, Chulwoo; Choi, Kyunghee; Choi, Kyungho

2010-04-01

240

The Efficacy of Echinacea Compound Herbal Tea Preparation on the Severity and Duration of Upper Respiratory and Flu Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of an echinacea compound herbal tea preparation (Echinacea Plus®) given at early onset of cold or flu symptoms in a ran- dom assignment double-blind placebo-controlled study. Design and Subjects: A total of 95 subjects with early symptoms of cold or flu (runny nose, scratchy throat, fever) were randomly assigned

G. Frank Lindenmuth; Elise B. Lindenmuth

2000-01-01

241

Premenstrual symptoms.  

PubMed

Data is reviewed on premenstrual symptoms which have been related to high suicide and accident rates, employment absentee rates, poor academic performance and acute psychiatric problems. A recent study of healthy young women indicated that 39% had troublesome premenstrual symptoms, 54% passed clots in their menses, 70% had cyclical localized acneiform eruptions and only 17% failed to experience menstrual pain. Common menstrual disorders are classified as either dysmenorrhea or the premenstrual syndrome. Symptoms for the latter usually begin 2-12 days prior to menstruation and include nervous tension, irritability, anxiety, depression, bloated breasts and abdomen, swollen fingers and legs, headaches, dizziness, occasional hypersomia, excessive thirst and appetite. Some women may display an increased susceptibility to migraine, vasomotor rhinitis, asthma, urticaria and epilepsy. Symptoms are usually relieved with the onset of menses. While a definitive etiological theory remains to be substantiated, symptomatic relief has been reported with salt and water restriction and simple diuretics used 7 to 10 days premenstrually. Diazapam or chlordiazepoxide treatment is recommended before oral contraceptive therapy. The premenstrual syndrome may persist after menopause, is unaffected by parity, and sufferers score highly on neuroticism tests. Primary or spasmodic dysmenorrhea occurs in young women, tends to decline with age and parity and has no correlation with premenstrual symptoms or neuroticism. Spasmodic or colicky pain begins and is most severe on the first day of menstruation and may continue for 2-3 days. Treatment of dysmenorrhea with psychotropic drugs or narcotics is discouraged due to the risk of dependence and abuse. Temporary relief for disabling pain may be obtained with oral contraceptives containing synthetic estrogen and progestogen but the inherent risks should be acknowledged. Both disorders have been correlated to menstrual irregularity. Amenorrhea in many women may be precipitated by simple psychological events such as leaving home, while severely stressful events produce a higher incidence. Unless a physiological factor such as malnutrition is operating, menses usually recur spontaneously within a few months. Amenorrhea is a constant feature of anorexia nervosa and may precede related attitudes toward eating and body weight. This syndrome is best regarded as a chronic and often severe neurotic disorder requiring combined physiological and psychological treatment, although some evidence exists to indicate an endocrine disorder. Extensive basic research is needed on the complex relationship between the neuroendocrine system and emotion. PMID:4735136

1973-03-24

242

Severe systemic toxicity and urinary bladder cytotoxicity and regenerative hyperplasia induced by arsenite in arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase knockout mice. A preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes reactions which convert inorganic arsenic to methylated metabolites. This study determined whether the As3mt null genotype in the mouse modifies cytotoxic and proliferative effects seen in urinary bladders of wild type mice after exposure to inorganic arsenic. Female wild type C57BL/6 mice and As3mt KO mice were divided into 3 groups each (n = 8) with free access to a diet containing 0, 100 or 150 ppm of arsenic as arsenite (As{sup III}). During the first week of As{sup III} exposure, As3mt KO mice exhibited severe and lethal systemic toxicity. At termination, urinary bladders of both As3mt KO and wild type mice showed hyperplasia by light microscopy. As expected, arsenic-containing granules were found in the superficial urothelial layer of wild type mice. In As3mt KO mice these granules were present in all layers of the bladder epithelium and were more abundant and larger than in wild type mice. Scanning electron microscopy of the bladder urothelium of As3mt KO mice treated with 100 ppm As{sup III} showed extensive superficial necrosis and hyperplastic changes. In As3mt KO mice, livers showed severe acute inflammatory changes and spleen size and lymphoid areas were decreased compared with wild type mice. Thus, diminished arsenic methylation in As3mt KO mice exacerbates systemic toxicity and the effects of As{sup III} on the bladder epithelium, showing that altered kinetic and dynamic behavior of arsenic can affect its toxicity.

Yokohira, Masanao; Arnold, Lora L.; Pennington, Karen L. [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-3135 (United States); Suzuki, Shugo [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-3135 (United States); Department of Experimental Pathology and Tumor Biology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Kakiuchi-Kiyota, Satoko [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-3135 (United States); Herbin-Davis, Karen; Thomas, David J. [Pharmacokinetics Branch, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Cohen, Samuel M., E-mail: scohen@unmc.ed [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-3135 (United States)

2010-07-15

243

Symptom Management  

Cancer.gov

Symptom Management & Quality of Life Concept Design This video covers a variety of practical considerations for developing a symptom management concept for clinical research.. Co-sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Symptom Management and Health

244

Relationship between the prefrontal function and the severity of the emotional symptoms during a verbal fluency task in patients with major depressive disorder: a multi-channel NIRS study.  

PubMed

Multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive and low-cost functional neuroimaging technique in psychiatric research, and it has been wildly used for detecting the spatiotemporal characteristics of brain activity. In order to evaluate the clinical value of NIRS data in the assistant diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD), prefrontal cortex (PFC) hemoglobin concentration exchange of 30 MDD patients combined with anxious and obsessive-compulsive symptom was detected by NIRS under voice fluency task (VFT), then the relationship between the severity of depressive, anxious and obsessive-compulsive symptom assessed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) with NIRS data in PFC was analyzed. Hypoactivation in lateral and lower PFC of MDD patients was confirmed in this study. Furthermore, Spearman correlation found that oxy-hemoglobin concentration ([oxy-Hb]) exchange in right-lateral PFC was associated with the severity of anxiety, while bilateral PFC and antero-medial PFC were associated with severity of depression. Meanwhile, no statistical correlation was observed on the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptom. The results prompted that MDD patients with anxiety and obsession-compulsion symptom showed a PFC hypoactivation state in NIRS. Furthermore, the function of right-lateral PFC was associated with anxiety symptom, while bilateral PFC and antero-medial PFC were associated with depression symptom. Different from depression and anxiety, obsession-compulsion may have a different biological character in PFC function. PMID:24842802

Liu, Xiaomin; Sun, Gaoxiang; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Xu, Bo; Shen, Chenyu; Shi, Lujie; Ma, Xiangyun; Ren, Xiajin; Feng, Kun; Liu, Pozi

2014-10-01

245

Antimony Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients) and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically. PMID:21318007

Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

2010-01-01

246

[Acute signs and symptoms of toxicity due to the BOPP regimen (BCNU, vincristine, procarbazine, cisplatin) during treatment of high-grade astrocytoma].  

PubMed

BOPP chemotherapy regimen was introduced in patients with high-grade astrocytoma after surgery and radiotherapy. There were 10 anaplastic astrocytomas and 19 multiforme glioblastomas. Protocol consisted of BCNU 50 mg/m2, days 1-3, Vincristine 1,4 mg/m2 (max 2 mg), day 1, Procarbazine 50 mg/m2, days 1-7 and Cisplatin 20 mg/m2, days 1-3. All patients received at least three cycles of BOPP chemotherapy. The used toxicity criteria corresponded to ECOG. We observed 12 changes in WBC, 29 changes in haemoglobin, 18 changes in platelets and 11 changes in hematocrite. All patients had nausea and vomiting. We also observed 4 neurologic toxicities. Toxicities we observed responded favourably to standard means of therapy which can suggest either shortening of the interval between the cycles or increasing the dose per cycle. PMID:1806994

Jeremi?, B; Grujici?, D; Jevremovi?, S; Mijatovi?, Lj

1991-01-01

247

Relation of the hypertonic saline responsiveness of the airways to exercise induced asthma symptom severity and to histamine or methacholine reactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Conflicting views exist over whether responsiveness of the airways to hypertonic saline relates to non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness measured by histamine or methacholine challenge. The bronchoconstrictor responses to exercise and hypertonic saline are reported to be closely related, but the relationship between the symptoms of exercise induced asthma and airway responsiveness to hypertonic saline is not known. METHODS: In 29

H K Makker; S T Holgate

1993-01-01

248

Anxiety, depression and psychosomatic symptoms in patients with atopic dermatitis: comparison with normal controls and among groups of different degrees of severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disorder. The age distribution is mainly located from infancy to adolescence, which period is the most important for forming character or effecting their psychological condition. We used three types of psychological tests to investigate anxiety, depression and psychosomatic symptoms in 45 patients with atopic dermatitis and 34 normal controls. These tests consisted of the

Makoto Hashiro; Mutsuko Okumura

1997-01-01

249

Substance abuse and personality disorders in homeless drop-in center clients: symptom severity and psychotherapy retention in a randomized clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the psychiatric symptoms, psychosocial problems, and treatment response of personality-disordered substance abusers receiving services within a homeless drop-in center. Fifty-two homeless clients were assessed after program admission and randomly assigned to receive either individual psychotherapy focused on personality disorder and substance abuse relapse prevention (dual-focus schema therapy [DFST]) or standard group substance abuse counseling (SAC). Client functioning

Samuel A. Ball; Patricia Cobb-Richardson; Adrian J. Connolly; Cesar T. Bujosa; Thomas W. O'Neall

2005-01-01

250

Successful Application of Adaptive Emotion Regulation Skills Predicts the Subsequent Reduction of Depressive Symptom Severity but neither the Reduction of Anxiety nor the Reduction of General Distress during the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective Deficits in general emotion regulation (ER) skills have been linked to symptoms of depression and are thus considered a promising target in the treatment of Major depressive disorder (MDD). However, at this point, the extent to which such skills are relevant for coping with depression and whether they should instead be considered a transdiagnostic factor remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether successful ER skills application is associated with changes in depressive symptom severity (DSS), anxiety symptom severity (ASS), and general distress severity (GDS) over the course of treatment for MDD. Methods Successful ER skills application, DSS, ASS, and GDS were assessed four times during the first three weeks of treatment in 175 inpatients who met the criteria for MDD. We computed Pearson correlations to test whether successful ER skills application and the three indicators of psychopathology are cross-sectionally associated. We then performed latent growth curve modelling to test whether changes in successful ER skills application are negatively associated with a reduction of DSS, ASS, or GDS. Finally, we utilized latent change score models to examine whether successful ER skills application predicts subsequent reduction of DSS, ASS, or GDS. Results Successful ER skills application was cross-sectionally associated with lower levels of DSS, ASS, and GDS at all points of assessment. An increase in successful skills application during treatment was associated with a decrease in DSS and GDS but not ASS. Finally, successful ER skills application predicted changes in subsequent DSS but neither changes in ASS nor changes in GDS. Conclusions Although general ER skills might be relevant for a broad range of psychopathological symptoms, they might be particularly important for the maintenance and treatment of depressive symptoms. PMID:25330159

Wirtz, Carolin M.; Radkovsky, Anna; Ebert, David D.; Berking, Matthias

2014-01-01

251

Association of TGF-?1 and XPD polymorphisms with severe acute radiation-induced esophageal toxicity in locally advanced lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeRadiation-induced esophageal toxicity (RIET) is a dose-limiting toxicity in lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Accumulating evidence indicates that DNA repair and the cytokine pathways play essential roles in radiation-induced diseases. Genetic polymorphisms of genes in these pathways may affect gene function and\\/or gene expression and lead to different treatment-related esophageal toxicity.

Li Zhang; Ming Yang; Nan Bi; Wei Ji; Chen Wu; Wen Tan; Lujun Zhao; Dianke Yu; Dongxin Lin; Luhua Wang

2010-01-01

252

Blood Levels of S-100 Calcium-Binding Protein B, High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, and Interleukin-6 for Changes in Depressive Symptom Severity after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: Prospective Cohort Nested within a Randomized, Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cross-sectional and retrospective studies have associated major depressive disorder with glial activation and injury as well as blood–brain barrier disruption, but these associations have not been assessed prospectively. Here, we aimed to determine the relationship between changes in depressive symptom severity and in blood levels of S-100 calcium-binding protein B (S-100B), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 following an inflammatory challenge. Methods Fifty unselected participants were recruited from a randomized, controlled trial comparing coronary artery bypass grafting procedures performed with versus without cardiopulmonary bypass for the risk of neurocognitive decline. Depressive symptom severity was measured at baseline, discharge, and six-month follow-up using the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). The primary outcome of the present biomarker study was acute change in depressive symptom severity, defined as the intra-subject difference between baseline and discharge BDI-II scores. Blood biomarker levels were determined at baseline and 2 days postoperative. Results Changes in S-100B levels correlated positively with acute changes in depressive symptom severity (Spearman ?, 0.62; P?=?0.0004) and accounted for about one-fourth of their observed variance (R2, 0.23; P?=?0.0105). This association remained statistically significant after adjusting for baseline S-100B levels, age, weight, body-mass index, or ?-blocker use, but not baseline BDI-II scores (P?=?0.064). There was no statistically significant association between the primary outcome and baseline S-100B levels, baseline high-sensitivity C-reactive protein or interleukin-6 levels, or changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein or interleukin-6 levels. Among most participants, levels of all three biomarkers were normal at baseline and markedly elevated at 2 days postoperative. Conclusions Acute changes in depressive symptom severity were specifically associated with incremental changes in S-100B blood levels, largely independent of covariates associated with either. These findings support the hypothesis that glial activation and injury and blood–brain barrier disruption can be mechanistically linked to acute exacerbation of depressive symptoms in some individuals. PMID:25329583

Pearlman, Daniel M.; Brown, Jeremiah R.; MacKenzie, Todd A.; Hernandez, Felix; Najjar, Souhel

2014-01-01

253

Maternal toxicity.  

PubMed

Although demonstration of some degree of maternal toxicity is required in regulatory developmental toxicology studies, marked maternal toxicity may be a confounding factor in data interpretation. Reduction in maternal body weight gain is the far most frequently used endpoint of toxicity, but alternative endpoints, like organ toxicity or exaggerated pharmacological response, can also be taken into consideration. The following conclusions are based on literature data and discussions at maternal toxicity workshops attended by representatives from regulatory agencies, academia, and industry: (1) Available results do not support that maternal toxicity (defined as clinical signs, decreased body weight gain or absolute body weight loss of up to 15% in rats or 7% in rabbits) can be used to explain the occurrence of major malformations. (2) There is clear evidence that substantial reductions in maternal weight gain (or absolute weight loss) are linked with other manifestations of developmental toxicity. Among these can be mentioned decreased fetal weight, and skeletal anomalies (e.g., wavy ribs) in rats and decreased fetal weights, post implantation loss, abortions, and some skeletal anomalies in rabbits. (3) There are several examples of misinterpretation among companies, where it was incorrectly expected that regulatory authorities would not label chemicals/drugs as "teratogens/developmental toxicants" because embryo fetal adverse effects were only observed at doses also causing signs of maternal toxicity. (4) Similarly, even if mechanistic studies indicate that a substance causes developmental toxicity via exaggerated pharmacological effects in the mother, such a mechanism does not automatically negate the observed fetal adverse effects.From a regulatory perspective, an observed developmental toxic finding is considered to be of potential human relevance (even if it is mediated via maternal pharmacological effects or occur at doses causing signs of maternal toxicity) unless the company can provide appropriate mechanistic and/or other convincing evidence to the contrary. PMID:23138914

Danielsson, Bengt R

2013-01-01

254

Rotavirus Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... copyright holder. Print page View page in Español (Spanish) Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... CDC-INFO Rotavirus Home About Rotavirus Symptoms Symptoms - Spanish Transmission Transmission - Spanish Prevention Prevention - Spanish Treatment Treatment - ...

