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1

Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Hair and Severity of Symptoms among Children with Autism  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the levels of ten toxic metals and essential elements in hair samples of children with autism, and to correlate the level of these elements with the severity of autism. Method: The participants were 44 children, age 3 to 9 years, with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition, (DSM-IV). The severity of autistic symptomatology was measured by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Hair analysis was performed to evaluate the long term metal exposure and mineral level. Results: By comparing hair concentration of autistic vs nonautistic children, elevated hair concentrations were noted for aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, antimony, nickel, lead, and vanadium. Hair levels of calcium, iron, iodine, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, and selenium were considered deficient. There was a significant positive correlation between lead & verbal communication (p = 0.020) and general impression (p = 0.008). In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between zinc & fear and nervousness (p = 0.022). Conclusion: Our data supports the historic evidence that heavy metals play a role in the development of ASD. In combination with an inadequate nutritional status the toxic effect of metals increase along with the severity of symptoms. PMID:23118818

BLAUROCK-BUSCH, Eleonor; AMIN, Omnia R.; DESSOKI, Hani H.; RABAH, Thanaa

2012-01-01

2

Menopausal symptoms: is spirituality associated with the severity of symptoms?  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore whether spirituality was associated with menopausal symptoms. Menopausal symptoms, spirituality, health and menopausal status, and socio-demographic variables were assessed in a community sample of 710 peri- and postmenopausal women. A structural model was explored using structural equation modeling. The results evidence spirituality as a significant contributor regarding the severity of most menopausal symptoms. Among others, spirituality had a significant weight in depressive mood (? = -.414; p < .001), anxiety (? = -.308; p < .001), cognitive impairment (? = -.287; p < .001), aches/pain (? = -.148; p < .001), vasomotor (? = -.125; p = .005) and sexual symptoms (? = -.211; p < .001). Some socio-demographic variables, as well as perceived health, also predicted the menopausal symptoms' severity. Therefore, spirituality can have a positive impact on the menopausal symptoms' reporting. PMID:23471772

Pimenta, Filipa; Maroco, João; Ramos, Catarina; Leal, Isabel

2014-08-01

3

ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY OF SEVERAL TOXIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The hydroxyl radical initiated gas phase oxidation of several toxic compounds in nitrous acid, oxides of nitrogen, in air mixtures were investigated. The chemical species studied were: formaldehyde, acrylonitrile, vinylidene chloride, trichloroethylene, allyl chloride, acetaldehy...

4

Severe toxic hepatitis associated with dronedarone.  

PubMed

Dronedarone was introduced in 2009 as a new antiarrhythmic agent and since then has been increasingly prescribed in atrial fibrillation or flutter. To date, two cases of severe toxic hepatitis have been reported in patients treated with dronedarone, both requiring emergency liver transplantation, and the FDA as well as the EMA have issued warnings about possible severe hepatotoxicity of dronedarone. Here we report an additional case of toxic hepatitis associated with dronedarone presenting with acute liver failure, followed by spontaneous recovery, in a 69-year old woman. PMID:23789833

Jahn, Stephan; Zollner, Gernot; Lackner, Carolin; Stauber, Rudolf E

2013-07-01

5

Self-compassion and PTSD symptom severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neff 's (2003a, 2003b) notion of self-compassion emphasizes kindness towards one's self, a feeling of connectedness with others, and mindful awareness of distressing experiences. Because exposure to trauma and subsequent posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS) may be associated with self-criticism and avoidance of internal experiences, the authors examined the relationship between self-compassion and PSS. Out of a sample of 210 university

Brian L. Thompson; Jennifer Waltz

2008-01-01

6

Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and…

Anholt, Gideon E.; Cath, Danielle C.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

2010-01-01

7

Latent structure of irritable bowel syndrome symptom severity  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the latent structure of an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptom severity scale in a population of healthy adults. METHODS: The Birmingham IBS symptom questionnaire which consists of three symptom specific scales (diarrhea, constipation, pain) was evaluated by means of structural equation modeling. We compared the original 3-factor solution to a general factor model and a bifactor solution in a large internet sample of college students (n = 875). Statistical comparisons of competing models were conducted by means of ?2 difference tests. Regarding the evaluation of model fit, we examined the comparative fit index (CFI) and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA). RESULTS: Results clearly favored a bifactor model of IBS symptom severity (CFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.05) which consisted of a strong general IBS somatization factor and three symptom specific factors (diarrhea, constipation, pain) based on the subscales of the Birmingham IBS symptom questionnaire. The fit indices of the competing one factor model (CFI = 0.85, RMSEA = 0.17) and three factor model (CFI = 0.97, RMSEA = 0.08) were clearly inferior. ?2 difference tests showed that the differences between the models were indeed significant in favor of the bifactor model (P < 0.001). Correlations of the four latent factors with measures of pain sensitivity, somatoform dissociation, fatigue severity, and demographic variables support the validity of our bifactor model of IBS specific symptom severity. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that IBS symptom severity might best be understood as a continuous and multidimensional construct which can be reliably and validly assessed with the B-IBS. PMID:25574104

Jasper, Fabian; Egloff, Boris; Roalfe, Andrea; Witthöft, Michael

2015-01-01

8

Linguistic Correlates of Asymmetric Motor Symptom Severity in Parkinson's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asymmetric motor severity is common in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and provides a method for examining the neurobiologic mechanisms underlying cognitive and linguistic deficits associated with the disorder. In the present research, PD participants (N = 31) were assessed in terms of the asymmetry of their motor symptoms. Interviews with the…

Holtgraves, Thomas; McNamara, Patrick; Cappaert, Kevin; Durso, Raymond

2010-01-01

9

Caregiver Life Satisfaction: Relationship to Youth Symptom Severity through Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study utilized the Satisfaction with Life Scale to investigate the life satisfaction of caregivers for youth receiving mental health services (N = 383). Specifically, this study assessed how caregiver life satisfaction relates to youth symptom severity throughout treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling with a time-varying covariate was used…

Athay, M. Michele

2012-01-01

10

Preliminary Diagnostic Criteria for Fibromyalgia and Measurement of Symptom Severity  

E-print Network

criteria for clinical diagnosis of fibromyalgia that are suitable for use in primary and specialty care and that do not require a tender point examination, and to provide a severity scale for characteristic fibromyalgia symptoms. Methods. We performed a multicenter study of 829 previously diagnosed

Frederick Wolfe; Daniel J. Clauw; Mary-ann Fitzcharles; Don L. Goldenberg; Robert S. Katz; Philip Mease; Anthony S. Russell; I. Jon Russell; John B. Winfield; Muhammad; B. Yunus

11

Eating disorder symptom severity scale: a new clinician rated measure.  

PubMed

This study describes the development and validation of the clinician-rated Eating Disorder Symptom Severity Scale (EDS(3)), created to address a gap in measurement options for youth with eating disorders. The EDS(3) is modeled on the Childhood Severity and Acuity of Psychiatric Illness Scales (Lyons, J. S, 1998). Factor analysis revealed a 5-factor solution and accounted for 78% of the variance, and internal consistency within the subscales was good (Cronbach alphas: 0.69 to 0.93). The EDS(3) is a valid and reliable measure designed for clinicians to help assess the severity of a youth's eating disorder and to facilitate outcomes research. PMID:20603733

Henderson, Katherine A; Buchholz, Annick; Perkins, Julie; Norwood, Sarah; Obeid, Nicole; Spettigue, Wendy; Feder, Stephen

2010-01-01

12

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Predict Symptom Severity of Autism Spectrum Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism is widely believed to be a heterogeneous disorder; diagnosis is currently based solely on clinical criteria, although\\u000a genetic, as well as environmental, influences are thought to be prominent factors in the etiology of most forms of autism.\\u000a Our goal is to determine whether a predictive model based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can predict symptom severity\\u000a of autism spectrum disorder

Yun Jiao; Rong Chen; Xiaoyan Ke; Lu Cheng; Kangkang Chu; Zuhong Lu; Edward H. Herskovits

13

Single nucleotide polymorphisms predict symptom severity of autism spectrum disorder  

PubMed Central

Autism is widely believed to be a heterogeneous disorder; diagnosis is currently based solely on clinical criteria, although genetic, as well as environmental, influences are thought to be prominent factors in the etiology of most forms of autism. Our goal is to determine whether a predictive model based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can predict symptom severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We divided 118 ASD children into a mild/moderate autism group (n = 65) and a severe autism group (n = 53), based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). For each child, we obtained 29 SNPs of 9 ASD-related genes. To generate predictive models, we employed three machine-learning techniques: decision stumps (DSs), alternating decision trees (ADTrees), and FlexTrees. DS and FlexTree generated modestly better classifiers, with accuracy = 67%, sensitivity = 0.88 and specificity = 0.42. The SNP rs878960 in GABRB3 was selected by all models, and was related associated with CARS assessment. Our results suggest that SNPs have the potential to offer accurate classification of ASD symptom severity. PMID:21786105

Jiao, Yun; Chen, Rong; Ke, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Lu; Chu, Kangkang; Lu, Zuhong; Herskovits, Edward H

2011-01-01

14

Relationship between Affective Symptoms and Malnutrition Severity in Severe Anorexia Nervosa  

PubMed Central

Background Very few studies have investigated the relationship between malnutrition and psychological symptoms in Anorexia Nervosa (AN). They have used only body weight or body mass index (BMI) for the nutritional assessment and did not always report on medication, or if they did, it was not included in the analysis of results, and they did not include confounding factors such as duration of illness, AN subtype or age. The present study investigates this relationship using indicators other than BMI/weight, among which body composition and biological markers, also considering potential confounders related to depression and anxiety. Methods 155 AN patients, (DSM-IV) were included consecutively upon admission to inpatient treatment. Depression, anxiety, obsessive behaviours and social functioning were measured using various scales. Nutritional status was measured using BMI, severity of weight loss, body composition, and albumin and prealbumin levels. Results No correlation was found between BMI at inclusion, fat-free mass index, fat mass index, and severity of weight loss and any of the psychometric scores. Age and medication are the only factors that affect the psychological scores. None of the psychological scores were explained by the nutritional indicators with the exception of albumin levels which was negatively linked to the LSAS fear score (p?=?0.024; beta?=??0.225). Only the use of antidepressants explained the variability in BDI scores (p?=?0.029; beta?=?0.228) and anxiolytic use explained the variability in HADs depression scores (p?=?0.037; beta?=?0.216). Conclusion The present study is a pioneer investigation of various nutritional markers in relation to psychological symptoms in severely malnourished AN patients. The clinical hypothesis that malnutrition partly causes depression and anxiety symptoms in AN in acute phase is not confirmed, and future studies are needed to back up our results. PMID:23185320

Mattar, Lama; Huas, Caroline; group, EVHAN; Godart, Nathalie

2012-01-01

15

Childhood Sexual Abuse Severity and Disclosure Predict Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Biomarkers in Ethnic Minority Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Adult posttraumatic stress symptoms and a biomarker index of current health risk in childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors were investigated in relation to CSA severity, disclosure, and other peri- and post-trauma factors. Method: A community sample of 94 African American and Latina female CSA survivors was assessed. Results: Severe CSA predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms overall, avoidance\\/numbing symptoms, and greater

Dorie A. Glover; Tamra Burns Loeb; Jennifer Vargas Carmona; Andres Sciolla; Muyu Zhang; Hector F. Myers; Gail E. Wyatt

2010-01-01

16

Children with Autism: Sleep Problems and Symptom Severity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships between the specific sleep problems and specific behavioral problems of children with autism were evaluated. Mothers' reports of sleep habits and autism symptoms were collected for 109 children with autism. Unlike previous research in this area, only children diagnosed with autism without any commonly comorbid diagnoses (e.g.,…

Tudor, Megan E.; Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.

2012-01-01

17

Red clover causing symptoms suggestive of methotrexate toxicity in a patient on high-dose methotrexate.  

PubMed

The case report discusses a very serious interaction between red clover and methotrexate not previously documented. It highlights the potential pitfalls of concomitant use of herbal remedies and conventionally prescribed drugs and the importance of advising our patients about OTC drugs. A 52-year-old woman attended her general practitioner for advice on menopausal flushing. She was on methotrexate weekly injections for severe psoriasis and was not keen to consider anything that would possibly affect her skin. Alternative therapies were discussed and red clover was suggested. This was bought OTC. After the third day of taking red clover capsules (430 mg), the patient developed severe vomiting and epigastric pain. She contacted the dermatology clinic that administers the methotrexate injection and was thought to have symptoms suggestive of methotrexate toxicity even though her liver function tests remained within normal levels. She had been receiving methotrexate injections for nearly two years with no adverse effects. The only new drug that had been started was red clover and this was thought to be the probable cause of the toxicity. It was withdrawn. The patient made a full recovery and received her next injection of methotrexate with no adverse effects. The interaction was reported to the MHRA with a yellow card. PMID:24072635

Orr, Ancel; Parker, Rachel

2013-09-01

18

Symptoms and implications of selenium toxicity in fish: the Belews Lake case example.  

PubMed

Belews Lake, North Carolina was contaminated by selenium in wastewater from a coal-fired power plant during the mid-1970s, and toxic impacts to the resident fish community (20 species) were studied for over two decades. Symptoms of chronic selenium poisoning in Belews Lake fish included, (1) telangiectasia (swelling) of gill lamellae; (2) elevated lymphocytes; (3) reduced hematocrit and hemoglobin (anemia); (4) corneal cataracts; (5) exopthalmus (popeye); (6) pathological alterations in liver, kidney, heart, and ovary (e.g. vacuolization of parenchymal hepatocytes, intracapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis, severe pericarditis and myocarditis, necrotic and ruptured mature egg follicles); (7) reproductive failure (reduced production of viable eggs due to ovarian pathology, and post-hatch mortality due to bioaccumulation of selenium in eggs); and (8) teratogenic deformities of the spine, head, mouth, and fins. Important principles of selenium cycling and toxicity were documented in the Belews Lake studies. Selenium poisoning in fish can be 'invisible', because, the primary point of impact is the egg, which receives selenium from the female's diet (whether consumed in organic or inorganic forms), and stores it until hatching, whereupon it is metabolized by the developing fish. If concentrations in eggs are great enough (about 10 microg/g or greater) biochemical functions may be disrupted, and teratogenic deformity and death may occur. Adult fish can survive and appear healthy despite the fact that extensive reproductive failure is occurring--19 of the 20 species in Belews Lake were eliminated as a result of this insidious mode of toxicity. Bioaccumulation in aquatic food chains causes otherwise harmless concentrations of selenium to reach toxic levels, and the selenium in contaminated sediments can be cycled into food chains for decades. The lessons learned from Belews Lake provide information useful for protecting aquatic ecosystems as new selenium issues emerge. PMID:11879937

Lemly, A Dennis

2002-04-01

19

Psychological Symptoms and Drug Use Severity among Israeli Adolescents Presenting for Outpatient Drug Abuse Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to assess the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and the relation between psychological symptoms and drug use severity, among 117 Israeli adolescents presenting for outpatient drug abuse treatment. Psychological symptoms were assessed via both adolescent self-report and parent report. Drug use was…

Diamond, G.M.; Izzard, M.C.; Kedar, T.; Hutlzer, A.; Mell, H.

2005-01-01

20

Symptoms and toxicity of rituximab maintenance relative to observation following immunochemotherapy in patients with follicular lymphoma.  

PubMed

Objectives The randomized phase 3 PRIMA trial established that 2 years of rituximab maintenance therapy after attaining disease response to immunochemotherapy as first-line treatment of follicular lymphoma, reduced the risk of disease progression, compared with observation, without adversely affecting patient-reported quality of life (QoL). We now report additional analyses of symptom burden and toxicity. Methods Symptom burden was measured by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 items. The proportion of patients with worsening, no change, or improvement in symptoms from maintenance baseline was compared between rituximab maintenance and observation groups with Pearson ?(2) tests. Improvement in symptoms after 1 and 2 years of maintenance was further analyzed using generalized mixed models. The adverse event (AE) rate was calculated from the toxicity checklist at each visit to explore the frequency and timing of the toxicity AE in each treatment arm. The study protocol was approved by local ethics committees and is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under NCT00140582. Results Being tired, needing to rest, feeling weak, and trouble sleeping were the most frequently reported symptoms at the end of immunochemotherapy. By the end of maintenance, notable improvement was seen for fatigue symptoms, trouble sleeping, shortness of breath, lack of appetite, and nausea, with no significant difference in QoL symptoms between the rituximab maintenance and observation groups. The rate of AEs was low, and hematologic toxicity induced during chemotherapy treatment improved in both rituximab maintenance and observation groups. Discussion These results indicated that rituximab maintenance did not negatively impact disease- or treatment-related symptoms. PMID:25029908

Zhou, Xiaolei; Wang, Jianmin; Zhang, Jessica; Copley-Merriman, Catherine; Torigoe, Yasuhiro; Reyes, Carolina; Seymour, John F; Offner, Fritz C; Trneny, Marek; Salles, Gilles Andre

2015-04-01

21

Symptom Severity, Amount of Treatment, and 1Year Outcomes Among Dual Diagnosis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on associations among symptom severity, amount of treatment, and 1-year outcomes in a national sample of 8,622 dual diagnosis patients, who were classified at treatment entry into low-, moderate-, and high-severity groups. Patients with more severe symptoms at intake had poorer 1-year outcomes. Higher severity patients did not receive adequate “doses” of care: Compared with low-severity patients,

Christine Timko; Rudolf H. Moos

2002-01-01

22

SYMPTOM SEVERITY AMOUNT OF TREATMENT AND 1YEAR OUTCOMES AMONG DUAL DIAGNOSIS PATIENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: This study reports on associations among symptom severity, amount of treat- ment, and 1-year outcomes in a national sample of 8,622 dual diagnosis patients, who were classified at treatment entry into low-, moderate-, and high-severity groups. Patients with more,severe symptoms,at intake had,poorer,1-year outcomes. Higher severity patients did not receive adequate “doses” of care: Compared with low-severity patients, they had

Christine Timko; Rudolf H. Moos

2002-01-01

23

Effectiveness of propranolol for cocaine dependence treatment may depend on cocaine withdrawal symptom severity.  

PubMed

Propranolol may reduce symptoms of autonomic arousal associated with early cocaine abstinence and improve treatment outcome. This trial was an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of propranolol in 108 cocaine dependent subjects. The primary outcome measure was quantitative urinary benzoylecgonine levels. Secondary outcome measures included treatment retention, addiction severity index results, cocaine craving, mood and anxiety symptoms, cocaine withdrawal symptoms, and adverse events. Propranolol treated subjects had lower cocaine withdrawal symptom severity but otherwise did not differ from placebo treated subjects in any outcome measure. However, in a secondary, exploratory analysis, subjects with more severe cocaine withdrawal symptoms responded better to propranolol in comparison to placebo. In these subjects, propranolol treatment was associated with better treatment retention and lower urinary benzoylecgonine levels as compared with the placebo treatment. Propranolol may be useful only for the treatment of cocaine dependent patients with severe cocaine withdrawal symptoms. PMID:11297832

Kampman, K M; Volpicelli, J R; Mulvaney, F; Alterman, A I; Cornish, J; Gariti, P; Cnaan, A; Poole, S; Muller, E; Acosta, T; Luce, D; O'Brien, C

2001-06-01

24

Brief Report: Concurrent Validity of Autism Symptom Severity Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic classifications, according to the DSM-5, include a severity rating. Several screening and/or diagnostic measures, such as the autism diagnostic and observation schedule (ADOS), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and social responsiveness scale (SRS) (teacher and parent versions), include an…

Reszka, Stephanie S.; Boyd, Brian A.; McBee, Matthew; Hume, Kara A.; Odom, Samuel L.

2014-01-01

25

Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and daily ambient exposures to toxic and criteria air pollutants.  

PubMed Central

Although acute adverse effects on asthma have been frequently found for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's principal criteria air pollutants, there is little epidemiologic information on specific hydrocarbons from toxic emission sources. We conducted a panel study of 22 Hispanic children with asthma who were 10-16 years old and living in a Los Angeles community with high traffic density. Subjects filled out symptom diaries daily for up to 3 months (November 1999 through January 2000). Pollutants included ambient hourly values of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide and 24-hr values of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm (PM10, and elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) PM10 fractions. Asthma symptom severity was regressed on pollutants using generalized estimating equations, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) was regressed on pollutants using mixed models. We found positive associations of symptoms with criteria air pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, PM10), EC-OC, and VOCs (benzene, ethylbenzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 1,3-butadiene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene). Selected adjusted odds ratios for bothersome or more severe asthma symptoms from interquartile range increases in pollutants were, for 1.4 ppb 8-hr NO2, 1.27 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.54]; 1.00 ppb benzene, 1.23 (95% CI, 1.02-1.48); 3.16 ppb formaldehyde, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.04-1.80); 37 microg/m3 PM10, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.11-1.90); 2.91 microg/m3 EC, 1.85 (95% CI, 1.11-3.08); and 4.64 microg/m3 OC, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.12-3.17). Two-pollutant models of EC or OC with PM10 showed little change in odds ratios for EC (to 1.83) or OC (to 1.89), but PM10 decreased from 1.45 to 1.0. There were no significant associations with PEF. Findings support the view that air toxins in the pollutant mix from traffic and industrial sources may have adverse effects on asthma in children. PMID:12676630

Delfino, Ralph J; Gong, Henry; Linn, William S; Pellizzari, Edo D; Hu, Ye

2003-01-01

26

Predictors of PTSD Symptom Severity and Social Reactions in Sexual Assault Victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demographics, assault variables, and postassault responses were analyzed as correlates of PTSD symptom severity in a sample of 323 sexual assault victims. Regression analyses indicated that less education, greater perceived life threat, and receipt of more negative social reactions upon disclosing assault were each related to greater PTSD symptom severity. Ethnic minority victims reported more negative social reactions from others.

Sarah E. Ullman; Henrietta H. Filipas

2001-01-01

27

Factors related to delayed treatment and posttreatment symptom severity in Taiwanese patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.  

PubMed

We evaluated the sociodemographic and clinical factors of delayed treatment and posttreatment symptom severity in outpatients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The study included 146 BPH patients treated at the National Taiwan University Hospital in early 1997. All patients were treated with alpha-adrenergic antagonists or finasteride for at least 2 weeks. A questionnaire based on Andersen's Health Behavior Model was used to assess various sociodemographic features, while the pre- and posttreatment symptoms severity was rated according to the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the associations of these factors with delayed treatment and posttreatment symptom severity. Subjects who had recently quit smoking or were blue-collar workers tended to delay treatment, while those who chose a medical center as the care provider for chronic diseases tended to be less likely to delay treatment. However, none of these associations were statistically significant. No enabling factors (income, insurance) or need factors (symptom scores) evaluated were associated with delayed treatment. Predisposing factors associated with higher posttreatment symptom severity were delayed treatment (over 12 months) (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-6.16), quitting smoking (adjusted OR: 4.47, 95% CI: 1.34-14.94), and having never smoked (adjusted OR: 3.73, 95% CI: 1.15-12.11). Subjects with severe pretreatment symptoms were far more likely than subjects with mild pretreatment symptoms to have severe symptoms after treatment (adjusted OR: 52.69, 95% CI: 54.46-621.90). Our findings, though based on a limited number of subjects, suggest sociodemographic factors rather than objective clinical attributes (prostate specific antigen level, prostate volume, and urodynamic results) are associated with delayed treatment in Taiwanese men with BPH. Both pretreatment symptom severity and sociodemographic factors are related to posttreatment symptom severity. PMID:9872032

Chang, C K; Yu, H J; Chan, K W; Chie, W C; Chen, J; Chen, Y T; Lai, M K

1998-11-01

28

Intravenous Lipid Emulsion Given to Volunteers does not Affect Symptoms of Lidocaine Brain Toxicity.  

PubMed

Intravenous lipid emulsion has been suggested as treatment for local anaesthetic toxicity, but the exact mechanism of action is still uncertain. Controlled studies on the effect of lipid emulsion on toxic doses of local anaesthetics have not been performed in man. In randomized, subject-blinded and two-phase cross-over fashion, eight healthy volunteers were given a 1.5 ml/kg bolus of 20% Intralipid(®) (200 mg/ml) or Ringer's acetate solution intravenously, followed by a rapid injection of lidocaine 1.0 mg/kg. Then, the same solution as in the bolus was infused at a rate of 0.25 ml/kg/min. for 30 min. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded, and 5 min. after lidocaine injection, the volunteers were asked to report subjective symptoms. Total and un-entrapped lidocaine plasma concentrations were measured from venous blood samples. EEG band power changes (delta, alpha and beta) after the lidocaine bolus were similar during lipid and during Ringer infusion. There were no differences between infusions in the subjective symptoms of central nervous system toxicity. Lidocaine was only minimally entrapped in the plasma by lipid emulsion, but the mean un-entrapped lidocaine area under concentration-time curve from 0 to 30 min. was clearly smaller during lipid than Ringer infusion (16.4 versus 21.3 mg × min/l, p = 0.044). Intravenous lipid emulsion did not influence subjective toxicity symptoms nor affect the EEG changes caused by lidocaine. PMID:25207682

Heinonen, Juho A; Litonius, Erik; Salmi, Tapani; Haasio, Juhani; Tarkkila, Pekka; Backman, Janne T; Rosenberg, Per H

2015-04-01

29

Gender Differences in Dependence Symptoms and Psychiatric Severity in Adolescents with Substance Use Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inpatients seeking treatment for substance use disorder were compared by gender on several variables. Results included (1) females were more likely to endorse dependence symptoms and report experiencing dependence symptoms at a younger age; (2) females progressed faster to regular use of drugs; (3) females were more likely to begin substance use…

Thomas, Suzanne E.; Deas, Deborah; Grindlinger, Dani R.

2003-01-01

30

Brain injury severity, litigation status, and self-report of postconcussive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Postconcussive Symptom Questionnaire (PCSQ) was developed to assess the symptoms associated with the controversial diagnosis of postconcussion syndrome. We examined item endorsement on the PCSQ in two groups. The first group was made up of individuals diagnosed with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. The second group was made up of individuals meeting criteria for mild traumatic brain injury

John Tsanadis; Eduardo Montoya; Robin A. Hanks; Scott R. Millis; Norman L. Fichtenberg; Bradley N. Axelrod

2008-01-01

31

Aberrant error processing in relation to symptom severity in obsessivecompulsive disorder: A multimodal neuroimaging study  

E-print Network

Aberrant error processing in relation to symptom severity in obsessive­compulsive disorder neuroimaging Background: Obsessive­compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by maladaptive repetitive Obsessive­compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by stereo- typed and repetitive behaviors that persist

Manoach, Dara S.

32

Child Maltreatment Severity and Adult Trauma Symptoms: Does Perceived Social Support Play a Buffering Role?  

PubMed Central

Objectives The current study investigates the moderating effect of perceived social support on associations between child maltreatment severity and adult trauma symptoms. We extend the existing literature by examining the roles of severity of multiple maltreatment types (i.e., sexual, physical, and emotional abuse; physical and emotional neglect) and gender in this process. Methods The sample included 372 newlywed individuals recruited from marriage license records. Participants completed a number of self-report questionnaires measuring the nature and severity of child maltreatment history, perceived social support from friends and family, and trauma-related symptoms. These questionnaires were part of a larger study, investigating marital and intrapersonal functioning. We conducted separate, two-step hierarchical multiple regression models for perceived social support from family and perceived social support from friends. In each of these models, total trauma symptomatology was predicted from each child maltreatment severity variable, perceived social support, and the product of the two variables. In order to examine the role of gender, we conducted separate analyses for women and men. Results As hypothesized, increased severity of several maltreatment types (sexual abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect) predicted greater trauma symptoms for both women and men, and increased physical abuse severity predicted greater trauma symptoms for women. Perceived social support from both family and friends predicted lower trauma symptoms across all levels of maltreatment for men. For women, greater perceived social support from friends, but not from family, predicted decreased trauma symptoms. Finally, among women, perceived social support from family interacted with child maltreatment such that, as the severity of maltreatment (physical and emotional abuse, emotional neglect) increased, the buffering effect of perceived social support from family on trauma symptoms diminished. Conclusions The results of the current study shed new light on the potential for social support to shield individuals against long-term trauma symptoms, and suggest the importance of strengthening perceptions of available social support when working with adult survivors of child maltreatment. PMID:23623620

Evans, Sarah E.; Steel, Anne; DiLillo, David

2013-01-01

33

Maternal psychiatric history is associated with the symptom severity of ADHD in offspring.  

PubMed

Controversy exists about the role of parent psychopathology in persistence and severity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in their children. Here we aimed to analyse the potential association between the severity of ADHD symptoms in children and the presence of psychiatric and ADHD symptoms in their biological parents. Seventy-three triads of children and their parents who were in active treatment for their diagnosed ADHD were evaluated in our Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centers. The mental health of the parents was also assessed. The general psychopathology of the parents was evaluated using the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), and symptoms of hyperactivity were examined using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS v.1.1). The severity of symptoms in children was assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV). Variables that could have affected the clinical development of ADHD such as sex, evolution time, age, academic level and the presence of comorbidities were controlled. The severity of the symptoms in children with ADHD was significantly related to the psychiatric history of their mother, the younger age of the child and the presence of a comorbid conduct disorder in the child. We discussed the importance of screening for parental psychopathology in clinical practice. PMID:25747683

López Seco, F; Aguado-Gracia, J; Mundo-Cid, P; Acosta-García, S; Martí-Serrano, S; Gaviria, A M; Vilella, E; Masana-Marín, A

2015-04-30

34

Citrus stubborn symptom severity and Spiroplasma citri location within the tress canopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The severity of symptoms of citrus stubborn disease (CSD) within an orchard can range from mild to severe, but whether factors other than pathogen titer or duration of infection impact severity is not known. We tested the hypothesis that the canopy distribution of the pathogen, Spiroplasma citri, i...

35

Aggression inoculates against PTSD symptom severity—insights from armed groups in the eastern DR Congo  

PubMed Central

Background In the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), combatants are exposed to massive forms of violence and other traumatic stressors. Nevertheless, many combatants do not suffer from trauma-related disorders, although they have experienced numerous traumatizing events. Perceiving aggressive behavior as fascinating and arousing might be a defense against trauma-related disorders in the violent environment of war and conflict. Objective Thus, in this study we investigated the relationship between the exposure to traumatic stressors, appetitive aggression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. We hypothesized that cumulative traumatic experiences correlated positively and appetitive aggression negatively with PTSD symptom severity. Method In total, 105 voluntary male combatants from different armed groups in the eastern DRC took part in this study. In a semistructured interview, respondents were questioned about their exposure to traumatic stressors, the extent of appetitive aggression (Appetitive Aggression Scale) and their PTSD symptom severity (PTSD Symptom Scale - Interview). Results A multiple sequential regression analysis showed that traumatic events were positively related to PTSD symptom severity. For participants with low to medium PTSD symptom severity, appetitive aggression correlated negatively with PTSD symptom severity. Conclusions The results of this study provide further support for earlier findings that repeated exposure to traumatic stressors cumulatively heightens the risk of PTSD and revealed that appetitive aggression buffers the risk of developing PTSD symptoms under certain circumstances. Thus, the perception of aggressive behavior as fascinating and arousing seem to help combatants to adapt to violent environments but may also be one reason for recurrent failure of reintegration programs for excombatants. PMID:23671766

Hecker, Tobias; Hermenau, Katharin; Maedl, Anna; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

2013-01-01

36

Comparison of Depressive Symptom Severity Scores in Low-Income Women  

PubMed Central

Background The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) are considered reliable and valid for measuring depressive symptom severity and screening for a depressive disorder. Few studies have examined the convergent or divergent validity of these two measures, and none have been conducted among low-income women – even though rates of depression in this group are extremely high. Moreover, variation in within-subject scores suggests these measures may be less comparable in select subgroups. Objective We sought to compare these two measures in terms of construct validity, and examine whether within-subject differences in depressive symptom severity scores could be accounted for by select characteristics in low-income women. Method In a sample of 308 low-income women, construct validity was assessed using a multitrait-monomethod matrix approach, between-instrument differences in continuous symptom severity scores were regressed on select characteristics using backward stepwise selection, and differences in depressive symptom classification were assessed using the Mantel-Haenszel test. Results Convergent validity was high (rs = 0.80, p < .001). Among predictors that included age, race, education, number of chronic health conditions, history of depression, perceived stress, anxiety, and/or the number of generalized symptoms, none explained within-subject differences in depressive symptom scores between the BDI-II and PHQ-9 (p > .05, R2 < 0.04). Similarly, there was consistency in depressive symptom classification (X2 = 172 and 172.6, p < .0001). Discussion These findings demonstrate the BDI-II and PHQ-9 perform similarly among low-income women in terms of depressive symptom severity measurement and classifying levels of depressive symptoms, and do not vary across subgroups based on select demographics. PMID:21048482

Kneipp, Shawn M.; Kairalla, John A.; Stacciarini, Jeanne Marie R.; Pereira, Deidre; Miller, M. David

2010-01-01

37

Knowledge, attitude, practice, and toxicity symptoms associated with pesticide use among farm workers in the Gaza Strip  

PubMed Central

Aims: To assess knowledge, attitude, practice, and toxicity symptoms associated with pesticide use and exposure among 189 farm workers in the Gaza Strip. Methods: A cross section of agricultural farm workers in the Gaza Strip were asked to fill in a questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes, practice towards pesticide use, and associated toxicity symptoms. Results: Farm workers reported high levels of knowledge on the health impact of pesticides (97.9%). Moderate to high levels of knowledge were recorded on toxicity symptoms related to pesticides. Most farm workers were aware of the protective measures to be used during applying pesticides. However, no one took precautions unless they knew about the measures. Burning sensation in eyes/face was the commonest symptom (64.3%). The prevalence of self reported toxicity symptoms was dependent on mixing and use of high concentrations of pesticides. The highest percentage of self reported toxicity symptoms was found among the farm workers who returned to sprayed fields within one hour of applying pesticides. Conclusions: Farm workers in the Gaza Strip used pesticides extensively. Despite their knowledge about the adverse health impact of the pesticides, the use of protective measures was poor. Most had self reported toxicity symptoms, particularly the younger workers. It would be useful to minimise the use of pesticides and encourage alternative measures. Prevention and intervention programmes regarding the use of protective measures and monitoring the health status of farm workers should be implemented. PMID:12040114

Yassin, M; Abu, M; Safi, J

2002-01-01

38

The relationship between self-induced water intoxication and severity of psychiatric symptoms.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to test a theoretical framework that proposed a relationship between severe psychiatric symptoms and self-induced water intoxication (SIWI) by using reliable and valid measures. Twenty of 28 community-dwelling individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) in the sample exhibited excess fluid consumption as reflected by a mean urine specific gravity of 1.003 mEq/L. The psychometric measures included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Self Deficit Syndrome Scale (SDSS), and the Spielberger State-trait Anxiety Scale (STAI From X-1). A significant relationship was found at p .01 between severity of psychotic symptoms and severity of SIWI and between severity of SIWI and psychopathology symptoms within the PANSS. Anxiety was higher in those with SIWI before fluid loading compared with those with less excess fluid intake (i.e., USG < 1.010), and anxiety decreased from morning to evening in those with SIWI compared with those who did not exhibit excess fluid intake. The findings revealed a strong relationship between SIWI and severe psychiatric symptoms, including psychosis and a broad range of psychiatric symptoms. The findings provided initial support for the proposed theory, and consideration needs to be given to the development of interventions to augment existing treatment of fluid control. PMID:9868825

May, D L

1998-12-01

39

Correlation of symptoms with location and severity of pelvic organ prolapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the symptoms that are related to pelvic floor dysfunction with the location and severity of the coexisting prolapse. Study Design: Two hundred thirty-seven consecutive patients with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse came to Johns Hopkins Medicine during a 24-month period beginning in July 1998 and completed a symptom-specific Likert scale questionnaire that

R. Mark Ellerkmann; Geoffrey W. Cundiff; Clifford F. Melick; Mikio A. Nihira; Kenneth Leffler; Alfred E. Bent

2001-01-01

40

Symptoms during cancer pain treatment following WHO-guidelines: a longitudinal follow-up study of symptom prevalence, severity and etiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most patients with advanced cancer develop diverse symptoms that can limit the efficacy of pain treatment and undermine their quality of life. The present study surveys symptom prevalence, etiology and severity in 593 cancer patients treated by a pain service. Non-opioid analgesics, opioids and adjuvants were administered following the WHO-guidelines for cancer pain relief. Other symptoms were systematically treated by

Thomas Meuser; Christian Pietruck; Lukas Radbruch; Petra Stute; Klaus A Lehmann; Stefan Grond

2001-01-01

41

Postprandial plasma glucose response and gastrointestinal symptom severity in patients with diabetic gastroparesis.  

PubMed

Gastroparesis is a well-known diabetic complication. The pathogenesis is not fully understood. However, it is important to early diagnose these patients. This study evaluated the plasma glucose response after a test meal, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptom severity in patients with clinical suspicion of diabetic gastroparesis, and assessed its usefulness to predict gastroparesis. In all, 83 subjects with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1 and 2 were included; 53 subjects had gastroparesis and 30 had normal gastric emptying determined by gastric scintigraphy. GI symptom severity during the preceding 2 weeks was evaluated with a validated questionnaire. The test meal consisted of 100 g meat, 40 g pasta, 150 g carrot, and 5 g oil. The subjects ingested the meal under fasting conditions, and plasma glucose was followed during 180 minutes. Patients with gastroparesis demonstrated a blunted plasma glucose response after a test meal versus patients with normal gastric emptying (P < .005), reflected by lower maximum increase in plasma glucose response and incremental area under the curve of the plasma glucose, but a similar time to the maximum plasma glucose level. All GI symptoms were more severe in patients with gastroparesis. GI symptom severity had the best discriminative value to identify patients with gastroparesis with an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.83 (optimal cutoff: sensitivity 87%, specificity 80%). Patients with diabetic gastroparesis have a blunted postprandial plasma glucose response. Combining this information with the presence of GI symptoms can help clinicians identify diabetic patients with gastroparesis. PMID:24876417

Olausson, Eva A; Grundin, Håkan; Isaksson, Mats; Brock, Christina; Drewes, Asbjørn M; Attvall, Stig; Simrén, Magnus

2014-07-01

42

Does the Severity of Psychopathological Symptoms Mediate the Relationship Between Patient Personality and Therapist Response?  

PubMed

Countertransference can be viewed as a source of valuable diagnostic and therapeutic information and plays a crucial role in psychotherapy process and outcome. Some empirical researches have showed that patients' specific personality characteristics tend to evoke distinct patterns of emotional response in clinicians. However, to date there have been no studies examining the impact of patients' symptomatology on the association between their personality and therapists' responses. This research aimed to (a) investigate the relationship between patients' symptom severity and clinicians' emotional responses; and (b) explore the possible mediated effect of symptom severity on the relationship between patients' personality pathology and countertransference responses. A sample of psychiatrists and clinical psychologists (N = 198) of different theoretical orientations completed the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200 and the Therapist Response Questionnaire on a patient currently in their care, who then completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. The findings showed that patients' symptomatology partially mediates the relationship between their specific personality disorders (in particular, schizotypal, borderline, histrionic, and avoidant) and therapists' emotional responses, but in general, the impact of symptom severity is less sizable than one aroused by patients' personality style. Higher levels of patients' symptom severity are most associated with an intense feeling of being overwhelmed, disorganization, helplessness, and frustration in clinicians. These countertransference reactions are not accounted for by therapists' different therapeutic approaches and other variables (as gender, age, profession, and experience). The clinical implications of these results are addressed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25383652

Lingiardi, Vittorio; Tanzilli, Annalisa; Colli, Antonello

2014-11-10

43

Public Mental Health Clients with Severe Mental Illness and Probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Trauma Exposure and Correlates of Symptom Severity  

PubMed Central

Individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) are at greatly increased risk for trauma exposure and for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study reports findings from a large, comprehensive screening of trauma and PTSD symptoms among public mental health clients in a statewide community mental health system. In 851 individuals with SMI and probable PTSD, childhood sexual abuse was the most commonly endorsed “index” trauma, followed closely by the sudden death of a loved one. Participants had typically experienced an average of 7 types of traumatic events in their lifetime. The number of types of traumatic events experienced and Hispanic ethnicity were significantly associated with PTSD symptom severity. Clients reported experiencing PTSD in relation to events which occurred on average 20 years earlier, suggesting the clinical need to address trauma and loss throughout the lifespan, including their prolonged after-effects. PMID:23508645

Lu, Weili; Yanos, Philip T.; Silverstein, Steven M.; Mueser, Kim T.; Rosenberg, Stanley D.; Gottlieb, Jennifer D.; Duva, Stephanie Marcello; Kularatne, Thanuja; Dove-Williams, Stephanie; Paterno, Danielle; Hawthorne, Danielle; Giacobbe, Giovanna

2013-01-01

44

Correlates of depressive symptom severity in problem and pathological gamblers in couple relationships.  

PubMed

Problem and pathological gamblers (PPG) often suffer from depressive symptoms. Gambling problems have negative consequences on multiple aspects of gamblers' lives, including family and marital relationships. The objectives of the current study were to (1) replicate the results of studies that have suggested a stronger and more significant relationship between gambling and depression in PPG than in non-problem gamblers (NPG) and (2) explore specific correlates of depressive symptom severity in PPG in couple relationships. Variables demonstrated to be significantly correlated with depressive symptoms in the general population were selected. It was hypothesized that gender, age, gambler's mean annual income, perceived poverty, employment status, clinical status (i.e., problem or pathological gambler versus non-problem gambler), trait anxiety, alcoholism, problem-solving skills, and dyadic adjustment would be significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Sixty-seven PPG were recruited, primarily from an addiction treatment center; 40 NPG were recruited, primarily through the media. Results revealed that PPG reported significantly greater depressive symptoms than did NPG. Further, elevated trait anxiety and poor dyadic adjustment were demonstrated to be significant and specific correlates of depressive symptom severity in PPG. These findings contribute to the literature on depressive symptomatology in PPG in relationships, and highlight the importance of the influence of the couple relationship on PPG. PMID:23149512

Poirier-Arbour, Alisson; Trudel, Gilles; Boyer, Richard; Harvey, Pascale; Goldfarb, Maria Rocio

2014-03-01

45

Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Other Symptoms Diagnosis & Testing Proven Methods Skin Prick Tests Blood Tests Oral Food ... Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Other Symptoms Diagnosis & Testing Proven Methods Skin Prick Tests Blood Tests Oral Food ...

46

Psychopathology and alexithymia in severe mental illness: the impact of trauma and posttraumatic stress symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To empirically investigate whether or not symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are essential for transferring\\u000a the negative effects of trauma on the severity of severe mental illness (SMI) as recently suggested by an interactive model.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  About 122 inpatients with either schizophrenia or major affective disorder were administered the Posttraumatic Diagnostic\\u000a Scale, the Symptom Checklist and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale.

Carsten Spitzer; Matthias Vogel; Sven Barnow; Harald J. Freyberger; Hans Joergen Grabe

2007-01-01

47

Childhood and current ADHD symptom dimensions are associated with more severe cannabis outcomes in college students  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous studies have shown that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated higher risk of cannabis use disorders (CUD). However, these studies are limited in that most did not: (a) differentiate the role of hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) and inattention (IN); (b) control for associated psychopathology; and (c) consider more fine-grained CUD-related measures. Our aim was to clarify the unique and interactive contributions of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms to age of cannabis initiation and DSM-IV cannabis dependence, craving, and severity of problems related to cannabis use while statistically controlling for symptoms of comorbid psychopathology in a non-clinical sample of young adults. Methods Cannabis variables, current use of cigarettes and alcohol, current and childhood ADHD, and comorbid internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were assessed in 376 male and female undergraduates. Results Results indicate that current and childhood IN were independently associated with more severe cannabis use, craving, and problem use-related outcomes in young adulthood (p’s<.01) and that childhood HI symptoms were associated with earlier initiation of cannabis (p<.01). Further, current IN symptoms moderated the relationships between level of use and more severe outcomes (p’s<.01), such that higher IN strengthened positive associations among use and problem cannabis use. Associations with ADHD symptom dimensions and current use of alcohol and cigarettes were also present. Conclusions Thus, current and childhood inattention symptoms as well as childhood hyperactive-impulsive symptoms emerged as significant factors in cannabis-related outcomes in young adults, even after statistically controlling for important confounding variables. PMID:24332802

Bidwell, L.C.; Henry, E.A.; Willcutt, E.G.; Kinnear, M.K.; Ito, T.A.

2014-01-01

48

Sulphate fertilization ameliorates long-term aluminum toxicity symptoms in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne).  

PubMed

Effects of the oxanion sulphate on plant aluminum (Al(3+)) detoxification mechanisms are not well understood. Therefore, holistic physiological and biochemical modifications induced by progressively increased doses of sulphate fertilization in the presence of long-term Al(3+) stress were investigated in the aluminum sensitive perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cvJumbo). Plant growth inhibition induced by Al(3+) was decreased in response to increasing doses of sulphate supply. Aluminum concentrations measured in roots of perennial ryegrass by atomic absorption spectrometry declined significantly with increasing sulphate concentrations. In parallel, we determined a rise of sulphur in shoots and roots of perennial ryegrass. Inclusion of up to 360 ?M of sulphate enhanced cysteine and glutathione biosynthesis in Al(3+) (1.07 ?M) treated plants. This increase of thiol-containing compounds favored all modifications in the glutathione redox balance, declining lipid peroxidation, decreasing the activity of superoxide dismutase, and modifying the expression of proteins involved in the diminution of Al(3+) toxicity in roots. In particular, proteome analysis by 1D-SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS allowed to identify up (e.g. vacuolar proton ATPase, proteosome ? subunit, etc) and down (Glyoxilase I, Ascorbate peroxidase, etc.) regulated proteins induced by Al(3+) toxicity symptoms in roots. Although, sulphate supply up to 480 ?M caused a reduction in Al(3+) toxicity symptoms, it was not as efficient as compared to 360 ?M sulphate fertilization. These results suggest that sulphate fertilization ameliorates Al(3+) toxicity responses in an intracellular specific manner within Lolium perenne. PMID:25123423

Wulff-Zottele, Cristian; Hesse, Holger; Fisahn, Joachim; Bromke, Mariusz; Vera-Villalobos, Hernán; Li, Yan; Frenzel, Falko; Giavalisco, Patrick; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra; Zunino, Ligia; Caruso, Immcolata; Stohmann, Evelyn; Mora, Maria de la Luz

2014-10-01

49

UPTAKE AND TOXICITY OF TOXAPHENE IN SEVERAL ESTUARINE ORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The organochlorine insecticide, toxaphene, was tested in flow-through bioassays to evaluate its toxicity to estuarine organisms. The organisms tested and their respective 96-hr LC50s (based on measured concentrations) are: pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), 1.4 micrograms/L; grass s...

50

Longitudinal Study of Symptom Severity and Language in Minimally Verbal Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A significant minority of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are considered "minimally verbal" due to language development stagnating at a few words. Recent developments allow for the severity of ASD symptoms to be examined using Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Social Affect (SA) and Restricted and…

Thurm, Audrey; Manwaring, Stacy S.; Swineford, Lauren; Farmer, Cristan

2015-01-01

51

Altered empathic responding in major depressive disorder: Relation to symptom severity, illness burden, and psychosocial outcome  

E-print Network

Altered empathic responding in major depressive disorder: Relation to symptom severity, illness burden, and psychosocial outcome Andrée M. Cusi a,b , Glenda M. MacQueen c , R. Nathan Spreng d; however, systematic investigations of empathic responding have not been performed. Twenty patients

Spreng, R. Nathan

52

Relations between psychological avoidance, symptom severity and embarrassment in essential tremor.  

PubMed

Research with community- and clinic-based samples of essential tremor (ET) sufferers has identified embarrassment as a common consequence of the condition, leading to social anxiety and avoidance. We sought to ascertain whether psychological avoidance was related to embarrassment in ET, and whether any such relation was independent of symptom severity. Establishing whether psychological avoidance is related to embarrassment in ET would be a first indicator that mindfulness-based therapeutic approaches may be appropriate for sufferers of ET. Ninety-two participants were recruited through online support groups run by the International Tremor Foundation and the UK National Tremor Foundation, with the self-reported inclusion criteria being a clinical diagnosis of ET. Participants completed three validated questionnaires concerning ET-related embarrassment, ET symptom severity and psychological avoidance. Females had slightly higher embarrassment scores than males, and symptom severity and psychological avoidance made significant moderate (each accounting for 10-15% of variance approximately), but independent contributions to embarrassment scores. These results suggest that to address the potentially debilitating effects of embarrassment in ET, both symptom severity and psychological avoidance need to be targeted, with intervention research being required. PMID:25053752

Holding, Sophie J; Lew, Adina R

2015-03-01

53

Increased Prefrontal Cortex Activity During Negative Emotion Regulation as a Predictor of Depression Symptom Severity  

E-print Network

of Depression Symptom Severity Trajectory Over 6 Months Aaron S. Heller, MS; Tom Johnstone, PhD; Michael J. Peterson, MD, PhD; Gregory G. Kolden, PhD; Ned H. Kalin, MD; Richard J. Davidson, PhD IMPORTANCE Emotion disorder and without other Axis I or Axis II diagnoses were scanned before treatment and 2 and 6 months

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

54

Symptom severity and lifetime and prospective health service use among military veterans evaluated for PTSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used structural equation modeling with 174 treatment-seeking military trauma survivors evaluated for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at a VA Medical Center PTSD clinic to examine relationships among lifetime mental health service use, PTSD symptom severity and medical problems (from self- report), as well as prospective (1-year) mental health and medical care use visit counts extracted from medical records. We

Jon D. Elhai; Todd B. Kashdan; Jessica J. Snyder; Terry C. North; Christopher J. Heaney; B. Christopher Frueh

2007-01-01

55

Problematic alcohol use among individuals with HIV: relations with everyday memory functioning and HIV symptom severity.  