255

Toward a Threshold for Subthreshold Depression: An Analysis of Correlates of Depression by Severity of Symptoms Using Data from an Elderly Community Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored demographic and risk factor profiles of two groups, one with more severe depression and one with less severe depression. Depression appears to exist along a continuum, with demographic, social, and physical health predictors of subthreshold depression similar to predictors of depression as defined by the Center for Epidemiologic…

Hybels, Celia F.; Blazer, Dan G.; Pieper, Carl F.

2001-01-01

256

Ultrasonographic median nerve cross-section areas measured by 8-point "inching test" for idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome: a correlation of nerve conduction study severity and duration of clinical symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background Incremental palmar stimulation of the median nerve sensory conduction at the wrist, the "inching test", provides an assessment with reference to segments proximal and distal to the entrapment. This study used high-resolution ultrasonography (US) to measure the median nerve's cross-section areas (CSAs) like the "inching test" and to correlate with the nerve conduction study (NCS) severity and duration of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods Two hundred and twelve (212) "CTS-hands" from 135 CTS patients and 50 asymptomatic hands ("A-hands") from 25 control individuals were enrolled. The median nerve CSAs were measured at the 8-point marked as i4, i3, i2, i1, w, o1, o2, and 03 in inching test. The NCS severities were classified into six groups based on motor and sensory responses (i.e., negative, minimal, mild, moderate, severe, and extreme). Results of US studies were compared in terms of NCS severity and duration of clinical CTS symptoms. Results There was significantly larger CSA of the NCS negative group of "CTS-hands" than of "A-hands". The cut-off values of the CSAs of the NCS negative CTS group were 12.5 mm2, 11.5 mm2 and 10.1 mm2 at the inlet, wrist crease, and outlet, respectively. Of the 212 "CTS-hands", 32 were NCS negative while 40 had minimal, 43 mild, 85 moderate, 10 severe, and two extreme NCS severities. The CSAs of "CTS-hands" positively correlated with different NCS severities and with the duration of CTS symptoms. By duration of clinical symptoms, 12 of the 212 "CTS-hands" were in the 1 month group; 82 in >1 month and ?12 months group, and 118 in >12 months group. In "inching test", segments i4-i3 and i3-i2 were the most common "positive-site". The corresponding CSAs measured at i4 and i3, but not at i2, were significantly larger than those measured at points that were not "positive-site". Conclusions Using the 8-point measurement of the median nerve CSA from inlet to outlet similar to the "inching test" has positive correlations with NCS severity and duration of CTS clinical symptoms, and can provide more information on anatomic changes. Combined NCS and US studies using the 8-point measurement may have a higher positive rate than NCS alone for diagnosing CTS. PMID:22189264

2011-01-01

257

Kynurenine Pathway Pathologies: do Nicotinamide and Other Pathway Co-Factors have a Therapeutic Role in Reduction of Symptom Severity, Including Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and Fibromyalgia (FM)  

PubMed Central

The definition of dual tryptophan pathways has increased the understanding of the mind-body, body-mind dichotomy. The serotonergic pathway highlights the primary (endogenous) psychiatric disorders. The up-regulation of the kynurenine pathway by physical illnesses can cause neuropathic and immunological disorders1 associated with secondary neuropsychiatric symptoms. Tryptophan and nicotinamide deficiencies fall within the protein energy malnutrition (PEM) spectrum. They can arise if the kynurenine pathway is stressed by primary or secondary inflammatory conditions and the consequent imbalance of available catabolic/anabolic substrates may adversely influence convalescent phase efficiency. The replacement of depleted or reduced NAD+ levels and other cofactors can perhaps improve the clinical management of these disorders. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM) appear to meet the criteria of a tryptophan-kynurenine pathway disorder with potential neuroimmunological sequelae. Aspects of some of the putative precipitating factors have been previously outlined.2,3 An analysis of the areas of metabolic dysfunction will focus on future directions for research and management. PMID:23922501

Blankfield, Adele

2013-01-01

258

Adaptive Behaviors in High-Functioning Taiwanese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Investigation of the Mediating Roles of Symptom Severity and Cognitive Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the relationship among cognitive level, autistic severity and adaptive function in a Taiwanese sample of 94 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (mean full scale intelligent quotients FSIQ = 84.8). Parents and teachers both completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II and the Social Responsiveness…

Chang, Chen-Lin; Lung, For-Wey; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen

2013-01-01

259

Language and Communication Skills in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Contribution of Cognition, Severity of Autism Symptoms, and Adaptive Functioning to the Variability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the contribution of cognitive function, severity of autism, and adaptive functioning to the variability in language and communication skills in 129 preschool children (aged 24-63 months) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were selected from a representative research cohort of 208 preschool children on the basis…

Kjellmer, Liselotte; Hedvall, Asa; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher; Norrelgen, Fritjof

2012-01-01

260

Reduced availability of serotonin transporters in obsessive-compulsive disorder correlates with symptom severity - a [11C]DASB PET study.  

PubMed

Reduced availability of brainstem serotonin transporters (5-HTT) has been observed in vivo in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, results vary and may be influenced by competition with endogenous serotonin. Using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11C]DASB, a specific 5-HTT ligand that showed no competition with serotonin for 5-HTT binding in vitro, we tested the hypothesis that 5-HTT availability is reduced in OCD patients and correlated with OCD severity. METHODS. 5-HTT availability in the thalamus and the midbrain was measured in nine drug-free OCD patients and compared with 19 healthy controls, matched for the individual combination of 5-HTT genotype, gender and smoking status. OCD severity was assessed with the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS). RESULTS. 5-HTT availability was significantly reduced in the thalamus and midbrain of OCD patients. Age and 5-HTT in the thalamus explained 83% of OCD severity in patients that were drug-free for at least 1 year. CONCLUSION. This PET study confirms a central role of the serotonergic system, particularly the thalamus in the pathogenesis of obsessive compulsive disorder. PMID:17713719

Reimold, M; Smolka, M N; Zimmer, A; Batra, A; Knobel, A; Solbach, C; Mundt, A; Smoltczyk, H U; Goldman, D; Mann, K; Reischl, G; Machulla, H-J; Bares, R; Heinz, A

2007-01-01

261

Oxaliplatin-Related Ocular Toxicity  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with advanced colorectal cancer who was treated with oxaliplatin on a FOLFOX schedule. After 3 cycles of chemotherapy, she started to complain of visual loss, altered color vision and neurological symptoms. Due to the suspicion of ocular and neurological toxicity, antineoplastic treatment was stopped. Her visual field showed a concentric bilateral scotoma and the electrooculogram test revealed severe impairment of the retinal pigment epithelium. Visual acuity, color vision and visual field recovered completely 8 months later, although electrooculogram remained abnormal. Ocular toxicity has been reported as an infrequent adverse event of oxaliplatin. Findings in this case indicate toxicity of this chemotherapeutic agent on the retinal pigment epithelium, which has not been reported before. This damage could be permanent, and it thus differs from previously described oxaliplatin-induced ocular toxicities, which are usually transient and reversible. With increasing use of oxaliplatin as first-line treatment in advanced colorectal cancer, we have to be aware of this possible toxicity. PMID:21151636

Mesquida, Marina; Sanchez-Dalmau, Bernardo; Ortiz-Perez, Santiago; Pelegrin, Laura; Molina-Fernandez, Juan Jose; Figueras-Roca, Marc; Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo; Adan, Alfredo

2010-01-01

262

Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Primarily through the use of engaging graphics, this resource outlines where Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) occur in U.S. waters. It also addresses the differences between toxic and non-toxic HABs, which organisms in the food web are affected, how specific toxins work and the symptoms associated with them, and the causative phytoplankton species.

Laboratory, Bigelow

263

[Medically unexplained symptoms].  

PubMed

Patients with physical symptoms for which no medical explanation can be found are relatively common in general practice. Patients with medically unexplained symptoms are frequently frustrating to physicians both in primary and secondary care and utilize health sources disproportionately. They frequently attend both primary care units and hospitals and are usually not satisfied with the care they receive. Medically unexplained symptoms in patient populations are strongly associated with psychiatric pathology and with anxiety and depression in particular. They are also linked to personality pathology, childhood adversity, adult trauma or medically unexplained symptoms in childhood. The predictive value of alexithymia in determining these symptoms is controversial. Patients who have high negative affectivity or neuroticism tend to score high on measures of physical symptoms. These symptoms have a high degree of co-occurrence. The same person may meet the diagnostic criteria for several functional somatic syndromes simultaneously. The clinician should be aware of the cultural and social shaping of the bodily experience of these patients and hence acknowledge the somatic nature and reality of the symptoms. The clinician should make the person feel understood and establish a positive collaborative relationship. This would enable him/her to correct misconceptions about the disease and give a positive explanation of symptoms. Antidepressant therapy and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy have been proved to be moderately effective in this group of patients. Because of the high disability that might be caused by these symptoms, psychiatrists and primary and secondary care physicians should pay careful attention to this clinical condition. These symptoms may also aid us in challenging the long-held idea of mind-body dualism which is inherent in Western biomedicine. PMID:12794657

Sayar, Kemal

2002-01-01

264

The toxicity of diquat  

PubMed Central

Clark, D. G. and Hurst, E. W. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 51-55. The toxicity of diquat. The acute toxicity of diquat has been assessed in several species. The oral LD50 ranged from about 30 mg/kg in cattle to 231 mg/kg in the rat. Large doses of diquat gave rise to symptoms indicative of an action on the central nervous system, but smaller doses did not suggest an obvious mode of action to account for the deaths, which were sometimes delayed for up to 14 days. The 24-hour percutaneous LD50 in the rabbit was greater than 400 mg/kg. This dose did not irritate the skin. A drop of a 20% aqueous solution of diquat in the conjunctival sac of the rabbit eye caused only slight irritation. The chronic administration of diquat dichloride in the diet for several months led to bilateral cataract in the rat and the dog. A concentration of 0·05% in the rat diet caused bilateral opacities in all rats within 12 months, but 0·001% diquat did not cause any opacities in two years. Bilateral opacities of the lenses of all dogs occurred within 12 months of administration of 15 mg/kg/day, but 1·7 mg/kg/day was without effect after four years. PMID:5418919

Clark, D. G.; Hurst, E. W.

1970-01-01

265

CO sub 2 - toxicity in greenhouse tomato: Interaction with carbohydrate metabolism  

SciTech Connect

Greenhouse tomatoes grown with CO{sub 2}-enrichment at 1000 ul/l exhibit a non-epinastic foliar deformation (CO{sub 2}-toxicity). Symptoms include yellowing and purpling of the leaf blade accompanied by helical twisting and undercurling of the blade and midrib. Toxicity symptoms were more severe and yield response to CO{sub 2}-enrichment was reduced in the tomato cultivar Laura compared to Michigan-Ohio. There was no clear relationship between foliar starch concentration and toxicity severity between cultivars but CO{sub 2}-enriched plants had more foliar starch than non-enriched plants. Increased foliar soluble sugar concentrations do appear to be associated with increased toxicity severity and possibly decreased yield response to CO{sub 2}-enrichment.

Tripp, K.E.; Peet, M.M.; Pharr, D.M.; Willits, D.H. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA))

1989-04-01

266

Violence Severity and Psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine whether severity of violence was associated with specific types of psychotic symptoms a retrospective file review of men found of unsound mind by the Queensland Mental Health Tribunal was conducted. The association between symptoms and three levels of violence were examined. Capgras delusions and command hallucinations were associated with homicide; acute danger; and threat\\/control-override symptoms with serious violence,

Bob Green; T. Mark Schramm; Katrina Chiu; Ness McVie; Steven Hay

2009-01-01

267

Symptom Perception during Acute Bronchoconstriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis underlying the present study was that some of the variability in symptom intensity seen during acute bronchocon- striction may result from varying intensities of several stimuli yielding several sensations that can be identified by specific de- scriptive expressions (symptoms). A total of 232 subjects inhaled methacholine in doubling concentrations to a 20% decrease in FEV 1 , or

KIERAN J. KILLIAN; JOCELINE OTIS; PAUL M. O'BYRNE

2000-01-01

268

Low-dose mirtazapine added to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pregnant women with major depression or panic disorder including symptoms of severe nausea, insomnia and decreased appetite: three cases.  

PubMed

Data on the use of a combination of antidepressants during pregnancy are inadequate. This report presents the beneficial effect of low-dose mirtazapine added onto selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of the symptoms of severe nausea, insomnia and loss of appetite accompanying psychiatric disorders during pregnancy, which is an important problem in clinical practice. The psychiatric diagnoses were determined with the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Assessments were performed with the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Further studies should be carried out to confirm the positive effects and safety of an additional low-dose mirtazapine in these cases. PMID:23363390

Uguz, Faruk

2013-07-01

269

Acute genitourinary toxicity after high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer: Second analysis to determine the correlation between the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy and the severity of acute genitourinary toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We have been treating localized prostate cancer with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) at our institution. We recently reported the existence of a correlation between the severity of acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity and the urethral radiation dose in HDR brachytherapy by using different fractionation schema. The purpose of this study was to evaluate

Tetsuo. Akimoto; Hiroyuki Katoh; Shin-ei Noda; Kazuto Ito; Takumi Yamamoto; Bunzo Kashiwagi; Takashi Nakano

2005-01-01

270

Menopausal symptoms  

PubMed Central

Introduction Menopause is a physiological event. In the UK, the median age for onset of menopausal symptoms is 45.5 to 47.5 years. Although endocrine changes are permanent, menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, which are experienced by about 70% of women, usually resolve with time, although they can persist for decades in some women. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of medical treatments for menopausal symptoms? What are the effects of non-prescribed treatments for menopausal symptoms? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 79 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: agnus castus, antidepressants, black cohosh, clonidine, oestrogens, phyto-oestrogens, progestogens, testosterone, and tibolone. PMID:21696644

2011-01-01

271

Menopausal symptoms  

PubMed Central

Introduction Menopause is a physiological event. In the UK, the median age for onset of menopausal symptoms is 45.5 to 47.5 years. Although endocrine changes are permanent, menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, which are experienced by about 70% of women, usually resolve with time, although they can persist for decades in some women. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of medical treatments for menopausal symptoms? What are the effects of non-prescribed treatments for menopausal symptoms? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 68 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: agnus castus, antidepressants, black cohosh, clonidine, oestrogens, phyto-oestrogens, progestogens, testosterone, and tibolone. PMID:21718582

2010-01-01

272

Diphtheria Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... by the bacteria. The pseudomembrane sticks to the tissue below and may get in the way of breathing. The toxin may be absorbed into the blood stream and may cause damage to the heart, kidneys and nerves. Related Pages Diphtheria for Parents: The Basics Describes symptoms ...

273

Beer consumption reduces cerebral oxidation caused by aluminum toxicity by normalizing gene expression of tumor necrotic factor alpha and several antioxidant enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum (Al)-induced neurotoxicity is well known and different salts of aluminum have been reported to accelerate oxidative damage to biomolecules. The present study has examined whether silicon consumed in the form of silicic acid or beer could potentially inhibit aluminum toxicity in the brain. Male mice were administered with Al(NO3)3 orally at a dose of 450mg\\/kg\\/day in drinking water for

M. J. Gonzalez-Muñoz; I. Meseguer; M. I. Sanchez-Reus; A. Schultz; R. Olivero; J. Benedí; F. J. Sánchez-Muniz

2008-01-01

274

Lead Toxicity  

MedlinePLUS

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Lead Toxicity Case Studies in Environmental Medicine (CSEM) Patient Information Sheet What is lead? • ... water often. Page 1 of 2 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Lead Toxicity Case Studies ...

275

Toxic Synovitis  

MedlinePLUS

... Free Health Lessons Social Media: Connect With Us Toxic Synovitis KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Toxic ... goes away within a week or two. About Toxic Synovitis Toxic synovitis, also known as transient synovitis , ...

276

Mechanisms of Phosphine Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Fumigation with phosphine gas is by far the most widely used treatment for the protection of stored grain against insect pests. The development of high-level resistance in insects now threatens its continued use. As there is no suitable chemical to replace phosphine, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of phosphine toxicity to increase the effectiveness of resistance management. Because phosphine is such a simple molecule (PH3), the chemistry of phosphorus is central to its toxicity. The elements above and below phosphorus in the periodic table are nitrogen (N) and arsenic (As), which also produce toxic hydrides, namely, NH3 and AsH3. The three hydrides cause related symptoms and similar changes to cellular and organismal physiology, including disruption of the sympathetic nervous system, suppressed energy metabolism and toxic changes to the redox state of the cell. We propose that these three effects are interdependent contributors to phosphine toxicity. PMID:21776261

Nath, Nisa S.; Bhattacharya, Ishita; Tuck, Andrew G.; Schlipalius, David I.; Ebert, Paul R.

2011-01-01

277

The toxic effects of 1, 2-dimethyl-5-nitroimidazole on chickens  

E-print Network

mortality snd. sometimes 1095 loss of the flock. The causative orymism of infectious enterohepstitis is s protosoan parasite, IKt ~1'ak (Xy, 1920), ht41 I b wl Intbe of I w %8% f bioklt hF tJ M1 FW 8 t4FSki ~llinae (Lund, 1958) . A great many drugs have... 0. $4 dimetridasole and. 71. + of the 'birds receiving 0. 4$ of the drug exhibited toxicity symptoms (~ 2). The fact that no severe toxicity symptoms were reported in Table 2 for the 'b1rds receiving 0. 4$ of the drug~ shou3gl not, be mistakenly...

Colvin, Lonnie Benard

2012-06-07

278

Effect of the Botanical Compound LCS101 on Chemotherapy-Induced Symptoms in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Case Series Report  

PubMed Central

The treatment of breast cancer invariably results in severe and often debilitating symptoms that can cause significant distress and severely impair daily function and quality-of-life (QOL). We treated a series of 20 female breast cancer patients with the botanical compound LCS101 as adjuvant to conventional chemotherapy. At the end of the treatment regimen, patients rated their symptoms. 70% reported that they had either no or mildly severe levels of fatigue; 60% none to mildly severe weakness; 85% none to mildly severe pain; 70% none to mildly severe nausea; and 80% none to mildly severe vomiting. Only 20% reported severe impairment of overall function, and only 40% severely impaired QOL. No toxic effects were attributed by patients to the LCS101 treatment, and 85% reported that they believed the botanical compound had helped reduce symptoms. The effects of LCS101 on clinical outcomes in breast cancer should be tested further using randomized controlled trials. PMID:23400272

Samuels, Noah; Maimon, Yair; Zisk-Rony, Rachel Y.

2013-01-01

279

Estimating Lethal and Severe Toxic Effects in Minipigs Following 10, 60, and 180 Minutes of Whole-Body GB Vapor Exposure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sexually mature male and female Gottingen minipigs were exposed to various concentrations of GB vapor via whole-body inhalation for 10, 60, or 180 min. Signs of nerve agent exposure were classified as lethal, severe, or moderate. Maximum likelihood estima...

B. J. Benton, D. R. Sommerville, E. M. Jakubowski, J. S. Forster, S. W. Hulet

2006-01-01

280

Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

2011-01-01

281

Mindfulness Is Associated With Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience resources including mindfulness, optimism, personal mastery, and social support. The Mindful Awareness and Attention Scale (MAAS; Brown &

Bruce W. Smith; J. Alexis Ortiz; Laurie E. Steffen; Erin M. Tooley; Kathryn T. Wiggins; Elizabeth A. Yeater; John D. Montoya; Michael L. Bernard

2011-01-01

282

Examination of Psychiatric Symptoms in Student Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the authors examined the severity of psychiatric symptoms in undergraduate recreational (noncompetitive) athletes (n = 64) and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA; competitive) athletes (n = 72). The results indicated that the 2 groups were similar in the severity of psychiatric symptoms. The recreational and NCAA athletes combined (n = 136) showed less severe global psychiatric

Brad Donohue; Tracey Covassin; Kevin Lancer; Yani Dickens; Abby Miller; Adria Hash; Jeff Genet

2004-01-01

283

Free phenytoin toxicity.  

PubMed

Phenytoin has a narrow therapeutic window, and when managing cases of toxicity, clinicians are very wary of this fact. Typically, if patient presents with symptoms suggestive of phenytoin toxicity, total serum phenytoin is promptly ordered. That could be falsely low especially in elderly or critically ill patients, which may lead to a low albumin level resulting in this discrepancy. The free phenytoin can be best estimated using the Sheiner-Tozer equation. Herein, we describe a case of an elderly male patient who presented with drowsiness, gait changes, and elevated liver enzymes and a normal total serum phenytoin level of 18 ng/dL (normal, 10-20 ng/dL).After taking his albumin level into account, his free phenytoin level was calculated to be 27 ng/dL, and the phenytoin was discontinued leading to resolution of his symptoms as well as a return of his liver function panel values to baseline. PMID:24768668

Imam, Syed Haider; Landry, Kristen; Kaul, Viren; Gambhir, Harvir; John, Dinesh; Kloss, Brian

2014-10-01

284

Asbestos Toxicity  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry Search The CDC Search Button Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For ... Presentation CE Posttest Contact Us: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry 4770 Buford Hwy NE Atlanta, ...

285

What are the symptoms of flu? Symptoms include sudden onset of  

E-print Network

What are the symptoms of flu? · Symptoms include sudden onset of: o fever/chills o cough o muscle a doctor? Most people recover without needing to see a doctor; the flu usually lasts 7 ­ 10 days and goes · Disorientation or confusion · Pain or pressure in chest · Severe or persistent vomiting · Flu-like symptoms

Ellis, Randy

286

Texas A&M University System Extension: Toxic Plant Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Toxic Plant Database was developed by a team of Professors working through Texas Cooperative Extension, a division of the Texas A&M University System. Although the database focuses on toxic plants in Texas, many of the plants are found in other states as well as Mexico. This is a well-organized website containing pictures, maps, plant descriptions, information on the toxic agent, symptoms of poisoning, habitat, distribution, and "Integrated Toxic Plant Management for each toxic plant." Site users may search this extensive listing of Toxic Plants by the following categories: Common or Scientific Name, Region, Symptom, Livestock, or Plant Images. This site also links to a glossary of relevant terms.

287

Rosacea: symptoms and support.  

PubMed

Rosacea is a common skin condition, especially for middle-aged and some older adults. However, it is often wrongly perceived as cosmetic facial redness caused by alcohol. This can be very distressing for rosacea patients, as it is a facial vascular condition with subtypes, varying in severity. Rosacea should be effectively treated, as physical symptoms such as burning, stinging and soreness, as well as facial disfigurement are very distressing and can have a major impact on quality of life. This articles seeks to explain what rosacea is, including a description of sub-types and possible causes and trigger factors. Treatments for different severities of rosacea and the nurse's role in supporting patients will also be discussed. PMID:23469507

Van Onselen, Julie

288

Cardiovascular toxicity of cryopreserved cord blood cell infusion.  

PubMed

Although infusion of cryopreserved bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell is associated with a variety of symptoms, there have been no reports detailing the data of infusion-related toxicities of cryopreserved cord blood (CB) units. We prospectively evaluated the incidence and significance of infusion-related toxicities in 34 adult patients undergoing unrelated CB transplantation. Cryopreserved CB units were thawed and immediately infused, unfiltered, through a central intravenous catheter without further manipulation. Heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and clinical symptoms were recorded during and after infusion. Twenty-four percent of patients experienced non-cardiovascular toxicities related to infusion. The incidence of systolic and diastolic hypertension and bradycardia was 58, 64 and 32%, respectively. Although three patients (9%) with severe systolic hypertension after the infusion required treatment with antihypertensive agents, no patients experienced life-threatening side effects or needed discontinuation of CB unit infusion. Patient or transplant characteristics had no effect on the hypertension and bradycardia related to the infusion of CB. These data suggest that infusion of cryopreserved CB without further manipulation after thawing is safe and well tolerated. However, cardiovascular toxicities including hypertension and bradycardia were frequently observed. PMID:18209718

Konuma, T; Ooi, J; Takahashi, S; Tomonari, A; Tsukada, N; Kobayashi, T; Sato, A; Kato, S; Kasahara, S; Ebihara, Y; Nagamura-Inoue, T; Tsuji, K; Tojo, A; Asano, S

2008-05-01

289

Depressive Symptoms in Chiropractic Students  

PubMed Central

Background: The intensive training associated with health care education has been suggested to have unintended negative consequences on students’ mental or emotional health that may interfere with the development of qualities deemed essential for proficient health care professionals. This longitudinal study examined the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms among students at a chiropractic educational institution. Methods: Chiropractic students at all levels of training were surveyed at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College during the academic years of 2000/2001, 2001/2002, and 2002/2003. The measurement tool employed was the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II). Previously established BDI-II cutoff scores were used to assess the severity of reported depression symptoms, and these were compared by sex and year of training. Results: The survey was completed by 1303 students (70%) over the 3 years of the study. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was nearly 25%, with 13.7% of respondents indicating a rating of mild depression, 7.1% indicating moderate depressive symptoms, and 2.8% indicating severe symptoms. Significant differences were found between years of training, with 2nd-year students having the highest prevalence of depressive symptoms, and sex, with females having a higher rate of symptoms. Conclusions: Chiropractic students surveyed at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College had high rates of depression similar to those measured in other health care profession students. Chiropractic educational institutions should be aware of this situation and are encouraged to emphasize students’ awareness of their own personal health and well-being and their access to appropriate care, in addition to the same concerns for their future patients. PMID:22069339

Kinsinger, Stuart; Puhl, Aaron Anthony; Reinhart, Christine J.

2011-01-01

290

Symptom masquerade: understanding the meaning of symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goals Somatization refers to patients who transform distress and global suffering into pain and symptom expression. We have observed the opposite phenomenon in some outpatients seen for palliative care: patients who transform pain nociception into global suffering or other symptoms. The goal of this study is to describe the meaning of these patients’ experiences that are not expressed as pain

Marlene Z. Cohen; Lori Williams; Patti Knight; Julie Snider; Kavin Hanzik; Michael J. Fisch

2004-01-01

291

Vitiligo: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases and treatments U - W Vitiligo Signs, symptoms Vitiligo: Signs and symptoms Vitiligo causes loss of color. ... amount of color loss or type of vitiligo. Vitiligo has types and subtypes If you are diagnosed ...

292

Shingles: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases and treatments Q - T Shingles Signs, symptoms Shingles: Signs and symptoms Shingles tends to cause more ... painful before the shingles appeared. Learn more about shingles: Shingles Shingles: Who gets, causes Shingles: Diagnosis, treatment, ...

293

Heart attack symptoms (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... Some people (the elderly, people with diabetes, and women) may have little or no chest pain. Or, they may experience unusual symptoms (shortness of breath, fatigue, weakness). Women are more likely than men to have symptoms ...

294

Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma  

MedlinePLUS

... Neuroma Legacy Society Search ANAUSA.org Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma Early symptoms are easily overlooked, thus making diagnosis ... Resources Patient Survey Links Additional Resources © 2014 Acoustic Neuroma Association Acoustic Neuroma Association • 600 Peachtree Parkway • Suite 108 • Cumming, ...

295

Pathogenesis of severe asthma.  

PubMed

Patients with severe asthma have asthma symptoms which are difficult to control, require high dosages of medication, and continue to experience persistent symptoms, asthma exacerbations or airflow obstruction. Epidemiological and clinical evidences point to the fact that severe asthma is not a single phenotype. Cluster analyses have identified subclasses of severe asthma using parameters such as patient characteristics, and cytokine profiles have also been useful in classifying moderate and severe asthma. The IL-4/IL-13 signalling pathway accounts for the symptoms experienced by a subset of severe asthmatics with allergen-associated symptoms and high serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, and these patients are generally responsive to anti-IgE treatment. The IL-5/IL-33 signalling pathway is likely to play a key role in the disease pathogenesis of those who are resistant to high doses of inhaled corticosteroid but responsive to systemic corticosteroids and anti-IL5 therapy. The IL-17 signalling pathway is thought to contribute to 'neutrophilic asthma'. Although traditionally viewed as players in the defence mechanism against viral and intracellular bacterial infection, mounting evidence supports a role for Th1 cytokines such as IL-18 and IFN-? in severe asthma pathogenesis. Furthermore, these cytokine signalling pathways interact to contribute to the spectrum of clinical pathological outcomes in severe asthma. To date, glucocorticoids are the most effective anti-asthma drugs available, yet severe asthma patients are typically resistant to the effects of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid receptor dysfunction and histone deacetylase activity reduction are likely to contribute to glucocorticoid resistance in severe asthma patients. This review discusses recent development in different cytokine signalling pathways, their interactions and steroid resistance, in the context of severe asthma pathogenesis. PMID:22515387

Poon, A H; Eidelman, D H; Martin, J G; Laprise, C; Hamid, Q

2012-05-01

296

Examination of psychiatric symptoms in student athletes.  

PubMed

In the present study, the authors examined the severity of psychiatric symptoms in undergraduate recreational (noncompetitive) athletes (n = 64) and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA; competitive) athletes (n = 72). The results indicated that the 2 groups were similar in the severity of psychiatric symptoms. The recreational and NCAA athletes combined (n = 136) showed less severe global psychiatric symptoms when they were compared with an undergraduate control group (n = 435). The implications of the study are discussed in the context of those findings. PMID:14977030

Donohue, Brad; Covassin, Tracey; Lancer, Kevin; Dickens, Yani; Miller, Abby; Hash, Adria; Genet, Jeff

2004-01-01

297

The Emergence of Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve papers on the emergence and maintenance of severe clinical depression and depressive symptoms during adolescence are presented. Topics include parental influences, epidemiological data, depressive and negative affect, hormonal effects, preadolescent symptoms, sex differences, longitudinal studies with rhesus monkeys, suicidal ideation,…

Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.; Petersen, Anne C., Ed.

1991-01-01

298

What causes the symptoms of heart failure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

hronic heart failure (CHF) is a com- mon condition with a poor prognosis. It is associated with debilitating limit- ing symptoms, even with optimal modern medical management. Foremost among these symptoms is severe exercise intolerance with pronounced fatigue and dyspnoea at low exer- cise workloads. The UK National Health Serv- ice has highlighted it as a key target for improved

Andrew J S Coats

2001-01-01

299

Psychotic symptoms in Parkinson’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychotic symptoms are common in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and occur in at least 20% of medication-treated patients. Benign visual hallucinations usually appear earlier, while malignant hallucinations, confusional states, delusions, paranoid beliefs, agitation, and delirium become more frequent with disease progression. Virtually all antiparkinsonian drugs may produce psychotic symptoms. Cognitive impairment, increased age, disease duration and severity, depression, and sleep disorders

Spiridon Papapetropoulos; D. C. Mash

2005-01-01

300

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Signs and Symptoms Language: English Español Français Share Compartir Symptoms of Ebola include Fever Severe ... Ebola Outbreak  Language: English Español Français File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

301

Autism Symptom Topography and Maternal Socioemotional Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers examining the relationship of autism "symptomatology" and maternal stress have defined symptomatology in terms of level of severity, frequency of occurrence, or symptom type. In the present study, the relationship of maternal perceptions of these dimensions, along with a fourth, symptom diversity, and negative and positive indices of…

Ekas, Naomi; Whitman, Thomas L.

2010-01-01

302

Post-traumatic symptoms in abused children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of symptoms have been described as sequelae of physical and sexual abuse in childhood. This review suggests that some of these symptoms can be understood as developmentally mediated manifestations of post-traumatic disorders. Like traumatized combat or concentration camp survivors, severely abused children develop anxiety, compulsive repetitions, sleep disturbances and depression, ego constriction, and disturbed expressions of anger. The

Jean Goodwin

1988-01-01

303

Review NH4 + toxicity in higher plants: a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonium (NH4 +) toxicity is an issue of global ecological and economic importance. In this review, we discuss the major themes of NH4 + toxicity, including the occurrence of NH4 + in the biosphere, response differences to NH4 + nutrition among wild and domesticated species, symptoms and pro- posed mechanisms underlying toxicity, and means by which it can be alleviated.