PubMed

Problematic alcohol use has been shown to negatively impact cognitive functions germane to achieving optimal HIV health outcomes. The present study, a secondary data analysis, examined the impact of problematic alcohol use on aspects of everyday memory functioning in a sample of 172 HIV-infected individuals (22 % female; Mage = 48.37 years, SD = 8.64; 39 % Black/non-Hispanic). Additionally, we tested whether self-reported memory functioning explained the relation between problematic alcohol use and HIV symptom severity. Results indicated that problematic patterns of alcohol use were associated with lower total memory functioning, retrieval (e.g., recall-difficulty) and memory for activity (e.g., what you did yesterday) and greater HIV symptom severity. Memory functioning mediated the relation between problematic alcohol use and HIV symptom severity. However, the direction of this relation was unclear as HIV symptom severity also mediated the relation between problematic alcohol use and memory functioning. Findings highlight the importance of integrated care for HIV and alcohol use disorders and suggest that routine alcohol and cognitive screenings may bolster health outcomes among this vulnerable population. PMID:23979498

Heinz, Adrienne J; Fogler, Kethera A; Newcomb, Michael E; Trafton, Jodie A; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

2014-07-01

56

Severity of Children's ADHD Symptoms and Parenting Stress: A Multiple Mediation Model of Self-Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the current study was to determine the extent to which the perceived self-regulation deficits across behavioral, cognitive, and emotional domains seen in children with ADHD explain the association between the severity of ADHD symptoms and parenting stress. Participants for this study included 80 children (mean age = 10 years, 9 months)…

Graziano, Paulo A.; McNamara, Joseph P.; Geffken, Gary R.; Reid, Adam

2011-01-01

57

Genitourinary Toxicity After High-Dose-Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy Combined With Hypofractionated External Beam Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: An Analysis to Determine the Correlation Between Dose-Volume Histogram Parameters in HDR Brachytherapy and Severity of Toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the severity of genitourinary (GU) toxicity in high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer and to explore factors that might affect the severity of GU toxicity. Methods and Materials: A total of 100 Japanese men with prostate cancer underwent {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Mean (SD) dose to 90% of the planning target volume was 6.3 (0.7) Gy per fraction of HDR. After 5 fractions of HDR treatment, EBRT with 10 fractions of 3 Gy was administrated. The urethral volume receiving 1-15 Gy per fraction in HDR brachytherapy (V1-V15) and the dose to at least 5-100% of urethral volume in HDR brachytherapy (D5-D100) were compared between patients with Grade 3 toxicity and those with Grade 0-2 toxicity. Prostate volume, patient age, and International Prostate Symptom Score were also compared between the two groups. Results: Of the 100 patients, 6 displayed Grade 3 acute GU toxicity, and 12 displayed Grade 3 late GU toxicity. Regarding acute GU toxicity, values of V1, V2, V3, and V4 were significantly higher in patients with Grade 3 toxicity than in those with Grade 0-2 toxicity. Regarding late GU toxicity, values of D70, D80, V12, and V13 were significantly higher in patients with Grade 3 toxicity than in those with Grade 0-2 toxicity. Conclusions: The severity of GU toxicity in HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT for prostate cancer was relatively high. The volume of prostatic urethra was associated with grade of acute GU toxicity, and urethral dose was associated with grade of late GU toxicity.

Ishiyama, Hiromichi [Department of Radiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan)], E-mail: hishiyam@kitasato-u.ac.jp; Kitano, Masashi [Department of Radiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Satoh, Takefumi [Department of Urology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Kotani, Shouko [Department of Radiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Uemae, Mineko [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kitasato University Hospital, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Okusa, Hiroshi; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Baba, Shiro [Department of Urology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Hayakawa, Kazushige [Department of Radiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan)

2009-09-01

58

Incidence and Prediction of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Severely Injured Accident Victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was designed to as- sess the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in severely injured acci- dent victims and to predict the presence of PTSD symptoms at a 12-month follow-up. Method: A longitudinal, 1-year follow-up study was carried out with 106 consecu- tive patients with severe accidental inju- ries who were admitted to the trauma surgeons' intensive

Ulrich Schnyder; Hanspeter Moergeli; Richard Klaghofer; D. Claus Buddeberg

2001-01-01

59

The relationship between symptom prevalence and severity and cancer primary site in 796 patients with advanced cancer.  

PubMed

Knowledge of differences in symptom experience between cancer sites may help better understand symptom pathophysiology. A total of 38 symptoms in 796 consecutive patients with advanced cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Symptom prevalence and severity were compared among the 12 primary site groups (PSGs) by the chi-square test. Pairwise comparisons determined which sites differed. Pain, fatigue, weakness, lack of energy, and anorexia had the highest overall prevalence but did not differ among PSGs. The 3 most common neuropsychological symptoms (insomnia, depression, and anxiety) also did not vary among PSGs. Nineteen (50%) symptoms varied significantly between PSGs, in prevalence (17), severity (14), or both (12). Nine of 17, 6 of 14, and 6 of 12 were gastrointestinal symptoms. Symptoms which varied by PSGs can be included in cancer site-specific symptom assessment instruments. PMID:21148160

Kirkova, Jordanka; Rybicki, Lisa; Walsh, Declan; Aktas, Aynur; Davis, Mellar P; Karafa, Matthew T

2011-08-01

60

COMPARISON OF EFFLUENT TOXICITY RESULTS USING CERIODAPHNIA DUBIA CULTURED ON SEVERAL DIETS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several diets have been proposed for Ceriodaphnia dubia, but no single diet has been universally accepted as optimal for toxicity testing. lthough several diets for Ceriodaphnia dubia culturing and testing are commonly used, little or no data exist on whether toxicity varies with...

61

When Parents with Severe Mental Illness Lose Contact with Their Children: Are Psychiatric Symptoms or Substance Use to Blame?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month…

Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William

2008-01-01

62

Toxicity of methylenebisthiocyanate (MBT) to several freshwater organisms  

SciTech Connect

The organo-sulfur compound methylenebisthiocyanate (MBT) has successfully been used as preservative in latex emulsions, starches and gums, acrylic fibers, coatings, curing salts for hide and leather and cutting oil systems. The greatest application of MBT is for cooling water systems and paper mill systems as effective inhibitor of algae, fungi and bacteria, in particular the sulfate reducing anaerobic Desulfovibrio sp. However, MBT hydrolyzes rapidly above pH 8.0. The half-conversion time at pH 8.0 is about 4.5. No data are available on residues of MBT in the aquatic environment. Information on the toxicity of MBT, except for its effects on bacteria and algae, is scarce. Therefore research was carried out to evaluate its risk to aquatic life.

Maas-Diepeveen, J.L.; van Leeuwen, C.J.

1988-04-01

63

Toxicity of methylenebisthiocyanate (MBT) to several freshwater organisms  

SciTech Connect

The organo-sulfur compound methylenebisthiocyanate (MBT) has successfully been used as preservative in latex emulsions, starches and gums, acrylic fibers, coatings, curing salts for hide and leather and cutting oil systems. The greatest application of MBT is for cooling water systems and paper mill systems as effective inhibitor of algae, fungi and bacteria, in particular the sulfate reducing anaerobic Desulfovibrio sp. Because MBT is not substantive to cellulose or other particulate matter, or to debris in systems, it remains in the water. However, MBT hydrolyzes rapidly above pH 8.0. No data are available on residues of MBT in the aquatic environment. Information on the toxicity of MBT, except for its effects on bacteria and algae, is scarce. Therefore research was carried out to evaluate its risk to aquatic life.

Maas-Diepeveen, L.; van Leeuwen, C.J. (Ministry of Transport and Public Works, Lelystad (Netherlands))

1988-05-01

64

Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

Kelsey, Chris R., E-mail: kelse003@mc.duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Horwitz, Mitchell E. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cellular Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Folz, Rodney J. [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Disorders Medicine, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY (United States); Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cellular Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2011-11-01

65

Health Care Utilization and Symptom Severity in Ghanaian Children – a Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing health care utilization behavior for children with mild or severe disease symptoms in rural Ghana. Between March and September 2008 a cross-sectional health care utilization survey was conducted and 8,715 caregivers were interviewed regarding their intended behavior in case their children had mild or severe fever or diarrhea. To show associations between hospital attendance and further independent factors (e.g. travel distance or socio-economic status) prevalence ratios were calculated for the four disease symptoms. A Poisson regression model was used to control for potential confounding. Frequency of hospital attendance decreased constantly with increasing distance to the health facility. Being enrolled in the national health insurance scheme increased the intention to attend a hospital. The effect of the other factors diminished in the Poisson regression if modeled together with travel distance. The observed associations weakened with increasing severity of symptoms, which indicates that barriers to visit a hospital are less important if children experience a more serious illness. As shown in other studies, travel distance to a health care provider had the strongest effect on health care utilization. Studies to identify local barriers to access health care services are important to inform health policy making as they identify deprived populations with low access to health services and to early treatment. PMID:24244698

Krumkamp, Ralf; Sarpong, Nimako; Kreuels, Benno; Ehlkes, Lutz; Loag, Wibke; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Zeeb, Hajo; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; May, Jürgen

2013-01-01

66

Acute Toxicity of Zinc to Several Aquatic Species Native to the Rocky Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

National water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life are based on toxicity tests, often using organisms that\\u000a are easy to culture in the laboratory. Species native to the Rocky Mountains are poorly represented in data sets used to derive\\u000a national water-quality criteria. To provide additional data on the toxicity of zinc, several laboratory acute-toxicity tests\\u000a were conducted with a

Stephen F. BrinkmanWalter; Walter D. Johnston

67

Symptom severity and psychological sequelae in rosacea: results of a survey.  

PubMed

Rosacea is associated with mental distress and depression, yet no studies have looked at the mediating effect of stigmatization and other factors on psychological sequelae. Using a survey of affected individuals, the objective of this study was to explore relationships between self-reported symptom severity, discomfort, stress reactivity, quality of life, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Participants were recruited from the mailing list of a German rosacea organization. The survey instrument included the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), the rejection scale of the Questionnaire on Experience with Skin Complaints (QES), and the German version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D). A total of 168 persons with rosacea were participated. The sample returned a HADS anxiety score of 7.2 ± 4.60, a HADS depression score of 5.1 ± 4.09, a DLQI of 4.05 ± 4.67, and a QES rejection score of 2.,61 ± 3.,37. Path analysis suggested that symptoms of anxiety and depression are linked with somatic symptoms indirectly, mediated through quality of life and stigmatization. Men are more negatively affected. Physicians treating rosacea patients should consider recommending psychological co-treatment for patients who have experienced stigmatization or who report low life quality. PMID:24088195

Böhm, Dana; Schwanitz, Petra; Stock Gissendanner, Scott; Schmid-Ott, Gerhard; Schulz, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

68

[Toxicity and bioactivity of several alternative nematocides against Ditylenchus destructor].  

PubMed

By the methods of fumigation and contact assay, this paper determined the toxicity of four kinds of soil fumigants and six kinds of non-fumigants against Ditylenchus destructor. In the meantime, the bioactivity of the agents was evaluated by the corrected mortality rate of D. destructor after treated with the LC50 dose of each agent for different time. The LC50 values of soil fumigants dazomet, 1, 3-dichloropropene, metham-sodium, and chloropicrin were 0.49, 0.89, 0.91, and 3.60 mg x L(-1), and those of non-fumigants emamectin benzoate, abamectin, ethoprophos, fosthiazate, aldicarb, and carbosulfan were 31.2, 48.1, 224.3, 288.4, 632.3, and 823.9 mg x L(-1), respectively. The corrected mortality rate increased with treating time. After treated with LC50 dose, the inhibitory effects of dazomet, 1,3-dichloropropene, abamectin, and emamectin benzoate kept on a higher level at the time, and the corrected mortality rate did not decline after breaking away from the treatment, but the D. destructor recovered when exposed to natural state after treated with ethoprophos and aldicarb for 48h. It was suggested that dazomet, 1,3-dichloropropene, abamectin, and emamectin benzoate were the potential alternative nematicides used for the control of D. destructor. PMID:22303683

Gao, De-Liang; Yu, Wei-Li; Miao, Jian-Qiang; Liu, Feng

2011-11-01

69

DUF1220 dosage is linearly associated with increasing severity of the three primary symptoms of autism.  

PubMed

One of the three most frequently documented copy number variations associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a 1q21.1 duplication that encompasses sequences encoding DUF1220 protein domains, the dosage of which we previously implicated in increased human brain size. Further, individuals with ASD frequently display accelerated brain growth and a larger brain size that is also associated with increased symptom severity. Given these findings, we investigated the relationship between DUF1220 copy number and ASD severity, and here show that in individuals with ASD (n = 170), the copy number (dosage) of DUF1220 subtype CON1 is highly variable, ranging from 56 to 88 copies following a Gaussian distribution. More remarkably, in individuals with ASD CON1 copy number is also linearly associated, in a dose-response manner, with increased severity of each of the three primary symptoms of ASD: social deficits (p = 0.021), communicative impairments (p = 0.030), and repetitive behaviors (p = 0.047). These data indicate that DUF1220 protein domain (CON1) dosage has an ASD-wide effect and, as such, is likely to be a key component of a major pathway underlying ASD severity. Finally, these findings, by implicating the dosage of a previously unexamined, copy number polymorphic and brain evolution-related gene coding sequence in ASD severity, provide an important new direction for further research into the genetic factors underlying ASD. PMID:24651471

Davis, Jonathan M; Searles, Veronica B; Anderson, Nathan; Keeney, Jonathon; Dumas, Laura; Sikela, James M

2014-03-01

70

A Preliminary Examination of Trauma History, Locus of Control, and PTSD Symptom Severity in African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research has established a relationship between external locus of control and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity among Caucasians. There is also evidence that African Americans tend to exhibit an elevated external locus of control. However, the relationship between external control and PTSD symptom severity has not been…

Hood, Sarah K.; Carter, Michele M.

2008-01-01

71

Efficacy of Atomoxetine in Children with Severe Autistic Disorders and Symptoms of ADHD: An Open-Label Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study aims to examine the efficacy of atomoxetine in treating symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with severe autistic disorder. Method: Children with severe autistic disorder who had symptoms of ADHD were given atomoxetine for 10 weeks. The efficacy of atomoxetine was evaluated by using the…

Charnsil, Chawanun

2011-01-01

72

Association of abuse history with symptom severity and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia.  

PubMed

A high prevalence of abuse has been reported in patients with fibromyalgia. We aimed to examine the association between self-reported abuse history and symptom severity and quality of life (QOL) in 962 patients with fibromyalgia. All patients completed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36). Multivariate regression analyses were performed. In total, 289 patients (30 %) reported a history of abuse. Of those who specified abuse types, 161 patients (59 %) reported more than 1 type of abuse (36 % emotional, 32 % physical, 25 % sexual, and 7 % verbal). Patients in the abuse group were younger and more likely to be female, unemployed, unmarried, and current smokers compared with patients who reported no abuse. After adjusting for these differences, abuse history was associated with worse symptoms, as indicated by a higher FIQ total score (P < .001) and higher FIQ subscale scores in physical function (P = .001), work missed (P < .001), job ability (P < .001), pain (P = .02), depression (P < .001), and anxiety (P < .001). Similarly, abuse history was associated with worse QOL, with lower SF-36 scores in all domains except the physical component summary. In conclusion, abuse history in patients with fibromyalgia was associated with worse symptoms and QOL compared with those patients without abuse history. Future studies are needed to assess whether additional tailored interventions as part of fibromyalgia treatment are helpful for patients with a history of abuse. PMID:25129032

Jiao, Juan; Vincent, Ann; Cha, Stephen S; Luedtke, Connie A; Oh, Terry H

2015-03-01

73

Anterior cingulate cortex and symptom severity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

The cause of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to abnormalities in prefrontal-striatal-cerebellar networks, but the brain-behavioral correlates are relatively equivocal. Children with ADHD and healthy controls underwent MRI and neuropsychological testing. Brain cortical thickness was analyzed for the bilateral rostral and caudal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Inhibitory control was assessed with the Stroop Inhibition test, and ADHD symptom severity was assessed with parent and teacher behavioral questionnaires. Brain-behavior relationships were calculated between cortical thickness and behavioral measures with regression models. Children with ADHD had significant cortical thinning in the right rostral ACC but nonsignificant thinning in right caudal, left caudal, or left rostral ACC compared with healthy control children after statistical correction for multiple comparisons. Further, right rostral ACC thickness predicted a significant amount of the variance in parent- and teacher-reported symptoms of ADHD. Exploratory analysis showed that cortical thickness was not related to psychostimulant medication history. Symptoms of ADHD may be related to reductions in cortical thickness in the right anterior attention network, a region implicated in behavioral error detection, impulsivity, and inhibitory control. PMID:23713508

Bledsoe, Jesse C; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Pliszka, Steven R

2013-05-01

74

Activity Parameters of Subthalamic Nucleus Neurons Selectively Predict Motor Symptom Severity in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous disorder that leads to variable expression of several different motor symptoms. While changes in firing rate, pattern, and oscillation of basal ganglia neurons have been observed in PD patients and experimental animals, there is limited evidence linking them to specific motor symptoms. Here we examined this relationship using extracellular recordings of subthalamic nucleus neurons from 19 PD patients undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation. For each patient, ?10 single units and/or multi-units were recorded in the OFF medication state. We correlated the proportion of neurons displaying different activities with preoperative Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale subscores (OFF medication). The mean spectral power at sub-beta frequencies and percentage of units oscillating at beta frequencies were positively correlated with the axial and limb rigidity scores, respectively. The percentage of units oscillating at gamma frequency was negatively correlated with the bradykinesia scores. The mean intraburst rate was positively correlated with both bradykinesia and axial scores, while the related ratio of interspike intervals below/above 10 ms was positively correlated with these symptoms and limb rigidity. None of the activity parameters correlated with tremor. The grand average of all the significantly correlated subthalamic nucleus activities accounted for >60% of the variance of the combined bradykinetic-rigid and axial scores. Our results demonstrate that the occurrence of alterations in the rate and pattern of basal ganglia neurons could partly underlie the variability in parkinsonian phenotype. PMID:24790198

Gulberti, Alessandro; Zittel, Simone; Tudor Jones, Adam A.; Fickel, Ulrich; Münchau, Alexander; Köppen, Johannes A.; Gerloff, Christian; Westphal, Manfred; Buhmann, Carsten; Hamel, Wolfgang; Engel, Andreas K.

2014-01-01

75

Evidence that health attributions and symptom severity predict insight in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Although a relationship between insight and symptomatology in schizophrenia has been repeatedly demonstrated, the influence of psychological variables such as coping mechanisms and attributional style is less clear. We evaluated health attributions, subjective resources for coping, symptomatology, general cognitive functioning, and insight among 38 consecutive admissions with DSM-III-R schizophrenia from a geographically defined catchment area. Health attributions accounted for a significant amount of insight even after symptom severity was accounted for and together predicted 32% of variation in insight scores. This study emphasizes the multifactorial nature of insight and the importance of psychological variables in addition to symptomatology. PMID:15348981

Donohoe, Gary; Donnell, Colin O; Owens, Nicholas; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

2004-09-01

76

Effects of Fenugreek Seed on the Severity and Systemic Symptoms of Dysmenorrhea  

PubMed Central

Background Primary dysmenorrhea is a prevalent disorder and its unfavorable effects deteriorates the quality of life in many people across the world. Based on some evidence on the characteristics of fenugreek as a medical plant with anti-inflammato-ry and analgesic properties, this double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial was conducted. The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of fenugreek seeds on the severity of primary dysmenorrhea among students. Methods Unmarried Students were randomly assigned to two groups who received fenugreek (n = 51) or placebo (n = 50). For the first 3 days of menstruation, 2–3 capsules containing fenugreek seed powder (900 mg) were given to the subjects three times daily for two consecutive menstrual cycles. Pain severity was evaluated using a visual analog scale and systemic symptoms were assessed using a multidimensional verbal scale. Results Pain severity at baseline did not differ significantly between the two groups. Pain severity was significantly reduced in both groups after the intervention; however, the fenugreek group experienced significantly larger pain reduction (p < 0.001). With respect to the duration of pain, there was no meaningful difference between the two cycles in the placebo group (p = 0.07) but in the fenugreek group, the duration of pain decreased between the two cycles (p < 0.001). Systemic symptoms of dysmenorrhea (fatigue, headache, nausea, vomiting, lack of energy, syncope) decreased in the fenugreek seed group (p < 0.05). No side effects were reported in the fenugreek group. Conclusion These data suggest that prescription of fenugreek seed powder during menstruation can reduce the severity of dysmenorrhea. PMID:24695380

Younesy, Sima; Amiraliakbari, Sedigheh; Esmaeili, Somayeh; Alavimajd, Hamid; Nouraei, Soheila

2014-01-01

77

Molecular Neurobiology of Depression: PET Findings on the Elusive Correlation with Symptom Severity  

PubMed Central

Molecular mechanisms in the brain are assumed to cause the symptoms and severity of neuropsychiatric disorders. This review concerns the elusive nature of relationships between the severity of depressive disorders and neuromolecular processes studied by positron emission tomography (PET). Recent PET studies of human depression have focused on serotonergic, dopaminergic, muscarinic, nicotinic, and GABAergic receptors, as well as central processes dependent on monoamine oxidase, phosphodiesterase type 4, amyloid plaques, neurofibrillar tangles, and P-glycoprotein. We find that reliable causal links between neuromolecular mechanisms and relief from depressive disorders have yet to be convincingly demonstrated. This situation may contribute to the currently limited use of PET for exploring the neuropathways that are currently viewed as being responsible for beneficial effects of antidepressant treatment regimes. PMID:23459670

Smith, Donald F.; Jakobsen, Steen

2013-01-01

78

ASSOCIATION OF RGS2 AND RGS5 VARIANTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA SYMPTOM SEVERITY  

PubMed Central

Background Several lines of evidence indicate that Regulator of G Protein Signaling 4 (RGS4) contributes to schizophrenia vulnerability. RGS4 is one of a family of molecules that modulate signaling via G-protein coupled receptors. Five genes encoding members of this family (RGS2, RGS4, RGS5, RGS8 and RGS16) map to chromosome 1q23.3-1q31. Due to overlapping cellular functions and chromosomal proximity, we hypothesized that multiple RGS genes may contribute to schizophrenia severity and treatment responsiveness. Methods Subjects were 750 individuals with schizophrenia who participated in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE). Inferred ancestries were: 221 (30%) ‘Africa only’, 422 (56%) ‘Europe only’ and 107 (14%) ‘Other’. Fifty-nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near the RGS5, RGS16, RGS8 and RGS2 genes were genotyped. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze association of markers with Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) total scores at baseline and throughout antipsychotic treatment. Results RGS5 marker rs10799902 was associated with altered baseline PANSS total score in both the Africa only (P=0.0440) and Europe only (P=0.0143) strata, although neither association survived multiple comparisons correction. A common five-marker haplotype of the RGS2 gene was associated with more severe baseline PANSS total score in the Europe only strata (global P=0.0254; haplotype-specific P=0.0196). In contrast to RGS4, none of the markers showed association with antipsychotic treatment response. Conclusions RGS2 and RGS5 genotypes predicted severity of baseline symptoms in schizophrenia. Although these analyses are exploratory and replication is required, these data suggest a possible role for multiple RGS proteins in schizophrenia. PMID:18262772

Campbell, Daniel B.; Lange, Leslie A.; Skelly, Tara; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Levitt, Pat; Sullivan, Patrick F.

2008-01-01

79

Association between alcohol consumption and symptom severity and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although alcohol consumption is a common lifestyle behavior with previous studies reporting positive effects of alcohol on chronic pain and rheumatoid arthritis, no studies to this date have examined alcohol consumption in patients with fibromyalgia. We examined the association between alcohol consumption and symptom severity and quality of life (QOL) in patients with fibromyalgia. Methods Data on self-reported alcohol consumption from 946 patients were analyzed. Subjects were grouped by level of alcohol consumption (number of drinks/week): none, low (?3), moderate (>3 to 7), and heavy (>7). Univariate analyses were used to find potential confounders, and analysis of covariance was used to adjust for these confounders. Tukey HSD pairwise comparisons were used to determine differences between alcohol groups. Results Five hundred and forty-six subjects (58%) did not consume alcohol. Low, moderate, and heavy levels of alcohol consumption were reported for 338 (36%), 31 (3%), and 31 patients (3%), respectively. Employment status (P <0.001), education level (P = 0.009), body mass index (P = 0.002) and opioid use (P = 0.002) differed significantly among groups with drinkers having higher education, a lower BMI, and a lower frequency of unemployment and opioid use than nondrinkers. After adjusting for these differences, the measures including the number of tender points (P = 0.01), FIQ total score (P = 0.01), physical function (P <0.001), work missed (P = 0.005), job ability (P = 0.03), and pain (P = 0.001) differed across groups, as did the SF-36 subscales of physical functioning (P <0.001), pain index (P = 0.002), general health perception (P = 0.02), social functioning (P = 0.02), and the physical component summary (P <0.001). Pairwise comparison among the 4 groups showed that the moderate and low alcohol drinkers had lower severity of fibromyalgia symptoms and better physical QOL than nondrinkers. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that low and moderate alcohol consumption was associated with lower fibromyalgia symptoms and better QOL compared to no alcohol consumption. The reasons for these results are unclear. Since recent studies have demonstrated that ?-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) levels are low in fibromyalgia, and alcohol is known to be a GABA-agonist, future studies should examine whether alcohol could have a salutary effect on pain and other symptoms in fibromyalgia. PMID:23497427

2013-01-01

80

Severity of Borderline Personality Symptoms in Adolescence: Relationship With Maternal Parenting Stress, Maternal Psychopathology, and Rearing Styles.  

PubMed

The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress has not been examined in this group. The current study examined 101 adolescents (14-19 years old) with BPD symptoms and their mothers. Assessments were made on severity of BPD symptoms, youth-perceived maternal rearing styles, and psychopathology and parenting stress in mothers. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine potential predictors of borderline severity. No correlation was found between severity of BPD symptoms in adolescents and parenting stress. Only youth-perceived maternal overprotection was significantly related to BPD severity. The combination of perceived maternal rejection with cluster B traits in mothers was significantly related to BPD severity in adolescents. This study provides a contribution to the disentanglement of the developmental pathways that lead to BPD. PMID:25102082

Schuppert, H Marieke; Albers, Casper J; Minderaa, Ruud B; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Nauta, Maaike H

2014-08-01

81

Decreased Mitogen Inducible Gene 6 (MIG-6) Associated with Symptom Severity in Children with Autism  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) demonstrate impairment in social interactions and problems in verbal and nonverbal communication. Autism spectrum disorders are thought to affect 1 in 88 children in the US. Recent research has shown that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation is associated with nerve cell development and repair. Mitogen inducible gene 6 (MIG-6) is a 58-kDa non-kinase scaffolding adaptor protein consisting of 462 amino-acids, which has been shown to be a negative feedback regulator of EGFR and Met receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling. SUBJECTS AND METHODS In this study, we determined plasma levels of MIG-6, which suppresses the EGFR RTK pathway in autistic children, and compared MIG-6 levels with the EGFR ligand, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and the cMET ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). MIG-6 levels were also compared to the symptom severity of 19 different autistic behaviors. Plasma MIG-6 concentration was measured in 40 autistic children and 39 neurotypical, age, and gender similar controls using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Plasma MIG-6 levels were compared to putative biomarkers known to be associated with EGFR and cMET and severity levels of 19 autism related symptoms [awareness, expressive language, receptive language, (conversational) pragmatic language, focus/attention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, perseveration, fine motor skills, gross motor skills, hypotonia (low muscle tone), tip toeing, rocking/pacing, stimming, obsessions/fixations, eye contact, sound sensitivity, light sensitivity, and tactile sensitivity]. RESULTS In this study, we found that plasma MIG-6 levels in autistic children (182.41 ± 24.3 pg/ml) were significantly lower than neurotypical controls (1779.76 ± 352.5; P = 1.76E ? 5). Decreased MIG-6 levels correlated with serotonin, dopamine, Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and urokinase receptor (uPAR) concentration, but not with other tested putative biomarkers. MIG-6 levels also correlated significantly with severity of expressive language, receptive language, tip toeing, rocking/pacing, and hand flapping/stimming. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest a relationship between decreased plasma MIG-6 levels, biomarkers associated with the EGFR pathway, and symptom severity in autism. A strong correlation between plasma MIG-6 and dopamine and serotonin levels suggest that decreased MIG-6 levels may be associated with abnormal neurotransmitter synthesis and/or action. A strong correlation between MIG-6 and uPAR and the inflammatory marker TNF-alpha suggests that low MIG-6 levels may be associated with the HGF/Met signaling pathway, as well as inflammation in autistic children. PMID:25342879

Russo, AJ

2014-01-01

82

Influenza-Like Illness among University Students: Symptom Severity and Duration Due to Influenza Virus Infection Compared to Other Etiologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: University students with influenza-like illness (ILI) were assessed to determine whether symptom severity, duration, or missed days of school or work varied according to etiology. Participants: Sixty persons presenting to a university health clinic with ILI symptoms during 3 consecutive influenza seasons completed baseline survey and…

Mullins, Jocelyn; Cook, Robert; Rinaldo, Charles; Yablonsky, Eric; Hess, Rachel; Piazza, Paolo

2011-01-01

83

A case of giardiasis expressing severe systemic symptoms and marked hypereosinophilia.  

PubMed

An 88-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital due to a one-month history of face edema, aphagia, shortness of breath, and skin rush over almost her entire skin. She had no abdominal symptoms. Her peripheral blood count showed a white blood cell (WBC) count of 27.1x10(9)/L with 82.1% eosinophils. Serum non-specific Immunoglobulin E was within a normal range. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor was elevated to 4200U/mL. At first, her eosinophil count was so high that we suspected she had an eosinophilic leukemia or hypereosinophilic syndrome. After admission, cysts of Giardia duodenalis (G. duodenalis) were detected in the patient's feces by microscopic analysis, then she was diagnosed with giardiasis, and 750mg per day of metronidazole was administered for seven days. Her WBC count decreased to 6.0x10(9)/L with 10% eosinophils, and her systemic symptoms improved. At that time her serum IL-5 was within a normal range. A few months later, the patient again complained of skin rush, and G. duodenalis was once again found in her feces. Her serum IL-5 was elevated to 751pg/mL. Metronidazole was administered for two weeks, and her eosinophil count decreased. G. duodenalis is a protozoan parasite, and it is one of the most common waterborne transmission gastrointestinal parasites in the world. G. duodenalis rarely causes hypereosinophilia. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of giardiasis with extreme hypereosinophilia and severe systemic symptoms. PMID:20601107

Suzuki, Yuhko; Nakamura, Takeshi; Tokoro, Masaharu; Togano, Tomiteru; Ohsaka, Manabu; Kohri, Mika; Hirata, Yasuyoshi; Miyazaki, Koji; Danbara, Mikio; Horie, Ryouichi; Miura, Ikuo; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Higashihara, Masaaki

2010-09-01

84

Etanercept reduces symptoms and severity of psoriasis after cessation of cyclosporine therapy: results of the SCORE study.  

PubMed

Cyclosporine is an established therapy for psoriasis that provides rapid relief of symptoms but has long-term toxic side effects. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of etanercept as replacement therapy for cyclosporine in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Patients with plaque psoriasis were given cyclosporine 5 mg/kg/day until achievement of PASI50 at which point cyclosporine was tapered to 0 over 6 weeks. At week 6, patients were randomised (1:1) to receive etanercept (50 mg/week) or placebo for an additional 24 weeks. Patients in the etanercept group (n?=?58) experienced a reduction of -1.1 in mean PASI score (p?=?0.233 vs. cyclosporine) at week 30; patients in the placebo group (n?=?62) had mean PASI increase of 3.7 (p?

Micali, Giuseppe; Wilsmann-Theis, Dagmar; Mallbris, Lotus; Gallo, Gaia; Marino, Valentina; Brault, Yves; Germain, Jean-Michel

2015-01-01

85

Inflammatory cytokine expression is associated with chikungunya virus resolution and symptom severity.  

PubMed

The Chikungunya virus infection zones have now quickly spread from Africa to parts of Asia, North America and Europe. Originally thought to trigger a disease of only mild symptoms, recently Chikungunya virus caused large-scale fatalities and widespread economic loss that was linked to recent virus genetic mutation and evolution. Due to the paucity of information on Chikungunya immunological progression, we investigated the serum levels of 13 cytokines/chemokines during the acute phase of Chikungunya disease and 6- and 12-month post-infection follow-up from patients of the Italian outbreak. We found that CXCL9/MIG, CCL2/MCP-1, IL-6 and CXCL10/IP-10 were significantly raised in the acute phase compared to follow-up samples. Furthermore, IL-1?, TNF-?, Il-12, IL-10, IFN-? and IL-5 had low initial acute phase levels that significantly increased at later time points. Analysis of symptom severity showed association with CXCL9/MIG, CXCL10/IP-10 and IgG levels. These data give insight into Chikungunya disease establishment and subsequent convalescence, which is imperative to the treatment and containment of this quickly evolving and frequently re-emerging disease. PMID:21858242

Kelvin, Alyson A; Banner, David; Silvi, Giuliano; Moro, Maria Luisa; Spataro, Nadir; Gaibani, Paolo; Cavrini, Francesca; Pierro, Anna; Rossini, Giada; Cameron, Mark J; Bermejo-Martin, Jesus F; Paquette, Stéphane G; Xu, Luoling; Danesh, Ali; Farooqui, Amber; Borghetto, Ilaria; Kelvin, David J; Sambri, Vittorio; Rubino, Salvatore

2011-08-01

86

Inflammatory Cytokine Expression Is Associated with Chikungunya Virus Resolution and Symptom Severity  

PubMed Central

The Chikungunya virus infection zones have now quickly spread from Africa to parts of Asia, North America and Europe. Originally thought to trigger a disease of only mild symptoms, recently Chikungunya virus caused large-scale fatalities and widespread economic loss that was linked to recent virus genetic mutation and evolution. Due to the paucity of information on Chikungunya immunological progression, we investigated the serum levels of 13 cytokines/chemokines during the acute phase of Chikungunya disease and 6- and 12-month post-infection follow-up from patients of the Italian outbreak. We found that CXCL9/MIG, CCL2/MCP-1, IL-6 and CXCL10/IP-10 were significantly raised in the acute phase compared to follow-up samples. Furthermore, IL-1?, TNF-?, Il-12, IL-10, IFN-? and IL-5 had low initial acute phase levels that significantly increased at later time points. Analysis of symptom severity showed association with CXCL9/MIG, CXCL10/IP-10 and IgG levels. These data give insight into Chikungunya disease establishment and subsequent convalescence, which is imperative to the treatment and containment of this quickly evolving and frequently re-emerging disease. PMID:21858242

Kelvin, Alyson A.; Banner, David; Silvi, Giuliano; Moro, Maria Luisa; Spataro, Nadir; Gaibani, Paolo; Cavrini, Francesca; Pierro, Anna; Rossini, Giada; Cameron, Mark J.; Bermejo-Martin, Jesus F.; Paquette, Stéphane G.; Xu, Luoling; Danesh, Ali; Farooqui, Amber; Borghetto, Ilaria; Kelvin, David J.; Sambri, Vittorio; Rubino, Salvatore

2011-01-01

87

Interdisciplinary Residential Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects on Symptom Severity and Occupational Performance and Satisfaction  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. This study examined outcomes of an 8-wk residential treatment program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHOD. Twenty-six veterans completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory–2nd Edition, and PTSD Checklist before and after treatment. RESULTS. Veterans demonstrated significant improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction with their performance, as well as in PTSD and depression symptom severity after residential PTSD/TBI treatment. Additionally, improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction were associated with decreases in depression symptom severity. CONCLUSION. Although preliminary, results suggest that veterans with PTSD and a history of TBI experienced significant decreases in PTSD and depression symptom severity and improvement in self-perception of performance and satisfaction in problematic occupational areas. Changes in occupational areas and depression symptom severity were related, highlighting the importance of interdisciplinary treatment. PMID:25005504

Speicher, Sarah M.; Walter, Kristen H.

2014-01-01

88

Multi-domain patient reported outcomes of irritable bowel syndrome: exploring person centered perspectives to better understand symptom severity scores  

PubMed Central

Objectives Patient reported outcomes (PRO) assessing multiple gastrointestinal symptoms are central to characterizing the therapeutic benefit of novel agents for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Common approaches that sum or average responses across different illness components must be unidimensional and have small unique variances to avoid aggregation bias and misinterpretation of clinical data. This study sought to evaluate the unidimensionality of the IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS) and to explore person centered cluster analytic methods for characterizing multivariate-based patient profiles. Methods Ninety-eight Rome-diagnosed IBS patients completed the IBS-SSS and a single, global item of symptom severity (UCLA Symptom Severity Scale) at pretreatment baseline of an NIH funded clinical trial. A k-means cluster analyses were performed on participants symptom severity scores. Results The IBS-SSS was not unidimensional. Exploratory cluster analyses revealed four common symptom profiles across five items of the IBS-SSS. One cluster of patients (25%) had elevated scores on pain frequency and bowel dissatisfaction, with less elevated but still high scores on life interference and low pain severity ratings. A second cluster (19%) was characterized by intermediate scores on both pain dimensions, but more elevated scores on bowel dissatisfaction. A third cluster (18%) was elevated across all IBS-SSS sub-components. The fourth and most common cluster (37%) had relatively low scores on all dimensions except bowel dissatisfaction and life interference due to IBS symptoms. Conclusions PRO endpoints and research on IBS more generally relying on multicomponent assessments of symptom severity should take into account the multidimensional structure of symptoms to avoid aggregation bias and to optimize the sensitivity of detecting treatment effects. PMID:23337220

Lackner, Jeffrey M.; Jaccard, James; Baum, Charles

2012-01-01

89

Brain reactivity to unpleasant stimuli is associated with severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms.  

PubMed

Despite the impressive progress in the biological research of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known about the neurobiological correlates of emotional reactions in healthy people with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). The present study investigated whether PTSS are related to the electrocortical processing of unpleasant pictures in a sample of undergraduate students. Participants were instructed to judge whether images were unpleasant or neutral while an EEG was taken. The late positive potential (LPP) to unpleasant relative to neutral was more positive for people with high PTSS than with low PTSS. Additionally, a temporospatial principal components analysis (PCA) for the whole sample identified positivities that were directly correlated with PTSS. These results provide evidence that brain reactivity to unpleasant cues would predict PTSS intensity and thus be a biomarker of PTSS severity. PMID:25258033

Lobo, Isabela; David, Isabel A; Figueira, Ivan; Campagnoli, Rafaela R; Volchan, Eliane; Pereira, Mirtes G; de Oliveira, Leticia

2014-12-01

90

The relationship between symptom severity, stigma, illness intrusiveness and depression in Mal de Debarquement Syndrome.  

PubMed

Mal de Debarquement Syndrome is a neurological disorder of motion perception, triggered by external motion. This study aimed to determine the importance of psychosocial factors in relation to depression and quality of life in Mal de Debarquement Syndrome. A total of 66 participants with self-reported Mal de Debarquement Syndrome completed quality-of-life, symptom severity, stigma, depression, and illness intrusiveness measurements in this naturalistic correlational study. Mal de Debarquement Syndrome was associated with high levels of depression and illness intrusiveness. Illness intrusiveness mediated between stigma and quality of life; also the level of stigma moderated the effect of illness intrusiveness on quality of life. Targeted interventions aimed at alleviating psychological distress may improve quality of life in Mal de Debarquement Syndrome. PMID:25331814

Arroll, Megan A; Attree, Elizabeth A; Cha, Yoon-Hee; Dancey, Christine P

2014-10-20

91

Measurement of symptom withdrawal severity in a 24-hour period after the anesthesia-assisted rapid opiate detoxification procedure.  

PubMed

This study examined the Anesthesia-Assisted Rapid Detoxification (AAROD) procedure and the measurement of withdrawal symptom severity within a 24-hour period. The Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS) was utilized at various time intervals, post detoxification. This study demonstrated that all of the patients who underwent the AAROD procedure had withdrawal symptoms post detoxification in the mild range of severity, unlike like traditional detoxification procedures. Further studies are needed to measure withdrawal symptoms longer than one-day post detoxification and to compare the differences between various detoxification protocols. PMID:15912719

Teplin, David; Raz, Barak; Daiter, Jeff; Varenbut, Michael; Zachos, Constantine T; Whang, Paul; Herman, Stan; Chaudry, Saj; Yung, Manuel

2005-01-01

92

Parent Alcoholism Impacts the Severity and Timing of Children’s Externalizing Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous studies show that children of alcoholic parents have higher rates of externalizing symptoms compared to\\u000a their peers, it remains unclear whether the timing of children’s externalizing symptoms is linked to that of their parent’s\\u000a alcohol-related symptoms. Using a multilevel modeling approach, we tested whether children aged 2 through 17 showed elevated\\u000a mother-, father- and child-reported externalizing symptoms (a)

Andrea M. Hussong; Wenjing Huang; Patrick J. Curran; Laurie Chassin; Robert A. Zucker

2010-01-01

93

Symptom differences in moderate to severe IBS patients based on predominant bowel habit  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:We sought to determine if irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients with different bowel habit predominance differ in self-reported viscerosensory symptoms related to the upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract, somatosensory symptoms, and constitutional functions.METHODS:Six hundred and twenty-five Rome criteria-positive IBS patients completed a bowel symptom questionnaire (BSQ), psychological symptom checklist (SCL-90), and health status (SF-36). Bowel habit predominance for IBS

Max Schmulson; Oh-Young Lee; Lin Chang; Bruce Naliboff; Emeran A Mayer

1999-01-01

94

Severe thoracic spinal fracture-dislocation without neurological symptoms and costal fractures: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Only a high-energy force can cause thoracic spinal fracture-dislocation injuries, and such injuries should always be suspected in patients with polytrauma. The injury is usually accompanied by neurological symptoms. There are only a few cases of severe thoracic spinal fracture-dislocation without neurological symptoms in the literature, and until now, no case of severe thoracic spinal fracture-dislocation without neurological symptoms and without costal fractures has been reported. Case presentation A 30-year-old Han Chinese man had T6 to T7 vertebral fracture and anterolateral dislocation without neurological symptoms and costal fractures. The three-dimensional reconstruction by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging indicated the injuries in detail. A patient with thoracic spinal fracture-dislocation without neurological symptoms inclines to further dislocation of the spine and secondary neurological injury; therefore, laminectomy, reduction and internal fixations with rods and screws were done. The outcome was good. Severe spinal fracture-dislocation without neurological symptoms should be evaluated in detail, especially with three-dimensional reconstruction by computed tomography. Although treatment is individualized, reduction and internal fixation are advised for the patient if the condition is suitable for operation. Conclusions Severe thoracic spinal fracture-dislocation without neurological symptoms and costal fractures is frighteningly rare; an operation should be done if the patient's condition permits. PMID:25316002

2014-01-01

95

Processing of facial and nonsocial information is differentially associated with severity of symptoms in patients with multiepisode schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Patients with schizophrenia show impairments in social cognitive abilities, such as recognizing facial emotions. However, the relation to symptoms remains unclear. The goal of this study was to explore whether facial emotion recognition and face identity recognition are associated with severity of symptoms and to which extent associations with symptoms differ for processing of social versus nonsocial information. Facial emotion recognition, face recognition, and abstract pattern recognition were evaluated in 98 patients with multiepisode schizophrenia. Severity of symptoms was measured using a five-factor model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Results show that facial emotion recognition and, to a lesser extent, face recognition were predominantly associated with severity of disorganization symptoms. In contrast, recognition of nonsocial patterns was associated with negative symptoms, excitement, and emotional distress. Reaction time rather than accuracy of social cognition explained variance in symptomatology. These results lead to the conclusion that facial emotion processing in schizophrenia appears to be associated with severity of symptoms, especially disorganization. PMID:25594793

Barkhof, Emile; de Sonneville, Leo M J; Meijer, Carin J; de Haan, Lieuwe

2015-02-01

96

Determinants of symptom profile and severity of conduct disorder in a tertiary level pediatric care set up: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background: Conduct disorders (CDs) are one of the most common causes for referral to child and adolescent mental health centers. CD varies in its environmental factors, symptom profile, severity, co-morbidity, and functional impairment. Aims: The aim was to analyze the determinants of symptom profile and severity among childhood and adolescent onset CD. Settings and Design: Clinic based study with 60 consecutive children between 6 and 18 years of age satisfying International Classification of Disease-10 Development Control Rules guidelines for CD, attending behavioral pediatrics unit outpatient. Materials and Methods: The family psychopathology, symptom severity, and functional level were assessed using parent interview schedule, revised behavioral problem checklist and Children's Global Assessment Scale. Statistical Analysis: The correlation and predictive power of the variables were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 version. Results: There was significant male dominance (88.3%) with boy girl ratio 7.5:1. Most common comorbidity noticed was hyperkinetic disorders (45%). Childhood onset group was more predominant (70%). Prevalence of comorbidity was more among early onset group (66.7%) than the late-onset group (33.3%). The family psychopathology, symptom severity, and the functional impairment were significantly higher in the childhood onset group. Conclusion: The determinants of symptom profile and severity are early onset (childhood onset CD), nature, and quantity of family psychopathology, prevalence, and type of comorbidity and nature of symptom profile itself. The family psychopathology is positively correlated with the symptom severity and negatively correlated with the functional level of the children with CD. The symptom severity was negatively correlated with the functional level of the child with CD. PMID:25568472

Jayaprakash, R.; Rajamohanan, K.; Anil, P.

2014-01-01

97

Severe reversible myocardial injury associated with aluminium phosphide toxicity: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Aluminium phosphide is commonly used as an insecticide and can be toxic to humans at the cellular level by interfering with mitochondrial energy metabolism. We report on three cases of severe aluminium phosphide cardio-toxicity, resulting in severe decrease in both ventricular heart functions. The first case succumbed to intractable ventricular arrhythmias complicated by multi-organ failure before she died; while the other two cases required invasive hemodynamic support and eventually improved over the course of 10–14 days. We describe our experience and the challenges faced while managing one of them. PMID:25278724

Elabbassi, Wael; Chowdhury, Mohammed Andaleeb; Fachtartz, Arif Al Nooryani

2013-01-01

98

Severe reversible myocardial injury associated with aluminium phosphide toxicity: A case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Aluminium phosphide is commonly used as an insecticide and can be toxic to humans at the cellular level by interfering with mitochondrial energy metabolism. We report on three cases of severe aluminium phosphide cardio-toxicity, resulting in severe decrease in both ventricular heart functions. The first case succumbed to intractable ventricular arrhythmias complicated by multi-organ failure before she died; while the other two cases required invasive hemodynamic support and eventually improved over the course of 10-14 days. We describe our experience and the challenges faced while managing one of them. PMID:25278724

Elabbassi, Wael; Chowdhury, Mohammed Andaleeb; Fachtartz, Arif Al Nooryani

2014-10-01

99

An Observational Study Examining the Relationship between Respiratory Symptoms, Airway Inflammation and Bacteriology in Children with Severe Neurodisability  

PubMed Central

Background Children with severe neurodisability (ND) commonly suffer from chronic respiratory symptoms that impact greatly on quality of life, and lead to recurrent hospital admissions. This morbidity (and its causes) is poorly described, despite being well recognised by paediatricians. In this study, we characterised respiratory symptoms in children with ND at times of stability and deterioration. We also assessed the relationship between respiratory symptoms, lower airway inflammatory markers and levels of infection/colonisation. Methods ND children were recruited upon admission for elective surgery (Elective-ND [n = 16]), or acutely upon admission to Intensive Care (PICU-ND [n = 19]), and compared to healthy control children [n = 12]. Parents completed a validated respiratory symptom questionnaire in which symptoms associated with activity were removed (total maximal score of 108). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was collected, and BAL neutrophil counts, IL-8 and TGF?-1 levels measured. BAL microbial analysis was performed using a 16S/18S rRNA gene based assay and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PCR. Results All ND children had high levels of respiratory symptoms (median [IQR] symptom score PICU-ND, 55[38-64]; Elective-ND, 26[7-45]; Control, 4[0-7]: p<0.01), which affected their families, particularly at nighttime. Elective-ND patients with a total respiratory symptom score >20 invariably had BAL neutrophilia. Elective patients with 16S/18S microbial rDNA positive BAL had higher neutrophil counts (positive, 33[18-70]%; negative, 8[4-38]%: p<0.05) and generally higher symptom scores (positive, 17[5-32]; negative, 5[0-9]: p = 0.097). Streptococcus mitis was commonly identified in BAL from ND children; Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not identified in any sample. Conclusions Children with severe ND often have high levels of chronic respiratory symptoms, which may relate to lower airway inflammation. Bacterial airway colonisation, particularly with oral commensals, may play a role in both symptom generation and inflammation. PMID:25853250

Trinick, Ruth E.; Bunni, Lara; Thorburn, Kent; Hackett, Angela P.; Dalzell, Mark; McNamara, Paul S.

2015-01-01

100

Prolonged Bilateral Reactive Miosis as a Symptom of Severe Insulin Intoxication  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 64 Final Diagnosis: Insulin self poisoning Symptoms: Coma Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Supportive care Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Miosis occurs following exposure to toxins that decrease the sympathomimetic tone, increase the cholinergic tone, or exert sedative-hypnotic effects, but has not been reported in insulin poisoning. Case Report: A 64-year- old woman without co-morbidities was found unconscious next to an empty insulin pen. Her Glasgow Coma Scale was 3 with absent reflexes, bilateral reactive miosis, and injection marks across the abdominal wall. The patient was endotracheally intubated, mechanically ventilated, and transferred to this hospital. At admission, the blood glucose level was 34 mg/dL. Glasgow Coma Scale remained at 3, with persistent bilateral reactive miosis. The toxicology screening was negative for ethanol, barbiturates, tricyclic antidepressants, phenothiazines, amphetamines, cannabinoids, salicylates, acetaminophen, and cocaine. Cranial computed tomography with angiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not show any structural brain lesions. Intravenous glucose was continued at 6–14 g/h for 3 days. On repeated neurological examinations, the patient remained deeply comatose, with partial loss of cranial nerve function. Bilateral reactive miosis persisted for 4 days. From day 5 on, the patient awoke progressively. At discharge, the patient was fully alert and orientated, without a focal neurological deficit. Conclusions: Prolonged bilateral reactive miosis can be a clinical symptom accompanying metabolic encephalopathy in severe insulin poisoning. Functional impairment of the pons due to relative hypoperfusion during hypoglycemia may serve as a reasonable pathophysiologic explanation for this phenomenon. PMID:25556593

Gradwohl-Matis, Ilse; Pann, Jakob; Schmittinger, Christian A.; Brunauer, Andreas; Dankl, Daniel; Dünser, Martin W.

2015-01-01

101

Validation of the symptoms and functioning severity scale in residential group care.  

PubMed

Tests that measure the emotional and behavioral problems of children and youth are typically not normed and standardized on youth diagnosed with disruptive behavior, particularly those youth in residential care. Yet professional standards mandate that before instruments are used with a specific population the psychometric properties need to be studied and re-established: specifically, psychometric properties, including validity, need to be evaluated (AERA, APA, and NCME, The standards for educational and psychological testing. AERA, Washington, DC, 1999). The purpose of the present study was to assess the validity characteristics of the Symptoms and Functioning Severity Scale (SFSS; Bickman et al., Manual of the Peabody Treatment Progress Battery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 2010), a widely used test developed for use in outpatient clinics, with youth in a residential care program. The convergent validity of the SFSS was established with the large correlations (0.78-0.86) with the CBCL. Several binary classification analyses including specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and the Youden Index supported the validity of the SFSS. However, the sensitivity index was somewhat low indicating the test may produce a high level of false negatives. Limitations, future research and implications are discussed. PMID:25037614

Lambert, Matthew C; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Gross, Thomas J; Epstein, Michael H; Stevens, Amy L

2015-05-01

102

EFFECTS OF SODIUM PENTACHLOROPHENATE ON SEVERAL ESTUARINE ANIMALS: TOXICITY, UPTAKE, AND DEPURATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Several estuarine animals were exposed to sodium pentachlorophenate (Na-PCP), in flowthrough toxicity tests. The following are test animals and their 96-hour LC50 values; grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio), >515 micrograms/l; brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus), >195 micrograms/l; long...