Dev T. Britto; Herbert J. Kronzucker

304

Toxic states as complications in functional psychoses etiology and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic psychoses are frequently seen and toxic symptoms of more or less intensity are noted in other psychoses at intervals. However, it is not of these that we especially refer at present, but to a group of cases in which the toxic picture covered for the time being an already established psychosis. Undoubtedly if a review of the statistical diagnoses

Gerald Jameison; James H. Wall

1930-01-01

305

Postconcussive symptoms in craniofacial trauma.  

PubMed

In a private/institutional setting the prevalence of Postconcussive Syndrome (PCS) symptoms and related etiologic factors was surveyed in 122 concussion and other craniofacial trauma patients (mean age 32 years; 68% male) and 122 uninjured controls (mean age 21 years; 45% males). A Neurobehavioral Symptom Checklist was used to measure 44 self-related symptoms, summed to yield Overall Frequency; number of symptoms rated as 3 or 4 were also summed separately to yield High Frequency scores. The Concussion group had significantly greater Overall Frequency and High Frequency scores than the other patients and the controls. The Brain Damage group had significantly greater High Frequency (but not Overall Frequency) scores than the controls. The presence of litigation, unemployment, or middle-age yielded significantly greater Overall Frequency scores in the patients; these variables in the control group were not measured. The presence of craniofacial fractures had no effect. Results suggest PCS symptoms are greatest in concussion patients with the presence of litigation, unemployment or middle age, and are less affected by injury severity. PMID:11951477

Ozolins, M; Parsons, O; Ozolins, D; Hunter, P D

1996-01-01

306

What Are Common Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Symptoms?  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources and Publications En Español What are common TBI symptoms? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... a sign of severe TBI. Symptoms of Mild TBI A person with a mild TBI may experience: ...

307

TOXICITY OF CHLORINATED BENZENES TO FATHEAD MINNOWS ('PIMEPHALES PROMELAS')  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicities of several chlorinated benzene compounds to fathead minnows were determined. Generally both acute and chronic toxicity values decreased and the tissue concentration values associated with the chronic toxicity values increased as the number of chlorine atoms on the ...

308

Lithium toxicity  

MedlinePLUS

... tracing) Fluids through a vein (by IV) Kidney dialysis (machine) Medicines to control symptoms Tube through the ... delay can lead to long-term problems. If dialysis is performed quickly, you may feel much better, ...

309

Toxic Newts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The father and son team of Brodie and Brodie track down the predator able to stomach a mysteriously hyper-toxic newt, an example of an evolutionary arms race in action. From Evolution: Evolutionary Arms Race.

Foundation, Wgbh E.; Productions, Clear B.

2003-09-26

310

Functional neurological symptoms.  

PubMed

Functional neurological symptoms refer to neurological symptoms that are not explained by disease. They may also be called psychogenic, non-organic, somatoform, dissociative or conversion symptoms. The most common functional neurological symptoms are non-epileptic attacks and functional weakness. These are common in neurology and general medical practice, especially in emergency situations, where they can be mistaken for epilepsy or stroke. Many studies have shown that these symptoms often persist, are associated with distress and disability and, in the right hands, have a low rate of misdiagnosis. Physicians are often uncertain how to approach patients with these problems. Are patients making up the symptoms? How can the diagnosis be made confidently? What is the best way to explain the diagnosis to the patient? Does treatment ever help? This review takes readers through these questions with practical tips for avoiding common pitfalls, both in diagnosis and management. There is no good evidence that these symptoms are any more 'made up' than irritable bowel symptoms or chronic pain. The diagnosis should usually be made by a neurologist on the basis of positive signs of inconsistency such as Hoover's sign or the typical features of a non-epileptic attack. A 'functional' model of the symptoms is useful both in thinking about the problem and when explaining the symptoms to the patient. There are many useful steps in management that do not require a detailed understanding of aetiology in an individual patient. PMID:21365066

Stone, J

2011-03-01

311

Toxic compounds in honey.  

PubMed

There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. PMID:24214851

Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

2014-07-01

312

Cardiac toxicity of clonidine.  

PubMed

A 22-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus complicated by mild renal insufficiency and severe systemic hypertension inadvertently received an excessive amount of clonidine hydrochloride. In association with a presumed toxic level of clonidine in the serum, the patient developed abnormalities of cardiac conduction, including 2:1 atrioventricular block, complete heart block, 3:2 Wenckebach block, and first-degree atrioventricular block. The transient nature of these abnormalities, with the return of normal conduction upon the cessation of therapy with clonidine, implicates this drug as being capable of producing high-grade atrioventricular block at toxic levels. PMID:923317

Williams, P L; Krafcik, J M; Potter, B B; Hooper, J H; Hearne, M J

1977-12-01

313

Detection of sub-clinical lead toxicity in monocasters  

SciTech Connect

Lead poisoning has been documented since antiquity but occupational lead intoxication still continues to occur. Now there is a growing consensus that low levels of lead exposure often do not result in the manifestation of toxic symptoms, but may have subclinical toxicity on haemopoitic and renal system. Such toxicities are reported even at blood lead concentrations which were thought to be safe (60-80 {mu}g/dl) a decade ago. One of the several effects of lead, is inhibition of erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (d-ALAD), rate limiting enzyme of the heme synthesis. Similar effect on d-ALAD has been reported even at the blood lead concentrations of 20-30 {mu}g/dl which are much below the toxic limits of 60 {mu}g/dl. Occupational lead nephropathy has been reported from several countries. Ultrastructural alteration in renal tubules, due to chronic exposure of lead, are seen in both animals and human renal biopsy samples. However, detecting early renal damage is a difficult task, since the routine renal function tests like creatine clearance, Insulin clearance (GFR) etc. are altered only after severe kidney damage. Recently increased urinary excretion of lysomal enzyme N-acetyl-B-D-glucosaminidase, a marker of early nephrotoxicity has been reported in the workers exposed to various chemicals including lead. The present study has therefore been undertaken to evaluate the subclinical lead toxicity on haemopoetic and renal system using non invassive techniques in monocasters, who are occupationally exposed to lead fumes while preparing the type set letter blocks. 23 refs., 3 figs.

Kumar, B.D.; Krishnaswamy, K. [Food and Drug Toxicology Research Centre National Institute of Nutrition, Jamai Osmania (India)

1995-06-01

314

Integrated Toxic Plant Management Handbook: Livestock Poisoning Plants of the Trans-Pecos Region of Texas  

E-print Network

Photographs, plant descriptions, and symptoms of poisoning help ranchers identify toxic plants that may be harmful to their livestock in West Texas. There is also information on grazing, livestock management, and toxic plant control....

Hart, Charles R.; McGinty, Allan; Carpenter, Bruce B.

2001-01-11

315

Symptoms and Signs Associated with Postpartum Thyroiditis  

PubMed Central

Background. Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a common triphasic autoimmune disease in women with thyroid peroxidase (TPO) autoantibodies. This study evaluated women's thyroid disease symptoms, physical findings, stress levels, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels across six postpartum months in three groups, TPO negative, TPO positive, and PPT positive women. Methods. Women were recruited in midpregnancy (n = 631) and TPO status was determined which then was used to form the three postpartum groups. The three groups were compared on TSH levels, thyroid symptoms, weight, blood pressure, heart rate, a thyroid exam, and stress scores. Results. Fifty-six percent of the TPO positive women developed PPT. Hypothyroid group (F (2, 742) = 5.8, P = .003) and hyperthyroid group (F (2, 747) = 6.6, P = .001) subscale scores differed by group. Several symptoms and stress scores were highest in the PPT group. Conclusions. The normal postpartum is associated with many symptoms that mimic thyroid disease symptoms, but severity is greater in women with either TPO or PPT positivity. While the most severe symptoms were generally seen in PPT positive women, even TPO positive women seem to have higher risk for these signs and symptoms.

2014-01-01

316

INSOMNIA: SYMPTOM OR DIAGNOSIS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is insomnia a clinical entity in its own right or is it simply a symptom of an underlying medical or psychological disorder? The widely held view among many clinicians and researchers is that insomnia is secondary to or an epiphenomenon of a ‘primary’ medical or psychological disorder. Consequently, insomnia ‘symptoms’ have tended to be trivialized or ignored. This paper aims

Allison G Harvey

2001-01-01

317

Protection Against Toxic Substances In Space Travel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the many sources of toxic contaminants in the space cabin atmosphere, thermal decomposition products from elastomers, plastics and other compounds are the most hazardous. A study of the decomposition characteristics and toxicity of several of these materials indicates that the smoke and fumes given off contribute significantly to the toxicity predicted on the basis of gaseous decomposition products only.

H. H. Bovee; J. E. Schubert

1963-01-01

318

Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polyoxymethylene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sample of polyoxymethylene was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Under several test conditions, this material gave shorter times to death than many other synthetic polymers. Carbon monoxide appeared to be the principal toxicant in the pyrolysis gases.

Hilado, C. J.; Schneider, J. E.; Brauer, D. P.

1979-01-01

319

A characteristic symptom of calcium deficiency in maize and sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appearance of the so?called “bull?whip”; in leaves of maize plants has been recognized as a calcium deficiency symptom. Another characteristic symptom, in which the leaf edges of maize plants become serrated and curl, is often observed when there is a low calcium supply, especially in solution cultures. The effects of several factors on this symptom were investigated using solution

T. Kawaski; M. Moritsugu

1979-01-01

320

Clinical symptoms and symptom signatures of Alzheimer's disease subgroups.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial disorder that involves several different mechanisms. Over 99% of AD patients suffer from the sporadic form of the disease. Based on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-? (A?)(1-42), total tau, and ubiquitin--the markers associated with the histopathological hallmarks of the disease (A? plaques and abnormally hyperphosphorylated neurofibrillary tangles)--previous studies identified five subgroups of AD. Here we report the potential diagnostic predictive value of hallucination, hypokinesia, paranoia, rigidity, and tremors in aged individuals for AD and differences in the prevalence of these symptoms in the CSF marker-based subgroups of the disease. Analysis of 196 clinically diagnosed AD or Alzheimer with Lewy body, and 75 non-AD neurological and non-neurological control cases, all from a single center, showed that the presence of hallucination, hypokinesia, paranoia, rigidity, or tremors individually, or the presence of any of these, could diagnose AD with sensitivities and specificities of 14% and 99%; 30% and 99%; 15% and 99%; 16% and 100%; 16% and 96%; and 47% and 92%, respectively. The pattern of the prevalence of the above symptoms varied from AD subgroup to subgroup. Presence of any of these symptoms, as well as presence of each individual symptom except tremors, significantly differentiated AD subgroups from the predominantly control cluster. These findings encourage the exploration of hallucination, hypokinesia, paranoia, rigidity, and tremors in identifying various subgroups of AD for stratification of patients for clinical trials to develop therapeutic drugs. This study is for the special issue of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease honoring Inge Grundke-Iqbal who made several seminal contributions in AD research. PMID:24002184

Iqbal, Khalid; Flory, Michael; Soininen, Hilkka

2013-01-01

321

Toxic remediation  

DOEpatents

What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

Matthews, Stephen M. (Alamed County, CA); Schonberg, Russell G. (Santa Clara County, CA); Fadness, David R. (Santa Clara County, CA)

1994-01-01

322

Factors affecting outcome of depressive symptoms in alcoholics.  

PubMed

Eighty-eight patients consecutively admitted to an alcohol treatment program were studied to determine the amount of depressive symptoms on entry to the program and after 4 weeks of treatment. The degree of symptoms was in turn related to various aspects of their drinking behavior. Twenty-two of the patients were classified as having moderate to marked depressive symptoms, 40 had mild symptoms, and 26 had no significant symptoms at the time of entry into the program. Factors in drinking behavior that best characterized those with moderate to marked symptoms were addiction, sleep disturbance, hangover incapacitation, loss of control, neurological signs, and organicity/toxicity. At the end of treatment, only four patients could actually be diagnosed as depressed, while 12 had mild residual symptoms and 72 no longer had significant symptoms. The one factor that clearly distinguished those patients with residual depressive symptoms was the use of drinking for social facilitation. For such individuals, bars and drinking were the focus of social life. The favorable course of depressive symptoms in alcoholics soon after they stop drinking suggests that they are more likely the consequence of drinking than the cause of it. The fact that patients who drink primarily to facilitate social aspects of their lives were the most likely to have residual symptoms suggests that treatment of such individuals should involve development of alternative mechanisms of social interaction. PMID:6346922

Nakamura, M M; Overall, J E; Hollister, L E; Radcliffe, E

1983-01-01

323

The Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire: a measure of symptoms commonly experienced after head injury and its reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

After head injuries, particularly mild or moderate ones, a range of post-concussion symptoms (PCS) are often reported by patients. Such symptoms may significantly affect patients' psychosocial functioning. To date, no measure of the severity of PCS has been developed. This study presents the Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) as such a measure, derived from published material, and investigates its

N. S. King; S. Crawford; F. J. Wenden; N. E. G. Moss; D. T. Wade

1995-01-01

324

[Toxic epidermal necrolysis after treatment with lamotrigine].  

PubMed

A case of toxic epidermal necrolysis following treatment with lamotrigine is presented. A 20 year old male suffering from epilepsy was treated with lamotrigine in addition to valproic acid. After three weeks he developed cutaneous manifestations of Steven-Johnson's syndrome followed by toxic epidermal necrolysis, mucosal lesions and liver symptoms. He was treated with systemic corticosteroids, antibiotics and intravenous fluid, and recovered after a few weeks. PMID:9825684

Zachariae, C O; Fogh, K

1998-11-01

325

Psychiatric Symptoms in Alpha-Mannosidosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alpha-mannosidosis is characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID), moderate to severe neurosensory hearing loss, frequent infections, psychomotor disturbances and skeletal dysmorphism. For the first time, a panel of nine alpha-mannosidosis patients with psychiatric symptoms is presented. The clinical picture has several

Malm, D.; Pantel, J.; Linaker, O. M.

2005-01-01

326

Shellfish Toxicity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This eMedicine Clinical Knowledge Base webpage features information about shellfish toxicity for physicians and other healthcare professionals. Highlighting the four distinct shellfish poisoning syndromes - Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), Neurologic shellfish poisoning (NSP), Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) this webpage discusses background, pathophysiology, frequency, mortality/morbidity, age, and clinical descriptions. It also takes a deeper look at differentials, laboratory workup, treatment, medication, follow-up, medical/legal pitfalls, special concerns, and a bibliography.

Arnold, Thomas

2010-03-24

327

Listeriosis: Definition and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... page: About CDC.gov . Listeria (Listeriosis) Share Compartir Definition Listeria : Food Poisoning's Rare but Deadly Germ February ... 888) 232-6348 Contact CDC–INFO Listeria (Listeriosis) Definition & Symptoms Outbreaks Oasis Brands Inc., Cheese Recall & Advice ...

328

About Kennedy's Disease: Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

Kennedy's Disease Association A Public Benefit, Non-Profit Organization Register GTranslate GTranslate Javascript is required to use ... KDA Newsletters Memorials Symptoms Print Email Medical Term: Definition: Neurological: Bulbar Signs The Bulbar muscles are those ...

329

Medically unexplained physical symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to estimate the number of patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) that could be eligible for group cognitive–behavioural treatment (CBT) and to assess the acceptability of this treatment.

I. A. Arnold; A. E. M. Speckens; A. M. van Hemert

2004-01-01

330

Tetanus: Symptoms and Complications  

MedlinePLUS

... of the muscles of the jaw, or "lockjaw". Tetanus symptoms include: Headache Jaw cramping Sudden, involuntary muscle ... sweating High blood pressure and fast heart rate Tetanus complications include: Uncontrolled/involuntary muscular contraction of the ...

331

Module 3 – Symptoms  

Cancer.gov

Module three of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study Original Version presents approaches to and management of commonly encountered symptoms and syndromes of cancer patients.

332

Dyslexia: Causes, Symptoms, Definition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article reviews proposed causes and observable symptoms that characterize dyslexia, concluding that individualized analysis and specialized treatments are required and that, until an operational definition can be agreed upon, use of the label "dyslexia" is counterproductive. (DB)

Shannon, Albert J.

1986-01-01

333

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

334

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

335

Predicting toxicity in aquatic ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

Ash leachates and other utility wastes that may enter lakes or streams contain mixtures of chemicals that include several kinds of toxicants. The toxic properties of these mixtures vary with the chemical form and concentration of their constituents. EPRI is developing a general toxicity model (GTM) to simulate environmental conditions in bodies of water where toxicants are present, and to predict the effects of toxicants on aquatic life-forms and ecosystems. To date, scientists have developed analytical methods to measure ambient concentrations of the major species of trace elements (selenium, arsenic, and mercury) and a model to describe the biogeochemical role of selenium. Recent studies of selenium cycling through the aquatic food web support GTM development.

Porcella, D. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1992-03-01

336

Estimating Incidence Curves of Several Infections Using Symptom Surveillance Data  

E-print Network

of the manuscript. Competing Interests: ML discloses consulting income from the Avian/Pandemic Flu Registry (Outcome Vaccines and Diagnostics. BC has received study funding from MedImmune Inc., a manufacturer of influenza surveillance systems to ascertain rates of medical consultations associated with influenza-like illness [1

Chen, Yiling

337

Pharmacology of Hallucinations: Several Mechanisms for One Single Symptom?  

PubMed Central

Hallucinations are complex misperceptions, that principally occur in schizophrenia or after intoxication induced by three main classes of drugs: psychostimulants, psychedelics, and dissociative anesthetics. There are at least three different pharmacological ways to induce hallucinations: (1) activation of dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) with psychostimulants, (2) activation of serotonin 5HT2A receptors (HT2ARs) with psychedelics, and (3) blockage of glutamate NMDA receptors (NMDARs) with dissociative anesthetics. In schizophrenia, the relative importance of NMDAR and D2R in the occurrence of hallucinations is still debated. Slight clinical differences are observed for each etiology. Thus, we investigated whether the concept of hallucination is homogenous, both clinically and neurobiologically. A narrative review of the literature is proposed to synthesize how the main contributors in the field have approached and tried to solve these outstanding questions. While some authors prefer one explanatory mechanism, others have proposed more integrated theories based on the different pharmacological psychosis models. In this review, such theories are discussed and faced with the clinical data. In addition, the nosological aspects of hallucinations and psychosis are addressed. We suggest that if there may be common neurobiological pathways between the different pharmacological systems that are responsible for the hallucinations, there may also be unique properties of each system, which explains the clinical differences observed. PMID:24991548

Rolland, Benjamin; Amad, Ali; Cottencin, Olivier; Bordet, Régis

2014-01-01

338

Perfectionism and depression symptom severity in major depressive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years it has been recognized that perfectionism is a multidimensional construct and two Multidimensional Perfectionism Scales have been developed and investigated in relative isolation [Frost, R.O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., & Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 449–468; Hewitt, P.L., & Flett, G.L. (1991). Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: Conceptualization,

Murray W. Enns; Brian J. Cox

1999-01-01

339

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Predict Symptom Severity of Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism is widely believed to be a heterogeneous disorder; diagnosis is currently based solely on clinical criteria, although genetic, as well as environmental, influences are thought to be prominent factors in the etiology of most forms of autism. Our goal is to determine whether a predictive model based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)…

Jiao, Yun; Chen, Rong; Ke, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Lu; Chu, Kangkang; Lu, Zuhong; Herskovits, Edward H.

2012-01-01

340

Mindfulness based stress reduction in post-treatment breast cancer patients: an examination of symptoms and symptom clusters.  

PubMed

To investigate prevalence and severity of symptoms and symptom clustering in breast cancer survivors who attended MBSR(BC). Women were randomly assigned into MBSR(BC) or Usual Care (UC). Eligible women were ? 21 years, had been diagnosed with breast cancer and completed treatment within 18 months of enrollment. Symptoms and interference with daily living were measured pre- and post-MBSR(BC) using the M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory. Symptoms were reported as highly prevalent but severity was low. Fatigue was the most frequently reported and severe symptom among groups. Symptoms clustered into 3 groups and improved in both groups. At baseline, both MBSR(BC) and the control groups showed similar mean symptom severity and interference; however, after the 6-week post-intervention, the MBSR(BC) group showed statistically-significant reduction for fatigue and disturbed sleep (P < 0.01) and improved symptom interference items, compared to the control group. For the between-group comparisons, 11 of 13 symptoms and 5 of 6 interference items had lower means in the MBSR(BC) condition than the control condition. These results suggest that MBSR(BC) modestly decreases fatigue and sleep disturbances, but has a greater effect on the degree to which symptoms interfere with many facets of life. Although these results are preliminary, MBSR intervention post-treatment may effectively reduce fatigue and related interference in QOL of breast cancer survivors. PMID:21506018

Lengacher, Cecile A; Reich, Richard R; Post-White, Janice; Moscoso, Manolete; Shelton, Melissa M; Barta, Michelle; Le, Nancy; Budhrani, Pinky

2012-02-01

341

Symptom Management Concept Design Webinar  

Cancer.gov

Objectives Describe the review process for a symptom management concept Identify the required elements included in a symptom management concept Identify key statistical considerations for a symptom management concept Describe issues to consider

342

Contact Dermatitis: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... treatments A - D Contact dermatitis Signs and symptoms Contact dermatitis: Signs and symptoms Allergic contact dermatitis : Testing ... these symptoms, you need immediate medical care. Allergic contact dermatitis This skin condition occurs when you have ...

343

Residency Program Influenza Algorithm: Updated 07/14/10 Symptomatic with Rapid Onset of Symptoms: Fevers> 100 F URI Symptoms no Fevers  

E-print Network

are not ASSUME INFLUENZA progressive and !!Q fevers develop: I Assume URI. If severe symptoms w/o fevers: Stay: Fevers> 100° F URI Symptoms no Fevers PLUS: Respiratory Symptoms (Cough with or without sore throat nausea/diarrhea. ~ ASSUME INFLUENZA DO NOT COME TO WORK ~ ~ ! ~ If Fevers> 100°F develop: If symptoms

Leistikow, Bruce N.

344

Oxygen toxicity and tolerance.  

PubMed

Normobaric oxygen toxicity is well described in all animal species. However susceptibility to oxygen exposure is highly variable according to age, species and strains. Similarly in humans, prolonged high oxygen exposure is reported to induce cough, shortness of breath, decrease vital capacity and increase alveolo-capillary permeability. The toxic FIO2 threshold (length of exposure and level) is still debated. In patients with previous lung injury, this threshold is even more difficult to delineate as pathologic pulmonary lesions might result from hyperoxia or primary lung insult. Oxygen free-radicals play a key role in the pathophysiology of oxygen toxicity. Oxygen resistance or tolerance is obtained with intraperitoneal, intravenous and intratracheal endotoxin or cytokines administration. Previous exposure to high oxygen concentration is also reported to increase survival rate and decrease pulmonary lesions in animal models. Protection may rely on antioxidant enzymes synthesis, nitric oxide production, neutrophils recruitment and modulation of alveolar macrophages activity. In humans, oxygen tolerance might be suspected through several clinical studies reporting favorable outcome after long term-oxygen exposure. Better knowledge of the risks of prolonged high oxygen exposure is important to re-evaluate the goals of mechanical ventilation (FIO2, SaO2, PEEP) and/or to develop treatments to prevent oxygen toxicity (surfactant, antioxidant enzymes). PMID:10394807

Capellier, G; Maupoil, V; Boussat, S; Laurent, E; Neidhardt, A

1999-06-01

345

[Safety analysis of eight patients treated with erlotinib after severe gefitinib-induced liver injury].  

PubMed

Gefitinib and erlotinib are commercially available epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) that are widely used for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Acute severe liver injury, although rare, has been observed in patients receiving these EGFR-TKIs. Some studies have reported that erlotinib treatment does not cause severe liver toxicity in patients with NSCLC who previously presented with severe liver injury during the course of gefitinib treatment. We retrospectively assessed the occurrence of liver toxicity in patients with NSCLC who were receiving erlotinib and had previously presented with severe gefitinib-induced liver injury.Severe liver injury occurred in only 1 of the 8 patients receiving erlotinib treatment. In this case, erlotinib was discontinued because of the onset of grade 3 skin rash and liver injury. After liver function was restored, erlotinib (100 mg) was administered at a lower dose; nonetheless, grade 4 liver injury occurred. Our findings suggest that it is necessary not only to explain the early symptoms of liver toxicity to patients who are receiving erlotinib treatment and have previously experienced gefitinib-induced severe liver injury but also to more closely monitor liver function. PMID:20647715

Ohashi, Yasukata; Suzuki, Kenichi; Sakurai, Michiru; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Onishi, Tomohisa; Nakagaki, Shigeru; Kato, Toshiaki; Shino, Michihiro; Naito, Tateaki; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

2010-07-01

346

Toxic optic neuropathy following ingestion of homeopathic medication Arnica-30.  

PubMed

We report a case of acute, bilateral and severe vision loss after inadvertent consumption of a large quantity of the homoeopathic medication Arnica-30. Severe vomiting which required hospitalization preceded visual symptoms. In the acute stage, pupillary responses to light were absent and fundus examination was normal. Vision loss followed a fluctuating course, with profound loss noted after 6 weeks along with bilateral optic disc pallor. Neuro-ophthalmic examination and detailed investigations were performed, including magnetic resonance imaging, electroretinography (ERG) and visual evoked potentials (VEP). Ocular coherence tomography (OCT) showed gross thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer. While a differential diagnosis of posterior ischemic optic neuropathy was kept in mind, these findings supported a diagnosis of bilateral toxic optic neuropathy. Arnica-30 is popularly used to accelerate wound healing, including after oculoplastic surgery. While homeopathic medicines are generally considered safe due to the very low concentrations involved, Arnica-30 may be neurotoxic if consumed internally in large quantities. PMID:22877081

Venkatramani, Devendra V; Goel, Shubhra; Ratra, Vineet; Gandhi, Rashmin Anilkumar

2013-03-01

347

Neurobehavioral toxicity.  

PubMed Central

A growing number of agents are known to perturb one or more of the interconnected processes of the central nervous system. At the same time, there is an increase in the incidence of neurobehavioral disorders that are confronting clinicians with baffling symptoms and presentations that seem uncommon. Fundamental to the assessment of the environmental-relatedness of the syndromes is a work and exposure history, including information different from that routinely obtained in the clinical setting. Exposure examples are described to suggest the scope of inquiry necessary to differentiate neurotoxic syndromes from nonneurotoxic illness. PMID:10745641

Walker, B.

2000-01-01

348

Holiday plants with toxic misconceptions.  

PubMed

Several plants are used for their decorative effect during winter holidays. This review explores the toxic reputation and proposed management for exposures to several of those, namely poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima), English holly (Ilex aquifolium), American holly (Ilex opaca), bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), Jerusalem cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum), American mistletoe (Phoradendron serotinum), and European mistletoe (Viscum album). PMID:23359840

Evens, Zabrina N; Stellpflug, Samuel J

2012-12-01

349

Turning the Tide on Toxics in the Home.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides a guide for the safe use and disposal of toxic chemicals found around the home. Toxicity ratings given to compounds are explained along with the amount needed for a probable fatal dose for a 150-pound person. Each category of hazardous waste is provided with typical examples of the toxicants, a toxicity rating, several

Washington State Dept. of Ecology, Olympia.

350

Toxicity assessment of pramipexole in juvenile rhesus monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pramipexole (PPX) is a dopamine agonist approved for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson's disease as well as restless leg syndrome. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of PPX when administered orally to juvenile rhesus monkeys once daily for 30 weeks, and to assess the reversibility of toxicity during a 12-week recovery.

Tucker A. Patterson; Mi Li; Charlotte E. Hotchkiss; Annerose Mauz; Malcolm Eddie; Andreas Greischel; Birgit Stierstorfer; Ulrich Deschl; Merle G. Paule

2010-01-01

351

New insights into manganese toxicity and speciation.  

PubMed

Manganese (Mn) is known to be a neurotoxic agent for nearly 175 years now. A lot of research has therefore been carried out over the last century. From preliminary describing only symptoms of Mn-(over)exposed workers, research was preceded to more detail on toxic mechanisms of Mn. Unraveling those neurotoxic mechanisms implicated a number of studies, which were summarized partly in several reviews (e.g. Yokel RA. Neuromol Med 2009;11(4):297-310; Aschner M, et al. Toxicology Appl Pharmacol 2007;221(2):131-47; Michalke B, et al. J Environ Monit 2007;9(7):650). Since our recent review on Mn-speciation in 2007 (Michalke B, et al. J Environ Monit 2007;9(7):650), Mn-research was considerably pushed forward and several new research articles were published. The very recent years though, Mn toxicity investigating science is spreading into different fields with very detailed and complex study designs. Especially the mechanisms of Mn-induced neuronal injury on cellular and molecular level was investigated in more detail, discussing neurotransmitter and enzyme interactions, mechanisms of action on DNA level and even inclusion of genetic influences. Depicting the particular Mn-species was also a big issue to determine which molecule is transporting Mn at the cell membranes and which one is responsible for the injury of neuronal tissue. Other special foci on epidemiologic studies were becoming more and more important: These foci were directed toward environmental influences of Mn on especially Parkinson disease prevalence and the ability to carry out follow-up studies about Mn-life-span exposure. All these very far-reaching research applications may finally lead to a suitable future human Mn-biomonitoring for being able to prevent or at least detect the early onset of manganism at the right time. PMID:24200516

Michalke, Bernhard; Fernsebner, Katharina

2014-04-01

352

External Beam Radiation Therapy After Transurethral Resection of the Prostate: A Report on Acute and Late Genitourinary Toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To describe genitourinary (GU) toxicity in men with a history of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventy-one men with a history of TURP were treated with EBRT for prostate cancer. The median time from TURP to EBRT was 15 months. The median EBRT dose was 70 Gy, and 21 men (30%) received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Acute GU toxicity and late GU toxicity were scored by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria and compared with a cohort of 538 men without prior TURP. The median follow-up for men with TURP and men without TURP was 40 months and 50 months, respectively (p = 0.7605). Results: The rate of acute Grade 2 GU toxicity or higher was 41%, and was increased with a history of more than 1 TURP (73% vs. 31%, p = 0.0036). The 4-year rate of freedom from late Grade 3 GU toxicity or higher was 84%, and was decreased with ADT (45% vs. 95% without ADT, p = 0.0024). By last follow-up, maximal GU toxicity tended to resolve (p < 0.0001) and there was no worsening of urinary symptom scores (p = 0.6911). Compared to men without a prior TURP, TURP patients had a lower rate of freedom from late Grade 3 toxicity or higher (84% vs. 96%, p = 0.0483). Multivariate analysis suggested a higher rate of late Grade 3 toxicity or higher with TURP (risk ratio, 2.87; p = 0.0612) and EBRT dose of 74 Gy or greater (risk ratio, 2.26; p = 0.0521). Conclusions: Men treated for prostate cancer with EBRT after TURP have a higher risk of severe GU toxicity; however, the overall incidence is low, and toxicity tends not to persist.