103

ACUTE TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO SEVERAL DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF RAINBOW TROUT, SALMO GAIRDNERI  

E-print Network

of Salmo trutta. Penaz observed an increase in sensitivity of the eggs with age to brief (120 minACUTE TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO SEVERAL DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF RAINBOW TROUT, SALMO GAIRDNERI STANLEY to determine the stage of development at which eggs and larvae of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, were most

104

Impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on survival and symptoms of severe aortic valve stenosis.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. As patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) develop symptoms their survival decreases rapidly, if treated conservatively. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been introduced as a less invasive treatment alternative, especially in inoperable patients, who often have severe comorbidities, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Materials and methods. Since the beginning of our TAVI program in March 2008, data on all 131 TAVI patients were prospectively and consecutively collected in this registry with complete follow-up. COPD was present in 37 patients. By January 2012 survival data were collected from the Danish Civil Registration System. Median follow-up duration was 559 days. Results. Overall survival and survival from cardiac death was equivalent in both patients with and without COPD (p = 0.98 and p = 0.26) in the follow-up period. Further, patients with COPD had higher New York Heart Association (NYHA) class prior to intervention compared with those without (3.1 ± 0.5 vs. 2.9 ± 0.5, p = 0.02). In multivariate regression analysis COPD was associated with 30-day postoperative NYHA class (0.43; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10-0.75; p = 0.01), but not to NYHA class improvement from pre- to postintervention (0.25; 95% CI: - 0.12 to -0.63; p = 0.18). Conclusions. In patients with symptomatic severe AS treated with TAVI, the presence of COPD neither affects overall survival nor survival from cardiac death. Patients with COPD had, however, both higher pre- and postoperative NYHA class compared with patients without COPD, but NYHA class improvement from pre- to postintervention was equivalent in both groups. PMID:25658150

Poulsen, Mikael K; Dahl, Jordi S; Kjeldsen, Bo J; Nørregaard-Hansen, Knud; Pedersen, Knud Erik; Mickley, Hans; Nissen, Henrik

2015-02-01

105

The Impact of Dyspepsia on Symptom Severity and Quality of Life in Adults with Headache  

PubMed Central

Background Dyspepsia and headache frequently co-exist, but the clinical implication of this association is uncertain. We planned to examine the prevalence and impact of dyspepsia in adults with headache. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a secondary care setting. Clinical, psychological and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) data were compared between subjects with headache and controls (non-headache subjects). The impact of dyspepsia was analysed further in subjects with headache alone. Results 280 subjects (93 cases with headache and 187 matched controls) were recruited. The following baseline characteristics of subjects were as follows: mean age 45.0±17.3 years, 57.0% females and ethnic distribution—Malaysian = 45 (48.4%), Chinese n = 24 (25.8%) and Indians n = 24 (25.8%). Headache sub-types among cases with headache were as follows: tension-type headache (TTH) n = 53 (57.0%) and migraine n = 40 (43.0%). Dyspepsia was more prevalent in cases with headache compared to controls (25.8% vs 12.8%, p = 0.011), and headache was independently associated with dyspepsia (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.39–5.43). Among cases with headache, there was a trend towards a higher prevalence of dyspepsia in those with migraine (27.5%) compared to TTH (24.5%). Subjects with headache and dyspepsia, compared to those with headache alone, had a greater severity of headache symptoms (63.67±22.85 mm vs 51.20 ±24.0 mm VAS, p = 0.029). Overall HRQOL scores were lower in headache subjects with dyspepsia (EQ-5D summary score 0.82±0.18 vs 0.90 ±0.16, p = 0.037 and EQ-5D VAS 62.08±17.50 mm vs 72.62 ±18.85 mm, p = 0.018), compared to those without dyspepsia. Conclusion Dyspepsia is associated with more severe headache symptoms and results in a lower HRQOL in patients with headache. PMID:25629323

Tai, Mei-Ling Sharon; Norhatta, Norbelinda; Goh, Khean Jin; Moy, Foong Ming; Sujarita, Ramanujam; Asraff, Azman Ahmad; Lee, Qin Zhi; Ng, Jiun Hoong; Tan, Eugene Choon Li; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

2015-01-01

106

Severe Late Toxicities Following Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy Compared to Radiotherapy Alone in Cervical Cancer: An Inter-era Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare rates of severe late toxicities following concomitant chemoradiotherapy and radiotherapy alone for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with cervical cancer were treated at a single institution with radiotherapy alone or concomitant chemoradiotherapy for curative intent. Severe late toxicity was defined as grade {>=}3 vaginal, urologic, or gastrointestinal toxicity or any pelvic fracture, using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 (CTCAE), occurring {>=}6 months from treatment completion and predating any salvage therapy. Severe late toxicity rates were compared after adjusting for pertinent covariates. Results: At 3 years, probability of vaginal severe late toxicity was 20.2% for radiotherapy alone and 35.1% for concomitant chemoradiotherapy (P=.026). At 3 years, probability of skeletal severe late toxicity was 1.6% for radiotherapy alone and 7.5% for concomitant chemoradiotherapy (P=.010). After adjustment for case mix, concomitant chemoradiotherapy was associated with higher vaginal (hazard ratio [HR] 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-5.2, P<.001), and skeletal (HR 7.0, 95% CI 1.4-34.1, P=.016) severe late toxicity. Compared to high dilator compliance, moderate (HR 3.6, 95% CI 2.0-6.5, P<.001) and poor (HR 8.5, 95% CI 4.3-16.9, P<.001) dilator compliance was associated with higher vaginal severe late toxicity. Age >50 was associated with higher vaginal (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0, P=.013) and skeletal (HR 5.7, 95% CI 1.2-27.0, P=.028) severe late toxicity. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy was not associated with higher gastrointestinal (P=.886) or urologic (unadjusted, P=.053; adjusted, P=.063) severe late toxicity. Conclusion: Compared to radiotherapy alone, concomitant chemoradiotherapy is associated with higher rates of severe vaginal and skeletal late toxicities. Other predictive factors include dilator compliance for severe vaginal late toxicity and age for severe vaginal and skeletal late toxicities.

Gondi, Vinai, E-mail: gondi@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)] [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bentzen, Soren M.; Sklenar, Kathryn L.; Dunn, Emily F. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)] [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Petereit, Daniel G. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States) [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); John T. Vucurevich Cancer Care Institute, Rapid City Regional Hospital, Rapid City, South Dakota (United States); Tannehill, Scott P. [Arizona Cancer Specialists, Phoenix, Arizona (United States) [Arizona Cancer Specialists, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arizona, Tuscon, Arizona (United States); Straub, Margaret; Bradley, Kristin A. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)] [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

2012-11-15

107

Objective Cognitive Performance is Related to Subjective Memory Complaints in Midlife Women with Moderate to Severe Vasomotor Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Objective Memory complaints increase as women transition from premenopausal to postmenopausal stages. We explored the extent to which subjective memory complaints were associated with objective cognitive test performance, affective symptoms, and menopausal symptoms in midlife women with moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms. We predicted that subjective memory complaints would be related to affective symptoms and lower performance on tests of memory and attention. Methods Sixty-eight midlife women (mean age = 53; 54% African American) with ? 35 hot flashes per week completed the Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ), a battery of objective cognitive tests, a menopausal symptom inventory and mood questionnaires. Linear regression analyses were conducted to examine predictors (symptoms and objective cognitive scores) of ratings on each of four MFQ subscales and a validated, single-item rating of current memory. Results Negative affect and delayed verbal memory predicted a single-item rating of current memory. Negative affect and poorer scores on tests of attention and working memory predicted Frequency of Forgetting. Lower positive affect, higher vasomotor symptoms, and increased age predicted lower Retrospective Memory Functioning. Increased age predicted Use of Mnemonics. Conclusions These findings strengthen the growing body of evidence that women with memory complaints during the menopausal transition have an accurate appraisal of their memory function and that their complaints also relate to affect and to a lesser extent vasomotor symptoms. Given that cognitive performance was in the normal range, these findings suggest that women can detect subtle changes in memory performance during the transition. PMID:23676633

Drogos, Lauren L.; Rubin, Leah H.; Geller, Stacie E.; Banuvar, Suzanne; Shulman, Lee P.; Maki, Pauline M.

2013-01-01

108

Is There a Relationship Between Parental Self-Reported Psychopathology and Symptom Severity in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study aimed to screen for indications of psychopathology displayed by the parents of adolescents diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), and examine the relationship between severity of adolescent eating disorder symptoms and parental psychopathology. Sixty female adolescents diagnosed with DSM-IV-TR AN (restricting-type and binge-purge-type) were administered the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and parents completed the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R).

Sheila Ravi; Sarah Forsberg; Kara Fitzpatrick; James Lock

2008-01-01

109

MODERATE TO SEVERE DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AMONG ADOLESCENT MOTHERS FOLLOWED FOUR YEARS POSTPARTUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to examine race/ethnic differences in depressive symptoms among adolescent mothers during the first four years postpartum. A prospective study of 623 adolescent mothers, 18 years or younger followed four years after delivery. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Beck Depress...

110

Plasma neuropeptide Y: a biomarker for symptom severity in chronic fatigue syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex, multi-symptom illness with a multisystem pathogenesis involving alterations in the nervous, endocrine and immune systems. Abnormalities in stress responses have been identified as potential triggers or mediators of CFS symptoms. This study focused on the stress mediator neuropeptide Y (NPY). We hypothesized that NPY would be a useful biomarker for CFS. METHODS:

Mary A Fletcher; Martin Rosenthal; Michael Antoni; Gail Ironson; Xiao R Zeng; Zachary Barnes; Jeanna M Harvey; Barry Hurwitz; Silvina Levis; Gordon Broderick; Nancy G Klimas

2010-01-01

111

Psychological Characteristics and Adjustment in Caregivers of Children with Severe Neurodisability with Chronic Pulmunary Symptoms  

E-print Network

, anxious symptoms, general health and mental health. Caregivers differed on criterion variables based on differences in one of the coping subscales that measured social support, self-esteem and psychological stability. This relationship was observed...

Blucker, Ryan Thomas

2011-08-08

112

9 CFR 309.4 - Livestock showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 309.4 Section 309.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), dourine, acute influenza, generalized...

2012-01-01

113

9 CFR 309.4 - Livestock showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 309.4 Section 309.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), dourine, acute influenza, generalized...

2014-01-01

114

9 CFR 309.4 - Livestock showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 309.4 Section 309.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), dourine, acute influenza, generalized...

2011-01-01

115

9 CFR 309.4 - Livestock showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 309.4 Section 309.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), dourine, acute influenza, generalized...

2010-01-01

116

9 CFR 309.4 - Livestock showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 309.4 Section 309.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), dourine, acute influenza, generalized...

2013-01-01

117

Effects of Ambient Pollen Concentrations on Frequency and Severity of Asthma Symptoms Among Asthmatic Children  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies on the associations between ambient pollen exposures and daily respiratory symptoms have produced inconsistent results. We investigated these relationships in a cohort of asthmatic children, using pollen exposure models to estimate individual ambient exposures. Methods Daily symptoms of wheeze, night symptoms, shortness of breath, chest tightness, persistent cough and rescue medication use were recorded in a cohort of 430 children age 4-12 years with asthma in Connecticut, Massachusetts and New York. Daily ambient exposures to tree, grass, weed and all-type pollen were estimated using mixed effects models. We stratified analyses by asthma maintenance medication and sensitization to grass or weed pollens. Separate logistic regression analysis using generalized estimating equations were performed for each symptom outcome and pollen type. We adjusted analyses for maximum daily temperature, maximum 8-hr average ozone, fine particles (PM2.5), season and antibiotic use. Results Associations were observed among children sensitized to specific pollens; these associations varied by use of asthma maintenance medication. Exposures to even relatively low levels of weed pollen (6-9 grains/m3) were associated with increased shortness of breath, chest tightness, rescue medication use, wheeze, and persistent cough, compared with lower exposure among sensitized children taking maintenance medication. Grass pollen exposures ?2 grains/m3 were associated with wheeze, night symptoms, shortness of breath and persistent cough compared with lower exposure among sensitized children who did not take maintenance medication. Conclusion Even low-level pollen exposure was associated with daily asthmatic symptoms. PMID:22082997

Triche, Elizabeth W.; Leaderer, Brian P.; Bell, Michelle L.

2011-01-01

118

Ropinirole improves depressive symptoms and restless legs syndrome severity in RLS patients: a multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled study.  

PubMed

Comorbid depressive symptoms in restless legs syndrome (RLS) remain a treatment challenge, as some antidepressants aggravate RLS symptoms. Preliminary data in depressive patients suggest antidepressant properties of ropinirole. The present study investigates the effects of ropinirole immediate release (IR) on depressive symptoms and RLS severity. A multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized (3:1) study was performed including patients with moderate to severe idiopathic RLS and at least mild depressive symptoms. Ropinirole IR (in flexible doses up to 4 mg/day) or placebo was given for 12 weeks including an uptitration phase of 7 weeks. Visits were scheduled at screening, baseline, and weeks 1, 4, and 12 with additional telephone contacts for dosing decisions. The modified intent to treat population comprised 231 patients (171 ropinirole, 60 placebo). The MADRS (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale) scores decreased from baseline to week 12 from 18.8 to 8.7 in the ropinirole group and from 18.4 to 12.1 in the placebo group (primary endpoint, adjusted mean treatment difference -3.6 (95% CI: -5.6 to -1.6, significance in favor of ropinirole: P < 0.001). The superiority of ropinirole compared to placebo was confirmed by the Hamilton Scale for Depression and Beck Depression Inventory-II scores. RLS severity scores (IRLS) decreased by 14.7 (ropinirole) and by 9.9 (placebo, P < 0.001) points. Three out of four subdomains of the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale improved significantly. The findings indicate that mild to moderate depressive symptoms should not be treated before sufficient therapy for RLS. Antidepressant medication can be necessary if depression symptoms still persist even if RLS symptoms are ameliorated. PMID:21188406

Benes, Heike; Mattern, Wolfgang; Peglau, Ines; Dreykluft, Tillmann; Bergmann, Lars; Hansen, Corinna; Kohnen, Ralf; Banik, Norbert; Schoen, S W; Hornyak, Magdolna

2011-06-01

119

Associations between Birth Weight and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptom Severity: Indirect Effects via Primary Neuropsychological Functions  

PubMed Central

Background ADHD has a range of aetiological origins which are associated with a number of disruptions in neuropsychological functioning. This study aims to examine how low birth weight, a proxy measure for a range of environmental complications during gestation, predicts ADHD symptom severity in preschool-aged children indirectly via neuropsychological functioning. Methods 197 preschool-aged children were recruited as part of a larger longitudinal study. Two neuropsychological factors were derived from NEPSY domain scores. One, referred to as ‘Primary Neuropsychological Function,’ loaded highly with Sensorimotor and Visuospatial scores. The other, termed ‘Higher-Order Function’ loaded highly with Language and Memory domain scores. Executive functioning split evenly across the two. Analyses examined whether these neuropsychological factors allowed for an indirect association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity. Results While both factors were associated with symptom severity, only the Primary Neuropsychological Factor was associated with birth weight. Furthermore, birth weight was indirectly associated to symptom severity via this factor. Conclusions These data indicate that birth weight is indirectly associated with ADHD severity via disruption of neuropsychological functions that are more primary in function as opposed to functions that play a higher-order role in utilising and integrating the primary functions. PMID:24795955

Hatch, Burt; Healey, Dione M.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

2013-01-01

120

Severe pulmonary toxicity associated with fludarabine and possible contribution of rituximab.  

PubMed

Fludarabine is a nucleoside analogue used in the treatment of low-grade lymphoproliferative disorders and in conditioning regimens of non-myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation. This is a relatively safe drug for clinical use but may cause side effects, some of which may be life-threatening. Here a case of severe pulmonary toxicity associated with fludarabine and a possible contribution of rituximab is presented and the literature reviewed. PMID:20357439

Disel, U; Paydas, S; Yavuz, S; Karakoc, E

2010-01-01

121

Severe Pulmonary Toxicity Associated with Fludarabine and Possible Contribution of Rituximab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fludarabine is a nucleoside analogue used in the treatment of low-grade lymphoproliferative disorders and in conditioning regimens of non-myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation. This is a relatively safe drug for clinical use but may cause side effects, some of which may be life-threatening. Here a case of severe pulmonary toxicity associated with fludarabine and a possible contribution of rituximab is

U. Disel; S. Paydas; S. Yavuz; E. Karakoc

2010-01-01

122

Well Being, Depressive Symptoms, and Burden among Parent and Sibling Caregivers of Persons with Severe and Persistent Mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caregiving for a family member with severe and persistent mental illness places significant demands on the caregiver. Yet caregivers also report personal rewards from the experience. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for 137 parent and sibling caregivers to compare risk and protective factors for well being, subjective burden, and depressive symptoms among respondents. Sibling status predicted increased wellbeing. Grief and

Wan-Yi Chen; Ellen Lukens

2011-01-01

123

Cross-Ethnic Measurement Invariance of the Brief Symptom Inventory for Individuals with Severe and Persistent Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to test the measurement invariance of the Brief Symptom Inventory's (BSI) secondary factor model across African, white, and Latino Americans using multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses. This study provides an examination of the BSI's validity for use in mental health service research for people with severe and…

Hoe, Maanse; Brekke, John S.

2008-01-01

124

Factors Influencing Service Utilization and Mood Symptom Severity in Children with Mood Disorders: Effects of Multifamily Psychoeducation Groups (MFPGs)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the impact of psychoeducation on service utilization and mood symptom severity in children with mood disorders. Parents' knowledge of mood disorders, beliefs about treatment, and perceptions of children's need for treatment were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between psychoeducation and service utilization and…

Mendenhall, Amy N.; Fristad, Mary A.; Early, Theresa J.

2009-01-01

125

Emergency Medical Service and In-Hospital Vital Signs as Predictors of Subsequent PTSD Symptom Severity in Pediatric Injury Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The present study investigated the extent to which heart rate (HR) levels soon after a traumatic event predicted posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity assessed 6 weeks and 6 months later in child trauma victims. Methods: Participants consisted of 82 children (56 boys, 26 girls) aged 8-18 who were admitted to a…

Nugent, Nicole R.; Christopher, Norman C.; Delahanty, Douglas L.

2006-01-01

126

What Symptoms Predict the Diagnosis of Mania in Persons with Severe/Profound Intellectual Disability In Clinical Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: While researchers have attempted to address the difficulties of diagnosing affective disorders in the intellectually disabled population, diagnosing bipolar disorder in an individual with severe intellectual disability (ID) remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to identify what symptoms can predict a diagnosis of mania in the…

Matson, J. L.; Gonzalez, M. L.; Terlonge, C.; Thorson, R. T.; Laud, R. B.

2007-01-01

127

Impact of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Observed Autism Symptom Severity during School Recess: A Preliminary Randomized, Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and treatment-as-usual (TAU) in terms of effects on observed social communication-related autism symptom severity during unstructured play time at school for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirteen children with ASD (7-11 years old) were randomly assigned to 32 sessions of CBT…

Wood, Jeffrey J.; Fujii, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Van Dyke, Marilyn

2014-01-01

128

The Association of Quality of Social Relations, Symptom Severity and Intelligence with Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited quality of social relations, milder symptom severity and higher intelligence were shown to account for higher anxiety levels in autism spectrum disorders. The current study replicated and extended earlier findings by combining these three determinants of anxiety in autism spectrum disorders in one study. The sample consisted of 134…

Eussen, Mart L. J. M.; Van Gool, Arthur R.; Verheij, Fop; De Nijs, Pieter F. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

2013-01-01

129

Lifetime Traumatic Events and High-Risk Behaviors as Predictors of PTSD Symptoms in People with Severe Mental Illnesses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research is limited regarding the role of high-risk behaviors, trauma, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in people with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The current survey of 276 community mental health clients diagnosed with either a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or a major mood disorder examined the mediating role of lifetime…

O'Hare, Thomas; Sherrer, Margaret V.

2009-01-01

130

Association of Symptoms and Severity of Rift Valley Fever with Genetic Polymorphisms in Human Innate Immune Pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple recent outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) in Africa, Madagascar, and the Arabian Peninsula have resulted in significant morbidity, mortality, and financial loss due to related livestock epizootics. Presentation of human RVF varies from mild febrile illness to meningoencephalitis, hemorrhagic diathesis, and/or ophthalmitis with residual retinal scarring, but the determinants for severe disease are not understood. The aim of the present study was to identify human genes associated with RVF clinical disease in a high-risk population in Northeastern Province, Kenya. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a cross-sectional survey among residents (N = 1,080; 1–85 yrs) in 6 villages in the Sangailu Division of Ijara District. Participants completed questionnaires on past symptoms and exposures, physical exam, vision testing, and blood collection. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was performed on a subset of individuals who reported past clinical symptoms consistent with RVF and unrelated subjects. Four symptom clusters were defined: meningoencephalitis, hemorrhagic fever, eye disease, and RVF-not otherwise specified. SNPs in 46 viral sensing and response genes were investigated. Association was analyzed between SNP genotype, serology and RVF symptom clusters. The meningoencephalitis symptom phenotype cluster among seropositive patients was associated with polymorphisms in DDX58/RIG-I and TLR8. Having three or more RVF-related symptoms was significantly associated with polymorphisms in TICAM1/TRIF, MAVS, IFNAR1 and DDX58/RIG-I. SNPs significantly associated with eye disease included three different polymorphisms TLR8 and hemorrhagic fever symptoms associated with TLR3, TLR7, TLR8 and MyD88. Conclusions/Significance Of the 46 SNPs tested, TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, MyD88, TRIF, MAVS, and RIG-I were repeatedly associated with severe symptomatology, suggesting that these genes may have a robust association with RVFV-associated clinical outcomes. Studies of these and related genetic polymorphisms are warranted to advance understanding of RVF pathogenesis. PMID:25756647

Hise, Amy G.; Traylor, Zachary; Hall, Noémi B.; Sutherland, Laura J.; Dahir, Saidi; Ermler, Megan E.; Muiruri, Samuel; Muchiri, Eric M.; Kazura, James W.; LaBeaud, A. Desirée; King, Charles H.; Stein, Catherine M.

2015-01-01

131

Severity of Depressive Symptoms and Accuracy of Dietary Reporting among Obese Women with Major Depressive Disorder Seeking Weight Loss Treatment  

PubMed Central

An elevation in symptoms of depression has previously been associated with greater accuracy of reported dietary intake, however this association has not been investigated among individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. The purpose of this study was to investigate reporting accuracy of dietary intake among a group of women with major depressive disorder in order to determine if reporting accuracy is similarly associated with depressive symptoms among depressed women. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake was calculated based on three 24-hour phone-delivered dietary recalls from the baseline phase of a randomized trial of weight loss treatment for 161 obese women with major depressive disorder. Regression models indicated that higher severity of depressive symptoms was associated with greater reporting accuracy, even when controlling for other factors traditionally associated with reporting accuracy (coefficient ?=? 0.01 95% CI?=?0.01 – 0.02). Seventeen percent of the sample was classified as low energy reporters. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake increases along with depressive symptoms, even among individuals with major depressive disorder. These results suggest that any study investigating associations between diet quality and depression should also include an index of reporting accuracy of dietary intake as accuracy varies with the severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:24587338

Whited, Matthew C.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Appelhans, Bradley M.; Ma, Yunsheng; Waring, Molly E.; DeBiasse, Michele A.; Busch, Andrew M.; Oleski, Jessica L.; Merriam, Philip A.; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Ockene, Ira S.; Lemon, Stephenie C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.

2014-01-01

132

Acute toxicity of zinc to several aquatic species native to the Rocky Mountains.  

PubMed

National water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life are based on toxicity tests, often using organisms that are easy to culture in the laboratory. Species native to the Rocky Mountains are poorly represented in data sets used to derive national water-quality criteria. To provide additional data on the toxicity of zinc, several laboratory acute-toxicity tests were conducted with a diverse assortment of fish, benthic invertebrates, and an amphibian native to the Rocky Mountains. Tests with fish were conducted using three subspecies of cutthroat trout (Colorado River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus, greenback cutthroat trout O. clarkii stomias, and Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. clarkii virginalis), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi), longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), and flathead chub (Platygobio gracilis). Aquatic invertebrate tests were conducted with mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus, Drunella doddsi, Cinygmula sp. and Ephemerella sp.), a stonefly (Chloroperlidae), and a caddis fly (Lepidostoma sp.). The amphibian test was conducted with tadpoles of the boreal toad (Bufo boreas). Median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s) ranged more than three orders of magnitude from 166 ?g/L for Rio Grande cutthroat trout to >67,000 ?g/L for several benthic invertebrates. Of the organisms tested, vertebrates were the most sensitive, and benthic invertebrates were the most tolerant. PMID:21811884

Brinkman, Stephen F; Johnston, Walter D

2012-02-01

133

PTSD symptom severity is associated with increased recruitment of top-down attentional control in a trauma-exposed sample?  

PubMed Central

Background Recent neuroimaging work suggests that increased amygdala responses to emotional stimuli and dysfunction within regions mediating top down attentional control (dorsomedial frontal, lateral frontal and parietal cortices) may be associated with the emergence of anxiety disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This report examines amygdala responsiveness to emotional stimuli and the recruitment of top down attention systems as a function of task demands in a population of U.S. military service members who had recently returned from combat deployment in Afghanistan/Iraq. Given current interest in dimensional aspects of pathophysiology, it is worthwhile examining patients who, while not meeting full PTSD criteria, show clinically significant functional impairment. Methods Fifty-seven participants with sub-threshold levels of PTSD symptoms completed the affective Stroop task while undergoing fMRI. Participants with PTSD or depression at baseline were excluded. Results Greater PTSD symptom severity scores were associated with increased amygdala activation to emotional, particularly positive, stimuli relative to neutral stimuli. Furthermore, greater PTSD symptom severity was associated with increased superior/middle frontal cortex response during task conditions relative to passive viewing conditions. In addition, greater PTSD symptom severity scores were associated with: (i) increased activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal, lateral frontal, inferior parietal cortices and dorsomedial frontal cortex/dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dmFC/dACC) in response to emotional relative to neutral stimuli; and (ii) increased functional connectivity during emotional trials, particularly positive trials, relative to neutral trials between the right amygdala and dmFC/dACC, left caudate/anterior insula cortex, right lentiform nucleus/caudate, bilateral inferior parietal cortex and left middle temporal cortex. Conclusions We suggest that these data may reflect two phenomena associated with increased PTSD symptomatology in combat-exposed, but PTSD negative, armed services members. First, these data indicate increased emotional responsiveness by: (i) the positive relationship between PTSD symptom severity and amygdala responsiveness to emotional relative to neutral stimuli; (ii) greater BOLD response as a function of PTSD symptom severity in regions implicated in emotion (striatum) and representation (occipital and temporal cortices) during emotional relative to neutral conditions; and (iii) increased connectivity between the amygdala and regions implicated in emotion (insula/caudate) and representation (middle temporal cortex) as a function of PTSD symptom severity during emotional relative to neutral trials. Second, these data indicate a greater need for the recruitment of regions implicated in top down attention as indicated by (i) greater BOLD response in superior/middle frontal gyrus as a function of PTSD symptom severity in task relative to view conditions; (ii) greater BOLD response in dmFC/dACC, lateral frontal and inferior parietal cortices as a function of PTSD symptom severity in emotional relative to neutral conditions and (iii) greater functional connectivity between the amygdala and inferior parietal cortex as a function of PTSD symptom severity during emotional relative to neutral conditions. PMID:25610763

White, Stuart F.; Costanzo, Michelle E.; Blair, James R.; Roy, Michael J.

2014-01-01

134

Air pollutants from hydrocarbons and derivatives in micropropagation laboratories: toxicity symptoms on tissue culture of the cherry rootstock Colt (Prunus avium x P. pseudocerasus).  

PubMed

Several air pollutants in research and micropropagation laboratories originate from the combustion of hydrocarbons and their derivatives. The combustion products of some natural gases (propane-butane, propane, methane) and ethanol were analyzed, and the atmosphere composition was investigated inside the laminar flow box, inside the room where transplanting is performed and inside the culture vessels after transplanting. Large quantities of ethylene and other biologically active compounds are produced when hydrocarbons are partially oxidized or unevenly combusted and when ethanol is used for sterilization of dissecting instruments during transplanting operations. Air pollutants' effects have been tested on Prunus Colt shoot cultures; the toxicity symptoms observed suggest the elimination of gas combustion and alcohols during transplanting operations. PMID:24227058

Righetti, B

1990-11-01

135

IMAGE ANALYSIS VERSUS VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF CITRUS CANKER SYMPTOMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri causes citrus canker. Disease assessment is important for monitoring epidemics. Visual assessment (VA) is presently the only reliable means of detection. To investigate how VA of symptoms compared to image analysis we used digital images of 214 citrus le...

136

Occurrence and severity of foliar ozone symptoms on sensitive hardwood species in Shenandoah National Park, VA  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the extent of foliar symptoms due to ozone on sensitive hardwoods in the Shenandoah National Park in Virginia, three species were sampled and evaluated at sites of differing elevations adjacent to 3 ozone monitors in 1991 and 1992: black cherry, yellow poplar, and white ash. All foliar samples were evaluated to precent of symptomatic leaves on each branch

E. Hildebrand; J. M. Skelly

1993-01-01

137

Neurophysiological Indices of Atypical Auditory Processing and Multisensory Integration Are Associated with Symptom Severity in Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Atypical processing and integration of sensory inputs are hypothesized to play a role in unusual sensory reactions and social-cognitive deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reports on the relationship between objective metrics of sensory processing and clinical symptoms, however, are surprisingly sparse. Here we examined the relationship…

Brandwein, Alice B.; Foxe, John J.; Butler, John S.; Frey, Hans-Peter; Bates, Juliana C.; Shulman, Lisa H.; Molholm, Sophie

2015-01-01

138

ADHD Symptom Severity following Participation in a Pilot, 10-Week, Manualized, Family-Based Behavioral Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation examined the effectiveness of a pilot, manualized 10-week intervention of family skills training for ADHD-related symptoms. The intervention combined behavioral parent training and child focused behavioral activation therapy. Participants were families with children ages 7-10 diagnosed with ADHD-Combined Type. This pilot…

Curtis, David F.

2010-01-01

139

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Are Associated with the Frequency and Severity of Delinquency among Detained Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trauma and posttraumatic stress symptoms increasingly are recognized as risk factors for involvement with the juvenile justice system, and detained youth evidence higher rates of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to their nondetained peers. Using a sample of 83 detained boys aged 12 to 17, we tested the hypothesis…

Becker, Stephen P.; Kerig, Patricia K.

2011-01-01

140

Severity of Child Sexual Abuse and Revictimization: The Mediating Role of Coping and Trauma Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child sexual abuse (CSA) has consistently been associated with the use of avoidant coping; these coping methods have been associated with increased trauma symptoms, which have, in turn, been linked to increased risk for adult sexual revictimization. Given these previous findings, the purpose of the current study was to test a model that…

Fortier, Michelle A.; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Peugh, James; DeNardi, Kathleen A.; Gaffey, Kathryn J.

2009-01-01

141

Amyloid-Associated Activity Contributes to the Severity and Toxicity of a Prion Phenotype  

PubMed Central

The self-assembly of alternative conformations of normal proteins into amyloid aggregates has been implicated in both the acquisition of new functions and in the appearance and progression of disease. However, while these amyloidogenic pathways are linked to the emergence of new phenotypes, numerous studies have uncoupled the accumulation of aggregates from their biological consequences, revealing currently underappreciated complexity in the determination of these traits. Here, to explore the molecular basis of protein-only phenotypes, we focused on the S. cerevisiae Sup35/[PSI+] prion, which confers a translation termination defect and expression level-dependent toxicity in its amyloid form. Our studies reveal that aggregated Sup35 retains its normal function as a translation release factor. However, fluctuations in the composition and size of these complexes specifically alter the level of this aggregate-associated activity and thereby the severity and toxicity of the amyloid state. Thus, amyloid heterogeneity is a crucial contributor to protein-only phenotypes. PMID:25023996

Pezza, John A.; Villali, Janice; Sindi, Suzanne S.; Serio, Tricia R.

2014-01-01

142

Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia with Lewy-bodies (DLB): frequency and relationship with disease severity and motor impairment.  

PubMed

Clinical criteria for DLB have been more and more accurate over time, and they had focused on psychotic symptoms for their high frequency. Recent literature suggests that behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are frequently associated with DLB, beyond the presence of psychosis. Notwithstanding, the occurrence of BPSD in DLB is under-investigated, and no data are available yet in the different stages. Aim of the present study was to evaluate BPSD pattern in the different stages of DLB, and characterize the relationship with both cognitive deficits and Parkinsonian signs. Ninety-two DLB patients were enrolled and were divided into mild (n=63, 68.5%) and moderate-severe (n=29, 31.5%) subgroups according to the severity of cognitive impairment. Considering the absence/presence of symptoms, anxiety was the most common BPSD (67.4%), followed by depression (61.9%), apathy (57.6%), agitation and sleep disorder (55.4%). Psychosis was present in half of the patients. These symptoms worsened over disease course and represented a core-feature of the disease. No association between BPSD severity and the degree of motor disability was found. These observations suggest that a careful and systematic evaluation of BPSD is mandatory for carefully characterizing disease-related features and for developing new therapeutic approaches. Knowledge of the specific weight of BPSD in DLB would contribute to improve the allocation of health resources for dementia and to a better management of the disease. PMID:17467082

Borroni, B; Agosti, C; Padovani, A

2008-01-01

143

Does the Overvaluation of Shape and Weight Predict Initial Symptom Severity or Treatment Outcome among Patients with Binge Eating Disorder?  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine whether overvaluation of shape and weight is associated with initial symptom severity or treatment outcome among patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method Patients with BED (n= 116) completed assessments at baseline and treatment termination, including the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE), and self-report measures of eating-related cognitions and behaviors, depression, and self-esteem. Clinical overvaluation was determined by EDE. Results The clinical overvaluation group demonstrated significantly higher pre-treatment scores on measures of depression, behavioral and cognitive aspects of binge eating, and eating-related psychopathology, and lower self-esteem scores than individuals without overvaluation. At treatment termination, patients with overvaluation continued to display elevated scores on measures of binge eating severity at a trend level. Discussion Overvaluation of shape and weight was associated with symptom severity in patients with BED, but additional research is needed to determine whether this construct holds clinically useful predictive validity for treatment outcome. PMID:22253096

Ojserkis, Rachel; Sysko, Robyn; Goldfein, Juli A.; Devlin, Michael J.

2012-01-01

144

Drinking motives as mediators between PTSD symptom severity and alcohol consumption in persons with severe mental illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has consistently shown that drinking to alleviate negative emotional states predicts alcohol use and relapse among clients with co-occurring disorders including depressive and posttraumatic stress disorders. However, studies examining the mediating role of drinking motives in persons with severe mental illness (SMI) are few. The current survey of 116 community mental health clients (51.7% men; 47.4% women) diagnosed with

Thomas O'Hare; Margaret Sherrer

2011-01-01

145

Predictor of Severe Gastroduodenal Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Abdominopelvic Malignancies  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To identify the predictors for the development of severe gastroduodenal toxicity (GDT) in patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using 3 fractionations for abdominopelvic malignancies. Methods and Materials: From 2001 to 2011, 202 patients with abdominopelvic malignancies were treated with curative-intent SBRT. Among these patients, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 40 patients with the eligibility criteria as follows: 3 fractionations, follow-up period {>=}1 year, absence of previous radiation therapy (RT) history or combination of external-beam RT and the presence of gastroduodenum (GD) that received a dose higher than 20% of prescribed dose. The median SBRT dose was 45 Gy (range, 33-60 Gy) with 3 fractions. We analyzed the clinical and dosimetric parameters, including multiple dose-volume histogram endpoints: V{sub 20} (volume of GD that received 20 Gy), V{sub 25}, V{sub 30}, V{sub 35}, and D{sub max} (the maximum point dose). The grade of GDT was defined by the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 4.0, and GDT {>=}grade 3 was defined as severe GDT. Results: The median time to the development of severe GDT was 6 months (range, 3-12 months). Severe GDT was found in 6 patients (15%). D{sub max} was the best dosimetric predictor for severe GDT. D{sub max} of 35 Gy and 38 Gy were respectively associated with a 5% and 10% probability of the development of severe GDT. A history of ulcer before SBRT was the best clinical predictor on univariate analysis (P=.0001). Conclusions: We suggest that D{sub max} is a valuable predictor of severe GDT after SBRT using 3 fractionations for abdominopelvic malignancies. A history of ulcer before SBRT should be carefully considered as a clinical predictor, especially in patients who receive a high dose to GD.

Bae, Sun Hyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi-Sook, E-mail: mskim@kcch.re.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chul Koo; Kang, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Sang Yeob; Lee, Kyung-Nam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Han [CyberKnife Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [CyberKnife Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Chul Ju; Yang, Ki Young [Department of Internal Medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Bum [Department of General Surgery, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of General Surgery, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-15

146

Hypopharyngeal Dose Is Associated With Severe Late Toxicity in Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Cancer: An RTOG Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) increases local tumor control but at the expense of increased toxicity. We recently showed that several clinical/pretreatment factors were associated with the occurrence of severe late toxicity. This study evaluated the potential relationship between radiation dose delivered to the pharyngeal wall and toxicity. Methods and Materials: This was an analysis of long-term survivors from 3 previously reported Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials of CCRT for locally advanced SCCHN (RTOG trials 91-11, 97-03, and 99-14). Severe late toxicity was defined in this secondary analysis as chronic grade 3-4 pharyngeal/laryngeal toxicity and/or requirement for a feeding tube {>=}2 years after registration and/or potential treatment-related death (eg, pneumonia) within 3 years. Radiation dosimetry (2-dimensional) analysis was performed centrally at RTOG headquarters to estimate doses to 4 regions of interest along the pharyngeal wall (superior oropharynx, inferior oropharynx, superior hypopharynx, and inferior hypopharynx). Case-control analysis was performed with a multivariate logistic regression model that included pretreatment and treatment potential factors. Results: A total of 154 patients were evaluable for this analysis, 71 cases (patients with severe late toxicities) and 83 controls; thus, 46% of evaluable patients had a severe late toxicity. On multivariate analysis, significant variables correlated with the development of severe late toxicity, including older age (odds ratio, 1.062 per year; P=.0021) and radiation dose received by the inferior hypopharynx (odds ratio, 1.023 per Gy; P=.016). The subgroup of patients receiving {<=}60 Gy to the inferior hypopharynx had a 40% rate of severe late toxicity compared with 56% for patients receiving >60 Gy. Oropharyngeal dose was not associated with this outcome. Conclusions: Severe late toxicity following CCRT is common in long-term survivors. Age is the most significant factor, but hypopharyngeal dose also was associated.

Machtay, Mitchell, E-mail: mitchell.machtay@uhhospitals.org [University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)] [University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Moughan, Jennifer [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Headquarters and Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Headquarters and Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Farach, Andrew [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States) [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); University of Texas Health Science Center/Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Martin-O'Meara, Elizabeth [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Headquarters and Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Headquarters and Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Galvin, James [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Headquarters and Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States) [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Headquarters and Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Garden, Adam S.; Weber, Randal S. [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Cooper, Jay S. [Maimonides Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Maimonides Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Forastiere, Arlene [Johns Hopkins University Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Johns Hopkins University Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Ang, K. Kian [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2012-11-15

147

Pre-abstinence smoke intake and smoking motivation as predictors of severity of cigarette withdrawal symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-nine cigarette smokers completed a smoking motivation questionnaire and had expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) and plasma nicotine concentrations measured prior to abstaining from smoking for 24 h. Before and after the abstinence period, the subjects rated mood and physical symptoms known to be affected by cigarette abstinence (e.g. irritability, restlessness). Scores on the “dependent smoking” subscale of the smoking motivation

Robert J. West; Michael A. H. Russell

1985-01-01

148

Plasma neuropeptide Y: a biomarker for symptom severity in chronic fatigue syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex, multi-symptom illness with a multisystem pathogenesis involving alterations in the nervous, endocrine and immune systems. Abnormalities in stress responses have been identified as potential triggers or mediators of CFS symptoms. This study focused on the stress mediator neuropeptide Y (NPY). We hypothesized that NPY would be a useful biomarker for CFS. Methods The CFS patients (n = 93) were from the Chronic Fatigue and Related Disorders Clinic at the University of Miami and met the 1994 case definition of Fukuda and colleagues. Healthy sedentary controls (n = 100)) were from NIH or VA funded studies. Another fatiguing, multi-symptom illness, Gulf War Illness (GWI), was also compared to CFS. We measured NPY in plasma using a radioimmunoassay (RIA). Psychometric measures, available for a subset of CFS patients included: Perceived Stress Scale, Profile of Mood States, ATQ Positive & Negative Self-Talk Scores, the COPE, the Beck Depression Inventory, Fatigue Symptom Inventory, Cognitive Capacity Screening Examination, Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36, and the Quality of Life Scale. Results Plasma NPY was elevated in CFS subjects, compared to controls (p = .000) and to GWI cases (p = .000). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analyses indicated that the predictive ability of plasma NPY to distinguish CFS patients from healthy controls and from GWI was significantly better than chance alone. In 42 patients with CFS, plasma NPY had significant correlations (<0.05) with perceived stress, depression, anger/hostility, confusion, negative thoughts, positive thoughts, general health, and cognitive status. In each case the correlation (+ or -) was in the anticipated direction. Conclusions This study is the first in the CFS literature to report that plasma NPY is elevated compared to healthy controls and to a fatigued comparison group, GWI patients. The significant correlations of NPY with stress, negative mood, general health, depression and cognitive function strongly suggest that this peptide be considered as a biomarker to distinguish subsets of CFS. PMID:21190576

2010-01-01

149

Association between elevated depressive symptoms and clinical disease severity in African-American adults with sickle cell disease.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between elevated depressive symptoms and the clinical severity of sickle cell disease (SCD) using African-American adults with and without SCD. STUDY DESIGN: The population consisted of 102 African-American adults with SCD, diagnosed using hemoglobin electrophoresis, individually matched on age (+/-5 years), gender and recruitment location to 103 African-American adults without SCD (mean age of all subjects was 35.4 years, 55.6% female). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between SCD clinical severity and elevated depressive symptoms in bivariate and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms as measured using the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was 38.6% in those with SCD, compared to 27.5% in those without SCD; however, this difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Compared to African Americans without SCD, African Americans with SCD were less educated, had lower incomes, and were more likely to be unemployed or disabled (p<0.01). The odds of having elevated depressive symptoms were 1.78 (CI: 0.94, 3.38) for those with high clinical SCD severity compared to those without SCD in bivariate analysis and 1.37 (CI: 0.62, 3.02) in multivariable analysis after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. CONCLUSIONS: The reported relationship between elevated depressive symptoms and SCD may be a result of the adverse economic conditions associated with SCD. PMID:16573300

Laurence, Brian; George, David; Woods, Dexter

2006-01-01

150

Impact of non-cardiovascular disease comorbidity on cardiovascular disease symptom severity: A population-based study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Non-cardiovascular comorbidity is common in cardiovascular disease (CVD) populations but its influence on chest pain (CP) and shortness of breath (SOB) symptom-specific physical limitations is unknown. We wanted to test the a priori hypothesis that an unrelated comorbidity would influence symptom-specific physical limitations and to investigate this impact in different severities of CVD. Method and results The study was based on 5426 patients from ten family practices, organised into eight a priori exclusive severity groups: (i) no CVD or osteoarthritis (OA) (reference), (ii) index hypertension, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and heart failure (HF) without OA, (iii) index OA without CVD and (iv) same CVD groups with comorbid OA. The measure of CP physical limitations was Seattle Angina Questionnaire and for SOB physical limitations was the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. Adjusted baseline associations between the cohorts and symptom-specific physical limitations were assessed using linear regression methods. In the study population, 1443 (27%) reported CP and 2097 (39%) SOB. CP and SOB physical limitations increased with CVD severity in the index and comorbid groups. Compared with the respective index CVD group, the CP physical limitation scores for comorbid CVD groups with OA were lower by: ? 14.7 (95% CI ? 21.5, 7.8) for hypertension, ? 5.5 (? 10.4, ? 0.7) for IHD and ? 22.1 (? 31.0, ? 6.7) for HF. For SOB physical limitations, comorbid scores were lower by: ? 9.2 (? 13.8, ? 4.6) for hypertension, ? 6.4 (? 11.1, ? 1.8) for IHD and ? 8.8 (? 19.3, 1.65) for HF. Conclusions CP and SOB are common symptoms, and OA increases the CVD symptom-specific physical limitations additively. Comorbidity interventions need to be developed for CVD specific health outcomes. PMID:24856803

Rushton, C.A.; Kadam, U.T.

2014-01-01

151

Effects of Wheat Germ Extract on the Severity and Systemic Symptoms of Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the most common disorders in women and the main cause of absenteeism from work and school. Objectives: Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of wheat germ, the present study examined the effects of wheat germ extract on the severity and systemic symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea. Patients and Methods: This triple-blinded clinical trial was performed on 80 employed women in hospitals affiliated with Hamadan University of Medical Sciences (Hamadan, IR Iran). Subjects were allocated to two groups of 45 patients. Three 400-mg capsules of wheat germ extract or placebo were used daily? between the 16th day of the menstrual cycle to the fifth day of the next menstrual cycle for two consecutive months. Pain intensity was measured by a visual analogue scale thrice a day and a four-point verbal rating scale was employed to assess systemic symptoms. Results: Pain severity decreased only in the wheat germ extract group (P < 0.001) and there was no statistically significant change in the placebo group. In the wheat germ extract group, the pain severity decreased from 4.701 at baseline to 1.120 at the second cycle. The reduction in total scores of systemic symptoms of dysmenorrhea was statistically significant only in the wheat germ extract group (P < 0.001) and there was not a statistically significant change in the placebo group. It revealed statistically significant differences in systemic symptoms associated with dysmenorrhea including fatigue, headache, and mood swings in experimental group. Conclusions: Wheat germ extract seems to be an effective treatment for dysmenorrhea and its systemic symptoms, probably because of its anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25389490

Atallahi, Maryam; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Mojab, Faraz; Alavi Majd, Hamid

2014-01-01

152

Are stressful life events causally related to the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms? A monozygotic twin difference study.  

PubMed

Traumatic or stressful life events have long been hypothesized to play a role in causing or precipitating obsessive-compulsive symptoms but the impact of these environmental factors has rarely been investigated using genetically informative designs. We tested whether a wide range of retrospectively-reported stressful life events (SLEs) influence the lifetime presence and severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in a large Swedish population-based cohort of 22,084 twins. Multiple regression models examined whether differences in SLEs within twin pairs were significantly associated with differences in OCS. In the entire sample (i.e., both monozygotic [MZ] and dizygotic twin pairs), two SLEs factors, "abuse and family disruption" and "sexual abuse", were significantly associated with the severity of OCS even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Other SLEs factors were either not associated with OCS ("loss", "non-sexual assault") or were no longer associated with OCS after controlling for depression ("illness/injury"). Within MZ pair analyses, which effectively control for genetic and shared environmental effects, showed that only the "abuse and family disruption" factor remained independently related to within-pair differences in OCS severity, even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Despite being statistically significant, the magnitude of the associations was small; "abuse and family disruption" explained approximately 3% of the variance in OCS severity. We conclude that OCS are selectively associated with certain types of stressful life events. In particular, a history of interpersonal abuse, neglect and family disruption may make a modest but significant contribution to the severity of OCS. Further replication in longitudinal cohorts is essential before causality can be firmly established. PMID:25511316

Vidal-Ribas, P; Stringaris, A; Rück, C; Serlachius, E; Lichtenstein, P; Mataix-Cols, D

2015-02-01

153

Are stressful life events causally related to the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms? A monozygotic twin difference study  

PubMed Central

Traumatic or stressful life events have long been hypothesized to play a role in causing or precipitating obsessive-compulsive symptoms but the impact of these environmental factors has rarely been investigated using genetically informative designs. We tested whether a wide range of retrospectively-reported stressful life events (SLEs) influence the lifetime presence and severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in a large Swedish population-based cohort of 22,084 twins. Multiple regression models examined whether differences in SLEs within twin pairs were significantly associated with differences in OCS. In the entire sample (i.e., both monozygotic [MZ] and dizygotic twin pairs), two SLEs factors, “abuse and family disruption” and “sexual abuse”, were significantly associated with the severity of OCS even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Other SLEs factors were either not associated with OCS (“loss”, “non-sexual assault”) or were no longer associated with OCS after controlling for depression (“illness/injury”). Within MZ pair analyses, which effectively control for genetic and shared environmental effects, showed that only the “abuse and family disruption” factor remained independently related to within-pair differences in OCS severity, even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Despite being statistically significant, the magnitude of the associations was small; “abuse and family disruption” explained approximately 3% of the variance in OCS severity. We conclude that OCS are selectively associated with certain types of stressful life events. In particular, a history of interpersonal abuse, neglect and family disruption may make a modest but significant contribution to the severity of OCS. Further replication in longitudinal cohorts is essential before causality can be firmly established. PMID:25511316

Vidal-Ribas, P.; Stringaris, A.; Rück, C.; Serlachius, E.; Lichtenstein, P.; Mataix-Cols, D.

2015-01-01

154

The Role of Illness Beliefs, Treatment Beliefs, and Perceived Severity of Symptoms in Explaining Distress in Cancer Patients During Chemotherapy Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated cancer patients' interpretations of their physical symptoms and their illness beliefs with the objective of establishing the importance of these variables in predicting distress during chemotherapy treatment. Past researchers have suggested that causal attributions of physical symptoms and beliefs about illness progression and its consequences may serve as important mediators between number and perceived severity of symptoms

Ingela C. V. Thuné-Boyle; Lynn B. Myers; Stanton P. Newman

2006-01-01

155

Psychiatric disorders and symptom severity in referred versus non-referred overweight children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This study aimed firstly to investigate whether youngsters referred for overweight treatment differ from non-referred overweight\\u000a youngsters on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and psychological symptoms. Secondly, the potentially moderating role\\u000a of age, gender, socio-economic status and degree of overweight in the association of referral status and mental disorder in\\u000a overweight youth was explored.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Participants were 155 overweight youngsters enrolled

Leen Van Vlierberghe; Caroline Braet; Lien Goossens; Saskia Mels

2009-01-01

156

Severity of anxiety symptoms reported by borderline patients and Axis II comparison subjects: description and prediction over 16 years of prospective follow-up.  