Devisetty, Kiran [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Zorn, Kevin C.; Katz, Mark H. [Department of Urology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Jani, Ashesh B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Liauw, Stanley L., E-mail: sliauw@radonc.uchicago.ed [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

2010-07-15

353

Natural History of Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms  

PubMed Central

The North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry is a database that contains information from over 35,000 patient volunteers on symptom severity in 11 domains commonly affected in multiple sclerosis (MS): mobility, hand function, vision, fatigue, cognition, bowel/bladder function, sensory, spasticity, pain, depression, and tremor/coordination. The Registry affords a unique opportunity to study the frequency and severity of domain-specific impairment in a contemporary, mostly treated MS cohort over the course of the disease. The objective of this work was to calculate symptom prevalence in each of the 11 domains for years 0 to 30 from symptom onset. The resulting “symptom prevalence tables” demonstrate that a majority of participants perceive at least some degree of impairment in most domains as early as the first year of disease. The severity of impairment increases with disease duration across all domains, but the patterns of disability accumulation differ. The symptom prevalence tables illustrate the magnitude of perceived impact of the disease and highlight the extent of unmet need in symptomatic management. The tables are easy to use and allow MS patients and their clinicians to compare an individual's own impairment in any of the 11 domains to that of NARCOMS participants with the same disease duration. PMID:24453777

Bacon, Tamar E.; Chamot, Eric; Salter, Amber R.; Cutter, Gary R.; Kalina, Jennifer T.; Herbert, Joseph

2013-01-01

354

Bullying and PTSD Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PTSD symptoms related to school bullying have rarely been investigated, and never in national samples. We used data from a national survey to investigate this among students from grades 8 and 9 (n = 963). The prevalence estimates of exposure to bullying were within the range of earlier research findings. Multinomial logistic regression showed that…

Idsoe, Thormod; Dyregrov, Atle; Idsoe, Ella Cosmovici

2012-01-01

355

Toxic epidermal necrolysis caused by flurazepam?  

PubMed

Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are rare, but severe cutaneous reactions. Beside cutaneous manifestations, the syndrome is characterised by constitutional sypmtoms with even lethal consequences. Toxic epidermal necrolysis is usually a drug-hypersensitivity syndrome. More than a hundred drugs were suspected to cause toxic epidermal necrolysis. Although benzodiazepines had been suspected in some cases, flurazepam has not been implicated thus far. The authors report a severe, life threatening case of toxic epidermal necrolysis in a young woman suffering from schizophrenia. The most probable cause was flurazepam, a hypnotic agent of the benzodiazepine class. PMID:16392434

Loncar, Caslav; Frani?, Tomislav; Bilusi?, Marijo

2005-12-01

356

Severe asthma in children.  

PubMed

Severe asthma in children is characterized by sustained symptoms despite treatment with high doses of inhaled corticosteroids or oral corticosteroids. Children with severe asthma may fall into 2 categories, difficult-to-treat asthma or severe therapy-resistant asthma. Difficult-to-treat asthma is defined as poor control due to an incorrect diagnosis or comorbidities, or poor adherence due to adverse psychological or environmental factors. In contrast, treatment resistant is defined as difficult asthma despite management of these factors. It is increasingly recognized that severe asthma is a highly heterogeneous disorder associated with a number of clinical and inflammatory phenotypes that have been described in children with severe asthma. Guideline-based drug therapy of severe childhood asthma is based primarily on extrapolated data from adult studies. The recommendation is that children with severe asthma be treated with higher-dose inhaled or oral corticosteroids combined with long-acting ?-agonists and other add-on therapies, such as antileukotrienes and methylxanthines. It is important to identify and address the influences that make asthma difficult to control, including reviewing the diagnosis and removing causal or aggravating factors. Better definition of the phenotypes and better targeting of therapy based upon individual patient phenotypes is likely to improve asthma treatment in the future. PMID:25213041

Guilbert, Theresa W; Bacharier, Leonard B; Fitzpatrick, Anne M

2014-01-01

357

The prevalence and incremental validity of identity problem symptoms in a high school sample.  

PubMed

This paper examines the expression, prevalence, and incremental validity of identity problem symptoms in adolescence. A sample of high school students (N = 140) aged 15-18 completed measures of identity problem symptoms, identity status, and psychological symptom severity. Findings suggested that 14.3% would meet DSM IV criteria for identity problem. Identity problem symptoms predicted psychological symptom scores beyond identity status, and identity status accounted for substantially less variance in psychological symptom severity when controlling for identity problem symptoms. Additional research on the relationship between identity problems and psychological adjustment is needed and greater attention to the role of identity issues in clinical practice is warranted. PMID:18784912

Berman, Steven L; Weems, Carl F; Petkus, Veronica F

2009-06-01

358

The Potential Role of Respiratory Motion Management and Image Guidance in the Reduction of Severe Toxicities Following Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy for Patients with Centrally Located Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer or Lung Metastases  

PubMed Central

Image guidance allows delivery of very high doses of radiation over a few fractions, known as stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). This treatment is associated with excellent outcome for early stage non-small cell lung cancer and metastases to the lungs. In the delivery of SABR, central location constantly poses a challenge due to the difficulty of adequately sparing critical thoracic structures that are immediately adjacent to the tumor if an ablative dose of radiation is to be delivered to the tumor target. As of current, various respiratory motion management and image guidance strategies can be used to ensure accurate tumor target localization prior and/or during daily treatment, which allows for maximal and safe reduction of set up margins. The incorporation of both may lead to the most optimal normal tissue sparing and the most accurate SABR delivery. Here, the clinical outcome, treatment related toxicities, and the pertinent respiratory motion management/image guidance strategies reported in the current literature on SABR for central lung tumors are reviewed. PMID:25009800

Chi, Alexander; Nguyen, Nam Phong; Komaki, Ritsuko

2014-01-01

359

Prevalence of GERD symptoms in a representative Israeli adult population.  

PubMed

The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms in the general population is lower in Asian than Western countries. Data are lacking for countries in the Middle East. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and severity of GERD symptoms among Israeli Jews. A questionnaire including 8 specific questions for GERD symptoms was administered by telephone interview to a representative sample of the population. One thousand two hundred twenty-one of 1839 individuals were successfully contacted and 981 had valid, complete data. The mean age was 45.0 years and 55% were females. Over the previous year 34.8% of the respondents reported suffering any GERD symptom. Of these 11.6% reported retrosternal burning, 11.7% retrosternal pain, 19.0% an acid taste in the mouth, and 17.5% reflux of gastric content. In all, 6.5%, 5.2%, 10.4%, and 7.9%, respectively, suffered these symptoms at least once a week, and 2.0%, 1.8%, 2.4%, and 2.3%, respectively, defined their symptoms as frequent and severe. Male sex (P=0.01) and a functional lower gastrointestinal (GI) disorder (P<0.0001) contributed significantly to the severity of upper GI reflux-like symptoms. In conclusion, GERD symptoms are common among Israeli Jews. The symptoms are generally of mild-to-moderate severity and are significantly associated with lower functional GI disorders. PMID:17450026

Sperber, Ami D; Halpern, Zamir; Shvartzman, Pesach; Friger, Michael; Freud, Tami; Neville, Anat; Fich, Alex

2007-01-01

360

Detoxification of Nerium indicum roots based on Indian system of medicine: phytochemical and toxicity evaluations.  

PubMed

Indian system of medicine describes the usage of certain very toxic plant based drugs after performing a detoxification process (Shodhana samskara). Nerium indicum is traditionally used as a medicine though known to cause severe allergic symptoms, tachycardia and gastrointestinal effects leading to fatalities. In this study, the detoxification (shodhana) for Nerium indicum was scientifically validated based on phytochemical and toxicity profiles. Shodhana was performed according to traditional literature. HPTLC densitometric studies were performed for the pre- and post-shodhana powders followed by sub-acute toxicity evaluation in rats. Preparative TLC and LC-MS showed the reduction of oleandrin peak in the post-shodhana sample. Prominent features of cardiotoxicity including tachycardia were noted in the pre-shodhana Nerium treated animals along with mortality. However, no such toxicity was encountered in the post-shodhana Nerium treated animals. Hence, using the recommended detoxification (shodhana), the toxicity of an important medicinal plant was significantly nullified. Such studies provide a scientific support towards our traditional medicinal practices using modem analytical and experimental methodologies and may prove to be very useful in establishing standard scientific procedures for routine and safe use of traditional medicines. PMID:22125956

Banerjee, Aryamitra A; Vasu, Kamala K; Pancholi, Harit; Rajani, Mandapati; Nivsarkar, Manish A

2011-01-01

361

Severe storms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of severe storms given by a representative of the U.S. Department of Commerce/NOAA and how they affect aviation is presented. What is being done and the organizations responsible for the work in this area are briefly discussed. A partial list of the things that the representative feels need to be done is also presented.

Connolly, J. W.

1978-01-01

362

Introduction to Symptoms of Eye Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... For example, changes in vision may indicate a problem in the brain. Sometimes eye symptoms develop as part of an illness that affects several organ systems. Last full review/revision October 2014 by Kathryn Colby, MD, PhD VIEW STUDENT ... © 2009-2014 Merck Sharp & ...

363

Transient Neurologic Symptoms After Spinal Anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

- We recently reported several cases consistent with tran- sient radicular irritation after spinal anesthesia with hy- perbaric 5% lidocaine. The present prospective, blind, nonrandomized study was performed to determine the incidence of these transient neurologic symptoms and to identify factors that might be associated with their occurrence. We studied 270 patients scheduled for gy- necologic or obstetric procedures under

Karl F. Hampl; Markus C. Schneider; Wolfgang Ummenhofer; Jurgen Drewe

1995-01-01

364

Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptoms in Preadolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined associations among several measures of emotion regulation, and their links to depressive symptoms, in a sample of children ages 10-12 years old (N = 87). Both temporal features of emotion regulation and regulation processes involved in the evaluation, monitoring, and modification of emotion were assessed through parent and…

Siener, Shannon; Kerns, Kathryn A.

2012-01-01

365

Clinical implications of panic symptoms in dental phobia.  

PubMed

The occurrence of panic symptoms in various anxiety disorders has been associated with more severely impaired and difficult-to-treat cases, but this has not been investigated in dental phobia. We examined the clinical implications of panic symptoms related to sub-clinical and clinically significant dental phobia. The sample consisted of 61 patients at a university dental clinic who endorsed symptoms of dental phobia, 25 of whom met criteria for a formal diagnosis of dental phobia. Participants with dental phobia endorsed more panic symptoms than did those with sub-clinical dental phobia. In the total sample, greater endorsement of panic symptoms was associated with higher dental anxiety, more avoidance of dental procedures, and poorer oral health-related quality of life. Among those with dental phobia, certain panic symptoms exhibited associations with specific anxiety-eliciting dental procedures. Panic symptoms may serve as indicators of clinically significant dental phobia and the need for augmented treatment. PMID:25173979

Potter, Carrie M; Kinner, Dina G; Tellez, Marisol; Ismail, Amid I; Heimberg, Richard G

2014-10-01

366

Retinal toxicity induced by small-molecule Hsp90 inhibitors in beagle dogs.  

PubMed

Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a constitutively expressed molecular chaperone and plays an important role in the folding of client proteins with key regulatory roles in growth, survival, differentiation and metastasis. Because inhibition of Hsp90 degrades multiple oncogenic client proteins, it is considered to be an attractive anticancer therapy, and clinical trials of several Hsp90 inhibitors have been carried out. In the present study, two structurally distinct Hsp90 inhibitors, CH5164840 and CH5449302, were orally administered to beagle dogs to evaluate systemic toxicity. CH5164840 induced symptoms that suggest visual disorder, and ophthalmological observation and electroretinography (ERG) revealed loss of pupillary light reflex and abnormal waveforms, respectively. Histopathological examination showed changes in the photoreceptor cell layer and the outer nuclear layer of retina. On the other hand, while there were no clinical symptoms related to visual disorder, animals treated with CH5449302 showed similar abnormalities of ERG responses and histopathological changes in the photoreceptor cell layer and the outer nuclear layer of retina. The visual symptoms and abnormalities of ERG responses were noted at an earlier stage or lower dose than other toxicities in both compounds. Considering that two structurally distinct Hsp90 inhibitors induced a retinal toxicity in dogs after repeated administration, and that visual disorders were also reported in some clinical trials of Hsp90 inhibitors, it would seem highly likely that Hsp90 inhibition induces retinal toxicity. Also, our study indicated that a detailed ocular examination to evaluate the safety of Hsp90 inhibitors would be useful in both preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:24418710

Kanamaru, Chisako; Yamada, Yuichiro; Hayashi, Shuji; Matsushita, Tomochika; Suda, Atsushi; Nagayasu, Miho; Kimura, Kazuya; Chiba, Shuichi

2014-02-01

367

Control of air toxics  

SciTech Connect

For more than 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory has supported the US DOE`s Flue Gas Cleanup Program objective by developing new or improved environmental controls for industries that use fossil fuels. Argonne`s pollutant emissions research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing, to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. The work on air toxics is currently divided into two components: Investigating measures to improve the removal of mercury in existing pollution-control systems applied to coal combustion; and, Developing sensors and control techniques for emissions found in the textile industry.

Livengood, C.D.

1995-03-01

368

Deforestation: Causes and Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter addresses a central tenet of this book: it is essential, when considering measures to address deforestation in\\u000a developing countries, to separate the basic causes of deforestation from symptoms of it. This may seem basic, but there has\\u000a been a strong tendency for some organizations and civil society groupings to view the problem from an ideological position\\u000a or institutional

Jim Douglas; Markku Simula

369

[Depressive symptoms and sexuality].  

PubMed

The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice. PMID:25148948

Porto, Robert

2014-10-01

370

Assessment of Symptoms During Gastric Emptying Scintigraphy to Correlate Symptoms to Delayed Gastric Emptying  

PubMed Central

Background Symptoms of gastroparesis based on patient recall correlate poorly with gastric emptying. Aim To determine if symptoms recorded during gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) correlate with gastric emptying and with symptoms based on patient recall. Methods Patients undergoing GES completed the Patient Assessment of GI Symptoms (PAGI-SYM) assessing symptoms over the prior 2 weeks and a questionnaire for which patients graded six symptoms during GES. A Symptom Severity Index (SSI) represented the mean of six symptoms at each time point. Key Results 560 patients underwent GES for clinical evaluation of symptoms. Of 388 patients included in the study: 232 patients had normal GES (NGES), 156 delayed GES (DGES), and 11 rapid GES (RGES). SSI increased pre- to postprandial for each group: NGES: 0.51±0.07 to 0.92±0.03, DGES: 0.60±0.09 to 1.13±0.05, and RGES: 0.56±0.12 to 0.79±0.13. DGES patients had a higher postprandial SSI than NGES patients (1.13±0.05 vs 0.92±0.03, p<0.05). Postprandial symptoms of stomach fullness (1.9±0.12 vs 1.5±0.09; p=0.011), bloating (1.4±0.11 vs 1.1±0.09; p =0.033), and abdominal pain (1.1±0.08 vs 0.7±0.12; p=0.012) were higher in DGES than NGES. Symptom severity based on PAGI-SYM for 2 weeks prior to GES correlated with symptoms during the test for nausea (NGES r=0.61, DGES r=0.70), stomach fullness (NGES r=0.47, DGES r=0.60), and bloating (NGES r=0.62, DGES r=0.66). Conclusions & Inferences Stomach fullness, bloating, and abdominal pain recorded during GES were higher in patients with delayed gastric emptying than in patients with normal gastric emptying. Symptoms recorded during GES correlated with those during daily life by patient recall. PMID:20082665

Khayyam, Umar; Sachdeva, Priyanka; Gomez, Javier; Ramzan, Zeeshan; Smith, Michael S.; Maurer, Alan H.; Fisher, Robert S.; Parkman, Henry P.

2014-01-01

371

ADHD Symptoms and Subtypes: Relationship between Childhood and Adolescent Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study aims to examine attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) symptoms and subtypes in childhood and adolescence. The results conclude the persistence of ADHD from childhood to adolescence with specific symptoms contributing to persistent ADHD.

Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Taanila, Anja; Miettunen, Jouko; Smalley, Susan L.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Moilanen, Irma K.

2007-01-01

372

Severe eosinophilic pneumonia presenting during gemcitabine adjuvant chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Gemcitabine is widely accepted as the standard treatment for pancreatic cancer, but it can cause unpredictable side effects. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a rare complication with gemcitabine, but is sometimes fatal. We describe a cured case of acute, severe gemcitabine-induced pulmonary toxicity. The patient was a 76-year-old man with pancreatic cancer who was receiving adjuvant gemcitabine chemotherapy after surgery. The patient received gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 for three 4-week cycles, with intervals of 1 week. He developed severe general fatigue on day 1 of the third cycle. Computed tomography showed diffuse ground-glass opacity with pleural effusion. There was no increase in ?-D-glucan, and cytomegalovirus antigenemia assays were negative. No bacteria or acid-fast bacilli were found. The number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was increased. Considering these data, we diagnosed eosinophilic pneumonia induced by gemcitabine. The patient was immediately treated with a steroid and neutrophil elastase inhibitor under respiratory supportive therapy. After 4 weeks, his pulmonary symptoms were markedly improved. Physicians should be cognizant of the possible association of serious pulmonary toxicity with gemcitabine treatment. A delay in diagnosis and treatment could lead to a fatal outcome. PMID:23883337

2013-01-01

373

Comparison of disease-severity measures within severe and very severe COPD patients: results from a nationally representative chart review and patient survey  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to compare spirometry- and risk + symptom-based classification systems to physician-based severity assessment and find which system is most predictive of patient-reported health status, as measured by the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire for COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; SGRQ-C). Materials and methods In this chart review/patient survey, 99 physicians recruited patients with physician-assessed severe or very severe COPD who had recently experienced a moderate or severe exacerbation. A cross-tabulation was undertaken comparing physician report, spirometry (mild/moderate, forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] ?50%; severe, 30% ? FEV1 <50%; very severe, FEV1 <30% predicted), and risk + symptom-based (A, low risk/fewer symptoms; B, low risk/more symptoms; C, high risk/fewer symptoms; D, high risk/more symptoms) severity systems. Analysis of covariance models were run for SGRQ-C, varying COPD-severity systems. Results Of 244 patients, 58.6% were severe and 34.8% very severe by physician report, 70% had FEV1 ?50% at their most recent visit, and 86% fell into quadrant D. Spirometry and physician report had 57.4% agreement, with physicians often indicating higher severity. Physician report and risk + symptom agreement was high (81.2% severe/very severe and D). Physician-reported severity, risk + symptoms, exacerbations in the previous year, and symptoms were significant SGRQ-C predictors, while spirometry was not. Conclusion For recently exacerbating severe or very severe COPD patients, risk + symptoms more closely aligned with physician-reported severity and SGRQ-C versus spirometry.

Solem, Caitlyn T; Sun, Shawn X; Liu, Sizhu; Macahilig, Cynthia; Katyal, Monica; Gao, Xin; Shorr, Andrew F

2014-01-01

374

Depression symptom dimensions as predictors of antidepressant treatment outcome: replicable evidence for interest-activity symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background Symptom dimensions have not yet been comprehensively tested as predictors of the substantial heterogeneity in outcomes of antidepressant treatment in major depressive disorder. Method We tested nine symptom dimensions derived from a previously published factor analysis of depression rating scales as predictors of outcome in 811 adults with moderate to severe depression treated with flexibly dosed escitalopram or nortriptyline in Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP). The effects of symptom dimensions were tested in mixed-effect regression models that controlled for overall initial depression severity, age, sex and recruitment centre. Significant results were tested for replicability in 3637 adult out-patients with non-psychotic major depression treated with citalopram in level I of Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D). Results The interest-activity symptom dimension (reflecting low interest, reduced activity, indecisiveness and lack of enjoyment) at baseline strongly predicted poor treatment outcome in GENDEP, irrespective of overall depression severity, antidepressant type and outcome measure used. The prediction of poor treatment outcome by the interest-activity dimension was robustly replicated in STAR*D, independent of a comprehensive list of baseline covariates. Conclusions Loss of interest, diminished activity and inability to make decisions predict poor outcome of antidepressant treatment even after adjustment for overall depression severity and other clinical covariates. The prominence of such symptoms may require additional treatment strategies and should be accounted for in future investigations of antidepressant response. PMID:21929846

Uher, R.; Perlis, R. H.; Henigsberg, N.; Zobel, A.; Rietschel, M.; Mors, O.; Hauser, J.; Dernovsek, M. Z.; Souery, D.; Bajs, M.; Maier, W.; Aitchison, K. J.; Farmer, A.; McGuffin, P.

2013-01-01

375

Are Reversals Symptom of Dyslexia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that letter and word reversals are a symptom of dyslexia because they reveal a child's lack of comprehension, but that they are not a symptom of some prior problem that is disrupting the reading process. (FL)

Harmon, Susan

1982-01-01

376

Medications for Heart Valve Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

Medications for Heart Valve Symptoms Updated:May 5,2014 How do medications help people with valve problems? People who are ... with heart valve disease may be prescribed a medication to help relieve symptoms and decrease the risk ...

377

Flutamide-induced toxic hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Flutamide is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen commonly used in the treatment of prostate cancer. Hepatic toxicity associated with flutamide has been reported with an incidence from less than 1% to about 5%. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a hydrophilic bile acid, has been widely used in the treatment of cholesterol gallstones and of several liver diseases, but few data are now available

Camilla Cicognani; Mauro Malavolti; Antonio Maria Morselli-Labate; Claudia Sama; Luigi Barbara

1996-01-01

378

Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. The National Weather Service (NWS)--which is part of NOAA and its parent agency, the Department of Commerce--is charged with the critical responsibility of observing and reporting the weather and with issuing forecasts and warnings of weather and floods in the interest of national safety and economy. Through a massive network of weather-monitoring and reporting stations around the globe, including land, sea, air, and space-borne instruments, NWS scientists constantly assimilate all of the reliable weather data available. Much of this data are then used in numerical computer models of the atmosphere that help to accurately describe and interpret current conditions and produce the best possible forecasts of future weather.

Forde, Evan B.

2004-04-01

379

Increases in Manic Symptoms After Life Events Involving Goal Attainment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bipolar disorder has been conceptualized as an outcome of dysregulation in the behavioral activation system (BAS), a brain system that regulates goal-directed activity. On the basis of the BAS model, the authors hypothesized that life events involving goal attainment would promote manic symptoms in bipolar individuals. The authors followed 43 bipolar I individuals monthly with standardized symptom severity assessments (the

Sheri L. Johnson; David Sandrow; Björn Meyer; Ray Winters; Ivan Miller; David Solomon; Gabor Keitner

2000-01-01

380

Perimenstrual Symptoms: Relationships with Chronic Stress and Selected Lifestyle Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of primary interest in the present study was the assessment of the association between several contextual factors, including chronic stress, exercise, alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine intake, and the self-report of perimenstrual symptoms. Two hundred and eleven women completed questionnaires designed to assess chronic stress, perimenstrual symptoms, and physical health. The results indicated that stress accounted for a significant amount of

Linda Gannon; Tracy Luchetta; Lynn Pardie; Kelly Rhodes

1989-01-01

381

Studying the emergence of depression and depressive symptoms during adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The special issue on the emergence and maintenance of depression and depressive symptoms is introduced. The special issue considers two typically separate lines of research, one focusing on severe clinical depression and another on depressive symptoms. The biological, social, and cognitive factors contributing to the emergence of depression in adolescence are highlighted in this special issue.

Jeanne Brooks-Gunn; Anne C. Petersen

1991-01-01

382

BACTERIAL MENINGITIS AND SWINE FLU THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SYMPTOMS  

E-print Network

BACTERIAL MENINGITIS AND SWINE FLU THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SYMPTOMS At this time of year, flu is becoming more common and, even with swine flu, is usually not a severe disease. However, the symptoms of meningitis can superficially resemble those of flu, so beware. Below is a brief summary of how

Oxford, University of

383

Age differences and similarities in the correlates of depressive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated whether several life events or concerns were differentially related to depressive symptoms across 3 adult age groups (young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults). They examined the relationships of 2 measures of depressive symptoms to work status and satisfaction, relationship status and satisfaction, loneliness, recent losses, parenting strain, and caregiving. Some differences between age groups in these

Susan Nolen-Hoeksema; Cheryl Ahrens

2002-01-01

384

Symptoms of Lewy Body Dementia  

MedlinePLUS

Lewy body dementia symptoms and diagnostic criteria Every person with LBD is different and will manifest different degrees of the following symptoms. ... diagnosis requires: Dementia plus one core feature, or Dementia plus one or more ... features. Symptoms Explained In this section we'll discuss each ...

385

Symptom Clusters among Young Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines recurrent psychosomatic symptoms and symptom clusters among Israeli school children (n=259). Results of a questionnaire that asked about the frequency of 8 psychosomatic and 8 organic complaints indicated that girls had a higher prevalence than boys for 8 of the symptoms, and that abdominal pain and headache were each reported as an…

Knishkowsky, Barry; And Others

1995-01-01

386

Respiratory symptoms in Lancashire textile weavers  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To investigate a large population of cotton textile weavers for reported respiratory symptoms relative to occupational factors, smoking, and exposure to dust. Cotton processing is known to produce a respiratory disease known as byssinosis particularly in the early processes of cotton spinning. Relatively little is known about the respiratory health of the cotton weavers who produce cloth from spun cotton. By the time cotton is woven many of the original contaminants have been removed. METHODS: 1295 operatives from a target population of 1428 were given an interviewer led respiratory questionnaire. The presence of upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms were sought and the work relatedness of these symptoms determined by a stem questionnaire design. Also occupational and demographic details were obtained and spirometry and personal dust sampling performed. RESULTS: Byssinosis was present in only four people (0.3%). Chronic bronchitis had a moderate overall prevalence of about 6% and was related predominantly to smoking. There were several other work related respiratory symptoms (persistent cough 3.9%, chronic production of phlegm 3.6%, chest tightness 4.8%, wheezing 5.4%, and breathlessness 2.3%). All of these were predicted predominantly by smoking (either past or present), with no consistent independent effect of exposure to dust. Work related eye and nasal symptoms were more common (10.4% and 16.9% respectively). CONCLUSION: Byssinosis is a rare respiratory symptom in cotton weaving. Other work related respiratory symptoms were reported but their presence was predominantly related to smoking with no consistent effects of exposure to dust.   PMID:10492647

Raza, S. N.; Fletcher, A. M.; Pickering, C. A.; Niven, R. M.; Faragher, E. B.

1999-01-01

387

Psychotic and compulsive symptoms in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to evaluate psychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and to assess their relation with other clinical aspects of PD. Psychotic symptoms (PS) and compulsive symptoms (CS) as well as other nonmotor and motor features were evaluated in 353 PD patients. Psychotic and compulsive symptom scores did not correlate significantly. PS occurred in 65% of patients, with item frequencies ranging from 10% (paranoid ideation) to 55% (altered dream phenomena). Regression analysis showed that autonomic impairment accounted for 20% of the 32% explained variance of PS, whereas cognitive problems, depression, daytime sleepiness, and dopamine agonist (DA) dose explained the rest. CS occurred in 19%, with item frequencies of 10% for both sexual preoccupation and compulsive shopping/gambling. Patients with more severe CS (score > or = 2 on one or both items) were significantly more often men, had a younger age at onset, a higher DA dose and experienced more motor fluctuations compared to the other patients. PS and CS are common but unrelated psychiatric symptoms in PD. The relations found between PS and cognitive problems, depression, daytime sleepiness, and autonomic impairment suggests a resemblance with Dementia with Lewy Bodies. The prominent association between PS and autonomic impairment may be explained by a shared underlying mechanism. Our results confirm previous reports on the profile of patients developing CS, and mechanisms underlying motor fluctuations may also play a role in the development of CS in PD. PMID:19133665

Verbaan, Dagmar; van Rooden, Stephanie M; Visser, Martine; Marinus, Johan; Emre, Murat; van Hilten, Jacobus J

2009-04-15

388

Female Partners' Estimations of Male Veterans' Combat-Related PTSD Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated concordance between male Vietnam veterans' and their female partners' reports of veterans' posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Fifty male Vietnam combat veterans and their partners rated the severity of their own PTSD symptoms. Also, partners rated the severity of veterans' symptoms. Results indicated modest levels of agreement in reports of symptom presence\\/absence. Partner ratings of veterans' PTSD

James G. Gallagher; David S. Riggs; Christina A. Byrne; Frank W. Weathers

1998-01-01

389

Pitt study reports esophageal cancer risk higher in medically treated GERD patients with fewest symptoms:  

Cancer.gov

Medically treated patients with mild or no symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are at higher risk for developing esophageal cancer than those with severe GERD symptoms, according to a University of Pittsburgh study...

390

Pb Neurotoxicity: Neuropsychological Effects of Lead Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Neurotoxicity is a term used to describe neurophysiological changes caused by exposure to toxic agents. Such exposure can result in neurocognitive symptoms and/or psychiatric disturbances. Common toxic agents include heavy metals, drugs, organophosphates, bacterial, and animal neurotoxins. Among heavy metal exposures, lead exposure is one of the most common exposures that can lead to significant neuropsychological and functional decline in humans. In this review, neurotoxic lead exposure's pathophysiology, etiology, and epidemiology are explored. In addition, commonly associated neuropsychological difficulties in intelligence, memory, executive functioning, attention, processing speed, language, visuospatial skills, motor skills, and affect/mood are explored. PMID:24516855

Mason, Lisa H.; Harp, Jordan P.; Han, Dong Y.

2014-01-01

391

Pb neurotoxicity: neuropsychological effects of lead toxicity.  

PubMed

Neurotoxicity is a term used to describe neurophysiological changes caused by exposure to toxic agents. Such exposure can result in neurocognitive symptoms and/or psychiatric disturbances. Common toxic agents include heavy metals, drugs, organophosphates, bacterial, and animal neurotoxins. Among heavy metal exposures, lead exposure is one of the most common exposures that can lead to significant neuropsychological and functional decline in humans. In this review, neurotoxic lead exposure's pathophysiology, etiology, and epidemiology are explored. In addition, commonly associated neuropsychological difficulties in intelligence, memory, executive functioning, attention, processing speed, language, visuospatial skills, motor skills, and affect/mood are explored. PMID:24516855

Mason, Lisa H; Harp, Jordan P; Han, Dong Y

2014-01-01

392

Severe pneumonitis after fire eating.  

PubMed

A 38-year-old, previously healthy fire eater presented with severe pneumonitis after incidental aspiration of an unquantifiable amount of petroleum. The chest CT revealed extensive pulmonary consolidations, and the laboratory results showed massively elevated inflammatory markers. An intravenous antibiotic treatment was started and, after improvement of symptoms and inflammatory markers, continued orally for a total of 3 weeks, despite negative results of blood cultures and urinary pneumococcal and legionella antigen tests. The patient's symptoms subsided completely, and a CT scan 10 weeks after the accident showed complete resolution of the lung consolidations. Aspiration of petroleum is associated with a severe inflammatory response of the lung, but if bacterial superinfection can be prevented with early antibiotic treatment, even a severe presentation of a fire eater's lung usually follows a benign course with complete recovery. PMID:22948995

Franzen, Daniel; Kohler, Malcolm

2012-01-01

393

ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENTS OF SELECTED TOXIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Atmospheric concentrations of 37 selected toxic organic chemicals, including aromatic hydrocarbons, halohydrocarbons, and secondary organic pollutants were measured under varying meteorological and source-strength conditions at several urban locations - Los Angeles, California; P...

394

Depressive Symptoms in Inner-City Children With Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background: Asthma is a sometimes severe respiratory illness with an increased prevalence, especially in low-income, minority, and inner-city populations, over the past 2 decades. Prior reports have suggested a link between depression and asthma deaths. However, no studies have examined the relationship between objective measures of asthma severity and clinician-rated depressive symptom severity. Method: In this pilot study, 46 children receiving treatment at an inner-city asthma clinic were assessed with the Children's Depression Rating Scale, Revised (CDRS-R). The current percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%) predicted and the inhaled steroid dose were recorded, as were oral steroid use, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations in the preceding year. Results: Depressive symptoms were common in this sample, with 30% (N = 14) of the participants having CDRS-R scores consistent with likely, very likely, or almost certain major depressive disorder. When mean CDRS-R scores were compared between the sample divided by these asthma severity measures, only hospitalizations in the past year was associated with higher depressive symptom scores (p = .03). Conclusion: These findings suggest that in the patient sample studied, depressive symptoms appear to be common. However, depressive symptom severity is related only to hospitalization, not other measures of asthma severity. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine if other variables such as family history of depression or subjective assessment of asthma severity explain the high prevalence of depressive symptoms in these patients. PMID:15014704

Morrison, Kristine M.; Goli, Arezou; Van Wagoner, John; Brown, E. Sherwood; Khan, David A.