PubMed

The first purpose of this study was to determine the severity of anxiety symptoms reported by borderline patients and Axis II comparison subjects over 16 years of follow-up. The second purpose was to determine the most salient predictors of the severity of anxiety symptoms of borderline patients. Initially, 290 borderline inpatients and 72 comparison subjects were assessed using measures of anxiety, childhood adversity, and normal personality. The severity of anxiety symptoms was reassessed every 2 years. Borderline patients reported approximately twice as severe symptoms of anxiety as comparison subjects. However, these symptoms decreased significantly over time for those in both groups. Among borderline patients, two variables were found to be significant multivariate predictors of severity of overall anxiety: nonsexual childhood abuse and trait neuroticism. The results of this study suggest that anxiety symptoms form a distinct profile for borderline patients-a profile related to both childhood adversity and a vulnerable temperament. PMID:24932876

Zanarini, Mary C; Frankenburg, Frances R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M

2014-12-01

157

Treadmill exercise in apparently asymptomatic patients with moderate or severe aortic stenosis: relationship between cardiac index and revealed symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo test whether symptoms revealed on exercise testing in patients with moderate or severe aortic stenosis are associated with changes in left ventricular systolic function and to investigate the ability of resting measures to predict peak cardiac index.MethodsIn a prospective study of asymptomatic aortic stenosis, 38 patients with a median age of 63 years (range 29–83) and an effective aortic

Ronak Rajani; Helen Rimington; John B Chambers

2010-01-01

158

Subcutaneously Administered Efalizumab (Anti-CD11a) Improves Signs and Symptoms of Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Phase I and Phase II studies in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis demonstrated that intravenous (IV) efalizumab improved clinical signs and symptoms and was well tolerated. Objective: To determine if subcutaneous (SC) delivery of efalizumab improves chronic plaque psoriasis and demonstrates an acceptable safety profile. Methods: This was a Phase I, open-label, single- and multiple-dose, escalating-dose study.

Alice B. Gottlieb; Bruce Miller; Nicholas Lowe; William Shapiro; Charles Hudson; Ross Bright; Mark Ling; Anna Magee; Calvin O. McCall; Toivo Rist; Wolfgang Dummer; Patricia Walicke; Robert J. Bauer; Mark White; Marvin Garovoy

2003-01-01

159

Cerebellar networks in individuals at ultra high-risk of psychosis: impact on postural sway and symptom severity.  

PubMed

Despite known deficits in postural control in patients with schizophrenia, this domain has not been investigated in youth at ultra high-risk (UHR) for psychosis. This is particularly relevant as postural control implicates dysfunction in the cerebellum-a region implicated in cognitive dysmetria conceptions of schizophrenia but poorly understood in the prodrome. Here, we extended our understanding of movement abnormalities in UHR individuals to include postural control, and have linked these deficits to both symptom severity and cerebello-cortical network connectivity. UHR and healthy control participants completed an instrumentally based balance task to quantify postural control along with a resting state brain imaging scan to investigate cerebellar networks. We also quantified positive and negative symptom severity with structured clinical interviews. The UHR group showed overall increased postural sway and decreased cerebello-cortical resting state connectivity, relative to controls. The decreased cerebello-cortical connectivity was seen across multiple networks. Postural sway was also correlated with cerebellar connectivity in this population and uniquely positively correlated with the severity of negative symptoms. Finally, symptom severity was also associated with cerebellar connectivity. Together, our results point to a potential deficit in sensory integration as an underlying contributor to the increased postural sway, and provide evidence of cerebellar abnormalities in UHR individuals. These results extend our understanding of the motor abnormalities of UHR individuals beyond striatum-based dyskinesias to include postural control and sensory integration deficits, and implicate the cerebellum as a distinct neural substrate preceding the onset of psychosis. Taken together, our results extend the cognitive dysmetria framework to UHR populations. PMID:24464473

Bernard, Jessica A; Dean, Derek J; Kent, Jerillyn S; Orr, Joseph M; Pelletier-Baldelli, Andrea; Lunsford-Avery, Jessica R; Gupta, Tina; Mittal, Vijay A

2014-08-01

160

Individual differences in symptom severity and behavior predict neural activation during face processing in adolescents with autism  

PubMed Central

Despite the impressive literature describing atypical neural activation in visuoperceptual face processing regions in autism, almost nothing is known about whether these perturbations extend to more affective regions in the circuitry and whether they bear any relationship to symptom severity or atypical behavior. Using fMRI, we compared face-, object-, and house-related activation in adolescent males with high-functioning autism (HFA) and typically developing (TD) matched controls. HFA adolescents exhibited hypo-activation throughout the core visuoperceptual regions, particularly in the right hemisphere, as well as in some of the affective/motivational face-processing regions, including the posterior cingulate cortex and right anterior temporal lobe. Conclusions about the relative hyper- or hypo-activation of the amygdala depended on the nature of the contrast that was used to define the activation. Individual differences in symptom severity predicted the magnitude of face activation, particularly in the right fusiform gyrus. Also, among the HFA adolescents, face recognition performance predicted the magnitude of face activation in the right anterior temporal lobe, a region that supports face individuation in TD adults. Our findings reveal a systematic relation between the magnitude of neural dysfunction, severity of autism symptoms, and variation in face recognition behavior in adolescents with autism. In so doing, we uncover brain–behavior relations that underlie one of the most prominent social deficits in autism and help resolve discrepancies in the literature. PMID:25610767

Scherf, K. Suzanne; Elbich, Daniel; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene

2014-01-01

161

Individual differences in symptom severity and behavior predict neural activation during face processing in adolescents with autism.  

PubMed

Despite the impressive literature describing atypical neural activation in visuoperceptual face processing regions in autism, almost nothing is known about whether these perturbations extend to more affective regions in the circuitry and whether they bear any relationship to symptom severity or atypical behavior. Using fMRI, we compared face-, object-, and house-related activation in adolescent males with high-functioning autism (HFA) and typically developing (TD) matched controls. HFA adolescents exhibited hypo-activation throughout the core visuoperceptual regions, particularly in the right hemisphere, as well as in some of the affective/motivational face-processing regions, including the posterior cingulate cortex and right anterior temporal lobe. Conclusions about the relative hyper- or hypo-activation of the amygdala depended on the nature of the contrast that was used to define the activation. Individual differences in symptom severity predicted the magnitude of face activation, particularly in the right fusiform gyrus. Also, among the HFA adolescents, face recognition performance predicted the magnitude of face activation in the right anterior temporal lobe, a region that supports face individuation in TD adults. Our findings reveal a systematic relation between the magnitude of neural dysfunction, severity of autism symptoms, and variation in face recognition behavior in adolescents with autism. In so doing, we uncover brain-behavior relations that underlie one of the most prominent social deficits in autism and help resolve discrepancies in the literature. PMID:25610767

Scherf, K Suzanne; Elbich, Daniel; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene

2015-01-01

162

A Case Report of Severe Corneal Toxicity following 0.5% Topical Moxifloxacin Use  

PubMed Central

Moxifloxacin is a widely used topical antibiotic in various bacterial infections of the eye. Its safety and efficacy have been proved by many studies. We report a case of a rare adverse effect following its use. A 10-year-old female who had presented with acute bacterial conjunctivitis in both eyes with no corneal involvement was started on preservative-free 0.5% topical moxifloxacin four times a day. The child developed a severe form of corneal toxicity in both eyes with circumcorneal congestion and corneal edema following its use. The child's visual acuity had dropped from 20/20 to 20/400 in both the eyes. Topical moxifloxacin was discontinued, following which the cornea cleared dramatically and the visual acuity became normal. This case indicates that though rare, topical moxifloxacin can cause severe keratitis and that more studies need to be conducted to evaluate its safety.

Vignesh, A.P.; Srinivasan, Renuka; Karanth, Swathi

2015-01-01

163

Resting-state hippocampal connectivity correlates with symptom severity in post-traumatic stress disorder  

PubMed Central

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious mental health injury which can manifest after experiencing a traumatic life event. The disorder is characterized by symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance, emotional numbing and hyper-arousal. Whilst its aetiology and resultant symptomology are better understood, relatively little is known about the underlying cortical pathophysiology, and in particular whether changes in functional connectivity may be linked to the disorder. Here, we used non-invasive neuroimaging with magnetoencephalography to examine functional connectivity in a resting-state protocol in the combat-related PTSD group (n = 23), and a military control group (n = 21). We identify atypical long-range hyperconnectivity in the high-gamma-band resting-state networks in a combat-related PTSD population compared to soldiers who underwent comparable environmental exposure but did not develop PTSD. Using graph analysis, we demonstrate that apparent network connectivity of relevant brain regions is associated with cognitive-behavioural outcomes. We also show that left hippocampal connectivity in the PTSD group correlates with scores on the well-established PTSD Checklist (PCL). These findings indicate that atypical synchronous neural interactions may underlie the psychological symptoms of PTSD, whilst also having utility as a potential biomarker to aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of the disorder. PMID:25180157

Dunkley, B.T.; Doesburg, S.M.; Sedge, P.A.; Grodecki, R.J.; Shek, P.N.; Pang, E.W.; Taylor, M.J.

2014-01-01

164

Severity of symptom flare after moderate exercise is linked to cytokine activity in chronic fatigue syndrome  

PubMed Central

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients often report symptom flare (SF) for >24 h after moderate exercise (post-ex). We hypothesized that SF is linked to increases in circulating cytokines and CD40 Ligand (CD40L). In 19 CFS patients and 17 controls, mental and physical fatigue and pain symptom ratings were obtained together with serum for 11 cytokines and CD40L before and at 0.5, 8, 24, and 48 h post-ex. Before exercise, CFS had lower CD40L (p < .05) but similar cytokines versus controls. In subgroups based on SF at 48 h, high SF patients (n = 11) increased in IL-1?, IL-12, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-13 (p < .05) 8 h post-ex. Low SF patients (n = 8) showed post-ex decreases in IL-10, IL-13, and CD40L, and controls decreased in IL-10, CD40L, and TNF? (p < .05). Thus, in CFS, cytokine activity may vary directly with SF, which may explain prior inconsistent findings. PMID:20230500

White, Andrea T.; Light, Alan R.; Hughen, Ronald W.; Bateman, Lucinda; Martins, Thomas B.; Hill, Harry R.; Light, Kathleen C.

2015-01-01

165

Early events responsible for aluminum toxicity symptoms in suspension-cultured tobacco cells.  

PubMed

We investigated the aluminum (Al)-induced alterations in zeta potential, plasma membrane (PM) potential and intracellular calcium levels to elucidate their interaction with callose production induced by Al toxicity. A noninvasive confocal laser microscopy has been used to analyse the live tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cell events by means of fluorescent probes Fluo-3 acetoxymethyl ester (intracellular calcium) and DiBAC4 (PM potential) as well as to monitor callose accumulation. Log-phase cells showed no detectable changes in the PM potential during the first 30 min of Al treatment, but sustained large depolarization from 60 min onwards. Measurement of zeta potential confirmed the depolarization effect of Al, but the kinetics were different. The Al-treated cells showed a moderate increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels and callose production in 1 h, which coincided with the time course of PM depolarization. Compared with the Al treatment, cyclopiazonic acid, an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, facilitated a higher increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels, but resulted in accumulation of only moderate levels of callose. Calcium channel modulators and Al induced similar levels of callose in the initial 1 h of treatment. Callose production induced by Al toxicity is dependent on both depolarization of the PM and an increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels. PMID:15720625

Sivaguru, Mayandi; Yamamoto, Yoko; Rengel, Zdenko; Ahn, Sung Ju; Matsumoto, Hideaki

2005-01-01

166

IMRT for Sinonasal Tumors Minimizes Severe Late Ocular Toxicity and Preserves Disease Control and Survival  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report late ocular (primary endpoint) and other toxicity, disease control, and survival (secondary endpoints) after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for sinonasal tumors. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2009, 130 patients with nonmetastatic sinonasal tumors were treated with IMRT at Ghent University Hospital. Prescription doses were 70 Gy (n = 117) and 60-66 Gy (n = 13) at 2 Gy per fraction over 6-7 weeks. Most patients had adenocarcinoma (n = 82) and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 23). One hundred and one (101) patients were treated postoperatively. Of 17 patients with recurrent tumors, 9 were reirradiated. T-stages were T1-2 (n = 39), T3 (n = 21), T4a (n = 38), and T4b (n = 22). Esthesioneuroblastoma was staged as Kadish A, B, and C in 1, 3, and 6 cases, respectively. Results: Median follow-up was 52, range 15-121 months. There was no radiation-induced blindness in 86 patients available for late toxicity assessment ({>=}6 month follow-up). We observed late Grade 3 tearing in 10 patients, which reduced to Grade 1-2 in 5 patients and Grade 3 visual impairment because of radiation-induced ipsilateral retinopathy and neovascular glaucoma in 1 patient. There was no severe dry eye syndrome. The worst grade of late ocular toxicity was Grade 3 (n = 11), Grade 2 (n = 31), Grade 1 (n = 33), and Grade 0 (n = 11). Brain necrosis and osteoradionecrosis occurred in 6 and 1 patients, respectively. Actuarial 5-year local control and overall survival were 59% and 52%, respectively. On multivariate analysis local control was negatively affected by cribriform plate and brain invasion (p = 0.044 and 0.029, respectively) and absence of surgery (p = 0.009); overall survival was negatively affected by cribriform plate and orbit invasion (p = 0.04 and <0.001, respectively) and absence of surgery (p = 0.001). Conclusions: IMRT for sinonasal tumors allowed delivering high doses to targets at minimized ocular toxicity, while maintaining disease control and survival. Avoidance of severe dry eye syndrome and radiation-induced blindness suggests IMRT as a standard treatment for sinonasal tumors.

Duprez, Frederic, E-mail: frederic.duprez@ugent.be [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Madani, Indira; Morbee, Lieve [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Bonte, Katrien; Deron, Philippe; Domjan, Vilmos [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Boterberg, Tom; De Gersem, Werner; De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

2012-05-01

167

Comparison of intranasal azelastine to intranasal fluticasone propionate for symptom control in moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis.  

PubMed

Intranasal corticosteroids are considered the most effective therapy for moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) and recommended first line in guidelines. It is uncertain whether intranasal antihistamines have comparable efficacy. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of azelastine (AZE; 137 ?g/spray) and fluticasone propionate (FP; 50 ?g/spray), both given as 1 spray/nostril bid (i.e., approved dosing regimen in the United States), in SAR via a post hoc analysis of data from a previously published direct-comparison study. Six hundred ten moderate-to-severe SAR patients (?12 years old) were randomized into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. The primary efficacy variable was change from baseline in reflective total nasal symptom score (rTNSS (morning and evening), over 14 days. Reflective total ocular symptom score (rTOSS) was a key secondary variable. Reflective total of seven symptom scores (rT7SS [nasal plus ocular symptoms]) and time to ?50% reduction from baseline in these key parameters were also analyzed. AZE and FP reduced rTNSS from baseline by a similar degree (-3.25 versus -3.84; p = 0.2014). Patients experienced comparable improvement in rTOSS (-2.62 versus -2.17; p = 0.2371) and rT7SS (-5.83 versus -6.05; p = 0.7820). FP was superior to AZE in alleviating rhinorrhea (-1.15 versus -0.87; p = 0.0433), but AZE showed comparable efficacy for all other nasal and ocular symptoms. There was no clinically or statistically significant difference between AZE (-1.17) and FP (-1.43) for reduction in the overall rhinitis quality of life questionnaire score (although FP, but not AZE, significantly differed from placebo). A similar proportion of patients in the AZE and FP groups achieved a 50% reduction in rTNSS. However, more AZE patients (53.0%) exhibited a 50% reduction in rTOSS by day 14 versus FP (39.6%), and ?3 days faster (p = 0.028). Intranasal AZE (137 micrograms/spray) and intranasal FP (50 micrograms/spray), both 1 spray/nostril b.i.d., had comparable efficacy in symptom control in moderate-to-severe SAR. PMID:23127291

Carr, Warner W; Ratner, Paul; Munzel, Ullrich; Murray, Ruth; Price, David; Canonica, G Walter; Mullol, Joaquim; Virchow, J Christian; Lieberman, Phil; Meltzer, Eli; Bachert, Claus

2012-01-01

168

Caring for medically unexplained physical symptoms after toxic environmental exposures: effects of contested causation.  

PubMed Central

Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are persistent idiopathic symptoms that drive patients to seek medical care. MUPS syndromes include chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia syndrome, and multiple chemical sensitivities. When MUPS occur after an environmental exposure or injury, an adversarial social context that we call "contested causation" may ensue. Contested causation may occur publicly and involve media controversy, scientific disagreement, political debate, and legal struggles. This adversarial social context may diminish the effectiveness of the provider-patient relationship. Contested causation also may occur privately, when disagreement over the causes of MUPS takes place in the patient-provider context. These patient-provider disagreements over causation often occur because of the enigmatic nature of MUPS. We suggest that a context of contested causation may have serious negative effects on healthcare for individuals with MUPS. Context plays a larger role in MUPS care than it does for most medical care because of the uncertain nature of MUPS, the reliance of standard MUPS therapies on a potentially tenuous patient-provider partnership, and the clinical need to rely routinely on subjective MUPS assessments that often yield discordant patient and provider conclusions. Contested causation may erode patient-provider trust, test the provider's self-assurance and capacity to share power with the patient, and raise problematic issues of compensation, reparation, and blame. These issues may distract patients and providers from therapeutic goals. In occupational and military settings, the adverse impact of contested causation on the patient-provider partnership may diminish therapeutic effectiveness to a greater degree than it does in other medical settings. Contested causation therefore raises questions regarding generalizability of standard therapies for MUPS and related syndromes to these settings. Future research is needed to learn whether intuitively sensible and evidence-based MUPS therapies benefit occupational and military medical patients who are afforded care in the context of contested causation. PMID:12194900

Engel, Charles C; Adkins, Joyce A; Cowan, David N

2002-01-01

169

Disease and symptom severity, functional status, and quality of life in chronic bronchitis and emphysema (CBE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A path analysis model examined interrelationships among variables significantly associated with chronic dyspnea in chronic bronchitis and emphysema (CBE) and the relative influence of these variables on each other and on functional status and quality of life. Results from the 45 adults (mean age, 61) with moderate CBE disease severity showed that dyspnea severity has a sizable effect on functional

Linda Moody; Kathleen McCormick; Arthur Williams

1990-01-01

170

Automated image analysis of the severity of foliar citrus canker symptoms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is a destructive disease, reducing yield, and rendering fruit unfit for fresh sale. Accurate assessment of citrus canker severity and other diseases is needed for several purposes, including monitoring epidemics and evaluation of germplasm. ...

171

Clinical Features of Severe Wasp Sting Patients with Dominantly Toxic Reaction: Analysis of 1091 Cases  

PubMed Central

Background Massive wasp stings have been greatly underestimated and have not been systematically studied. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features and treatment strategies of severe wasp stings. Methods and Findings A multicenter retrospective study was undertaken in 35 hospitals and medical centers including 12 tertiary care hospitals and 23 secondary care hospitals in the Hubei Province, China. The detailed clinical data of 1091 hospitalized wasp sting patients were investigated. Over three-fourths (76.9%) of the cases had 10 or more stings and the in-hospital mortality of patients was 5.1%. Forty-eight patients died of organ injury following toxic reactions to the stings, whereas six died from anaphylactic shock. The in-hospital mortality in patients with >10 stings was higher than that of ?10 stings (5.2% vs. 1.0%, p?=?0.02). Acute kidney injury (AKI) was seen in 21.0% patients and most patients required blood purification therapy. Rhabdomyolysis was seen in 24.1% patients, hemolysis in 19.2% patients, liver injury in 30.1% patients, and coagulopathy in 22.5% patients. Regression analysis revealed that high creatinine level, shock, oliguria, and anemia were risk factors for death. Blood purification therapy was beneficial for patients with ?20 stings and delayed hospital admission of patients (?4 hours after sting). Conclusions In China, most patients with multiple wasp stings presented with toxic reactions and multiple organ dysfunction caused by the venom rather than an anaphylactic reaction. AKI is the prominent clinical manifestation of wasp stings with toxic reaction. High creatinine levels, shock, oliguria, and anemia were risk factors for death. PMID:24391743

Ding, Fengfei; Xie, Minjie; Lv, Jiagao; Yao, Jihua; Pan, Dengji; Sun, Qian; Liu, Chenchen; Chen, Tie; Li, Shusheng; Wang, Wei

2013-01-01

172

Experience of insomnia, symptom attribution and treatment preferences in individuals with moderate to severe COPD: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are known to have poor sleep quality. Acceptance of and adherence to therapies for sleep problems may depend on how the person with COPD regards the source of his sleep problem, yet little is known about their attribution as to the cause of these sleep symptoms. The objective of this study was to describe the subjective sleep complaints of individuals with COPD along with their attributions as to the cause of these symptoms, and their treatment preferences for insomnia. Three focus groups were conducted (N=18) with participants who have moderate to severe COPD. Focus group data were transcribed, compared and contrasted to identify themes of attribution. Participants reported difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, and daytime sleepiness. They attributed their sleep problems primarily to their pulmonary symptoms, but also poor air quality (thick humid air) and death anxiety when awake during the night. There was no clear preference for type of treatment to remedy this problem (medication, cognitive therapy), although they indicated that traveling to the clinic was difficult and should be avoided as much as possible. These data suggest that environmental manipulation to improve air quality (eg, air conditioning) and modifications to reduce death anxiety could be beneficial to persons with COPD. In-person multi-session therapy may not be acceptable to persons with moderate to severe COPD, however internet-based therapy might make treatment more accessible. PMID:25525346

Kauffman, Karen S; Doede, Megan; Diaz-Abad, Montserrat; Scharf, Steven M; Bell-Farrell, Wanda; Rogers, Valerie E; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne

2014-01-01

173

Is postpartum depression a homogenous disorder: time of onset, severity, symptoms and hopelessness in relation to the course of depression.  

PubMed

BackgroundPostpartum depression (PPD) is a common illness, but due to the underlying processes and the diversity of symptoms, some variability is exhibited. The risk of postpartum depression is great if the mother has previously suffered from depression, but there is some evidence that a certain subgroup of women only experience depression during the postpartum period.MethodsThe study group consisted of 104 mothers with postpartum major depression and a control group of 104 postpartum mothers without depression. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) was used for data collection. The severity of depression and other mental symptoms were assessed using several validated rating scales.ResultsA history of past depression (82%), including depression during pregnancy (42%) and during the postpartum period (53%), was very common in those with current PPD. Eighteen per cent of mothers with current PPD had previously not had any depressive episodes and four per cent had experienced depression only during the postpartum period. Therefore, pure PPD was rare. The onset of PPD was usually (84%) within six weeks of childbirth. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, depressed mood, diminished pleasure/interest, decreased energy, and psychomotor agitation/retardation were common with all kinds of depression histories. Pure PPD was the most similar to the first depressive episode. Nevertheless, the severity of depression, the level of hopelessness, somatisation, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, hostility, psychoticism, sleep disturbance, and suicidal ideation were lower, appetite changed less, and concentration was better than in other recurrent depressions.ConclusionsAccording to this study, PPD is not a homogenous disorder. The time of onset, severity, symptoms, level of hopelessness, and the course of depression vary. Recurrent depression is common. All mothers must be screened during the sixth week postpartum at the latest. Screening alone is not effective; it is also important to give mothers information about PPD and to discuss the symptoms with them in order for them to recognise this disorder and possible new episodes in the future. PMID:25491477

Kettunen, Pirjo; Koistinen, Eeva; Hintikka, Jukka

2014-12-10

174

Severe low back pain as the initial symptom of venous thrombosis of the inferior vena cava.  

PubMed

A 45-year-old previously well male truck driver presented to the emergency department with severe low back pain; lumbosacral X-ray was normal and he was given analgaesics and discharged. The following day, he presented to the emergency department again, his pain had not responded to the analgaesics; this time he also presented with massive bilateral swelling of lower limbs and left testicle that started 3?h earlier. The pain was severe, dull and interfered with the patient's ability to walk. An urgent workup revealed extensive thrombosis of the inferior vena cava. PMID:25155491

Tabatabai, Mohsen Abdul Wahab; Butros, Victor Mikhaeel; Mahdi, Shihab Ahmed; Ahmad, Mohammad Javad

2014-01-01

175

Reduced Heart Rate Variability in Social Anxiety Disorder: Associations with Gender and Symptom Severity  

PubMed Central

Background Polyvagal theory emphasizes that autonomic nervous system functioning plays a key role in social behavior and emotion. The theory predicts that psychiatric disorders of social dysfunction are associated with reduced heart rate variability, an index of autonomic control, as well as social inhibition and avoidance. The purpose of this study was to examine whether heart rate variability was reduced in treatment-seeking patients diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, a disorder characterized by social fear and avoidance. Methods Social anxiety patients (n?=?53) were recruited prior to receiving psychological therapy. Healthy volunteers were recruited through the University of Sydney and the general community and were matched by gender and age (n?=?53). Heart rate variability was assessed during a five-minute recording at rest, with participants completing a range of self-report clinical symptom measures. Results Compared to controls, participants with social anxiety exhibited significant reductions across a number of heart rate variability measures. Reductions in heart rate variability were observed in females with social anxiety, compared to female controls, and in patients taking psychotropic medication compared to non-medicated patients. Finally, within the clinical group, we observed significant associations between reduced heart rate variability and increased social interaction anxiety, psychological distress, and harmful alcohol use. Conclusions The results of this study confirm that social anxiety disorder is associated with reduced heart rate variability. Resting state heart rate variability may therefore be considered a marker for social approach-related motivation and capacity for social engagement. Additionally, heart rate variability may provide a useful biomarker to explain underlying difficulties with social approach, impaired stress regulation, and behavioral inhibition, especially in disorders associated with significant impairments in these domains. PMID:23936207

Alvares, Gail A.; Quintana, Daniel S.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Van Zwieten, Anita; Balleine, Bernard W.; Hickie, Ian B.; Guastella, Adam J.

2013-01-01

176

The capability of several toxic plants to condition taste aversions in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grazing livestock frequently ingest toxic plants, occasionally with fatal results. Behavioral adjustments by livestock may reduce toxin intake; for example they can develop food aversions which may protect animals from over-ingestion of toxic plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three plants with different mechanisms of toxicity for their efficacy in conditioning a taste aversion: (1) a seleniferous

James A. Pfister; Dale R. Gardner; Carl. C. Cheney; Kip E. Panter; Jeffery O. Hall

2010-01-01

177

Comparisons of Exercise Dose and Symptom Severity Between Exercisers and Nonexercisers in Women During and After Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

Context Although numerous studies of the efficacy of exercise are reported, few studies have evaluated changes in characteristics of exercise dose in women with cancer both during and after cancer treatment. Objectives To describe the characteristics of exercise dose (i.e., frequency, duration, and intensity), and to evaluate for differences in symptom severity (i.e., fatigue, sleep disturbance, depression, pain) between women who did and did not exercise during and after cancer treatment. Methods In a sample of 119 women, two groups were classified: exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers were defined as women who met specific criteria for frequency (three times per week), duration (20 minutes per session), intensity (moderate), and mode (aerobic). Nonexercisers were defined as women who did not meet all of these criteria. Evaluation of exercise dose was completed at baseline (T1: the week before chemotherapy cycle two), at the end of cancer treatment (T2), and at the end of the study (T3: approximately one year after the T1 assessment) using self-report exercise questionnaires. Results Approximately 50% of the participants exercised during and 70% exercised after treatment. At T1, exercisers had lower total fatigue, lower behavioral and sensory subscale fatigue scores, and lower depression scores (P =0.038) than nonexercisers. No significant differences in sleep disturbance or pain were found between groups. At T2, exercisers had lower cognitive/mood subscale fatigue and depression scores than nonexercisers (P =0.047). At T3, no significant differences were found between groups in any symptom severity scores. Conclusion Both during and after cancer treatment, achieving or maintaining exercise guideline levels were met by most patients. Further study is needed to examine the link between exercise dose and symptom severity. PMID:22436836

Cho, Maria H.; Dodd, Marylin J.; Cooper, Bruce A.; Miaskowski, Christine

2012-01-01

178

MRI-based analysis of intracerebral hemorrhage in mice reveals relationship between hematoma expansion and the severity of symptoms.  

PubMed

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is featured by poor prognosis such as high mortality rate and severe neurological dysfunction. In humans, several valuables including hematoma volume and ventricular expansion of hemorrhage are known to correlate with the extent of mortality and neurological dysfunction. However, relationship between hematoma conditions and the severity of symptoms in animal ICH models has not been clarified. Here we addressed this issue by using 7-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on collagenase-induced ICH model in mice. We found that the mortality rate and the performance in behavioral tests did not correlate well with the volume of hematoma. In contrast, when hemorrhage invaded the internal capsule, mice exhibited high mortality and showed poor sensorimotor performance. High mortality rate and poor performance in behavioral tests were also observed when hemorrhage invaded the lateral ventricle, although worsened symptoms associated with ventricular hemorrhage were apparent only during early phase of the disease. These results clearly indicate that invasion of the internal capsule or the lateral ventricle by hematoma is a critical determinant of poor prognosis in experimental ICH model in mice as well as in human ICH patients. MRI assessment may be a powerful tool to refine investigations of pathogenic mechanisms and evaluations of drug effects in animal models of ICH. PMID:23844065

Matsushita, Hideaki; Hijioka, Masanori; Hisatsune, Akinori; Isohama, Yoichiro; Iwamoto, Shigeto; Terasawa, Hiroaki; Katsuki, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

179

A cross-sectional analysis of symptom severity in adults with influenza and other acute respiratory illness in the outpatient setting  

PubMed Central

Background Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are common in outpatient practice, and the severity of symptoms contributes to the overall burden of illness. We examined the association between a subjective symptom severity score, demographic and clinical characteristics, and presence of laboratory-confirmed influenza among central Wisconsin adults who sought care for ARI during four influenza seasons. We hypothesized that adults with laboratory-confirmed influenza would rate their symptoms as more severe relative to adults without influenza, and vaccinated adults with influenza would rate symptoms as less severe than those who were not vaccinated. Methods Patients with acute respiratory illness, including feverishness or cough symptoms???7 days duration, were prospectively enrolled and tested for influenza by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) during influenza seasons 2007–08 through 2010–11. Perceived severity was self-rated during the enrollment interview for eight symptoms, on a scale of 0 (absent) to 3 (severe). Scores for each symptom were summed to generate a combined severity score ranging from 1 to 24 for each individual. The association between influenza test result and severity score was examined using linear regression. Results There were 2,374 individuals included in the analysis, including 324 with RT-PCR confirmed influenza. The mean symptom severity score was 12.3 (±4.1) points, and the most common symptoms were cough (92%), fatigue (91%), and nasal congestion (84%). In the final adjusted model, influenza infection was the strongest independent predictor of higher severity score, with a mean increase of 1.7 points compared to those who were influenza negative (p?symptom severity was modified by age (p?symptom severity was 31% lower in those who were vaccinated as compared to those who were not vaccinated. Conclusions Influenza is associated with more severe symptoms of acute respiratory illness. The association between influenza vaccination and reduced symptom severity in older adults should be confirmed and explored further in other populations and seasons. PMID:24884932

2014-01-01

180

Predictors of Severe Acute and Late Toxicities in Patients With Localized Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) causes acute and late toxicities that affect various organs and functions. In a large cohort of patients treated with RT for localized head and neck cancer (HNC), we prospectively assessed the occurrence of RT-induced acute and late toxicities and identified characteristics that predicted these toxicities. Methods and Materials: We conducted a randomized trial among 540 patients treated with RT for localized HNC to assess whether vitamin E supplementation could improve disease outcomes. Adverse effects of RT were assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Acute Radiation Morbidity Criteria during RT and one month after RT, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme at six and 12 months after RT. The most severe adverse effect among the organs/tissues was selected as an overall measure of either acute or late toxicity. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were considered as severe. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify all independent predictors (p < 0.05) of acute or late toxicity and to estimate odds ratios (OR) for severe toxicity with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Grade 3 or 4 toxicity was observed in 23% and 4% of patients, respectively, for acute and late toxicity. Four independent predictors of severe acute toxicity were identified: sex (female vs. male: OR = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.80), Karnofsky Performance Status (OR = 0.67 for a 10-point increment, 95% CI: 0.52-0.88), body mass index (above 25 vs. below: OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.22-2.90), TNM stage (Stage II vs. I: OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.25-2.92). Two independent predictors were found for severe late toxicity: female sex (OR = 3.96, 95% CI: 1.41-11.08) and weight loss during RT (OR = 1.26 for a 1 kg increment, 95% CI: 1.12-1.41). Conclusions: Knowledge of these predictors easily collected in a clinical setting could help tailoring therapies to reduce toxicities among patients treated with RT for HNC.

Meyer, Francois, E-mail: francois.meyer@chuq.qc.ca [Laval University Cancer Research Center, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Fortin, Andre; Wang, Chang Shu [Radiation Therapy Department, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Liu, Geoffrey [Applied Molecular Oncology, Ontario Cancer Institute/Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Bairati, Isabelle [Laval University Cancer Research Center, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada)

2012-03-15

181

Alcohol withdrawal severity is decreased by symptom-orientated adjusted bolus therapy in the ICU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine the effect of bolus vs. continuous infusion adjustment on severity and duration of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS), the medication requirements for AWS treatment, and the effect on ICU stay in surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients.Design and setting  Prospective randomized, double-blind controlled trial in a surgical ICU.Patients  44 patients who developed AWS after admission to the ICU.Interventions  Patients were randomized to

Claudia D. Spies; Hilke E. Otter; Bernd Hüske; Pranav Sinha; Tim Neumann; Jordan Rettig; Erika Lenzenhuber; Wolfgang J. Kox; Edward M. Sellers

2003-01-01

182

Regular article Short-term outcomes of matching dual diagnosis patients' symptom severity to treatment intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated a patient-treatment matching strategy intended to improve the effectiveness of hospital-inpatient and community- residential treatment for dual diagnosis patients. Matching variables were the severity of patient disorders and the program's service intensity. Each of three high-intensity hospital programs was paired with a nearby high-intensity community program; there were also four low- intensity pairs. Patients (N = 230)

Christine Timko; Jill M. Sempel

183

Short-term outcomes of matching dual diagnosis patients’ symptom severity to treatment intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated a patient-treatment matching strategy intended to improve the effectiveness of hospital-inpatient and community-residential treatment for dual diagnosis patients. Matching variables were the severity of patient disorders and the program’s service intensity. Each of three high-intensity hospital programs was paired with a nearby high-intensity community program; there were also four low-intensity pairs. Patients (N=230) were randomly assigned to

Christine Timko; Jill M. Sempel

2004-01-01

184

Dementia Neuropsychiatric Symptom Severity, Help-Seeking Patterns, and Family Caregiver Unmet Needs in the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine dementia neuropsychiatric symptom (1) severity, (2) help-seeking patterns, and (3) associated family unmet needs for professional help.Method: Family caregivers of 38 Latinos with dementia from an epidemiological cohort study were assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Follow-up probes assessed neuropsychiatric symptoms, help-seeking, and unmet need.Results: Of 122 neuropsychiatric symptoms reported 56.6% (69) were mild and 43.4% (53)

Ladson Hinton; Darin Chambers; Alexandra Velásquez; Hector Gonzalez; Mary Haan

2006-01-01

185

Cluster Analysis of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS): Symptom Dimensions and Clinical Correlates in an Outpatient Youth Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tic disorders are heterogeneous, with symptoms varying widely both within and across patients. Exploration of symptom clusters may aid in the identification of symptom dimensions of empirical and treatment import. This article presents the results of two studies investigating tic symptom clusters using a sample of 99 youth (M age = 10.7, 81% male,…

Kircanski, Katharina; Woods, Douglas W.; Chang, Susanna W.; Ricketts, Emily J.; Piacentini, John C.

2010-01-01

186

Effect of the Interplay between Trauma Severity and Trait Neuroticism on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among Adolescents Exposed to a Pipeline Explosion  

PubMed Central

Background While numerous studies have explored relevant factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, there have been few joint investigations of trauma severity and trait neuroticism on the development of PTSD symptoms. This study aims to assess the involvement and interrelationship of trauma severity and neuroticism in the expression of PTSD symptoms among adolescents exposed to an accidental explosion. Methods Six hundred and sixty-two adolescents were recruited from a junior middle school closest to the 2013 pipeline explosion site in China and were assessed using the Explosion Exposure Questionnaire, the NEO Five Factor Inventory-Neuroticism Subscale (FFI-N), and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C). A battery of hierarchical multiple regression analyses and two-way ANOVAs were performed to examine the effect of trauma severity and trait neuroticism on adolescent PTSD symptoms. Results Eighty-seven adolescents (13.1%) showed PTSD symptoms after the pipeline explosion. Correlation analysis showed that all the factors of explosion exposure and trait neuroticism were positively associated with adolescent PTSD symptoms. Being male and younger was linked to lower risk for PTSD symptoms. The regression models identified explosion exposure and neuroticism as independent risk factors for PTSD symptoms, and the interactions between trait neuroticism and trauma exposure (personal casualty, degree of influence, total traumatic severity) were related to PTSD symptoms. Conclusions The results highlight the role of trauma exposure and trait neuroticism as risk factors for PTSD symptoms. Therefore, the combination of these two factors should be investigated in clinical settings due to an augmented risk for more severe PTSD symptoms. PMID:25793606

Guo, Wei; Xue, Jiao-Mei; Shao, Di; Long, Zhou-Ting; Cao, Feng-Lin

2015-01-01

187

Prospective study of the influence of psychological and medical factors on quality of life and severity of symptoms among patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

About 400,000 people worldwide are diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) annually, and the incidence is increasing. Many advanced carcinomas of the oral cavity require radical surgical treatment that can impair patient's quality of life (QoL) and severity of symptoms. We therefore aimed to identify coping strategies and disease-specific medical factors that affect QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with oral SCC were asked to complete the Freiburg Questionnaire on Coping with Illness (FQCI), the University of Washington Quality of life Questionnaire (UW-QOL version 4), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) to measure psychological stress. We also assessed the impact of various factors on QoL and severity of symptoms, including stage and site of tumour, method of reconstruction, time of diagnosis, and social structure (age, sex, marital status, living arrangements, level of education, and employment). We enrolled a consecutive sample of 104 patients over a period of one year. Stepwise linear regression analyses indicated that both depressive coping and size of tumour had an adverse effect on QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with high educational attainment and those who lived alone reported impaired QoL, and women experienced increased severity of symptoms. Impaired QoL and increased severity of symptoms were associated with a depressive style of coping, size of tumour, educational attainment, and living arrangements. It is important to identify these patients during treatment as they could benefit from psycho-oncological counselling. PMID:25698550

Rana, M; Kanatas, A; Herzberg, P Y; Khoschdell, M; Kokemueller, H; Gellrich, N-C; Rana, M

2015-04-01

188

The Capability of Several Toxic Plants to Condition Taste Aversions in Sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grazing livestock frequently ingest toxic plants, occasionally with fatal results. Behavioral adjustments by livestock may reduce toxin intake; for example they can develop food aversions which may protect animals from over-ingestion of toxic plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three...

189

COMPARATIVE ACUTE TOXICITIES OF SEVERAL PESTICIDES AND METALS TO MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA AND POSTLARVAL PENAEUS DUORARUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of toxic chemicals on estuarine and marine crustaceans are often evaluated using the mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. n a literature survey of results of acute toxicity tests with estuarine crustaceans, Mysidae and Penaeidae were generally the two most sensitive families. owever,...

190

Association between severity of behavioral phenotype and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is sometimes comorbid with autism spectrum disorder. In the current study, we examined rates of parent-reported clinically significant symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in school-aged children (4-8 years) with autism spectrum disorder, most of whom were first enrolled in our research protocols as toddlers. Results revealed that children with autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had lower cognitive functioning, more severe social impairment, and greater delays in adaptive functioning than children with autism spectrum disorder only. Implications for clinical practice include the need to assess for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms at an early age in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Research is needed to determine efficacious interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to optimize outcomes. PMID:23739542

Rao, Patricia A; Landa, Rebecca J

2014-04-01

191

Impact of cognitive behavioral therapy on observed autism symptom severity during school recess: a preliminary randomized, controlled trial.  

PubMed

This study compared cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and treatment-as-usual (TAU) in terms of effects on observed social communication-related autism symptom severity during unstructured play time at school for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirteen children with ASD (7-11 years old) were randomly assigned to 32 sessions of CBT or community-based psychosocial treatment (TAU) for 16 weeks. The CBT program is based on the memory retrieval competition model and emphasizes the development of perspective-taking through guided behavioral experimentation supplemented with reflective Socratic discussion and supported by parent training and school consultation to promote generalization of social communication and emotion regulation skills. Trained observers blind to treatment condition observed each child during recess on two separate days at baseline and again at posttreatment, using a structured behavioral observation system that generates frequency scores for observed social communication-related autism symptoms. CBT outperformed TAU at posttreatment on the frequency of self-isolation, the proportion of time spent with peers, the frequency of positive or appropriate interaction with peers, and the frequency of positive or appropriate peer responses to the target child (d effect size range 1.34-1.62). On average, children in CBT were engaged in positive or appropriate social interaction with peers in 68.6% of observed intervals at posttreatment, compared to 25% of intervals for children in TAU. Further investigation of this intervention modality with larger samples and follow-up assessments is warranted. PMID:24671750

Wood, Jeffrey J; Fujii, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Van Dyke, Marilyn

2014-09-01

192

A controlled examination of two coping skills for daily alcohol use and PTSD symptom severity among dually diagnosed individuals.  

PubMed

Investigations of targeted coping skills could help guide initial treatment decisions for individuals with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) who often endorse worse coping skills than those with AD but not PTSD. Although improvement in coping skills is associated with enhanced alcohol use outcomes, no study has evaluated the utility of teaching specific coping skills in the context of comorbid PTSD/AD. We compared the effects of teaching two coping skills (cognitive restructuring [CR] and experiential acceptance [EA]) or an attention control condition on drinking and PTSD symptoms among 78 men and women with comorbid PTSD/AD during a 5-week daily follow-up assessment. Both CR and EA skills were associated with decreased drinking compared to control, and that change in drinking over time did not significantly differ between those who received CR and EA. Individuals who received CR skills, however, consumed less alcohol on a given day than those who received EA skills. Neither CR nor EA was associated with a decrease in PTSD symptom severity. These results provide preliminary support for clinicians to prioritize CR and EA skills during initial treatment sessions when working with individuals with PTSD/AD, and offer ideas for continued investigation and intervention refinement. PMID:25617814

Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Luterek, Jane A; Kaysen, Debra; Rosenthal, Christina F; Gurrad, Bethann; Simpson, Tracy L

2015-03-01

193

Theory of mind, severity of autistic symptoms and parental correlates in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome.  

PubMed

This study addresses the theory of mind (ToM) ability of Asperger's syndrome/high-functioning autism (AS/HFA) children and their parents and the severity of the autistic symptoms. Fifty-three families, each consisting of a mother, father and a child, participated in this study (N=159). The 53 children in the sample included 25 children diagnosed with AS/HFA and 28 typically developing (TD) children. The Social Attribution Task (SAT) and tests assessing autistic symptoms were used. AS/HFA children had lower scores than TD children on three of the SAT indices (Person, ToM Affective, and Salience). Fathers of AS/HFA children did not have lower scores than fathers of TD children on the SAT task, whereas mothers of AS/HFA children had lower scores on the Person index, a pattern similar to seen in their children, suggesting a possible genetic contribution of mothers to ToM deficit in AS/HFA children. PMID:22460131

Nagar Shimoni, Hagit; Weizman, Abraham; Yoran, Roni Hegesh; Raviv, Amiram

2012-05-15

194

Comparative toxicity of oil, dispersant, and oil plus dispersant to several marine species.  

PubMed

Dispersants are a preapproved chemical response agent for oil spills off portions of the U.S. coastline, including the Texas-Louisiana coast. However, questions persist regarding potential environmental risks of dispersant applications in nearshore regions (within three nautical miles of the shoreline) that support dense populations of marine organisms and are prone to spills resulting from human activities. To address these questions, a study was conducted to evaluate the relative toxicity of test media prepared with dispersant, weathered crude oil, and weathered crude oil plus dispersant. Two fish species, Cyprinodon variegatus and Menidia beryllina, and one shrimp species, Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia), were used to evaluate the relative toxicity of the different media under declining and continuous exposure regimes. Microbial toxicity was evaluated using the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fisheri. The data suggested that oil media prepared with a chemical dispersant was equal to or less toxic than the oil-only test medium. Data also indicated that continuous exposures to the test media were generally more toxic than declining exposures. The toxicity of unweathered crude oil with and without dispersant was also evaluated using Menidia beryllina under declining exposure conditions. Unweathered oil-only media were dominated by soluble hydrocarbon fractions and found to be more toxic than weathered oil-only media in which colloidal oil fractions dominated. Total concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in oil-plus-dispersant media prepared with weathered and unweathered crude oil were both dominated by colloidal oil and showed no significant difference in toxicity. Analysis of the toxicity data suggests that the observed toxicity was a function of the soluble crude oil components and not the colloidal oil. PMID:15648769

Fuller, Chris; Bonner, James; Page, Cheryl; Ernest, Andrew; McDonald, Thomas; McDonald, Susanne

2004-12-01

195

Effect of cigarette smoke from the mother on bronchial responsiveness and severity of symptoms in children with asthma  

SciTech Connect

The effect of parental smoking was assessed in 94 consecutively observed children, aged 7 to 17 years, who had a history of asthmatic wheezing. The 24 children whose mothers smoked, when they were compared with children whose mothers did not smoke, had 47% more symptoms, a 13% lower mean FEV1 percent, a 23% lower mean FEF25-75%, and fourfold greater responsiveness to aerosolized histamine. A dose response was evident. There was a highly significant correlation between the results of the tests and the number of cigarettes the mother smoked while she was in the house. The differences between the children of smoking and nonsmoking mothers were greater in older than in younger subjects. The smoking habits of the father were not correlated with the severity of the child's asthma.

Murray, A.B.; Morrison, B.J.

1986-04-01

196

Flu Symptoms & Severity  

MedlinePLUS

... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... 65 years and older. Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

197

Profile of circulating microRNAs in fibromyalgia and their relation to symptom severity: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by generalized chronic pain and reduced pain thresholds. Disturbed neuroendocrine function and impairment of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 is common. However, the pathophysiology of FM is not clear. MicroRNAs are important regulatory factors reflecting interface of genes and environment. Our aim was to identify characteristic microRNAs in FM and relations of specific microRNAs with characteristic symptoms. A total of 374 circulating microRNAs were measured in women with FM (n = 20; median 52.5 years) and healthy women (n = 20; 52.5 years) by quantitative PCR. Pain thresholds were examined by algometry. Pain [fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ) pain] levels were rated (0-100 mm) using FIQ. Fatigue (FIQ fatigue) was rated (0-100 mm) using FIQ and multidimensional fatigue inventory general fatigue. Sleep quantity and quality (1-4) rated from satisfactory to nonsatisfactory. Higher scores indicate more severe symptoms. Eight microRNAs differed significantly between FM and healthy women. Seven microRNAs, miR-103a-3p, miR-107, let-7a-5p, miR-30b-5p, miR-151a-5p, miR-142-3p and miR-374b-5p, were lower in FM. However, levels of miR-320a were higher in FM. MiR-103a-3p correlated with pain (r = 0.530, p = 0.016) and sleep quantity (r = 0.593, p = 0.006) in FM. MiR-320a correlated inversely with pain (r = -0.468, p = 0.037). MiR-374b-5p correlated inversely with pain threshold (r = -0.612, p = 0.004). MiR-30b-5p correlated with sleep quantity (r = 0.509, p = 0.022), and let-7a-5p was associated with sleep symptoms. When adjusted for body mass index, the correlation of sleep quantity with miR-103a and miR-30b was no longer significant. To our knowledge, this is the first study of circulating microRNAs in FM. Levels of several microRNAs differed significantly in FM compared to healthy women. Three microRNAs were associated with pain or pain threshold in FM. PMID:25261961

Bjersing, Jan L; Bokarewa, Maria I; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

2015-04-01

198

High noon back pain- severe pseudoradicular pain as a lead symptom of superficial siderosis: a case report  

PubMed Central

A superficial siderosis of the central nervous system following a traumatic cervical nerve root avulsion usually leads to gait difficulties and hearing loss, whereas back pain is described only rarely. Here we report on the first case with circadian occurrence of severe back pain as the only symptom of a superficial siderosis. We present a case with the most severe pseudoradicular lumbosacral pain occurring daily at noon for the past 5 weeks. The 48-year-old male white patient did not complain of pain in the morning. A traumatic root avulsion 26 years earlier led to a brachial plexus palsy and Horner’s syndrome in this patient. Superficial hemosiderosis in cranial MRI and examination of the cerebrospinal fluid revealing massive red blood cells as well as xanthochromia and elevated protein levels (742 mg/l) led to the diagnosis of a superficial siderosis. A pseudomeningocele caused by a cervical nerve root avulsion is described as a rare reason for superficial siderosis. Surgery on a pseudomeningocele, diagnosed by MRI, led to an immediate disappearance of complaints in our case. Regular neurological investigation and possibly repeated lumbar puncture to exclude superficial siderosis should be considered in cases with severe back pain and a history of traumatic root avulsion. Modern susceptibility weighted MR imaging (SWI) techniques, sensible to the detection of superficial hemosiderosis, might be helpful in the making of a diagnosis. PMID:25371709

Siglienti, Ines; Gold, Ralf; Schlamann, Marc; Hindy, Nicolai El; Sure, Ulrich; Forsting, Michael

2014-01-01

199

DISINFECTION EFFICIENCY AND RESIDUAL TOXICITY OF SEVERAL WASTEWATER DISINFECTANTS. VOLUME II. WYOMING, MICHIGAN  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of chlorine, bromine chloride, and ozone as wastewater disinfectants, and to determine any residual toxicity associated with wastewater disinfection with these agents or with chlorinated wastewater which had been...

200

DISINFECTION EFFICIENCY AND RESIDUAL TOXICITY OF SEVERAL WASTEWATER DISINFECTANTS. VOLUME I. GRANDVILLE, MICHIGAN  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of chlorine, bromine chloride, and ozone as wastewater disinfectants, and to determine any residual toxicity associated with wastewater disinfection with these agents or with chlorinated wastewater which had been...

201

The relative toxicities of several pesticides to naiads of three species of stoneflies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static bioassays were conducted to determine the relative acute toxicities of some insecti- cides, herbicides, fungicides, a defoliant, and a molluscicide to the naiads of three species of stonefly, Pteronarcys californica, Pteronarcella badia, and Claassenia sabulosa. Toxic effects were measured by determination of median lethal concn (~~50) for 24-, 48-, and 96-hr exposures, at 15.X Endrin and dieldrin were the

HERMAN O. SANDERS; OLIVER B. COPE

1968-01-01

202

THE RELATIVE TOXICITIES OF SEVERAL PESTICIDES TO NAIADS OF THREE SPECIES OF STONEFLIES  

E-print Network

Static bioassays were conducted to determine the relative acute toxicities of some insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, a defoliant, and a molluscicide to the naiads of three species of stonefly, Pteronarcys californica, Pteronarcella badia, and Claassenia sabulosa. Toxic effects were measured by determination of median lethal concn (~~50) for 24-, 48-, and 96-hr exposures, at 15.X Endrin and dieldrin were the most and DDT the least toxic of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insccticidcs tested. Parathion was the most toxic organophosphate insecticide to P. californica naiads, but dmsban was the most toxic to P. badia and C. sabulosa naiads. Trichlorofon (Dipterex) was the least toxic to all three species. P. badia, the species of smallest size, was the species most susceptible to most pcsticidcs, followed in descending order of sensitivity by C. sabulosa and P. californica. Smaller specimens of P. californica naiads were consistently more susceptible to some insecticides than larger specimens of the same species. INTBODUCTION The Plecoptcra are well-represented in

Herman S; Oliver B. Cope

203

Fever, rash and systemic symptoms: understanding the role of virus and HLA in severe cutaneous drug allergy  

PubMed Central

Drug hypersensitivity syndromes such as abacavir hypersensitivity and the severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCAR) have been associated with significant short and long-term morbidity and mortality. More recently these immunologically mediated and previously unpredictable diseases have been shown to be associated with primarily Class I and also Class II HLA alleles. The case of the association of HLA-B*57:01 and abacavir hypersensitivity has created a translational roadmap for how this knowledge can be utilized in the clinic to prevent severe reactions. Although many hurdles exist to the widespread translation of such HLA screening approaches, our understanding of how drugs interact with the MHC has contributed to the discovery of new models that have provided considerable insights into the immunopathogenesis of SCAR and other T-cell mediated drug hypersensitivity syndromes. Future translation of this knowledge will facilitate the development of pre-clinical toxicity screening to significantly improve efficacy and safety of drug development and design. PMID:24565765

Pavlos, Rebecca; Mallal, Simon; Ostrov, David; Pompeu, Yuri; Phillips, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

204

Toxic effects of several phthalate esters on the embryos and larvae of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the most widely used plasticizers in the world, phthalate esters (PAEs) are potential endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs). In the present study, the toxicity of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on embryogenesis and larvae development of the marine univalve Haliotis diversicolor supertexta was examined in laboratory. The results show that the malformation of embryos appeared during the experiment, such as embryos died or lysed, small transparent flocculent rings studded on the periphery of the embryo, and the larvae could failed to hatch. In embryo toxic test, embryos incubated at the highest concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions showed significantly high abnormal rate compared with the control, while DEHP solutions displayed no significant difference. In larval toxic test, in all concentrations of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions, larval settlement rates were low significantly than that of the control. Similarly, DEHP solutions show nearly no effect on the larval settlement. The order of toxicity on embryos and larvae is DBP>DEP>DMP>DEHP. Being a simple and easy stimulation to indoor spawn, sensitive to environmental factors, and short culture time, the embryos of H. diversicolor supertexta can be used to indicate toxicity of the PAEs.

Yang, Zhihui; Zhang, Xiangjing; Cai, Zhonghua

2009-05-01

205

Psychological Dysfunction Is Associated With Symptom Severity but Not Disease Etiology or Degree of Gastric Retention in Patients With Gastroparesis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Gastroparesis patients may have associated psychological distress. This study aimed to measure depression and anxiety in gastroparesis in relation to disease severity, etiology, and gastric retention. METHODS Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores for state (Y1) and trait (Y2) anxiety were obtained from 299 gastroparesis patients from 6 centers of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium. Severity was investigator graded as grades 1, 2, or 3 and patient reported by Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI) scores. Antiemetic/prokinetic medication use, anxiolytic and antidepressant medication use, supplemental feedings, and hospitalizations were recorded. BDI, Y1, and Y2 scores were compared in diabetic vs. idiopathic etiologies and mild (?20%) vs. moderate (>20–35%) vs. severe (>35–50%) vs. very severe (>50%) gastric retention at 4h. RESULTS BDI, Y1, and Y2 scores were greater with increasing degrees of investigator-rated gastroparesis severity (P<0.05). BDI, Y1, and Y2 scores were higher for GCSI >3.1 vs. ?3.1 (P<0.05). Antiemetic and prokinetic use and ?6 hospitalizations/year were more common with BDI ?20 vs. <20 (P<0.05). Anxiolytic use was more common with Y1 ?46; antidepressant use and ?6 hospitalizations/year were more common with Y2 ?44 (P<0.05). BDI, Y1, and Y2 scores were not different in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis and did not relate to degree of gastric retention. On logistic regression, GCSI >3.1 was associated with BDI ?20 and Y1 ?46; antiemetic/prokinetic use was associated with BDI ?20; anxiolytic use was associated with Y1 ?46; and antidepressant use was associated with Y2 ?44. CONCLUSIONS Higher depression and anxiety scores are associated with gastroparesis severity on investigator- and patient-reported assessments. Psychological dysfunction does not vary by etiology or degree of gastric retention. Psychological features should be considered in managing gastroparesis. PMID:20588262

Hasler, William L.; Parkman, Henry P.; Wilson, Laura A.; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Koch, Kenneth L.; Abell, Thomas L.; Snape, William J.; Farrugia, Gianrico; Lee, Linda; Tonascia, James; Unalp-Arida, Aynur; Hamilton, Frank

2011-01-01

206

The relationship between severe maternal morbidity and psychological health symptoms at 6–8 weeks postpartum: a prospective cohort study in one English maternity unit  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of severe maternal morbidity is increasing in high-income countries. However, little has been known about the impact on postnatal morbidity, particularly on psychological health outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between severe maternal morbidity (ie. major obstetric haemorrhage, severe hypertensive disorders or intensive care unit/obstetric high dependency unit admission) and postnatal psychological health symptoms, focusing on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms at 6–8 weeks postpartum. Method A prospective cohort study was undertaken of women who gave birth over six months in 2010 in an inner city maternity unit in England. Primary outcomes were prevalence of PTSD symptoms namely: 1) intrusion and 2) avoidance as measured using the Impact of Event Scale at 6 – 8 weeks postpartum via a self-administered postal questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included probable depression. Data on incidence of severe maternal morbidity were extracted from maternity records. Multivariable logistic regression analysis examined the relationship between severe maternal morbidity and PTSD symptoms taking into account factors that might influence the relationship. Results Of women eligible to participate (n=3509), 52% responded. Prevalence of a clinically significant level of intrusion and avoidance were 6.4% (n=114) and 8.4% (n=150) respectively. There was a higher risk of PTSD symptoms among women who experienced severe maternal morbidity compared with women who did not (adjusted OR = 2.11, 95%CI = 1.17-3.78 for intrusion; adjusted OR = 3.28, 95%CI = 2.01-5.36 for avoidance). Higher ratings of reported sense of control during labour/birth partially mediated the risk of PTSD symptoms. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence or severity of symptoms of depression. Conclusion This is one of the largest studies to date of PTSD symptoms among women who had recently given birth. Findings showed that an experience of severe maternal morbidity was independently associated with symptoms of PTSD. Individually tailored care that increases women’s sense of control during labour may be a protective factor with further work required to promote effective interventions to prevent these symptoms. Findings have important implications for women’s health and the content and organisation of maternity services during and after the birth. PMID:24708797

2014-01-01

207

A longitudinal study of several potential mediators of the relationship between child maltreatment and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.  

PubMed

Child maltreatment is a reliable predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, not all maltreated children develop PTSD symptoms, suggesting that additional mediating variables explain how certain maltreated children develop PTSD symptoms and others do not. The current study tested three potential mediators of the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent PTSD symptoms: (a) respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity, (b) cortisol reactivity, and (c) experiential avoidance, or the unwillingness to experience painful private events, such as thoughts and memories. Maltreated (n = 51) and nonmaltreated groups (n = 59) completed a stressor paradigm, a measure of experiential avoidance, and a semistructured interview of PTSD symptoms. One year later, participants were readministered the PTSD symptoms interview. Results of a multiple mediator model showed the set of potential mediators mediated the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent PTSD symptoms. However, experiential avoidance was the only significant, specific indirect effect, demonstrating that maltreated children avoiding painful private events after the abuse were more likely to develop a range of PTSD symptoms 1 year later. These results highlight the importance of experiential avoidance in the development of PTSD symptoms for maltreated children, and implications for secondary prevention and clinical intervention models are discussed. PMID:24444173

Shenk, Chad E; Putnam, Frank W; Rausch, Joseph R; Peugh, James L; Noll, Jennie G

2014-02-01

208

Toxicity of the herbicide glyphosate and several of its formulations to fish and aquatic invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were initiated to determine the acute toxicity of technical grade glyphosate (MON0573), the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate (MON0139), the formulated herbicide Roundup® (MON02139), and the Roundup® surfactant (MON0818) to four aquatic invertebrates and four fishes: daphnids (Daphnia magna), scuds (Gammarus pseudolimnaeus), midge larvae (Chironomous plumosus), mayfly nymphs (Ephemerella walkeri), Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), channel catfish

L. C. Folmar; H. O. Sanders; A. M. Julin

1979-01-01

209

Nonlinear speech analysis algorithms mapped to a standard metric achieve clinically useful quantification of average Parkinson's disease symptom severity.  

PubMed

The standard reference clinical score quantifying average Parkinson's disease (PD) symptom severity is the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). At present, UPDRS is determined by the subjective clinical evaluation of the patient's ability to adequately cope with a range of tasks. In this study, we extend recent findings that UPDRS can be objectively assessed to clinically useful accuracy using simple, self-administered speech tests, without requiring the patient's physical presence in the clinic. We apply a wide range of known speech signal processing algorithms to a large database (approx. 6000 recordings from 42 PD patients, recruited to a six-month, multi-centre trial) and propose a number of novel, nonlinear signal processing algorithms which reveal pathological characteristics in PD more accurately than existing approaches. Robust feature selection algorithms select the optimal subset of these algorithms, which is fed into non-parametric regression and classification algorithms, mapping the signal processing algorithm outputs to UPDRS. We demonstrate rapid, accurate replication of the UPDRS assessment with clinically useful accuracy (about 2 UPDRS points difference from the clinicians' estimates, p<0.001). This study supports the viability of frequent, remote, cost-effective, objective, accurate UPDRS telemonitoring based on self-administered speech tests. This technology could facilitate large-scale clinical trials into novel PD treatments. PMID:21084338

Tsanas, Athanasios; Little, Max A; McSharry, Patrick E; Ramig, Lorraine O

2011-06-01

210

Nonlinear speech analysis algorithms mapped to a standard metric achieve clinically useful quantification of average Parkinson's disease symptom severity  

PubMed Central

The standard reference clinical score quantifying average Parkinson's disease (PD) symptom severity is the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). At present, UPDRS is determined by the subjective clinical evaluation of the patient's ability to adequately cope with a range of tasks. In this study, we extend recent findings that UPDRS can be objectively assessed to clinically useful accuracy using simple, self-administered speech tests, without requiring the patient's physical presence in the clinic. We apply a wide range of known speech signal processing algorithms to a large database (approx. 6000 recordings from 42 PD patients, recruited to a six-month, multi-centre trial) and propose a number of novel, nonlinear signal processing algorithms which reveal pathological characteristics in PD more accurately than existing approaches. Robust feature selection algorithms select the optimal subset of these algorithms, which is fed into non-parametric regression and classification algorithms, mapping the signal processing algorithm outputs to UPDRS. We demonstrate rapid, accurate replication of the UPDRS assessment with clinically useful accuracy (about 2 UPDRS points difference from the clinicians' estimates, p < 0.001). This study supports the viability of frequent, remote, cost-effective, objective, accurate UPDRS telemonitoring based on self-administered speech tests. This technology could facilitate large-scale clinical trials into novel PD treatments. PMID:21084338

Tsanas, Athanasios; Little, Max A.; McSharry, Patrick E.; Ramig, Lorraine O.

2011-01-01

211

Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia with Lewy-bodies (DLB): Frequency and relationship with disease severity and motor impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical criteria for DLB have been more and more accurate over time, and they had focused on psychotic symptoms for their high frequency. Recent literature suggests that behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are frequently associated with DLB, beyond the presence of psychosis. Notwithstanding, the occurrence of BPSD in DLB is under-investigated, and no data are available yet in

B. Borroni; C. Agosti; A. Padovani

2008-01-01

212

Are multiple physical symptoms a poor prognostic factor or just a marker of depression severity? Secondary analysis of the GenPod trial  

PubMed Central

Background Using data from the GenPod trial this study investigates: (i) if depressed individuals with multiple physical symptoms have a poorer response to antidepressants before and after adjustment for baseline Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II); and (ii) if reboxetine is more effective than citalopram in depression with multiple physical symptoms. Methods Linear regression models were used to estimate differences in mean BDI-II score at 6 and 12 weeks. Results Before adjusting for baseline BDI-II, the difference in mean BDI-II score between no and multiple physical symptoms was 4.5 (95% CI 1.87, 7.14) at 6 weeks, 4.51 (95% CI 1.60, 7.42) at 12 weeks. After adjustment for baseline BDI-II, there was no evidence of a difference in outcome according to physical symptoms with a difference in mean BDI-II of 2.17 (95% CI ?0.39, 4.73) at 6 weeks and 2.43 (95% CI ?0.46, 5.32) at 12 weeks. There was no evidence that reboxetine was more effective than citalopram in those with multiple physical symptoms at 6 (P=0.18) or 12 weeks (P=0.24). Limitations Differential non-adherence between treatment arms has the potential to bias estimates of treatment efficacy. Conclusion Multiple physical symptoms predict response to antidepressants, but not after adjustment for baseline depression severity. Physical symptoms could be a marker of severe depression rather than an independent prognostic factor and depression should be considered in patients with multiple physical symptoms. Treatment with reboxetine conferred no advantage over citalopram in those with physical symptoms, and it is less well tolerated. PMID:24836086

Green, Amy; Crawford, Andrew; Button, Katherine S.; Wiles, Nicola; Peters, Tim J.; Nutt, David; Lewis, Glyn

2014-01-01

213

Prevalence, risk factors and severity of asthma symptoms in children of Kermanshah, IRAN: ISAAC phase I, II.  

PubMed

Asthma is the most common chronic disorder of school-age children and youth, with rising prevalence in all over the world. By attention to the geographic area there is considerable difference in the prevalence of asthma. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), was founded to maximize the value of epidemiological research into asthma and allergic disease by establishing a standardized methodology and facilitating international collaboration. To determine the prevalence of asthma and related symptoms in Kermanshah (a city in west of IRAN) schoolchildren and also identifying the related variables that increased asthma risk using the ISAAC protocols. This descriptive analytic study was done by the ISAAC written questionnaire and additional questions about family number, demographic and socio-economic characteristics of two groups of first and second grade of primary and guidance schools (6-7 y, 13-14 y). Suggested sample size were applied and selected randomly. Results were analyzed by SPSS soft ware by 95% confidence interval. The ISAAC-written questionnaire was completed by a total of 6236 (48.7% were 6-7 and 51/3% were 13-14 years old) schoolchildren. 50.4% of students were girls and 49/6% were boys. The prevalence of diseases and symptoms were as follows: 20.6% had ever wheezing (27.4% in 13-14 years old and 13.4% in 6-7 years old children and it was 21.6% in girls and 19.5% in boys). Among which the estimated mean national 12-month prevalence of wheeze (current wheeze), speech limiting wheeze , exercise wheeze, night cough and physician diagnosed asthma (ever asthma) were respectively 30.1%, 5.4%, 9.4%, 7.3% and 3.3% for the 6-7 year age group and 44.2%, 13.5%, 28.9% , 17.4% and 2.1% for the 13-14 year age group. Current wheeze was higher in Childs and adolescents with family history of smoking and in higher family number. Comparing with regional study the results of this epidemiological survey of asthma in Kermanshah indicate that asthma is more common here, more prevalent in girls than boys and is higher in 13-14 years old than 6-7 years old but sever asthma is much less common. The results may be due to better diagnosis and better control of disease. PMID:21681708

Zobeiri, Mehdi

2011-01-01

214

The toxicity of several organic insecticides to the German cockroach, Blatella germanica (L.)  

E-print Network

for spot treatments in the home until recently. Malathion, (S-(l,2-bis(ethoxycabonyl)ethyl)0,O-dimethyl phosphorodithicate), was included in these tests since it has been shown to be effective for controlling domestic household pests as well as various... other species of insects. Malathion has been approved as a household insecticide and is relatively safe, exhibiting low mammalian toxicity. American Cyanamid 4124 (Dicapthon), (0-(2-chloro- 4-nitrophenyl)0,O-dimethyl phosphoro-thicate), is highly...

Rawson, James Willis

1958-01-01

215

The Toxicity of Glyphosate and Several Glyphosate Formulations to Four Species of Southwestern Australian Frogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The acute toxicity of technical-grade glyphosate acid, glyphosate isopropylamine, and three glyphosate formulations was\\u000a determined for adults of one species and tadpoles of four species of southwestern Australian frogs in 48-h static\\/renewal\\u000a tests. The 48-h LC50 values for Roundup? Herbicide (MON 2139) tested against tadpoles of Crinia insignifera, Heleioporus eyrei, Limnodynastes dorsalis, and Litoria moorei ranged between 8.1 and

R. M. Mann; J. R. Bidwell

1999-01-01

216

Acute toxicity studies of aluminium compounds: antidotal efficacy of several chelating agents.  

PubMed

Four aluminum compounds--nitrate, chloride, sulphate and bromide--were administered orally and intraperitoneally to rats and mice. The LD50-values (14 days) were determined. The majority of deaths occurring during the first four days. The clinical and physical signs appearing after intoxication include among other lethargy, decreased locomotor activity, piloerection, weight loss and perorbital bleeding. After 14 days no alterations in liver and renal functions were detected in the animals which received intraperitoneally the LD50-values of aluminum nitrate as a single dose. Aluminum concentrations were highest in liver and spleen. No histopathological lesions could be observed. To compare the efficacies of nine chelating agents on the toxicity of aluminum in mice, the therapeutic index and the therapeutic effectiveness of each chelating agent have been calculated. Malic, succinic, oxalic and malonic acids showed the best results with malic and succinic acids being the most effective. Deferoxamine mesylate (DFOA), sodium salicylate, L-cysteine and citric acid were not so effective as antidotes for acute aluminum toxicity. Aurin tricarboxylic acid (ATCA) should not be used due to its high toxicity. PMID:3588526

Llobet, J M; Domingo, J L; Gómez, M; Tomás, J M; Corbella, J

1987-04-01

217

Comparison of lower urinary tract symptom severity and associated bother between community-dwelling black and white men: the Olmsted County Study of Urinary Symptoms and Health Status and the Flint Men’s Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo determine the magnitude of racial disparity in lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) severity and bother by combining two large comparable epidemiologic studies of community-dwelling white and black men, thereby avoiding many of the referral biases present in previous studies. Prior studies evaluating racial differences in benign prostatic hyperplasia have been hampered by selection bias, because nearly all have used

Aruna V. Sarma; John T. Wei; Debra J. Jacobson; Rodney L. Dunn; Rosebud O. Roberts; Cynthia J. Girman; Michael M. Lieber; Kathleen A. Cooney; David Schottenfeld; James E. Montie; Steven J. Jacobsen

2003-01-01

218

The antineoplastic antibiotic taurolidine promotes lung and liver metastasis in two syngeneic osteosarcoma mouse models and exhibits severe liver toxicity.  

PubMed

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent primary bone tumor. Despite multiagent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, patients with metastatic disease have a poor prognosis. Moreover, currently used chemotherapeutics have severe toxic side effects. Thus, novel agents with improved antimetastatic activity and reduced toxicity are needed. Taurolidine, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial, has recently been shown to have antineoplastic properties against a variety of tumors and low systemic toxicity. Consequently, we investigated in our study the antineoplastic potential of taurolidine against OS in two different mouse models. Although both OS cell lines, K7M2 and LM8, were sensitive for the compound in vitro, intraperitoneal application of taurolidine failed to inhibit primary tumor growth. Moreover, it enhanced the metastatic load in both models 1.7- to 20-fold and caused severe liver deformations and up to 40% mortality. Thus, systemic toxicity was further investigated in tumor-free mice histologically, by electron microscopy and by measurements of representative liver enzymes. Taurolidine dose-dependent fibrous thickening of the liver capsule and adhesions and atrophies of the liver lobes were comparable in healthy and tumor-bearing mice. Liver toxicity was further indicated by up to eightfold elevated levels of the liver enzymes alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and GLDH in the circulation. Ultrastructural analysis of affected liver tissue showed swollen mitochondria with cristolysis and numerous lipid vacuoles in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. The findings of our study question the applicability of taurolidine for OS treatment and may suggest the need for caution regarding the widespread clinical use of taurolidine as an antineoplastic agent. PMID:22120774

Arlt, Matthias J E; Walters, Denise K; Banke, Ingo J; Steinmann, Patrick; Puskas, Gabor J; Bertz, Josefine; Rentsch, Katharina M; Ehrensperger, Felix; Born, Walter; Fuchs, Bruno

2012-09-01

219

Lack of association of morphologic and functional retinal changes with motor and non-motor symptoms severity in Parkinson’s disease.  

PubMed

Visual symptoms are common among the nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease. The aims of this study were to assess the diagnostic accuracy and relationship of retinal morphologic and functional changes with motor and non-motor symptoms disturbances in Parkinson’s disease. Thirty patients with Parkinson’s disease, with a median Hoehn-Yahr stage of 2 (1-4), were compared to 30 age- and gender-matched controls. Retinal thinning and function were measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT), visual evoked potentials (VEP), and pattern electroretinography. Motor impairment and motor laterality were measured using the Short Parkinson’s Evaluation Scale/Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson’s disease, and non-motor symptoms severity using the nonmotor symptoms questionnaire. Only pattern electroretinography, P50 and N95 amplitudes, were lower in patients with Parkinson’s disease, compared to controls (p = 0.01, respectively). Age, disease duration, levodopa dose, motor, and non-motor impairment were not significantly associated with retinal thinning and functional changes. The patients vs. controls area under the curve of OCT, VEP, and pattern electroretinography receiver-operating-characteristic curves were<0.50. In conclusion, morphologic and functional retina changes are not significantly correlated with motor and non-motor symptoms impairment severity, and do not discriminate between Parkinson’s disease and controls. PMID:24078167

Cubo, Esther; López Peña, María Jesús; Diez-Feijo Varela, Elio; Pérez Gil, Olga; Garcia Gutierrez, Pablo; Araus González, Elena; Prieto Tedejo, Rosa; Mariscal Pérez, Natividad; Armesto, Diana

2014-02-01

220

Symptoms and impact of COPD assessed by an electronic diary in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD: psychometric results from the SHINE study  

PubMed Central

Background Symptoms, particularly dyspnea, and activity limitation, have an impact on the health status and the ability to function normally in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods To develop an electronic patient diary (eDiary), qualitative patient interviews were conducted from 2009 to 2010 to identify relevant symptoms and degree of bother due to symptoms. The eDiary was completed by a subset of 209 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD in the 26-week QVA149 SHINE study. Two morning assessments (since awakening and since the last assessment) and one evening assessment were made each day. Assessments covered five symptoms (“shortness of breath,” “phlegm/mucus,” “chest tightness,” “wheezing,” and “coughing”) and two impact items (“bothered by COPD” and “difficulty with activities”) and were scored on a 10-point numeric scale. Results Patient compliance with the eDiary was 90.4% at baseline and 81.3% at week 26. Correlations between shortness of breath and impact items were >0.95. Regression analysis showed that shortness of breath was a highly significant (P<0.0001) predictor of impact items. Exploratory factor analysis gave a single factor comprising all eDiary items, including both symptoms and impact items. Shortness of breath, the total score (including five symptoms and two impact items), and the five-item symptom score from the eDiary performed well, with good consistency and reliability. The eDiary showed good sensitivity to change, with a 0.6 points reduction in the symptoms scores (on a 0–10 point scale) representing a meaningful change. Conclusion The eDiary was found to be valid, reliable, and responsive. The high correlations obtained between “shortness of breath” and the ratings of “bother” and “difficulty with activities” confirmed the relevance of this symptom in patients with COPD. Future studies will be required to explore further psychometric properties and their ability to differentiate between COPD treatments. PMID:25609942

Kulich, Károly; Keininger, Dorothy L; Tiplady, Brian; Banerji, Donald

2015-01-01

221

From sub cellular to community level: toxicity of glutaraldehyde to several aquatic organisms.  

PubMed

The biocide glutaraldehyde (GA) is widely used as a disinfectant and sterilizing agent against bacteria and virus in hospital and veterinary facilities. GA or its metabolites may reach aquatic ecosystems due to incomplete or inadequate treatment of wastewaters. Data about GA effects at lethal and a sub lethal level to non-target organisms is needed so that a risk assessment to aquatic ecosystems can be done. Thus, in this work a battery of toxicity tests with primary producers, primary consumers and secondary consumers were performed and a species sensitive distribution (SSD) for GA was built. Moreover, effects on biomarkers (catalase, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione-S-transferase, and cholinesterase) were measured in Danio rerio embryos and adults. Primary consumers (Thamnocephalus platyurus 24h - EC50=3.6 mg/l; Daphnia magna 48 h - EC50=6.6 mg/l) and D. rerio adults (96 h - LC50=5.5mg/l) were slightly more sensitive to GA than D. rerio embryos (96 h - LC50=22.2mg/l) and primary producers (Lemna minor 168 h - EC50=73.8 mg/l; Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata 72h - EC50=12.3mg/l; Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 72 h - EC50=14.6 mg/l; Chlorella vulgaris 72 h - EC50=31.3mg/l). However, no significant differences between the trophic levels were found and general HC5 and HC50 values of 0.6 and 11.4 mg/l were respectively estimated. Despite the low GA toxicity to D. rerio embryos, hatching delay and malformations were found (96 h - EC50=11.9 mg/l). For biomarkers, an inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase activity was observed in embryos whereas an inhibition in catalase, lactate dehydrogenase and glutathione-S-transferase activities was observed in adults. Thus, GA is moderately toxic (doses>1mg/l) to aquatic organisms, independently of the trophic level. However, considering the varied range of effects depending on the life stage and organism tested and relatively low HC5 value of 0.6 mg/l, mesocosm and chronic toxicity tests seem to be the next step in direction of more realistic scenarios of GA risk assessment in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24131562

Pereira, Susana P P; Oliveira, Rhaul; Coelho, Sónia; Musso, Carolina; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Domingues, Inês; Nogueira, António J A

2014-02-01

222

Ratio of mutated versus wild-type coat protein sequences in Pepino mosaic virus determines the nature and severity of yellowing symptoms on tomato plants.  

PubMed

Recently, Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) infections causing severe yellowing symptoms in tomato plants have been reported in glasshouse tomato crops. When studying this phenomenon in commercial glasshouses, two different types of yellowing symptoms, occurring in adjacent plants, were distinguished: interveinal leaf yellowing and yellow mosaics. After several weeks, the interveinal leaf yellowing symptoms gradually disappeared and the plant heads became green again, with yellow mosaic patterns on the leaves as an intermediate stage. The sequencing of multiple isolates causing interveinal leaf yellowing identified two point mutations, occurring in positions 155 and 166 of the coat protein (CP), as unique to the yellowing pathotype. Site-directed mutagenesis of infectious clones confirmed that both CP mutations are determinants of the interveinal leaf yellowing symptoms. Sequencing of CP clones from plants or plant parts with the yellow mosaic symptoms resulted in a mixture of wild-type and mutated sequences, whereas sequencing of CP clones from the green heads of recovered plants resulted in only wild-type sequences. Yellow mosaic symptoms could be reproduced by inoculation of an artificial 1:1 mixture of RNA transcripts from the wild-type and mutated infectious clones. These results show that the ratio of mutated versus wild-type sequences can determine the nature and severity of symptom development. The gradual recovery of the plants, which coincides with the disappearance of the yellowing mutations, suggests that selection pressure acts to the advantage of the wild-type virus. Experiments with wild-type and mutated infectious clones showed that reverse mutation events from mutant to wild-type occur and that the wild-type virus does not have a replicative advantage over the mutant. These results suggest that reverse mutation events occur, with subsequent selection pressure acting in favour of the wild-type virus in the growing plant parts, possibly related to a lower long-distance movement efficiency of the mutant. PMID:23855964

Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata; Paeleman, Anneleen; Ortega-Parra, Nelia; Borodynko, Natasza; Minicka, Julia; Czerwoniec, Anna; Thomma, Bart P H J; Hanssen, Inge M

2013-12-01

223

Correlation of Selenium and Zinc Levels to Antiretroviral Treatment Outcomes in Thai HIV-infected Children without Severe HIV Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background Deficiencies in antioxidants contribute to immune dysregulation and viral replication. Objective To evaluate the correlation of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) levels on the treatment outcomes in HIV-infected children. Design HIV-infected Thai children 1–12 years old, CD4 15–24%, without severe HIV symptoms were included. Se and Zn levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry at baseline and 48 weeks. Deficiency cut-offs were Se<0.1 ?mol/L and Zn<9.9 ?mol/L. Serum ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP) were performed every 24 weeks. No micronutrient supplement was prescribed. Results 141 children (38.3% male) with a median (IQR) age of 7.3 (4.2–9.0) years, were enrolled. Median baseline CD4% was 20%, HIV-RNA was 4.6 log10copies/mL. At baseline, median (IQR) Se and Zn levels were 0.9 (0.7–1.0) ?mol/L and 5.9 (4.8–6.9) ?mol/L, respectively. None had Se deficiency while all had Zn deficiency. Over 48 weeks, 97 initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 81% achieved HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL with 11% median CD4 gain. The mean change of Se was 0.06 ?mol/L (p = 0.003) and Zn was 0.42 ?mol/L (p=0.003), respectively. By multivariate analysis in children who received ART, predictors for greater increase of CD4% from baseline were lower baseline CD4% (p<0.01) and higher baseline Zn level (p=0.02). The predictors for greater decrease of HIV-RNA from baseline were higher baseline HIV-RNA and higher ferritin (both p<0.01). No association of CRP to the changes from baseline of CD4% or HIV-RNA was found. Conclusion In HIV-infected Thai children without severe immune deficiency who commenced ART, no correlation between selenium and ART treatment outcomes were found. Higher pre-ART Zn levels were associated with significant increases in CD4 percent at 48 weeks. PMID:22713768

Bunupuradah, Torsak; Ubolyam, Sasiwimol; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Ngampiyaskul, Chaiwat; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Wongsawat, Jurai; Luesomboon, Wicharn; Pinyakorn, Suteeraporn; Kerr, Stephen; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Chomtho, Sirinuch; van der Lugt, Jasper; Luplertlop, Natthanej; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Puthanakit, Thanyawee

2012-01-01

224

Influence of Deep Breathing on Heart Rate Variability in Parkinson’s Disease: Co-relation with Severity of Disease and Non-Motor Symptom Scale Score  

PubMed Central

Context: Dysautonomia and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are frequent, disabling and reduce quality of life of patient. Aims and Objective: There is a paucity of studies on autonomic dysfunction in PD in Indian population. The study aimed to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in PD patients and co-relate the findings with severity of PD and Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) score. Materials and Methods: We evaluated autonomic function in 30 diagnosed patients of PD (age 55-70 years) and 30 healthy age-matched controls by 3 min deep breathing test (DBT). NMSS was used to identify non-motor symptoms and Hoehn and Yahr (HY) Scale to grade severity of PD. The DBT findings were co-related with severity of PD (HY staging) and NMSS score. Results: DBT was found to be abnormal in 40% while it was on borderline in 33.3% of PD patients. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) between patients and control group for the DBT. NMS were reported across all the stages of PD but with variable frequency and severity for individual symptom. A negative co-relation was found between results of deep breathing test and clinical severity of disease and NMSS score. Conclusion: Abnormalities of autonomic function and NMS were integral and present across all the stages of PD patients. Early recognition and treatment of these may decrease morbidity and improve quality of life of PD patients. PMID:25177554

Jagtap, Gayatri J; Chakor, Rahul T

2014-01-01

225

Cytoplasmic Expression of Mouse Prion Protein Causes Severe Toxicity in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

To test if Caenorhabditis elegans could be established as a model organism for prion study, we created transgenic C. elegans expressing the cytosolic form of the mouse prion .protein, MoPrP(23-231), which lacks the N-terminal signal sequence and the C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinisotol (GPI) anchor site. We report here that transgenic worms expressing MoPrP(23-231)–CFP exhibited a wide range of distinct phenotypes: from normal growth and development, reduced mobility and development delay, complete paralysis and development arrest, to embryonic lethality. Similar levels of MoPrP (23-231)-CFP were produced in animals exhibiting these distinct phenotypes, suggesting that MoPrP (23-231)-CFP might have misfolded into distinct toxic species. In combining with the observation that mutations in PrP that affect prion pathogenesis also affect the toxic phenotypes in C. elegans, we conclude that the prion protein folding mechanism is similar in mammals and C. elegans. Thus, C. elegans can be a useful model organism for prion research. PMID:18519028

Park, Kyung-Won; Li, Liming

2008-01-01

226

Reduction of tau protein improves symptoms in model of severe childhood Protein implicated in Alzheimer's disease has important treatment potential in genetic form of epilepsy  

E-print Network

Reduction of tau protein improves symptoms in model of severe childhood epilepsy Protein implicated that reducing brain levels of the protein tau effectively blocks the development of disease in a mouse model that can accompany this syndrome. Previous studies from this group have shown that lowering tau levels

Lim, Wendell

227

Associations between immunologic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress markers with severity of depressive symptoms: An analysis of the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated increased levels of serum markers of systemic inflammation and immune system function among individuals with depressive symptoms. Despite these observations, the biological mechanisms behind this association remain elusive. The objective of the present analysis was to examine the individual and joint associations of white blood cell counts, platelet counts, and C-reactive protein with depression severity and

Roni Kobrosly; Edwin van Wijngaarden

2010-01-01

228

Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, physical health, and health care utilization 50 years after repeated exposure to a toxic gas.  

PubMed

The posttraumatic sequelae of contaminant exposure are a contemporary international concern due to the threats posed to military personnel and civilians by war and bioterrorism. The role of PTSD symptoms as a mediator between potentially traumatic toxin exposure and physical health outcomes was examined with structural equation modeling in a probability sample of 302 male World War II-era U.S. military veterans 50 years after exposure to mustard gas tests. Controlling for age and psychological distress, the most parsimonious structural model involved PTSD symptoms mediating the relationship between toxin exposure and physical health problems, and physical health problems mediating the relationship between PTSD symptoms and outpatient health care utilization. Implications for researchers, mental health clinicians, and health care providers are discussed. PMID:15253090

Ford, Julian D; Schnurr, Paula P; Friedman, Matthew J; Green, Bonnie L; Adams, Gary; Jex, Steve

2004-06-01

229

The toxicity of sediments from Taihu Lake evaluated by several in vitro bioassays.  

PubMed

In vitro bioassays are useful techniques for the determination of biological effects in sediment samples containing complex mixtures of contaminants. In this study, 28 surface sediment samples from Taihu Lake, East China, were collected for toxicity assessment using a battery of in vitro bioassays. The battery included a two-hybrid yeast bioassay for estrogenic and thyroidal effects, the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay for aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor (Ah-agonists)-mediated effects as measured by ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, and the SOS/umu bioassay for genotoxic effects. Toxicities were expressed as 17?-estradiol equivalents (EEQs), T3 (3,5,3'-triiodothyronine) equivalents (T3-EQs), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), and induction ratios (IRs) of ?-galactosidase activity. The results showed that total estrogenic effects in sediment samples ranged from 0.0011 to 12.4 pg EEQ/g sediment [dry weight (d.w.)], the thyroidal effects ranged from 0.35 to 24.8 pg T3-EQ/g sediment (d.w.), the Ah-agonist effects varied from 2.70 to 37.8 pg TEQ/g sediment (d.w.), and the weight of soil required for the extracts to lead to a positive result (IR 2.0) in the SOS/umu bioassay was between 1.98 and 15.3 mg (d.w.) per well. Significantly positive correlations were only found between lgT3-EQs and lgEEQs, which indicated similar spatial distributions of estrogenic and thyroidal effects in Taihu Lake. These results suggested that the applied battery of in vitro bioassays represented an efficient (fast and cost-effective) screening system for the identification of emerging contaminants in Taihu Lake and provided meaningful information for further analysis and risk evaluation. PMID:25367641

Lei, Bingli; Kang, Jia; Wang, Xuetong; Liu, Qian; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Xiangying; Fu, Jiamo

2015-03-01

230

Effects of several variables on whole effluent toxicity test performance and interpretation  

SciTech Connect

Protocol changes and options contained within US Environmental Protection Agency whole effluent toxicity tests represent variables that have the potential to affect bioassay performance and interpretation of results. Variables evaluated in this study include: the change in allowable age in the Pimephales promelas acute bioassay from up to 90 d to a maximum of 14 d, age-specific acute responses of P. promelas among the allowable ages of 1 to 14 d, change in the chronic growth endpoint definition from final mass to biomass, differences between hemacytometer and fluorometer measurements in the Selenastrum capricornutum protocol, and options for statistical interpretation of species sensitivity in multiple test/species screening bioassays. Clear age-related sensitivity and precision differences were observed in acute responses of P. promelas. Results obtained using the younger age classes were typically more variable in studies of both 1- to 14-d-old and 14- to 90-d-old P. promelas. In the experiments on 1- to 14-d-old organisms, larvae at 1 d of age were significantly less sensitive. In the tests on 14- to 90-d-old organisms, the 14-d-old organisms were significantly less sensitive. The change in endpoint definition in the P. promelas chronic bioassay resulted in an apparent increase in toxic response in the inhibition concentration (ICp) value for each bioassay, evaluated by the biomass method, with no general improvement in statistical interest precision estimates and no predictable impact on the no-observed-effect concentration endpoint. Fluorometric scoring in the Selenastrum bioassay was significantly more precise and better capable of estimating counts than hemacytometer measurements. Discrepancies associated with commonly used statistical endpoints used to determine the most sensitive species were identified, and potential solutions were proposed.

Markle, P.J.; Gully, J.R.; Baird, R.B.; Nakada, K.M.; Bottomley, J.P.

2000-01-01

231

Internalizing Symptoms and Affective Reactivity in Relation to the Severity of Aggression in Clinically Referred, Behavior-Disordered Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the affective correlates of aggression in children referred to a partial hospitalization program for the treatment of behavior disorders who did not have a mood or anxiety disorder. Parent and teacher ratings of the children's impulsivity, internalizing symptoms, affective reactivity, and aggression were examined for their…

Kolko, David J.; Baumann, Barbara L.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Brown, Elissa J.

2007-01-01

232

An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Alternative Therapies, Functional Status, and Symptom Severity among People with Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roy's Adaptation Model guided an exploratory study of the association of alternative therapies with functional status and symptoms in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Data were collected from 16 volunteers by a telephone-administered interview schedule and a mailed questionnaire. All 16 respondents reported seeking traditional medical treatment and at least 1 alternative therapy (mode = 3, range = 1-9). The

Jacqueline Fawcett; Joan Seliger Sidney; Kathleen Riley-Lawless; Mary Jane S. Hanson

1996-01-01

233

Changes in life patterns and symptoms of low mood as reported by wives of severely brain-injured soldiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested hypotheses that (a) wives of brain-injured veterans would perceive greater changes in their family life 1 yr following their husbands' injury than wives of paraplegic veterans and (b) wives of brain-injured veterans would report more symptoms indicative of low mood than wives of paraplegics and controls. 27 Israeli wives (mean age, 26 yrs) whose husbands had fought in the

Michael Rosenbaum; Theodore Najenson

1976-01-01

234

Anxiety and Avoidance in Infants and Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evidence for Differing Symptom Severity and Presentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the symptoms of anxiety in very young children with autism spectrum disorders, particularly comparisons between Autistic Disorder (AD) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). In the current study, toddlers (i.e., 17-37 months of age) with diagnoses of either AD (N = 159) or PDD-NOS (N = 154)…

Davis, Thompson E., III; Fodstad, Jill C.; Jenkins, Whitney S.; Hess, Julie A.; Moree, Brittany N.; Dempsey, Tim; Matson, Johnny L.

2010-01-01

235

Tryptophan catabolism in females with irritable bowel syndrome: relationship to interferon-gamma, severity of symptoms and psychiatric co-morbidity.  

PubMed

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been linked with abnormal serotonin functioning and immune activation. Tryptophan forms the substrate for serotonin biosynthesis, but it can alternatively be catabolized to kynurenine (Kyn) by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the main inducer of which is interferon-gamma. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that IBS is associated with increased tryptophan (Trp) catabolism along the Kyn pathway due to increased IFN-gamma levels. Plasma Kyn, Trp and IFN-gamma levels were measured in 41 female IBS subjects and 33 controls. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity was assessed using the Kyn to Trp ratio. Psychiatric co-morbidity was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire, and severity of IBS assessed using self-report ordinal scales. Irritable bowel syndrome subjects had increased Kyn concentrations compared with controls (P = 0.039) and there was a trend for Kyn:Trp to be increased in the IBS group (P = 0.09). There was a positive correlation between IBS severity and Kyn:Trp (r = 0.57, P < 0.001). Those with severe IBS symptoms had increased Kyn:Trp (P < 0.005) compared to those with less severe symptoms and controls, and were over twice as likely to have depression or anxiety compared to those with less severe IBS (RR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-3.9). No difference in IFN-gamma levels was observed between groups; however, IFN-gamma was positively correlated with Kyn:Trp in IBS (r = 0.58, P = 0.005) but not controls (r = 0.12, P = 0.5). Females with IBS have abnormal Trp catabolism. The Kyn:Trp is related to symptom severity, and those with severe IBS symptoms have increased shunting of Trp along the Kyn pathway which contributes to the abnormal serotonergic functioning in this syndrome. PMID:18823288

Fitzgerald, P; Cassidy Eugene, M; Clarke, G; Scully, P; Barry, S; Quigley Eamonn, M M; Shanahan, F; Cryan, J; Dinan Timothy, G

2008-12-01

236

Psychiatric Diagnoses and Neurobehavioral Symptom Severity Among OEF/OIF VA Patients with Deployment-Related Traumatic Brain Injury: A Gender Comparison  

PubMed Central

Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has substantial negative implications for the post-deployment adjustment of Veterans who served in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF); however, most research on Veterans has focused on males. This study investigated gender differences in psychiatric diagnoses and neurobehavioral symptom severity among OEF/OIF Veterans with deployment-related TBI. Methods This population-based study examined psychiatric diagnoses and self-reported neurobehavioral symptom severity from administrative records for 12,605 United States OEF/OIF Veterans evaluated as having deployment-related TBI. Men (n = 11,951) and women (n = 654) who were evaluated to have deployment-related TBI during a standardized comprehensive TBI evaluation in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities were compared on the presence of psychiatric diagnoses and severity of neurobehavioral symptoms. Findings Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was the most common psychiatric condition for both genders, although women were less likely than men to have a PTSD diagnosis. In contrast, relative to men, women were 2 times more likely to have a depression diagnosis, 1.3 times more likely to have a non-PTSD anxiety disorder, and 1.5 times more likely to have PTSD with comorbid depression. Multivariate analyses indicated that blast exposure during deployment may account for some of these differences. Additionally, women reported significantly more severe symptoms across a range of neurobehavioral domains. Conclusions Although PTSD was the most common condition for both men and women, it is also critical for providers to identify and treat other conditions, especially depression and neurobehavioral symptoms, among women Veterans with deployment-related TBI. PMID:21724143

Iverson, Katherine M.; Hendricks, Ann M.; Kimerling, Rachel; Krengel, Maxine; Meterko, Mark; Stolzmann, Kelly L.; Baker, Errol; Pogoda, Terri K.; Vasterling, Jennifer J.; Lew, Henry L.

2011-01-01

237

Magnitutde and Characterization of Toxicity in Sediments from Several Ukrainian Estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

During the Soviet era, Ukraine was one of the most important industrial and agricultural regions of the Soviet Union. A consequence of this industrial and agricultural activity was the contamination of several areas of the country, including the estuaries, with pollutants includ...

238

Severe group A streptococcal infections associated with a toxic shock-like syndrome and scarlet fever toxin A.  

PubMed

There is concern that group A streptococci, which have caused less serious infections in developed countries in recent decades, may be acquiring greater virulence. We describe 20 patients from the Rocky Mountain region who had group A streptococcal infections from 1986 to 1988 that were remarkable for the severity of local tissue destruction and life-threatening systemic toxicity. Among the 20 patients (median age, 36), necrotizing fasciitis with or without myositis was the most common soft-tissue infection (55 percent). Nineteen patients (95 percent) had shock, 16 (80 percent) had renal impairment, and 11 (55 percent) had acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mortality rate was 30 percent. All patients but 1 had positive tissue cultures for Streptococcus pyogenes; 12 had positive blood cultures. Most of the patients had no underlying disease; 2 used intravenous drugs. Strains of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from 10 patients were not of a single M or T type; however, 8 of the 10 strains produced pyrogenic exotoxin A (scarlet fever toxin A, a classic erythrogenic toxin), which has rarely been observed in recent years. From our study of this cluster of severe streptococcal infections with a toxic shock-like syndrome, we conclude that in our region, more virulent group A streptococci have reappeared that produce the pyrogenic toxin A associated with scarlet fever. PMID:2659990

Stevens, D L; Tanner, M H; Winship, J; Swarts, R; Ries, K M; Schlievert, P M; Kaplan, E

1989-07-01

239

Hepatoprotective effect of Bathysa cuspidata in a murine model of severe toxic liver injury  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of a bark extract of Bathysa cuspidata extract (BCE) in a murine model of severe liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Forty-two Wistar rats were randomized into six groups of seven animals each: Group 1(G1): CCl4; Group 2 (G2): dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) + CCl4; Group 3 (G3): BCE 400 mg/kg alone; Group 4 (G4): BCE 200 mg/kg + CCl4; Group 5 (G5): BCE 400 mg/kg + CCl4; Group 6 (G6): DMSO alone. The extract was administered by gavage for 18 days beginning 6 days prior to the first application of CCl4. After completing CCl4 administration, the animals were euthanized. The animals in G1, G2, G4 and G5 experienced significant body weight loss and had an increased liver somatic index compared with G3 and G6 (P < 0.05). A significant reduction in serum aspartate and alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase (P < 0.05) and a significant increase in the activity of the anti-oxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase were found in G5 (P < 0.05). Lower proportions of cellular necrosis and lipid droplets were found in the livers of animals in G4 and G5 compared with G1 and G2 (P < 0.05). These results confirm the marked hepatoprotective activity of the bark extract of Bathysa cuspidata in severe injuries induced by CCl4 in rats and suggest that this effect may be associated with the inhibition of oxidative damage. PMID:22974218

Gonçalves, Reggiani V; Novaes, Rômulo D; Leite, João P V; Vilela, Emerson F; Cupertino, Marli C; Nunes, Líria G; Matta, Sérgio L P

2012-01-01

240

Assessment of 5-hydroxytryptamine efflux in rat brain during a mild, moderate and severe serotonin-toxicity syndrome  

PubMed Central

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)-toxicity syndrome, an iatrogenic brain disorder induced by excessive efflux of 5-HT, has received much attention because of increasing incidents of serotonergic antidepressants. However, the neural mechanism by which extracellular 5-HT is elevated to a toxic level for the syndrome remains to be determined. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that extracellular 5-HT is composed of two component effluxes responsible for distinct aspects of the syndrome. The first set of experiments was to characterize the syndrome by measuring changes in neuromuscular signs, body-core temperature and mortality rate. Our results indicate that the syndrome severity can be categorized into mild, moderate and severe levels. The second set of experiments was to determine a threshold of extracellular 5-HT for induction of each level of the syndrome. Our results demonstrate that there were an 11-fold increase in the mild syndrome and an over 55-fold increase in the severe syndrome. In the last series of experiments, the excessive increases in 5-HT were pharmacologically separated into primary and secondary component effluxes with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonists cyproheptadine and ketanserin and NMDA receptor antagonist (+)-MK-801. Our results suggest primary component efflux was caused by direct drug effects on 5-HT biosynthetic and metabolic pathways and secondary efflux ascribed to indirect drug effect on a positive feedback circuit involving 5-HT2A and NMDA receptors. In summary, the primary efflux could be an initial cause for the induction of the syndrome while the secondary efflux might involve deterioration of the syndrome. PMID:19464285

Zhang, Gongliang; Krishnamoorthy, Swapna; Ma, Zhiyuan; Vukovich, Nick P.; Huang, Xupei; Tao, Rui

2009-01-01

241

Increased Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Associated with Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) and Symptom Severity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs)  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND One in 88 children in the US is thought to have one of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). ASDs are characterized by social impairments and communication problems. Growth factors and their receptors may play a role in the etiology of ASDs. Research has shown that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation is associated with nerve cell development and repair. This study was designed to measure plasma levels of EGFR in autistic children and correlate these levels with its ligand, epidermal growth factor, other related putative biomarkers such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), the ligand for MET (MNNG HOS transforming gene) receptor, as well as the symptom severity of 19 different behavioral symptoms. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Plasma EGFR concentration was measured in 33 autistic children and 34 age- and gender-similar neurotypical controls, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma EGFR levels were compared to putative biomarkers known to be associated with EGFR and MET and severity levels of 19 autism-related symptoms. RESULTS We found plasma EGFR levels significantly higher in autistic children, when compared to neurotypical controls. EGFR levels correlated with HGF and high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) levels, but not other tested putative biomarkers, and EGFR levels correlated significantly with severity of expressive language, conversational language, focus/attention, hyperactivity, eye contact, and sound sensitivity deficiencies. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest a relationship between increased plasma EGFR levels and designated symptom severity in autistic children. A strong correlation between plasma EGFR and HGF and HMGB1 suggests that increased EGFR levels may be associated with the HGF/Met signaling pathway, as well as inflammation. PMID:25249767

Russo, Anthony J

2014-01-01

242

Interplay between Bladder Microbiota and Urinary Antimicrobial Peptides: Mechanisms for Human Urinary Tract Infection Risk and Symptom Severity  

PubMed Central

Resident bacterial communities (microbiota) and host antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are both essential components of normal host innate immune responses that limit infection and pathogen induced inflammation. However, their interdependence has not been investigated in the context of urinary tract infection (UTI) susceptibility. Here, we explored the interrelationship between the urinary microbiota and host AMP responses as mechanisms for UTI risk. Using prospectively collected day of surgery (DOS) urine specimens from female pelvic floor surgery participants, we report that the relative abundance and/or frequency of specific urinary microbiota distinguished between participants who did or did not develop a post-operative UTI. Furthermore, UTI risk significantly correlated with both specific urinary microbiota and ?-defensin AMP levels. Finally, urinary AMP hydrophobicity and protease activity were greater in participants who developed UTI, and correlated positively with both UTI risk and pelvic floor symptoms. These data demonstrate an interdependency between the urinary microbiota, AMP responses and symptoms, and identify a potential mechanism for UTI risk. Assessment of bacterial microbiota and host innate immune AMP responses in parallel may identify increased risk of UTI in certain populations. PMID:25486068

Nienhouse, Vanessa; Gao, Xiang; Dong, Qunfeng; Nelson, David E.; Toh, Evelyn; McKinley, Kathleen; Schreckenberger, Paul; Shibata, Noriko; Fok, Cynthia S.; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Brubaker, Linda; Wolfe, Alan J.; Radek, Katherine A.

2014-01-01

243

The Impact of Pretreatment Prostate Volume on Severe Acute Genitourinary Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the impact of pretreatment prostate volume on the development of severe acute genitourinary toxicity in patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2007, a consecutive sample of 214 patients who underwent IMRT (75.6 Gy) for prostate cancer at two referral centers was analyzed. Prostate volumes were obtained from computed tomography scans taken during treatment simulation. Genitourinary toxicity was defined using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 3.0 guidelines. Acute toxicity was defined as any toxicity originating within 90 days of the completion of radiation therapy. Patients were characterized as having a small or large prostate depending on whether their prostate volume was less than or greater than 50 cm{sup 3}, respectively. Genitourinary toxicity was compared in these groups using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to further assess the impact of prostate volume on severe (Grade 3) acute genitourinary toxicity. Results: Patients with large prostates (>50 cm{sup 3}) had a higher rate of acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity (p = .02). Prostate volume was predictive of the likelihood of developing acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity on bivariate (p = .004) and multivariate (p = .006) logistic regression. Every 27.0 cm{sup 3} increase in prostate volume doubled the likelihood of acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity. Conclusions: Patients with larger prostates are at higher risk for the development of severe acute genitourinary toxicity when treated with IMRT for prostate cancer.

Aizer, Ayal A., E-mail: Ayal.Aizer@yale.ed [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Anderson, Nicole S.; Oh, Steven C.; Yu, James B.; McKeon, Anne M.; Decker, Roy H.; Peschel, Richard E. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

2011-02-01

244

Age of Onset of RNA Toxicity Influences Phenotypic Severity: Evidence from an Inducible Mouse Model of Myotonic Dystrophy (DM1)  

PubMed Central

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most common muscular dystrophy in adults. It is caused by an expanded (CTG)n tract in the 3? UTR of the Dystrophia Myotonica Protein Kinase (DMPK) gene. This causes nuclear retention of the mutant mRNA into ribonuclear foci and sequestration of interacting RNA-binding proteins (such as muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1)). More severe congenital and childhood-onset forms of the disease exist but are less understood than the adult disease, due in part to the lack of adequate animal models. To address this, we utilized transgenic mice over-expressing the DMPK 3? UTR as part of an inducible RNA transcript to model early-onset myotonic dystrophy. In mice in which transgene expression was induced during embryogenesis, we found that by two weeks after birth, mice reproduced cardinal features of myotonic dystrophy, including myotonia, cardiac conduction abnormalities, muscle weakness, histopathology and mRNA splicing defects. Notably, these defects were more severe than in adult mice induced for an equivalent period of exposure to RNA toxicity. Additionally, the utility of the model was tested by over-expressing MBNL1, a key therapeutic strategy being actively pursued for treating the disease phenotypes associated with DM1. Significantly, increased MBNL1 in skeletal muscle partially corrected myotonia and splicing defects present in these mice, demonstrating the responsiveness of the model to relevant therapeutic interventions. Furthermore, these results also represent the first murine model for early-onset DM1 and provide a tool to investigate the effects of RNA toxicity at various stages of development. PMID:24039817

Gladman, Jordan T.; Mandal, Mahua; Srinivasan, Varadamurthy; Mahadevan, Mani S.

2013-01-01

245

Acute genitourinary toxicity after high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer: Second analysis to determine the correlation between the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy and the severity of acute genitourinary toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We have been treating localized prostate cancer with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) at our institution. We recently reported the existence of a correlation between the severity of acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity and the urethral radiation dose in HDR brachytherapy by using different fractionation schema. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the urethral dose in the development of acute GU toxicity more closely than in previous studies. For this purpose, we conducted an analysis of patients who had undergone HDR brachytherapy with a fixed fractionation schema combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Methods and Materials: Among the patients with localized prostate cancer who were treated by 192-iridium HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT at Gunma University Hospital between August 2000 and November 2004, we analyzed 67 patients who were treated by HDR brachytherapy with the fractionation schema of 9 Gy x two times combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Hypofractionated EBRT was administered at a fraction dose of 3 Gy three times weekly, and a total dose of 51 Gy was delivered to the prostate gland and seminal vesicles using the four-field technique. No elective pelvic irradiation was performed. After the completion of EBRT, all the patients additionally received transrectal ultrasonography-guided HDR brachytherapy. The planning target volume was defined as the prostate gland with a 5-mm margin all around, and the planning was conducted based on computed tomography images. The tumor stage was T1c in 13 patients, T2 in 31 patients, and T3 in 23 patients. The Gleason score was 2-6 in 12 patients, 7 in 34 patients, and 8-10 in 21 patients. Androgen ablation was performed in all the patients. The median follow-up duration was 11 months (range 3-24 months). The toxicities were graded based on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: The main symptoms of acute GU toxicity were dysuria and increase in the urinary frequency or nocturia. The grade distribution of acute GU toxicity in the patients was as follows: Grade 0-1, 42 patients (63%); Grade 2-3, 25 patients (37%). The urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy was determined using the following dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters: V30 (percentage of the urethral volume receiving 30% of the prescribed radiation dose), V80, V90, V100, V110, V120, V130, and V150. In addition, the D5 (dose covering 5% of the urethral volume), D10, D20, and D50 of the urethra were also estimated. The V30-V150 values in the patients with Grade 2-3 acute GU toxicity were significantly higher than those in patients with Grade 0-1 toxicity. The D10 and D20, but not D5 and D50, values were also significantly higher in the patients with Grade 2-3 acute GU toxicity than in those with Grade 0-1 toxicity. Regarding the influence of the number of needles implanted, there was no correlation between the number of needles implanted and the severity of acute GU toxicity or the V30-V150 values and D5-D50 values. Conclusions: It was concluded that HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT is feasible for localized prostate cancer, when considered from the viewpoint of acute toxicity. However, because the urethral dose was closely associated with the grade of severity of the acute GU toxicity, the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy must be kept low to reduce the severity of acute GU toxicity.

Akimoto, Tetsuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)]. E-mail: takimoto@showa.gunma-u.ac.jp; Katoh, Hiroyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Noda, Shin-ei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Ito, Kazuto [Department of Urology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Yamamoto, Takumi [Department of Urology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Kashiwagi, Bunzo [Department of Urology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)

2005-10-01

246

Synovial pathology detected on ultrasound correlates with the severity of radiographic knee osteoarthritis more than with symptoms  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective To [1] compare the frequency and severity of ultrasound (US) features in people with normal knees (controls), knee pain (KP), asymptomatic radiographic OA (ROA), and symptomatic OA (SROA), [2] examine relationships between US features, pain and radiographic severity, [3] explore the relationship between change in pain and US features over a 3-month period. Method Community participants were recruited into a multiple group case–control study. All underwent assessment for pain, knee radiographs and US examination for effusion, synovial hypertrophy, popliteal cysts and power Doppler (PD) signal within the synovium. A 3-month follow-up was undertaken in over half of control and SROA participants. Results 243 participants were recruited (90 controls; 59 KP; 32 ROA; 62 SROA). Effusion and synovial hypertrophy were more common in ROA and SROA participants. Severity of effusion and synovial hypertrophy were greater in SROA compared to ROA (P < 0.05). Severity of US effusion and synovial hypertrophy were correlated with radiographic severity (r = 0.6 and r = 0.7, P < 0.01) but the relationship between pain severity and US features was weak (r = 0.3, P < 0.01). In SROA participants, pain severity did not change in tandem with a change in synovial hypertrophy over time. Conclusion US abnormalities are common in OA. Effusion and synovial hypertrophy were moderately correlated with radiographic severity but the relationship with pain is less strong. The degree to which these features reflect “active inflammation” is questionable and they may be better considered as part of the total organ pathology in OA. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:25278071

Hall, M.; Doherty, S.; Courtney, P.; Latief, K.; Zhang, W.; Doherty, M.

2014-01-01

247

What patients do to counteract the symptoms of Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED): Effect of gender and severity of illness  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study was carried out to assess different counteracting strategies used by patients with idiopathic Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED). Whether these strategies were influenced by gender or disease severity was also assessed. Materials and Methods: A total of 173 patients of idiopathic RLS/WED were included in this study. Their demographic data was recorded. Details regarding the RLS/WED and strategies that they used to counteract the symptoms were asked. The severity of RLS/WED was measured with the help of the Hindi version of international restless legs syndrome severity rating scale. They were asked to provide the details regarding the relief obtained from all the strategies they used on three-point scale: no relief, some relief, and complete relief. Results: Of the patients, 72% were females. Mean age of the subjects in this study was 39.6 ± 12.6 years, and male subjects were older than females. Four common strategies were reported by the patients to counter the sensations of RLS/WED: moving legs while in bed (85.5%), asking somebody to massage their legs or massaging legs themselves (76.9%), walking (53.2%), and tying a cloth/rope tightly on the legs (39.3%). Of all the patients who moved their legs, 6.7% did not experience any relief, 64.2% reported some relief, and 28.4% reported complete relief. Similarly, of all the patients who used “walking” to counteract symptoms, 50% reported complete relief, 44.5% reported some relief, and the rest did not experience any relief. Many of these patients reported that massage and tying a cloth/rope on legs brought greater relief than any of these strategies. Tying cloth on the leg was more common among females as compared to males (45.9% females vs. 23.5% males; ?2 = 7.54; P = 0.006), while patients with moderately severe to severe RLS/WED reported “moving legs in bed” (79.3% in mild to moderate RLS/WED; 91.8% in severe to very severe RLS; ?2 = 5.36; P = 0.02). Conclusion: Patients with RLS/WED use a variety of strategies to counteract symptoms. These strategies may be influenced by gender, disease severity, and cultural practices. PMID:25506161

Gupta, Ravi; Goel, Deepak; Ahmed, Sohaib; Dhar, Minakshi; Lahan, Vivekananda

2014-01-01

248

Basal ganglia dysfunction in OCD: subthalamic neuronal activity correlates with symptoms severity and predicts high-frequency stimulation efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional and connectivity changes in corticostriatal systems have been reported in the brains of patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD); however, the relationship between basal ganglia activity and OCD severity has never been adequately established. We recently showed that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a central basal ganglia nucleus, improves OCD. Here, single-unit subthalamic neuronal activity was analysed

M-L Welter; P Burbaud; S Fernandez-Vidal; E Bardinet; J Coste; B Piallat; M Borg; S Besnard; P Sauleau; B Devaux; B Pidoux; P Chaynes; S Tézenas du Montcel; A Bastian; N Langbour; A Teillant; W Haynes; J Yelnik; C Karachi; L Mallet

2011-01-01

249

Behavioral and psychological symptoms in moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease: a palliative care approach emphasizing recognition of personhood and preservation of dignity.  

PubMed

The assessment and management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be challenging, and ethical dilemmas often arise. Clinicians often perceive a disconnect between evidence-based guidelines and the challenges of treating BPSD in moderate to severe AD. Reconciliation of salient ethical issues can help bridge this disconnect. In view of the fact that AD is a progressive and ultimately fatal disease, and given that there are often competing considerations when managing BPSD in moderate to severe AD, we propose a palliative care approach that prioritizes the recognition of personhood and the preservation of dignity. We present case illustrations, discuss the concepts of dignity and personhood during palliative care in AD, and encourage the use of the bioethical grid in navigating complex clinical challenges. PMID:22207006

Passmore, Michael J; Ho, Anita; Gallagher, Romayne

2012-01-01

250

Relationship between Lifestyle and Health Factors and Severe Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) in 106,435 Middle-Aged and Older Australian Men: Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite growing interest in prevention of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) through better understanding of modifiable risk factors, large-scale population-based evidence is limited. Objective To describe risk factors associated with severe LUTS in the 45 and Up Study, a large cohort study. Design, Setting, and Participants A cross-sectional analysis of questionnaire data from 106,435 men aged ?45 years, living in New South Wales, Australia. Outcome Measures and Statistical Analysis LUTS were measured by a modified version of the International Prostate Symptom Score (m-IPSS). The strength of association between severe LUTS and socio-demographic, lifestyle and health-related factors was estimated, using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios, adjusted for a range of confounding factors. Results Overall, 18.3% reported moderate, and 3.6% severe, LUTS. Severe LUTS were more common among men reporting previous prostate cancer (7.6%), total prostatectomy (4.9%) or having part of the prostate removed (8.2%). After excluding men with prostate cancer or prostate surgery, the prevalence of moderate-severe LUTS in the cohort (n?=?95,089) ranged from 10.6% to 35.4% for ages 45–49 to ?80; the age-related increase was steeper for storage than voiding symptoms. The adjusted odds of severe LUTS decreased with increasing education (tertiary qualification versus no school certificate, odds ratio (OR?=?0.78 (0.68–0.89))) and increasing physical activity (high versus low, OR?=?0.83 (0.76–0.91)). Odds were elevated among current smokers versus never-smokers (OR?=?1.64 (1.43–1.88)), obese versus healthy-weight men (OR?=?1.27 (1.14–1.41)) and for comorbid conditions (e.g., heart disease versus no heart disease, OR?=?1.36 (1.24–1.49)), and particularly for severe versus no physical functional limitation (OR?=?5.17 (4.51–5.93)). Conclusions LUTS was associated with a number of factors, including modifiable risk factors, suggesting potential targets for prevention. PMID:25333345

Smith, David P.; Weber, Marianne F.; Soga, Kay; Korda, Rosemary J.; Tikellis, Gabriella; Patel, Manish I.; Clements, Mark S.; Dwyer, Terry; Latz, Isabel K.; Banks, Emily

2014-01-01

251

Insular dysfunction within the salience network is associated with severity of symptoms and aberrant inter-network connectivity in major depressive disorder  

PubMed Central

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by altered intrinsic functional connectivity within (intra-iFC) intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs), such as the Default Mode- (DMN), Salience- (SN) and Central Executive Network (CEN). It has been proposed that aberrant switching between DMN-mediated self-referential and CEN-mediated goal-directed cognitive processes might contribute to MDD, possibly explaining patients' difficulties to disengage the processing of self-focused, often negatively biased thoughts. Recently, it has been shown that the right anterior insula (rAI) within the SN is modulating DMN/CEN interactions. Since structural and functional alterations within the AI have been frequently reported in MDD, we hypothesized that aberrant intra-iFC in the SN's rAI is associated with both aberrant iFC between DMN and CEN (inter-iFC) and severity of symptoms in MDD. Twenty-five patients with MDD and 25 healthy controls were assessed using resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) and psychometric examination. High-model-order independent component analysis (ICA) of rs-fMRI data was performed to identify ICNs including DMN, SN, and CEN. Intra-iFC within and inter-iFC between distinct subsystems of the DMN, SN, and CEN were calculated, compared between groups and correlated with the severity of symptoms. Patients with MDD showed (1) decreased intra-iFC within the SN's rAI, (2) decreased inter-iFC between the DMN and CEN, and (3) increased inter-iFC between the SN and DMN. Moreover, decreased intra-iFC in the SN's rAI was associated with severity of symptoms and aberrant DMN/CEN interactions, with the latter losing significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Our results provide evidence for a relationship between aberrant intra-iFC in the salience network's rAI, aberrant DMN/CEN interactions and severity of symptoms, suggesting a link between aberrant salience mapping, abnormal coordination of DMN/CEN based cognitive processes and psychopathology in MDD. PMID:24478665

Manoliu, Andrei; Meng, Chun; Brandl, Felix; Doll, Anselm; Tahmasian, Masoud; Scherr, Martin; Schwerthöffer, Dirk; Zimmer, Claus; Förstl, Hans; Bäuml, Josef; Riedl, Valentin; Wohlschläger, Afra M.; Sorg, Christian

2014-01-01

252

Neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia-frequency, relationship to dementia severity and comparison in Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and frontotemporal dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noncognitive behavioral and psychiatric disturbances are common in dementia and help in the clinical differentiation of the various subtypes. We studied the frequency of neuropsychiatric disturbances, their relationship to dementia severity and compared these disturbances in Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) using the 12-item Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). A total of 98 patients (AD—44, VaD—31, FTD—23)

S. Srikanth; A. V. Nagaraja; E. Ratnavalli

2005-01-01

253

Comparative Analysis Between Pseudomonas aeruginosa Genotypes and Severity of Symptoms in Patients with Unilateral or Bilateral Otitis Externa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was done on 32 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These isolates were obtained from 22 patients who presented to the emergency room in a major medical center in Beirut, Lebanon,\\u000a during a 5-month period with the diagnosis of either unilateral or bilateral otitis externa. Patients had yellowish to greenish\\u000a discharge, moderate to severe external auditory

Ghassan M. Matar; Hani S. Harakeh; Fatea Ramlawi; Issam Khneisser; Usamah Hadi

2001-01-01

254

Relationship between depressive symptom severity and emergency department use among low-income, depressed homebound older adults aged 50 years and older  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research found a high prevalence of depression, along with chronic illnesses and disabilities, among older ED patients. This study examined the relationship between depressive symptom severity and the number of ED visits among low-income homebound older adults who participated in a randomized controlled trial of telehealth problem-solving therapy (PST). Methods The number of and reasons for ED visits were collected from the study participants (n=121 at baseline) at all assessment points—baseline and 12- and 24-week follow-ups. Depressive symptoms were measured with the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD). All multivariable analyses examining the relationships between ED visits and depressive symptoms were conducted using zero-inflated Poisson regression models. Results Of the participants, 67.7% used the ED at least once and 61% of the visitors made at least one return visit during the approximately 12-month period. Body pain (not from fall injury and not including chest pain) was the most common reason. The ED visit frequency at baseline and at follow-up was significantly positively associated with the HAMD scores at the assessment points. The ED visit frequency at follow-up, controlling for the ED visits at baseline, was also significantly associated with the HAMD score change since baseline. Conclusions The ED visit rate was much higher than those reported in other studies. Better education on self-management of chronic conditions, depression screening by primary care physicians and ED, and depression treatment that includes symptom management and problem-solving skills may be important to reduce ED visits among medically ill, low-income homebound adults. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00903019 PMID:23267529

2012-01-01

255

Attachment, Symptom Severity, and Depression in Medically Unexplained Musculoskeletal Pain and Osteoarthritis: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background Attachment insecurity relates to the onset and course of chronic pain via dysfunctional reactions to pain. However, few studies have investigated the proportion of insecure attachment styles in different pain conditions, and results regarding associations between attachment, pain severity, and disability in chronic pain are inconsistent. This study aims to clarify the relationships between insecure attachment and occurrence or severity of chronic pain with and without clearly defined organic cause. To detect potential differences in the importance of global and romantic attachment representations, we included both concepts in our study. Methods 85 patients with medically unexplained musculoskeletal pain (UMP) and 89 patients with joint pain from osteoarthritis (OA) completed self-report measures of global and romantic attachment, pain intensity, physical functioning, and depression. Results Patients reporting global insecure attachment representations were more likely to suffer from medically unexplained musculoskeletal pain (OR 3.4), compared to securely attached patients. Romantic attachment did not differ between pain conditions. Pain intensity was associated with romantic attachment anxiety, and this relationship was more pronounced in the OA group compared to the UMP group. Both global and romantic attachment anxiety predicted depression, accounting for 15% and 17% of the variance, respectively. Disability was independent from attachment patterns. Conclusions Our results indicate that global insecure attachment is associated with the experience of medically unexplained musculoskeletal pain, but not with osteoarthritis. In contrast, insecure attachment patterns seem to be linked to pain intensity and pain-related depression in unexplained musculoskeletal pain and in osteoarthritis. These findings suggest that relationship-informed focused treatment strategies may alleviate pain severity and psychological distress in chronic pain independent of underlying pathology. PMID:25807172

Schroeter, Corinna; Ehrenthal, Johannes C.; Giulini, Martina; Neubauer, Eva; Gantz, Simone; Amelung, Dorothee; Balke, Doreen; Schiltenwolf, Marcus

2015-01-01

256

Selective Interaction Between Chloroplast ?-ATPase and TGB1L88 Retards Severe Symptoms Caused by Alternanthera mosaic virus Infection  

PubMed Central

The multifunctional triple gene block protein 1 (TGB1) of the Potexvirus Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) has been reported to have silencing suppressor, cell-to-cell movement, and helicase functions. Yeast two hybrid screening using an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library with TGB1 as bait, and co-purification with TGB1 inclusion bodies identified several host proteins which interact with AltMV TGB1. Host protein interactions with TGB1 were confirmed by biomolecular fluorescence complementation, which showed positive TGB1 interaction with mitochondrial ATP synthase delta? chain subunit (ATP synthase delta?), light harvesting chlorophyll-protein complex I subunit A4 (LHCA4), chlorophyll a/b binding protein 1 (LHB1B2), chloroplast-localized IscA-like protein (ATCPISCA), and chloroplast ?-ATPase. However, chloroplast ?-ATPase interacts only with TGB1L88, and not with weak silencing suppressor TGB1P88. This selective interaction indicates that chloroplast ?-ATPase is not required for AltMV movement and replication; however, TRV silencing of chloroplast ?-ATPase in Nicotiana benthamiana induced severe tissue necrosis when plants were infected by AltMV TGB1L88 but not AltMV TGB1P88, suggesting that ?-ATPase selectively responded to TGB1L88 to induce defense responses. PMID:25288986

Seo, Eun-Young; Nam, Jiryun; Kim, Hyun-Seung; Park, Young-Hwan; Hong, Seok Myeong; Lakshman, Dilip; Bae, Hanhong; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub

2014-01-01

257

Neural activation during response inhibition in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: preliminary findings on the effects of medication and symptom severity.  

PubMed

Studies of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have suggested that they have deficient response inhibition, but findings concerning the neural correlates of inhibition in this patient population are inconsistent. We used the Stop-Signal task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare neural activation associated with response inhibition between adults with ADHD (N=35) and healthy comparison subjects (N=62), and in follow-up tests to examine the effect of current medication use and symptom severity. There were no differences in Stop-Signal task performance or neural activation between ADHD and control participants. Among the ADHD participants, however, significant differences were associated with current medication, with individuals taking psychostimulants (N=25) showing less stopping-related activation than those not currently receiving psychostimulant medication (N=10). Follow-up analyses suggested that this difference in activation was independent of symptom severity. These results provide evidence that deficits in inhibition-related neural activation persist in a subset of adult ADHD individuals, namely those individuals currently taking psychostimulants. These findings help to explain some of the disparities in the literature, and advance our understanding of why deficits in response inhibition are more variable in adult, as compared with child and adolescent, ADHD patients. PMID:24581734

Congdon, Eliza; Altshuler, Lori L; Mumford, Jeanette A; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Sabb, Fred W; Ventura, Joseph; McGough, James J; London, Edythe D; Cannon, Tyrone D; Bilder, Robert M; Poldrack, Russell A

2014-04-30

258

Serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels and severity of symptoms in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD/hyperkinetic disorder HKD.  

PubMed

The serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in neuropsychiatric disorders of adults have been widely investigated. So far, no studies have been conducted on the relationship of MMP-9 and cognitive domains in children with two phenotype models, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD/HKD). The aim of this research was to evaluate and test the hypothesis that serum MMP-9 levels are associated with the severity of symptoms in children with ADHD/HKD and to compare the results in two models of this disorder. The study group comprised 37 Caucasian boys aged 7-12 years with HKD, being a subset of the combined ADHD subtype. Intellectual functions were measured using Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. The analysis of serum concentrations of MMP-9 was based on a quantitative sandwich ELISA. The statistical regression analysis revealed a correlation between increased serum MMP-9 levels and severity of symptoms in the ADHD (? = 0.33; p = 0.043) and HKD (? = 0.34, p = 0.037) model. According to the results, elevated levels of serum MMP-9 in boys with HKD may be associated with clinical impulsivity domain (? = 0.38; p = 0.019). PMID:24633733

Kadziela-Olech, Halina; Cichocki, Piotr; Chwiesko, Justyna; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Braszko, Jan Józef

2015-01-01

259

The manganese toxicity of cotton.  

PubMed

Cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum. Linn. var. Sankar 4) were grown at normal and toxic levels of substrate manganese, and the altered metabolism of manganese toxic plants was studied. The tissues of plants exposed to toxic levels of manganese had higher activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase, and the activities of catalase, ascorbic acid oxidase, glutathione oxidase and cytochrome c oxidase were lowered. In addition, the high manganese tissue had lower contents of ATP and glutathione but higher amounts of ascorbic acid. The respiration of the partially expanded leaves and the growing tips of toxic plants were depressed when compared to that of the normal tissues. The metabolic changes of manganese toxicity of cotton are placed in the following order: accumulation of manganese in the leaf tissue; a rise in respiration; stimulation of polyphenol oxidase; the appearance of initial toxicity symptoms; the evolution of ethylene and stimulation of peroxidase; the presence of severe toxicity symptoms; the depression of terminal oxidases and respiration; abscission of the growing tip and proliferation of the stem tissue. The early stimulation of polyphenol oxidase may be used to detect potential manganese toxicity. PMID:16658924

Sirkar, S; Amin, J V

1974-10-01

260

Prevalence of pain and association with psychiatric symptom severity in perinatally HIV-infected children as compared to controls living in HIV-affected households.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of pain and psychiatric symptoms in perinatally HIV-infected children at entry into P1055, a multicenter investigation of the prevalence and severity of psychiatric symptoms in HIV-infected children. Subjects 6-17 years of age and their primary caregivers were recruited from 29 International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials sites in the USA and Puerto Rico. A total of 576 children (320 HIV and 256 HIV- children) were enrolled from June 2005 to September 2006. Subject self-reports of pain were measured by the Wong-Baker visual analog scale and Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Symptomatology for anxiety, depression, and dysthymia was assessed through Symptom Inventory instruments. Caregiver's assessment of their child's pain and psychiatric symptomatology was similarly measured. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate predictors of pain. We found that a higher proportion of HIV-infected than uninfected subjects reported pain in the last two months (41% vs 32%, p=0.04), last two weeks (28% vs 19%, p=0.02), and lasting more than one week (20% vs 11%, p=0.03). Among HIV-infected youth, females (OR=1.53, p=0.09), White race (OR=2.15, p=0.04), and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Class C (OR=1.83, p=0.04) were significantly more likely to report pain. For all subjects, only 52% of caregivers recognized their child's pain and just 22% were aware that pain affected their child's daily activities. The odds of reported pain in HIV increased with higher symptom severity for generalized anxiety (OR=1.14, p=0.03), major depression (OR=1.15, p=0.03), and dysthymia (OR=1.18, p=0.01). This study underscores the importance of queries concerning pain and emotional stressors in the care of HIV and uninfected children exposed to HIV individuals. The discordance between patient and caregiver reports of pain and its impact on activities of daily living highlights that pain in children is under-recognized and therefore potentially under-treated. PMID:20401767

Serchuck, Leslie K; Williams, Paige L; Nachman, Sharon; Gadow, Kenneth D; Chernoff, Miriam; Schwartz, Lynnae

2010-05-01

261

Oil body-associated hazelnut allergens including oleosins are underrepresented in diagnostic extracts but associated with severe symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background Oil body-associated allergens such as oleosins have been reported for important allergenic foods such as peanut, sesame and hazelnut. Here we investigate whether oil body associated proteins (OAPs) are linked with specific clinical phenotypes and whether they are represented in skin prick test (SPT) reagents. Methods A hazelnut OAP fraction was characterized by mass-spectrometry (MS) to identify its major constituents. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies were generated against hazelnut OAPs. The presence of OAPs in commercially available hazelnut SPTs was studied by immunoblot and spiking experiments. OAP-specific IgE antibodies were measured in sera from patients with a convincing history of hazelnut allergy by RAST (n?=?91), immunoblot (n?=?22) and basophil histamine release (BHR; n?=?14). Results Hazelnut OAPs were analysed by MS and found to be dominated by oleosins at ~14 and ~17 kDa, and a 27 kDa band containing oleosin dimers and unidentified protein. In 36/91 sera specific IgE against hazelnut OAPs was detected, and confirmed to be biologically active by BHR (n?=?14). The majority (21/22) recognized the oleosin bands at 17 kDa on immunoblot, of which 11 exclusively. These OAP-specific IgE responses dominated by oleosin were associated with systemic reactions to hazelnut (OR 4.24; p?=?0.015) and negative SPT (?2 6.3, p?=?0.012). Immunoblot analysis using OAP-specific rabbit antiserum demonstrated that commercial SPT reagents are virtually devoid of OAPs, sometimes (3/9) resulting in false-negative SPT. Spiking of SPT reagents with OAP restored serum IgE binding of these false-negative patients on immunoblot at mainly 17 kDa. Conclusion Hazelnut allergens found in oil bodies dominated by oleosin are associated with more severe systemic reactions and negative SPT. Defatted diagnostic extracts are virtually devoid of these allergens, resulting in poor sensitivity for detection of IgE antibodies against these clinically relevant molecules. PMID:24484687

2014-01-01

262

Isoniazid toxicity presenting as seizures and metabolic acidosis.  

PubMed Central

The presenting signs and symptoms of isoniazid toxicity are discussed, with a review of the complications and management of this metabolic encephalopathy with B6 pyridoxine. This study supports previous studies in finding that ingestion of more than 80 mg/kg body weight produces severe central nervous system symptoms that are rapidly reversed with intravenous administration of pyridoxine. PMID:2304098

Watkins, R. C.; Hambrick, E. L.; Benjamin, G.; Chavda, S. N.

1990-01-01

263

Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Symptoms of Severe Agitation and Aggression: Consensus Statement on Treatment Options, Clinical Trials Methodology, and Policy  

PubMed Central

Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been used off-label in clinical practice for treatment of serious dementia-associated agitation and aggression. Following reports of cerebrovascular adverse events associated with the use of atypical antipsychotic in elderly patients with dementia, the FDA issued black box warnings for several atypical antipsychotics, titled “Cerebrovascular Adverse Events, including Stroke, in Elderly Patients with Dementia.” Subsequently, the FDA initiated a meta-analysis of safety data from 17 registration trials across six antipsychotic drugs (five atypical antipsychotics and haloperidol). In 2005, the Agency issued a black box warning regarding increased risk of mortality associated with the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs in this patient population. Geriatric mental health experts participating in a 2006 consensus conference reviewed evidence on the safety and efficacy of antipsychotics, as well as nonpharmacologic approaches, in treating dementia-related symptoms of agitation and aggression. They concluded that, while problems in clinical trials design may have been one of the contributors to the failure to find a signal of drug efficacy, the findings related to drug safety should be taken seriously by clinicians in assessing the potential risks and benefits of treatment in a frail population, and in advising families about treatment. Information provided to patients and family members should be documented in the patient’s chart. Drugs should be used only when non-pharmacologic approaches have failed to adequately control behavioral disruption. Participants also agreed that that there is a need for an FDA-approved medication for the treatment of severe, persistent or recurrent dementia-related symptoms of agitation and aggression (even in the absence of psychosis), that are unresponsive to nonpharmacologic intervention. The authors have outlined methodological enhancements to better evaluate treatment approaches in future registration trials, and they provided an algorithm for improving the treatment of these patients in nursing home and non-nursing home settings. PMID:18494535

Salzman, C; Jeste, D; Meyer, RE; Cohen-Mansfield, J; Cummings, J; Grossberg, G; Jarvik, L; Kraemer, H; Lebowitz, B; Maslow, K; Pollock, B; Raskind, M; Schultz, S; Wang, P; Zito, JM; Zubenko, GS

2009-01-01

264

Multiple White Matter Volume Reductions in Patients with Panic Disorder: Relationships between Orbitofrontal Gyrus Volume and Symptom Severity and Social Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Numerous brain regions are believed to be involved in the neuropathology of panic disorder (PD) including fronto-limbic regions, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. However, while several previous studies have demonstrated volumetric gray matter reductions in these brain regions, there have been no studies evaluating volumetric white matter changes in the fiber bundles connecting these regions. In addition, although patients with PD typically exhibit social, interpersonal and occupational dysfunction, the neuropathologies underlying these dysfunctions remain unclear. A voxel-based morphometry study was conducted to evaluate differences in regional white matter volume between 40 patients with PD and 40 healthy control subjects (HC). Correlation analyses were performed between the regional white matter volumes and patients' scores on the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Patients with PD demonstrated significant volumetric reductions in widespread white matter regions including fronto-limbic, thalamo-cortical and cerebellar pathways (p<0.05, FDR corrected). Furthermore, there was a significant negative relationship between right orbitofrontal gyrus (OFG) white matter volume and the severity of patients' clinical symptoms, as assessed with the PDSS. A significant positive relationship was also observed between patients' right OFG volumes and their scores on the GAF. Our results suggest that volumetric reductions in widespread white matter regions may play an important role in the pathology of PD. In particular, our results suggest that structural white matter abnormalities in the right OFG may contribute to the social, personal and occupational dysfunction typically experienced by patients with PD. PMID:24663245

Konishi, Jun; Asami, Takeshi; Hayano, Fumi; Yoshimi, Asuka; Hayasaka, Shunsuke; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Whitford, Thomas J.; Inoue, Tomio; Hirayasu, Yoshio

2014-01-01

265

E. coli Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. E. coli Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Symptoms Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) can cause the following symptoms: Nausea Severe ...

266

Associations between immunologic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress markers with severity of depressive symptoms: an analysis of the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated increased levels of serum markers of systemic inflammation and immune system function among individuals with depressive symptoms. Despite these observations, the biological mechanisms behind this association remain elusive. The objective of the present analysis was to examine the individual and joint associations of white blood cell counts, platelet counts, and C-reactive protein with depression severity and to determine whether oxidative stress might mediate these associations. We conducted an analysis of 3867 subjects from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Ordinal logistic regression was used to assess associations between three levels of depression symptom severity (as measured by the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire) and serum C-reactive protein, white blood cell counts, platelet counts, and four surrogate markers of oxidative stress. Covariates included sex, age, smoking status, physical activity, education, poverty to income ratio, as well as medication use and medical conditions influencing inflammation levels. In separate models, the risk of moderate to severe depression was significantly greater in the highest quartiles of CRP (OR=1.84. 95 percent confidence interval (CI)=1.35-2.52), WBC (OR=1.70, CI=1.31-2.19), and platelet counts (OR=1.41, CI=1.13-1.76) after adjusting for basic sociodemographic and behavioral factors. After additional adjustment for medication use and oxidative stress surrogate measures, the highest quartile of WBC counts remained associated with depression (OR=1.60, CI=1.23-2.09). Adjustment for oxidative stress measures did not substantially affect estimated associations of inflammation/immunologic markers. In summary, we observed significantly elevated white blood cell counts among subjects with moderate and severe depression, and oxidative stress and a medical history of inflammatory diseases do not appear to mediate this association. Although limited through its use of cross-sectional data, this is the first analysis to simultaneously consider immunologic and oxidative stress markers. Further research is needed to identify the biological basis for this persistent association. PMID:19853625

Kobrosly, Roni; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

2010-01-01

267

The intrinsic toxicity of several neonicotinoids to Lygus lineolaris and Hyaliodes vitripennis, a phytophagous and a predacious mirid.  

PubMed

The tarnished plant bug Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) is a key pest of apples in eastern Canada and, currently, chemical control is the only way to manage this pest. Hyaliodes vitripennis (Say) is a univoltine indigenous predacious mirid and an integral part of biological control programs for apples in certain regions of Quebec. In worst-case laboratory conditions, thiamethoxam, thiacloprid and acetamiprid were exceptionally toxic to this predacious mirid. The adults were more susceptible than the nymphs. However, the residual toxicity of these neonicotinoids to L lineolaris in orchards was very short-lived. Because of the short residual toxicity, neonicotinoids should be applied when L lineolaris is at maximum abundance and well before eggs of H vitripennis hatch in late June. PMID:15912570

Bostanian, Noubar J; Hardman, John M; Ventard, Estelle; Racette, Gaétan

2005-10-01

268

STRUCTURE-TOXICITY RELATIONSHIPS FOR INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS CAUSING TYPE(II) NARCOSIS SYNDROME  

EPA Science Inventory

Several structure-activity relationships have been published for estimating the lethality of nonpolar nonelectrolytes to fish. The vast majority of non-reactive industrial chemicals produce toxicity symptoms consistent with narcosis. However, researchers have found that many chem...

269

Toxic Encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

This article schematically reviews the clinical features, diagnostic approaches to, and toxicological implications of toxic encephalopathy. The review will focus on the most significant occupational causes of toxic encephalopathy. Chronic toxic encephalopathy, cerebellar syndrome, parkinsonism, and vascular encephalopathy are commonly encountered clinical syndromes of toxic encephalopathy. Few neurotoxins cause patients to present with pathognomonic neurological syndromes. The symptoms and signs of toxic encephalopathy may be mimicked by many psychiatric, metabolic, inflammatory, neoplastic, and degenerative diseases of the nervous system. Thus, the importance of good history-taking that considers exposure and a comprehensive neurological examination cannot be overemphasized in the diagnosis of toxic encephalopathy. Neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging typically play ancillary roles. The recognition of toxic encephalopathy is important because the correct diagnosis of occupational disease can prevent others (e.g., workers at the same worksite) from further harm by reducing their exposure to the toxin, and also often provides some indication of prognosis. Physicians must therefore be aware of the typical signs and symptoms of toxic encephalopathy, and close collaborations between neurologists and occupational physicians are needed to determine whether neurological disorders are related to occupational neurotoxin exposure. PMID:23251840

Kim, Jae Woo

2012-01-01

270

Cognitive impairments in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia types 1, 2 and 3 are positively correlated to the clinical severity of ataxia symptoms  

PubMed Central

Aims: This study is to assess cognitive function in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia types 1, 2 and 3 (SCA1, SCA2 and SCA3). Methods: We performed neuropsychological examinations on 8 SCA1 patients, 2 SCA2 patients, and 8 SCA3 patients, as well as 32 healthy subjects matching these patients in age, gender, nationality, and years of education. The neuropsychological examinations were focused on testing executive functions, visuo-spatial perception and verbal memory, attention, immediate and delayed recall, logical thinking function and orientation function. Results: SCA1 patients had significantly impaired executive function, visuo-spatial perception, and attention compared to healthy subjects. Cognitive disorders such as immediate and delayed recall, executive function and verbal memory were observed in SCA2 and SCA3 patients, while attention and visuo-spatial function were not affected. The severity of motor impairment was determined using the international cooperative ataxia rating scale, the scores of which ranged from 11 to 78. The number of patients with mild ataxia, moderate ataxia and severe ataxia was 3, 11, and 3, respectively, with the most severe ataxia occurring on a patient with SCA1. The scores of activities of daily living scale ranged from 20 to 66. Conclusions: Our results showed that mild executive dysfunction occurred in patients with SCA1, SCA2 and SCA3, and verbal fluency and word memory dysfunctions were detected in patients with SCA2 and SCA3. In addition, we found that the decreased logical thinking function and orientation function were observed in patients with SCA1, SCA2 and SCA3. The cognitive status was correlated with the clinical severity of ataxia symptoms rather than age, age of onset, years of education and the duration of disease. PMID:25664104

Ma, Jianhua; Wu, Chuanjia; Lei, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoning

2014-01-01

271

Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions  

PubMed Central

Severe cutaneous drug reactions are one of the commonest medical challenges presenting to an emergency room in any hospital. The manifestations range from maculopapular rash to severe systemic symptoms like renal failure and cardiovascular compromise. Toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythroderma, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis and drug induced vasculitis are the common cutaneous drug reactions which can have severe morbidity and even mortality. Careful history taking of the lag period after drug intake and associated symptoms, along with detailed examination of the skin, mucosa and various systems, help in early diagnosis of these reactions. Early stoppage of the incriminating drug, specific therapy including corticosteroids, cyclosporine and intravenous immunoglobulin depending on the case along with supportive therapy and local measures help in salvaging most patients. An overview of these important cutaneous drug reactions along with their management is being reviewed in this article. PMID:24600147

Verma, Rajesh; Vasudevan, Biju; Pragasam, Vijendran

2013-01-01

272

Clinical Factors Predicting Late Severe Urinary Toxicity After Postoperative Radiotherapy for Prostate Carcinoma: A Single-Institute Analysis of 742 Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the clinical factors independently predictive of long-term severe urinary sequelae after postprostatectomy radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Between 1993 and 2005, 742 consecutive patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy with either adjuvant (n = 556; median radiation dose, 70.2 Gy) or salvage (n = 186; median radiation dose, 72 Gy) intent. Results: After a median follow-up of 99 months, the 8-year risk of Grade 2 or greater and Grade 3 late urinary toxicity was almost identical (23.9% vs. 23.7% and 12% vs. 10%) in the adjuvant and salvage cohorts, respectively. On univariate analysis, acute toxicity was significantly predictive of late Grade 2 or greater sequelae in both subgroups (p <.0001 in both cases), and hypertension (p = .02) and whole-pelvis radiotherapy (p = .02) correlated significantly in the adjuvant cohort only. The variables predictive of late Grade 3 sequelae were acute Grade 2 or greater toxicity in both groups and whole-pelvis radiotherapy (8-year risk of Grade 3 events, 21% vs. 11%, p = .007), hypertension (8-year risk, 18% vs. 10%, p = .005), age {<=} 62 years at RT (8-year risk, 16% vs. 11%, p = .04) in the adjuvant subset, and radiation dose >72 Gy (8-year risk, 19% vs. 6%, p = .007) and age >71 years (8-year risk, 16% vs. 6%, p = .006) in the salvage subgroup. Multivariate analysis confirmed the independent predictive role of all the covariates indicated as statistically significant on univariate analysis. Conclusions: The risk of late Grade 2 or greater and Grade 3 urinary toxicity was almost identical, regardless of the RT intent. In the salvage cohort, older age and greater radiation doses resulted in a worse toxicity profile, and younger, hypertensive patients experienced a greater rate of severe late sequelae in the adjuvant setting. The causes of this latter correlation and apparently different etiopathogenesis of chronic damage in the two subgroups were unclear and deserve additional investigation.

Cozzarini, Cesare, E-mail: cozzarini.cesare@hsr.it [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Fiorino, Claudio [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Da Pozzo, Luigi Filippo [Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Alongi, Filippo; Berardi, Genoveffa; Bolognesi, Angelo [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Briganti, Alberto [Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Broggi, Sara [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Deli, Aniko [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Guazzoni, Giorgio [Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Perna, Lucia [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Pasetti, Marcella; Salvadori, Giovannella [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Montorsi, Francesco; Rigatti, Patrizio [Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Di Muzio, Nadia [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy)

2012-01-01

273

The Efficacy of Echinacea Compound Herbal Tea Preparation on the Severity and Duration of Upper Respiratory and Flu Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of an echinacea compound herbal tea preparation (Echinacea Plus®) given at early onset of cold or flu symptoms in a ran- dom assignment double-blind placebo-controlled study. Design and Subjects: A total of 95 subjects with early symptoms of cold or flu (runny nose, scratchy throat, fever) were randomly assigned

G. Frank Lindenmuth; Elise B. Lindenmuth

2000-01-01

274

Long-Term Fish Intake Is Associated With Less Severe Depressive Symptoms Among Elderly Men and WomenThe MEDIS (MEDiterranean ISlands Elderly) Epidemiological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This work aims at exploring the association between fish intake and depressive symptoms, in older adults. Method: During 2005-2007, 1,190 men and women (>65 years) free living in various Greek islands and in Cyprus participated in the study. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the validated Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and foods intake through a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Results: Almost

Vassiliki Bountziouka; Evangelos Polychronopoulos; Akis Zeimbekis; Eftichia Papavenetiou; Evaggelia Ladoukaki; Natassa Papairakleous; Efthimios Gotsis; George Metallinos; Christos Lionis; Demosthenes Panagiotakos

2009-01-01

275

Prognostic significance of atrial fibrillation and severity of symptoms of heart failure in patients with low gradient aortic stenosis and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to investigate the clinical outcomes of patients with low-gradient aortic stenosis despite preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and to assess reliable prognostic clinical-instrumental features in patients experiencing or not experiencing aortic valve replacement (AVR). Clinical-laboratory and echocardiographic data from 167 patients (median age 78 years, interquartile range 69 to 83) with aortic valve areas <1.0 cm(2), mean gradients ?30 mm Hg, and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (?55%), enrolled from 2005 to 2010, were analyzed. During a mean follow-up period of 44 ± 23 months, 33% of patients died. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of death were baseline New York Heart Association functional class III or IV (hazard ratio 2.16, p = 0.038) and atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio 2.00, p = 0.025). Conversely, AVR was protective (hazard ratio 0.25, p = 0.01). The magnitude of the protective effect of AVR seemed to be relatively more important in patients with atrial fibrillation than in those in sinus rhythm, independently of the severity of symptoms. Age >70 years showed a trend toward being a prognostic predictor (p = 0.082). In conclusion, in patients with low-gradient aortic stenosis despite a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, AVR was strongly correlated with a better prognosis. Patients with atrial fibrillation associated with advanced New York Heart Association class had the worst prognosis if treated medically but at the same time a relative better benefit from surgical intervention. PMID:25316349

Moretti, Michele; Fabris, Enrico; Morosin, Marco; Merlo, Marco; Barbati, Giulia; Pinamonti, Bruno; Gatti, Giuseppe; Pappalardo, Aniello; Sinagra, Gianfranco

2014-12-01

276

Symptom Management  

Cancer.gov

Symptom Management & Quality of Life Concept Design This video covers a variety of practical considerations for developing a symptom management concept for clinical research.. Co-sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Symptom Management and Health

277

Antimony Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients) and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically. PMID:21318007

Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

2010-01-01

278

Symptom clusters: the new frontier in symptom management research.  

PubMed

The majority of clinical studies on pain, fatigue, and depression associated with cancer are focused on one symptom. Although this approach has led to some advances in our understanding of a particular symptom, patients rarely present with a single symptom. Therefore, even though research focused on single symptoms needs to continue, it is imperative that symptom management research begins to focus on evaluating multiple symptoms, using cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs. In addition, research needs to focus on evaluating the relationships among multiple symptoms, specific interventions, and patient outcomes. One of the initial challenges in research regarding multiple symptoms is the terminology that should be used to describe the concept (e.g., symptom cluster, symptom constellation). Another significant area related to this aspect of symptom management research is determining the nature of clinically significant clusters of symptoms and their associated prevalence rates. Equally important is the need to determine what types of tools/instruments will provide the most valid and reliable data for the assessment of symptom clusters. Other areas that need to be considered as related to the assessment of symptom clusters include the establishment of cut points for symptom severity that would qualify a symptom for inclusion in a cluster; the focus of the assessment; and the choice of the outcome measures that will be used to judge the effect of a symptom cluster on the patient. In the area of intervention studies for symptom clusters, research will need to build on the limited number of clinical trials with single symptoms. Additional considerations related to research on symptom clusters include the determination of the mechanisms underlying the development of symptom clusters; the timing of the measurements for symptom clusters; and statistical challenges in the evaluation of symptom clusters. Research on symptom clusters in patients with cancer is cutting-edge science and a new frontier in symptom management research, and it needs to be done in tandem with research on single symptoms. PMID:15263036

Miaskowski, Christine; Dodd, Marylin; Lee, Kathryn

2004-01-01

279

Severe Aplastic Anemia following Acute Hepatitis from Toxic Liver Injury: Literature Review and Case Report of a Successful Outcome  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis associated aplastic anemia (HAAA) is a rare syndrome in which severe aplastic anemia (SAA) complicates the recovery of acute hepatitis (AH). HAAA is described to occur with AH caused by viral infections and also with idiopathic cases of AH and no clear etiology of liver injury. Clinically, AH can be mild to fulminant and transient to persistent and precedes the onset SAA. It is assumed that immunologic dysregulation following AH leads to the development of SAA. Several observations have been made to elucidate the immune mediated injury mechanisms, ensuing from liver injury and progressing to trigger bone marrow failure with the involvement of activated lymphocytes and severe T-cell imbalance. HAAA has a very poor outcome and often requires bone marrow transplant (BMT). The findings of immune related myeloid injury implied the use of immunosuppressive therapy (IST) and led to improved survival from HAAA. We report a case of young male who presented with AH resulting from the intake of muscle building protein supplements and anabolic steroids. The liver injury slowly resolved with supportive care and after 4 months of attack of AH, he developed SAA. He was treated with IST with successful outcome without the need for a BMT. PMID:25587471

Qureshi, Kamran; Sarwar, Usman; Khallafi, Hicham

2014-01-01

280

The Relationship Between Parenting Style, Cognitive Style, and Anxiety and Depression: Does Increased Early Adversity Influence Symptom Severity Through the Mediating Role of Cognitive Style?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the central role accorded to cognitive style in mediating the relationship between negative parenting and the development of anxiety and depression, few studies have empirically examined this relationship. Using a clinical sample, this study examined the relationship between early experiences with low care, increased control, abuse and neglect, and symptoms of anxiety and depression, via the mediating effects of

Lata K. McGinn; Daniel Cukor; William C. Sanderson

2005-01-01

281

Comparison of Work-related Symptoms and Visual Contrast Sensitivity between Employees at a Severely Water-damaged School and a School without Significant Water Damage  

EPA Science Inventory

NIOSH received a request for a health hazard evaluation at a water-damaged school in New Orleans, Louisiana. Employees submitted the request because of concerns about exposure to mold in their school building. We administered a work history and health symptom questionnaire. We al...

282

Successful Application of Adaptive Emotion Regulation Skills Predicts the Subsequent Reduction of Depressive Symptom Severity but neither the Reduction of Anxiety nor the Reduction of General Distress during the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective Deficits in general emotion regulation (ER) skills have been linked to symptoms of depression and are thus considered a promising target in the treatment of Major depressive disorder (MDD). However, at this point, the extent to which such skills are relevant for coping with depression and whether they should instead be considered a transdiagnostic factor remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether successful ER skills application is associated with changes in depressive symptom severity (DSS), anxiety symptom severity (ASS), and general distress severity (GDS) over the course of treatment for MDD. Methods Successful ER skills application, DSS, ASS, and GDS were assessed four times during the first three weeks of treatment in 175 inpatients who met the criteria for MDD. We computed Pearson correlations to test whether successful ER skills application and the three indicators of psychopathology are cross-sectionally associated. We then performed latent growth curve modelling to test whether changes in successful ER skills application are negatively associated with a reduction of DSS, ASS, or GDS. Finally, we utilized latent change score models to examine whether successful ER skills application predicts subsequent reduction of DSS, ASS, or GDS. Results Successful ER skills application was cross-sectionally associated with lower levels of DSS, ASS, and GDS at all points of assessment. An increase in successful skills application during treatment was associated with a decrease in DSS and GDS but not ASS. Finally, successful ER skills application predicted changes in subsequent DSS but neither changes in ASS nor changes in GDS. Conclusions Although general ER skills might be relevant for a broad range of psychopathological symptoms, they might be particularly important for the maintenance and treatment of depressive symptoms. PMID:25330159

Wirtz, Carolin M.; Radkovsky, Anna; Ebert, David D.; Berking, Matthias

2014-01-01

283

Syphilis Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... the infection will move to the next stages. Latent syphilis The latent (hidden) stage of syphilis begins when symptoms of secondary syphilis are over. In early latent syphilis, you might notice that signs and symptoms ...

284

Symptom Management  

MedlinePLUS

... TBI Educational Materials Research DVBIC Locations Press Symptom Management A brain injury can affect a person physically ... Diagnosis and Assessment Treatment and Recovery Caregiving Symptom Management Life After TBI Defense and Veterans Brain Injury ...

285

Blood Levels of S-100 Calcium-Binding Protein B, High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, and Interleukin-6 for Changes in Depressive Symptom Severity after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: Prospective Cohort Nested within a Randomized, Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cross-sectional and retrospective studies have associated major depressive disorder with glial activation and injury as well as blood–brain barrier disruption, but these associations have not been assessed prospectively. Here, we aimed to determine the relationship between changes in depressive symptom severity and in blood levels of S-100 calcium-binding protein B (S-100B), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 following an inflammatory challenge. Methods Fifty unselected participants were recruited from a randomized, controlled trial comparing coronary artery bypass grafting procedures performed with versus without cardiopulmonary bypass for the risk of neurocognitive decline. Depressive symptom severity was measured at baseline, discharge, and six-month follow-up using the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). The primary outcome of the present biomarker study was acute change in depressive symptom severity, defined as the intra-subject difference between baseline and discharge BDI-II scores. Blood biomarker levels were determined at baseline and 2 days postoperative. Results Changes in S-100B levels correlated positively with acute changes in depressive symptom severity (Spearman ?, 0.62; P?=?0.0004) and accounted for about one-fourth of their observed variance (R2, 0.23; P?=?0.0105). This association remained statistically significant after adjusting for baseline S-100B levels, age, weight, body-mass index, or ?-blocker use, but not baseline BDI-II scores (P?=?0.064). There was no statistically significant association between the primary outcome and baseline S-100B levels, baseline high-sensitivity C-reactive protein or interleukin-6 levels, or changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein or interleukin-6 levels. Among most participants, levels of all three biomarkers were normal at baseline and markedly elevated at 2 days postoperative. Conclusions Acute changes in depressive symptom severity were specifically associated with incremental changes in S-100B blood levels, largely independent of covariates associated with either. These findings support the hypothesis that glial activation and injury and blood–brain barrier disruption can be mechanistically linked to acute exacerbation of depressive symptoms in some individuals. PMID:25329583

Pearlman, Daniel M.; Brown, Jeremiah R.; MacKenzie, Todd A.; Hernandez, Felix; Najjar, Souhel

2014-01-01

286

Maternal toxicity.  

PubMed

Although demonstration of some degree of maternal toxicity is required in regulatory developmental toxicology studies, marked maternal toxicity may be a confounding factor in data interpretation. Reduction in maternal body weight gain is the far most frequently used endpoint of toxicity, but alternative endpoints, like organ toxicity or exaggerated pharmacological response, can also be taken into consideration. The following conclusions are based on literature data and discussions at maternal toxicity workshops attended by representatives from regulatory agencies, academia, and industry: (1) Available results do not support that maternal toxicity (defined as clinical signs, decreased body weight gain or absolute body weight loss of up to 15% in rats or 7% in rabbits) can be used to explain the occurrence of major malformations. (2) There is clear evidence that substantial reductions in maternal weight gain (or absolute weight loss) are linked with other manifestations of developmental toxicity. Among these can be mentioned decreased fetal weight, and skeletal anomalies (e.g., wavy ribs) in rats and decreased fetal weights, post implantation loss, abortions, and some skeletal anomalies in rabbits. (3) There are several examples of misinterpretation among companies, where it was incorrectly expected that regulatory authorities would not label chemicals/drugs as "teratogens/developmental toxicants" because embryo fetal adverse effects were only observed at doses also causing signs of maternal toxicity. (4) Similarly, even if mechanistic studies indicate that a substance causes developmental toxicity via exaggerated pharmacological effects in the mother, such a mechanism does not automatically negate the observed fetal adverse effects.From a regulatory perspective, an observed developmental toxic finding is considered to be of potential human relevance (even if it is mediated via maternal pharmacological effects or occur at doses causing signs of maternal toxicity) unless the company can provide appropriate mechanistic and/or other convincing evidence to the contrary. PMID:23138914

Danielsson, Bengt R

2013-01-01

287

Effect of weight reduction on the severity of lower urinary tract symptoms in obese male patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: A randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Purpose We assessed whether weight reduction is an effective intervention for the management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and investigated the relationship between obesity and LUTS. Materials and Methods This was a prospective randomized controlled trial that enrolled obese men older than 50 years with LUTS. The study period was 52 weeks. All patients received standardized alpha-adrenergic blocker therapy for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) during the run-in period. Patients were randomized to receive either a standardized prerecorded video program on the general principle of weight reduction or a comprehensive weight reduction program. Patients were assessed at different time points with symptom assessment, uroflowmetry, transrectal ultrasound, and metabolic assessment. Results Sixty-five patients were allocated to each study arm. After the study period, no significant difference in weight reduction was found between the two arms. When the pre- and postintervention parameters were compared, none were statistically different between the 2 arms, namely nocturia, International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life assessment, and uroflowmetry parameters. When the whole study population was taken as a single cohort, these parameters were also not significantly different between the group with a body mass index of 25 to <30 kg/m2 and the group with a BMI of 30 to 35 kg/m2. Conclusions We found no association between obesity and LUTS. This could have been due to the less marked weight difference in our cohort. Whereas weight reduction may be an effective measure to improve LUTS, the implementation of a successful program remains a challenge. PMID:25763129

Yee, Chi-Hang; So, Wing-Yee; Yip, Sidney KH; Wu, Edwin; Yau, Phyllis

2015-01-01

288

Extracorporeal Cardiac Shock Wave Therapy Ameliorates Clinical Symptoms and Improves Regional Myocardial Blood Flow in a Patient with Severe Coronary Artery Disease and Refractory Angina  

PubMed Central

Different therapeutic options are being used for chronic coronary artery disease (CAD). We report about a 51-year-old female with CAD and refractory angina pectoris despite maximally tolerated medical therapy and after both percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The patient received cardiac shock wave therapy (CSWT) over a period of 6 month. There was no arrhythmia during or after treatment; enzyme levels were normal at all times. PET imaging showed a substantial improvement of myocardial stress perfusion. Since the patient reported that she now was fully capable to deal with her everyday life, further treatment options were postponed. Our case report suggests that ultrasound-guided CSWT is able to improve symptoms and perfusion in ischemic myocardium. PMID:19724656

Prinz, Christian; Lindner, Oliver; Bitter, Thomas; Hering, Detlef; Burchert, Wolfgang; Horstkotte, Dieter; Faber, Lothar

2009-01-01

289

Kynurenine Pathway Pathologies: do Nicotinamide and Other Pathway Co-Factors have a Therapeutic Role in Reduction of Symptom Severity, Including Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and Fibromyalgia (FM).  

PubMed

The definition of dual tryptophan pathways has increased the understanding of the mind-body, body-mind dichotomy. The serotonergic pathway highlights the primary (endogenous) psychiatric disorders. The up-regulation of the kynurenine pathway by physical illnesses can cause neuropathic and immunological disorders1 associated with secondary neuropsychiatric symptoms. Tryptophan and nicotinamide deficiencies fall within the protein energy malnutrition (PEM) spectrum. They can arise if the kynurenine pathway is stressed by primary or secondary inflammatory conditions and the consequent imbalance of available catabolic/anabolic substrates may adversely influence convalescent phase efficiency. The replacement of depleted or reduced NAD+ levels and other cofactors can perhaps improve the clinical management of these disorders. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM) appear to meet the criteria of a tryptophan-kynurenine pathway disorder with potential neuroimmunological sequelae. Aspects of some of the putative precipitating factors have been previously outlined.2,3 An analysis of the areas of metabolic dysfunction will focus on future directions for research and management. PMID:23922501

Blankfield, Adele

2013-01-01

290

HIV Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) HIV symptoms Photo courtesy of AIDS.gov Facing AIDS ... and brain Return to top More information on HIV symptoms Explore other publications and websites Basic Information ...

291

Reassessment of theophylline toxicity. Serum concentrations, clinical course, and treatment.  

PubMed

It has been reported in the medical literature that in cases of theophylline toxicity a relationship exists between the serum theophylline concentration and the severity of symptoms. We reviewed the records of 20 inpatients receiving long-term theophylline therapy who had serum theophylline concentrations of at least 20 mg/L (111 mumol/L) or who had symptoms of theophylline toxicity. No relationship between the serum concentrations and the severity of toxic effect was seen. Metabolic abnormalities similar to those previously reported in intentional acute intoxication were noted. Cardiac arrhythmias were seen in approximately half of the patients, hypotension in only one. No patient in whom a conservative form of therapy was initiated at diagnosis went on to develop additional toxic effects. It is our finding that severe toxic reactions to theophylline can occur over a wide range of serum concentrations. Conservative treatment measures, specifically drug discontinuation and interference with additional oral absorption by activated charcoal, should be instituted unless life-threatening symptoms are present, when more aggressive therapy (such as charcoal hemoperfusion) is warranted. PMID:3827463

Bertino, J S; Walker, J W

1987-04-01

292

Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Primarily through the use of engaging graphics, this resource outlines where Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) occur in U.S. waters. It also addresses the differences between toxic and non-toxic HABs, which organisms in the food web are affected, how specific toxins work and the symptoms associated with them, and the causative phytoplankton species.

Bigelow Laboratory

293

Adaptive Behaviors in High-Functioning Taiwanese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Investigation of the Mediating Roles of Symptom Severity and Cognitive Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the relationship among cognitive level, autistic severity and adaptive function in a Taiwanese sample of 94 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (mean full scale intelligent quotients FSIQ = 84.8). Parents and teachers both completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II and the Social Responsiveness…

Chang, Chen-Lin; Lung, For-Wey; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen

2013-01-01

294

Identification of Genetic Loci Affecting the Severity of Symptoms of Hirschsprung Disease in Rats Carrying Ednrbsl Mutations by Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis  

PubMed Central

Hirschsprung’s disease (HSCR) is a congenital disease in neonates characterized by the absence of the enteric ganglia in a variable length of the distal colon. This disease results from multiple genetic interactions that modulate the ability of enteric neural crest cells to populate developing gut. We previously reported that three rat strains with different backgrounds (susceptible AGH-Ednrbsl/sl, resistant F344-Ednrbsl/sl, and LEH-Ednrbsl/sl) but the same null mutation of Ednrb show varying severity degrees of aganglionosis. This finding suggests that strain-specific genetic factors affect the severity of HSCR. Consistent with this finding, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the severity of HSCR on chromosome (Chr) 2 was identified using an F2 intercross between AGH and F344 strains. In the present study, we performed QTL analysis using an F2 intercross between the susceptible AGH and resistant LEH strains to identify the modifier/resistant loci for HSCR in Ednrb-deficient rats. A significant locus affecting the severity of HSCR was also detected within the Chr 2 region. These findings strongly suggest that a modifier gene of aganglionosis exists on Chr 2. In addition, two potentially causative SNPs (or mutations) were detected upstream of a known HSCR susceptibility gene, Gdnf. These SNPs were possibly responsible for the varied length of gut affected by aganglionosis. PMID:25790447

Torigoe, Daisuke; Lei, Chuzhao; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Sasaki, Nobuya; Wang, Jinxi; Agui, Takashi

2015-01-01

295

Language and Communication Skills in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Contribution of Cognition, Severity of Autism Symptoms, and Adaptive Functioning to the Variability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the contribution of cognitive function, severity of autism, and adaptive functioning to the variability in language and communication skills in 129 preschool children (aged 24-63 months) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were selected from a representative research cohort of 208 preschool children on the basis…

Kjellmer, Liselotte; Hedvall, Asa; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher; Norrelgen, Fritjof

2012-01-01

296

Impact of Adalimumab on Symptoms of Psoriatic Arthritis in Patients with Moderate to Severe Psoriasis: A Pooled Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Psoriatic arthritis often affects patients with psoriasis. Objective: To examine the effect of adalimumab on psoriatic arthritis in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Methods: Data from patients with psoriasis and a reported history of comorbid psoriatic arthritis in 3 randomized, placebo-controlled psoriasis trials of adalimumab were analyzed. Results: Adalimumab (n = 274) reduced the risk of psoriatic arthropathy

Philip J. Mease; James Signorovitch; Andrew P. Yu; Eric Q. Wu; Shiraz R. Gupta; Yanjun Bao; Parvez M. Mulani

2010-01-01

297

Comparing a ciliate and a fish cell lin e for their sensitivity to several classes of toxicants by the novel application of multiwell filter plates to Tetrahymena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although ciliated protozoa such as Tetrahymena have many desirable properties as toxicological test organisms, their attributes would be better realized if multiple cultures could be simultaneously exposed to toxicants, quickly washed to terminate toxicant exposure, and conveniently evaluated for changes in cellular functions. Therefore, multiwell filter plates (MWFPs), manufactured primarily for biochemical applications, were used to expose Tetrahymena thermophilato copper,

Vivian R. Dayeh; Sherri Grominsky; Stephanie J. DeWitte-Orr; Dana Sotornik

298

Analysis of the Effect of Memantine in Reducing the Worsening of Clinical Symptoms in Patients with Moderate to Severe Alzheimer’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and delaying disease worsening is a relevant treatment outcome. Methods: Data from 6 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-month studies were pooled and a subgroup of patients (867 on placebo, 959 on memantine) with moderate to severe AD (Mini- Mental State Examination <20) was analyzed. ‘Any clinical worsening’ was defined as a decline

David Wilkinson; Henning Friis Andersen

2007-01-01

299

The Impact of Race as a Risk Factor for Symptom Severity and Age at Diagnosis of Uterine Leiomyomata among Affected Sisters  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify risk factors for uterine leiomyomata (UL) in a racially diverse population of women with a family history of UL and to evaluate their contribution to disease severity and age at diagnosis. Study Design We collected and analyzed epidemiological data from 285 sister pairs diagnosed with UL. Risk factors for UL-related outcomes were compared among black (n=73) and white (n=212) sister pairs using univariate and multivariate regression models. Results Black women reported an average age at diagnosis of 5.3 years younger (SE 1.1, p<0.001) and were more likely to report severe disease (OR=5.22, CI 95% 1.99–13.7, p<0.001) than white women of similar socioeconomic status. Conclusions Self-reported race is a significant factor in the severity of UL among women with a family history of UL. Differences in disease presentation between races likely reflect underlying genetic heterogeneity. The affected sister-pair study design can address both epidemiological and genetic hypotheses about UL. PMID:18226615

HUYCK, Karen L.; PANHUYSEN, Carolien I.M.; T. CUENCO, Karen; ZHANG, Jingmei; GOLDHAMMER, Hilary; JONES, Emlyn S.; SOMASUNDARAM, Priya; LYNCH, Allison M.; HARLOW, Bernard L.; LEE, Hang; STEWART, Elizabeth A.; MORTON, Cynthia C.

2008-01-01

300

Plague Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Plague Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics Info ... Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Related Links USGS National Wildlife Health ...

301

Norovirus Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Norovirus Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent ... Norovirus Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

302

Glaucoma Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... angle, there are no discernible symptoms until the optic nerve is damaged and side (peripheral) vision is ... eye builds up gradually. At some point, the optic nerve is damaged and side vision (peripheral vision) ...

303

Targeting fibroblast activation protein in tumor stroma with chimeric antigen receptor T cells can inhibit tumor growth and augment host immunity without severe toxicity.  

PubMed

The majority of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell research has focused on attacking cancer cells. Here, we show that targeting the tumor-promoting, nontransformed stromal cells using CAR T cells may offer several advantages. We developed a retroviral CAR construct specific for the mouse fibroblast activation protein (FAP), comprising a single-chain Fv FAP [monoclonal antibody (mAb) 73.3] with the CD8? hinge and transmembrane regions, and the human CD3? and 4-1BB activation domains. The transduced muFAP-CAR mouse T cells secreted IFN-? and killed FAP-expressing 3T3 target cells specifically. Adoptively transferred 73.3-FAP-CAR mouse T cells selectively reduced FAP(hi) stromal cells and inhibited the growth of multiple types of subcutaneously transplanted tumors in wild-type, but not FAP-null immune-competent syngeneic mice. The antitumor effects could be augmented by multiple injections of the CAR T cells, by using CAR T cells with a deficiency in diacylglycerol kinase, or by combination with a vaccine. A major mechanism of action of the muFAP-CAR T cells was the augmentation of the endogenous CD8(+) T-cell antitumor responses. Off-tumor toxicity in our models was minimal following muFAP-CAR T-cell therapy. In summary, inhibiting tumor growth by targeting tumor stroma with adoptively transferred CAR T cells directed to FAP can be safe and effective, suggesting that further clinical development of anti-human FAP-CAR is warranted. PMID:24778279

Wang, Liang-Chuan S; Lo, Albert; Scholler, John; Sun, Jing; Majumdar, Rajrupa S; Kapoor, Veena; Antzis, Michael; Cotner, Cody E; Johnson, Laura A; Durham, Amy C; Solomides, Charalambos C; June, Carl H; Puré, Ellen; Albelda, Steven M

2014-02-01

304

Negative symptoms in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Clinical heterogeneity is a confound common to all of schizophrenia research. Deficit schizophrenia has been proposed as a homogeneous disease entity within the schizophrenia syndrome. Utilizing the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS) has allowed the definition of a subgroup dominated by persistent clusters of negative symptoms. While a number of studies have appeared over the years examining the electrophysiological correlates of the cluster of negative symptoms in schizophrenia, only a few studies have actually focused on the deficit syndrome (DS). PubMed as well as MEDLINE were searched for all reports indexed for "negative symptoms" or "deficit syndrome" and one of the following electrophysiology assessment tools: electroencephalography (EEG), evoked potentials (EPs), or polysomnography (PSG). While this line of research is evidently in its infancy, two significant trends emerge. First, spectral EEG studies link increased slow wave activity during wakefulness to the prevalence of negative symptoms. Secondly, sleep studies point to an association between decrease in slow wave sleep and prevalence of negative symptoms. Several studies also indicate a relationship of negative symptoms with reduced alpha activity. A host of other abnormalities--including sensory gating and P300 attenuation--are less consistently reported. Two studies specifically addressed electrophysiology of the DS. Both studies provided evidence suggesting that the DS may be a separate disease entity and not simply a severe form of schizophrenia. PMID:23428787

Boutros, Nash N; Mucci, Armida; Diwadkar, Vaibhav; Tandon, Rajiv

2014-04-01

305

Evidence That Psychotic Symptoms Are Prevalent in Disorders of Anxiety and Depression, Impacting on Illness Onset, Risk, and Severity—Implications for Diagnosis and Ultra–High Risk Research  

PubMed Central

Background: It is commonly assumed that there are clear lines of demarcation between anxiety and depressive disorders on the one hand and psychosis on the other. Recent evidence, however, suggests that this principle may be in need of updating. Methods: Depressive and/or anxiety disorders, with no previous history of psychotic disorder, were examined for the presence of psychotic symptoms in a representative community sample of adolescents and young adults (Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology study; n = 3021). Associations and consequences of psychotic symptomatology in the course of these disorders were examined in terms of demographic distribution, illness severity, onset of service use, and risk factors. Results: Around 27% of those with disorders of anxiety and depression displayed one or more psychotic symptoms, vs 14% in those without these disorders (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.89–2.66, P < .001). Presence as compared with nonpresence of psychotic symptomatology was associated with younger age (P < .0001), male sex (P < .0058), and poorer illness course (P < .0002). In addition, there was greater persistence of schizotypal (P < .0001) and negative symptoms (P < .0170), more observable illness behavior (P < .0001), greater likelihood of service use (P < .0069), as well as more evidence of familial liability for mental illness (P < .0100), exposure to trauma (P < .0150), recent and more distant life events (P < .0006–.0244), cannabis use (P < .0009), and any drug use (P < .0008). Conclusion: Copresence of psychotic symptomatology in disorders of anxiety and depression is common and a functionally and etiologically highly relevant feature, reinforcing the view that psychopathology is represented by a network or overlapping and reciprocally impacting dimensional liabilities. PMID:22258882

Wigman, Johanna T. W.; van Nierop, Martine; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Wittchen, Hans-Ullrich; van Os, Jim

2012-01-01

306

The response of primary rat and human osteoblasts and an immortalized rat osteoblast cell line to orthopaedic materials: comparative sensitivity of several toxicity indices.  

PubMed

When studying the biocompatibility of orthopaedic biomaterials it is often necessary to discriminate between responses which show mild cytotoxicity. It is therefore essential to use a very sensitive index of toxicity. We have compared the sensitivity of four well-established indices of toxicity: total cell protein content, leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reduced glutathione content and the MTT assay, with that of a novel index, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Comparisons were made by detecting nickel chloride toxicity in osteoblasts. ALP activity, the novel method, proved the most sensitive index of toxicity and it provides a convenient automated assay for assessing the interactions of materials with osteoblasts. The responses to nickel chloride and to aqueous extracts prepared from carbon fibre reinforced epoxy and polyetheretherketone (peek), two candidate materials for orthopaedic implants, were compared in primary and immortalized rat osteoblasts, and in primary human osteoblasts. Although the immortalized rat osteoblast cell line, FFC, was consistently the most sensitive cell type, the responses of the human cells and the FFC cell line were similar in terms of ALP activity throughout the range of nickel concentrations studied. Neither peek nor epoxy material extracts showed a significant decrease in the MTT or ALP responses in any of the three cell types. Our data suggest that immortalized rat osteoblasts may provide an in vitro model system for screening the biocompatibility of orthopaedic polymers. PMID:15348778

Macnair, R; Rodgers, E H; Macdonald, C; Wykman, A; Goldie, I; Grant, M H

1997-02-01

307

Boron toxicity in the rare serpentine plant, Streptanthus morrisonii.  

PubMed

The release of boron-laden mist from the cooling towers of some geothermal power stations in northern California potentially threatens nearby populations of the rare serpentine plant, Streptanthus morrisonii F. W. Hoffm. To assess the tolerance of S. morrisonii to high levels of boron, the effect of boron on leaf condition, life history, germination rate, growth rate, allocation and photosynthesis was measured on plants grown in a greenhouse. Relative to other species, S. morrisonii was tolerant of excess boron. On serpentine soil, mild to moderate toxicity symptoms (older leaves exhibiting chlorosis and necrosis, but few leaves killed) were apparent when the boron concentration in applied nutrient solutions was 240-650 microm. Severe toxicity symptoms (significant leaf loss, young leaves with toxicity symptoms) were apparent when the applied solution was over 1000 microm boron. Above 1000 microm boron, S. morrisonii appeared unable to complete its life cycle. On a tissue basis, boron toxicity was first observed when leaf boron content was 40-90 micromol g(-1) dry weight. In leaves with severe boron toxicity (> 35% injury), the boron content was generally above 130 micromol g(-1) dry weight. These levels were an order of magnitude above the tissue boron content of plants in the field. Prior to the onset of pronounced boron toxicity symptoms, growth rate, allocation patterns, and photosynthesis were unaffected by high boron. These results indicate that inhibition of growth and photosynthesis occurred because of a loss of viable tissue due to boron injury, rather than a progressive decline as leaf boron levels increased. PMID:15092365

Sage, R F; Ustin, S L; Manning, S J

1989-01-01

308

Acute genitourinary toxicity after high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer: Second analysis to determine the correlation between the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy and the severity of acute genitourinary toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We have been treating localized prostate cancer with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) at our institution. We recently reported the existence of a correlation between the severity of acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity and the urethral radiation dose in HDR brachytherapy by using different fractionation schema. The purpose of this study was to evaluate

Tetsuo. Akimoto; Hiroyuki Katoh; Shin-ei Noda; Kazuto Ito; Takumi Yamamoto; Bunzo Kashiwagi; Takashi Nakano

2005-01-01

309

Methods for aquatic toxicity-identification evaluations. Phase 3. Toxicity confirmation procedures. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Various procedures are described that provide evidence that the suspected toxicants in effluents are the actual toxicants. These procedures include: correlation, symptoms, relative sensitivity, spiking, mass balance, and miscellaneous procedures.

Mount, D.I.

1989-02-01

310

Symptoms of Aspergillosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Share Compartir Symptoms of Aspergillosis Symptoms of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) are similar to asthma The different ... cause different symptoms. 1 The symptoms of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) are similar to asthma symptoms, including: ...

311

Mechanisms of Phosphine Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Fumigation with phosphine gas is by far the most widely used treatment for the protection of stored grain against insect pests. The development of high-level resistance in insects now threatens its continued use. As there is no suitable chemical to replace phosphine, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of phosphine toxicity to increase the effectiveness of resistance management. Because phosphine is such a simple molecule (PH3), the chemistry of phosphorus is central to its toxicity. The elements above and below phosphorus in the periodic table are nitrogen (N) and arsenic (As), which also produce toxic hydrides, namely, NH3 and AsH3. The three hydrides cause related symptoms and similar changes to cellular and organismal physiology, including disruption of the sympathetic nervous system, suppressed energy metabolism and toxic changes to the redox state of the cell. We propose that these three effects are interdependent contributors to phosphine toxicity. PMID:21776261

Nath, Nisa S.; Bhattacharya, Ishita; Tuck, Andrew G.; Schlipalius, David I.; Ebert, Paul R.

2011-01-01

312

Sequelae in 145 patients with drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms: Survey conducted by the Asian Research Committee on Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions (ASCAR).  

PubMed

Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DIHS/DRESS) is a severe adverse drug reaction caused by specific drug. It is characterized by visceral organ involvement and reactivation of various human herpesviruses. Although sporadic reports have documented certain conditions that appear after the resolution of DIHS/DRESS, little information is available on sequelae after resolution of DIHS/DRESS in a large patient population. The Asian Research Committee on Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions, comprised of doctors from Japan and Taiwan, conducted a survey on sequelae and deterioration of the underlying disease in patients with DIHS/DRESS. This was achieved by directly interviewing patients who had been followed-up by experts or through a questionnaire mailed to patients. Questions were asked about new onset cardiovascular disease, collagen disease or autoimmune disease, gastrointestinal disease, renal disease, respiratory disease, neoplasms, and other diseases such as herpes zoster and diabetes mellitus, as well as deterioration of the underlying disease. A total of 145 patients were analyzed in this study. The following newly developed diseases after recovery from DIHS/DRESS were observed: Graves' disease (n = 2), Hashimoto's disease (n = 3), painless thyroiditis (n = 2), fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus (n = 5), and infectious diseases (n = 7). Several DIHS/DRESS patients with pre-existing renal dysfunction required lifelong hemodialysis. DIHS/DRESS is a condition that increases the risk of new onset of disease. Long-term observation of DIHS/DRESS can provide an opportunity to investigate substantial diseases from onset to the full-blown stage. Patients with DIHS/DRESS require careful long-term follow-up. PMID:25623158

Kano, Yoko; Tohyama, Mikiko; Aihara, Michiko; Matsukura, Setsuko; Watanabe, Hideaki; Sueki, Hirohiko; Iijima, Masafumi; Morita, Eishin; Niihara, Hiroyuki; Asada, Hideo; Kabashima, Kenji; Azukizawa, Hiroaki; Hashizume, Hideo; Nagao, Keisuke; Takahashi, Hayato; Abe, Riichiro; Sotozono, Chie; Kurosawa, Michiko; Aoyama, Yumi; Chu, Chia-Yu; Chung, Wen-Hung; Shiohara, Tetsuo

2015-03-01

313

Beyond toxicity  

PubMed Central

In non-cyanogenic plants, cyanide is a co-product of ethylene and camalexin biosynthesis. To maintain cyanide at non-toxic levels, Arabidopsis plants express the mitochondrial ?-cyanoalanine synthase CYS-C1. CYS-C1 knockout leads to an increased level of cyanide in the roots and leaves and a severe defect in root hair morphogenesis, suggesting that cyanide acts as a signaling factor in root development. During compatible and incompatible plant-bacteria interactions, cyanide accumulation and CYS-C1 gene expression are negatively correlated. Moreover, CYS-C1 mutation increases both plant tolerance to biotrophic pathogens and their susceptibility to necrotrophic fungi, indicating that cyanide could stimulate the salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway of the plant immune system. We hypothesize that CYS-C1 is essential for maintaining non-toxic concentrations of cyanide in the mitochondria to facilitate cyanide’s role in signaling. PMID:24398435

García, Irene; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C

2014-01-01

314

Cadmium toxicity  

PubMed Central

Cadmium is a well-known environmental pollutant with distinctly toxic effects on plants. It can displace certain essential metals from a wealth of metalloproteins, and thus disturb many normal physiological processes and cause severe developmental aberrant. The harmful effects of cadmium stress include, but are not limited to: reactive oxygen species overproduction, higher lipid hydroperoxide contents, and chloroplast structure change, which may lead to cell death. Plants have developed diverse mechanisms to alleviate environmental cadmium stress, e.g., cadmium pump and transporting cadmium into the leaf vacuoles. This mini-review focuses on the current research into understanding the cellular mechanisms of cadmium toxicity on cytoskeleton, vesicular trafficking and cell wall formation in plants. PMID:22499203

Wan, Lichuan; Zhang, Haiyan

2012-01-01

315

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Carotid Artery Disease?  

MedlinePLUS

... What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid artery disease may not cause signs or symptoms until it severely narrows or blocks a carotid artery. Signs and symptoms may include a bruit (broo- ...

316

Validation and application of HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of RBBR decolorization, a model for highly toxic molecules, using several fungi strains.  

PubMed

A novel analytical method using HPLC-MS/MS operating in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) for evaluation of fungi efficacy to decolorize Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) dye solution was developed, validated and applied. The method shows high sensibility allowing the detection of 4.6 pM of RBBR. Four fungal strains were tested in liquid medium, three strains of Aspergillus (Aspergillus aculeatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus) and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. All fungi were able to degrade the dye, with efficiencies ranging from 40% for P. chrysosporium up to 99% for A. flavus during a 30-day incubation period. During the experiment, increased accumulation of degradation products was observed in A. flavus cultures containing RBBR. Through the use of full scan HPLC-MS technique it was possible to propose the biogenesis of the microbial metabolic degradation pathway. Screening using microorganisms and RBBR may be hereafter used to investigate microbial biodegradation of high toxicity molecules such as dioxins. PMID:22985849

Perlatti, Bruno; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Forim, Moacir Rossi

2012-11-01

317

Physiology of metal toxicity in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum toxicity is discussed, including general effects (symptoms and physiological effects), differential aluminum tolerance in plants, beneficial effects of aluminum, and the genetic control of aluminum tolerance. Manganese and iron toxicity are discussed in the same framework. The toxicity of other metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, and Pb) is also discussed, though not as extensively as aluminum, manganese, and iron.

C. D. Foy; R. L. Chaney; M. C. White

1978-01-01

318

Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

2011-01-01

319

Toxicity of cycads  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a review of the literature on the use of cycads as food and medicine, with special attention to their toxic properties.\\u000a In the tropics and subtropics, where the plants are indigenous, their toxicity has long been known. Both gastrointestinal\\u000a and neurological effects have been reported. Although several toxic components of the plants have been investigated, none\\u000a has yet

Marjorie Grant Whiting

1963-01-01

320

Pulmonary toxicity following exposure to a tile coating product containing alkylsiloxanes. A clinical and toxicological evaluation  

PubMed Central

Context Coating products are widely used for making surfaces water and dirt repellent. However, on several occasions the use of these products has been associated with lung toxicity. Objective In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects of an aerosolized tile-coating product. Methods Thirty-nine persons, who reported respiratory and systemic symptoms following exposure to the tile-coating product, were clinically examined. The product was analysed chemically and furthermore, the exposure scenario was reconstructed using a climate chamber and the toxicological properties of the product were studied using in vivo and by in vitro surfactometry. Results The symptoms developed within few hours and included coughing, tachypnoea, chest pain, general malaise and fever. The physical examination revealed perihilar lung infiltrates on chest radiograph and reduced blood oxygen saturation. The acute symptoms resolved gradually within 1–3 days and no delayed symptoms were observed. By means of mass spectrometry and X-ray spectroscopy, it was shown that the product contained non-fluorinated alkylsiloxanes. The exposure conditions in the supermarket were reconstructed under controlled conditions in a climate chamber and particle and gas exposure levels were monitored over time allowing estimation of human exposure levels. Mice exposed to the product developed symptoms of acute pulmonary toxicity in a concentration-and time-dependent manner. The symptoms of acute pulmonary toxicity likely resulted from inhibition of the pulmonary surfactant function as demonstrated by in vitro surfactometry. Among these patients only a partial association between the level of exposure and the degree of respiratory symptoms was observed, which could be because of a high inter-individual difference in sensitivity and time-dependent changes in the chemical composition of the aerosol. Conclusion Workers need to cautiously apply surface coating products because the contents can be highly toxic through inhalation, and the aerosols can disperse to locations remote from the worksite and affect bystanders. PMID:24815546

Nørgaard, A. W.; Hansen, J. S.; Sørli, J. B.; Jacobsen, P.; Lynggard, F.; Levin, M.; Nielsen, G. D.; Wolkoff, P.; Ebbehøj, N. E.; Larsen, S. T.

2014-01-01

321

Beer consumption reduces cerebral oxidation caused by aluminum toxicity by normalizing gene expression of tumor necrotic factor alpha and several antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Aluminum (Al)-induced neurotoxicity is well known and different salts of aluminum have been reported to accelerate oxidative damage to biomolecules. The present study has examined whether silicon consumed in the form of silicic acid or beer could potentially inhibit aluminum toxicity in the brain. Male mice were administered with Al(NO(3))(3) orally at a dose of 450 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 3 month. Experimental mice were given Al(NO(3))(3) along with 50 mg/L of silicic acid or with 0.5 ml/day of beer. Al brain levels in the Al group were four times higher than those of control mice while silicic acid and beer group values were 40% lower than those of the Al group. We have observed that beer prevented accumulation of lipid damage significantly, which resulted from aluminum intake. Decline in the expression of mRNA of endogenous antioxidant enzymes associated with aluminum administration was also inhibited by beer and silicic acid. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) RNA expression was normalized in silicic acid and beer groups. Very high and significant correlations were found for the different parameters tested suggesting that moderate consumption of beer, due to its silicon content, effectively protects against the neurotoxic effects of aluminum. PMID:18096288

Gonzalez-Muñoz, M J; Meseguer, I; Sanchez-Reus, M I; Schultz, A; Olivero, R; Benedí, J; Sánchez-Muniz, F J

2008-03-01

322

Dysarthria as the leading symptom of hypothyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical symptoms of hypothyroidism are lethargy, cold intolerance, slowing of intellectual and motor activity, declining appetite, increasing weight, and dry skin. A 43-year-old man with hypothyroidism presented with dysarthria as the leading symptom. Further symptoms were cramps in the legs after exercise, dizziness, and stunned feeling. He suffered from severe snoring for 4 years, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was

Claudia Stöllberger; Josef Finsterer; Elisabeth Brand; Doris Tschabitscher

2001-01-01

323

Opioid rotation for toxicity reduction in terminal cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulation of active (toxic) metabolites of opioids might explain cases of opioid toxicity when high doses are used for long periods of time. Other mechanisms of late toxicity of opioids may be found at the receptor level. Whatever the cause, a change of opioids using equianalgesic doses can be expected to improve symptoms of toxicity in some patients, while maintaining

Noe´mi D. de Stoutz; Eduardo Bruera; Maria Suarez-Almazor

1995-01-01

324

Psychologic sequelae of chronic toxic waste exposure  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to toxic industrial substances has been a topic of increasing concern to environmentalists, government agencies, industrial engineers, and medical specialists. Our study focuses on the psychologic symptom responses of a community to perceived long-term exposure to toxic waste products. We compared their symptom clusters, as shown by their responses to questions on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-90 Item (SCL-90) and the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS), with symptom levels of normal and depressed subjects. Issues of media coverage, litigation, and potential for compensation complicate the psychiatric epidemiology of the subject.

Foulks, E.; McLellen, T. (Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States))

1992-02-01

325

The Impact of Depressive Symptoms in Adults with ADHD Symptoms on Family Function and ADHD Symptoms of Their Children  

PubMed Central

Objective People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit considerable impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. The present study aimed to examine the patterns of associations between ADHD symptoms, depression, and family functioning. Methods The sample consisted of 1,022 adults randomly selected from a district in Seoul, South Korea. Several self-assessment scales were utilized to rate ADHD symptoms (both past and current), current symptoms of depression, and level of family functioning. ADHD symptoms in the children of these participants were also assessed. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were performed; structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to determine the best fitting model. Results Adult ADHD symptoms were positively associated with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, in turn, mediated the relationship between adult ADHD symptoms and cohesion among family members. In addition, depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between adult ADHD symptoms and their children's ADHD symptoms. Conclusion The relationship between adult ADHD symptoms and family dysfunction may be influenced by depressive symptoms. When treating ADHD in adults, clinicians should pay attention to the presence or absence of depression. PMID:24843366

Hong, Soon-Beom; Lee, Jong-Ha; Chun, Duk Hee; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Cho, Soo-Churl

2014-01-01

326

Symptoms of Pneumocystis pneumonia  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Symptoms of Pneumocystis pneumonia The symptoms of PCP are fever, dry cough, ... Diagnosis & Testing Treatment & Outcomes Statistics Additional Information Pneumocystis pneumonia Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & ...

327

What are the symptoms of flu? Symptoms include sudden onset of  

E-print Network

What are the symptoms of flu? · Symptoms include sudden onset of: o fever/chills o cough o muscle a doctor? Most people recover without needing to see a doctor; the flu usually lasts 7 ­ 10 days and goes · Disorientation or confusion · Pain or pressure in chest · Severe or persistent vomiting · Flu-like symptoms

Ellis, Randy

328

Symptom Patterns Among Gulf War Registry Veterans  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We identify symptom patterns among veterans who believe they suffer from Gulf War–related illnesses and characterize groups of individuals with similar patterns. Methods. A mail survey was completed by 1161 veterans drawn from the Gulf War Health Registry. Results. An exploratory factor analysis revealed 4 symptom factors. A K-means cluster analysis revealed 2 groups: (1) veterans reporting good health and few moderate/severe symptoms, and (2) veterans reporting fair/poor health and endorsing an average of 37 symptoms, 75% as moderate/severe. Those in Cluster 2 were more likely to report having 1 or more of 24 medical conditions. Conclusions. These findings are consistent with previous investigations of symptom patterns in Gulf War veterans. This multisymptom illness may be more fully characterized by the extent, breadth, and severity of symptoms reported. PMID:12660208

Hallman, William K.; Kipen, Howard M.; Diefenbach, Michael; Boyd, Kendal; Kang, Han; Leventhal, Howard; Wartenberg, Daniel

2003-01-01

329

Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Morbid Obesity  

PubMed Central

Background: Several reports have shown an increased prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in obese subjects in community-based studies. To better understand the role of the GI tract in obesity, and because there are limited clinic-based studies, we documented the prevalence of upper and lower GI symptoms in morbidly obese individuals in a clinic setting. Objective: The aim of our study was to compare the prevalence of GI symptoms in morbidly obese individuals in a weight management clinic with non-obese individuals with similar comorbidities as morbidly obese individuals in an Internal Medicine clinic. Methods: Class II and III obese patients BMI >35?kg/m2 (N?=?114) and 182 non-obese patients (BMI <25?kg/m2) completed the GI symptoms survey between August 2011 and April 2012 were included in this study. The survey included 24 items pertaining to upper and lower GI symptoms. The participants rated the frequency of symptoms as absent (never, rarely) or present (occasionally, frequently). The symptoms were clustered into five categories: oral symptoms, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, and bowel habits. Responses to each symptom cluster were compared between obese group and normal weight groups using logistic regression. Results: Of the 24 items, 18 had a higher frequency in the obese group (p?symptoms: any oral symptom (OR?=?2.3, p?=?0.0013), dysphagia (OR 2.9, p?=?0.0006), and any gastroesophageal reflux (OR 3.8, p?symptoms: any abdominal pain (OR?=?1.7, p?=?0.042) and altered bowel habits (OR?=?2.8, p?symptoms in morbidly obese patients when compared to non-obese subjects. PMID:25593922

Huseini, Mustafa; Wood, G. Craig; Seiler, Jamie; Argyropoulos, George; Irving, Brian A.; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Benotti, Peter; Still, Christopher; Rolston, David D. K.

2014-01-01

330

Symptom burden in individuals with cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

The current study sought to (1) determine the relative frequency and severity of eight symptoms in adults with cerebral palsy (CP), (2) examine the perceived course of these eight symptoms over time, and (3) determine the associations between the severity of these symptoms and psychosocial functioning. Eighty-three adults with CP completed a measure assessing the frequency, severity, and perceived course of eight symptoms (pain, weakness, fatigue, imbalance, numbness, memory loss, vision loss, and shortness of breath). Respondents also completed measures of community integration and psychological functioning. The results indicated that pain, fatigue, imbalance, and weakness were the most common and severe symptoms reported. All symptoms were reported to have either stayed the same or worsened, rather than resolved, over time. The symptoms were more closely related to social integration than to home integration, productive activity, or psychological functioning. Memory loss was a unique predictor of social integration in the multivariate context. This study highlighted several common and problematic symptoms experienced by adults with CP. Additional research is needed to identify the most effective treatments for those symptoms that affect community integration and psychological functioning as a way to improve the quality of life of individuals with CP. PMID:21174251

Hirsh, Adam T.; Gallegos, Juan C.; Gertz, Kevin J.; Engel, Joyce M.; Jensen, Mark P.

2011-01-01

331

Texas A&M University System Extension: Toxic Plant Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Toxic Plant Database was developed by a team of Professors working through Texas Cooperative Extension, a division of the Texas A&M University System. Although the database focuses on toxic plants in Texas, many of the plants are found in other states as well as Mexico. This is a well-organized website containing pictures, maps, plant descriptions, information on the toxic agent, symptoms of poisoning, habitat, distribution, and "Integrated Toxic Plant Management for each toxic plant." Site users may search this extensive listing of Toxic Plants by the following categories: Common or Scientific Name, Region, Symptom, Livestock, or Plant Images. This site also links to a glossary of relevant terms.

332

Prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms and reflux-associated respiratory symptoms in asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) symptoms are common in asthma and have been extensively studied, but less so in the Asian continent. Reflux-associated respiratory symptoms (RARS) have, in contrast, been little-studied globally. We report the prevalence of GORD symptoms and RARS in adult asthmatics, and their association with asthma severity and medication use. Methods A cross-sectional analytical study. A validated interviewer-administered GORD scale was used to assess frequency and severity of seven GORD symptoms. Subjects were consecutive asthmatics attending medical clinics. Controls were matched subjects without respiratory symptoms. Results The mean (SD) composite GORD symptom score of asthmatics was significantly higher than controls (21.8 (17.2) versus 12.0 (7.6); P < 0.001) as was frequency of each symptom and RARS. Prevalence of GORD symptoms in asthmatics was 59.4% (95% CI, 59.1%-59.6%) versus 28.5% in controls (95% CI, 29.0% - 29.4%). 36% of asthmatics experienced respiratory symptoms in association with both typical and atypical GORD symptoms, compared to 10% of controls (P < 0.001). An asthmatic had a 3.5 times higher risk of experiencing a GORD symptom after adjusting for confounders (OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.5-5.3). Severity of asthma had a strong dose-response relationship with GORD symptoms. Asthma medication use did not significantly influence the presence of GORD symptoms. Conclusions GORD symptoms and RARS were more prevalent in a cohort of Sri Lankan adult asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics. Increased prevalence of RARS is associated with both typical and atypical symptoms of GORD. Asthma disease and its severity, but not asthma medication, appear to influence presence of GORD symptoms. PMID:20843346

2010-01-01

333

Duration and Severity of Symptoms and Levels of Plasma Interleukin1 Receptor Antagonist, Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor, and Adhesion Molecules in Patients with Common Cold Treated with Zinc Acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Zinc lozenges have been used for treatment of the common cold; however, the results remain controversial. Methods. Fifty ambulatory volunteers were recruited within 24 h of developing symptoms of the common cold for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of zinc. Participants took 1 lozenge containing 13.3 mg of zinc (as zinc acetate) or placebo every 2-3 h while awake.

Bin Bao; Diane Snell

2008-01-01

334

Correlates of dissociative symptoms among women with eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationship between dissociative symptoms and other Axis I and Axis II symptoms among a sample of 53 women diagnosed as having anorexia nervosa (n = 18), bulimia nervosa (n = 27), or eating disorder NOS (n = 8). Dissociative symptoms were measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale and the dissociation scale from the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40. Severity

David H. Gleaves; Kathleen P. Eberenz

1995-01-01

335

Gambling Problem Symptom Patterns and Stability Across Individual and Timeframe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies investigate gambling problems at the symptom level; even fewer investigate how symptom patterns change throughout the course of a gambling disorder. The current study utilized the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; Grant et al., 2004) to investigate how the specific symptoms of disordered gambling relate to its severity and course. Results demonstrated that symptom

Sarah E. Nelson; Line Gebauer; Richard A. LaBrie; Howard J. Shaffer

2009-01-01

336

Severe cutaneous adverse reaction to telaprevir.  

PubMed

A 50-year-old woman presented with diffuse, intensely pruritic pink-red papules on her trunk and extremities three weeks after starting combination therapy with ribavirin, telaprevir, and interferon. She also had cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, eosinophilia, and transaminitis consistent with a severe drug reaction to telaprevir. She was started on high potency topical steroids under inpatient observation and recovered within two weeks. Severe cutaneous eruptions secondary to telaprevir have resulted in black-box warnings for potentially fatal skin reactions, including Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN). Because these reactions carry acute mortality rates of 10%, prompt detection and treatment with steroids are important. As such, physicians should be aware of these potentially lethal side effects. PMID:25612120

Shuster, Marina; Do, Daihung; Nambudiri, Vinod

2015-01-01

337

Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in trauma-exposed college students: The role  

E-print Network

and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The present study utilized regression analysis to examine the unique relationships between various trauma-related cognitions and PTSD symptoms after to PTSD symptom severity. Gender and anxiety symptoms were also related to PTSD symptom severity

Liu, Taosheng

338

The investigation of alleged insecticide toxicity: a case involving chlordane exposure, multiple sclerosis, and peripheral neuropathy.  

PubMed

A man with no previous medical problems had two documented exposures to an insecticide containing the organophosphorous compounds chlordane and heptachlor. Six months to one year later, he began to experience neurological symptoms which progressed until his death. At autopsy, his brain showed classic findings of multiple sclerosis, and he had a severe peripheral neuropathy. Review of the literature indicates that the findings are not compatible with chlordane toxicity. Some of the factors to be used in determining the casual relationship between toxic exposure and disease processes are discussed. PMID:3023524

Blisard, K S; Kornfeld, M; McFeeley, P J; Smialek, J E

1986-10-01

339

Behavioral inhibition and PTSD symptoms in veterans  

PubMed Central

Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperamental bias to respond to novel stimuli with avoidance behaviors, is a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear whether BI accounts for additional variance in PTSD symptom severity beyond that accounted for by general anxiety. Here, 109 veterans (mean age 50.4 years, 9.2% female) provided self-assessment of PTSD symptoms, state and trait anxiety, combat exposure, and current (adult) and retrospective (childhood) BI. Adult BI was correlated with anxiety and PTSD symptom severity, especially cluster C (avoidance) symptoms, but not with combat exposure. A regression model including adult BI, state and trait anxiety, and combat exposure was able to correctly classify over 80% of participants according to presence or absence of severe PTSD symptoms. Because avoidance behaviors are a core component of PTSD, self-assessments of BI may be an important tool in understanding PTSD and potentially assessing vulnerability to the disorder. PMID:22397911

Myers, Catherine E.; VanMeenen, Kirsten M.; Servatius, Richard J.

2012-01-01

340

Psychotic symptoms in Parkinson’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychotic symptoms are common in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and occur in at least 20% of medication-treated patients. Benign visual hallucinations usually appear earlier, while malignant hallucinations, confusional states, delusions, paranoid beliefs, agitation, and delirium become more frequent with disease progression. Virtually all antiparkinsonian drugs may produce psychotic symptoms. Cognitive impairment, increased age, disease duration and severity, depression, and sleep disorders

Spiridon Papapetropoulos; D. C. Mash

2005-01-01

341

Post-traumatic symptoms in abused children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of symptoms have been described as sequelae of physical and sexual abuse in childhood. This review suggests that some of these symptoms can be understood as developmentally mediated manifestations of post-traumatic disorders. Like traumatized combat or concentration camp survivors, severely abused children develop anxiety, compulsive repetitions, sleep disturbances and depression, ego constriction, and disturbed expressions of anger. The

Jean Goodwin

1988-01-01

342

Listeriosis: Definition and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Dairy Products Recall & Advice to Consumers Case Count Maps Epi Curves Signs & Symptoms Key Resources Crave Brothers Farmstead Cheeses Recall & Advice to Consumers Case Count Maps Epi Curves Signs & Symptoms Key Resources Imported Frescolina ...

343

Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Progress Search form Search Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Signs and Symptoms Partly because there are different types of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) , the exact symptoms vary greatly from person to ...

344

General IC Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

General IC Symptoms Symptoms of interstitial cystitis (IC) differ from person to person and may even vary in the ... with IC pain . Revised January 12, 2010 About IC What is Interstitial Cystitis? 4 to 12 Million ...

345

Vestibulocochlear toxicity in a pair of siblings 15 years apart secondary to aspartame: two case reports  

PubMed Central

Introduction Aspartame may have idiosyncratic toxic effects for some people; however, there are few case reports published in the medical literature. We present two case reports in a pair of siblings, one with a vestibular and the other with a cochlear toxicity to aspartame. The cochlear toxicity is the first case to be reported, while the vestibular toxicity is the second case to be reported. Case presentation A 29-year-old white female had a 20-month history of nausea and headache, progressively getting worse with time and eventually to also involve vomiting, vertigo, and ataxia. She was extensively evaluated and diagnosed with a vestibular neuronitis versus a chronic labyrinthitis and treated symptomatically with limited success. In response to a newspaper article, she stopped her aspartame consumption with total cessation of her symptoms. Fifteen years later, her then 47-year-old white brother had a 30-month history of an intermittent, initially 5-10 minute long episode of a mild sensorineural hearing loss in his right ear that progressed over time to several hour episodes of a moderately severe high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss to include tinnitus and a hypoesthetic area in front of his right tragus. After a negative magnetic resonance scan of the brain, he remembered his sister's experience with aspartame and stopped his consumption of aspartame with resolution of his symptoms, although the very high frequency hearing loss took at least 15 months to resolve. For both, subsequent intentional challenges with aspartame and unintentional exposures brought back each of their respective symptoms. Conclusion Aspartame had a vestibulocochlear toxicity in a pair of siblings, suggesting a genetic susceptibility to aspartame toxicity. Even though the yield may be low, asking patients with dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, or high-frequency hearing loss about their aspartame consumption and suggesting cessation of its use, may prove helpful for some. PMID:20126318

2009-01-01

346

About Air Toxics  

MedlinePLUS

... are here: EPA Home Air & Radiation TTN Web - Technology Transfer Network Air Toxics Web site About Air Toxics About Air Toxics What are toxic air pollutants? What are the health & environmental effects of toxic air pollutants? Where do toxic ...

347

Social skills training and negative symptoms.  

PubMed

Schizophrenic patients with severe negative symptoms may have an impaired capacity to benefit from social skills training (SST), and their negative symptoms may show little change as a result of SST. The present study, employing a multiple-baseline design across-behaviors with three patients who had prominent negative schizophrenic symptoms, combined nonverbal skills training with the Stacking the Deck social skills game. Further, the study examined changes in both social skills (assessed using role-play and conversation tests) and negative symptoms. Depression, extrapyramidal side effects, and positive symptoms were also monitored. Modest improvements in social skills and negative symptoms were achieved. There was little evidence of a training effect. The unstable baselines may have contributed to this finding. It is important for further research to employ comprehensive patient-assessment procedures. PMID:1540123

Matousek, N; Edwards, J; Jackson, H J; Rudd, R P; McMurray, N E

1992-01-01

348

Signs and Symptoms of Congenital Heart Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... should. With severe defects, this can lead to heart failure . Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can' ... blood to meet the body's needs. Symptoms of heart failure include: Shortness of breath or trouble breathing Fatigue ...

349

HIV / AIDS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... HIV is present in large quantities in blood, semen, and vaginal fluids. More severe HIV symptoms—such ... transmission among injection drug users. Summer 2009 Issue: Volume 4 Number 3 Pages 13 - 15

350

NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS IN DEPRESSION  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Negative symptoms have been assessed in 34 cases of major depression (ROC) using the scale for assessment of negative symptoms. Negative symptoms were found to be quite frequently observed in these cases; common negative symptoms were inability to enjoy recreational interests and activities (76%), feelings of anhedonia (64.7%) and physical anergia (55.9%). Poverty of speech was found to be more in younger patients (P < .001). Avolition was seen more frequently in unmarried (P < .05) patients. No other signiticant correlation was noticed between demographic variables and negative symptoms. The implications of evaluating negative symptoms systematically in depressives are for future research especially for prognostication, treatment responses and classification of depression based on such symptoms. PMID:21927088

Chaturvedi, Santosh K.; Sarmukaddam, Sanjeev

1985-01-01

351

Beryllium Toxicity  

MedlinePLUS

... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Beryllium Toxicity Patient Education Care Instruction Sheet ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Page last reviewed: May 23, 2008 Page ...

352

Toxic megacolon  

MedlinePLUS

... a complication of inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease , and infections of the colon. ... Treating diseases that cause toxic megacolon, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, can prevent this condition.

353

Molecular Basis of the Biological Function of Molybdenum. The Relationship between Sulfite Oxidase and the Acute Toxicity of Bisulfite and SO2  

PubMed Central

The administration of tungsten to rats maintained on a low molybdenum diet resulted in a dose- and time-dependent loss of sulfite oxidase (EC 1.8.3.1) and xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2) activities and hepatic molybdenum. These tungsten-treated animals appeared healthy, but were more susceptible to bisulfite toxicity. The median lethal dose for intraperitoneal bisulfite was found to be 181 mg of NaHSO3 per kg for the animals deficient in sulfite oxidase, compared to 473 mg/kg for normal rats. The survival time of rats exposed to SO2 at concentrations of 590 ppm and higher was seen to be inversely related to the level of SO2. At 590 ppm and 925 ppm, control animals displayed symptoms of severe respiratory toxicity before death. At 2350 ppm of SO2, death was preceded by seizures and prostration, symptoms observed with the systemic toxicity of injected bisulfite. At 590 ppm, animals deficient in sulfite oxidase were indistinguishable from control animals. However, at 925 ppm and 2350 ppm, the deficient animals displayed symptoms of systemic toxicity and had much shorter survival times. It is concluded that sulfite oxidase is instrumental in counteracting the toxic systemic effects of bisulfite, either injected or derived from respired SO2. Respiratory death probably results from the toxicity of gaseous SO2 before absorption as bisulfite and cannot be alleviated by sulfite oxidase. Sulfite oxidase does not appear to be inducible by either bisulfite or SO2. PMID:4519654

Cohen, Harvey J.; Drew, Robert T.; Johnson, Jean L.; Rajagopalan, K. V.

1973-01-01

354

Somatization or psychosomatic symptoms?  

PubMed

The author describes some problems emerging from the approach to and comprehension of somatization symptoms, discussing ambiguities regarding somatization seen in the current classification manuals (ICD-10 and DSM-IV). Then the author presents a case report of a man who presented with a bizarre symptom of feminization that was successfully treated with psychotherapy. The author ends with a discussion of the relationship between meaning and symptom. PMID:16508030

Avila, Lazslo Antonio

2006-01-01

355

Common Gastrointestinal Symptoms: dyspepsia and Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed

The most common diagnoses among patients with dyspepsia are functional dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer, and gastric or esophageal cancer. Helicobacter pylori infection is present in many patients with dyspepsia and is etiologic in some conditions. The evaluation of dyspepsia divides patients into 3 categories: 1) for patients taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), NSAIDs should be discontinued; if symptoms resolve after discontinuation, no further evaluation is needed; 2) for patients with reflux symptoms, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) should be prescribed without endoscopy unless alarm symptoms are present; and 3) for patients with no NSAID use or reflux symptoms, evaluation depends on risk. Patients older than 55 years or with alarm symptoms are at high risk and should undergo endoscopy. Those 55 years or younger with no alarm symptoms are at low risk. Those patients should be tested for H pylori and treated if results are positive. If symptoms persist after eradication treatment, PPIs should be prescribed for 4 to 6 weeks; if symptoms persist after treatment, endoscopy should be obtained. If H pylori test results are negative, PPIs should be prescribed for 4 to 6 weeks. Endoscopy should be obtained if symptoms persist. There are several regimens for eradication of H pylori. The most effective is sequential therapy with a PPI and amoxicillin for 5 days followed by a PPI, clarithromycin, and tinidazole for another 5 days. PMID:24124704

Fashner, Julia; Gitu, Alfred Chege

2013-10-01

356

Toxic effects of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy-associated, very long chain fatty acids on glial cells and neurons from rat hippocampus in culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs; ? C22:0) accumulate in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD, OMIM 300100), a severe hereditary neurodegenerative disease, due to peroxisomal impairment. Previous studies analysed the development of X-ALD in humans and gene knockout animal models. However, the toxic effect of VLCFA leading to severe symptoms with progressive and multifocal demyelina- tion, adrenal insufficiency and inflammation still

Sabine Hein; Peter Schonfeld; Stefan Kahlert; Georg Reiser

2008-01-01

357

Kwashiorkor symptoms (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... resulting from inadequate protein intake. Early symptoms include fatigue, irritability, and lethargy. As protein deprivation continues, one sees growth failure, loss of muscle mass, generalized swelling (edema), and ...

358

Detection of sub-clinical lead toxicity in monocasters  

SciTech Connect

Lead poisoning has been documented since antiquity but occupational lead intoxication still continues to occur. Now there is a growing consensus that low levels of lead exposure often do not result in the manifestation of toxic symptoms, but may have subclinical toxicity on haemopoitic and renal system. Such toxicities are reported even at blood lead concentrations which were thought to be safe (60-80 {mu}g/dl) a decade ago. One of the several effects of lead, is inhibition of erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (d-ALAD), rate limiting enzyme of the heme synthesis. Similar effect on d-ALAD has been reported even at the blood lead concentrations of 20-30 {mu}g/dl which are much below the toxic limits of 60 {mu}g/dl. Occupational lead nephropathy has been reported from several countries. Ultrastructural alteration in renal tubules, due to chronic exposure of lead, are seen in both animals and human renal biopsy samples. However, detecting early renal damage is a difficult task, since the routine renal function tests like creatine clearance, Insulin clearance (GFR) etc. are altered only after severe kidney damage. Recently increased urinary excretion of lysomal enzyme N-acetyl-B-D-glucosaminidase, a marker of early nephrotoxicity has been reported in the workers exposed to various chemicals including lead. The present study has therefore been undertaken to evaluate the subclinical lead toxicity on haemopoetic and renal system using non invassive techniques in monocasters, who are occupationally exposed to lead fumes while preparing the type set letter blocks. 23 refs., 3 figs.

Kumar, B.D.; Krishnaswamy, K. [Food and Drug Toxicology Research Centre National Institute of Nutrition, Jamai Osmania (India)

1995-06-01

359

59 FR- Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...crisis until 5 days postexposure, and symptoms (primarily psychosis) recurred 24 days later. Similar signs of toxicity, characteristic...exfoliative dermatitis, muscle weakness, goiter, and toxic psychosis. The intravenous mouse LD 50 is 3.6 mg/kg. The...

1994-01-12

360

Symptoms and Signs Associated with Postpartum Thyroiditis  

PubMed Central

Background. Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a common triphasic autoimmune disease in women with thyroid peroxidase (TPO) autoantibodies. This study evaluated women's thyroid disease symptoms, physical findings, stress levels, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels across six postpartum months in three groups, TPO negative, TPO positive, and PPT positive women. Methods. Women were recruited in midpregnancy (n = 631) and TPO status was determined which then was used to form the three postpartum groups. The three groups were compared on TSH levels, thyroid symptoms, weight, blood pressure, heart rate, a thyroid exam, and stress scores. Results. Fifty-six percent of the TPO positive women developed PPT. Hypothyroid group (F (2, 742) = 5.8, P = .003) and hyperthyroid group (F (2, 747) = 6.6, P = .001) subscale scores differed by group. Several symptoms and stress scores were highest in the PPT group. Conclusions. The normal postpartum is associated with many symptoms that mimic thyroid disease symptoms, but severity is greater in women with either TPO or PPT positivity. While the most severe symptoms were generally seen in PPT positive women, even TPO positive women seem to have higher risk for these signs and symptoms. PMID:25405057

2014-01-01

361

Comparison of the toxicity of aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei leaf using the eye irritancy test.  

PubMed

To determine whether aqueous and ethanol fractions of the Angelica keiskei leaf exert toxicity when used for cosmetic purposes, we performed the acute eye irritancy test. Animals were treated with sample fractions (100 mg/dose) according to standard procedure guidelines. No significant changes or damage was detected in the fraction-treated groups in terms of ocular lesions in the cornea, the size of the cornea with turbidity, swelling of the eyelid and emission discharge. However, sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, a positive control, induced severe toxic symptoms. Thus, aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei do not appear to induce acute toxicity in the eye lens, as assessed from anatomical and pathological observations in the rabbit eye. Our results collectively suggest that aqueous and ethanol fractions show promise as cosmetic ingredients that do not cause eye toxicity. PMID:23226733

Son, Hyeong-U; Yoon, Eun-Kyung; Cha, Yong-Soo; Kim, Min-A; Shin, Yong-Kyu; Kim, Jong-Myung; Choi, Yong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Han

2012-11-01

362

Comparison of the toxicity of aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei leaf using the eye irritancy test  

PubMed Central

To determine whether aqueous and ethanol fractions of the Angelica keiskei leaf exert toxicity when used for cosmetic purposes, we performed the acute eye irritancy test. Animals were treated with sample fractions (100 mg/dose) according to standard procedure guidelines. No significant changes or damage was detected in the fraction-treated groups in terms of ocular lesions in the cornea, the size of the cornea with turbidity, swelling of the eyelid and emission discharge. However, sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, a positive control, induced severe toxic symptoms. Thus, aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei do not appear to induce acute toxicity in the eye lens, as assessed from anatomical and pathological observations in the rabbit eye. Our results collectively suggest that aqueous and ethanol fractions show promise as cosmetic ingredients that do not cause eye toxicity. PMID:23226733

SON, HYEONG-U; YOON, EUN-KYUNG; CHA, YONG-SOO; KIM, MIN-A; SHIN, YONG-KYU; KIM, JONG-MYUNG; CHOI, YONG-HEE; LEE, SANG-HAN

2012-01-01

363

Rheumatic symptoms in autoimmune thyroiditis.  

PubMed

Autoimmune thyroiditis (ATD) is generally regarded as a classic example of single organ autoimmunity with a high association with endocrine thyroid disorders. However, it is closely associated with several autoimmune diseases including rheumatologic syndromes and has long been known to have several rheumatic manifestations particularly in association with hypothyroidism. More recently, it has also been implicated in rheumatologic syndromes in the absence of hypothyroidism or subclinical hypothyroidism. There is also an emerging body of evidence that ATD is highly linked to chronic generalized pain syndromes including fibromyalgia. This review examines the rheumatic symptoms of ATD described in the current literature and discusses the clinical relevance of ATD in general rheumatology. PMID:25618571

Tagoe, Clement E

2015-02-01

364

Simple Identification of Complex ADHD Subtypes Using Current Symptom Counts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of the assessment of the accuracy of simple rules based on symptom count for assigning youths to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes show that having six or more total symptoms and fewer than three hyperactive-impulsive symptoms is an accurate predictor for the latent class sever inattentive subtype.

Volk, Heather E.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Hay, David A.; Todd, Richard D.

2009-01-01

365

A characteristic symptom of calcium deficiency in maize and sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appearance of the so?called “bull?whip”; in leaves of maize plants has been recognized as a calcium deficiency symptom. Another characteristic symptom, in which the leaf edges of maize plants become serrated and curl, is often observed when there is a low calcium supply, especially in solution cultures. The effects of several factors on this symptom were investigated using solution

T. Kawaski; M. Moritsugu

1979-01-01

366

Defining and measuring negative symptoms of schizophrenia in clinical trials.  

PubMed

Recent attention has focused on negative symptoms as a target for new therapeutic approaches including pharmacological agents, medical devices, and psychosocial treatments. Each of these approaches requires an instrument for measuring the severity of negative symptoms as well as changes in severity over time. The instrument selected should provide coverage for the domains of negative symptoms; it should be sensitive to change; it should be reliable and relatively brief; and it should be useful for large international trials. These criteria were used to evaluate a number of older instruments including the Schedule for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), and the Negative Symptom Assessment Scale (NSA). Two newer scales, the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) and the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) were developed following a National Institute of Mental Health consensus meeting and addressed some of the shortcomings of earlier instruments. PMID:24275698

Marder, Stephen R; Kirkpatrick, Brian

2014-05-01

367

The Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire: a measure of symptoms commonly experienced after head injury and its reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

After head injuries, particularly mild or moderate ones, a range of post-concussion symptoms (PCS) are often reported by patients. Such symptoms may significantly affect patients' psychosocial functioning. To date, no measure of the severity of PCS has been developed. This study presents the Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) as such a measure, derived from published material, and investigates its

N. S. King; S. Crawford; F. J. Wenden; N. E. G. Moss; D. T. Wade

1995-01-01

368

Clinical symptoms and symptom signatures of Alzheimer's disease subgroups.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial disorder that involves several different mechanisms. Over 99% of AD patients suffer from the sporadic form of the disease. Based on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-? (A?)(1-42), total tau, and ubiquitin--the markers associated with the histopathological hallmarks of the disease (A? plaques and abnormally hyperphosphorylated neurofibrillary tangles)--previous studies identified five subgroups of AD. Here we report the potential diagnostic predictive value of hallucination, hypokinesia, paranoia, rigidity, and tremors in aged individuals for AD and differences in the prevalence of these symptoms in the CSF marker-based subgroups of the disease. Analysis of 196 clinically diagnosed AD or Alzheimer with Lewy body, and 75 non-AD neurological and non-neurological control cases, all from a single center, showed that the presence of hallucination, hypokinesia, paranoia, rigidity, or tremors individually, or the presence of any of these, could diagnose AD with sensitivities and specificities of 14% and 99%; 30% and 99%; 15% and 99%; 16% and 100%; 16% and 96%; and 47% and 92%, respectively. The pattern of the prevalence of the above symptoms varied from AD subgroup to subgroup. Presence of any of these symptoms, as well as presence of each individual symptom except tremors, significantly differentiated AD subgroups from the predominantly control cluster. These findings encourage the exploration of hallucination, hypokinesia, paranoia, rigidity, and tremors in identifying various subgroups of AD for stratification of patients for clinical trials to develop therapeutic drugs. This study is for the special issue of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease honoring Inge Grundke-Iqbal who made several seminal contributions in AD research. PMID:24002184

Iqbal, Khalid; Flory, Michael; Soininen, Hilkka

2013-01-01

369

Protection Against Toxic Substances In Space Travel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the many sources of toxic contaminants in the space cabin atmosphere, thermal decomposition products from elastomers, plastics and other compounds are the most hazardous. A study of the decomposition characteristics and toxicity of several of these materials indicates that the smoke and fumes given off contribute significantly to the toxicity predicted on the basis of gaseous decomposition products only.

H. H. Bovee; J. E. Schubert

1963-01-01

370

Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polyoxymethylene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sample of polyoxymethylene was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Under several test conditions, this material gave shorter times to death than many other synthetic polymers. Carbon monoxide appeared to be the principal toxicant in the pyrolysis gases.

Hilado, C. J.; Schneider, J. E.; Brauer, D. P.

1979-01-01

371

Clinical Characteristics and Management of Late Urinary Symptom Flare Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is increasingly utilized as primary treatment for clinically localized prostate cancer. While acute post-SBRT urinary symptoms are well recognized, the late genitourinary toxicity of SBRT has not been fully described. Here, we characterize the clinical features of late urinary symptom flare and recommend conservative symptom management approaches that may alleviate the associated bother. Methods: Between February 2008 and August 2011, 216 men with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated definitively with SBRT at Georgetown University Hospital. Treatment was delivered using the CyberKnife with doses of 35–36.25?Gy in five fractions. The prevalence of each of five Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) graded urinary toxicities was assessed at each follow-up visit. Medication usage was documented at each visit. Patient-reported urinary symptoms were assessed using the American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC)-26 at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24?months. Late urinary symptom flare was defined as an increase in the AUA symptom score of ?5 points above baseline with a degree of severity in the moderate to severe range (AUA symptom score ?15). The relationship between the occurrence of flare and pre-treatment characteristics were examined. Results: For all patients, the AUA symptom score spiked transiently at 1?month post-SBRT. Of the 216 patients, 29 (13.4%) experienced a second transient increase in the AUA symptom score that met the criteria for late urinary symptom flare. Among flare patients, the median age was 66?years compared to 70 for those without flare (p?=?0.007). In patients who experienced flare, CTCAE urinary toxicities including dysuria, frequency/urgency, and retention peaked at 9–18?months, and alpha-antagonist utilization increased at 1?month post-treatment, rose sharply at 12?months post-treatment, and peaked at 18?months (85%) before decreasing at 24?months. The EPIC urinary summary score of flare patients declined transiently at 1?month and experienced a second, more protracted decline between 6 and 18?months before returning to near baseline at 2-year post-SBRT. Statistically and clinically significant increases in patient-reported frequency, weak stream, and dysuria were seen at 12?months post-SBRT. Among flare patients, 42.9% felt that urination was a moderate to big problem at 12?months following SBRT. Conclusion: In this study, we characterize late urinary symptom flare following SBRT. Late urinary symptom flare is a constellation of symptoms including urinary frequency/urgency, weak stream, and dysuria that transiently occurs 6–18?months post-SBRT. Provision of appropriate anticipatory counseling and the maintenance of prophylactic alpha-antagonists may limit the bother associated with this syndrome. PMID:24904833

Woo, Jennifer A.; Chen, Leonard N.; Bhagat, Aditi; Oermann, Eric K.; Kim, Joy S.; Moures, Rudy; Yung, Thomas; Lei, Siyuan; Collins, Brian T.; Kumar, Deepak; Suy, Simeng; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Lynch, John H.; Collins, Sean P.

2014-01-01

372

Prevention of local anesthetic systemic toxicity.  

PubMed

Although new drugs and techniques may improve outcomes when unintended high blood levels of local anesthetics occur, the primary focus of daily practice should remain the prevention of such events. Although adoption of no single "safety step" will reliably prevent systemic toxicity, the combination of several procedures seems to have reduced the frequency of systemic toxicity since 1981. These include the use of minimum effective doses, careful aspiration, and incremental injection, coupled with the use of intravascular markers when large doses are used. Epinephrine remains the most widely used and studied marker, but its reliability is impaired in the face of beta-blockade, anesthesia, advanced age, and active labor. As an alternative, the use of subtoxic doses of local anesthetics themselves can produce subjective symptoms in unpremedicated patients. Fentanyl has also been confirmed to produce sedation in pregnant women when used as an alternative. The use of ultrasound observation of needle placement and injection may be useful, but has also been reported as not completely reliable. Constant vigilance and suspicion are still needed along with a combination of as many of these safety steps as practical. PMID:20216035

Mulroy, Michael F; Hejtmanek, Michael R

2010-01-01

373

Mindfulness based stress reduction in post-treatment breast cancer patients: an examination of symptoms and symptom clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate prevalence and severity of symptoms and symptom clustering in breast cancer survivors who attended MBSR(BC).\\u000a Women were randomly assigned into MBSR(BC) or Usual Care (UC). Eligible women were ? 21 years, had been diagnosed with breast\\u000a cancer and completed treatment within 18 months of enrollment. Symptoms and interference with daily living were measured pre-\\u000a and post-MBSR(BC) using the M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory.

Cecile A. LengacherRichard; Richard R. Reich; Janice Post-White; Manolete Moscoso; Melissa M. Shelton; Michelle Barta; Nancy Le; Pinky Budhrani

374

Toxic remediation  

DOEpatents

What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

Matthews, Stephen M. (Alamed County, CA); Schonberg, Russell G. (Santa Clara County, CA); Fadness, David R. (Santa Clara County, CA)

1994-01-01

375

Thallium toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thallium (Tl+) is a toxic heavy metal which was accidentally discovered by Sir William Crookes in 1861 by burning the dust from a sulfuric acid industrial plant. He observed a bright green spectral band that quickly disappeared. Crookes named the new element ‘Thallium’ (after thallos meaning young shoot). In 1862, Lamy described the same spectral line and studied both the

Sonia Galván-Arzate; Abel Santamar??a

1998-01-01

376

The MentDis_ICF65+ study protocol: prevalence, 1-year incidence and symptom severity of mental disorders in the elderly and their relationship to impairment, functioning (ICF) and service utilisation  

PubMed Central

Background The EU currently lacks reliable data on the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders in older people. Despite the availability of several national and international epidemiological studies, the size and burden of mental disorders in the elderly remain unclear due to various reasons. Therefore, the aims of the MentDis_ICF65+ study are (1) to adapt existing assessment instruments, and (2) to collect data on the prevalence, the incidence, and the natural course and prognosis of mental disorders in the elderly. Method/design Using a cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal design, this multi-centre study from six European countries and associated states (Germany, Great Britain, Israel, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland) is based on age-stratified, random samples of elderly people living in the community. The study program consists of three phases: (1) a methodological phase devoted primarily to the adaptation of age- and gender-specific assessment tools for older people (e.g., the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) as well as psychometric evaluations including translation, back translation; (2) a baseline community study in all participating countries to assess the lifetime, 12 month and 1 month prevalence and comorbidity of mental disorders, including prior course, quality of life, health care utilization and helpseeking, impairments and participation and, (3) a 12 month follow-up of all baseline participants to monitor course and outcome as well as examine predictors. Discussion The study is an essential step forward towards the further development and improvement of harmonised instruments for the assessment of mental disorders as well as the evaluation of activity impairment and participation in older adults. This study will also facilitate the comparison of cross-cultural results. These results will have bearing on mental health care in the EU and will offer a starting point for necessary structural changes to be initiated for mental health care policy at the level of mental health care politics. PMID:23418914

2013-01-01

377

Psychiatric Symptoms in Alpha-Mannosidosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alpha-mannosidosis is characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID), moderate to severe neurosensory hearing loss, frequent infections, psychomotor disturbances and skeletal dysmorphism. For the first time, a panel of nine alpha-mannosidosis patients with psychiatric symptoms is presented. The clinical picture has several

Malm, D.; Pantel, J.; Linaker, O. M.

2005-01-01

378

An unblinded, randomised phase II study of platinum-based chemotherapy with vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation in the treatment of lung cancer with plasma homocysteine blood levels as a biomarker of severe neutropenic toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin B12 and folic acid (referred to as vitamin supplementation) improves the toxicity profile of pemetrexed containing regimens. Low baseline vitamin B12 and folate levels are reflected in a raised total homocysteine level (HC). Studies have suggested that pretreatment HC levels predict neutropenia toxicity. We have tested supplementation with vitamin B12 and folate in non-pemetrexed platinum-based regimens to decrease treatment-related toxicity and looked for a correlation between toxicity and change in homocysteine levels. Patient and method Eighty-three patients with advanced lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma were randomly assigned to receive platinum-based chemotherapy with (arm A) or without (arm B) vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation. The primary end point was grade 3/4 neutropenia and death within 30?days of treatment. Secondary end points included quality of life, overall survival (OS) and the relationship between baseline and post supplementation HC levels and toxicity. Results In the intention-to-treat population, no significant difference was seen between the two groups with respect to chemotherapy-induced grade 3/4 neutropenia and death within 30?days of chemotherapy (36% vs 37%; p=0.966, emesis (2% vs 6%; p=0.9) or OS (12.3?months vs 7?months; p=0.41). There was no significant difference in survival rates by baseline HC level (p=0.9). Decrease in HC with vitamin supplementation was less frequent than expected. High baseline HC levels decreased with vitamin supplementation in only 9/36 (25%) patients (successful supplementation). Post hoc analysis showed that patients in arm A who were successfully supplemented (9/36=25%) had less neutropenic toxicity (0% vs 69%; p=0.02) compared to unsupplemented patients. Conclusions The addition of vitamin B12 and folic acid to platinum-containing regimens did not overall improve the toxicity, quality of life or OS. Rates of grade 3/4 neutropenia at 36/37% was as predicted. Further studies to increase the rate of successful supplementation and to further test the biomarker potential of post supplementation HC levels in predicting chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in platinum-based chemotherapy are warranted. Trial registration number: EudracCT 2005-002736-10 ISRCTN8734355. PMID:25553247

Minchom, A R; Saksornchai, K; Bhosle, J; Gunapala, R; Puglisi, M; Lu, S K; Nimako, K; Coward, J; Yu, K C; Bordi, P; Popat, S; O'Brien, M E R

2014-01-01

379

Evaluation of theophylline overdoses and toxicities.  

PubMed

Patients presenting with elevated theophylline concentrations and manifestations of toxicity may be categorized as being either overdose or iatrogenic toxic. In addition to severe cardiac and neurologic toxicities, such as arrhythmias and seizures, OD patients probably require monitoring for manifestation of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, electrolyte abnormalities, and hypotension. The possibility of a delayed peak theophylline concentration after sustained release product ingestion must be considered. Patients with initial serum concentrations of less than 60 mg/L may receive a single dose of oral activated charcoal and have repeat concentrations drawn to ensure the avoidance of continued absorption. The presence of a serum concentration exceeding 60 mg/L in OD patients warrants initiation of elimination-enhancing modalities. Oral activated charcoal is the fastest and most readily available. Multiple-dose oral activated charcoal should be given until serum theophylline concentrations of 60 mg/L or less are reached. Cardiac monitoring and seizure precautions are recommended. Admission to the intensive care unit should be considered when serum concentrations do not decline after several hours of charcoal therapy or when seizures and severe cardiovascular manifestations occur. Patients having initial concentrations exceeding 100 mg/L and/or rapidly rising concentrations 100 mg/L over baseline values should be considered as candidates for CHP or RHP if available. If both CHP and RHP are unavailable or will be excessively delayed, HD is a reasonable alternative. Patients on chronic theophylline therapy (IA patients) presenting with symptoms of toxicity must be evaluated carefully. If serum concentrations are less than 20 mg/L, short-term observation or a reduction in dose should be sufficient. Patients with concentrations between 20 and 60 mg/L should be candidates for seizure precautions and cardiac monitoring. Oral activated charcoal may be started and continued until levels are below 20 mg/mL. Patients with concentrations in excess of 60 mg/L require intensive monitoring (including seizure precautions and cardiac monitoring) as well as initiation of MOAC or CHP/RHP as situation, availability, and patient tolerance dictate. Again, HD may be a reasonable alternative if the others are unavailable or contraindicated. PMID:3276248

Paloucek, F P; Rodvold, K A

1988-02-01

380

Pharmacotherapy of severe asthma  

PubMed Central

Severe asthma is a complex and heterogeneous phenotype where management can be challenging. While many patients with severe asthma respond to high-dose inhaled corticosteroids in combination with a long-acting ?-agonist, there remains a significant subset of patients that require oral corticosteroids to control symptoms. Alternative therapies are needed to help reduce the need for continuous oral corticosteroids; however, there are currently very few effective options. Several new alternatives to oral corticosteroids have been evaluated in severe asthma as add-on to conventional therapy. These include macrolide antibiotics, omalizumab, tumor necrosis factor-? inhibitors, cytokine receptor antagonists, and bronchial thermoplasty. The challenge with these entities is determining the appropriate phenotype of severe asthma where effectiveness is demonstrated, given the significant heterogeneity of the disease. Therefore, there is a crucial need to better understand the mechanisms and pathophysiology of severe asthma so more effective immunomodulators and biologic therapies can emerge. PMID:20462794

Firszt, Rafael; Kraft, Monica

2013-01-01

381

[Toxic fungi in Buenos Aires City and surroundings].  

PubMed

In Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales,Universidad de Buenos Aires there is a service called Servicio de Identificación de Hongos Tóxicos, directed by researchers of the Program of Medicinal Plants and Fungi Involved in Biological Degradation (PROPLAME-PRHIDEB, CONICET) that assist hospitals and other health establishments, identifying the different samples of fungi and providing information about their toxicity, so that patients can receive the correct treatment. The objective of the present study was to analyze all the cases received from 1985 to 2012. This analysis permitted the confection of a table identifying the most common toxic species. The information gathered revealed that 47% of the patients were under 18 years of age and had eaten basidiomes; the remaining 53% were adults who insisted that they were able to distinguish edible from toxic mushrooms. Chlorophyllum molybdites turned out to be the main cause of fungal intoxication in Buenos Aires, which is commonly confused with Macrolepiota procera, an edible mushroom. In the second place Amanita phalloides was registered, an agaric known to cause severe symptoms after a long period of latency (6-10 hours), and which can lead to hepatic failure even requiring a transplant to prevent severe internal injuries or even death, is not early and correctly treated. PMID:24152394

Romano, Gonzalo M; Iannone, Leopoldo; Novas, María V; Carmarán, Cecilia; Romero, Andrea I; López, Silvia E; Lechner, Bernardo E

2013-01-01

382

Residency Program Influenza Algorithm: Updated 07/14/10 Symptomatic with Rapid Onset of Symptoms: Fevers> 100 F URI Symptoms no Fevers  

E-print Network

: Fevers> 100° F URI Symptoms no Fevers PLUS: Respiratory Symptoms (Cough with or without sore throat nausea/diarrhea. ~ ASSUME INFLUENZA DO NOT COME TO WORK ~ ~ ! ~ If Fevers> 100°F develop: If symptoms are not ASSUME INFLUENZA progressive and !!Q fevers develop: I Assume URI. If severe symptoms w/o fevers: Stay

Leistikow, Bruce N.

383

Module 3 – Symptoms  

Cancer.gov

Module three of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study Original Version presents approaches to and management of commonly encountered symptoms and syndromes of cancer patients.

384

Frontotemporal Disorders: Common Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... business meeting or laugh at a funeral. Compulsive eating —Gorging on food, especially starchy foods like bread ... a call. Language Symptoms Aphasia —A language disorder in which the ability to use or understand words ...

385

Initial Symptoms of ALS  

MedlinePLUS

Home About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate Help fight ALS Donate About ALS What is ALS? Facts You Should Know Who does ALS affect? Diagnosing ALS Symptoms Forms of ALS Genetic ...

386

Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... biotherapy or immunotherapy. Watchful waiting is closely monitoring a patient's condition without giving any treatment until symptoms appear or change. Summer 2008 Issue: Volume 3 Number 3 Page 11

387

Coping with Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Team Finding Resources Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Educational Materials Do you want to know more about Parkinson's? PDF's materials provide information about symptoms, medications, resources & more. Order ...

388

Mitochondrial Disease: Possible Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease Possible Symptoms Getting a Diagnosis Treatments & Therapies Replacement Therapy EPI-743 Other Diseases Linked to Mitochondrial Disease ... Coordinators Ambassador Program NAMDC RDCRN Medical/Scientific Meetings Replacement Therapy EPI-743 Research Grants Grand Rounds National Symposium ...

389

Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... syncope), irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias), or sudden cardiac death. Children with cardiomyopathies of a metabolic nature may have additional symptoms of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), excessive acidity in the blood (metabolic acidosis) ...

390

Symptom Management Concept Design Webinar  

Cancer.gov

Objectives Describe the review process for a symptom management concept Identify the required elements included in a symptom management concept Identify key statistical considerations for a symptom management concept Describe issues to consider

391

Contact Dermatitis: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... treatments A - D Contact dermatitis Signs and symptoms Contact dermatitis: Signs and symptoms Allergic contact dermatitis : Testing ... these symptoms, you need immediate medical care. Allergic contact dermatitis This skin condition occurs when you have ...

392

Predicting toxicity in aquatic ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

Ash leachates and other utility wastes that may enter lakes or streams contain mixtures of chemicals that include several kinds of toxicants. The toxic properties of these mixtures vary with the chemical form and concentration of their constituents. EPRI is developing a general toxicity model (GTM) to simulate environmental conditions in bodies of water where toxicants are present, and to predict the effects of toxicants on aquatic life-forms and ecosystems. To date, scientists have developed analytical methods to measure ambient concentrations of the major species of trace elements (selenium, arsenic, and mercury) and a model to describe the biogeochemical role of selenium. Recent studies of selenium cycling through the aquatic food web support GTM development.

Porcella, D. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1992-03-01

393

Shellfish Toxicity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This eMedicine Clinical Knowledge Base webpage features information about shellfish toxicity for physicians and other healthcare professionals. Highlighting the four distinct shellfish poisoning syndromes - Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), Neurologic shellfish poisoning (NSP), Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) this webpage discusses background, pathophysiology, frequency, mortality/morbidity, age, and clinical descriptions. It also takes a deeper look at differentials, laboratory workup, treatment, medication, follow-up, medical/legal pitfalls, special concerns, and a bibliography.

Arnold, Thomas

394

Studying toxicity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

With funding from the George Mitchell Center for the Environment at the University of Maine, a team of scientists used a simple laboratory-based sediment resuspension design, and two well-established aquatic toxicology models, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), to evaluate if resuspension of Penobscot river sediment significantly elevates the toxicity of river water and to provide preliminary information on the types of chemicals likely to desorb during resuspension. The group collected sediments from two sites with known chemical contamination downstream of the Great Works and Veazie dams. The sediments were examined to determine the dynamics of PAH desorption and degradation under different resuspension frequencies. The scientists used clarified water from resuspension experiments for toxicity tests with the water-flea Ceriodaphnia dubia, and other aquatic test organisms to infer toxicity from sediments from northern California rivers. Data from the study will help ascertain whether metals and/or xenoestrogens are present in the desorption water and give insight into possible avenues of sediment remediation.

Elkus, A.; LeBlanc, L.; Kim, C.; Van Beneden, R.; Mayer, G.

2006-01-01

395

Toxic optic neuropathy following ingestion of homeopathic medication Arnica-30.  

PubMed

We report a case of acute, bilateral and severe vision loss after inadvertent consumption of a large quantity of the homoeopathic medication Arnica-30. Severe vomiting which required hospitalization preceded visual symptoms. In the acute stage, pupillary responses to light were absent and fundus examination was normal. Vision loss followed a fluctuating course, with profound loss noted after 6 weeks along with bilateral optic disc pallor. Neuro-ophthalmic examination and detailed investigations were performed, including magnetic resonance imaging, electroretinography (ERG) and visual evoked potentials (VEP). Ocular coherence tomography (OCT) showed gross thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer. While a differential diagnosis of posterior ischemic optic neuropathy was kept in mind, these findings supported a diagnosis of bilateral toxic optic neuropathy. Arnica-30 is popularly used to accelerate wound healing, including after oculoplastic surgery. While homeopathic medicines are generally considered safe due to the very low concentrations involved, Arnica-30 may be neurotoxic if consumed internally in large quantities. PMID:22877081

Venkatramani, Devendra V; Goel, Shubhra; Ratra, Vineet; Gandhi, Rashmin Anilkumar

2013-03-01

396

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Predict Symptom Severity of Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism is widely believed to be a heterogeneous disorder; diagnosis is currently based solely on clinical criteria, although genetic, as well as environmental, influences are thought to be prominent factors in the etiology of most forms of autism. Our goal is to determine whether a predictive model based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)…

Jiao, Yun; Chen, Rong; Ke, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Lu; Chu, Kangkang; Lu, Zuhong; Herskovits, Edward H.

2012-01-01

397

[Analgesic effect of sodium meclofenamate on several painful symptoms].  

PubMed

Three groups of 20 patients, who suffered of acute pain (dental or low back or menorrhalgia) have been randomized and treated, obtained their informed consent, with meclofenamic acid 100 mg or ketoprofene 50 mg by oral route. The study has been completed double blind to assess the powerful antalgic effect between the two drugs, the results underline that the two NSAID have a very good effect on pain of various nature. The patients have obtained a complete relief not always, but it appears very quickly also by oral route. Statistical analysis has revealed that meclofenamic acid effects are swifter than for ketoprofene, but the latter seems to have a longer action. PMID:8278067

Castellari, A

1993-09-01

398

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE CARCINOGENS AND HIGHLY TOXIC MATERIALS  

E-print Network

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE for CARCINOGENS AND HIGHLY TOXIC MATERIALS Location aid: Ingestion-- symptoms: First aid: Inhalation--symptoms: First aid: 10. Spills: Spill cleanup be as complete as possible: 12.2 #12;11. Phone numbers: Cornell Campus Police 911 (accidents, spills

Pawlowski, Wojtek

399

Holiday plants with toxic misconceptions.  

PubMed

Several plants are used for their decorative effect during winter holidays. This review explores the toxic reputation and proposed management for exposures to several of those, namely poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima), English holly (Ilex aquifolium), American holly (Ilex opaca), bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), Jerusalem cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum), American mistletoe (Phoradendron serotinum), and European mistletoe (Viscum album). PMID:23359840

Evens, Zabrina N; Stellpflug, Samuel J

2012-12-01

400

Holiday Plants with Toxic Misconceptions  

PubMed Central

Several plants are used for their decorative effect during winter holidays. This review explores the toxic reputation and proposed management for exposures to several of those, namely poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima), English holly (Ilex aquifolium), American holly (Ilex opaca), bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), Jerusalem cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum), American mistletoe (Phoradendron serotinum), and European mistletoe (Viscum album). PMID:23359840

Evens, Zabrina N.; Stellpflug, Samuel J.

2012-01-01

401

Neurobehavioral toxicity.  

PubMed Central

A growing number of agents are known to perturb one or more of the interconnected processes of the central nervous system. At the same time, there is an increase in the incidence of neurobehavioral disorders that are confronting clinicians with baffling symptoms and presentations that seem uncommon. Fundamental to the assessment of the environmental-relatedness of the syndromes is a work and exposure history, including information different from that routinely obtained in the clinical setting. Exposure examples are described to suggest the scope of inquiry necessary to differentiate neurotoxic syndromes from nonneurotoxic illness. PMID:10745641

Walker, B.

2000-01-01

402

Turning the Tide on Toxics in the Home.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides a guide for the safe use and disposal of toxic chemicals found around the home. Toxicity ratings given to compounds are explained along with the amount needed for a probable fatal dose for a 150-pound person. Each category of hazardous waste is provided with typical examples of the toxicants, a toxicity rating, several

Washington State Dept. of Ecology, Olympia.

403

Thallium toxicity.  

PubMed

Thallium (T1+) is a toxic heavy metal which was accidentally discovered by Sir William Crookes in 1861 by burning the dust from a sulfuric acid industrial plant. He observed a bright green spectral band that quickly disappeared. Crookes named the new element 'Thallium' (after thallos meaning young shoot). In 1862, Lamy described the same spectral line and studied both the physical and chemical properties of this new element (Prick, J.J.G., 1979. Thallium poisoning. In: Vinkrn, P.J., Bruyn, G.W. (Eds.), Intoxication of the Nervous System, Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol. 36. North-Holland, New York. pp. 239-278). PMID:9801025

Galván-Arzate, S; Santamaría, A

1998-09-30

404

Natural History of Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms  

PubMed Central

The North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry is a database that contains information from over 35,000 patient volunteers on symptom severity in 11 domains commonly affected in multiple sclerosis (MS): mobility, hand function, vision, fatigue, cognition, bowel/bladder function, sensory, spasticity, pain, depression, and tremor/coordination. The Registry affords a unique opportunity to study the frequency and severity of domain-specific impairment in a contemporary, mostly treated MS cohort over the course of the disease. The objective of this work was to calculate symptom prevalence in each of the 11 domains for years 0 to 30 from symptom onset. The resulting “symptom prevalence tables” demonstrate that a majority of participants perceive at least some degree of impairment in most domains as early as the first year of disease. The severity of impairment increases with disease duration across all domains, but the patterns of disability accumulation differ. The symptom prevalence tables illustrate the magnitude of perceived impact of the disease and highlight the extent of unmet need in symptomatic management. The tables are easy to use and allow MS patients and their clinicians to compare an individual's own impairment in any of the 11 domains to that of NARCOMS participants with the same disease duration. PMID:24453777

Bacon, Tamar E.; Chamot, Eric; Salter, Amber R.; Cutter, Gary R.; Kalina, Jennifer T.; Herbert, Joseph

2013-01-01

405

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

406

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

407

Psychological Symptoms, Smoking Lapse Behavior, and the Mediating Effects of Nicotine Withdrawal Symptoms: A Laboratory Study  

PubMed Central

The influence of psychological symptoms on smoking-lapse behavior is critical to understand. However, this relationship is obscured by comorbidity across multiple forms of psychological symptoms and their overlap with nicotine withdrawal. To address these challenges, we constructed a structural model of latent factors underlying 9 manifest scales of affective and behavioral symptoms and tested relations between latent factors and manifest scale residuals with nicotine withdrawal and smoking lapse in a laboratory analog task. Adult daily smokers (N = 286) completed a baseline session at which several forms of affective and behavioral symptoms were assessed and 2 experimental sessions (i.e., following 16 hr of smoking abstinence and following regular smoking), during which withdrawal symptoms and delay of smoking in exchange for monetary reinforcement, as an analogue for lapse propensity, were measured. A single second-order factor of general psychological maladjustment associated with more severe withdrawal-like symptoms, which in turn associated with shorter delay of smoking. The first-order factors, which tapped qualitatively unique domains of psychological symptoms (low positive affect, negative affect, disinhibition), and the manifest scale residuals provided little predictive power beyond the second-order factor with regard to lapse behavior. Relations among general psychological maladjustment, withdrawal-like symptoms, and lapse were significant in both abstinent and nonabstinent conditions, suggesting that psychological maladjustment, and not nicotine withdrawal per se, accounted for the relation with lapse. These results highlight the potential for smoking-cessation strategies that target general psychological maladjustment processes and have implications for addressing withdrawal-like symptoms among individuals with psychological symptoms. PMID:25243836

Ameringer, Katherine J.; Leventhal, Adam M.

2015-01-01

408

Symptom Dimensions and Functional Impairment in Early Psychosis: More to the Story than Just Negative Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Functional impairment is a defining feature of psychotic disorders and usually appears well before their onset. Negative symptoms play a prominent role in the impaired functioning of individuals with schizophrenia and those at clinical-high-risk (CHR) for psychosis. Despite high rates of depression and anxiety in early psychosis, few studies have examined the contribution of these symptoms to functioning in the putative ‘prodrome.’ In the current study, we tested the hypotheses that 1) worse negative and disorganized, but not positive, symptoms would be significantly related to impaired social and role functioning in two cohorts of CHR individuals (combined N = 98) and a separate sample of individuals with recent-onset (RO) psychotic disorders (N = 88); and 2) worse anxiety and depression would be significantly related to impaired functioning in both samples, above and beyond the contributions of negative and disorganized symptoms. Findings largely supported our hypotheses that more severe negative and disorganized symptoms were related to poorer social and role functioning in both samples. Anxiety and depression severity were significantly related to poorer functioning in both samples. In addition, depression, but not anxiety, predicted poorer global and social functioning above and beyond that explained by negative symptoms in the CHR sample. These results suggest the need for phase-specific treatment in early psychosis, with a focus on symptom dimensions to improve functional outcomes for CHR individuals. PMID:23587696

Fulford, Daniel; Niendam, Tara A.; Floyd, Erin G.; Carter, Cameron S.; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Vinogradov, Sophia; Stuart, Barbara K.; Loewy, Rachel L.

2013-01-01

409

Toxic encephalopathy caused by occupational exposure to 1, 2-Dichloroethane.  

PubMed

This study describes the clinical and neuroimaging features of five patients with 1, 2-Dichloroethane (DCE) toxic encephalopathy. From January 1st 1998 to June 30th 2009, five patients who were subsequently diagnosed with DCE toxic encephalopathy were admitted to our hospital. All were female workers who had been in contact with DCE and subsequently had had seizures or symptoms of intracranial hypertension, including headache, nausea, and vomiting. The cranial MRI showed extensive brain edema in either the subcortical white matter, bilateral globus pallidus, and cerebellar nucleus dendatus, or the cortices. Of the five patients in the study, three had vasogenic edema, one had cytotoxic edema, and one had both types of edema. Following treatment with steroids and mannitol for 3 to 10 weeks, all patients made either a partial or complete recovery. The imaging findings were resolved on a follow-up MRI. It is clear that occupational exposure to DCE can cause severe toxic encephalopathy. Moreover, extensive brain edema, secondary to blood-brain barrier damage or neuronal injury, is the major neuroimaging feature and the cause of clinical manifestations. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment leads to a good outcome. PMID:20163807

Liu, Jian-Ren; Fang, Shan; Ding, Mei-Ping; Chen, Zhi-Cai; Zhou, Jia-Jun; Sun, Fen; Jiang, Biao; Huang, Jian

2010-05-15

410

[Rhabdomyolysis as an unspecyfic symptom of mushroom poisoning--a case report].  

PubMed

Since 2001 a number of cases of mushroom poisoning with concomitant rhabdomyolysis have been described. Among the edible mushrooms growing in Europe, these reports concerned only Tricholoma equestre. The results of animal studies suggest that rhabdomyolysis could be a consequence of consumption of other edible fungi, and its occurrence depends on the amount of ingested mushrooms and individual sensitivity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of rhabdomyolysis associated with the consumption of edible mushrooms from Leccinum and Boletus species. A 57-years old man was admitted to the hospital due to severe pain and weakness of thigh muscles with a high serum creatine kinase activity -3811 U/L. Within two days before hospitalization he consumed repeatedly large quantities of stewed Leccinum and Boletus mushrooms. Clinical signs of toxicity and biochemical changes subsided after several days of hospitalization. Rhabdomyolysis after ingestion of a large amount of mushrooms can be an unspecific symptom, unrelated to fungi species. PMID:24466721

Chwaluk, Pawe?

2013-01-01

411

Dose-Volume Effects on Patient-Reported Acute Gastrointestinal Symptoms During Chemoradiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Research on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in rectal cancer is limited. We examined whether dose-volume parameters of the small bowel and large bowel were associated with patient-reported gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemoradiation treatment for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: 66 patients treated at the Brigham and Women's Hospital or Massachusetts General Hospital between 2006 and 2008 were included. Weekly during treatment, patients completed a questionnaire assessing severity of diarrhea, urgency, pain, cramping, mucus, and tenesmus. The association between dosimetric parameters and changes in overall GI symptoms from baseline through treatment was examined by using Spearman's correlation. Potential associations between these parameters and individual GI symptoms were also explored. Results: The amount of small bowel receiving at least 15 Gy (V15) was significantly associated with acute symptoms (p = 0.01), and other dosimetric parameters ranging from V5 to V45 also trended toward association. For the large bowel, correlations between dosimetric parameters and overall GI symptoms at the higher dose levels from V25 to V45 did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.1), and a significant association was seen with rectal pain from V15 to V45 (p < 0.01). Other individual symptoms did not correlate with small bowel or large bowel dosimetric parameters. Conclusions: The results of this study using PROs are consistent with prior studies with physician-assessed acute toxicity, and they identify small bowel V15 as an important predictor of acute GI symptoms during 5-FU-based chemoradiation treatment. A better understanding of the relationship between radiation dosimetric parameters and PROs may allow physicians to improve radiation planning to optimize patient outcomes.

Chen, Ronald C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mamon, Harvey J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ancukiewicz, Marek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Killoran, Joseph H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Crowley, Elizabeth M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wo, Jennifer Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ryan, David P. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hong, Theodore S., E-mail: tshong1@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

2012-07-15

412

Melanoma: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... from the rest or is changing in size, shape, or color. If you see a mole or new spot ... ugly duckling). Non-uniform mole (has an odd shape, uneven or uncertain border, different colors). Symptoms of melanoma In the early stages, melanoma ...

413

Bullying and PTSD Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PTSD symptoms related to school bullying have rarely been investigated, and never in national samples. We used data from a national survey to investigate this among students from grades 8 and 9 (n = 963). The prevalence estimates of exposure to bullying were within the range of earlier research findings. Multinomial logistic regression showed that…

Idsoe, Thormod; Dyregrov, Atle; Idsoe, Ella Cosmovici

2012-01-01

414

Toxic chemicals and toxic laws  

SciTech Connect

Recently there was consternation when it was discovered that a program intended to help minorities and the underprivileged in Detroit might have to be canceled. The reason was that some of the land on which new buildings were built was thought to contain toxic chemicals and therefore fell under the provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (or Superfund). This collision of two valuable programs illustrates how a program originally heralded to carry out a worthwhile goal can become flawed. Since 1980, when the Superfund Act was passed by an overwhelming majority in Congress, only 34 of 1,245 identified priority sites have been cleaned up while approximately 40% of the money has been spent in trial litigation and administrative oversight. Critics, many of them within the EPA, point out that if the chemical danger level had been scientifically determined, approximately 90% of the truly important sites could have been cleaned up by now and the money wisely spent. However, the program was designed so that Congress initially did not have to raise much money or raise taxes and instead could argue that the program would not cost the taxpayer anything because it soaked the corporations. What needs to be done First, priority decisions should be taken out of the hands of nonscientists and lawyers and placed in those of scientists who are knowledgeable about toxic agents, who can identify effective targets objectively and who can establish workable priorities for removal of toxic waste. Second, a significant fraction of the money should be dedicated to research and to new programs that are more cost-effective. The purpose is to get chemical manufacturers thinking about reducing pollutants and the cost of cleanup when they plan to manufacture a chemical.

Koshland, D.E. Jr.

1991-08-30

415

Update on toxic myopathies.  

PubMed

The toxic myopathies are a clinically and pathologically diverse group of disorders that can be caused by a variety of therapeutic agents used in clinical practice, as well as various venoms and other biological toxins. The most important iatrogenic causes are the statin and fibrate cholesterol-lowering agents that can cause a severe necrotizing myopathy and acute rhabdomyolysis and myoglobi