2002-01-01

395

HIV, multidrug-resistant TB and depressive symptoms: when three conditions collide  

PubMed Central

Background Management of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is highly challenging. Such patients are subject to long and potentially toxic treatments and may develop a number of different psychiatric illnesses such as anxiety and depressive disorders. A mental health assessment before MDR-TB treatment initiation may assist in early diagnosis and better management of psychiatric illnesses in patients already having two stigmatising and debilitating diseases. Objective To address limited evidence on the baseline psychiatric conditions of HIV-infected MDR-TB patients, we aimed to document the levels of depressive symptoms at baseline, and any alteration following individualized clinical and psychological support during MDR-TB therapy, using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) tool, among HIV-infected patients. Design This was a retrospective review of the medical records of an adult (aged >15 years) HIV/MDR-TB cohort registered for care during the period of August 2012 through to March 2014. Results A total of 45 HIV/MDR-TB patients underwent baseline assessment using the PHQ-9 tool, and seven (16%) were found to have depressive symptoms. Of these, four patients had moderate to severe depressive symptoms. Individualized psychological and clinical support was administered to these patients. Reassessments were carried out for all patients after 3 months of follow-up, except one, who died during the period. Among these 44 patients, three with baseline depressive symptoms still had depressive symptoms. However, improvements were observed in all but one after 3 months of follow-up. Conclusion Psychiatric illnesses, including depressive symptoms, during MDR-TB treatment demand attention. Routine administration of baseline mental health assessments by trained staff has the potential to assist in determining appropriate measures for the management of depressive symptoms during MDR-TB treatment, and help in improving overall treatment outcomes. We recommend regular monitoring of mental health status by trained counsellors or clinical staff, using simple, validated and cost-effective tools. PMID:25215909

Das, Mrinalini; Isaakidis, Petros; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Kumar, Ajay MV; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Valikayath, Asmaa; Jha, Santosh; Jadhav, Bindoo; Ladomirska, Joanna

2014-01-01

396

Indicators and significance of severity in influenza patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In routine practice, influenza is diagnosed on clinical grounds. When influenza is known to be circulating locally, this is usually accurate, but awareness of the markers of influenza severity could be used by physicians to aid diagnosis and begin appropriate treatment early. This analysis compared baseline symptom profiles of subjects with severe and non-severe influenza. Methods: Symptoms of influenza-like

D. M Fleming; A. B Moult; O Keene

2001-01-01

397

Are Your Heart Symptoms All in Your Head?  

MedlinePLUS

... free of coronary artery disease after undergoing coronary angiography, an invasive procedure that takes X-ray pictures of the heart. Before angiography, about one in 10 patients reported severe symptoms ...

398

Cryptorchidism --disease or symptom?  

PubMed

Testes descend to the scrotum normally before birth. When they fail to do so, the boy is cryptorchid and has an increased risk for testicular germ cell cancer and subfertility later in life. Early correction of maldescent by orchiopexy operation improves the spermatogenetic capacity of the testis but does not return the testicular cancer risk to the control level. Testicular descent is regulated by testis-derived hormones testosterone and insulin-like peptide 3. Cryptorchidism can therefore be considered a symptom of impaired testicular function that may also be linked to other testicular diseases, such as germ cell cancer and subfertility. Early orchiopexy can alleviate the effects of cryptorchidism on spermatogenesis, but alertness for testicular cancer should be maintained. In searching the genetic and environmental reasons for these diseases, it is useful to consider their connection with each other. PMID:24786701

Toppari, Jorma; Rodprasert, Wiwat; Virtanen, Helena E

2014-05-01

399

"Symptom-specific or holistic": menopausal symptom management.  

PubMed

Our purpose in this study was to identify differences in menopausal symptom management among four major ethnic groups in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of the qualitative data from a larger Internet-based study. We analyzed data from 90 middle-aged women in the United States using thematic analysis. We extracted four themes during the data analysis process: (a) "seeking formal or informal advice," (b) "medication as the first or final choice," (c) "symptom-specific or holistic," and (d) "avoiding or pursuing specific foods." Health care providers need to develop menopausal symptom management programs while considering ethnic differences in menopausal symptom management. PMID:22577743

Im, Eun-Ok; Ko, Young; Hwang, Hyenam; Chee, Wonshik

2012-01-01

400

Toxic cyanobacteria in Florida waters.  

PubMed

The occurrence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms in Florida waters have become more prominent following increased growth, declining groundwater supplies, and identification of impaired surface waters as future drinking water sources. Cyanobacterial toxins have been identified in source waters used for drinking water supply and in post-treated drinking water during algal bloom events. Algal toxin concentrations in post-treated drinking water have exceeded existing and proposed World Health Organization guidelines for the oral consumption of microcystin and cylindrospermopsin. Severe dermatitis has also been reported by swimmers in Florida springs where Lyngbya mats have expanded. The prevalence and toxicity of cyanobacteria should be considered when developing appropriate Total Maximum Daily Loads for impaired Florida waters that do not currently meet their designated use. It could also support further efforts to characterize potential ecological and human health risks due to toxic cyanobacterial blooms. Identification of algal toxins in finished drinking water and reports of severe skin irritation following contact with toxic cyanobacteria should be utilized for justification and implementation of increased monitoring of potentially toxic cyanobacterial blooms by surface water managers and water utilities. Epidemiological studies may also be required in Florida to assess potential human health risks due to algal toxin consumption at the tap and for those exposed to cyanotoxic blooms during recreational use of lakes, springs and rivers. Without adequate water treatment and coordinated state-wide monitoring efforts, it is anticipated that the likelihood for human exposure to cyanobacteria and their toxins will increase as Florida becomes more dependent upon surface waters to supply a growing population and an expanding urban environment. Coordination and communication between surface water managers and public health officials at the local level will be critical to the overall protection of the environment and public health during toxic cyanobacterial bloom events. PMID:18461767

Burns, John

2008-01-01

401

Toxicant-associated steatohepatitis.  

PubMed

Hepatotoxicity is the most common organ injury due to occupational and environmental exposures to industrial chemicals. A wide range of liver pathologies ranging from necrosis to cancer have been observed following chemical exposures both in humans and in animal models. Toxicant-associated fatty liver disease (TAFLD) is a recently named form of liver injury pathologically similar to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Toxicant-associated steatohepatitis (TASH) is a more severe form of TAFLD characterized by hepatic steatosis, inflammatory infiltrate, and in some cases, fibrosis. While subjects with TASH have exposures to industrial chemicals, such as vinyl chloride, they do not have traditional risk factors for fatty liver such as significant alcohol consumption or obesity. Conventional biomarkers of hepatotoxicity including serum alanine aminotransferase activity may be normal in TASH, making screening problematic. This article examines selected chemical exposures associated with TAFLD in human subjects or animal models and concisely reviews the closely related NAFLD and ALD. PMID:23262638

Wahlang, Banrida; Beier, Juliane I; Clair, Heather B; Bellis-Jones, Heather J; Falkner, K Cameron; McClain, Craig J; Cave, Matt C

2013-02-01

402

[Mitochondrial toxicity of drugs].  

PubMed

Considering the complexity of mitochondria, it is not surprising that the pathogenesis of adverse drug events often develop on drug-induced mitochondrial injury. Drug induced mitochondrial toxicity can occur through several mechanisms, such as depletion of mtDNA (e.g. NRTI), inhibition of fatty acid beta-oxidation (e.g. valproic acid), opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (e.g. anthracyclines), formation of mitochondrial oxidative stress and depletion of mitochondrial glutathione pool (e.g. acetaminophen), uncoupling of electron transport from ATP synthesis (e.g. tamoxifen) and inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes (e.g. simvastatin). This review focuses on the mitochondrial toxicity of drugs in general and explains the practical relevance of these adverse drug events according to specific drugs (metformin, statins, acetaminophen, valproic acid). Furthermore the significance of mitotropic micronutrients such as coenzyme Q10, L-carnitine and glutathione in the prevention and management ofdrug-induced mitochondrial injury is discussed. PMID:23367660

Gröber, Uwe

2012-12-01

403

Psychological symptoms of art students seeking psychotherapy.  

PubMed

Descriptive data concerning type and severity of psychological symptoms of 162 art students seeking psychotherapy at an art school counseling service were obtained. These undergraduate and graduate students who presented for consecutive intakes over one year completed the Symptom Checklist-90-R. Women reported more severe symptomatology than men. Eighty-six and four-tenths percent of this sample met the criteria for probable psychological disorder. The data demonstrate the importance for mental health professionals who work with developing artists to provide skilled evaluation and treatment for a wide range of psychological disorders, to engage in crisis intervention and consultation and to develop a strong referral network for management of medication, long-term treatment, and hospitalization when necessary. PMID:9923153

Behen, J M; Anable, J

1998-12-01

404

Hormone withdrawal symptoms in oral contraceptive users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To measure the timing, frequency, and severity of hormone-related symptoms in oral contraceptive (OC) users, specifically to compare active-pill with hormone-free intervals.Methods: Using daily diaries, women recorded pelvic pain, bleeding, headaches, analgesic use, nausea or vomiting, bloating or swelling, and breast tenderness during active-pill intervals and hormone-free intervals. Participants either had no prior OC use, had taken OCs and

Patricia J Sulak; Roger D Scow; Cheryl Preece; Mark W Riggs; Thomas J Kuehl

2000-01-01

405

A case report of adult lead toxicity following use of Ayurvedic herbal medication  

PubMed Central

Introduction Ayurvedic medications consist of herbs that may be intentionally combined with metals, such as lead, mercury, iron, and zinc. Ayurvedic practitioners and their patients believe that the toxic properties of the metals are reduced or eliminated during preparation and processing. Case report A 69 year old Caucasian male retired professional with a prior history of stroke presented for evaluation of new onset depression, fatigue, generalized weakness, constipation, anorexia, and weight loss. History revealed that his symptoms were temporally related to initiation of an Ayurvedic herbal medication. The patient had been previously admitted to another hospital for these symptoms and was found to have a severe anemia for which no etiology was found. Laboratory tests revealed an elevated blood lead level and a diagnosis of symptomatic lead toxicity was made. The patient was treated with intramuscular, intravenous, and oral chelation therapy to promote lead excretion. Because of complaints of continued poor mental function, neuropsychological tests were administered before and after one of the chelation treatments and showed improvement in measures of attention and other cognitive domains. In addition, the patient was able to discontinue use of antidepressant medication after chelation. Discussion A high index of suspicion of metal toxicity is necessary among persons with characteristic symptoms and signs in the absence of occupational exposure. Despite limited evidence for chelation in adults and in those with modest blood lead levels, this patient appeared to benefit from repeated chelation therapy. Both allopathic and alternative medicine practitioners and public health specialists need to be aware of the potential for contamination of and side effects from alternative pharmacologic and herbal therapies. PMID:24083830

2013-01-01

406

Review: CNS toxicity involving methylene blue: the exemplar for understanding and predicting drug interactions that precipitate serotonin toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylene blue has only recently been noted to cause severe central nervous system toxicity. Methylene blue is used for various conditions, including, intravenously, in methemoglobinemia, vasoplegia and as an aid to parathyroidectomy (at doses of 1—7.5 mg kg-1). This review of the current evidence concludes that 13 of 14 of the reported cases of CNS toxicity were serotonin toxicity that

P. Ken Gillman

2011-01-01

407

Predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms following childbirth  

PubMed Central

Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following childbirth has gained growing attention in the recent years. Although a number of predictors for PTSD following childbirth have been identified (e.g., history of sexual trauma, emergency caesarean section, low social support), only very few studies have tested predictors derived from current theoretical models of the disorder. This study first aimed to replicate the association of PTSD symptoms after childbirth with predictors identified in earlier research. Second, cognitive predictors derived from Ehlers and Clark’s (2000) model of PTSD were examined. Methods N = 224 women who had recently given birth completed an online survey. In addition to computing single correlations between PTSD symptom severities and variables of interest, in a hierarchical multiple regression analyses posttraumatic stress symptoms were predicted by (1) prenatal variables, (2) birth-related variables, (3) postnatal social support, and (4) cognitive variables. Results Wellbeing during pregnancy and age were the only prenatal variables contributing significantly to the explanation of PTSD symptoms in the first step of the regression analysis. In the second step, the birth-related variables peritraumatic emotions and wellbeing during childbed significantly increased the explanation of variance. Despite showing significant bivariate correlations, social support entered in the third step did not predict PTSD symptom severities over and above the variables included in the first two steps. However, with the exception of peritraumatic dissociation all cognitive variables emerged as powerful predictors and increased the amount of variance explained from 43% to a total amount of 68%. Conclusions The findings suggest that the prediction of PTSD following childbirth can be improved by focusing on variables derived from a current theoretical model of the disorder. PMID:25026966

2014-01-01

408

Deoxynivalenol and its toxicity.  

PubMed

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of several mycotoxins produced by certain Fusarium species that frequently infect corn, wheat, oats, barley, rice, and other grains in the field or during storage. The exposure risk to human is directly through foods of plant origin (cereal grains) or indirectly through foods of animal origin (kidney, liver, milk, eggs). It has been detected in buckwheat, popcorn, sorgum, triticale, and other food products including flour, bread, breakfast cereals, noodles, infant foods, pancakes, malt and beer. DON affects animal and human health causing acute temporary nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, and fever. This review briefly summarizes toxicities of this mycotoxin as well as effects on reproduction and their antagonistic and synergic actions. PMID:21217881

Sobrova, Pavlina; Adam, Vojtech; Vasatkova, Anna; Beklova, Miroslava; Zeman, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

2010-09-01

409

Quinclorac Ester Toxicity and Metabolism in Leafy Spurge ( Euphorbia esula) Soil Systems: Effects of Foliar vs Soil Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quinclorac and 13 synthesized esters were monitored for toxicity in foliar- and soil-treated leafy spurge plants. Foliar treatment at 0.5 ?mol\\/plant with quinclorac resulted with 100% mortality, whereas treatment with esters at 2 ?mol\\/plant showed initial toxicity symptoms, but the plants recovered with time (24 weeks). Foliar toxicity symptoms and mortality increased throughout 24 weeks after soil treatment at 0.4

Donald G. Rusness; Janice K. Huwe; Gerald L. Lamoureux

1998-01-01

410

Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Homeless Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Adolescent homelessness has received increasing attention due to its fast growth throughout the United States and the poor mental outcomes experienced by homeless young people. This cross-sectional study (N = 156) identified correlates of depressive symptomatology among homeless young adults and investigated how depressive symptoms are influenced by the coping strategies these young adults employ. The findings are based on analysis of baseline data collected for a hepatitis vaccination intervention pilot study conducted in partnership with a young adult’s drop-in center in Santa Monica, California. Standardized tools assessed drug use history, coping ability, and psychiatric symptomatology. Linear regression modeling was used to identify correlates of depressive symptom severity. Poor perceived physical health, recent crack cocaine use and recent use of tranquilizers were significantly associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. Self-destructive escape, non-disclosure/avoidance, passive problem-solving and thoughts of harming self were also associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:21131507

Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Liu, Yihang; Leake, Barbara

2013-01-01

411

Toxic Shock Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... about it, then take some precautions. What Is Toxic Shock Syndrome? If you're a girl who's ... period, you may have heard frightening stories about toxic shock syndrome (TSS), a serious illness originally linked ...

412

Toxic substances handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles