Sample records for severe toxic symptoms

  1. Severe amiodarone induced pulmonary toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Nacca, Nicholas; Yuhico, Luke S; Pinnamaneni, Sowmya; Szombathy, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    A known complication of Amiodarone therapy is Amiodarone induced Pulmonary Toxicity (APT). Several features of this adverse effect make it difficult to diagnosis and treat. The case of a 63-year-old male with classic radiographic and histologic findings of APT is discussed. Clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnostic findings, and treatment strategies are reviewed. The patient was successfully managed with pulse high dose steroid therapy. PMID:23205299

  2. 9 CFR 309.4 - Livestock showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...infectious equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage...

  3. Self-compassion and PTSD symptom severity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian L. Thompson; Jennifer Waltz

    2008-01-01

    Neff 's (2003a, 2003b) notion of self-compassion emphasizes kindness towards one's self, a feeling of connectedness with others, and mindful awareness of distressing experiences. Because exposure to trauma and subsequent posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS) may be associated with self-criticism and avoidance of internal experiences, the authors examined the relationship between self-compassion and PSS. Out of a sample of 210 university

  4. Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gideon E. Anholt; Danielle C. Cath; Patricia van Oppen; Merijn Eikelenboom; Johannes H. Smit; Harold van Megen

    2010-01-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity\\u000a disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore,\\u000a 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and ASD symptoms. OCD patients showed\\u000a increased ADHD and autism symptom frequencies, OCD + ADHD patients reporting more autism symptoms

  5. Severe Toxicity Following Synthetic Cannabinoid Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    LAPOINT, J.; JAMES, L. P.; MORAN, C. L.; NELSON, L. S.; HOFFMAN, R. S.; MORAN, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report a case of seizures and supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) following confirmed synthetic cannabinoid ingestion. Background Despite widespread use of legal synthetic cannabinoids, reports of serious toxicity following confirmed use of synthetic cannabinoids are rare. We report severe toxicity including seizures following intentional ingestion of the synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018 and detail confirmation by laboratory analysis. Case Report A healthy 48 year old man had a generalized seizure within thirty minutes of ingesting an ethanol mixture containing a white powder he purchased from the Internet in an attempt to get high. Seizures recurred and abated with lorazepam. Initial vital signs were: pulse, 106/min; BP, 140/88 mmHg; respirations, 22/min; temperature, 37.7 °C. A noncontrast computed tomography of the brain and EEG were negative, and serum chemistry values were normal. The blood ethanol concentration was 3.8 mg/dL and the CPK 2,649 U/L. Urine drug screening by EMIT was negative for common drugs of abuse, including tetrahydrocannabinol. On hospital day 1, he developed medically refractory SVT. The patient had no further complications and was discharged in his normal state of health 10 days after admission. The original powder was confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to be JWH-018, and a primary JWH-018 metabolite was detected in the patient’s urine (200 nM) using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Discussion Synthetic cannabinoids are legal in many parts of the world and easily obtained over the Internet. Data on human toxicity are limited and real-time confirmatory testing is unavailable to clinicians. The potential for toxicity exists for users mistakenly associating the dose and side effect profiles of synthetic cannabinoids to those of marijuana. Conclusion Ingestion of JWH-018 can produce seizures and tachyarrhythmias. Clinicians, lawmakers, and the general public need to be aware of the potential for toxicity associated with synthetic cannabinoid use. PMID:21970775

  6. Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anholt, Gideon E.; Cath, Danielle C.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2010-01-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and…

  7. Latent structure of irritable bowel syndrome symptom severity

    PubMed Central

    Jasper, Fabian; Egloff, Boris; Roalfe, Andrea; Witthöft, Michael

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the latent structure of an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptom severity scale in a population of healthy adults. METHODS: The Birmingham IBS symptom questionnaire which consists of three symptom specific scales (diarrhea, constipation, pain) was evaluated by means of structural equation modeling. We compared the original 3-factor solution to a general factor model and a bifactor solution in a large internet sample of college students (n = 875). Statistical comparisons of competing models were conducted by means of ?2 difference tests. Regarding the evaluation of model fit, we examined the comparative fit index (CFI) and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA). RESULTS: Results clearly favored a bifactor model of IBS symptom severity (CFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.05) which consisted of a strong general IBS somatization factor and three symptom specific factors (diarrhea, constipation, pain) based on the subscales of the Birmingham IBS symptom questionnaire. The fit indices of the competing one factor model (CFI = 0.85, RMSEA = 0.17) and three factor model (CFI = 0.97, RMSEA = 0.08) were clearly inferior. ?2 difference tests showed that the differences between the models were indeed significant in favor of the bifactor model (P < 0.001). Correlations of the four latent factors with measures of pain sensitivity, somatoform dissociation, fatigue severity, and demographic variables support the validity of our bifactor model of IBS specific symptom severity. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that IBS symptom severity might best be understood as a continuous and multidimensional construct which can be reliably and validly assessed with the B-IBS. PMID:25574104

  8. Psychotic symptoms in a woman with severe Anorexia Nervosa : psychotic symptoms in Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Delsedime, Nadia; Nicotra, Barbara; Giovannone, Maria Cristina; Marech, Lucrezia; Barosio, Marta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-03-01

    With this paper we aimed to describe a case of a woman affected by Anorexia Nervosa Restricting subtype (AN-R) with delusional symptoms, visual hallucinations and severe body image distortion. We discussed the main AN diagnosis and whether delusional symptoms could be related to severity of AN describing also the use of olanzapine in such a severe clinical condition. The use of olanzapine was found to be effective to reduce both delusions and body distortions, and to improve compliance to treatments. We found a severe delusional symptomatology with mystic, omnipotence and persecution features. The psychotic structure seemed preceding the eating disorder and was also found to be worsened by emaciation. The use of antipsychotic helped reducing delusional symptoms and improving compliance to treatments. Finally, the dynamically oriented therapeutic relationship helped the patient to gain weight and to achieve a full recovery from psychotic symptoms. PMID:23757258

  9. Caregiver Life Satisfaction: Relationship to Youth Symptom Severity Through Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Michele Athay

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized the Satisfaction with Life Scale to investigate the life satisfaction of caregivers for youth receiving mental health services (N = 383). Specifically, this study assessed how caregiver life satisfaction relates to youth symptom severity throughout treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling with a time-varying covariate was used to estimate the linear trajectory of caregiver life satisfaction and how it relates to

  10. Caregiver Life Satisfaction: Relationship to Youth Symptom Severity through Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athay, M. Michele

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized the Satisfaction with Life Scale to investigate the life satisfaction of caregivers for youth receiving mental health services (N = 383). Specifically, this study assessed how caregiver life satisfaction relates to youth symptom severity throughout treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling with a time-varying covariate was used…

  11. Anamnestic index severity and signs and symptoms of TMD.

    PubMed

    Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Chaves, Thaís Cristina; de Oliveira, Anamaria S; Monteiro-Pedro, Vanessa

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and to characterize the symptoms and clinical signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) related to each severity category of Fonseca's anamnestic index in a sample of Brazilian young adults (mean age 21.61+/-1.91 years, 87% females and 13% males), by the application of an anamnestic index proposed by Fonseca (1992) and by clinical examination considering mandibular range of motion and tenderness to palpation of stomatognathic system structures. A significant number of participants were classified with mild TMD (43.2%) and moderate TMD (34.8%). Pain frequency during mastication, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain, and TMJ sounds were shown to be good predictors of TMD severity. Neck pain, headache, difficulty during mouth opening and lateral deviation, and tenderness to palpation of masticatory sites and during protrusion accompanied the TMD severity but failed to demonstrate differences between moderate and severe groups, showing a poor ability to determine TMD severity progression. This study suggests that not only the frequency of signs and symptoms of TMD should be determined, but also symptom severity and its relationship to the presence of clinical signs in order to discriminate patients with real treatment needs in nonpatient samples. PMID:16711273

  12. Indicate severe toxicity of highway runoff.

    PubMed

    Dorchin, Achik; Shanas, Uri

    2013-09-01

    Road runoff is recognized as a substantial nonpoint source of contamination to the aquatic environment. Highway seasonal first flushes contain particularly high concentrations of pollutants. To fully account for the toxicity potential of the runoff, the cumulative effects of the pollutants should be assessed, ideally by biological analyses. Acute toxicity tests with were used to measure the toxicity of runoff from three major highway sections in Israel for 2 yr. Highway first flushes resulted in the mortality of all tested individuals within 24 to 48 h. A first flush collected from Highway 4 (traffic volume: 81,200 cars d) remained toxic even after dilution to <5% (48 h EC <5%). Synthetic solutions with metal concentrations corresponding to highways' first flushes revealed a synergistic adverse effect on survival and a potential additive effect of nonmetal pollutants in the runoff. Because daphnids and other invertebrates constitute the base of the aquatic food chain, detrimental effects of highway runoff may propagate to higher levels of biological organization. The observed high potential of environmental contamination warrants the control of highway runoff in proximity to natural watercourses. PMID:24216417

  13. Symptoms and visceral perception in severe functional and organic dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, H; Fullerton, S; Naliboff, B; Mayer, E

    1998-01-01

    Background—Hypersensitivity of gastric afferent pathways may play an aetiological role in symptoms of functional dyspepsia. ?Aims—To determine whether patients with severe organic dyspepsia (associated with tissue irritation/injury) and those with functional dyspepsia (no detectable tissue irritation) differ in their perception of gastric distension and whether this difference is reflected in differences in their gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms. ?Methods—Perceptual thresholds, referral patterns, and gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms were compared in 23 patients with functional dyspepsia, 10 organic dyspeptics, and 15 healthy controls. ?Results—Fifteen (65%) functional dyspeptics and no organic dyspeptics had reduced perceptual thresholds for fullness, discomfort, or pain (odds ratio (OR) 19.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95to 476.09, p=0.0017). Either reduced perceptual thresholds or altered referral was found in 20 (87%) functional dyspeptics and four (20%) organic dyspeptics (OR 10.0, 95% CI 1.34 to 89.54,p=0.014). During sham distension fullness, discomfort and pain were reported by healthy controls, organic dyspeptics, and functional dyspeptics. A sham response of pain but no other sensation was more frequent among functional dyspeptics (43%) than healthy controls (7%) (OR 10.77, 95% CI 1.10 to 257.35, p=0.026). Gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms and gastric compliance were similar in the functional and organic groups. ?Conclusions—Alterations in the perception of gastric distension distinguishes between functional and organic dyspepsia, while symptoms do not. A total of 87% of functional dyspeptics studied had evidence of altered visceral afferent function. In this study population, psychological abnormalities or changes in compliance did not explain the findings. ?? Keywords: dyspepsia; hyperalgesia; visceral afferents PMID:9691920

  14. Role of Folic Acid on Symptoms of Chronic Arsenic Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ghose, Nelima; Majumdar, Kunal Kanti; Ghose, A. K.; Saha, C. K.; Nandy, A. K.; Mazumder, D. N. Guha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic arsenic toxicity (Arsenicosis) due to drinking of arsenic contaminated ground water is a global problem. However, its treatment is unsatisfactory. Methylation of arsenic facilitates its urinary excretion. Persons with relatively lower proportion of urinary dimethyl arsenic acid (DMA) are found to have at greater risk of developing symptoms of arsenicosis including its complications. The biochemical pathway responsible for methylation of arsenic is a folate-dependent pathway. Studies in rodents and humans suggest that folate nutritional status influences the metabolism of arsenic. Methods: The present study compares the effect of giving folic acid on 32 arsenicosis patients during a 6-month period and comparing the results with clinical effect of taking only arsenic-free safe water on 45 age and sex-matched arsenic-affected people for the same period. Results: There was significant improvement of arsenical skin lesion score of both patients treated with folic acid (2.96 ± 1.46 to 1.90 ± 0.90, P < 0.001) and arsenic free safe water (2.91 ± 1.26 to 1.62 ± 1.05, P < 0.001) for a period of 6 months. Significant improvement in systemic disease score was also observed from the baseline systemic score in folic acid treated group (4.78 ± 3.43 to 1.00 ± 1.56, P < 0.001) and the group treated with arsenic-free water (1.87 ± 2.11 to 0.82 ± 1.62, P < 0.001). However, there was a significant increased improvement of systematic disease score in the folic acid treated group compared to the control group taking arsenic free water (P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study provides evidence that folic acid treatment in arsenicosis cases could help in reducing clinical symptoms of arsenicosis. PMID:24554997

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms predict symptom severity of autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yun; Chen, Rong; Ke, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Lu; Chu, Kangkang; Lu, Zuhong; Herskovits, Edward H

    2011-01-01

    Autism is widely believed to be a heterogeneous disorder; diagnosis is currently based solely on clinical criteria, although genetic, as well as environmental, influences are thought to be prominent factors in the etiology of most forms of autism. Our goal is to determine whether a predictive model based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can predict symptom severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We divided 118 ASD children into a mild/moderate autism group (n = 65) and a severe autism group (n = 53), based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). For each child, we obtained 29 SNPs of 9 ASD-related genes. To generate predictive models, we employed three machine-learning techniques: decision stumps (DSs), alternating decision trees (ADTrees), and FlexTrees. DS and FlexTree generated modestly better classifiers, with accuracy = 67%, sensitivity = 0.88 and specificity = 0.42. The SNP rs878960 in GABRB3 was selected by all models, and was related associated with CARS assessment. Our results suggest that SNPs have the potential to offer accurate classification of ASD symptom severity. PMID:21786105

  16. Severe dyspnea as atypical presenting symptom of Madelung's disease

    PubMed Central

    Milisavljevic, D; Zivic, M; Radovanovi?, Z; Stankovic, P

    2010-01-01

    Madelung's disease (benign symmetrical lipomatosis) is a rare disease of unknown etiology manifesting as symmetric abnormal deposits of adipose tissue in the head, neck and upper trunk. We report a case of a 58-year-old man with a long lasting Madelungs disease in whom progressive fatty tissue accumulation caused a severe inspiratory dyspnea as atypical presenting symptom. The etiopathogenetic, clinico-diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this rare disease are discussed. Due to its progressive but not so easily predictable enlarging behavior Madelung's disease has not only aesthetic but also functional and sometimes life threatening consequences which need to be treated. PMID:20596272

  17. Psychometric properties of the modified Symptom Severity Index (SSI)

    PubMed Central

    Nixdorf, Donald R.; John, Mike T.; Wall, Melanie M.; Fricton, James R.; Schiffman, Eric L.

    2010-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the modified Symptom Severity Index were investigated to assess the relationships among dimensions of pain in temporomandibular disorders. The 15-item instrument is composed of ordinal scales assessing five pain dimensions (intensity, frequency, duration, unpleasantness, and difficulty to endure) as experienced in three locations (temple, temporomandibular joint, masseter). In 108 closed-lock subjects, Cronbach’s alpha was used to measure internal consistency resulting in 31 of the 105 pair-wise comparisons ?0.71. Multilevel exploratory factor analysis was used to assess dimensionality between items. Two factors emerged, termed temple pain and jaw pain. The jaw pain factor comprised the temporomandibular joint and masseter locations, indicating that subjects did not differentiate between these two locations. With further analysis, the jaw pain factor could be separated into temporal aspects of pain (frequency, duration) and affective dimensions (intensity, unpleasantness, endurability). Temple pain could not be further reduced; this may have been influenced by concurrent orofacial pains such as headache. Internal consistency was high, with alphas ?0.92 for scales associated with all factors. Excellent test-retest reliability was found for repeat testing at 2–48 hours in 55 subjects (ICC=0.97, 95%CI 0.96–0.99). In conclusion, the modified Symptom Severity Index has excellent psychometric properties for use as an instrument to measure pain in subjects with temporomandibular disorders. The most important characteristic of this pain is location, while the temporal dimensions are important for jaw pain. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and assess relationships between dimensions of pain as experienced in other chronic pain disorders. PMID:19889036

  18. Relationship between Affective Symptoms and Malnutrition Severity in Severe Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Mattar, Lama; Huas, Caroline; group, EVHAN; Godart, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Background Very few studies have investigated the relationship between malnutrition and psychological symptoms in Anorexia Nervosa (AN). They have used only body weight or body mass index (BMI) for the nutritional assessment and did not always report on medication, or if they did, it was not included in the analysis of results, and they did not include confounding factors such as duration of illness, AN subtype or age. The present study investigates this relationship using indicators other than BMI/weight, among which body composition and biological markers, also considering potential confounders related to depression and anxiety. Methods 155 AN patients, (DSM-IV) were included consecutively upon admission to inpatient treatment. Depression, anxiety, obsessive behaviours and social functioning were measured using various scales. Nutritional status was measured using BMI, severity of weight loss, body composition, and albumin and prealbumin levels. Results No correlation was found between BMI at inclusion, fat-free mass index, fat mass index, and severity of weight loss and any of the psychometric scores. Age and medication are the only factors that affect the psychological scores. None of the psychological scores were explained by the nutritional indicators with the exception of albumin levels which was negatively linked to the LSAS fear score (p?=?0.024; beta?=??0.225). Only the use of antidepressants explained the variability in BDI scores (p?=?0.029; beta?=?0.228) and anxiolytic use explained the variability in HADs depression scores (p?=?0.037; beta?=?0.216). Conclusion The present study is a pioneer investigation of various nutritional markers in relation to psychological symptoms in severely malnourished AN patients. The clinical hypothesis that malnutrition partly causes depression and anxiety symptoms in AN in acute phase is not confirmed, and future studies are needed to back up our results. PMID:23185320

  19. Effortful Cognitive Resource Allocation and Negative Symptom Severity in Chronic Schizophrenia

    E-print Network

    Verney, Steven

    Effortful Cognitive Resource Allocation and Negative Symptom Severity in Chronic Schizophrenia Eric was investigated. Methods: Older patients with chronic schizophrenia (n = 58) and healthy controls (n = 71 and associations between negative symptoms and neurocognition in schizophrenia. Key words: schizophrenia

  20. Gay male sexual assault survivors: the relations among internalized homophobia, experiential avoidance, and psychological symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Gold, Sari D; Marx, Brian P; Lexington, Jennifer M

    2007-03-01

    This study explored the relations among internalized homophobia (IH), experiential avoidance, and psychological symptom severity in a community sample of 74 gay male sexual assault survivors. Results indicated that IH is associated with both depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. IH accounted for more variance than assault severity in predicting both PTSD and depression symptom severity. IH and experiential avoidance similarly predicted PTSD symptom severity. In comparison with IH, however, experiential avoidance is a stronger predictor of depression symptom severity. Results also showed that experiential avoidance partially mediated the relation between IH and both depressive and PTSD symptom severity. The implications of these findings are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:17258041

  1. Children with Autism: Sleep Problems and Symptom Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor, Megan E.; Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between the specific sleep problems and specific behavioral problems of children with autism were evaluated. Mothers' reports of sleep habits and autism symptoms were collected for 109 children with autism. Unlike previous research in this area, only children diagnosed with autism without any commonly comorbid diagnoses (e.g.,…

  2. Psychological Symptoms and Drug Use Severity among Israeli Adolescents Presenting for Outpatient Drug Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, G.M.; Izzard, M.C.; Kedar, T.; Hutlzer, A.; Mell, H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and the relation between psychological symptoms and drug use severity, among 117 Israeli adolescents presenting for outpatient drug abuse treatment. Psychological symptoms were assessed via both adolescent self-report and parent report. Drug use was…

  3. Perfectionism and depression symptom severity in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Enns, M W; Cox, B J

    1999-08-01

    In recent years it has been recognized that perfectionism is a multidimensional construct and two Multidimensional Perfectionism Scales have been developed and investigated in relative isolation [Frost, R.O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., & Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 449-468; Hewitt, P.L., & Flett, G.L. (1991). Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: Conceptualization, assessment and association with psychopathology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 456-470]. The present study sought to evaluate the association between various dimensions of perfectionism, higher-order personality dimensions, and self and observer rated depressive symptoms in a group of 145 patients with major depressive disorder. Only three of ten perfectionism dimensions (socially prescribed perfectionism, concern over mistakes and self-criticism) displayed medium to large correlations with depressive symptoms, especially self-report symptoms reflecting depressive cognitive distortions. The results are discussed in relation to the specificity of perfectionism dimensions to depression, adaptive versus maladaptive aspects of perfectionism, and in the context of previous research, much of which has relied on college student samples. PMID:10452178

  4. Childhood Facial Recognition Predicts Adolescent Symptom Severity in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Eussen, Mart L J M; Louwerse, Anneke; Herba, Catherine M; Van Gool, Arthur R; Verheij, Fop; Verhulst, Frank C; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2015-06-01

    Limited accuracy and speed in facial recognition (FR) and in the identification of facial emotions (IFE) have been shown in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study aimed at evaluating the predictive value of atypicalities in FR and IFE for future symptom severity in children with ASD. Therefore we performed a seven-year follow-up study in 87 children with ASD. FR and IFE were assessed in childhood (T1: age 6-12) using the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT). Symptom severity was assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in childhood and again seven years later during adolescence (T2: age 12-19). Multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate whether FR and IFE in childhood predicted ASD symptom severity in adolescence, while controlling for ASD symptom severity in childhood. We found that more accurate FR significantly predicted lower adolescent ASD symptom severity scores (?R(2) = .09), even when controlling for childhood ASD symptom severity. IFE was not a significant predictor of ASD symptom severity in adolescence. From these results it can be concluded, that in children with ASD the accuracy of FR in childhood is a relevant predictor of ASD symptom severity in adolescence. Test results on FR in children with ASD may have prognostic value regarding later symptom severity. Autism Res 2015, 8: 261-271. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25631781

  5. Erectile function and late-onset hypogonadism symptoms related to lower urinary tract symptom severity in elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Ozan; Bolat, Deniz; Demir, Omer; Ucer, Oktay; ?ahin, Ali; Ozcift, Burak; Pekta?, Abdulkadir; Turan, Tahir; Gümü?, Bilal H; Can, Ertan; Bolukbasi, Ahmet; Erol, Haluk; Esen, Adil

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs), erectile dysfunction (ED) and symptomatic late-onset hypogonadism (SLOH) in ageing men in the Aegean region of Turkey. Five hundred consecutive patients >40 years old who had been in a steady sexual relationship for the past 6 months and were admitted to one of six urology clinics were included in the study. Serum prostate-specific antigen and testosterone levels and urinary flow rates were measured. All patients filled out the International Prostate Symptom Score and Quality of Life (IPSS–QoL), International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale forms. Of the patients, 23.9% had mild LUTSs, 53.3% had moderate LUTSs and 22.8% had severe LUTSs. The total testosterone level did not differ between groups. Additionally, 69.6% had ED. The presence of impotence increased with increasing LUTS severity. Symptomatic late-onset hypogonadism (AMS >27) was observed in 71.2% of the patients. The prevalence of severe hypogonadism symptoms increased with the IPSS scores. A correlation analysis revealed that all three questionnaire scores were significantly correlated. In conclusion, LUTS severity is an age-independent risk factor for ED and SLOH. LUTS severity and SLOH symptoms appear to have a strong link that requires etiological and biological clarification in future studies. PMID:23817501

  6. Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and daily ambient exposures to toxic and criteria air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, Ralph J; Gong, Henry; Linn, William S; Pellizzari, Edo D; Hu, Ye

    2003-01-01

    Although acute adverse effects on asthma have been frequently found for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's principal criteria air pollutants, there is little epidemiologic information on specific hydrocarbons from toxic emission sources. We conducted a panel study of 22 Hispanic children with asthma who were 10-16 years old and living in a Los Angeles community with high traffic density. Subjects filled out symptom diaries daily for up to 3 months (November 1999 through January 2000). Pollutants included ambient hourly values of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide and 24-hr values of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm (PM10, and elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) PM10 fractions. Asthma symptom severity was regressed on pollutants using generalized estimating equations, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) was regressed on pollutants using mixed models. We found positive associations of symptoms with criteria air pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, PM10), EC-OC, and VOCs (benzene, ethylbenzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 1,3-butadiene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene). Selected adjusted odds ratios for bothersome or more severe asthma symptoms from interquartile range increases in pollutants were, for 1.4 ppb 8-hr NO2, 1.27 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.54]; 1.00 ppb benzene, 1.23 (95% CI, 1.02-1.48); 3.16 ppb formaldehyde, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.04-1.80); 37 microg/m3 PM10, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.11-1.90); 2.91 microg/m3 EC, 1.85 (95% CI, 1.11-3.08); and 4.64 microg/m3 OC, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.12-3.17). Two-pollutant models of EC or OC with PM10 showed little change in odds ratios for EC (to 1.83) or OC (to 1.89), but PM10 decreased from 1.45 to 1.0. There were no significant associations with PEF. Findings support the view that air toxins in the pollutant mix from traffic and industrial sources may have adverse effects on asthma in children. PMID:12676630

  7. PTSD symptom severity and psychiatric comorbidity in recent motor vehicle accident victims: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Hruska, Bryce; Irish, Leah A; Pacella, Maria L; Sledjeski, Eve M; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2014-10-01

    We conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) on 249 recent motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims to examine subgroups that differed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, current major depressive disorder and alcohol/other drug use disorders (MDD/AoDs), gender, and interpersonal trauma history 6-weeks post-MVA. A 4-class model best fit the data with a resilient class displaying asymptomatic PTSD symptom levels/low levels of comorbid disorders; a mild psychopathology class displaying mild PTSD symptom severity and current MDD; a moderate psychopathology class displaying severe PTSD symptom severity and current MDD/AoDs; and a severe psychopathology class displaying extreme PTSD symptom severity and current MDD. Classes also differed with respect to gender composition and history of interpersonal trauma experience. These findings may aid in the development of targeted interventions for recent MVA victims through the identification of subgroups distinguished by different patterns of psychiatric problems experienced 6-weeks post-MVA. PMID:25124501

  8. Brief Report: Concurrent Validity of Autism Symptom Severity Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reszka, Stephanie S.; Boyd, Brian A.; McBee, Matthew; Hume, Kara A.; Odom, Samuel L.

    2014-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic classifications, according to the DSM-5, include a severity rating. Several screening and/or diagnostic measures, such as the autism diagnostic and observation schedule (ADOS), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and social responsiveness scale (SRS) (teacher and parent versions), include an…

  9. Predictors of PTSD Symptom Severity and Social Reactions in Sexual Assault Victims

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah E. Ullman; Henrietta H. Filipas

    2001-01-01

    Demographics, assault variables, and postassault responses were analyzed as correlates of PTSD symptom severity in a sample of 323 sexual assault victims. Regression analyses indicated that less education, greater perceived life threat, and receipt of more negative social reactions upon disclosing assault were each related to greater PTSD symptom severity. Ethnic minority victims reported more negative social reactions from others.

  10. Quality of life, social support, and severity of psychiatric symptoms in Jordanian patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hamaideh, S; Al-Magaireh, D; Abu-Farsakh, B; Al-Omari, H

    2014-06-01

    The major purposes of this study were to examine levels and correlations of quality of life (QOL), social support, and severity of psychiatric symptoms as well as to identify the variables that best predict QOL among Jordanian patients with schizophrenia. Descriptive cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 160 patients selected through systematic random sampling from two psychiatric outpatient clinics. Results showed that the highest domain of QOL was the social relationship domain, and the highest source of social support was perceived from significant others. Severity of affective symptoms was the highest, and severity of positive symptoms was the lowest. QOL correlated positively with social support, patients' educational and income level, and employment; and negatively with severity of psychiatric symptoms, duration of untreated illness, and duration of treatment. Support from friends, duration of untreated illness, income level, and severity of affective symptoms predicted QOL and accounting for 47.3% of the variance. PMID:24118684

  11. Severity of core symptoms in first episode schizophrenia and long-term remission.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, Carlo; Affaticati, Andrea; Monici, Alberto; De Panfilis, Chiara; Ossola, Paolo; Tonna, Matteo

    2015-01-30

    A definable concept of symptomatic remission in schizophrenia has been proposed by the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group (RSWG). Nevertheless no studies to date assessed eventual differences in core symptoms at onset between remitters and non-remitters. The present study evaluated whether the severity of core symptoms differed among 48 patients with first episode schizophrenia (FES), and whether it predicted long-term (16-years) remission. Particularly, the present study aimed to verify if RSWG remission criteria might identify a sub-group of patients with mild core symptoms at their first episode. In the present study the severity of core symptoms was significantly lower in remitted than in non-remitted patients; interestingly, five out of the eight core symptoms already satisfied the severity criteria for remission in most remitted patients. Among the core symptoms only the severity of social withdrawal predicted the long-term outcome, while age at onset, duration of untreated psychosis and employment status did not exert any effect. Concluding, patients with FES presenting, mild core symptoms, particularly low negative symptoms, were more likely to reach long-term remission. Therefore, RSWG remission criteria seem to identify a subgroup of FES patients with mild severe core symptoms so with a higher probability to reach remission. PMID:25467699

  12. Prevalence, severity and risk factors for depressive symptoms and insomnia in college undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Gress-Smith, Jenna L; Roubinov, Danielle S; Andreotti, Charissa; Compas, Bruce E; Luecken, Linda J

    2015-02-01

    Although the college years represent a high-risk period for depressive symptoms and insomnia, little research has explored their prevalence, comorbidities and risk factors within this developmental period. Two studies were conducted; the first evaluated the prevalence and comorbidity of depressive symptoms and insomnia in 1338 students (ages 18-23?years) from a large Southwestern University. Mild depressive symptoms were endorsed by 19% of students and 14.5% reported moderate to severe symptoms. Forty-seven percent of students reported mild insomnia and 22.5% endorsed moderate to severe insomnia severity. A second study investigated perceived stress as a potential mediator of the relation between self-reported childhood adversity and concurrent depressive symptoms and insomnia. Undergraduates (N?=?447) from a Southwestern and Southeastern University reported prior childhood adversity, current perceived stress, insomnia and depressive symptoms. Self-reported childhood adversity predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms and insomnia severity, partially mediated by perceived stress. Results support the high prevalence of depressive symptoms and insomnia among undergraduates. The risk for depressive and insomnia symptoms may be increased among students who experienced greater levels of childhood adversity. PMID:23897800

  13. Multimodal imaging in a severe case of hydroxychloroquine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Kavita V; Mukkamala, Lekha K; Freund, K Bailey

    2015-03-01

    Retinal toxicity from hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) can be detected most readily on fundus autofluorescence, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and multifocal electroretinogram. The authors describe a case of a 60-year-old woman with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus undergoing HCQ treatment for 30 years who presented with visual loss over several years. Examination and multimodal imaging showed bilateral retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) changes in a bull's-eye distribution associated with cystoid macular edema. A novel imaging modality, multi-spectral imaging, appeared sensitive in detecting a bull's-eye pattern of RPE disturbance involving the entire macular region of both eyes. Cessation of drug was advised with close follow-up. PMID:25856825

  14. Trichotillomania and emotion regulation: is symptom severity related to alexithymia?

    PubMed

    Rufer, Michael; Bamert, Tsering; Klaghofer, Richard; Moritz, Steffen; Schilling, Lisa; Weidt, Steffi

    2014-08-15

    Previous research on trichotillomania (TTM) has demonstrated an emotion regulation function of hair pulling behavior. One condition that can impede the regulation of emotions is alexithymia. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between the degree of alexithymia and the severity of hair pulling behavior in individuals with TTM. Multiple strategies were used to recruit a sample of 105 participants via the internet. All participants were diagnosed with TTM by an experienced clinician via a subsequent phone-interview. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to test the potential predictive value of the different facets of alexithymia (20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale) on the severity of TTM (Massachusetts General Hospital Hair-Pulling Scale). Both the difficulty in identifying feelings (DIF) facet of alexithymia (p=0.045) and depression (p=0.049) were significant predictors of the severity of TTM. In conclusion, alexithymia seems to play a role in hair pulling behavior in individuals with TTM. However, the significant association was small in terms of the overall variance explained, thus warranting further research. If replicated in prospective studies, then these results indicate that therapeutic approaches aimed at supporting patients in recognizing and differentiating feelings might be useful for the treatment of TTM. PMID:24768249

  15. Intravenous lipid emulsion given to volunteers does not affect symptoms of lidocaine brain toxicity.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Juho A; Litonius, Erik; Salmi, Tapani; Haasio, Juhani; Tarkkila, Pekka; Backman, Janne T; Rosenberg, Per H

    2015-04-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsion has been suggested as treatment for local anaesthetic toxicity, but the exact mechanism of action is still uncertain. Controlled studies on the effect of lipid emulsion on toxic doses of local anaesthetics have not been performed in man. In randomized, subject-blinded and two-phase cross-over fashion, eight healthy volunteers were given a 1.5 ml/kg bolus of 20% Intralipid(®) (200 mg/ml) or Ringer's acetate solution intravenously, followed by a rapid injection of lidocaine 1.0 mg/kg. Then, the same solution as in the bolus was infused at a rate of 0.25 ml/kg/min. for 30 min. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded, and 5 min. after lidocaine injection, the volunteers were asked to report subjective symptoms. Total and un-entrapped lidocaine plasma concentrations were measured from venous blood samples. EEG band power changes (delta, alpha and beta) after the lidocaine bolus were similar during lipid and during Ringer infusion. There were no differences between infusions in the subjective symptoms of central nervous system toxicity. Lidocaine was only minimally entrapped in the plasma by lipid emulsion, but the mean un-entrapped lidocaine area under concentration-time curve from 0 to 30 min. was clearly smaller during lipid than Ringer infusion (16.4 versus 21.3 mg × min/l, p = 0.044). Intravenous lipid emulsion did not influence subjective toxicity symptoms nor affect the EEG changes caused by lidocaine. PMID:25207682

  16. Effectiveness of propranolol for cocaine dependence treatment may depend on cocaine withdrawal symptom severity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyle M. Kampman; Joseph R. Volpicelli; Frank Mulvaney; Arthur I. Alterman; James Cornish; Peter Gariti; Avital Cnaan; Sabrina Poole; Eric Muller; Thalia Acosta; Douglas Luce; Charles O'Brien

    2001-01-01

    Propranolol may reduce symptoms of autonomic arousal associated with early cocaine abstinence and improve treatment outcome. This trial was an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of propranolol in 108 cocaine dependent subjects. The primary outcome measure was quantitative urinary benzoylecgonine levels. Secondary outcome measures included treatment retention, addiction severity index results, cocaine craving, mood and anxiety symptoms, cocaine withdrawal symptoms, and

  17. N-acetyl cysteine prevents synergistic, severe toxicity from two hits of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Unnithan, Ajay S; Jiang, Yiran; Rumble, Jennifer L; Pulugulla, Sree H; Posimo, Jessica M; Gleixner, Amanda M; Leak, Rehana K

    2014-02-01

    The two hit hypothesis of neurodegeneration states that cells that have been severely stressed once are more vulnerable to the negative impact of a second hit. In other words, the toxicity of two hits of severe stress may be synergistic in neurons. We previously developed a two hit model of proteotoxic neurodegeneration using the proteasome inhibitor MG132. In that study, we found that the potent antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine was able to protect against the toxicity associated with dual MG132 hits. N-acetyl cysteine has been shown to ameliorate cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's patients and to reduce the symptoms of blast injury in soldiers. These studies and many others in experimental models of neurodegeneration suggest that N-acetyl cysteine can protect neurons even when they are severely injured. In the present study, we tested the hypotheses that dual hits of hydrogen peroxide and paraquat would elicit synergistic neurodegeneration and that this extreme toxicity would be prevented by N-acetyl cysteine. The findings reveal for the first time that neuronal N2a cells are much more sensitive to oxidative stress from hydrogen peroxide treatment when they have been exposed previously to the same toxin. Two hits of hydrogen peroxide also caused severe loss of glutathione. N-acetyl cysteine attenuated the loss of glutathione and reduced the near-complete loss of cells after exposure to dual hydrogen peroxide hits. The present study supports the notion that N-acetyl cysteine can robustly protect against severe, unremitting oxidative stress in a glutathione-dependent manner. PMID:24361774

  18. Trajectories of the cortisol awakening responses during weight gain in anorexia nervosa patients with severe and less severe symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wild, Beate; Wesche, Daniela; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Stroe-Kunold, Esther; Herzog, Wolfgang; Rudofsky, Gottfried; Maser-Gluth, Christiane; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the features and changes of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) with severe and less severe symptoms over the course of inpatient treatment. Our study included n=20 AN patients who received treatment at the University Hospital, Heidelberg. N=11 patients were admitted at a psychosomatic and internal-medicine ward that specialized in the treatment of AN patients with a very low BMI (patient group with high symptom severity, HSS). The mean BMI of these patients was 13.2 kg/m(2) (SD=1.4) at the beginning of the study and 16.9 kg/m(2) (SD=1.7) at the end. N=9 patients were treated at a psychotherapeutic ward where AN patients with less severe symptoms are admitted (patient group with low symptom severity, LSS). The mean BMI of these latter patients was 16.3 kg/m(2) (SD=0.89) at the beginning of the study and 17.1 kg/m(2) (SD=0.65) at the end. Salivary cortisol was measured on two consecutive days respectively, both at the beginning and the end of the study. At the beginning of the study, patients with HSS had a significantly lower mean CAR compared to patients from the LSS group (3.4 nmol/l vs. 11.4 nmol/l). At the end of the study, the mean CAR of patients from the HSS group was still significantly lower compared to the mean CAR of patients with LSS (2.0 nmol/l vs. 9.2 nmol/l). Results indicate that AN patients with severe symptoms exhibit a lower CAR compared to AN patients with less severe symptoms. PMID:25286448

  19. Epidemiological survey in hay fever patients: symptom prevalence and severity and influence on patient management.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, B; Brignoli, R; Canevascini, M; Gerber, M

    1998-01-31

    The prevalence and severity of symptoms of self-reported hay fever were assessed in 509 symptomatic patients not currently receiving treatment who consulted their physicians in Switzerland during the 1994 pollen season. Conjunctivitis was diagnosed in 93.3% of cases (in 8% isolated), rhinitis in 92% (isolated in 6.7%). 24.2% suffered from current asthma symptoms. The severity of the asthma symptoms was mild in 43.9%, moderate in 48% and severe in 8.1%. When the main symptomatology of hay fever (excluding asthma) was taken into account (the diagnosis with the severest symptomatology), 22.4% of patients suffered predominantly from conjunctivitis, 24.6% from rhinitis and 53% from both. Onset of symptoms typically occurred between March and May and lasted on average 2.7 +/- 1.8 months. Severe symptoms were most common in the rhinitis group and least common in the rhinoconjunctivitis group. Conjunctivitis was more common than rhinitis in younger patients, whilst asthma prevalence increased with age (so-called "Etagenwechsel"). Topical therapy was the preferred treatment for all three symptomatologies and particularly for conjunctivitis. Overall, topical therapy was recommended for 50.5% of patients and in a further 33% in combination with oral therapy. In conclusion, conjunctivitis symptoms are at least as severe as rhinitis symptoms in approximately 70% of patients with hay fever. This would appear to influence clinical management as indicated by a preference for topical therapy. PMID:9522418

  20. Citrus stubborn symptom severity and Spiroplasma citri location within the tress canopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The severity of symptoms of citrus stubborn disease (CSD) within an orchard can range from mild to severe, but whether factors other than pathogen titer or duration of infection impact severity is not known. We tested the hypothesis that the canopy distribution of the pathogen, Spiroplasma citri, i...

  1. GERD Symptoms in the General Population: Prevalence and Severity Versus Care-Seeking Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Erica; Bolus, Roger; Khanna, Dinesh; Hays, Ron D.; Chang, Lin; Melmed, Gil Y.; Khanna, Puja; Spiegel, Brennan

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior estimates suggest that up to 40 % of the US general population (GP) report symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, symptoms in the GP versus patients seeking care for gastrointestinal (GI) complaints have not been compared. We estimated the prevalence and severity of GERD symptoms in the GP versus GI patients, and identified predictors of GERD severity. We hypothesized that similar to functional GI disorders, psychosocial factors would predict symptom severity in GERD as much, or perhaps more, than care-seeking behavior alone. Methods We compared the prevalence of heartburn and regurgitation between a sample from the US GP and patients seeking GI specialty care. We compared GERD severity between groups using the NIH PROMIS® GERD scale. We then performed multivariable regression to identify predictors of GERD severity. Results There was no difference in the prevalence of heartburn between the GP and patient groups (59 vs. 59 %), but regurgitation was more common in patients versus GP (46 vs. 39 %; p = 0.004). In multivariable regression, having high visceral anxiety (p < 0.001) and being divorced or separated (p = 0.006) were associated with higher GERD severity. Conclusions More than half of a GP sample reports heartburn—higher than previous series and no different from GI patients. Although regurgitation was more prevalent in patients versus the GP, there was no difference in GERD severity between groups after adjusting for other factors; care seeking in GERD appears related to factors beyond symptoms, including visceral anxiety. PMID:24811245

  2. Genetic Variation Throughout the Folate Metabolic Pathway Influences Negative Symptom Severity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Roffman, Joshua L.; Brohawn, David G.; Nitenson, Adam Z.; Macklin, Eric A.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Goff, Donald C.

    2013-01-01

    Low serum folate levels previously have been associated with negative symptom risk in schizophrenia, as has the hypofunctional 677C>T variant of the MTHFR gene. This study examined whether other missense polymorphisms in folate-regulating enzymes, in concert with MTHFR, influence negative symptoms in schizophrenia, and whether total risk allele load interacts with serum folate status to further stratify negative symptom risk. Medicated outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 219), all of European origin and some included in a previous report, were rated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. A subset of 82 patients also underwent nonfasting serum folate testing. Patients were genotyped for the MTHFR 677C>T (rs1801133), MTHFR 1298A>C (rs1801131), MTR 2756A>G (rs1805087), MTRR 203A>G (rs1801394), FOLH1 484T>C (rs202676), RFC 80A>G (rs1051266), and COMT 675G>A (rs4680) polymorphisms. All genotypes were entered into a linear regression model to determine significant predictors of negative symptoms, and risk scores were calculated based on total risk allele dose. Four variants, MTHFR 677T, MTR 2756A, FOLH1 484C, and COMT 675A, emerged as significant independent predictors of negative symptom severity, accounting for significantly greater variance in negative symptoms than MTHFR 677C>T alone. Total allele dose across the 4 variants predicted negative symptom severity only among patients with low folate levels. These findings indicate that multiple genetic variants within the folate metabolic pathway contribute to negative symptoms of schizophrenia. A relationship between folate level and negative symptom severity among patients with greater genetic vulnerability is biologically plausible and suggests the utility of folate supplementation in these patients. PMID:22021659

  3. Genetic variation throughout the folate metabolic pathway influences negative symptom severity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Roffman, Joshua L; Brohawn, David G; Nitenson, Adam Z; Macklin, Eric A; Smoller, Jordan W; Goff, Donald C

    2013-03-01

    Low serum folate levels previously have been associated with negative symptom risk in schizophrenia, as has the hypofunctional 677C>T variant of the MTHFR gene. This study examined whether other missense polymorphisms in folate-regulating enzymes, in concert with MTHFR, influence negative symptoms in schizophrenia, and whether total risk allele load interacts with serum folate status to further stratify negative symptom risk. Medicated outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 219), all of European origin and some included in a previous report, were rated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. A subset of 82 patients also underwent nonfasting serum folate testing. Patients were genotyped for the MTHFR 677C>T (rs1801133), MTHFR 1298A>C (rs1801131), MTR 2756A>G (rs1805087), MTRR 203A>G (rs1801394), FOLH1 484T>C (rs202676), RFC 80A>G (rs1051266), and COMT 675G>A (rs4680) polymorphisms. All genotypes were entered into a linear regression model to determine significant predictors of negative symptoms, and risk scores were calculated based on total risk allele dose. Four variants, MTHFR 677T, MTR 2756A, FOLH1 484C, and COMT 675A, emerged as significant independent predictors of negative symptom severity, accounting for significantly greater variance in negative symptoms than MTHFR 677C>T alone. Total allele dose across the 4 variants predicted negative symptom severity only among patients with low folate levels. These findings indicate that multiple genetic variants within the folate metabolic pathway contribute to negative symptoms of schizophrenia. A relationship between folate level and negative symptom severity among patients with greater genetic vulnerability is biologically plausible and suggests the utility of folate supplementation in these patients. PMID:22021659

  4. Prediction of work functioning following accidental injury: The contribution of PTSD symptom severity and other established risk factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynda R. Matthews; Darien Chinnery

    2005-01-01

    Responses to a mail survey were used to investigate the contribution of PTSD symptom severity to work functioning in 69 previously employed adult survivors of accidental injury approximately 8 months post?hospitalization. Associations of PTSD symptom severity with other established risk factors for poor work functioning were also examined. Participants were initially divided into three groups based on PTSD symptom severity

  5. Influence of ZNF804a on Brain Structure Volumes and Symptom Severity in Individuals With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wassink, Thomas H.; Epping, Eric A.; Rudd, Danielle; Axelsen, Michael; Ziebell, Stephen; Fleming, Frank W.; Monson, Eric; Choon Ho, Beng; Andreasen, Nancy C.

    2013-01-01

    Context The single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1344706 in the gene ZNF804a has been associated with schizophrenia and with quantitative phenotypic features, including brain structure volume and the core symptoms of schizophrenia. Objective To evaluate associations of rs1344706 with brain structure and the core symptoms of schizophrenia. Design Case-control analysis of covariance. Setting University-based research hospital. Participants Volunteer sample of 335 individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (306 with core schizophrenia) and 198 healthy volunteers. Main Outcome Measures Cerebral cortical gray matter and white matter (WM) volumes (total and frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes), lateral ventricular cerebrospinal fluid volume, and symptom severity from the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms divided into 3 domains: psychotic, negative, and disorganized. Results The rs1344706 genotype produced significant main effects on total, frontal, and parietal lobe WM volumes (F =3.98, P=.02; F =4.95, P=.007; and F =3.08, P =.05, respectively). In the schizophrenia group, rs1344706 produced significant simple effects on total (F =3.93, P=.02) and frontal WM volumes (F =7.16, P < .001) and on psychotic symptom severity (F =6.07, P=.003); the pattern of effects was concordant with risk allele carriers having larger volumes and more severe symptoms of disease than nonrisk homozygotes. In the healthy volunteer group, risk allele homozygotes had increased total WM volume compared with nonrisk allele carriers (F =4.61, P=.03), replicating a previously reported association. Conclusions A growing body of evidence suggests that the risk allele of rs1347706 is associated with a distinctive set of phenotypic features in healthy volunteers and individuals with schizophrenia. Our study supports this assertion by finding that specific genotypes of the polymorphism are associated with brain structure volumes in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy volunteers and with symptom severity in schizophrenia. PMID:22945618

  6. High prevalence of symptoms in a severely abused “non-patient” women population

    PubMed Central

    Pallotta, N; Piacentino, D; Ciccantelli, B; Rivera, M; Golini, N; Spagnoli, A; Vincoli, G; Farchi, S

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to assess the prevalence of somatic symptoms and of gastrointestinal (GI) syndromes in abused “non-patient” women and the association with the time of perpetration, type, and severity of abuse. Methods Sixty-seven women, 18–58 years, receiving shelter in anti-violence associations were invited to fill out an anonymous questionnaire with a medical and an abuse section. The severity of abuse was expressed as the 0–6 Abuse Severity Measure (ASM). The association between abuse characteristics and the number of symptoms, and GI syndromes was assessed by Poisson regression model. Results Most women suffered from childhood and adulthood sexual and physical abuse. They reported a mean of 5.1 GI symptoms (range 0–13; median 5; IQR 6) and of 1.3 extra-GI symptoms (range 0–6; median 1; IQR 2); 30% of women matched the Rome II Criteria for one, 36% for two, and 4.4% for three or more syndromes, respectively. Women with an ASM of 5–6, having suffered from both sexual and physical abuse, reported significantly (p?=?0.02) more GI symptoms, but not extra-GI ones (p?=?0.07), and met criteria for more GI syndromes than women with an ASM ?4 and those reporting only one type of abuse. No association was found between the time of perpetration of the abuse and the number of GI and extra-GI symptoms. Conclusions Symptoms in abused “non-patient” women mainly concern the abdomen and the GI tract. A history of severe, combined physical and sexual abuse is associated with a higher number of GI symptoms. PMID:25452847

  7. Influence of ZNF804a on brain structure volumes and symptom severity in individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wassink, Thomas H; Epping, Eric A; Rudd, Danielle; Axelsen, Michael; Ziebell, Stephen; Fleming, Frank W; Monson, Eric; Ho, Beng Choon; Andreasen, Nancy C

    2012-09-01

    CONTEXT The single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1344706 in the gene ZNF804a has been associated with schizophrenia and with quantitative phenotypic features, including brain structure volume and the core symptoms of schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE To evaluate associations of rs1344706 with brain structure and the core symptoms of schizophrenia. DESIGN Case-control analysis of covariance. SETTING University-based research hospital. PARTICIPANTS Volunteer sample of 335 individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (306 with core schizophrenia) and 198 healthy volunteers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Cerebral cortical gray matter and white matter (WM) volumes (total and frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes), lateral ventricular cerebrospinal fluid volume, and symptom severity from the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms divided into 3 domains: psychotic, negative, and disorganized. RESULTS The rs1344706 genotype produced significant main effects on total, frontal, and parietal lobe WM volumes (F = 3.98, P = .02; F = 4.95, P = .007; and F = 3.08, P = .05, respectively). In the schizophrenia group, rs1344706 produced significant simple effects on total (F = 3.93, P = .02) and frontal WM volumes (F = 7.16, P < .001) and on psychotic symptom severity (F = 6.07, P = .003); the pattern of effects was concordant with risk allele carriers having larger volumes and more severe symptoms of disease than nonrisk homozygotes. In the healthy volunteer group, risk allele homozygotes had increased total WM volume compared with nonrisk allele carriers (F = 4.61, P = .03), replicating a previously reported association. CONCLUSIONS A growing body of evidence suggests that the risk allele of rs1347706 is associated with a distinctive set of phenotypic features in healthy volunteers and individuals with schizophrenia. Our study supports this assertion by finding that specific genotypes of the polymorphism are associated with brain structure volumes in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy volunteers and with symptom severity in schizophrenia. PMID:22945618

  8. Symptoms during cancer pain treatment following WHO-guidelines: a longitudinal follow-up study of symptom prevalence, severity and etiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Meuser; Christian Pietruck; Lukas Radbruch; Petra Stute; Klaus A Lehmann; Stefan Grond

    2001-01-01

    Most patients with advanced cancer develop diverse symptoms that can limit the efficacy of pain treatment and undermine their quality of life. The present study surveys symptom prevalence, etiology and severity in 593 cancer patients treated by a pain service. Non-opioid analgesics, opioids and adjuvants were administered following the WHO-guidelines for cancer pain relief. Other symptoms were systematically treated by

  9. Angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory system SNPs moderate the association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Taylor F; Anastopoulos, Arthur D; Garrett, Melanie E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Oades, Robert D; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Philip; Gill, Michael; Buitelaar, Jan K; Sergeant, Joseph A; Kollins, Scott H; Faraone, Stephen V; Ashley-Koch, Allison

    2014-12-01

    Low birth weight is associated with increased risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); however, the etiological underpinnings of this relationship remain unclear. This study investigated if genetic variants in angiogenic, dopaminergic, neurotrophic, kynurenine, and cytokine-related biological pathways moderate the relationship between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity. A total of 398 youth from two multi-site, family-based studies of ADHD were included in the analysis. The sample consisted of 360 ADHD probands, 21 affected siblings, and 17 unaffected siblings. A set of 164 SNPs from 31 candidate genes, representing five biological pathways, were included in our analyses. Birth weight and gestational age data were collected from a state birth registry, medical records, and parent report. Generalized Estimating Equations tested for main effects and interactions between individual SNPs and birth weight centile in predicting ADHD symptom severity. SNPs within neurotrophic (NTRK3) and cytokine genes (CNTFR) were associated with ADHD inattentive symptom severity. There was no main effect of birth weight centile on ADHD symptom severity. SNPs within angiogenic (NRP1 & NRP2), neurotrophic (NTRK1 & NTRK3), cytokine (IL16 & S100B), and kynurenine (CCBL1 & CCBL2) genes moderate the association between birth weight centile and ADHD symptom severity. The SNP main effects and SNP × birth weight centile interactions remained significant after adjusting for multiple testing. Genetic variability in angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory systems may moderate the association between restricted prenatal growth, a proxy for an adverse prenatal environment, and risk to develop ADHD. PMID:25346392

  10. Sulphate fertilization ameliorates long-term aluminum toxicity symptoms in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne).

    PubMed

    Wulff-Zottele, Cristian; Hesse, Holger; Fisahn, Joachim; Bromke, Mariusz; Vera-Villalobos, Hernán; Li, Yan; Frenzel, Falko; Giavalisco, Patrick; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra; Zunino, Ligia; Caruso, Immcolata; Stohmann, Evelyn; Mora, Maria de la Luz

    2014-10-01

    Effects of the oxanion sulphate on plant aluminum (Al(3+)) detoxification mechanisms are not well understood. Therefore, holistic physiological and biochemical modifications induced by progressively increased doses of sulphate fertilization in the presence of long-term Al(3+) stress were investigated in the aluminum sensitive perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cvJumbo). Plant growth inhibition induced by Al(3+) was decreased in response to increasing doses of sulphate supply. Aluminum concentrations measured in roots of perennial ryegrass by atomic absorption spectrometry declined significantly with increasing sulphate concentrations. In parallel, we determined a rise of sulphur in shoots and roots of perennial ryegrass. Inclusion of up to 360 ?M of sulphate enhanced cysteine and glutathione biosynthesis in Al(3+) (1.07 ?M) treated plants. This increase of thiol-containing compounds favored all modifications in the glutathione redox balance, declining lipid peroxidation, decreasing the activity of superoxide dismutase, and modifying the expression of proteins involved in the diminution of Al(3+) toxicity in roots. In particular, proteome analysis by 1D-SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS allowed to identify up (e.g. vacuolar proton ATPase, proteosome ? subunit, etc) and down (Glyoxilase I, Ascorbate peroxidase, etc.) regulated proteins induced by Al(3+) toxicity symptoms in roots. Although, sulphate supply up to 480 ?M caused a reduction in Al(3+) toxicity symptoms, it was not as efficient as compared to 360 ?M sulphate fertilization. These results suggest that sulphate fertilization ameliorates Al(3+) toxicity responses in an intracellular specific manner within Lolium perenne. PMID:25123423

  11. UPTAKE AND TOXICITY OF TOXAPHENE IN SEVERAL ESTUARINE ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organochlorine insecticide, toxaphene, was tested in flow-through bioassays to evaluate its toxicity to estuarine organisms. The organisms tested and their respective 96-hr LC50s (based on measured concentrations) are: pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), 1.4 micrograms/L; grass s...

  12. Association of Interleukin-8 and Neutrophils with Nasal Symptom Severity During Acute Respiratory Infection

    PubMed Central

    Henriquez, Kelsey M.; Hayney, Mary S.; Xie, Yaoguo; Zhang, Zhengjun; Barrett, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Using a large data set (n = 811), the relationship between acute respiratory infection illness severity and inflammatory biomarkers was investigated to determine whether certain symptoms are correlated more closely than others with the inflammatory biomarkers, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and nasal neutrophils. Participants with community acquired acute respiratory infection underwent nasal lavage for IL-8 and neutrophil testing, in addition to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for the detection and identification of respiratory viruses. Information about symptoms was obtained throughout the duration of the illness episode using the well-validated Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-21). Global symptom severity was calculated by the area under the curve (AUC) plotting duration versus WURSS total. Of the specimens tested, 56% were positively identified for one or more of nine different respiratory viruses. During acute respiratory infection illness, both IL-8 and neutrophils positively correlate with AUC (rs = 0.082, P = 0.022; rs = 0.080, P = 0.030). IL-8 and neutrophils correlate with nasal symptom severity: runny nose (r = 0.13, P = <0.00001; r = 0.18, P = <0.003), plugged nose (r = 0.045, P = 0.003; r = 0.14, P = 0.058), and sneezing (r = ?0.02, P = <0.0001; r = ?0.0055, P = 0.31). Neutrophils correlate with some quality of life measures such as sleeping well (r = 0.15, P = 0.026). Thus, the study demonstrates that IL-8 and neutrophils are correlated with severity of nasal symptoms during acute respiratory infection. Further research is necessary to determine if the concentration of these or other biomarkers can predict the overall duration and severity of acute respiratory infection illness. PMID:25132248

  13. Childhood and current ADHD symptom dimensions are associated with more severe cannabis outcomes in college students

    PubMed Central

    Bidwell, L.C.; Henry, E.A.; Willcutt, E.G.; Kinnear, M.K.; Ito, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have shown that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated higher risk of cannabis use disorders (CUD). However, these studies are limited in that most did not: (a) differentiate the role of hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) and inattention (IN); (b) control for associated psychopathology; and (c) consider more fine-grained CUD-related measures. Our aim was to clarify the unique and interactive contributions of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms to age of cannabis initiation and DSM-IV cannabis dependence, craving, and severity of problems related to cannabis use while statistically controlling for symptoms of comorbid psychopathology in a non-clinical sample of young adults. Methods Cannabis variables, current use of cigarettes and alcohol, current and childhood ADHD, and comorbid internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were assessed in 376 male and female undergraduates. Results Results indicate that current and childhood IN were independently associated with more severe cannabis use, craving, and problem use-related outcomes in young adulthood (p’s<.01) and that childhood HI symptoms were associated with earlier initiation of cannabis (p<.01). Further, current IN symptoms moderated the relationships between level of use and more severe outcomes (p’s<.01), such that higher IN strengthened positive associations among use and problem cannabis use. Associations with ADHD symptom dimensions and current use of alcohol and cigarettes were also present. Conclusions Thus, current and childhood inattention symptoms as well as childhood hyperactive-impulsive symptoms emerged as significant factors in cannabis-related outcomes in young adults, even after statistically controlling for important confounding variables. PMID:24332802

  14. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure, risk of schizophrenia, and severity of positive/negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulou, Anastasia; Beratis, Ion N; Beratis, Stavroula

    2013-08-01

    Prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke causes chronic fetal hypoxia, dysregulation of endocrine equilibrium, and disruption of fetal neurodevelopment associated with brain malfunction, all of which potentially could induce vulnerability to schizophrenia. A total of 212 schizophrenia patients aged 14-30years, and 212 matched controls were studied. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure of the schizophrenia patients was compared to that of the normal controls by applying logistic regression analysis and controlling for several confounding factors. The outcomes of interest were comparison of the frequency of maternal and paternal smoking between patients and controls, as well as the severity of positive and negative symptoms between the offspring of smoking and nonsmoking parents. Among the mothers of schizophrenia patients and controls, 92 (43.4%) and 46 (21.7%) smoked, respectively. Maternal smoking during pregnancy had a significant unique contribution on increasing the risk for development of schizophrenia (p=0.001), and a greater severity of negative symptoms (p=0.023). Paternal smoking did not have a significant effect on the risk of schizophrenia, or severity of negative symptoms. The findings suggest that maternal smoking during pregnancy puts offspring at an increased risk for later schizophrenia, with increased severity of negative symptoms. Given the wide practice of smoking during pregnancy, fetal exposure to tobacco smoke could be a major preventable neurodevelopmental factor that increases vulnerability to schizophrenia. PMID:23768812

  15. Heptachlor: Toxicity to and uptake by several estuarine organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven C. Schimmel; James M. Patrick Jr; Jerrold Forester

    1976-01-01

    Technical?grade heptachlor (65% heptachlor, 22% trans?chlordane, 2% cis?chlordane, and 2% nonachlor) was tested in 96?hr bioassays to determine its toxicity to estuarine animals. The test organisms and the 96?hr LC50 or EC50 s (based on measured concentrations in water) are as follows: American oyster (Crassostrea virginica), 7.5 ?g\\/liter. pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), 0.11 ?g\\/liter; grass shrimp (Palaemonetes vulgaris), 1.06 ?g\\/liter;

  16. The severity of ADHD and eating disorder symptoms: a correlational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and eating disorders (ED) share several clinical features. Research on the association between ADHD and ED is still quite sparse and findings are ambiguous. Methods Correlations between the severity of ADHD key features (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Self-Rating questionnaire) and the severity of specific ED symptoms (Structured Interview for Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa) were examined in 32 female patients diagnosed with ED. Results Most correlations between the severity of ADHD features and the severity of ED symptoms were low (r<0.30) and did not reach statistical significance. The only exception was a statistically significant, but counterintuitive association between impulsivity and the avoidance of fattening food. Conclusions The findings in this small sample suggest a weak link between the severity of ADHD key features and the severity of single ED symptoms in female patients with ED. The role of ADHD features for the development, maintenance, and treatment of EDs seems to be intricate and requires further study. PMID:23375103

  17. Longitudinal Study of Symptom Severity and Language in Minimally Verbal Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurm, Audrey; Manwaring, Stacy S.; Swineford, Lauren; Farmer, Cristan

    2015-01-01

    Background: A significant minority of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are considered "minimally verbal" due to language development stagnating at a few words. Recent developments allow for the severity of ASD symptoms to be examined using Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Social Affect (SA) and Restricted and…

  18. Depressive Symptom Severity and Community Collective Efficacy following the 2004 Florida Hurricanes

    PubMed Central

    Fullerton, Carol S.; Ursano, Robert J.; Liu, Xian; McKibben, Jodi B. A.; Wang, Leming; Reissman, Dori B.

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of research investigating community-level characteristics, such as community collective efficacy, mitigating the impact of disasters on psychological health, specifically depression. We examined the association of community collective efficacy with depressive symptom severity in Florida public health workers (n = 2249) exposed to the 2004 hurricane season using a multilevel approach. Cross-sectional anonymous questionnaires were distributed electronically to all Florida Department of Health (FDOH) personnel that assessed depressive symptom severity and collective efficacy nine months after the 2004 hurricane season. Analyses were conducted at the individual level and community level using zip codes. The majority of participants were female (81.9%), and ages ranged from 20 to 78 years (median = 49 years). The majority of participants (73.4%) were European American, 12.7% were African American, and 9.2% were Hispanic. Using multilevel analysis, our data indicate that higher community-level and individual-level collective efficacy were associated with significantly lower depressive symptom severity (b = -0.09 [95% CI: -0.13, -0.04] and b = -0.09 [95% CI: -0.12, -0.06], respectively) even after adjusting for individual sociodemographic variables, community socioeconomic characteristics, individual injury/damage, and community storm damage. Lower levels of depressive symptom severity were associated with communities with high collective efficacy. Our study highlights the possible importance of programs that enrich community collective efficacy for disaster communities. PMID:26125567

  19. The Relationship Among Personality Variables, Exposure to Traumatic Events, and Severity of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean Lauterbach; Scott Vrana

    2001-01-01

    In examining predictors of posttraumatic stress, researchers have focused on trauma intensity and devoted less attention to other variables. This study examined how personality and demographic variables are related to the likelihood of experiencing a trauma, and to the severity of posttraumatic symptoms in a sample of 402 college students reporting a wide range of trauma. Elevations in antisocial and

  20. Altered empathic responding in major depressive disorder: Relation to symptom severity, illness burden, and psychosocial outcome

    E-print Network

    Spreng, R. Nathan

    , Hamilton, Ontario, Canada b Mood Disorders Program, St. Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada cAltered empathic responding in major depressive disorder: Relation to symptom severity, illness burden, and psychosocial outcome Andrée M. Cusi a,b , Glenda M. MacQueen c , R. Nathan Spreng d

  1. Differences between physician and patient in the perception of symptoms and their severity in COPD.

    PubMed

    Miravitlles, Marc; Ferrer, Jaume; Baró, Eva; Lleonart, Marta; Galera, Jordi

    2013-12-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) impairs quality of life and presents symptoms that affect the lives of patients. Our study analysed the degree of concordance between the patients and their pulmonologists in the perception of the severity of symptoms. A cross-sectional, descriptive, multicentre study was conducted in patients with COPD. From a list of 10 symptoms (cough, dry mouth, chest pain, expectoration, wheezing/whistling in the lungs, depression/sadness/discouragement, fatigue/tiredness/general lack of energy, anxiety/nervousness, breathlessness/shortness of breath upon exertion and difficulty sleeping/sleep disorders) each investigator and patient assessed those which, in their opinion, most concerned or affected the patient. A total of 450 patients were included in the study (91.3% males, 66.7 years old (SD = 10.2), FEV1(%) 51.7% (SD = 12.7%)). At an aggregate level, breathlessness/shortness of breath, fatigue/tiredness and coughing were identified by patients and physicians as being the most relevant symptoms. However, according to the concordance analysis conducted with individual pairs (each pulmonologist with his/her patient), only 52.8% coincided when identifying the symptom that most concerned or affected the life of the patient. The concordance analysed by the Kappa index between patients and physicians was poor (<0.42). The degree of physician-patient concordance was greater in patients with more severe COPD. The patients and their pulmonologists identified the same three main symptoms of COPD but showed low concordance when assessing the impact of the symptoms of the illness. PMID:23890959

  2. Incidence and Prediction of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Severely Injured Accident Victims

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Schnyder; Hanspeter Moergeli; Richard Klaghofer; D. Claus Buddeberg

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to as- sess the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in severely injured acci- dent victims and to predict the presence of PTSD symptoms at a 12-month follow-up. Method: A longitudinal, 1-year follow-up study was carried out with 106 consecu- tive patients with severe accidental inju- ries who were admitted to the trauma surgeons' intensive

  3. Uptake and toxicity of toxaphene in several estuarine organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven C. Schimmel; James M. Patrick; Jerrold Forester

    1977-01-01

    The organochlorine insecticide, toxaphene, was tested in flow-through bioassays to evaluate its toxicity to estuarine organisms. The organisms tested and their respective 96-hr LC5Os (based on measured concentrations) are: pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), 1.4?g\\/L; grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio), 4.4?g\\/L; sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), 1.1?g\\/L; and pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides), 0.5?g\\/L. Toxaphene concentration estimated to reduce shell deposition in American oysters (Crassostrea

  4. Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, Chris R., E-mail: kelse003@mc.duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Horwitz, Mitchell E. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cellular Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Folz, Rodney J. [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Disorders Medicine, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY (United States); Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cellular Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

  5. Emotion regulation difficulties and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom cluster severity among trauma-exposed college students.

    PubMed

    O'Bryan, Emily M; McLeish, Alison C; Kraemer, Kristen M; Fleming, John B

    2015-03-01

    The present investigation examined the role of emotion regulation difficulties in predicting severity of the 3 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters (i.e., reexperiencing, hyperarousal, avoidance) in a sample of undergraduates who reported exposure to at least 1 DSM-IV-TR Criterion A traumatic event (n = 297; 77.1% female, Mage = 20.46, SD = 4.64, range = 18-50 years). Results indicated that greater difficulties with emotional acceptance significantly predicted greater avoidance and hyperarousal symptom severity above and beyond the effects of number of trauma types endorsed and negative affect. Emotion regulation difficulties were not significantly predictive of reexperiencing symptom severity. Results from an exploratory analysis indicated that greater difficulties with emotional acceptance and greater difficulties accessing effective emotion regulation strategies when upset significantly predicted the DSM-5 negative alterations in cognitions and mood symptom cluster. These findings suggest that difficulties accepting one's emotional responses, in particular, may heighten emotional responding to and avoidance of trauma-related cues. Thus, individuals who experience such difficulties may be more likely to experience negative outcomes after experiencing a traumatic event. PMID:25793688

  6. Acute Toxicity of Zinc to Several Aquatic Species Native to the Rocky Mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen F. BrinkmanWalter; Walter D. Johnston

    National water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life are based on toxicity tests, often using organisms that\\u000a are easy to culture in the laboratory. Species native to the Rocky Mountains are poorly represented in data sets used to derive\\u000a national water-quality criteria. To provide additional data on the toxicity of zinc, several laboratory acute-toxicity tests\\u000a were conducted with a

  7. [Symptoms of severe calciphylaxis in a girl with X-linked hypophosphataemia.

    PubMed

    Fink, Nadia Rahman; Pedersen, Freddy Karup; Gyhrs, Annette V Falkenberg

    2014-05-19

    X-linked hypophosphataemia (XLH) is the most common form of hereditary rickets. We present a case report of a girl who was diagnosed with XLH. She was treated with activated vitamin D and phosphate and received several correctives surgical procedures. After a knee surgery, complicated with osteomyelitis, she presented with symptoms of severe calciphylaxis with calcification of several organ systems. Medical therapy was paused and systemic inflammation was treated with steroids and loop diuretics. This case report underlines the necessity of careful dosage of vitamin D and pausing of medical therapy after surgical procedures in patients with XLH. PMID:25351902

  8. Heptachlor: toxicity to and uptake by several estuarine organisms.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, S C; Patrick, J M; Forester, J

    1976-07-01

    Technical-grade heptachlor (65% heptachlor, 22% trans-chlordane, 2% cis-chlordane, and 2% nonachlor) was tested in 96-hr bioassays to determine its toxicity to estuarine animals. The test organisms and the 96-hr LC50 or EC50s based on measured concentrations in water) are as follows: American oyster (Crassostrea virginica), 1.5 mug/liter; pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), 0.11 mug/liter; grass shrimp (Palaemonetes vulgaris), 1.06 mug/liter; sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), 3.68 mug/liter; pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides), 3.77 mug/liter; and spot (Leiostomus xanthurus), 0.85 mug/liter. Analytical-grade heptachlor (99.8% heptachlor) and heptachlor epoxide (99%) were also studied. The analytical-grade heptachlor 96-hr LC50 for pink shrimp and spot was 0.03 mug/liter and 0.86 mug/liter, respectively, while that for pink shrimp exposed to heptachlor epoxide was 0.04 mug/liter. Heptachlor was accumulated and some metabolized to its epoxide by all animals tested. Fish and oysters accumulated heptachlor in their tissues 2,800-21,300 times the measured concentration in water; shrimp, only 200-700 times. PMID:966323

  9. Executive Dysfunction and Depressive Symptoms Associated With Reduced Participation of People With Severe Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Erin R.; Cunnane, Kathleen B.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Morrison, M. Tracy; Ewald, Gregory A.; Geltman, Edward M.; Zazulia, Allyson R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We investigated participation levels and relationships among cognition, depression, and participation for people with severe congestive heart failure (CHF). METHOD People with severe CHF (New York Heart Association Class III or IV) awaiting heart transplantation (N = 27) completed standardized tests of cognition and self-report measures of executive dysfunction, depressive symptoms, and participation. RESULTS Possible depression (64%) and cognitive impairment (15%–59%) were prevalent. Participants reported significant reductions in participation across all activity domains since CHF diagnosis (ps < .001). Worse executive dysfunction and depressive symptoms were associated with reduced participation and together accounted for 35%–46% of the variance in participation (ps < .01). CONCLUSION Participation restrictions associated with CHF are not limited to physically demanding activities and are significantly associated with executive dysfunction and depression. Cardiac rehabilitation should address cognitive and psychological functioning in the context of all life situations instead of focusing solely on physical function and disability. PMID:21675336

  10. Subjective symptoms and prognosis after lung volume reduction surgery in patients with severe pulmonary emphysema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuro Sugi; Yoshikazu Kaneda; Kensuke Esato

    1999-01-01

    Lung volume reduction surgery improves symptoms in patients with severe pulmonary emphysema, but patients are not always satisfied\\u000a surgical results. Our purpose was to determine the profiles and prognosis of unsatisfactory cases of lung volume reduction\\u000a surgery. A total of 58 patients with advanced symptomatic emphysema underwent thoracoscopic volume reduction of emphysematous\\u000a lung tissue. Patients subjectively evaluated their condition 3

  11. A Severe Hellenic CMV Tomato Isolate: Symptom Variability in Tobacco, Characterization and Discrimination of Variants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Sclavounos; A. E. Voloudakis; Ch. Arabatzis; P. E. Kyriakopoulou

    2006-01-01

    A severe strain of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) originating from an infected tomato plant (Gastouni-Olympia, Greece) was isolated in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi nc), after three serial local lesion passages in Chenopodium quinoa and designated CMV-G. CMV-G induces yellow mosaic (YM) symptoms in tobacco. When CMV-G was passed mechanically through C. quinoa, phenotypic variants inducing YM or green mild

  12. Enlargement of visual processing regions in social anxiety disorder is related to symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Frick, Andreas; Engman, Jonas; Alaie, Iman; Björkstrand, Johannes; Faria, Vanda; Gingnell, Malin; Wallenquist, Ulrika; Agren, Thomas; Wahlstedt, Kurt; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Morell, Arvid; Fredrikson, Mats; Furmark, Tomas

    2014-11-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with altered brain function and structure, but most structural studies include small samples and findings are mixed. This study compared regional gray matter volume between 48 SAD patients and 29 healthy controls (HC) as well as the relationship between volume and symptom severity. Structural magnetic resonance images from SAD patients and HC were evaluated using standard voxel-based morphometry (VBM) processing in the SPM8 software package. Social anxiety symptom severity was rated in SAD patients by a clinician using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). SAD patients had greater regional gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus and lateral occipital cortex than the controls, and within the SAD group a positive correlation was found between symptom severity and regional gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus and the retrosplenial cortex. These findings replicate and extend earlier reports of enlarged visual processing areas in SAD. Increased gray matter volume in regions involved in visual processing and self-consciousness could underlie, or be the result of, abnormal emotional information processing and self-focused attention previously demonstrated in patients with SAD. PMID:25258347

  13. Health Care Utilization and Symptom Severity in Ghanaian Children – a Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Krumkamp, Ralf; Sarpong, Nimako; Kreuels, Benno; Ehlkes, Lutz; Loag, Wibke; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Zeeb, Hajo; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; May, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing health care utilization behavior for children with mild or severe disease symptoms in rural Ghana. Between March and September 2008 a cross-sectional health care utilization survey was conducted and 8,715 caregivers were interviewed regarding their intended behavior in case their children had mild or severe fever or diarrhea. To show associations between hospital attendance and further independent factors (e.g. travel distance or socio-economic status) prevalence ratios were calculated for the four disease symptoms. A Poisson regression model was used to control for potential confounding. Frequency of hospital attendance decreased constantly with increasing distance to the health facility. Being enrolled in the national health insurance scheme increased the intention to attend a hospital. The effect of the other factors diminished in the Poisson regression if modeled together with travel distance. The observed associations weakened with increasing severity of symptoms, which indicates that barriers to visit a hospital are less important if children experience a more serious illness. As shown in other studies, travel distance to a health care provider had the strongest effect on health care utilization. Studies to identify local barriers to access health care services are important to inform health policy making as they identify deprived populations with low access to health services and to early treatment. PMID:24244698

  14. Multi-voxel pattern analysis of fMRI data predicts clinical symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Coutanche, Marc N; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L; Schultz, Robert T

    2011-07-01

    Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) has been applied successfully to a variety of fMRI research questions in healthy participants. The full potential of applying MVPA to functional data from patient groups has yet to be fully explored. Our goal in this study was to investigate whether MVPA might yield a sensitive predictor of patient symptoms. We also sought to demonstrate that this benefit can be realized from existing datasets, even when they were not designed with MVPA in mind. We analyzed data from an fMRI study of the neural basis for face processing in individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), who often show fusiform gyrus hypoactivation when presented with unfamiliar faces, compared to controls. We found reliable correlations between MVPA classification performance and standardized measures of symptom severity that exceeded those observed using a univariate measure; a relation that was robust across variations in ROI definition. A searchlight analysis across the ventral temporal lobes identified regions with relationships between classification performance and symptom severity that were not detected using mean activation. These analyses illustrate that MVPA has the potential to act as a sensitive functional biomarker of patient severity. PMID:21513803

  15. Development of Late Toxicity and International Prostate Symptom Score Resolution After External-Beam Radiotherapy Combined With Pulsed Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pieters, Bradley R., E-mail: b.r.pieters@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rezaie, Elisa; Geijsen, Elisabeth D.; Koedooder, Kees; Grient, Johan N.B. van der; Blank, Leo E.C.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reijke, Theo M. de [Department of Urology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Caro C.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the development of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity, genitourinary (GU) toxicity, erectile dysfunction, and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) resolution in a cohort of patients treated with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) followed by a brachytherapy pulsed dose rate (PDR) boost. Methods and Materials: Between 2002 and 2008, 110 patients were treated with 46-Gy EBRT followed by PDR brachytherapy (24.96-28.80 Gy). The investigated outcome variables, GI toxicity, GU toxicity, erectile dysfunction, and IPSS were prospectively scored at several time points during follow-up. Association between time (as continuous and categorical variable) and the outcome variables was assessed using generalized linear models. Results: No statistically significant association was found between time (continuous) and GI toxicity (odds ratio [OR], 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89-1.06), GU toxicity (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.91-1.03), erectile dysfunction (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.99-1.11), and IPSS (-0.11; 95% CI, -0.41-0.20). Also, no statistically significant association was found between these variables and time as a categorical variable. GU toxicity was associated with IPSS resolution (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.09-1.24). Posttreatment IPSS was associated with pretreatment IPSS (0.52; 95% CI, 0.25-0.79). Conclusions: No accumulation of high-grade toxicity over time could be established for a group of patients treated with EBRT and PDR brachytherapy for prostate cancer, probably because high-grade late toxicity resolves with time. Also, differences in IPSS values among patients are smaller after treatment than before treatment.

  16. DUF1220 Dosage Is Linearly Associated with Increasing Severity of the Three Primary Symptoms of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jonathan M.; Searles, Veronica B.; Anderson, Nathan; Keeney, Jonathon; Dumas, Laura; Sikela, James M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the three most frequently documented copy number variations associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a 1q21.1 duplication that encompasses sequences encoding DUF1220 protein domains, the dosage of which we previously implicated in increased human brain size. Further, individuals with ASD frequently display accelerated brain growth and a larger brain size that is also associated with increased symptom severity. Given these findings, we investigated the relationship between DUF1220 copy number and ASD severity, and here show that in individuals with ASD (n?=?170), the copy number (dosage) of DUF1220 subtype CON1 is highly variable, ranging from 56 to 88 copies following a Gaussian distribution. More remarkably, in individuals with ASD CON1 copy number is also linearly associated, in a dose-response manner, with increased severity of each of the three primary symptoms of ASD: social deficits (p?=?0.021), communicative impairments (p?=?0.030), and repetitive behaviors (p?=?0.047). These data indicate that DUF1220 protein domain (CON1) dosage has an ASD-wide effect and, as such, is likely to be a key component of a major pathway underlying ASD severity. Finally, these findings, by implicating the dosage of a previously unexamined, copy number polymorphic and brain evolution-related gene coding sequence in ASD severity, provide an important new direction for further research into the genetic factors underlying ASD. PMID:24651471

  17. DUF1220 dosage is linearly associated with increasing severity of the three primary symptoms of autism.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jonathan M; Searles, Veronica B; Anderson, Nathan; Keeney, Jonathon; Dumas, Laura; Sikela, James M

    2014-03-01

    One of the three most frequently documented copy number variations associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a 1q21.1 duplication that encompasses sequences encoding DUF1220 protein domains, the dosage of which we previously implicated in increased human brain size. Further, individuals with ASD frequently display accelerated brain growth and a larger brain size that is also associated with increased symptom severity. Given these findings, we investigated the relationship between DUF1220 copy number and ASD severity, and here show that in individuals with ASD (n = 170), the copy number (dosage) of DUF1220 subtype CON1 is highly variable, ranging from 56 to 88 copies following a Gaussian distribution. More remarkably, in individuals with ASD CON1 copy number is also linearly associated, in a dose-response manner, with increased severity of each of the three primary symptoms of ASD: social deficits (p = 0.021), communicative impairments (p = 0.030), and repetitive behaviors (p = 0.047). These data indicate that DUF1220 protein domain (CON1) dosage has an ASD-wide effect and, as such, is likely to be a key component of a major pathway underlying ASD severity. Finally, these findings, by implicating the dosage of a previously unexamined, copy number polymorphic and brain evolution-related gene coding sequence in ASD severity, provide an important new direction for further research into the genetic factors underlying ASD. PMID:24651471

  18. Do gastrointestinal and respiratory signs and symptoms correlate with the severity of gastroesophageal reflux?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a disorder that is common by seen in childhood and may lead to severe complications. In this study, we ascertained the incidence of GER among the children who had typical and atypical complaints of GER and whether there was a difference between two groups comparing the findings of 24-hour pH-meter. Methods 39 out of 70 patients with typical and atypical GER symptoms were diagnosed as GER by 24-hour pH-meter monitoring. The patients were divided into three groups, those having gastrointestinal complaints, those having respiratory complaints and those having both gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms. Results Evaluated the GER prevalence in these groups, it was found to be 60% in the gastrointestinal group, 48.6% in the respiratory group and 75% in the mixed group. When pH-meter measurements of GER positive patients were compared within the clinical groups, the fraction of time that pH was lower than 4 was found to be significantly higher in the mixed group (p = 0.004). Conclusions The coexistence of gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms in the patients with GER may be related to the severe reflux. PMID:22436080

  19. Association of life threat and betrayal with posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Lance P; Weathers, Frank W; Mason, Elizabeth A; Pruneau, Genevieve M

    2012-08-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000) emphasizes life threat as the defining feature of psychological trauma. Recent theoretical and empirical work, however, indicates the need to identify and evaluate other key aspects of trauma. Betrayal has been proposed as a pertinent, distinct, and complementary factor that can explain effects of trauma not accounted for by life threat alone. This study examined the relationship between injury, perceived life threat (PLT), and betrayal with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. Trauma-exposed college students (N = 185) completed self-report measures of trauma exposure and PTSD, as well as items regarding life threat, betrayal, and level of medical care received. In hierarchical regressions incorporating injury, PLT, and betrayal, betrayal was associated with all PTSD symptom clusters and PTSD total severity (f(2) = .08), whereas PLT was associated with hyperarousal (f(2) = .05) and PTSD total (f(2) = .03), and injury had no association with PTSD symptoms. In a revised model with trauma type as an additional variable, betrayal was associated with avoidance (f(2) = .03), numbing (f(2) = .04), and PTSD total (f(2) = .03), whereas PLT was associated with reexperiencing (f(2) = .04), hyperarousal (f(2) = .04), and PTSD total (f(2) = .03), and injury was associated with avoidance (f(2) = .03). These findings support the idea that betrayal is a core dimension of psychological trauma that may play an important role in the etiology of PTSD. PMID:22821682

  20. Efficacy of Atomoxetine in Children with Severe Autistic Disorders and Symptoms of ADHD: An Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charnsil, Chawanun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to examine the efficacy of atomoxetine in treating symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with severe autistic disorder. Method: Children with severe autistic disorder who had symptoms of ADHD were given atomoxetine for 10 weeks. The efficacy of atomoxetine was evaluated by using the…

  1. Predictors of Posttraumatic Distress 1 Year After Exposure to Community Violence: The Importance of Acute Symptom Severity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas F. Denson; Grant N. Marshall; Terry L. Schell; Lisa H. Jaycox

    2007-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of 333 primarily male, Hispanic survivors of community violence, the authors investigated the effects of 4 categories of risk factors on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity: demographic characteristics, pretraumatic psychological factors, characteristics of the trauma, and reactions to the trauma. Replicating past research, exemplars from all 4 categories predicted PTSD symptom severity at 12-month follow-up.

  2. A Preliminary Examination of Trauma History, Locus of Control, and PTSD Symptom Severity in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Sarah K.; Carter, Michele M.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research has established a relationship between external locus of control and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity among Caucasians. There is also evidence that African Americans tend to exhibit an elevated external locus of control. However, the relationship between external control and PTSD symptom severity has not been…

  3. Emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception in persons with severe insomnia symptoms

    PubMed Central

    DelVentura, Jennifer L.; Terry, Ellen L.; Bartley, Emily J.; Rhudy, Jamie L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Impaired sleep enhances pain, perhaps by disrupting pain modulation. Purpose Given that emotion modulates pain, the present study examined whether emotional modulation of pain and nociception is impaired in persons with severe insomnia symptoms relative to controls. Methods Insomnia group (n=12) met ICD-10 symptoms for primary insomnia and controls (n=13) reported no sleep impairment. Participants were shown emotionally-evocative pictures (mutilation, neutral, erotica) during which suprathreshold pain stimuli were delivered to evoke pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR; physiological correlate of spinal nociception). Results Emotional responses to pictures were similar in both groups, except that subjective valence/pleasure ratings were blunted in insomnia. Emotional modulation of pain and NFR was observed in controls, but only emotional modulation of NFR was observed in insomnia. Conclusions Consistent with previous findings, pain modulation is disrupted in insomnia which might promote pain. This may stem from disrupted supraspinal circuits not disrupted brain-to-spinal cord circuits. PMID:24101292

  4. Effect of baseline symptom severity on continence improvement mediated by oxybutynin chloride topical gel

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Peter K; MacDiarmid, Scott A; Thomas, Heather; Caramelli, Kim E; Hoel, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Background In a recent placebo-controlled Phase III study, oxybutynin chloride topical gel (OTG) significantly improved urinary continence in patients with overactive bladder. In this post hoc analysis, the effect of incontinence severity on OTG-mediated improvement in continence was evaluated. Methods Change from baseline in the number of incontinence episodes was evaluated in patients with two to three incontinence episodes/day (moderate incontinence) and those with more than three incontinence episodes/day (severe incontinence). Results In patients with moderate (n = 171) and severe (n = 556) incontinence, reduction in incontinence episodes (mean ± standard deviation) was greater (P < 0.01) with OTG (moderate, ?1.7 ± 1.4; severe, ?3.6 ± 3.0) than with placebo (moderate, ?1.2 ± 1.3; severe, ?3.1 ± 3.4). Continence achievement rate with OTG was 48.2% (placebo, 24.4%) among patients with moderate incontinence and 17.8% (placebo, 12.1%) among those with severe incontinence. Conclusion Absolute placebo-adjusted reduction in incontinence episodes with OTG was not affected by baseline incontinence severity. Continence achievement was more likely if symptoms were less severe. PMID:24198648

  5. Family composition and symptom severity among Veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Jobe-Shields, Lisa; Flanagan, Julianne C; Killeen, Therese; Back, Sudie E

    2015-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) frequently co-occur and affect a substantial proportion of military Veterans. Although the impact of parental PTSD and SUD on child development is well-documented, little is known about the influence of family composition on PTSD/SUD symptom severity. The present study investigated children in the home as an independent risk factor for symptom severity in a sample of treatment-seeking Veterans (N=94; 92% male) with comorbid PTSD/SUD. Twenty-seven percent of the sample had minor children (age 18 or younger) living in the home. Veterans with children in the home evidenced significantly higher PTSD symptomatology as measured by the Clinical Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS; M=82.65 vs. M=72.17; t=-2.18; p<.05), and reported using marijuana more frequently than Veterans without children in the home (34% vs. 13% of past 60days; t=-2.35, p<.05). In a multivariate model, having children in the home accounted for unique variance (?R(2)=.07) in PTSD severity after accounting for a range of covariates; however, having children in the home did not account for unique variance in substance use. Directions for future research as well as potential clinical implications for parents seeking treatment for PTSD/SUD are discussed. PMID:26132535

  6. Symptom Severity Predicts Degree of T Cell Activation In Adult Women Following Childhood Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Andrine; Coe, Christopher L.; Carnes, Molly

    2008-01-01

    Although depression is often associated with a reduction in cellular immune responses, other types of emotional disturbance and psychopathology can activate certain aspects of immunity. Activation markers on T cells, in particular, have been found to be elevated in post-traumatic stress states. However, little is known about the relationship between the severity of PTSD symptoms and the degree of change in T cell phenotypes, or about the potential role of neuroendocrine factors in mediating the association. Twenty-four women with a history of sexual trauma during childhood, including 11 who met diagnostic criteria for PTSD, were compared to 12 age-matched, healthy women without a history of maltreatment. The women provided fasted blood samples for enumeration of cell subsets by immunofluorescence and 24-hour urine samples for analysis of catecholamine and cortisol levels. The percent of T cells expressing CD45RA, an early activation marker, was higher in the PTSD diagnosed women, and the levels correlated positively with intrusive symptoms and negatively with avoidant symptoms. These alterations in cell surface markers did not appear to be mediated by norepinephrine (NE) or cortisol, making them a distinctive and independent biomarker of arousal and disturbance in PTSD. PMID:18396007

  7. Activity parameters of subthalamic nucleus neurons selectively predict motor symptom severity in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sharott, Andrew; Gulberti, Alessandro; Zittel, Simone; Tudor Jones, Adam A; Fickel, Ulrich; Münchau, Alexander; Köppen, Johannes A; Gerloff, Christian; Westphal, Manfred; Buhmann, Carsten; Hamel, Wolfgang; Engel, Andreas K; Moll, Christian K E

    2014-04-30

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous disorder that leads to variable expression of several different motor symptoms. While changes in firing rate, pattern, and oscillation of basal ganglia neurons have been observed in PD patients and experimental animals, there is limited evidence linking them to specific motor symptoms. Here we examined this relationship using extracellular recordings of subthalamic nucleus neurons from 19 PD patients undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation. For each patient, ? 10 single units and/or multi-units were recorded in the OFF medication state. We correlated the proportion of neurons displaying different activities with preoperative Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale subscores (OFF medication). The mean spectral power at sub-beta frequencies and percentage of units oscillating at beta frequencies were positively correlated with the axial and limb rigidity scores, respectively. The percentage of units oscillating at gamma frequency was negatively correlated with the bradykinesia scores. The mean intraburst rate was positively correlated with both bradykinesia and axial scores, while the related ratio of interspike intervals below/above 10 ms was positively correlated with these symptoms and limb rigidity. None of the activity parameters correlated with tremor. The grand average of all the significantly correlated subthalamic nucleus activities accounted for >60% of the variance of the combined bradykinetic-rigid and axial scores. Our results demonstrate that the occurrence of alterations in the rate and pattern of basal ganglia neurons could partly underlie the variability in parkinsonian phenotype. PMID:24790198

  8. Activity Parameters of Subthalamic Nucleus Neurons Selectively Predict Motor Symptom Severity in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gulberti, Alessandro; Zittel, Simone; Tudor Jones, Adam A.; Fickel, Ulrich; Münchau, Alexander; Köppen, Johannes A.; Gerloff, Christian; Westphal, Manfred; Buhmann, Carsten; Hamel, Wolfgang; Engel, Andreas K.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous disorder that leads to variable expression of several different motor symptoms. While changes in firing rate, pattern, and oscillation of basal ganglia neurons have been observed in PD patients and experimental animals, there is limited evidence linking them to specific motor symptoms. Here we examined this relationship using extracellular recordings of subthalamic nucleus neurons from 19 PD patients undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation. For each patient, ?10 single units and/or multi-units were recorded in the OFF medication state. We correlated the proportion of neurons displaying different activities with preoperative Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale subscores (OFF medication). The mean spectral power at sub-beta frequencies and percentage of units oscillating at beta frequencies were positively correlated with the axial and limb rigidity scores, respectively. The percentage of units oscillating at gamma frequency was negatively correlated with the bradykinesia scores. The mean intraburst rate was positively correlated with both bradykinesia and axial scores, while the related ratio of interspike intervals below/above 10 ms was positively correlated with these symptoms and limb rigidity. None of the activity parameters correlated with tremor. The grand average of all the significantly correlated subthalamic nucleus activities accounted for >60% of the variance of the combined bradykinetic-rigid and axial scores. Our results demonstrate that the occurrence of alterations in the rate and pattern of basal ganglia neurons could partly underlie the variability in parkinsonian phenotype. PMID:24790198

  9. Severe propylene glycol toxicity secondary to use of anti-epileptics.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Unnikrishnan; Hothi, Jatinder C; Bhat, Zeenat Y

    2014-01-01

    Propylene glycol toxicity presenting as high anion gap metabolic acidosis and osmolar gap has been extensively reported in literature, and most of them are secondary to intravenous lorazepam infusion. However, propylene glycol is used as a solvent in a number of medications that are frequently utilized in critical care setting, and hence one should be aware that the toxicity is possible from a variety of medication. Phenobarbital and phenytoin are one of those, and we hereby report a novel case of propylene glycol toxicity secondary to phenobarbital and phenytoin infusion in a patient with refractory status epilepticus. Furthermore, our patient had end-stage renal disease, which we think could have been an important precipitating factor for the toxicity. Because most of the symptoms from propylene glycol toxicity can mimic sepsis-which is very common in critical care unit patients-this life threatening scenario could be easily missed. Regular monitoring of osmolar gap is an easily available intervention in the at risk patients. PMID:22926232

  10. Docetaxel-induced nail toxicity: a case of severe onycholysis and topic review.

    PubMed

    Lau, Chi-Pan; Hui, Pun; Chan, Tak-Cheung

    2011-08-01

    Docetaxel is a commonly-used anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agent given its efficacy in a large variety of solid tumors. It is associated with various adverse effects one of which is nail toxicity. We report a case of severe onycholysis as a result of treatment with docetaxel in a patient who suffered from metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The case report will be followed by a discussion on the possible mechanism and preventive strategies for taxane-induced nail toxicity. PMID:21933605

  11. Longitudinal changes in total brain volume in schizophrenia: relation to symptom severity, cognition and antipsychotic medication.

    PubMed

    Veijola, Juha; Guo, Joyce Y; Moilanen, Jani S; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Miettunen, Jouko; Kyllönen, Merja; Haapea, Marianne; Huhtaniska, Sanna; Alaräisänen, Antti; Mäki, Pirjo; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Nikkinen, Juha; Starck, Tuomo; Remes, Jukka J; Tanskanen, Päivikki; Tervonen, Osmo; Wink, Alle-Meije; Kehagia, Angie; Suckling, John; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Barnett, Jennifer H; Barnes, Anna; Koponen, Hannu J; Jones, Peter B; Isohanni, Matti; Murray, Graham K

    2014-01-01

    Studies show evidence of longitudinal brain volume decreases in schizophrenia. We studied brain volume changes and their relation to symptom severity, level of function, cognition, and antipsychotic medication in participants with schizophrenia and control participants from a general population based birth cohort sample in a relatively long follow-up period of almost a decade. All members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with any psychotic disorder and a random sample not having psychosis were invited for a MRI brain scan, and clinical and cognitive assessment during 1999-2001 at the age of 33-35 years. A follow-up was conducted 9 years later during 2008-2010. Brain scans at both time points were obtained from 33 participants with schizophrenia and 71 control participants. Regression models were used to examine whether brain volume changes predicted clinical and cognitive changes over time, and whether antipsychotic medication predicted brain volume changes. The mean annual whole brain volume reduction was 0.69% in schizophrenia, and 0.49% in controls (p?=?0.003, adjusted for gender, educational level, alcohol use and weight gain). The brain volume reduction in schizophrenia patients was found especially in the temporal lobe and periventricular area. Symptom severity, functioning level, and decline in cognition were not associated with brain volume reduction in schizophrenia. The amount of antipsychotic medication (dose years of equivalent to 100 mg daily chlorpromazine) over the follow-up period predicted brain volume loss (p?=?0.003 adjusted for symptom level, alcohol use and weight gain). In this population based sample, brain volume reduction continues in schizophrenia patients after the onset of illness, and antipsychotic medications may contribute to these reductions. PMID:25036617

  12. Severity of borderline personality symptoms in adolescence: relationship with maternal parenting stress, maternal psychopathology, and rearing styles.

    PubMed

    Schuppert, H Marieke; Albers, Casper J; Minderaa, Ruud B; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Nauta, Maaike H

    2015-06-01

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress has not been examined in this group. The current study examined 101 adolescents (14-19 years old) with BPD symptoms and their mothers. Assessments were made on severity of BPD symptoms, youth-perceived maternal rearing styles, and psychopathology and parenting stress in mothers. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine potential predictors of borderline severity. No correlation was found between severity of BPD symptoms in adolescents and parenting stress. Only youth-perceived maternal overprotection was significantly related to BPD severity. The combination of perceived maternal rejection with cluster B traits in mothers was significantly related to BPD severity in adolescents. This study provides a contribution to the disentanglement of the developmental pathways that lead to BPD. PMID:25102082

  13. Influenza-Like Illness among University Students: Symptom Severity and Duration Due to Influenza Virus Infection Compared to Other Etiologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Jocelyn; Cook, Robert; Rinaldo, Charles; Yablonsky, Eric; Hess, Rachel; Piazza, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: University students with influenza-like illness (ILI) were assessed to determine whether symptom severity, duration, or missed days of school or work varied according to etiology. Participants: Sixty persons presenting to a university health clinic with ILI symptoms during 3 consecutive influenza seasons completed baseline survey and…

  14. Psychometric Evaluation of the Symptoms and Functioning Severity Scale (SFSS) Short Forms with Out-of-Home Care Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duppong Hurley, Kristin; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.; Stevens, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a need for brief progress monitoring measures of behavioral and emotional symptoms for youth in out-of-home care. The Symptoms and Functioning Severity Scale (SFSS; Bickman et al. in Manual of the peabody treatment progress battery. Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 2010) is one measure that has clinician and youth short forms…

  15. Discriminant value of psychological distress, symptom profiles, and segmental colonic dysfunction in outpatients with severe idiopathic constipation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R L Grotz; J H Pemberton; N J Talley; D M Rath; A R Zinsmeister

    1994-01-01

    Severe idiopathic constipation can be categorised based on physiological testing into subgroups including slow transit constipation and pelvic floor dysfunction. This study aimed to determine if colonic and psychological symptoms, or rectosigmoid transit times, could discriminate among these subgroups. Patients, categorised according to total colonic transit times and pelvic floor function testing, completed a self report questionnaire that recorded symptoms

  16. Symptoms of Pain Do Not Correlate with Rotator Cuff Tear Severity

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Warren R.; Kuhn, John E.; Sanders, Rosemary; An, Qi; Baumgarten, Keith M.; Bishop, Julie Y.; Brophy, Robert H.; Carey, James L.; Holloway, G. Brian; Jones, Grant L.; Ma, C. Benjamin; Marx, Robert G.; McCarty, Eric C.; Poddar, Sourav K.; Smith, Matthew V.; Spencer, Edwin E.; Vidal, Armando F.; Wolf, Brian R.; Wright, Rick W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: For many orthopaedic disorders, symptoms correlate with disease severity. The objective of this study was to determine if pain level is related to the severity of rotator cuff disorders. Methods: A cohort of 393 subjects with an atraumatic symptomatic full-thickness rotator-cuff tear treated with physical therapy was studied. Baseline pretreatment data were used to examine the relationship between the severity of rotator cuff disease and pain. Disease severity was determined by evaluating tear size, retraction, superior humeral head migration, and rotator cuff muscle atrophy. Pain was measured on the 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) in the patient-reported American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score. A linear multiple regression model was constructed with use of the continuous VAS score as the dependent variable and measures of rotator cuff tear severity and other nonanatomic patient factors as the independent variables. Forty-eight percent of the patients were female, and the median age was sixty-one years. The dominant shoulder was involved in 69% of the patients. The duration of symptoms was less than one month for 8% of the patients, one to three months for 22%, four to six months for 20%, seven to twelve months for 15%, and more than a year for 36%. The tear involved only the supraspinatus in 72% of the patients; the supraspinatus and infraspinatus, with or without the teres minor, in 21%; and only the subscapularis in 7%. Humeral head migration was noted in 16%. Tendon retraction was minimal in 48%, midhumeral in 34%, glenohumeral in 13%, and to the glenoid in 5%. The median baseline VAS pain score was 4.4. Results: Multivariable modeling, controlling for other baseline factors, identified increased comorbidities (p = 0.002), lower education level (p = 0.004), and race (p = 0.041) as the only significant factors associated with pain on presentation. No measure of rotator cuff tear severity correlated with pain (p > 0.25). Conclusions: Anatomic features defining the severity of atraumatic rotator cuff tears are not associated with the pain level. Factors associated with pain are comorbidities, lower education level, and race. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:24875019

  17. Depressed Systemic Arterial Compliance is Associated with the Severity of Heart Failure Symptoms in Moderate-to-Severe Aortic Stenosis: a Cross-Sectional Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kruszelnicka, Olga; Chmiela, Mark; Bobrowska, Beata; ?wierszcz, Jolanta; Bhagavatula, Seetha; Bednarek, Jacek; Surdacki, Andrzej; Nessler, Jadwiga; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with aortic stenosis (AS) may develop heart failure even in the absence of severe valve stenosis. Our aim was to assess the contribution of systemic arterial properties and the global left ventricular afterload to graded heart failure symptoms in AS. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 157 consecutive subjects (mean age, 71±10 years; 79 women and 78 men) hospitalized owing to moderate-to-severe degenerative AS. Exclusion criteria included more than mild aortic insufficiency or disease of another valve, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, severe respiratory disease or anemia. Heart failure symptoms were graded by NYHA class at admission. Systemic arterial compliance (SAC) and valvulo-arterial impedance (Zva) were derived from routine echocardiography and blood pressure. Results: Sixty-one patients were asymptomatic, 49 presented mild (NYHA II) and 47 moderate-to-severe (NYHA III-IV) heart failure symptoms. Mild symptoms were associated with lower SAC and transvalvular gradients, while more severe exercise intolerance coincided with older age, lower systolic blood pressure, smaller aortic valve area and depressed ejection fraction. By multiple ordinal logistic regression, the severity of heart failure symptoms was related to older age, depressed ejection fraction and lower SAC. Each decrease in SAC by 0.1 ml/m² per mmHg was associated with an increased adjusted odds ratio (OR) of a patient being in one higher category of heart failure symptoms graded as no symptoms, mild exercise intolerance and advanced exercise intolerance (OR: 1.16 [95% CI, 1.01-1.35], P=0.045). Conclusions: Depressed SAC may enhance exercise intolerance irrespective of stenosis severity or left ventricular systolic function in moderate-to-severe AS. This finding supports the importance of non-valvular factors for symptomatic status in AS. PMID:26180511

  18. Influence of the serotonin transporter 5HTTLPR polymorphism on symptom severity in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Colucci, Rocchina; Gambaccini, Dario; Ghisu, Narcisa; Rossi, Giuseppe; Costa, Francesco; Tuccori, Marco; De Bortoli, Nicola; Fornai, Matteo; Antonioli, Luca; Ricchiuti, Angelo; Mumolo, Maria Gloria; Marchi, Santino; Blandizzi, Corrado; Bellini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    5HTTLPR polymorphism of serotonin transporter yields short (S) and long (L) alleles. SS and LS genotypes are associated with reduced expression of serotonin transporter. This cross-sectional study investigated the association of 5HTTLPR with symptom severity of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Patients with IBS (Rome III) and healthy controls were included. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva, and 5HTTLPR alleles were assessed by polymerase chain reaction. IBS symptom severity was evaluated by means of IBS-SSS questionnaire. Two hundreds and four IBS patients (159 females; mean age: 39.6±12.3 years; 106 with constipation: C-IBS; 98 with diarrhea: D-IBS) and 200 healthy controls (154 females; mean age: 40.4±15.8 years) were enrolled. The overall IBS-SSS value was higher in LS/SS than LL patients (319.0±71.5 versus 283.8±62.3; P?=?0.0006). LS/SS patients had also higher values of abdominal pain (59.7±21.0 versus 51.0±18.8; P?=?0.020) and bowel dissatisfaction (80.1±23.9 versus 70.5±22.8; P?=?0.035). The overall IBS-SSS values in C-IBS and D-IBS patients were 317.2±68.3 and 296.1±71.4, respectively (P?=?0.192), with significantly higher values for abdominal distension (65.0±24.4 versus 51.4±24.8; P?=?0.0006), but not for bowel dissatisfaction (80.5±21.7 versus 72.9±25.7; P?=?0.138). Frequencies of 5HTTLPR genotypes did not differ significantly when comparing IBS patients (overall or upon stratification in C-IBS and D-IBS) with healthy controls. In conclusion, the LS and SS genotypes are significantly correlated with IBS symptom severity, although their possible direct causal role remains to be proven. In addition, the present findings do not support an association of 5HTTLPR with IBS or its clinical presentation in terms of bowel habit predominance. PMID:23393559

  19. Relationship between severity of venous calcifications and symptoms of phlebosclerotic colitis

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Tsung-Shuo; Liu, Chien-An; Chiu, Nai-Chi; Chiou, Yi-You; Chou, Yi-Hong; Chang, Cheng-Yen

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine the correlation between the severity of venous calcifications and the clinical symptoms of phlebosclerotic colitis. METHODS: This was a retrospective study. The data, including the numbers of episodes of active disease, were collected from the medical records at Taipei Veterans General Hospital and Wei Gong Memorial Hospital in Taiwan between January 2005 and December 2014. All computed tomography images with or without contrast enhancement were obtained using a multiple detector computed tomography scanner. The scanning range reached from the dome of the diaphragm to the pelvis. The severity of calcification at the tributaries of the portal vein was measured using a four-grade scoring system of the calcification of phlebosclerotic colitis. The episodes of active disease were defined as symptoms of fever, abdominal pain, severe constipation, bowel obstruction, vomiting or diarrhea based on a review of the medical records. Spearman’s correlation analysis was used to examine the correlation between the numbers of episodes of active disease and the severity of the calcification of the mesenteric veins. RESULTS: More than 3000 cases were reviewed from 2005 to 2014, and a total of 12 patients from Taipei Veterans General Hospital and Wei Gong Memorial Hospital were enrolled according to our inclusion criteria. Among these 12 patients, the mean age of the six males and the six females was 61.8 ± 11.5 years. All patients exhibited typical imaging characteristics, consisting of threadlike calcifications and colonic wall thickening in the standard radiographs and calcifications along the colonic and mesenteric vessels or associated with colonic wall thickening and adjacent fat stranding in the computed tomography images. The median score of the severity of the venous calcifications was 18 ± 13, and the median number of active disease episodes was 1 ± 1.75. Spearman’s correlation analysis revealed that the number of episodes of active phlebosclerotic colitis disease significantly positively correlated with the severity of the calcification of the mesenteric veins (r = 0.619, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The extent of mesenteric venous calcification is strongly associated with the number of episodes of active disease among patients with phlebosclerotic colitis. PMID:26185388

  20. Interdisciplinary residential treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury: effects on symptom severity and occupational performance and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Speicher, Sarah M; Walter, Kristen H; Chard, Kathleen M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study examined outcomes of an 8-wk residential treatment program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHOD. Twenty-six veterans completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-2nd Edition, and PTSD Checklist before and after treatment. RESULTS. Veterans demonstrated significant improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction with their performance, as well as in PTSD and depression symptom severity after residential PTSD/TBI treatment. Additionally, improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction were associated with decreases in depression symptom severity. CONCLUSION. Although preliminary, results suggest that veterans with PTSD and a history of TBI experienced significant decreases in PTSD and depression symptom severity and improvement in self-perception of performance and satisfaction in problematic occupational areas. Changes in occupational areas and depression symptom severity were related, highlighting the importance of interdisciplinary treatment. PMID:25005504

  1. The relationship between symptom severity, stigma, illness intrusiveness and depression in Mal de Debarquement Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arroll, Megan A; Attree, Elizabeth A; Cha, Yoon-Hee; Dancey, Christine P

    2014-10-20

    Mal de Debarquement Syndrome is a neurological disorder of motion perception, triggered by external motion. This study aimed to determine the importance of psychosocial factors in relation to depression and quality of life in Mal de Debarquement Syndrome. A total of 66 participants with self-reported Mal de Debarquement Syndrome completed quality-of-life, symptom severity, stigma, depression, and illness intrusiveness measurements in this naturalistic correlational study. Mal de Debarquement Syndrome was associated with high levels of depression and illness intrusiveness. Illness intrusiveness mediated between stigma and quality of life; also the level of stigma moderated the effect of illness intrusiveness on quality of life. Targeted interventions aimed at alleviating psychological distress may improve quality of life in Mal de Debarquement Syndrome. PMID:25331814

  2. Brain reactivity to unpleasant stimuli is associated with severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Isabela; David, Isabel A; Figueira, Ivan; Campagnoli, Rafaela R; Volchan, Eliane; Pereira, Mirtes G; de Oliveira, Leticia

    2014-12-01

    Despite the impressive progress in the biological research of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known about the neurobiological correlates of emotional reactions in healthy people with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). The present study investigated whether PTSS are related to the electrocortical processing of unpleasant pictures in a sample of undergraduate students. Participants were instructed to judge whether images were unpleasant or neutral while an EEG was taken. The late positive potential (LPP) to unpleasant relative to neutral was more positive for people with high PTSS than with low PTSS. Additionally, a temporospatial principal components analysis (PCA) for the whole sample identified positivities that were directly correlated with PTSS. These results provide evidence that brain reactivity to unpleasant cues would predict PTSS intensity and thus be a biomarker of PTSS severity. PMID:25258033

  3. Processing of facial and nonsocial information is differentially associated with severity of symptoms in patients with multiepisode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Barkhof, Emile; de Sonneville, Leo M J; Meijer, Carin J; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2015-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia show impairments in social cognitive abilities, such as recognizing facial emotions. However, the relation to symptoms remains unclear. The goal of this study was to explore whether facial emotion recognition and face identity recognition are associated with severity of symptoms and to which extent associations with symptoms differ for processing of social versus nonsocial information. Facial emotion recognition, face recognition, and abstract pattern recognition were evaluated in 98 patients with multiepisode schizophrenia. Severity of symptoms was measured using a five-factor model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Results show that facial emotion recognition and, to a lesser extent, face recognition were predominantly associated with severity of disorganization symptoms. In contrast, recognition of nonsocial patterns was associated with negative symptoms, excitement, and emotional distress. Reaction time rather than accuracy of social cognition explained variance in symptomatology. These results lead to the conclusion that facial emotion processing in schizophrenia appears to be associated with severity of symptoms, especially disorganization. PMID:25594793

  4. Salience Network–Based Classification and Prediction of Symptom Severity in Children With Autism

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Lucina Q.; Supekar, Kaustubh; Lynch, Charles J.; Khouzam, Amirah; Phillips, Jennifer; Feinstein, Carl; Ryali, Srikanth; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects 1 in 88 children and is characterized by a complex phenotype, including social, communicative, and sensorimotor deficits. Autism spectrum disorder has been linked with atypical connectivity across multiple brain systems, yet the nature of these differences in young children with the disorder is not well understood. OBJECTIVES To examine connectivity of large-scale brain networks and determine whether specific networks can distinguish children with ASD from typically developing (TD) children and predict symptom severity in children with ASD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Case-control study performed at Stanford University School of Medicine of 20 children 7 to 12 years old with ASD and 20 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched TD children. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Between-group differences in intrinsic functional connectivity of large-scale brain networks, performance of a classifier built to discriminate children with ASD from TD children based on specific brain networks, and correlations between brain networks and core symptoms of ASD. RESULTS We observed stronger functional connectivity within several large-scale brain networks in children with ASD compared with TD children. This hyperconnectivity in ASD encompassed salience, default mode, frontotemporal, motor, and visual networks. This hyperconnectivity result was replicated in an independent cohort obtained from publicly available databases. Using maps of each individual’s salience network, children with ASD could be discriminated from TD children with a classification accuracy of 78%, with 75% sensitivity and 80% specificity. The salience network showed the highest classification accuracy among all networks examined, and the blood oxygen–level dependent signal in this network predicted restricted and repetitive behavior scores. The classifier discriminated ASD from TD in the independent sample with 83% accuracy, 67% sensitivity, and 100% specificity. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Salience network hyperconnectivity may be a distinguishing feature in children with ASD. Quantification of brain network connectivity is a step toward developing biomarkers for objectively identifying children with ASD. PMID:23803651

  5. EFFECTS OF SODIUM PENTACHLOROPHENATE ON SEVERAL ESTUARINE ANIMALS: TOXICITY, UPTAKE, AND DEPURATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several estuarine animals were exposed to sodium pentachlorophenate (Na-PCP), in flowthrough toxicity tests. The following are test animals and their 96-hour LC50 values; grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio), >515 micrograms/l; brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus), >195 micrograms/l; long...

  6. Incidence and Trends in Psychopathology Symptoms over Time in Adults with Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Shoemaker, Mary; Belva, Brian; Bamburg, Jay W.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have a high risk for developing comorbid psychopathology. While researchers have shown that symptoms of psychopathology remain relatively stable in children with ID over time, little research has been conducted to demonstrate symptom stability for adults with ID. Incidence of psychopathology symptoms…

  7. Parent Alcoholism Impacts the Severity and Timing of Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie; Zucker, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Although previous studies show that children of alcoholic parents have higher rates of externalizing symptoms compared to their peers, it remains unclear whether the timing of children's externalizing symptoms is linked to that of their parent's alcohol-related symptoms. Using a multilevel modeling approach, we tested whether children aged 2…

  8. Baseline toxicity of several pesticides to Hyaliodes vitripennis (Say) (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    PubMed

    Bostanian, N J; Larocque, N; Chouinard, G; Coderre, D

    2001-11-01

    Hyaliodes vitripennis (Say) is a univoltine indigenous predacious mirid. It has been reported in several orchards where IPM programmes are used. It is a generalist, and feeds on phytophagous mites in addition to other arthropods. In Quebec, a foliar application of imidacloprid, deltamethrin or lambda-cyhalothrin is used at least once per season to manage arthropod pests such as leafhoppers and leaf-eating caterpillars. Meanwhile, several applications of metiram, flusilazole, myclobutanil and mancozeb are made to control apple scab [Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Winter]. In laboratory trials, comparison of lethal concentrations of the three insecticides against H vitripennis nymphs and adults showed no significant difference. However, when lethal concentrations were compared between two growth stages for each insecticide, a significant difference was noted between adults and nymphs treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, adults being more susceptible than nymphs. No such difference could be detected for imidacloprid or deltamethrin. When LC50 values were compared with the manufacturer's label rates, deltamethrin and imidacloprid were toxic to the nymphs and adults, and lambda-cyhalothrin was slightly toxic to the nymphs and moderately toxic to the adults. Among the fungicides evaluated in the laboratory, myclobutanil showed moderate toxicity to adults at the manufacturer's label rate. The remaining fungicides had no toxic effects to adults or nymphs, even at four times the manufacturer's label rate. PMID:11721516

  9. An Observational Study Examining the Relationship between Respiratory Symptoms, Airway Inflammation and Bacteriology in Children with Severe Neurodisability

    PubMed Central

    Trinick, Ruth E.; Bunni, Lara; Thorburn, Kent; Hackett, Angela P.; Dalzell, Mark; McNamara, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with severe neurodisability (ND) commonly suffer from chronic respiratory symptoms that impact greatly on quality of life, and lead to recurrent hospital admissions. This morbidity (and its causes) is poorly described, despite being well recognised by paediatricians. In this study, we characterised respiratory symptoms in children with ND at times of stability and deterioration. We also assessed the relationship between respiratory symptoms, lower airway inflammatory markers and levels of infection/colonisation. Methods ND children were recruited upon admission for elective surgery (Elective-ND [n = 16]), or acutely upon admission to Intensive Care (PICU-ND [n = 19]), and compared to healthy control children [n = 12]. Parents completed a validated respiratory symptom questionnaire in which symptoms associated with activity were removed (total maximal score of 108). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was collected, and BAL neutrophil counts, IL-8 and TGF?-1 levels measured. BAL microbial analysis was performed using a 16S/18S rRNA gene based assay and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PCR. Results All ND children had high levels of respiratory symptoms (median [IQR] symptom score PICU-ND, 55[38-64]; Elective-ND, 26[7-45]; Control, 4[0-7]: p<0.01), which affected their families, particularly at nighttime. Elective-ND patients with a total respiratory symptom score >20 invariably had BAL neutrophilia. Elective patients with 16S/18S microbial rDNA positive BAL had higher neutrophil counts (positive, 33[18-70]%; negative, 8[4-38]%: p<0.05) and generally higher symptom scores (positive, 17[5-32]; negative, 5[0-9]: p = 0.097). Streptococcus mitis was commonly identified in BAL from ND children; Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not identified in any sample. Conclusions Children with severe ND often have high levels of chronic respiratory symptoms, which may relate to lower airway inflammation. Bacterial airway colonisation, particularly with oral commensals, may play a role in both symptom generation and inflammation. PMID:25853250

  10. Suboptimal management of severe menopausal symptoms by Nigerian Gynaecologists: a call for mandatory continuing medical education for physicians

    PubMed Central

    Nkwo, Peter O

    2009-01-01

    Background Effective management of menopause is an important way to improve the quality of life of the increasing number of older women. The study sought to find out if Nigerian Gynaecologists offer effective treatment for severe menopausal symptoms. Methods 126 Nigerian Gynaecologists representing the six health zones of Nigeria were interviewed to determine the menopausal symptoms they had ever encountered in their practices, frequency of the symptoms, treatments ever offered for severe symptoms including their attitude to, and practice of hormone replacement therapy. Results A Nigerian Gynaecologist encountered an average of one patient with menopausal symptoms every three months (range: 0-3 patients per month). The commoner symptoms they encountered were hot flushes (88%), insomnia (75.4%), depression (58.0%), irritability (56.3%), night sweats (55.6%) and muscle pains (54.8%) while urinary symptoms (16.7%) and fracture (1.6%) were less common. Treatments ever offered for severe symptoms were reassurance (90.5%), anxiolytics (68.3%), analgesics (14.3), HRT (7.9%), Vitamins (4%), Beta-blockers (3.2%) and Danazol (2.4%). These treatments were offered as a matter of institutional traditions rather than being based on any evidence of their efficacy. Conclusion The result revealed that most Nigerian Gynaecologists prefer reassurance and anxiolytics for managing severe menopausal symptoms instead of evidence-based effective therapies. A policy of mandatory continuing medical education for Nigerian physicians is recommended to ensure evidence-based management of gynaecological problems, including menopause. PMID:19852799

  11. 9 CFR 309.4 - Livestock showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...hemorrhagica, azoturia, infectious equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), dourine, acute influenza, generalized osteoporosis, glanders (farcy), acute inflammatory lameness or extensive fistula shall be identified as...

  12. 9 CFR 309.4 - Livestock showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...hemorrhagica, azoturia, infectious equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), dourine, acute influenza, generalized osteoporosis, glanders (farcy), acute inflammatory lameness or extensive fistula shall be identified as...

  13. 9 CFR 309.4 - Livestock showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...hemorrhagica, azoturia, infectious equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), dourine, acute influenza, generalized osteoporosis, glanders (farcy), acute inflammatory lameness or extensive fistula shall be identified as...

  14. 9 CFR 309.4 - Livestock showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...hemorrhagica, azoturia, infectious equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), dourine, acute influenza, generalized osteoporosis, glanders (farcy), acute inflammatory lameness or extensive fistula shall be identified as...

  15. Severe Toxic Skin Reaction Caused by a Common Anemone and Identification of the Culprit Organism.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Özgür Deniz; Gözer, Özgür

    2015-07-01

    In a marine envenomation, identification of the culprit organism can be difficult. In this case report, we present our method to identify snakelocks anemone (Anemonia viridis or formerly Anemonia sulcata) as the culprit of a severe toxic skin reaction. A. viridis is one of the most common anemones of the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean. It lives at a depth of up to 10 m. It is a member of the phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, hydroids, and corals. They have toxic organelles called cnidocysts that have the capacity to inject venom with microscopic harpoon-like structures. The cnidocysts of A. viridis may cause toxic and allergic reactions, and although its venom is one of the most studied cnidarian venoms, detailed case reports are rare. PMID:26146820

  16. Effect of Body Weight and Esophageal Damage on the Severity of Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms. Mexican GERD Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Vargas, José Antonio; Lopez, Luis Humberto; Fass, Ronnie; Sobrino-Cossio, Sergio; Higgins, Paul; Comuzzie, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Several studies have demonstrated overweight and obesity are strong independent risk factor of GERD symptoms and esophageal erosions. Our aim was to analyze the joint effect of BMI with the grade of esophageal damage over symptoms’ intensity of GERD. Methods We used a questionnaire with a Likert scale for severity of symptoms related to GERD. The distal portion of the esophagus was evaluated to determine the presence of mucosal injury, classified by Los Angeles criteria (LA). Results We included 917 subjects (53.76% females) with average age 36.8 ± 7 years. Males had higher BMI than females (26.8 ± 3.5 vs. 25.2 ± 4.5, p <0.001). Severe damage (C–D ulcers) was associated with overweight (BMI 25–30), severity of heartburn, retching, halitosis, regurgitation, and chest oppression. BMI >30 had high score for heartburn and retching, but low score for nausea, compared with lower weight. The model with interaction showed a non-linear association between BMI and LA. Overweight (but not obese) patients with damage scored C–D had the highest score for intensity of heartburn and retching. Conclusions BMI and LA do not have additive effects on the severity of symptoms of GERD. Those with BMI between 25 and 30 had severe symptoms score, but those with BMI >30 showed lower scores. These findings could explain controversial results found in other studies. PMID:20082872

  17. Bcl-2 associated with severity of manic symptoms in bipolar patients in a manic phase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Huang, Tiao-Lai; Tsai, Meng-Chang

    2015-02-28

    B cell lymphoma protein-2 (Bcl-2) may contribute to the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, and may be involved in the therapeutic action of anti-manic drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate serum levels of Bcl-2 in bipolar patients in a manic phase, and evaluate the Bcl-2 changes after treatment. We consecutively enrolled 23 bipolar inpatients in a manic phase and 40 healthy subjects; 20 bipolar patients were followed up with treatment. Serum Bcl-2 levels were measured with assay kits. All 20 patients were evaluated by examining the correlation between Bcl-2 levels and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores, using Spearman?s correlation coefficients. The serum Bcl-2 levels in bipolar patients in a manic phase were higher than in healthy subjects, but without a significant difference. The YMRS scores were significantly negatively associated with serum Bcl-2 levels (p=0.042). Bcl-2 levels of the 20 bipolar patients were measured at the end of treatment. Using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, we found no significant difference in the Bcl-2 levels of bipolar patients after treatment. Our results suggest that Bcl-2 levels might be an indicator of severity of manic symptoms in bipolar patients in a manic phase. PMID:25563670

  18. Trauma history in African-American women living with HIV: effects on psychiatric symptom severity and religious coping.

    PubMed

    Brownley, Julie R; Fallot, Roger D; Wolfson Berley, Rebecca; Himelhoch, Seth S

    2015-08-01

    Women living with HIV (WLHIV) have rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) up to 5 times higher than the general population. Individuals living with HIV and a concurrent diagnosis of PTSD have poorer HIV-related outcomes; however, the prevalence and impact of PTSD on African-American WLHIV seeking mental health treatment is unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between PTSD symptoms with psychiatric symptom severity and psychological/religious coping strategies in African-American WLHIV who are seeking mental health treatment. This is a cross-sectional study of 235 African-American WLHIV attending an urban community mental health clinic. Bivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate associations between a PTSD symptoms scale (PSS ? 21 versus PSS < 21) and (1) psychiatric severity, (2) coping strategies, and (3) religious coping strategies. Thirty-six percent reported symptoms consistent with PTSD (PSS ? 21). These women were significantly more likely to have worse mental health symptoms and were more likely to employ negative psychological and religious coping strategies. On the contrary, women with a PSS < 21 reported relatively low levels of mental health symptoms and were more likely to rely on positive psychological and religious coping strategies. Over one-third of African-American WLHIV attending an outpatient mental health clinic had symptoms associated with PTSD. These symptoms were associated with worse mental health symptoms and utilization of dysfunctional religious and nonreligious coping strategies. Untreated PTSD in WLHIV predicts poorer HIV-related health outcomes and may negatively impact comorbid mental health outcomes. Screening for PTSD in WLHIV could identify a subset that would benefit from evidence-based PTSD-specific therapies in addition to mental health interventions already in place. PTSD-specific interventions for WLHIV with PTSD may improve outcomes, improve coping strategies, and allow for more effective treatment of comorbid mental health disorders. PMID:25742054

  19. Effects of Ambient Pollen Concentrations on Frequency and Severity of Asthma Symptoms Among Asthmatic Children

    PubMed Central

    Triche, Elizabeth W.; Leaderer, Brian P.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies on the associations between ambient pollen exposures and daily respiratory symptoms have produced inconsistent results. We investigated these relationships in a cohort of asthmatic children, using pollen exposure models to estimate individual ambient exposures. Methods Daily symptoms of wheeze, night symptoms, shortness of breath, chest tightness, persistent cough and rescue medication use were recorded in a cohort of 430 children age 4-12 years with asthma in Connecticut, Massachusetts and New York. Daily ambient exposures to tree, grass, weed and all-type pollen were estimated using mixed effects models. We stratified analyses by asthma maintenance medication and sensitization to grass or weed pollens. Separate logistic regression analysis using generalized estimating equations were performed for each symptom outcome and pollen type. We adjusted analyses for maximum daily temperature, maximum 8-hr average ozone, fine particles (PM2.5), season and antibiotic use. Results Associations were observed among children sensitized to specific pollens; these associations varied by use of asthma maintenance medication. Exposures to even relatively low levels of weed pollen (6-9 grains/m3) were associated with increased shortness of breath, chest tightness, rescue medication use, wheeze, and persistent cough, compared with lower exposure among sensitized children taking maintenance medication. Grass pollen exposures ?2 grains/m3 were associated with wheeze, night symptoms, shortness of breath and persistent cough compared with lower exposure among sensitized children who did not take maintenance medication. Conclusion Even low-level pollen exposure was associated with daily asthmatic symptoms. PMID:22082997

  20. Acute toxicity of zinc to several aquatic species native to the Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Stephen F; Johnston, Walter D

    2012-02-01

    National water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life are based on toxicity tests, often using organisms that are easy to culture in the laboratory. Species native to the Rocky Mountains are poorly represented in data sets used to derive national water-quality criteria. To provide additional data on the toxicity of zinc, several laboratory acute-toxicity tests were conducted with a diverse assortment of fish, benthic invertebrates, and an amphibian native to the Rocky Mountains. Tests with fish were conducted using three subspecies of cutthroat trout (Colorado River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus, greenback cutthroat trout O. clarkii stomias, and Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. clarkii virginalis), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi), longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), and flathead chub (Platygobio gracilis). Aquatic invertebrate tests were conducted with mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus, Drunella doddsi, Cinygmula sp. and Ephemerella sp.), a stonefly (Chloroperlidae), and a caddis fly (Lepidostoma sp.). The amphibian test was conducted with tadpoles of the boreal toad (Bufo boreas). Median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s) ranged more than three orders of magnitude from 166 ?g/L for Rio Grande cutthroat trout to >67,000 ?g/L for several benthic invertebrates. Of the organisms tested, vertebrates were the most sensitive, and benthic invertebrates were the most tolerant. PMID:21811884

  1. The severity of Internet addiction risk and its relationship with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students.

    PubMed

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Evren, Bilge

    2014-11-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) risk with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. A total of 271 Turkish university students participated in this study. The students were assessed through the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The rates of students were 19.9% (n=54) in the high IA risk group, 38.7% (n=105) in the mild IA risk group and 41.3% (n=112) in the group without IA risk. Correlation analyses revealed that the severity of IA risk was related with BPI, DES, emotional abuse, CTQ-28, depression and anxiety scores. Univariate covariance analysis (ANCOVA) indicated that the severity of borderline personality features, emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms were the predictors of IAS score, while gender had no effect on IAS score. Among childhood trauma types, emotional abuse seems to be the main predictor of IA risk severity. Borderline personality features predicted the severity of IA risk together with emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. PMID:25023365

  2. Depressive Symptoms in Severely Obese Compared to Normal Weight Adolescents: Results from a Community-Based Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Elizabeth; Must, Aviva

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the relationship between severe obesity and depressive symptoms, particularly in community as opposed to clinic-based samples. This study determined the relationship of severe obesity and depressive symptoms over three years in a community-based sample of non–Hispanic black and white adolescents in grades 7–12 at baseline. Methods Nested matched cohort study using data from a longitudinal school-based study of youth followed for three years. 51 severely obese participants (BMI-for-age ? 99% and a BMI ? 40 at one or more study visit) were identified and paired with an age-, sex-, and race-matched normal weight subject. Depressive symptoms (CESD scale) were assessed at baseline, 2 and 3 years later. CESD score above cut points predictive of major depressive disorder or use of antidepressant medication defined High Depressive Symptoms (HDS). Results Pairs were 73% non-Hispanic black, 67% female. There was no relationship between weight status and HDS at any assessment point. However, a positive association between weight status and CESD scores, while not present at baseline or 2 years, emerged at 3 years (p=0.02). This relationship was present only among non-Hispanic whites (p=0.006 whites, p=0.25 blacks) and did not differ by sex. Conclusions Severely obese youth in this community sample did not have increased likelihood of high levels of depressive symptoms. However, significantly increased depressive symptoms among non-Hispanic white youth at the end of the follow up period suggests that this racial/ethnic group may be particularly vulnerable to the psychological effects of obesity in late adolescence/early adulthood. PMID:21700159

  3. Factors Influencing Service Utilization and Mood Symptom Severity in Children with Mood Disorders: Effects of Multifamily Psychoeducation Groups (MFPGs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Amy N.; Fristad, Mary A.; Early, Theresa J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of psychoeducation on service utilization and mood symptom severity in children with mood disorders. Parents' knowledge of mood disorders, beliefs about treatment, and perceptions of children's need for treatment were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between psychoeducation and service utilization and…

  4. Cross-Ethnic Measurement Invariance of the Brief Symptom Inventory for Individuals with Severe and Persistent Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoe, Maanse; Brekke, John S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the measurement invariance of the Brief Symptom Inventory's (BSI) secondary factor model across African, white, and Latino Americans using multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses. This study provides an examination of the BSI's validity for use in mental health service research for people with severe and…

  5. What Symptoms Predict the Diagnosis of Mania in Persons with Severe/Profound Intellectual Disability In Clinical Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, J. L.; Gonzalez, M. L.; Terlonge, C.; Thorson, R. T.; Laud, R. B.

    2007-01-01

    Background: While researchers have attempted to address the difficulties of diagnosing affective disorders in the intellectually disabled population, diagnosing bipolar disorder in an individual with severe intellectual disability (ID) remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to identify what symptoms can predict a diagnosis of mania in the…

  6. The Association of Quality of Social Relations, Symptom Severity and Intelligence with Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eussen, Mart L. J. M.; Van Gool, Arthur R.; Verheij, Fop; De Nijs, Pieter F. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2013-01-01

    Limited quality of social relations, milder symptom severity and higher intelligence were shown to account for higher anxiety levels in autism spectrum disorders. The current study replicated and extended earlier findings by combining these three determinants of anxiety in autism spectrum disorders in one study. The sample consisted of 134…

  7. Impact of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Observed Autism Symptom Severity during School Recess: A Preliminary Randomized, Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Fujii, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Van Dyke, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    This study compared cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and treatment-as-usual (TAU) in terms of effects on observed social communication-related autism symptom severity during unstructured play time at school for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirteen children with ASD (7-11 years old) were randomly assigned to 32 sessions of CBT…

  8. Predictors of Posttraumatic Distress 1 Year after Exposure to Community Violence: The Importance of Acute Symptom Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Thomas F.; Marshall, Grant N.; Schell, Terry L.; Jaycox, Lisa H.

    2007-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of 333 primarily male, Hispanic survivors of community violence, the authors investigated the effects of 4 categories of risk factors on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity: demographic characteristics, pretraumatic psychological factors, characteristics of the trauma, and reactions to the trauma.…

  9. Expressed emotion, family dynamics and symptom severity in a predictive model of social adjustment for schizophrenic young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne King; Michael John Dixon

    1995-01-01

    While numerous studies have concluded that high expressed emotion (EE) in relatives predicts relapse in schizophrenia, other aspects of patient outcome have not been well studied. Our purpose was to determine the extent to which family dynamics and expressed emotion may predict variance in patient social adjustment when controlling for symptom severity. Sixty-nine schizophrenic outpatients and 108 of their relatives

  10. Emergency Medical Service and In-Hospital Vital Signs as Predictors of Subsequent PTSD Symptom Severity in Pediatric Injury Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Nicole R.; Christopher, Norman C.; Delahanty, Douglas L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the extent to which heart rate (HR) levels soon after a traumatic event predicted posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity assessed 6 weeks and 6 months later in child trauma victims. Methods: Participants consisted of 82 children (56 boys, 26 girls) aged 8-18 who were admitted to a…

  11. Hypopharyngeal Dose Is Associated With Severe Late Toxicity in Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Cancer: An RTOG Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Machtay, Mitchell, E-mail: mitchell.machtay@uhhospitals.org [University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)] [University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Moughan, Jennifer [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Headquarters and Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Headquarters and Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Farach, Andrew [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States) [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); University of Texas Health Science Center/Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Martin-O'Meara, Elizabeth [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Headquarters and Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Headquarters and Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Galvin, James [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Headquarters and Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States) [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Headquarters and Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Garden, Adam S.; Weber, Randal S. [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Cooper, Jay S. [Maimonides Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Maimonides Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Forastiere, Arlene [Johns Hopkins University Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Johns Hopkins University Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Ang, K. Kian [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) increases local tumor control but at the expense of increased toxicity. We recently showed that several clinical/pretreatment factors were associated with the occurrence of severe late toxicity. This study evaluated the potential relationship between radiation dose delivered to the pharyngeal wall and toxicity. Methods and Materials: This was an analysis of long-term survivors from 3 previously reported Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials of CCRT for locally advanced SCCHN (RTOG trials 91-11, 97-03, and 99-14). Severe late toxicity was defined in this secondary analysis as chronic grade 3-4 pharyngeal/laryngeal toxicity and/or requirement for a feeding tube {>=}2 years after registration and/or potential treatment-related death (eg, pneumonia) within 3 years. Radiation dosimetry (2-dimensional) analysis was performed centrally at RTOG headquarters to estimate doses to 4 regions of interest along the pharyngeal wall (superior oropharynx, inferior oropharynx, superior hypopharynx, and inferior hypopharynx). Case-control analysis was performed with a multivariate logistic regression model that included pretreatment and treatment potential factors. Results: A total of 154 patients were evaluable for this analysis, 71 cases (patients with severe late toxicities) and 83 controls; thus, 46% of evaluable patients had a severe late toxicity. On multivariate analysis, significant variables correlated with the development of severe late toxicity, including older age (odds ratio, 1.062 per year; P=.0021) and radiation dose received by the inferior hypopharynx (odds ratio, 1.023 per Gy; P=.016). The subgroup of patients receiving {<=}60 Gy to the inferior hypopharynx had a 40% rate of severe late toxicity compared with 56% for patients receiving >60 Gy. Oropharyngeal dose was not associated with this outcome. Conclusions: Severe late toxicity following CCRT is common in long-term survivors. Age is the most significant factor, but hypopharyngeal dose also was associated.

  12. Aircrew Exposure to Chemicals in Aircraft: Symptoms of Irritation and Toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Winder; Jean Christophe Balouet

    Summary Materials used in the operation of aircraft may contain hazardous ingredients, some with significant toxicities, and need care in handling and use. Some maintenance or operational activities, such as leaks or poorly controlled maintenance procedures, can, through contamination of aircraft cabin air, produce unwanted exposures to crew and passengers. Occasionally, such exposures (either short term intense or long term

  13. Not your usual diarrhoea: severe colonic toxicity of mycophenolate due to intestinal CMV and EBV infection

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Heike; Hess, Christoph; Terracciano, Luici; Eckstein, Jens

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 52-year-old woman, on immunosuppressive treatment with mycophenolate due to a history of giant cell myocarditis (GCM), who presented with new-onset severe blood-tinged diarrhoea after a cytomegalovirus (CMV) primoinfection. An extensively prolonged mycophenolate-related colitis was seen after withdrawal of mycophenolate due to an intestinal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection—a rarely seen event itself. We postulate that colonic toxicity was triggered by CMV infection and perpetuated by intestinal EBV replication/infection. PMID:23845678

  14. Comparative toxicity of several sulphurs to two species of spider mites attacking cotton

    E-print Network

    Arrese, Luis Humberto

    1957-01-01

    the period August - November 1956 . 61 COMPARATIVE TOXICITY GF SEVERAL SULPSORS TO TWO SPECIES OF SPIIER MITES ATTACKING COTTON INTROBVCTION Sulphur was used as an insecticide long before the advent of the Christian Era. Cato, in 200 B. C. advised... Glover recommended that sulphur be applied as a dust for the control of red spider mites. In more recent tines sulphur has been used for the control of certain spider mites attacking cotton and other field crops. Also, sulphur is a component of many...

  15. Association of severe hypoglycemia with depressive symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Yohei; Iwase, Masanori; Fujii, Hiroki; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Kaizu, Shinako; Ide, Hitoshi; Jodai, Tamaki; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although many studies have investigated the clinical characteristics of patients with diabetes with depression in Western populations, there is a lack of information regarding other ethnicities. We studied the association between clinical characteristics and depressive symptoms in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods A total of 4218 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes who were not taking antidepressants were divided into four groups according to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score. The relationship between the severity of depressive symptoms and clinical parameters was examined cross-sectionally. Results After multivariate adjustments, the severity of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with body mass index, leisure-time physical activity, current smoking, sleep duration, sucrose intake, skipping breakfast, insulin use, severe hypoglycemia, dysesthesia of both feet, history of foot ulcer, photocoagulation, ischemic heart disease, and stroke. ORs for severe hypoglycemia increased significantly with the CES-D score in 2756 sulfonylurea and/or insulin-treated patients after multivariate adjustment including age, sex, duration of diabetes, glycated hemoglobin, insulin use, self-monitoring of blood glucose, leisure-time physical activity, skipping breakfast, dysesthesia of both feet, ischemic heart disease, and stroke (CES-D score ?9, referent; 10–15, OR 1.64; 16–23, OR 2.09; ?24, OR 3.66; p for trend <0.01). Conclusions Severe hypoglycemia was positively associated with the severity of depressive symptoms in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes independent of glycemic control, insulin therapy, lifestyle factors, and diabetic complications. As both severe hypoglycemia and depression are known risk factors for morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes, clinicians should be aware of this association. UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000002627. PMID:26019877

  16. IMAGE ANALYSIS VERSUS VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF CITRUS CANKER SYMPTOMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri causes citrus canker. Disease assessment is important for monitoring epidemics. Visual assessment (VA) is presently the only reliable means of detection. To investigate how VA of symptoms compared to image analysis we used digital images of 214 citrus le...

  17. Inflammatory Cytokine Expression Is Associated with Chikungunya Virus Resolution and Symptom Severity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alyson A. Kelvin; David Banner; Giuliano Silvi; Maria Luisa Moro; Nadir Spataro; Paolo Gaibani; Francesca Cavrini; Anna Pierro; Giada Rossini; Mark J. Cameron; Jesus F. Bermejo-Martin; Stéphane G. Paquette; Luoling Xu; Ali Danesh; Amber Farooqui; Ilaria Borghetto; David J. Kelvin; Vittorio Sambri; Salvatore Rubino

    2011-01-01

    The Chikungunya virus infection zones have now quickly spread from Africa to parts of Asia, North America and Europe. Originally thought to trigger a disease of only mild symptoms, recently Chikungunya virus caused large-scale fatalities and widespread economic loss that was linked to recent virus genetic mutation and evolution. Due to the paucity of information on Chikungunya immunological progression, we

  18. Multi-voxel pattern analysis of fMRI data predicts clinical symptom severity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc N. Coutanche; Sharon L. Thompson-Schill; Robert T. Schultz

    2011-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) has been applied successfully to a variety of fMRI research questions in healthy participants. The full potential of applying MVPA to functional data from patient groups has yet to be fully explored. Our goal in this study was to investigate whether MVPA might yield a sensitive predictor of patient symptoms. We also sought to demonstrate that

  19. ADHD Symptom Severity following Participation in a Pilot, 10-Week, Manualized, Family-Based Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, David F.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined the effectiveness of a pilot, manualized 10-week intervention of family skills training for ADHD-related symptoms. The intervention combined behavioral parent training and child focused behavioral activation therapy. Participants were families with children ages 7-10 diagnosed with ADHD-Combined Type. This pilot…

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Are Associated with the Frequency and Severity of Delinquency among Detained Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Stephen P.; Kerig, Patricia K.

    2011-01-01

    Trauma and posttraumatic stress symptoms increasingly are recognized as risk factors for involvement with the juvenile justice system, and detained youth evidence higher rates of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to their nondetained peers. Using a sample of 83 detained boys aged 12 to 17, we tested the hypothesis…

  1. Evaluation of the presence and severity of menopausal symptoms among postmenopausal women screened for the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chedraui, Peter; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Hidalgo, Luis; Villacreses, Diego; Domínguez, Andrea; Escobar, Gustavo S; Genazzani, Andrea R; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2014-10-27

    Abstract Background: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (METS) increases after the menopause. Reports indicate that the METS and its components, especially obesity, enhance the intensity of menopausal symptoms. Objective: Assess the frequency and severity of menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women. Factors related to the symptom severity were also analyzed including depressive and metabolic status. Methods: A total of 204 natural postmenopausal women (40-65 years) participating in a METS screening program were asked to fill out the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and a general socio-demographic questionnaire containing personal and partner data. Criteria of the American Heart Association were used to define the METS. Results: Median age of the whole sample was 56 years. A 52.9% presented the METS, with 37.3% presenting hyperglycemia, 51.5% hypertension, 58.3% abdominal obesity, 45.6% high triglyceride and 56.4% low HDL-C levels. Total and subscale MRS scores did not differ in accordance to the presence or not of the METS. The three top prevalent menopausal symptoms were muscle and joint problems (87.2%), physical and mental exhaustion (72%) and depressive mood (64.7%). A 19.6% of women presented total MRS scores above 16 defined as severe. Multivariate linear regression analysis determined that anxiety (higher HADS anxiety subscale scores) was significantly and positively correlated with all components of the MRS (Total and subscale scores). Higher total MRS scores correlated positively with abdominal perimeter and higher parity. Somatic scores correlated inversely with female education and positively with psychotropic drug use; and psychological MRS scores positively correlated depressed mood (higher HADS depressive subscale scores) and abdominal perimeter. Conclusion: In this postmenopausal sample, severity of menopausal symptoms correlated to abdominal obesity, mood and other personal aspects. PMID:25347000

  2. Ten-Year Follow-Up Study of PTSD Diagnosis, Symptom Severity, and Psychosocial Indices in Aging Holocaust Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Schmeidler, James; Labinsky, Ellen; Bell, Amanda; Morris, Adam; Zemelman, Shelly; Grossman, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We performed a longitudinal study of Holocaust survivors with and without PTSD by assessing symptoms and other measures at two intervals, approximately 10 years apart. Method The original cohort consisted of 63 community-dwelling subjects, of whom 40 were available for follow-up. Results There was a general diminution in PTSD symptom severity over time. However, in 10% of the subjects (n=4), new instances of Delayed Onset PTSD developed between the Time 1 and Time 2. Self-report ratings at both assessments revealed a worsening of trauma related symptoms over time in persons without PTSD at Time 1, but an improvement in those with PTSD at Time 1. Conclusion The findings suggest that a nuanced characterization of PTSD trajectory over time is more reflective of PTSD symptomatology than simple diagnostic status at one time. The possibility of Delayed Onset trajectory complicates any simplistic overall trajectory summarizing the longitudinal course of PTSD. PMID:18785948

  3. Effects of Wheat Germ Extract on the Severity and Systemic Symptoms of Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Atallahi, Maryam; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Mojab, Faraz; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the most common disorders in women and the main cause of absenteeism from work and school. Objectives: Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of wheat germ, the present study examined the effects of wheat germ extract on the severity and systemic symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea. Patients and Methods: This triple-blinded clinical trial was performed on 80 employed women in hospitals affiliated with Hamadan University of Medical Sciences (Hamadan, IR Iran). Subjects were allocated to two groups of 45 patients. Three 400-mg capsules of wheat germ extract or placebo were used daily? between the 16th day of the menstrual cycle to the fifth day of the next menstrual cycle for two consecutive months. Pain intensity was measured by a visual analogue scale thrice a day and a four-point verbal rating scale was employed to assess systemic symptoms. Results: Pain severity decreased only in the wheat germ extract group (P < 0.001) and there was no statistically significant change in the placebo group. In the wheat germ extract group, the pain severity decreased from 4.701 at baseline to 1.120 at the second cycle. The reduction in total scores of systemic symptoms of dysmenorrhea was statistically significant only in the wheat germ extract group (P < 0.001) and there was not a statistically significant change in the placebo group. It revealed statistically significant differences in systemic symptoms associated with dysmenorrhea including fatigue, headache, and mood swings in experimental group. Conclusions: Wheat germ extract seems to be an effective treatment for dysmenorrhea and its systemic symptoms, probably because of its anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25389490

  4. Psychological Symptoms are Greater Among Weight Cycling Women with Severe Binge Eating Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GLORIA J KENSINGER; MAUREEN A MURTAUGH; SIMONA K REICHMANN; CHRISTINE C TANGNEY

    1998-01-01

    Objective To identify psychological characteristics and eating behaviors associated with weight cycling and binge eating behaviors in overweight women (body mass index >27.3).Design Questionnaires measuring self-esteem, self-efficacy, coping strategies, psychological symptoms, depression, binge eating, restrained eating, disinhibition, and hunger were administered to female weight cyclers who were overweight. Psychological characteristics were compared between subjects grouped by binge eating disorder classification

  5. Are stressful life events causally related to the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms? A monozygotic twin difference study

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Ribas, P.; Stringaris, A.; Rück, C.; Serlachius, E.; Lichtenstein, P.; Mataix-Cols, D.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic or stressful life events have long been hypothesized to play a role in causing or precipitating obsessive-compulsive symptoms but the impact of these environmental factors has rarely been investigated using genetically informative designs. We tested whether a wide range of retrospectively-reported stressful life events (SLEs) influence the lifetime presence and severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in a large Swedish population-based cohort of 22,084 twins. Multiple regression models examined whether differences in SLEs within twin pairs were significantly associated with differences in OCS. In the entire sample (i.e., both monozygotic [MZ] and dizygotic twin pairs), two SLEs factors, “abuse and family disruption” and “sexual abuse”, were significantly associated with the severity of OCS even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Other SLEs factors were either not associated with OCS (“loss”, “non-sexual assault”) or were no longer associated with OCS after controlling for depression (“illness/injury”). Within MZ pair analyses, which effectively control for genetic and shared environmental effects, showed that only the “abuse and family disruption” factor remained independently related to within-pair differences in OCS severity, even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Despite being statistically significant, the magnitude of the associations was small; “abuse and family disruption” explained approximately 3% of the variance in OCS severity. We conclude that OCS are selectively associated with certain types of stressful life events. In particular, a history of interpersonal abuse, neglect and family disruption may make a modest but significant contribution to the severity of OCS. Further replication in longitudinal cohorts is essential before causality can be firmly established. PMID:25511316

  6. Spirituality and severity of menopausal symptoms in a sample of religious women.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Patrick R; Soto, Marilyn

    2011-09-01

    Menopause represents an important life change, particularly for religious women whose identity is significantly related to family. Two competing hypotheses are examined: one, because religious women have their identity focused on family and child rearing, spirituality will be related to increased menopausal symptoms because menopause represents a loss of identity and purpose; and two, because spirituality can provide strength and comfort during difficult times, it will, therefore, be related to decreased menopausal symptoms. To test these competing hypotheses, questionnaires were administered to 218 women (average age 55, 35% premenopausal, 26% peri-menopausal, 39% postmenopausal) who were members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Regression analyses indicated that higher levels of spiritual strength were related to decreased levels of reported menopausal symptoms. Spiritual strength was also related to increased benefit finding during menopause, decreased concern with body appearance, and increased use of adaptive coping strategies. We conclude that finding strength in spirituality may help religious women cope better with the life changes associated with menopause. PMID:19641994

  7. Occurrence and severity of foliar ozone symptoms on sensitive hardwood species in Shenandoah National Park, VA

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, E.; Skelly, J.M. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

    1993-02-01

    To assess the extent of foliar symptoms due to ozone on sensitive hardwoods in the Shenandoah National Park in Virginia, three species were sampled and evaluated at sites of differing elevations adjacent to 3 ozone monitors in 1991 and 1992: black cherry, yellow poplar, and white ash. All foliar samples were evaluated to precent of symptomatic leaves on each branch and average precent leaf area affected. The Horsfall-Barratt rating scale was used to estimate the precent leaf area symptomatic. Ozone symptoms were manifested as stipple on the adazial leaf surface. In the preliminary 1991 sampling, 40, 87, and 7% of black cherry trees sampled were found to be symptomatic at the 3 sites; 63 and 67% of yellow poplar trees sampled were found to be symptomatic at sites 1 and 3, as were 43 and 63% of the white ash at sites 1 and 2 (3 complete sets were not found in 1991). In 1992, the sampling and rating of injury were repeated. Symptoms of ozone injury appeared on 23, 88, and 10% of black cherry, on 17, 7, and 80% of yellow poplar, and 27, 40, and 40% of white ash. Elevation and ozone exposure will be discussed.

  8. Diagnostic and treatment challenges in traumatic brain injury patients with severe neuropsychiatric symptoms: insights into psychiatric practice

    PubMed Central

    Lauterbach, Margo D; Notarangelo, Paula L; Nichols, Stephen J; Lane, Kristy S; Koliatsos, Vassilis E

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes a variety of neuropsychiatric problems that pose diagnostic and treatment challenges for providers. In this report, we share our experience as a referral neuropsychiatry program to assist the general psychiatrist when adult TBI patients with psychiatric symptoms present for evaluation and treatment. We completed a retrospective study of patients with moderate-to-severe TBI and severe neuropsychiatric impairments. We collected information on demographics, nature of injury, symptomatology, diagnoses, and treatments. Data analysis indicates that mood stabilization was a key concern, often requiring aggressive pharmacological management. Cognitive dysfunction was a problem for the majority of patients, but was only medicated in a third, due to poor efficacy or behavioral side effects. The co-occurrence of multiple TBI-related symptoms and diagnoses in this patient cohort emphasizes the need for individualized psychopharmacological approaches and interventions. PMID:26170672

  9. Coping with Severe Mental Illness: Relations of the Brief COPE with Symptoms, Functioning, and Well-Being

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Björn Meyer

    2001-01-01

    The way patients cope with the experience of having an episode and being hospitalized for psychiatric disorder may relate to symptom severity, social functioning, and psychological well-being. Coping was assessed among 70 psychiatric inpatients diagnosed primarily with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and schizoaffective disorder. The Brief COPE—a questionnaire developed in health psychology (C. S. Carver, 1997)—was administered in interviewer-assisted format

  10. Unexpected Interaction with Dispersed Crude Oil Droplets Drives Severe Toxicity in Atlantic Haddock Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Sørhus, Elin; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Karlsen, Ørjan; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Harman, Christopher; Jentoft, Sissel; Meier, Sonnich

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity resulting from exposure to oil droplets in marine fish embryos and larvae is still subject for debate. The most detailed studies have investigated the effects of water-dissolved components of crude oil in water accommodated fractions (WAFs) that lack bulk oil droplets. Although exposure to dissolved petroleum compounds alone is sufficient to cause the characteristic developmental toxicity of crude oil, few studies have addressed whether physical interaction with oil micro-droplets are a relevant exposure pathway for open water marine speices. Here we used controlled delivery of mechanically dispersed crude oil to expose pelagic embryos and larvae of a marine teleost, the Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Haddock embryos were exposed continuously to two different concentrations of dispersed crude oil, high and low, or in pulses. By 24 hours of exposure, micro-droplets of oil were observed adhering and accumulating on the chorion, accompanied by highly elevated levels of cyp1a, a biomarker for exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons. Embryos from all treatment groups showed abnormalities representative of crude oil cardiotoxicity at hatch (5 days of exposure), such as pericardial and yolk sac edema. Compared to other species, the frequency and severity of toxic effects was higher than expected for the waterborne PAH concentrations (e.g., 100% of larvae had edema at the low treatment). These findings suggest an enhanced tissue uptake of PAHs and/or other petroleum compounds from attached oil droplets. These studies highlight a novel property of haddock embryos that leads to greater than expected impact from dispersed crude oil. Given the very limited number of marine species tested in similar exposures, the likelihood of other species with similar properties could be high. This unanticipated result therefore has implications for assessing the ecological impacts of oil spills and the use of methods for dispersing oil in the open sea. PMID:25923774

  11. Unexpected interaction with dispersed crude oil droplets drives severe toxicity in atlantic haddock embryos.

    PubMed

    Sørhus, Elin; Edvardsen, Rolf B; Karlsen, Ørjan; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Harman, Christopher; Jentoft, Sissel; Meier, Sonnich

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity resulting from exposure to oil droplets in marine fish embryos and larvae is still subject for debate. The most detailed studies have investigated the effects of water-dissolved components of crude oil in water accommodated fractions (WAFs) that lack bulk oil droplets. Although exposure to dissolved petroleum compounds alone is sufficient to cause the characteristic developmental toxicity of crude oil, few studies have addressed whether physical interaction with oil micro-droplets are a relevant exposure pathway for open water marine speices. Here we used controlled delivery of mechanically dispersed crude oil to expose pelagic embryos and larvae of a marine teleost, the Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Haddock embryos were exposed continuously to two different concentrations of dispersed crude oil, high and low, or in pulses. By 24 hours of exposure, micro-droplets of oil were observed adhering and accumulating on the chorion, accompanied by highly elevated levels of cyp1a, a biomarker for exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons. Embryos from all treatment groups showed abnormalities representative of crude oil cardiotoxicity at hatch (5 days of exposure), such as pericardial and yolk sac edema. Compared to other species, the frequency and severity of toxic effects was higher than expected for the waterborne PAH concentrations (e.g., 100% of larvae had edema at the low treatment). These findings suggest an enhanced tissue uptake of PAHs and/or other petroleum compounds from attached oil droplets. These studies highlight a novel property of haddock embryos that leads to greater than expected impact from dispersed crude oil. Given the very limited number of marine species tested in similar exposures, the likelihood of other species with similar properties could be high. This unanticipated result therefore has implications for assessing the ecological impacts of oil spills and the use of methods for dispersing oil in the open sea. PMID:25923774

  12. Individual differences in symptom severity and behavior predict neural activation during face processing in adolescents with autism

    PubMed Central

    Scherf, K. Suzanne; Elbich, Daniel; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Despite the impressive literature describing atypical neural activation in visuoperceptual face processing regions in autism, almost nothing is known about whether these perturbations extend to more affective regions in the circuitry and whether they bear any relationship to symptom severity or atypical behavior. Using fMRI, we compared face-, object-, and house-related activation in adolescent males with high-functioning autism (HFA) and typically developing (TD) matched controls. HFA adolescents exhibited hypo-activation throughout the core visuoperceptual regions, particularly in the right hemisphere, as well as in some of the affective/motivational face-processing regions, including the posterior cingulate cortex and right anterior temporal lobe. Conclusions about the relative hyper- or hypo-activation of the amygdala depended on the nature of the contrast that was used to define the activation. Individual differences in symptom severity predicted the magnitude of face activation, particularly in the right fusiform gyrus. Also, among the HFA adolescents, face recognition performance predicted the magnitude of face activation in the right anterior temporal lobe, a region that supports face individuation in TD adults. Our findings reveal a systematic relation between the magnitude of neural dysfunction, severity of autism symptoms, and variation in face recognition behavior in adolescents with autism. In so doing, we uncover brain–behavior relations that underlie one of the most prominent social deficits in autism and help resolve discrepancies in the literature. PMID:25610767

  13. Caring for medically unexplained physical symptoms after toxic environmental exposures: effects of contested causation.

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Charles C; Adkins, Joyce A; Cowan, David N

    2002-01-01

    Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are persistent idiopathic symptoms that drive patients to seek medical care. MUPS syndromes include chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia syndrome, and multiple chemical sensitivities. When MUPS occur after an environmental exposure or injury, an adversarial social context that we call "contested causation" may ensue. Contested causation may occur publicly and involve media controversy, scientific disagreement, political debate, and legal struggles. This adversarial social context may diminish the effectiveness of the provider-patient relationship. Contested causation also may occur privately, when disagreement over the causes of MUPS takes place in the patient-provider context. These patient-provider disagreements over causation often occur because of the enigmatic nature of MUPS. We suggest that a context of contested causation may have serious negative effects on healthcare for individuals with MUPS. Context plays a larger role in MUPS care than it does for most medical care because of the uncertain nature of MUPS, the reliance of standard MUPS therapies on a potentially tenuous patient-provider partnership, and the clinical need to rely routinely on subjective MUPS assessments that often yield discordant patient and provider conclusions. Contested causation may erode patient-provider trust, test the provider's self-assurance and capacity to share power with the patient, and raise problematic issues of compensation, reparation, and blame. These issues may distract patients and providers from therapeutic goals. In occupational and military settings, the adverse impact of contested causation on the patient-provider partnership may diminish therapeutic effectiveness to a greater degree than it does in other medical settings. Contested causation therefore raises questions regarding generalizability of standard therapies for MUPS and related syndromes to these settings. Future research is needed to learn whether intuitively sensible and evidence-based MUPS therapies benefit occupational and military medical patients who are afforded care in the context of contested causation. PMID:12194900

  14. Insulin versus Lipid Emulsion in a Rabbit Model of Severe Propranolol Toxicity: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Martyn; Cave, Grant; Lahner, Daniel; Desmet, Jan; Prince, Gaynor; Hopgood, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective. Beta-blocker overdose may result in intractable cardiovascular collapse despite conventional antidotal treatments. High dose insulin/glucose (ING), and more recently intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE), have been proposed as potentially beneficial therapies in beta blocker intoxication. We compare efficacy of the novel antidotes ING, with ILE, in a rabbit model of combined enteric/intravenous propranolol toxicity. Methods. Sedated, mechanically ventilated and invasively monitored New Zealand White rabbits underwent mini-laparotomy and enterostomy formation with 40?mg/kg propranolol instilled into the proximal small bowel. At 30 minutes propranolol infusion was commenced at 4?mg/kg/hr and continued to a target mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 50% baseline MAP. Animals were resuscitated with insulin at 3?U/kg plus 0.5?g/kg glucose (ING group), or 10?mL/kg 20% Intralipid (ILE group). Results. Rate pressure product (RPP; RPP?=?heart rate × mean arterial pressure) was greatest in the ING group at 60 minutes (P < .05). A trend toward greater heart rate was observed in the ING group (P = .06). No difference was observed in survival between groups (4/5 ING versus 2/5 ILE; P = .524). Conclusions. High dose insulin resulted in greater rate pressure product compared with lipid emulsion in this rabbit model of severe enteric/intravenous propranolol toxicity. PMID:21541209

  15. Evaluation of toxic effects of several carboxylic acids on bacterial growth by toxicodynamic modelling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Effects of organic acids on microbial fermentation are commonly tested in investigations about metabolic behaviour of bacteria. However, they typically provide only descriptive information without modelling the influence of acid concentrations on bacterial kinetics. Results We developed and applied a mathematical model (secondary model) to capture the toxicological effects of those chemicals on kinetic parameters that define the growth of bacteria in batch cultures. Thus, dose-response kinetics were performed with different bacteria (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Carnobacterium pisicola, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Listonella anguillarum) exposed at increasing concentrations of individual carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic). In all bioassays the acids affected the maximum bacterial load (Xm) and the maximum growth rate (vm) but only in specific cases the lag phase (?) was modified. Significance of the parameters was always high and in all fermentations the toxicodynamic equation was statistically consistent and had good predictability. The differences between D and L-lactic acid effects were significant for the growth of E. coli, L. mesenteroides and C. piscicola. In addition, a global parameter (EC50,?) was used to compare toxic effects and provided a realistic characterization of antimicrobial agents using a single value. Conclusions The effect of several organic acids on the growth of different bacteria was accurately studied and perfectly characterized by a bivariate equation which combines the basis of dose-response theory with microbial growth kinetics (secondary model). The toxicity of carboxylic acids was lower with the increase of the molecular weight of these chemicals. PMID:22118421

  16. Severe airflow obstruction in a patient with ulcerative colitis and toxic epidermal necrolysis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    TAGUCHI, SHIJIMA; FURUTA, JUNICHI; OHARA, GEN; KAGOHASHI, KATSUNORI; SATOH, HIROAKI

    2015-01-01

    Bronchiolitis is a rare condition mainly affecting the intralobular conducting and transitional small airways. The present study describes a case of severe airflow limitation in a patient with ulcerative colitis who developed toxic epidermal necrolysis following mesalazine therapy. Forced expiratory volume in one second was decreased and a flow-volume curve showed airflow limitation, but the single-breath diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and DLCO divided by alveolar volume (DLCO/VA) were not decreased. This rare clinical condition should be considered as a differential diagnosis for subjects presenting with sub-acutely developed airflow obstruction if the findings in chest computed tomography scans demonstrate hyperinflation but few low-attenuation areas. Relatively well-preserved DLCO and DLCO/VA provide a clue to establishing the correct diagnosis. PMID:26136919

  17. [Severe drug-induced skin reactions. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis].

    PubMed

    Mockenhaupt, M

    2014-05-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are characterized by extensive blistering of the skin and mucosa; they are considered as one disease entity with varying severity. They are rare but potentially life-threatening and accompanied by high mortality. A clear clinical diagnosis is needed to direct specific therapy, but supportive therapy remains most important. In order to identify and withdraw the inducing drug, a very detailed and thorough medication history has to be obtained. Among the highly suspected (strongly associated) agents are allopurinol, antibacterial sulfonamides, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs of the oxicam type, various anti-epileptics and nevaripine. Together they account for more than half of the cases of SJS/TEN. Although a drug is not always the cause, it is considered very like in approximately 75% of cases. Infections have also to be considered as etiologic factors. PMID:24820799

  18. Atrocities exposure in Vietnam combat veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: relationship to combat exposure, symptom severity, guilt, and interpersonal violence.

    PubMed

    Beckham, J C; Feldman, M E; Kirby, A C

    1998-10-01

    Vietnam combat veterans (N = 151) with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) completed measures of atrocities exposure, combat exposure, PTSD symptom severity, guilt and interpersonal violence. PTSD symptom severity, guilt and interpersonal violence rates were similar to previously reported studies that examined treatment seeking combat veterans with PTSD. Controlling for combat exposure, endorsement of atrocities exposure was related to PTSD symptom severity, PTSD B (reexperiencing) symptoms, Global Guilt, Guilt Cognitions, and cognitive subscales of Hindsight-Bias/Responsibility and Wrongdoing. These results are discussed in the context of previous research conducted regarding atrocities exposure and PTSD. PMID:9870228

  19. Automated image analysis of the severity of foliar citrus canker symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is a destructive disease, reducing yield, and rendering fruit unfit for fresh sale. Accurate assessment of citrus canker severity and other diseases is needed for several purposes, including monitoring epidemics and evaluation of germplasm. ...

  20. Disease and symptom severity, functional status, and quality of life in chronic bronchitis and emphysema (CBE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Moody; Kathleen McCormick; Arthur Williams

    1990-01-01

    A path analysis model examined interrelationships among variables significantly associated with chronic dyspnea in chronic bronchitis and emphysema (CBE) and the relative influence of these variables on each other and on functional status and quality of life. Results from the 45 adults (mean age, 61) with moderate CBE disease severity showed that dyspnea severity has a sizable effect on functional

  1. The capability of several toxic plants to condition taste aversions in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Pfister; Dale R. Gardner; Carl. C. Cheney; Kip E. Panter; Jeffery O. Hall

    2010-01-01

    Grazing livestock frequently ingest toxic plants, occasionally with fatal results. Behavioral adjustments by livestock may reduce toxin intake; for example they can develop food aversions which may protect animals from over-ingestion of toxic plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three plants with different mechanisms of toxicity for their efficacy in conditioning a taste aversion: (1) a seleniferous

  2. Predictors of Severe Acute and Late Toxicities in Patients With Localized Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Francois, E-mail: francois.meyer@chuq.qc.ca [Laval University Cancer Research Center, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Fortin, Andre; Wang, Chang Shu [Radiation Therapy Department, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Liu, Geoffrey [Applied Molecular Oncology, Ontario Cancer Institute/Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Bairati, Isabelle [Laval University Cancer Research Center, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) causes acute and late toxicities that affect various organs and functions. In a large cohort of patients treated with RT for localized head and neck cancer (HNC), we prospectively assessed the occurrence of RT-induced acute and late toxicities and identified characteristics that predicted these toxicities. Methods and Materials: We conducted a randomized trial among 540 patients treated with RT for localized HNC to assess whether vitamin E supplementation could improve disease outcomes. Adverse effects of RT were assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Acute Radiation Morbidity Criteria during RT and one month after RT, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme at six and 12 months after RT. The most severe adverse effect among the organs/tissues was selected as an overall measure of either acute or late toxicity. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were considered as severe. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify all independent predictors (p < 0.05) of acute or late toxicity and to estimate odds ratios (OR) for severe toxicity with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Grade 3 or 4 toxicity was observed in 23% and 4% of patients, respectively, for acute and late toxicity. Four independent predictors of severe acute toxicity were identified: sex (female vs. male: OR = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.80), Karnofsky Performance Status (OR = 0.67 for a 10-point increment, 95% CI: 0.52-0.88), body mass index (above 25 vs. below: OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.22-2.90), TNM stage (Stage II vs. I: OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.25-2.92). Two independent predictors were found for severe late toxicity: female sex (OR = 3.96, 95% CI: 1.41-11.08) and weight loss during RT (OR = 1.26 for a 1 kg increment, 95% CI: 1.12-1.41). Conclusions: Knowledge of these predictors easily collected in a clinical setting could help tailoring therapies to reduce toxicities among patients treated with RT for HNC.

  3. Predictors of the Severity of Depressive Symptoms Among Intravenous Heroin Users Receiving Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Taiwan: An 18Month Follow-Up Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng-Wei Wang; Hung-Chi Wu; Chia-Nan Yen; Yi-Chun Yeh; Kuan-Sheng Chung; Hsun-Cheng Chang; Cheng-Fang Yen

    2012-01-01

    This 18-month follow-up study examined the predictors of the severity of depressive symptoms among intravenous heroin users receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Taiwan. The severity of depressive symptoms in 368 intravenous heroin users receiving MMT in southern Taiwan was assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18

  4. Stroke Severity Score based on Six Signs and Symptoms The 6S Score: A Simple Tool for Assessing Stroke Severity and In-hospital Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Racosta, Juan Manual; Di Guglielmo, Federico; Klein, Francisco Ricardo; Riccio, Patricia Mariana; Giacomelli, Francisco Muñoz; González Toledo, María Eugenia; Pagani Cassará, Fátima; Tamargo, Agustina; Delfitto, Matías

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Ascertaining stroke severity and predicting risk of in-hospital mortality is crucial to advise patients and families about medical decisions. We developed and tested the validity of a new stroke score, the 6S Score (Stroke Severity Score based on Six Signs and Symptoms), for quantifying ischemic stroke severity and predicting in-hospital mortality. Methods We prospectively assessed 210 consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients. The cohort was further divided into a derivation (n=120) and a validation (n=90) sample. From a total of 10 stroke signs and symptoms, we selected those with likelihood ratio's P<0.005. We tested the validity of the score for predicting in-hospital mortality by using receiver operating characteristic curves. We used a scatterplot and the Spearman's test to evaluate the correlation between the 6S Score and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale as a marker of stroke severity. We used principal component and exploratory factor analyses for assessing qualitative aspects of the 6S Score. Results The C statistic for in-hospital mortality was 0.82 for the 6S Score and 0.86 for the National Institutes of health Stroke Scale, respectively, with no significant differences between each other (P=0.79). The correlation between both scores was strong (Spearman's rho 0.68, P<0.001). The factor analyses showed a good balance between left/right hemispheres and anterior/posterior circulations. Conclusions The 6S Score may constitute a tool for easily assessing stroke severity and predicting stroke mortality. Further research is needed for further assessing its external validity. PMID:25328876

  5. Association of metacognitive beliefs, obsessive beliefs and symptom severity with quality of life in obsessive-compulsive patients.

    PubMed

    Barahmand, Usha; Tavakolian, Ehsan; Alaei, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of obsessive beliefs, obsessive-compulsive disorder severity and metacognitive beliefs to the quality of life in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Sixty one adults with a principal diagnosis of OCD were recruited for the study. Participants were assessed by trained clinicians using an unstructured clinical interview, the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Metacognitive Beliefs Questionnaire and the WHO Quality of Life Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson's of correlation coefficients and multiple regression analyses. Findings indicate that obsessive beliefs, severity total OCD and metacognitive beliefs were associated with total quality of life scores. Regression analysis revealed that while OCD total severity explained 40.1% of the variance in total quality of life, obsessive beliefs (perfectionism/certainty domain) and metacognitions (cognitive self-consciousness and negative beliefs about thoughts in general) explained an additional 13.7%, 7.7% and 5.4% of the variance in QoL. Findings indicate that the metacognitive beliefs associated with OCD symptom severity are different from that associated with quality of life. The implications are that metacognitive therapy aimed at symptom reduction may not necessarily result in improved QoL in OCD patients. PMID:25439977

  6. Comparisons of Exercise Dose and Symptom Severity Between Exercisers and Nonexercisers in Women During and After Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Maria H.; Dodd, Marylin J.; Cooper, Bruce A.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Context Although numerous studies of the efficacy of exercise are reported, few studies have evaluated changes in characteristics of exercise dose in women with cancer both during and after cancer treatment. Objectives To describe the characteristics of exercise dose (i.e., frequency, duration, and intensity), and to evaluate for differences in symptom severity (i.e., fatigue, sleep disturbance, depression, pain) between women who did and did not exercise during and after cancer treatment. Methods In a sample of 119 women, two groups were classified: exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers were defined as women who met specific criteria for frequency (three times per week), duration (20 minutes per session), intensity (moderate), and mode (aerobic). Nonexercisers were defined as women who did not meet all of these criteria. Evaluation of exercise dose was completed at baseline (T1: the week before chemotherapy cycle two), at the end of cancer treatment (T2), and at the end of the study (T3: approximately one year after the T1 assessment) using self-report exercise questionnaires. Results Approximately 50% of the participants exercised during and 70% exercised after treatment. At T1, exercisers had lower total fatigue, lower behavioral and sensory subscale fatigue scores, and lower depression scores (P =0.038) than nonexercisers. No significant differences in sleep disturbance or pain were found between groups. At T2, exercisers had lower cognitive/mood subscale fatigue and depression scores than nonexercisers (P =0.047). At T3, no significant differences were found between groups in any symptom severity scores. Conclusion Both during and after cancer treatment, achieving or maintaining exercise guideline levels were met by most patients. Further study is needed to examine the link between exercise dose and symptom severity. PMID:22436836

  7. The impact of sensation seeking on the relationship between attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and severity of Internet addiction risk.

    PubMed

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Taymur, Ibrahim; Evren, Bilge; Topcu, Merve

    2015-07-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms (ADHS) with severity of Internet addiction risk (SIAR), while controlling the effects of variables such as depression, anxiety, anger, sensation seeking and lack of assertiveness among university students. Cross-sectional online self-report survey was conducted in two universities among a representative sample of 582 Turkish university students. The students were assessed through the Addiction Profile Index Internet Addiction Form Screening Version (BAPINT-SV), the Psychological Screening Test for Adolescents (PSTA) and the Adult Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder Self-Report Scale (ASRS). The participants were classified into the two groups as those with high risk of Internet addiction (HRIA) (11%) and those with low risk of Internet addiction (IA) (89%). The mean age was lower in the group with HRIA, whereas depression, anxiety, sensation seeking, anger, lack of assertiveness and ADHS scores were higher in this group. Lastly, a hierarchical regression analysis suggested that severity of sensation seeking and ADHS, particularly attention deficiency, predicted SIAR. The severity of sensation seeking and ADHS, particularly attention deficit symptoms, are important for SIAR. Awareness of sensation seeking among those with high ADHS may be important in prevention and management of IA among university students. PMID:25962354

  8. Rhinovirus-induced VP1-specific Antibodies are Group-specific and Associated With Severity of Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Cabauatan, Clarissa R.; Jackson, David J.; Gallerano, Daniela; Trujillo-Torralbo, Belen; del Rosario, Ajerico; Mallia, Patrick; Valenta, Rudolf; Johnston, Sebastian L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rhinoviruses (RVs) are a major cause of common colds and induce exacerbations of asthma and chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Methods We expressed and purified recombinant RV coat proteins VP1-4, non-structural proteins as well as N-terminal fragments of VP1 from four RV strains (RV14, 16, 89, C) covering the three known RV groups (RV-A, RV-B and RV-C) and measured specific IgG-subclass-, IgA- and IgM-responses by ELISA in subjects with different severities of asthma or without asthma before and after experimental infection with RV16. Findings Before infection subjects showed IgG1 > IgA > IgM > IgG3 cross-reactivity with N-terminal fragments from the representative VP1 proteins of the three RV groups. Antibody levels were higher in the asthmatic group as compared to the non-asthmatic subjects. Six weeks after infection with RV16, IgG1 antibodies showed a group-specific increase towards the N-terminal VP1 fragment, but not towards other capsid and non-structural proteins, which was highest in subjects with severe upper and lower respiratory symptoms. Interpretation Our results demonstrate that increases of antibodies towards the VP1 N-terminus are group-specific and associated with severity of respiratory symptoms and suggest that it may be possible to develop serological tests for identifying causative RV groups.

  9. Prevalence and Severity of Menstrual Symptoms among Institutionalised Women with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Jane Zxy-Yann; Pu, Cheng-Yun

    2009-01-01

    Background: Perimenstrual syndrome (PMS) among women with an intellectual disability (ID) has not been investigated in Taiwan. This study explores the prevalence/severity of PMS experienced by women with ID who are institutionalised. Method: Ninety two female residents aged 15 to 54 at six public institutions completed a structured interview…

  10. Social conflict versus social support: what is more influential in mental health symptom severity for female service members?

    PubMed

    Nayback-Beebe, Ann M; Yoder, Linda H

    2011-12-01

    Research has validated the importance of postdeployment social support in mitigating the effects of combat deployment on mental health for female service members. However, the influence of social conflict on mental health during this period has not been explored. The purposes of this descriptive correlational study were (a) to examine the strength and direction of the relationships between social support, social conflict, and stressful life events to depression, anxiety, and posstraumatic stress disorder and (b) to determine whether the absence of social support or the presence social conflict was more influential to the severity of these symptoms. PMID:22114800

  11. Is Zinc Concentration in Toxic Phase Plasma Related to Dengue Severity and Level of Transaminases?

    PubMed Central

    Laoprasopwattana, Kamolwish; Tangcheewawatthanakul, Chonthicha; Tunyapanit, Wanutsanun; Sangthong, Rassamee

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between plasma zinc values and the severity of dengue viral infection (DVI) and DVI-caused hepatitis. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted during 2008–2010 in hospitalized children aged <15 years confirmed with DVI. Complete blood count, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and zinc values (mcg/dL) were determined twice: first during the toxic phase (Zn1) and secondly two weeks after recovery (Zn2). Results 39 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 9.7±3.7 years, and 15/39 diagnosed with dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Zn1 values were lower than Zn2 values [median (IQR): 46.0 (37.0, 58.0) vs 65.0 (58.0, 81.0) mcg/dL, respectively, p <0.01]. Zn1 but not Zn2 values had a negative correlation with AST and ALT (rs?=??0.33, p?=?0.04 and rs?=??0.31, p?=?0.05, respectively). Patients with DSS had lower Zn1 but not Zn2 values compared with non-DSS patients [median (IQR) Zn1, 38.0 (30.0, 48.0) vs 52.5 (41.2, 58.7), p?=?0.02; Zn2, 61.0 (56.0, 88.0) vs 65.0 (59.5, 77.5), respectively, p?=?0.76]. Zn1 values showed a decreasing trend across increasing dengue severity groups (p?=?0.02). Age <5 years and DVI-associated diarrhea were associated with low Zn1. Conclusion Children who had a higher grade of dengue disease severity and liver cell injury had lower Zn1 values. Low Zn1 values were probably caused by loss from diarrhea and from zinc translocating to liver cells. PMID:23819001

  12. Severity of alcohol withdrawal symptoms and the T1128c polymorphism of the neuropeptide Y gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Koehnke; S. Schick; U. Lutz; M. Willecke; A. M. Koehnke; W. Kolb; I. Gaertner

    2002-01-01

    Summary.   Neuropeptide Y (NPY) modulates ethanol drinking in rodents. The C-allele of the T1128C polymorphism of the human NPY gene\\u000a has been previously associated with elevated alcohol consumption in a Finn population study. The present study tested the\\u000a hypothesis that the T1128C polymorphism is associated with the diagnosis of alcoholism or with severe forms of alcohol withdrawal\\u000a and with the

  13. Alcohol withdrawal severity is decreased by symptom-orientated adjusted bolus therapy in the ICU

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia D. Spies; Hilke E. Otter; Bernd Hüske; Pranav Sinha; Tim Neumann; Jordan Rettig; Erika Lenzenhuber; Wolfgang J. Kox; Edward M. Sellers

    2003-01-01

    Objective  To examine the effect of bolus vs. continuous infusion adjustment on severity and duration of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS), the medication requirements for AWS treatment, and the effect on ICU stay in surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients.Design and setting  Prospective randomized, double-blind controlled trial in a surgical ICU.Patients  44 patients who developed AWS after admission to the ICU.Interventions  Patients were randomized to

  14. Psychological Characteristics and Adjustment in Caregivers of Children with Severe Neurodisability with Chronic Pulmunary Symptoms

    E-print Network

    Blucker, Ryan Thomas

    2011-08-08

    . Neurodisability states are also present in a wide variety of congenital and hereditary disorders. Severe neurodisabilities often result in a wide range of secondary medical and physical outcomes such as the loss of function of vital organs that leave people... or single), grandparents, older siblings, or an extended family member. The children who attend this clinic include those with over 60 different congenital neurological diagnoses and patients with acquired neurodisabilties such as those resulting from...

  15. Aberrant error processing in relation to symptom severity in obsessive–compulsive disorder: A multimodal neuroimaging study

    PubMed Central

    Agam, Yigal; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Isom, Marlisa; Falkenstein, Martha J.; Jenike, Eric; Wilhelm, Sabine; Manoach, Dara S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by maladaptive repetitive behaviors that persist despite feedback. Using multimodal neuroimaging, we tested the hypothesis that this behavioral rigidity reflects impaired use of behavioral outcomes (here, errors) to adaptively adjust responses. We measured both neural responses to errors and adjustments in the subsequent trial to determine whether abnormalities correlate with symptom severity. Since error processing depends on communication between the anterior and the posterior cingulate cortex, we also examined the integrity of the cingulum bundle with diffusion tensor imaging. Methods Participants performed the same antisaccade task during functional MRI and electroencephalography sessions. We measured error-related activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the error-related negativity (ERN). We also examined post-error adjustments, indexed by changes in activation of the default network in trials surrounding errors. Results OCD patients showed intact error-related ACC activation and ERN, but abnormal adjustments in the post- vs. pre-error trial. Relative to controls, who responded to errors by deactivating the default network, OCD patients showed increased default network activation including in the rostral ACC (rACC). Greater rACC activation in the post-error trial correlated with more severe compulsions. Patients also showed increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the white matter underlying rACC. Conclusions Impaired use of behavioral outcomes to adaptively adjust neural responses may contribute to symptoms in OCD. The rACC locus of abnormal adjustment and relations with symptoms suggests difficulty suppressing emotional responses to aversive, unexpected events (e.g., errors). Increased structural connectivity of this paralimbic default network region may contribute to this impairment. PMID:25057466

  16. Toxicity of several insecticide formulations against adult German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Abd-Elghafar, S F; Appel, A G; Mack, T P

    1990-12-01

    Toxicity of bendiocarb, chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, hydramethylnon, malathion, propetamphos, propoxur, and pyrethrins against the adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), was investigated. At LD50, cyfluthrin was the most toxic insecticide to adult males (0.53 microgram/g), adult females (1.2 micrograms/g), and gravid females (0.85 microgram/g). Malathion was the least toxic insecticide to adult males (464.83 micrograms/g), adult females (335.83 micrograms/g), and gravid females (275.90 micrograms/g). Males and gravid females were generally more sensitive than nongravid females to the insecticides that we tested. In tests with malathion, however, males were more tolerant. The order of toxicity of the insecticide classes varied among the stages of adult German cockroaches. The order of toxicity for males and nongravid females was pyrethroids greater than pyrethrins = organophosphates (except malathion) greater than carbamates = amidinohydrazone. The order of toxicity for gravid females was pyrethroids greater than pyrethrins = organophosphates (except malathion) greater than carbamates greater than amidinohydrazone. These differences in toxicity suggest that sex differences should be considered when determining insecticide toxicity for German cockroaches. PMID:2280048

  17. Cluster Analysis of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS): Symptom Dimensions and Clinical Correlates in an Outpatient Youth Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kircanski, Katharina; Woods, Douglas W.; Chang, Susanna W.; Ricketts, Emily J.; Piacentini, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Tic disorders are heterogeneous, with symptoms varying widely both within and across patients. Exploration of symptom clusters may aid in the identification of symptom dimensions of empirical and treatment import. This article presents the results of two studies investigating tic symptom clusters using a sample of 99 youth (M age = 10.7, 81% male,…

  18. Differences in the Prevalence, Severity and Symptom Profiles of Depression in Boys and Adolescents with an Autism Spectrum Disorder versus Normally Developing Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence, severity and symptom profiles for major depressive disorder (MDD) were compared in samples of boys and adolescents with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Self-reports were obtained on the Depression subscale of the Child and Adolescent Symptoms Inventory (CASI-D) with 70 ASD and 50 non-ASD male participants between the…

  19. Initial Severity Effects on Residual Symptoms in Response and Remission: A STAR*D Study During and After Failed Citalopram Treatment.

    PubMed

    Madhoo, Manisha; Levine, Stephen Z

    2015-08-01

    The effects of initial severity on the time to and course of residual symptoms based on response or remission periods, and during and after failed response to citalopram in major depressive disorder are unknown. STAR*D data during and after failed citalopram treatment were reanalyzed to examine the effect of initial severity on the time to and course of residual symptoms using the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (QIDS-SR). During and after failed citalopram treatment, Cox regression and Generalized Estimating Equation models were computed to examine mild and moderate residual symptoms during (1) response based on at least a 50% QIDS-SR reduction, as well as (2) remission based on a QIDS-SR score below 6. Generally, initial severity significantly (P < 0.05) increased the time to and course of residual symptoms at the time of response and remission. The course of select mild and moderate residual symptoms was significantly (P < 0.05) more likely to persist in the presence of initial severity during response than remission (eg, energy) across treatment levels. It is concluded that initial severity is a predictor of the time to and course of residual symptoms. The presence of residual symptoms is more likely during response than remission, thereby directing their definition as a treatment target. PMID:26066336

  20. Striatal Atrophy in the Behavioural Variant of Frontotemporal Dementia: Correlation with Diagnosis, Negative Symptoms and Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Walterfang, Mark; Vestberg, Susanna; Velakoulis, Dennis; Wilkes, Fiona A.; Nilsson, Christer; van Westen, Danielle; Looi, Jeffrey C. L.; Santillo, Alexander Frizell

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is associated with changes in dorsal striatal parts of the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus and putamen), related to dysfunction in the cortico-striato-thalamic circuits which help mediate executive and motor functions. We aimed to determine whether the size and shape of striatal structures correlated with diagnosis of bvFTD, and measures of clinical severity, behaviour and cognition. Materials and Methods Magnetic resonance imaging scans from 28 patients with bvFTD and 26 healthy controls were manually traced using image analysis software (ITK-SNAP). The resulting 3-D objects underwent volumetric analysis and shape analysis, through spherical harmonic description with point distribution models (SPHARM-PDM). Correlations with size and shape were sought with clinical measures in the bvTFD group, including Frontal Behavioural Inventory, Clinical Dementia Rating for bvFTD, Color Word Interference, Hayling part B and Brixton tests, and Trail-Making Test. Results Caudate nuclei and putamina were significantly smaller in the bvFTD group compared to controls (left caudate 16% smaller, partial eta squared 0.173, p=0.003; right caudate 11% smaller, partial eta squared 0.103, p=0.023; left putamen 18% smaller, partial eta squared 0.179, p=0.002; right putamen 12% smaller, partial eta squared 0.081, p=0.045), with global shape deflation in the caudate bilaterally but no localised shape change in putamen. In the bvFTD group, shape deflations on the left, corresponding to afferent connections from dorsolateral prefrontal mediofrontal/anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex, correlated with worsening disease severity. Global shape deflation in the putamen correlated with Frontal Behavioural Inventory scores—higher scoring on negative symptoms was associated with the left putamen, while positive symptoms were associated with the right. Other cognitive tests had poor completion rates. Conclusion Behavioural symptoms and severity of bvFTD are correlated with abnormalities in striatal size and shape. This adds to the promise of imaging the striatum as a biomarker in this disease. PMID:26075893

  1. Physical health symptoms reported by trafficked women receiving post-trafficking support in Moldova: prevalence, severity and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many trafficked people suffer high levels of physical, sexual and psychological abuse. Yet, there has been limited research on the physical health problems associated with human trafficking or how the health needs of women in post-trafficking support settings vary according to socio-demographic or trafficking characteristics. Methods We analysed the prevalence and severity of 15 health symptoms reported by 120 trafficked women who had returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 and were registered with the International Organisation for Migration Assistance and Protection Programme. Women had returned to Moldova an average of 5.9 months prior to interview (range 2-12 months). Results Headaches (61.7%), stomach pain (60.9%), memory problems (44.2%), back pain (42.5%), loss of appetite (35%), and tooth pain (35%) were amongst the most commonly reported symptoms amongst both women trafficked for sexual exploitation and women trafficked for labour exploitation. The prevalence of headache and memory problems was strongly associated with duration of exploitation. Conclusions Trafficked women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are likely to have long-term physical and dental health needs and should be provided with access to comprehensive medical services. Health problems among women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are not limited to women trafficked for sexual exploitation but are also experienced by victims of labour exploitation. PMID:22834807

  2. Theory of mind, severity of autistic symptoms and parental correlates in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nagar Shimoni, Hagit; Weizman, Abraham; Yoran, Roni Hegesh; Raviv, Amiram

    2012-05-15

    This study addresses the theory of mind (ToM) ability of Asperger's syndrome/high-functioning autism (AS/HFA) children and their parents and the severity of the autistic symptoms. Fifty-three families, each consisting of a mother, father and a child, participated in this study (N=159). The 53 children in the sample included 25 children diagnosed with AS/HFA and 28 typically developing (TD) children. The Social Attribution Task (SAT) and tests assessing autistic symptoms were used. AS/HFA children had lower scores than TD children on three of the SAT indices (Person, ToM Affective, and Salience). Fathers of AS/HFA children did not have lower scores than fathers of TD children on the SAT task, whereas mothers of AS/HFA children had lower scores on the Person index, a pattern similar to seen in their children, suggesting a possible genetic contribution of mothers to ToM deficit in AS/HFA children. PMID:22460131

  3. Effect of cigarette smoke from the mother on bronchial responsiveness and severity of symptoms in children with asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, A.B.; Morrison, B.J.

    1986-04-01

    The effect of parental smoking was assessed in 94 consecutively observed children, aged 7 to 17 years, who had a history of asthmatic wheezing. The 24 children whose mothers smoked, when they were compared with children whose mothers did not smoke, had 47% more symptoms, a 13% lower mean FEV1 percent, a 23% lower mean FEF25-75%, and fourfold greater responsiveness to aerosolized histamine. A dose response was evident. There was a highly significant correlation between the results of the tests and the number of cigarettes the mother smoked while she was in the house. The differences between the children of smoking and nonsmoking mothers were greater in older than in younger subjects. The smoking habits of the father were not correlated with the severity of the child's asthma.

  4. Beyond Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) Symptom Severity: Stress Management Skills are Related to Lower Illness Burden

    PubMed Central

    Lattie, Emily G.; Antoni, Michael H.; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Czaja, Sara; Perdomo, Dolores; Sala, Andreina; Nair, Sankaran; Fu, Shih Hua; Penedo, Frank J.; Klimas, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Background The onset of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) typically involves reductions in activities of daily living and social interactions (jointly referred to as “illness burden”). Emotional distress has been linked to increased reported symptoms, and stress management skills have been related to lower fatigue severity in CFS patients. Symptom severity and illness burden are highly correlated. The ability to manage stress may attenuate this relationship, allowing individuals to feel less burdened by the illness independent of the severity of their symptoms. Purpose This study aimed to evaluate if perceived stress management skills affect illness burden via emotional distress, independent of ME/CFS symptom severity. Methods A total of 117 adults with ME/CFS completed measures of perceived stress management skills, emotional distress, ME/CFS symptom severity and illness burden. Results Regression analyses revealed that greater perceived stress management skills related to less social and fatigue-related illness burden, via lower emotional distress. This relationship existed independent of the association of symptom severity on illness burden, and was stronger among those not currently employed. Conclusions Ability to manage stress is associated with a lower illness burden for individuals with ME/CFS. Future studies should evaluate the efficacy of psychosocial interventions in lowering illness burden by targeting stress management skills. PMID:24278791

  5. Acute cardiovascular toxicity of sterilizers, PHMG, and PGH: severe inflammation in human cells and heart failure in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Kim, Hak Hyeon; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2013-06-01

    In 2011, dozens of children and pregnant women in Korea died by exposure to sterilizer for household humidifier, such as Oxy(®) and Cefu(®). Until now, however, it remains unknown how the sterilizer affect the human health to cause the acute deaths. To find its toxicity for organ, we investigated the putative toxicity of the sterilizer in the cardiovascular system. The sterilizers, polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG, Cefu(®)), and oligo-[2-(2-ethoxy)-ethoxyethyl)-guanidinium-chloride (PGH, Oxy(®)) were treated to human lipoproteins, macrophages, and dermal fibroblast cells. The PGH and PHMG at normal dosages caused severe atherogenic process in human macrophages, cytotoxic effect, and aging in human dermal cell. Zebrafish embryos, which were exposed to the sterilizer, showed early death with acute inflammation and attenuated developmental speed. All zebrafish exposed to the working concentration of PHMG (final 0.3 %) and PGH (final 10 mM) died within 70 min and displayed acute increases in serum triacylglycerol level and fatty liver induction. The dead zebrafish showed severe accumulation of fibrous collagen in the bulbous artery of the heart with elevation of reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, the sterilizers showed acute toxic effect in blood circulation system, causing by severe inflammation, atherogenesis, and aging, with embryo toxicity. PMID:23225114

  6. Toxic effects of several phthalate esters on the embryos and larvae of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhihui; Zhang, Xiangjing; Cai, Zhonghua

    2009-05-01

    As the most widely used plasticizers in the world, phthalate esters (PAEs) are potential endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs). In the present study, the toxicity of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on embryogenesis and larvae development of the marine univalve Haliotis diversicolor supertexta was examined in laboratory. The results show that the malformation of embryos appeared during the experiment, such as embryos died or lysed, small transparent flocculent rings studded on the periphery of the embryo, and the larvae could failed to hatch. In embryo toxic test, embryos incubated at the highest concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions showed significantly high abnormal rate compared with the control, while DEHP solutions displayed no significant difference. In larval toxic test, in all concentrations of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions, larval settlement rates were low significantly than that of the control. Similarly, DEHP solutions show nearly no effect on the larval settlement. The order of toxicity on embryos and larvae is DBP>DEP>DMP>DEHP. Being a simple and easy stimulation to indoor spawn, sensitive to environmental factors, and short culture time, the embryos of H. diversicolor supertexta can be used to indicate toxicity of the PAEs.

  7. Self-perceived symptoms and care needs of patients with severe to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure or chronic renal failure and its consequences for their closest relatives: the research protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisy JA Janssen; Emiel FM Wouters; Jos MGA Schols; Martijn A Spruit

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research shows that the prevalence of patients with very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure (CHF) and chronic renal failure (CRF) continues to rise over the next years. Scientific studies concerning self-perceived symptoms and care needs in patients with severe to very severe COPD, CHF and CRF are scarce. Consequently, it will be difficult to

  8. Report of a Study on the Toxicity of Several Food Preserving Agents1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Harshbarger

    1942-01-01

    The deterioration of some foods caused by the activity of microorganisms may be prevented and the keeping quality of the foods greatly improved by the addition of certain chemical compounds. It is obvious that preserva- tives which produce a marked toxic effect should not be used in food intended for human consumption. On the other hand, even when a marked

  9. Toxicity of the herbicide glyphosate and several of its formulations to fish and aquatic invertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Folmar; H. O. Sanders; A. M. Julin

    1979-01-01

    Studies were initiated to determine the acute toxicity of technical grade glyphosate (MON0573), the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate (MON0139), the formulated herbicide Roundup® (MON02139), and the Roundup® surfactant (MON0818) to four aquatic invertebrates and four fishes: daphnids (Daphnia magna), scuds (Gammarus pseudolimnaeus), midge larvae (Chironomous plumosus), mayfly nymphs (Ephemerella walkeri), Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), channel catfish

  10. Alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among late adolescent Hispanics: Testing associations of acculturation and enculturation in a bicultural transaction model.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; de Dios, Marcel A; Castro, Yessenia; Vaughan, Ellen L; Castillo, Linda G; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Ojeda, Lizette; Cruz, Rick A; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Ibañez, Gladys; Auf, Rehab; Molleda, Lourdes M

    2015-10-01

    Research has indicated that Hispanics have high rates of heavy drinking and depressive symptoms during late adolescence. The purpose of this study was to test a bicultural transaction model composed of two enthnocultural orientations (acculturation and enculturation); and stressful cultural transactions with both the U.S. culture (perceived ethnic discrimination) and Hispanic culture (perceived intragroup marginalization) to predict alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among a sample of 129 (men=39, women=90) late adolescent Hispanics (ages 18-21) enrolled in college. Results from a path analysis indicated that the model accounted for 18.2% of the variance in alcohol use severity and 24.3% of the variance in depressive symptoms. None of the acculturation or enculturation domains had statistically significant direct effects with alcohol use severity or depressive symptoms. However, higher reports of ethnic discrimination were associated with higher reports of alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms. Similarly, higher reports of intragroup marginalization were associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further, both ethnic discrimination and intragroup marginalization functioned as mediators of multiple domains of acculturation and enculturation. These findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of enthnocultural orientations in relation to health-related outcomes. PMID:26092776

  11. The relationship between severe maternal morbidity and psychological health symptoms at 6–8 weeks postpartum: a prospective cohort study in one English maternity unit

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of severe maternal morbidity is increasing in high-income countries. However, little has been known about the impact on postnatal morbidity, particularly on psychological health outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between severe maternal morbidity (ie. major obstetric haemorrhage, severe hypertensive disorders or intensive care unit/obstetric high dependency unit admission) and postnatal psychological health symptoms, focusing on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms at 6–8 weeks postpartum. Method A prospective cohort study was undertaken of women who gave birth over six months in 2010 in an inner city maternity unit in England. Primary outcomes were prevalence of PTSD symptoms namely: 1) intrusion and 2) avoidance as measured using the Impact of Event Scale at 6 – 8 weeks postpartum via a self-administered postal questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included probable depression. Data on incidence of severe maternal morbidity were extracted from maternity records. Multivariable logistic regression analysis examined the relationship between severe maternal morbidity and PTSD symptoms taking into account factors that might influence the relationship. Results Of women eligible to participate (n=3509), 52% responded. Prevalence of a clinically significant level of intrusion and avoidance were 6.4% (n=114) and 8.4% (n=150) respectively. There was a higher risk of PTSD symptoms among women who experienced severe maternal morbidity compared with women who did not (adjusted OR = 2.11, 95%CI = 1.17-3.78 for intrusion; adjusted OR = 3.28, 95%CI = 2.01-5.36 for avoidance). Higher ratings of reported sense of control during labour/birth partially mediated the risk of PTSD symptoms. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence or severity of symptoms of depression. Conclusion This is one of the largest studies to date of PTSD symptoms among women who had recently given birth. Findings showed that an experience of severe maternal morbidity was independently associated with symptoms of PTSD. Individually tailored care that increases women’s sense of control during labour may be a protective factor with further work required to promote effective interventions to prevent these symptoms. Findings have important implications for women’s health and the content and organisation of maternity services during and after the birth. PMID:24708797

  12. Resistance to boron toxicity amongst several barley and wheat cultivars: A preliminary examination of the resistance mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross O. Nable; Glen Osmond

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism of resistance toB toxicity in barley and wheat was studied in a solution culture experiment using several cultivars displaying a large range of sensitivity to excessB supply. Plants were cultured for 35 d atB concentrations ranging from normal to excessive (15 to 5000 ?M, respectively) then examined for dry matter production and theB distribution between roots and shoots.

  13. Reduction of tau protein improves symptoms in model of severe childhood Protein implicated in Alzheimer's disease has important treatment potential in genetic form of epilepsy

    E-print Network

    Lim, Wendell

    Reduction of tau protein improves symptoms in model of severe childhood epilepsy Protein implicated in Alzheimer's disease has important treatment potential in genetic form of epilepsy EMBARGOED UNTIL 8AM ET of Dravet syndrome, a severe intractable form of childhood epilepsy. This therapeutic strategy not only

  14. Contact toxicity of some chemical and biological pesticides to several insect parasitoids and predators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Wilkinson; K. D. Biever; C. M. Ignoffo

    1975-01-01

    Eight pesticides; methyl parathion, malathion (organo-phosphates), toxaphene (chlorinated hydrocarbon), carbaryl (carbamate),\\u000a pyrethrin (plant derivative),Bacillus thuringiensis, nuclear polyhedrosis virus (Heliothis) (microbial insecticides), and 2,4-DB (postemergence herbicide) were evaluated at the minimum recommended field dose and\\u000a reduced dosages for contact toxicity toBrachymeria intermedia (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae), Campoletis sonorensis (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Chelonus blackburni\\u000a (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Meteorus leviventris (Braconidae), Voria ruralis (Diptera: tachninidae), Chrysopa carnea

  15. The Toxicity of Glyphosate and Several Glyphosate Formulations to Four Species of Southwestern Australian Frogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Mann; J. R. Bidwell

    1999-01-01

    .   The acute toxicity of technical-grade glyphosate acid, glyphosate isopropylamine, and three glyphosate formulations was\\u000a determined for adults of one species and tadpoles of four species of southwestern Australian frogs in 48-h static\\/renewal\\u000a tests. The 48-h LC50 values for Roundup? Herbicide (MON 2139) tested against tadpoles of Crinia insignifera, Heleioporus eyrei, Limnodynastes dorsalis, and Litoria moorei ranged between 8.1 and

  16. Successful treatment of severe carbamazepine toxicity with 5% albumin-enhanced continuous venovenous hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Rajeev; Rizzo, Meagan; Cole, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Carbamazepine overdose is a common, toxic ingestion, manifesting as central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory depression. Carbamazepine is highly protein bound with a large volume of distribution and, therefore, inefficiently removed by conventional hemodialysis. We describe the successful use of continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) with 5% albumin enhanced dialysate in a 31-year-old female who developed CNS depression, hypotension and respiratory failure, requiring mechanical ventilation, after an intentional ingestion of approximately 10 g of extended release carbamazepine, Tegretol CR(®). The peak drug level was 26 mcg/ml, therapeutic range 8-12 mcg/ml, with toxicity often developing a level above 15 mcg/ml. Normal half-life of drug elimination is 35-60 h in carbamazepine naïve patients. In contrast, with albumin-enhanced dialysis, we observed a drug half-life of 18 h. She was extubated on day two and was transferred to inpatient psychiatry by day 3 without significant neurologic sequelae. In vitro studies have been done with bovine blood demonstrating significant carbamazepine removal using CVVHD with albumin-enhanced dialysate. There has been very limited experience using albumin-enhanced CVVHD in an adult patient with carbamazepine toxicity. PMID:24449266

  17. Measuring the prevalence of current, severe symptoms of mental health problems in a canadian correctional population: implications for delivery of mental health services for inmates.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory P; Hirdes, John P; Fries, Brant E

    2015-01-01

    This study measured the prevalence of current, severe symptoms of a mental health problem in an adult population of inmates in Ontario, Canada. The Resident Assessment Instrument-Mental Health was used to measure the prevalence of symptoms among a sample of 522 inmates. Propensity score weighting was used to adjust for nonrandom selection into the sample. Prevalence estimates were derived for the total inmate population, remand and sentenced, males and females, and Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal inmates. It is estimated that 41.1% of Ontario inmates will have at least one current, severe symptom of a mental health problem; of this group, 13.0%, will evidence two or more symptoms. The number of symptoms is strongly associated with presence of a psychiatric diagnosis and level of mental health care needs. Female (35.1%) and Aboriginal (18.7%) inmates are more likely to demonstrate two or more current, severe symptoms. Greater efforts must be made to bridge the gap between correctional and mental health care systems to ensure inmates in correctional facilities can access and receive appropriate mental health care services. PMID:24146355

  18. Prevalence, risk factors and severity of asthma symptoms in children of Kermanshah, IRAN: ISAAC phase I, II.

    PubMed

    Zobeiri, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disorder of school-age children and youth, with rising prevalence in all over the world. By attention to the geographic area there is considerable difference in the prevalence of asthma. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), was founded to maximize the value of epidemiological research into asthma and allergic disease by establishing a standardized methodology and facilitating international collaboration. To determine the prevalence of asthma and related symptoms in Kermanshah (a city in west of IRAN) schoolchildren and also identifying the related variables that increased asthma risk using the ISAAC protocols. This descriptive analytic study was done by the ISAAC written questionnaire and additional questions about family number, demographic and socio-economic characteristics of two groups of first and second grade of primary and guidance schools (6-7 y, 13-14 y). Suggested sample size were applied and selected randomly. Results were analyzed by SPSS soft ware by 95% confidence interval. The ISAAC-written questionnaire was completed by a total of 6236 (48.7% were 6-7 and 51/3% were 13-14 years old) schoolchildren. 50.4% of students were girls and 49/6% were boys. The prevalence of diseases and symptoms were as follows: 20.6% had ever wheezing (27.4% in 13-14 years old and 13.4% in 6-7 years old children and it was 21.6% in girls and 19.5% in boys). Among which the estimated mean national 12-month prevalence of wheeze (current wheeze), speech limiting wheeze , exercise wheeze, night cough and physician diagnosed asthma (ever asthma) were respectively 30.1%, 5.4%, 9.4%, 7.3% and 3.3% for the 6-7 year age group and 44.2%, 13.5%, 28.9% , 17.4% and 2.1% for the 13-14 year age group. Current wheeze was higher in Childs and adolescents with family history of smoking and in higher family number. Comparing with regional study the results of this epidemiological survey of asthma in Kermanshah indicate that asthma is more common here, more prevalent in girls than boys and is higher in 13-14 years old than 6-7 years old but sever asthma is much less common. The results may be due to better diagnosis and better control of disease. PMID:21681708

  19. The toxicity of several organic phosphorus compounds to cotton insects and spider mites 

    E-print Network

    Fuller, Freeman Miree

    1954-01-01

    materials which have been introduced as a result of this diligent search for newer and better insecticides* This work is a study to determine the toxicity of EPN, methyl para- thion, parathion, malathion and demeton in the control of the more com? mon...* According to a report by Fife et al. (19^9) 0*5 per cent parathion did not control the cotton bollworm. Magee and Gaines (1950) reported that 0*5 per cent parathion at 12 pounds per acre controlled the cotton bollworm. Malathion and methyl parathion do...

  20. Cytoplasmic Expression of Mouse Prion Protein Causes Severe Toxicity in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Won; Li, Liming

    2008-01-01

    To test if Caenorhabditis elegans could be established as a model organism for prion study, we created transgenic C. elegans expressing the cytosolic form of the mouse prion .protein, MoPrP(23-231), which lacks the N-terminal signal sequence and the C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinisotol (GPI) anchor site. We report here that transgenic worms expressing MoPrP(23-231)–CFP exhibited a wide range of distinct phenotypes: from normal growth and development, reduced mobility and development delay, complete paralysis and development arrest, to embryonic lethality. Similar levels of MoPrP (23-231)-CFP were produced in animals exhibiting these distinct phenotypes, suggesting that MoPrP (23-231)-CFP might have misfolded into distinct toxic species. In combining with the observation that mutations in PrP that affect prion pathogenesis also affect the toxic phenotypes in C. elegans, we conclude that the prion protein folding mechanism is similar in mammals and C. elegans. Thus, C. elegans can be a useful model organism for prion research. PMID:18519028

  1. Using a viral vector to reveal the role of microRNA159 in disease symptom induction by a severe strain of Cucumber mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhiyou; Chen, Aizhong; Chen, Wenhu; Westwood, Jack H; Baulcombe, David C; Carr, John P

    2014-03-01

    In transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), expression of the Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b silencing suppressor protein from the severe subgroup IA strain Fny disrupted microRNA (miRNA)-regulated development but orthologs from mild subgroup II strains (Q and LS) did not, explaining strain-specific differences in symptom severity. However, it is unknown which miRNAs affected by Fny2b critically affect viral symptoms. Observations that Fny2b-transgenic plants phenocopy microRNA159ab (mir159ab) mutant plants and that Fny2b altered miR159ab-regulated transcript levels suggested a role for miR159ab in elicitation of severe symptoms by Fny-CMV. Using restoration of the normal phenotype in transgenic plants expressing an artificial miRNA as a proof of concept, we developed a LS-CMV-based vector to express sequences mimicking miRNA targets. Expressing a miR159 target mimic sequence using LS-CMV depleted miR159 and induced symptoms resembling those of Fny-CMV. Suppression of Fny-CMV-induced symptoms in plants harboring mutant alleles for the miR159ab targets MYB domain protein33 (MYB33) and MYB65 confirmed the importance of this miRNA in pathogenesis. This study demonstrates the utility of a viral vector to express miRNA target mimics to facilitate functional studies of miRNAs in plants. PMID:24492335

  2. Ratio of mutated versus wild-type coat protein sequences in Pepino mosaic virus determines the nature and severity of yellowing symptoms on tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata; Paeleman, Anneleen; Ortega-Parra, Nelia; Borodynko, Natasza; Minicka, Julia; Czerwoniec, Anna; Thomma, Bart P H J; Hanssen, Inge M

    2013-12-01

    Recently, Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) infections causing severe yellowing symptoms in tomato plants have been reported in glasshouse tomato crops. When studying this phenomenon in commercial glasshouses, two different types of yellowing symptoms, occurring in adjacent plants, were distinguished: interveinal leaf yellowing and yellow mosaics. After several weeks, the interveinal leaf yellowing symptoms gradually disappeared and the plant heads became green again, with yellow mosaic patterns on the leaves as an intermediate stage. The sequencing of multiple isolates causing interveinal leaf yellowing identified two point mutations, occurring in positions 155 and 166 of the coat protein (CP), as unique to the yellowing pathotype. Site-directed mutagenesis of infectious clones confirmed that both CP mutations are determinants of the interveinal leaf yellowing symptoms. Sequencing of CP clones from plants or plant parts with the yellow mosaic symptoms resulted in a mixture of wild-type and mutated sequences, whereas sequencing of CP clones from the green heads of recovered plants resulted in only wild-type sequences. Yellow mosaic symptoms could be reproduced by inoculation of an artificial 1:1 mixture of RNA transcripts from the wild-type and mutated infectious clones. These results show that the ratio of mutated versus wild-type sequences can determine the nature and severity of symptom development. The gradual recovery of the plants, which coincides with the disappearance of the yellowing mutations, suggests that selection pressure acts to the advantage of the wild-type virus. Experiments with wild-type and mutated infectious clones showed that reverse mutation events from mutant to wild-type occur and that the wild-type virus does not have a replicative advantage over the mutant. These results suggest that reverse mutation events occur, with subsequent selection pressure acting in favour of the wild-type virus in the growing plant parts, possibly related to a lower long-distance movement efficiency of the mutant. PMID:23855964

  3. Effects of several variables on whole effluent toxicity test performance and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Markle, P.J.; Gully, J.R.; Baird, R.B.; Nakada, K.M.; Bottomley, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Protocol changes and options contained within US Environmental Protection Agency whole effluent toxicity tests represent variables that have the potential to affect bioassay performance and interpretation of results. Variables evaluated in this study include: the change in allowable age in the Pimephales promelas acute bioassay from up to 90 d to a maximum of 14 d, age-specific acute responses of P. promelas among the allowable ages of 1 to 14 d, change in the chronic growth endpoint definition from final mass to biomass, differences between hemacytometer and fluorometer measurements in the Selenastrum capricornutum protocol, and options for statistical interpretation of species sensitivity in multiple test/species screening bioassays. Clear age-related sensitivity and precision differences were observed in acute responses of P. promelas. Results obtained using the younger age classes were typically more variable in studies of both 1- to 14-d-old and 14- to 90-d-old P. promelas. In the experiments on 1- to 14-d-old organisms, larvae at 1 d of age were significantly less sensitive. In the tests on 14- to 90-d-old organisms, the 14-d-old organisms were significantly less sensitive. The change in endpoint definition in the P. promelas chronic bioassay resulted in an apparent increase in toxic response in the inhibition concentration (ICp) value for each bioassay, evaluated by the biomass method, with no general improvement in statistical interest precision estimates and no predictable impact on the no-observed-effect concentration endpoint. Fluorometric scoring in the Selenastrum bioassay was significantly more precise and better capable of estimating counts than hemacytometer measurements. Discrepancies associated with commonly used statistical endpoints used to determine the most sensitive species were identified, and potential solutions were proposed.

  4. A new questionnaire to determine the frequency and severity of symptoms caused by inhaled odors, chemicals and irritants in normal subjects and their relation to health-related quality of life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen E Williamson

    2007-01-01

    Individuals may develop symptoms in response to inhaled odors, chemicals, and irritants. This may affect their quality of life. Little is known about the prevalence and severity of symptoms that result from exposure to odors, chemicals and irritants. This study demonstrates the development of a new respiratory questionnaire to detect the prevalence and severity of symptoms experienced upon exposure to

  5. Correlation of Selenium and Zinc Levels to Antiretroviral Treatment Outcomes in Thai HIV-infected Children without Severe HIV Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Bunupuradah, Torsak; Ubolyam, Sasiwimol; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Ngampiyaskul, Chaiwat; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Wongsawat, Jurai; Luesomboon, Wicharn; Pinyakorn, Suteeraporn; Kerr, Stephen; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Chomtho, Sirinuch; van der Lugt, Jasper; Luplertlop, Natthanej; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Puthanakit, Thanyawee

    2012-01-01

    Background Deficiencies in antioxidants contribute to immune dysregulation and viral replication. Objective To evaluate the correlation of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) levels on the treatment outcomes in HIV-infected children. Design HIV-infected Thai children 1–12 years old, CD4 15–24%, without severe HIV symptoms were included. Se and Zn levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry at baseline and 48 weeks. Deficiency cut-offs were Se<0.1 ?mol/L and Zn<9.9 ?mol/L. Serum ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP) were performed every 24 weeks. No micronutrient supplement was prescribed. Results 141 children (38.3% male) with a median (IQR) age of 7.3 (4.2–9.0) years, were enrolled. Median baseline CD4% was 20%, HIV-RNA was 4.6 log10copies/mL. At baseline, median (IQR) Se and Zn levels were 0.9 (0.7–1.0) ?mol/L and 5.9 (4.8–6.9) ?mol/L, respectively. None had Se deficiency while all had Zn deficiency. Over 48 weeks, 97 initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 81% achieved HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL with 11% median CD4 gain. The mean change of Se was 0.06 ?mol/L (p = 0.003) and Zn was 0.42 ?mol/L (p=0.003), respectively. By multivariate analysis in children who received ART, predictors for greater increase of CD4% from baseline were lower baseline CD4% (p<0.01) and higher baseline Zn level (p=0.02). The predictors for greater decrease of HIV-RNA from baseline were higher baseline HIV-RNA and higher ferritin (both p<0.01). No association of CRP to the changes from baseline of CD4% or HIV-RNA was found. Conclusion In HIV-infected Thai children without severe immune deficiency who commenced ART, no correlation between selenium and ART treatment outcomes were found. Higher pre-ART Zn levels were associated with significant increases in CD4 percent at 48 weeks. PMID:22713768

  6. A case of toxic epidermal necrolysis (ten) with severe chronic ocular complications in a healthy 46-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Voltan, A; Azzena, B

    2010-06-30

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), also known as Lyell's syndrome, is a severe drug reaction characterized by extensive destruction of the epidermis and mucosal epithelia. The eyes are typically involved in TEN. The precise pathomechanisms involved remain unknown. We present a case of toxic epidermal necrolysis in a healthy 46-yr-old female patient who had inhaled glycophosphate (herbicide) and was treated with paracetamol, aspirin, and chlorpheniramine. Thirty-five per cent of the skin area was affected by the syndrome, with involvement of conjunctival, gastrointestinal, and respiratory mucous membranes. Topical treatment was performed every day and the patient did not undergo surgery. Complete wound healing was achieved in 47 days. There were acute complications, consisting of infection of the skin areas ( Candida), gastrointestinal bleeding, pleural effusion, and severe ocular mucous membrane damage. The most serious chronic complication was the presence of significant opacity of the corneal epithelium, causing almost complete loss of vision. According to the data in the literature, ocular complications in TEN are frequent and are present in the majority of the patients studied, but are not often severe. Risk factors for the development of ocular complications are not known. Ocular sequelae may appear after the acute period and they can be extremely disabling, even causing almost complete loss of vision. Treatment includes corticosteroids and topical antibiotic therapy in the acute phase and if necessary corneal transplantation in the event of chronic damage to the corneal epithelium. PMID:21991203

  7. Increase in exhaled nitric oxide levels in patients with difficult asthma and correlation with symptoms and disease severity despite treatment with oral and inhaled corticosteroids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R G Stirling; S A Kharitonov; D Campbell; D S Robinson; S R Durham; K F Chung; P J Barnes

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUNDPatients with difficult asthma suffer chronic moderate to severe persistent asthma symptoms despite high doses of inhaled and oral corticosteroid therapy. These patients suffer a high level of treatment and disease related morbidity but little is known about the degree of airway inflammation in these patients.METHODSFifty two patients were examined to assess levels of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) as a

  8. Total exposure duration and proximity of cessation of cannabis use predict severity of sub-clinical psychotic symptoms among former users

    PubMed Central

    Baskak, Bora; Munir, Kerim; Ozguven, Halise Devrimci; Koc, Ersin; Gedik, Gulumser; Erkan, Derya; Atbasoglu, Cem E.

    2015-01-01

    In a non-clinical military enrolment setting, former cannabis users (N=81), compared to substance-naïve controls (N=132), endorsed markedly elevated rates of schizotypy subscale scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Total duration of exposure and proximity of cessation of cannabis use also had an important impact on the severity of psychosis-like symptoms. PMID:22436347

  9. The Impact of Child Symptom Severity on Depressed Mood among Parents of Children with ASD: The Mediating Role of Stress Proliferation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    "Stress proliferation" (the tendency of stressors to engender additional stressors in other life domains) is explored in a sample of 68 parents of children identified with ASD. Regression analyses showed that parent depression was predicted by both child symptom severity and by stress proliferation and that stress proliferation partially mediated…

  10. The cancer pain experience of Israeli adults 65 years and older: the influence of pain interference, symptom severity, and knowledge and attitudes on pain and pain control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marlene Z. Cohen; Catherine F. Musgrave; Deborah B. McGuire; Neville E. Strumpf; Mark F. Munsell; Tito R. Mendoza; Maya Gips

    2005-01-01

    Goals: Little is known about Israeli elders' cancer pain ex- perience. The purpose of this study was to explore the cancer pain expe- rience, including pain intensity, pain management index, pain interference, symptom severity, and knowledge and attitudes toward pain and pain control. Patients and methods: Descriptive cross-sectional methods were used to obtain data with four instruments. The patients were

  11. Effect of Outdoor Fungus Concentra- tions on Symptom Severity of Children with Asthma and\\/or Rhinitis Monosen- sitized to Molds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayfer Inal; Derya Ufuk Altintas; Munevver Pinar; Talip Ceter

    SUMMARY Although the relationship between asthma severity and exposure to airborne fungi has been well studied, little is known about the contribution of outdoor molds to the symptoms of children monosensitized to molds. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of outdoor mold spore concentrations on daily asthma and\\/or rhinitis scores in children monosensitized to molds. Nineteen children

  12. Postgraze assessment of toxicosis symptoms for steers grazed on toxic and novel endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-yr pen experiment was conducted using 18 crossbred Angus steers each year to evaluate changes in body temperature, vasoconstriction, and prolactin concentrations in steers previously grazed on toxic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) as c...

  13. Severe skeletal toxicity from protracted etidronate therapy for generalized arterial calcification of infancy.

    PubMed

    Otero, Jesse E; Gottesman, Gary S; McAlister, William H; Mumm, Steven; Madson, Katherine L; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Sheen, Campbell; Millán, José Luis; Ericson, Karen L; Whyte, Michael P

    2013-02-01

    Generalized arterial calcification (AC) of infancy (GACI) is an autosomal recessive disorder that features hydroxyapatite deposition within arterial elastic fibers. Untreated, approximately 85% of GACI patients die by 6 months of age from cardiac ischemia and congestive heart failure. The first-generation bisphosphonate etidronate (EHDP; ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonic acid, also known as 1-hydroxyethylidene-bisphosphonate) inhibits bone resorption and can mimic endogenous inorganic pyrophosphate by blocking mineralization. With EHDP therapy for GACI, AC may resolve without recurrence upon treatment cessation. Skeletal disease is not an early characteristic of GACI, but rickets can appear from acquired hypophosphatemia or prolonged EHDP therapy. We report a 7-year-old boy with GACI referred for profound, acquired, skeletal disease. AC was gone after 5 months of EHDP therapy during infancy, but GACI-related joint calcifications progressed. He was receiving EHDP, 200?mg/day orally, and had odynodysphagia, diffuse opioid-controlled pain, plagiocephaly, facial dysmorphism, joint calcifications, contractures, and was wheelchair bound. Biochemical parameters of mineral homeostasis were essentially normal. Serum osteocalcin was low and the brain isoform of creatine kinase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP-5b) were elevated as in osteopetrosis. Skeletal radiographic findings resembled pediatric hypophosphatasia with pancranial synostosis, long-bone bowing, widened physes, as well as metaphyseal osteosclerosis, cupping and fraying, and "tongues" of radiolucency. Radiographic features of osteopetrosis included osteosclerosis and femoral Erlenmeyer flask deformity. After stopping EHDP, he improved rapidly, including remarkable skeletal healing and decreased joint calcifications. Profound, but rapidly reversible, inhibition of skeletal mineralization with paradoxical calcifications near joints can occur in GACI from protracted EHDP therapy. Although EHDP treatment is lifesaving in GACI, surveillance for toxicity is crucial. PMID:22972716

  14. Internalizing Symptoms and Affective Reactivity in Relation to the Severity of Aggression in Clinically Referred, Behavior-Disordered Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, David J.; Baumann, Barbara L.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Brown, Elissa J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the affective correlates of aggression in children referred to a partial hospitalization program for the treatment of behavior disorders who did not have a mood or anxiety disorder. Parent and teacher ratings of the children's impulsivity, internalizing symptoms, affective reactivity, and aggression were examined for their…

  15. Anxiety and Avoidance in Infants and Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evidence for Differing Symptom Severity and Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Fodstad, Jill C.; Jenkins, Whitney S.; Hess, Julie A.; Moree, Brittany N.; Dempsey, Tim; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the symptoms of anxiety in very young children with autism spectrum disorders, particularly comparisons between Autistic Disorder (AD) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). In the current study, toddlers (i.e., 17-37 months of age) with diagnoses of either AD (N = 159) or PDD-NOS (N = 154)…

  16. Increasing foliar Zn:Ni or Cu:Ni concentration ratios increase severity of nickel deficiency symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of essential micronutrients on the endogenous bioavailability of Ni is unknown. This study examines the linkage between Ni deficiency and endogenous foliar concentration of Ni, Zn, and Cu. It was hypothesized that expression of morphological symptoms of Ni deficiency by pecan [Carya i...

  17. Escitalopram is associated with reductions in pain severity and pain interference in opioid dependent patients with depressive symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith I. Tsui; Debra S. Herman; Malyna Kettavong; Bradley J. Anderson; Michael D. Stein

    2011-01-01

    Pain is common among opioid-dependent patients, yet pharmacologic strategies are limited. The aim of this study was to explore whether escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was associated with reductions in pain. The study used longitudinal data from a randomized, controlled trial that evaluated the effects of escitalopram on treatment retention in patients with depressive symptoms who were initiating buprenorphine\\/naloxone

  18. Group Counseling Psychotherapy for Patients with Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Development of New Measures for Symptom Severity and Quality of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monique Riberdy Poitras; Pierre Verrier; Christiane So; Stéphanie Pâquet; Mickael Bouin; Pierre Poitras

    2002-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) can benefit from various psychological interventions. The main objective here was to define the contribution of a new psychotherapeutic intervention, group counseling psychotherapy, for the management of FGID patients. Secondary aims included validation of new measures for gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life in patients with FGID. Fifty patients seen in a tertiary care center were

  19. Assessment of 5-hydroxytryptamine efflux in rat brain during a mild, moderate and severe serotonin-toxicity syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gongliang; Krishnamoorthy, Swapna; Ma, Zhiyuan; Vukovich, Nick P.; Huang, Xupei; Tao, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)-toxicity syndrome, an iatrogenic brain disorder induced by excessive efflux of 5-HT, has received much attention because of increasing incidents of serotonergic antidepressants. However, the neural mechanism by which extracellular 5-HT is elevated to a toxic level for the syndrome remains to be determined. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that extracellular 5-HT is composed of two component effluxes responsible for distinct aspects of the syndrome. The first set of experiments was to characterize the syndrome by measuring changes in neuromuscular signs, body-core temperature and mortality rate. Our results indicate that the syndrome severity can be categorized into mild, moderate and severe levels. The second set of experiments was to determine a threshold of extracellular 5-HT for induction of each level of the syndrome. Our results demonstrate that there were an 11-fold increase in the mild syndrome and an over 55-fold increase in the severe syndrome. In the last series of experiments, the excessive increases in 5-HT were pharmacologically separated into primary and secondary component effluxes with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonists cyproheptadine and ketanserin and NMDA receptor antagonist (+)-MK-801. Our results suggest primary component efflux was caused by direct drug effects on 5-HT biosynthetic and metabolic pathways and secondary efflux ascribed to indirect drug effect on a positive feedback circuit involving 5-HT2A and NMDA receptors. In summary, the primary efflux could be an initial cause for the induction of the syndrome while the secondary efflux might involve deterioration of the syndrome. PMID:19464285

  20. Hepatoprotective effect of Bathysa cuspidata in a murine model of severe toxic liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Reggiani V; Novaes, Rômulo D; Leite, João P V; Vilela, Emerson F; Cupertino, Marli C; Nunes, Líria G; Matta, Sérgio L P

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of a bark extract of Bathysa cuspidata extract (BCE) in a murine model of severe liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Forty-two Wistar rats were randomized into six groups of seven animals each: Group 1(G1): CCl4; Group 2 (G2): dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) + CCl4; Group 3 (G3): BCE 400 mg/kg alone; Group 4 (G4): BCE 200 mg/kg + CCl4; Group 5 (G5): BCE 400 mg/kg + CCl4; Group 6 (G6): DMSO alone. The extract was administered by gavage for 18 days beginning 6 days prior to the first application of CCl4. After completing CCl4 administration, the animals were euthanized. The animals in G1, G2, G4 and G5 experienced significant body weight loss and had an increased liver somatic index compared with G3 and G6 (P < 0.05). A significant reduction in serum aspartate and alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase (P < 0.05) and a significant increase in the activity of the anti-oxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase were found in G5 (P < 0.05). Lower proportions of cellular necrosis and lipid droplets were found in the livers of animals in G4 and G5 compared with G1 and G2 (P < 0.05). These results confirm the marked hepatoprotective activity of the bark extract of Bathysa cuspidata in severe injuries induced by CCl4 in rats and suggest that this effect may be associated with the inhibition of oxidative damage. PMID:22974218

  1. Pru p 3-Sensitised Italian Peach-Allergic Patients Are Less Likely to Develop Severe Symptoms When Also Presenting IgE Antibodies to Pru p 1 and Pru p 4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elide A. Pastorello; Laura Farioli; Valerio Pravettoni; Joseph Scibilia; Ambra Mascheri; Linda Borgonovo; Marta Piantanida; Laura Primavesi; Chrysi Stafylaraki; Sara Pasqualetti; Jan Schroeder; Michele Nichelatti; Alessandro Marocchi

    2011-01-01

    Background: The roles played by different peach allergens with respect to symptom severity have not been completely ascertained. We have evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of peach recombinant allergens ImmunoCAP compared to peach in the identification of subjects at an increased risk for severe reactions to peaches. Methods: 148 peach-allergic patients were divided based on their symptom severity into 2 groups:

  2. Acute genitourinary toxicity after high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer: Second analysis to determine the correlation between the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy and the severity of acute genitourinary toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Akimoto, Tetsuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)]. E-mail: takimoto@showa.gunma-u.ac.jp; Katoh, Hiroyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Noda, Shin-ei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Ito, Kazuto [Department of Urology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Yamamoto, Takumi [Department of Urology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Kashiwagi, Bunzo [Department of Urology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    Purpose: We have been treating localized prostate cancer with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) at our institution. We recently reported the existence of a correlation between the severity of acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity and the urethral radiation dose in HDR brachytherapy by using different fractionation schema. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the urethral dose in the development of acute GU toxicity more closely than in previous studies. For this purpose, we conducted an analysis of patients who had undergone HDR brachytherapy with a fixed fractionation schema combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Methods and Materials: Among the patients with localized prostate cancer who were treated by 192-iridium HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT at Gunma University Hospital between August 2000 and November 2004, we analyzed 67 patients who were treated by HDR brachytherapy with the fractionation schema of 9 Gy x two times combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Hypofractionated EBRT was administered at a fraction dose of 3 Gy three times weekly, and a total dose of 51 Gy was delivered to the prostate gland and seminal vesicles using the four-field technique. No elective pelvic irradiation was performed. After the completion of EBRT, all the patients additionally received transrectal ultrasonography-guided HDR brachytherapy. The planning target volume was defined as the prostate gland with a 5-mm margin all around, and the planning was conducted based on computed tomography images. The tumor stage was T1c in 13 patients, T2 in 31 patients, and T3 in 23 patients. The Gleason score was 2-6 in 12 patients, 7 in 34 patients, and 8-10 in 21 patients. Androgen ablation was performed in all the patients. The median follow-up duration was 11 months (range 3-24 months). The toxicities were graded based on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: The main symptoms of acute GU toxicity were dysuria and increase in the urinary frequency or nocturia. The grade distribution of acute GU toxicity in the patients was as follows: Grade 0-1, 42 patients (63%); Grade 2-3, 25 patients (37%). The urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy was determined using the following dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters: V30 (percentage of the urethral volume receiving 30% of the prescribed radiation dose), V80, V90, V100, V110, V120, V130, and V150. In addition, the D5 (dose covering 5% of the urethral volume), D10, D20, and D50 of the urethra were also estimated. The V30-V150 values in the patients with Grade 2-3 acute GU toxicity were significantly higher than those in patients with Grade 0-1 toxicity. The D10 and D20, but not D5 and D50, values were also significantly higher in the patients with Grade 2-3 acute GU toxicity than in those with Grade 0-1 toxicity. Regarding the influence of the number of needles implanted, there was no correlation between the number of needles implanted and the severity of acute GU toxicity or the V30-V150 values and D5-D50 values. Conclusions: It was concluded that HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT is feasible for localized prostate cancer, when considered from the viewpoint of acute toxicity. However, because the urethral dose was closely associated with the grade of severity of the acute GU toxicity, the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy must be kept low to reduce the severity of acute GU toxicity.

  3. Age of Onset of RNA Toxicity Influences Phenotypic Severity: Evidence from an Inducible Mouse Model of Myotonic Dystrophy (DM1)

    PubMed Central

    Gladman, Jordan T.; Mandal, Mahua; Srinivasan, Varadamurthy; Mahadevan, Mani S.

    2013-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most common muscular dystrophy in adults. It is caused by an expanded (CTG)n tract in the 3? UTR of the Dystrophia Myotonica Protein Kinase (DMPK) gene. This causes nuclear retention of the mutant mRNA into ribonuclear foci and sequestration of interacting RNA-binding proteins (such as muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1)). More severe congenital and childhood-onset forms of the disease exist but are less understood than the adult disease, due in part to the lack of adequate animal models. To address this, we utilized transgenic mice over-expressing the DMPK 3? UTR as part of an inducible RNA transcript to model early-onset myotonic dystrophy. In mice in which transgene expression was induced during embryogenesis, we found that by two weeks after birth, mice reproduced cardinal features of myotonic dystrophy, including myotonia, cardiac conduction abnormalities, muscle weakness, histopathology and mRNA splicing defects. Notably, these defects were more severe than in adult mice induced for an equivalent period of exposure to RNA toxicity. Additionally, the utility of the model was tested by over-expressing MBNL1, a key therapeutic strategy being actively pursued for treating the disease phenotypes associated with DM1. Significantly, increased MBNL1 in skeletal muscle partially corrected myotonia and splicing defects present in these mice, demonstrating the responsiveness of the model to relevant therapeutic interventions. Furthermore, these results also represent the first murine model for early-onset DM1 and provide a tool to investigate the effects of RNA toxicity at various stages of development. PMID:24039817

  4. Interplay between Bladder Microbiota and Urinary Antimicrobial Peptides: Mechanisms for Human Urinary Tract Infection Risk and Symptom Severity

    PubMed Central

    Nienhouse, Vanessa; Gao, Xiang; Dong, Qunfeng; Nelson, David E.; Toh, Evelyn; McKinley, Kathleen; Schreckenberger, Paul; Shibata, Noriko; Fok, Cynthia S.; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Brubaker, Linda; Wolfe, Alan J.; Radek, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Resident bacterial communities (microbiota) and host antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are both essential components of normal host innate immune responses that limit infection and pathogen induced inflammation. However, their interdependence has not been investigated in the context of urinary tract infection (UTI) susceptibility. Here, we explored the interrelationship between the urinary microbiota and host AMP responses as mechanisms for UTI risk. Using prospectively collected day of surgery (DOS) urine specimens from female pelvic floor surgery participants, we report that the relative abundance and/or frequency of specific urinary microbiota distinguished between participants who did or did not develop a post-operative UTI. Furthermore, UTI risk significantly correlated with both specific urinary microbiota and ?-defensin AMP levels. Finally, urinary AMP hydrophobicity and protease activity were greater in participants who developed UTI, and correlated positively with both UTI risk and pelvic floor symptoms. These data demonstrate an interdependency between the urinary microbiota, AMP responses and symptoms, and identify a potential mechanism for UTI risk. Assessment of bacterial microbiota and host innate immune AMP responses in parallel may identify increased risk of UTI in certain populations. PMID:25486068

  5. Effects of seasonal climatic variability on several toxic contaminants in urban lakes: Implications for the impacts of climate change.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Xia, Xinghui; Mou, Xinli; Zhu, Baotong; Zhao, Pujun; Dong, Haiyang

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is supposed to have influences on water quality and ecosystem. However, only few studies have assessed the effect of climate change on environmental toxic contaminants in urban lakes. In this research, response of several toxic contaminants in twelve urban lakes in Beijing, China, to the seasonal variations in climatic factors was studied. Fluorides, volatile phenols, arsenic, selenium, and other water quality parameters were analyzed monthly from 2009 to 2012. Multivariate statistical methods including principle component analysis, cluster analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed to study the relationship between contaminants and climatic factors including temperature, precipitation, wind speed, and sunshine duration. Fluoride and arsenic concentrations in most urban lakes exhibited a significant positive correlation with temperature/precipitation, which is mainly caused by rainfall induced diffuse pollution. A negative correlation was observed between volatile phenols and temperature/precipitation, and this could be explained by their enhanced volatilization and biodegradation rates caused by higher temperature. Selenium did not show a significant response to climatic factor variations, which was attributed to low selenium contents in the lakes and soils. Moreover, the response degrees of contaminants to climatic variations differ among lakes with different contamination levels. On average, temperature/precipitation contributed to 8%, 15%, and 12% of the variations in volatile phenols, arsenic, and fluorides, respectively. Beijing is undergoing increased temperature and heavy rainfall frequency during the past five decades. This study suggests that water quality related to fluoride and arsenic concentrations of most urban lakes in Beijing is becoming worse under this climate change trend. PMID:25499484

  6. Reduction of leaf area and symptom severity as proxies of disease-induced plant mortality: the example of the Cauliflower mosaic virus infecting two Brassicaceae hosts.

    PubMed

    Doumayrou, Juliette; Leblaye, Sophie; Froissart, Rémy; Michalakis, Yannis

    2013-09-01

    Disease induced effects on host survival are important to understand the evolution of parasitic virulence and host resistance/tolerance. Unfortunately, experiments evaluating such effects are in most cases logistically demanding justifying the measurement of survival proxies. For plant hosts commonly used proxies are leaf area and the nature and severity of visual qualitative disease symptoms. In this study we tested whether these traits are indeed correlated to the host mortality rate induced by viral infection. We infected Brassica rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana plants with different natural isolates of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and estimated over time the development of symptoms and the relative reduction of leaf area compared to healthy plants and followed plant mortality. We observed that the mortality of infected plants was correlated with the relative reduction of leaf area of both B. rapa and A. thaliana. Measures of mortality were also correlated with the severity of visual qualitative symptoms but the magnitude of the correlations and the time frame at which they were significant depended on the host plant: stronger and earlier correlations were observed on A. thaliana. PMID:23742852

  7. Synovial pathology detected on ultrasound correlates with the severity of radiographic knee osteoarthritis more than with symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hall, M.; Doherty, S.; Courtney, P.; Latief, K.; Zhang, W.; Doherty, M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective To [1] compare the frequency and severity of ultrasound (US) features in people with normal knees (controls), knee pain (KP), asymptomatic radiographic OA (ROA), and symptomatic OA (SROA), [2] examine relationships between US features, pain and radiographic severity, [3] explore the relationship between change in pain and US features over a 3-month period. Method Community participants were recruited into a multiple group case–control study. All underwent assessment for pain, knee radiographs and US examination for effusion, synovial hypertrophy, popliteal cysts and power Doppler (PD) signal within the synovium. A 3-month follow-up was undertaken in over half of control and SROA participants. Results 243 participants were recruited (90 controls; 59 KP; 32 ROA; 62 SROA). Effusion and synovial hypertrophy were more common in ROA and SROA participants. Severity of effusion and synovial hypertrophy were greater in SROA compared to ROA (P < 0.05). Severity of US effusion and synovial hypertrophy were correlated with radiographic severity (r = 0.6 and r = 0.7, P < 0.01) but the relationship between pain severity and US features was weak (r = 0.3, P < 0.01). In SROA participants, pain severity did not change in tandem with a change in synovial hypertrophy over time. Conclusion US abnormalities are common in OA. Effusion and synovial hypertrophy were moderately correlated with radiographic severity but the relationship with pain is less strong. The degree to which these features reflect “active inflammation” is questionable and they may be better considered as part of the total organ pathology in OA. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:25278071

  8. Relationship between Lifestyle and Health Factors and Severe Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) in 106,435 Middle-Aged and Older Australian Men: Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David P.; Weber, Marianne F.; Soga, Kay; Korda, Rosemary J.; Tikellis, Gabriella; Patel, Manish I.; Clements, Mark S.; Dwyer, Terry; Latz, Isabel K.; Banks, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite growing interest in prevention of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) through better understanding of modifiable risk factors, large-scale population-based evidence is limited. Objective To describe risk factors associated with severe LUTS in the 45 and Up Study, a large cohort study. Design, Setting, and Participants A cross-sectional analysis of questionnaire data from 106,435 men aged ?45 years, living in New South Wales, Australia. Outcome Measures and Statistical Analysis LUTS were measured by a modified version of the International Prostate Symptom Score (m-IPSS). The strength of association between severe LUTS and socio-demographic, lifestyle and health-related factors was estimated, using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios, adjusted for a range of confounding factors. Results Overall, 18.3% reported moderate, and 3.6% severe, LUTS. Severe LUTS were more common among men reporting previous prostate cancer (7.6%), total prostatectomy (4.9%) or having part of the prostate removed (8.2%). After excluding men with prostate cancer or prostate surgery, the prevalence of moderate-severe LUTS in the cohort (n?=?95,089) ranged from 10.6% to 35.4% for ages 45–49 to ?80; the age-related increase was steeper for storage than voiding symptoms. The adjusted odds of severe LUTS decreased with increasing education (tertiary qualification versus no school certificate, odds ratio (OR?=?0.78 (0.68–0.89))) and increasing physical activity (high versus low, OR?=?0.83 (0.76–0.91)). Odds were elevated among current smokers versus never-smokers (OR?=?1.64 (1.43–1.88)), obese versus healthy-weight men (OR?=?1.27 (1.14–1.41)) and for comorbid conditions (e.g., heart disease versus no heart disease, OR?=?1.36 (1.24–1.49)), and particularly for severe versus no physical functional limitation (OR?=?5.17 (4.51–5.93)). Conclusions LUTS was associated with a number of factors, including modifiable risk factors, suggesting potential targets for prevention. PMID:25333345

  9. The correlations of incontinence-related quality of life measures with symptom severity and pathophysiology in women with primary stress urinary incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Chen Huang; Shwu-Huey Yang; Shu-Yu Yang; Evelyn Yang; Jenn-Ming Yang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  We sought to explore the correlations of incontinence-related quality of life (QoL) measures with the symptom severity and\\u000a pathophysiological factors for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We retrospectively reviewed the records of 707 women who had primary SUI. Clinical data for analysis included Ingelman–Sundberg\\u000a scales, 1-h pad tests, incontinence-related QoL questionnaires comprising short forms of the Urogenital Distress Inventory\\u000a (UDI-6)

  10. Isoniazid toxicity presenting as seizures and metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, R. C.; Hambrick, E. L.; Benjamin, G.; Chavda, S. N.

    1990-01-01

    The presenting signs and symptoms of isoniazid toxicity are discussed, with a review of the complications and management of this metabolic encephalopathy with B6 pyridoxine. This study supports previous studies in finding that ingestion of more than 80 mg/kg body weight produces severe central nervous system symptoms that are rapidly reversed with intravenous administration of pyridoxine. PMID:2304098

  11. Tobacco smoking in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients is associated with impaired cognitive functioning, more severe negative symptoms, and poorer social adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Iasevoli, Felice; Balletta, Raffaele; Gilardi, Valentina; Giordano, Sara; de Bartolomeis, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is common in schizophrenia patients. It has been reported that schizophrenia patients who are tobacco smokers have better cognitive performances compared to those who are nonsmokers. However, little is known on the effects of tobacco smoking in treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) patients. The aim of this study was to compare cognitive performances, psychotic symptoms, and social adjustment in tobacco smoker TRS patients compared to nonsmoker TRS patients. Smoker and nonsmoker TRS patients did not differ in demographics and in mean daily antipsychotic dose. Smoker TRS patients had significantly higher scores than nonsmoker patients on the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and on the negative symptoms subscale. These patients also performed worse than nonsmoker patients on problem-solving cognitive domain. Social adjustment was not significantly different between the two groups. In both groups of patients, worse cognitive performances were mostly predicted by higher severity of negative symptoms. Worse performances on the verbal memory and problem-solving cognitive domains were correlated with social-functioning impairment in tobacco smoker TRS patients but not in nonsmoker ones. The results showed that tobacco smoking was not significantly associated with better cognitive performances in TRS patients, while it was significantly associated with higher negative symptoms. Even if a direct causative mechanism cannot be inferred and despite the fact that these patients may use tobacco to self-medicate, it could be speculated that these associations may, at least partially, be related to a tobacco-smoking–induced worsening of abnormal dopamine dysfunction, which has been suggested to occur in TRS patients. PMID:23950651

  12. [Severe mitral regurgitation as the first symptom of systemic lupus erythematosus in a young women required mitral valve replacement].

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Anna; Pi?tkowska, Anna; Biegalski, Wojciech; Dankowski, Rafa?; Michalski, Marek; Szymanowska, Katarzyna; Szyszka, Andrzej; Jemielity, Marek; Seniuk, Wojciech; Sosnowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder resulting in multiorgan inflammatory damage. The heart is frequently involved in SLE. The best known cardiac manifestations are pericarditis and Libman-Saks endocarditis. Severe valvular impairment is rather rare and occurs in few years and in advanced stage of the disease. In this study we report a case of a young women with SLE and heart failure due to mitral regurgitation as the first manifestation of the disease. PMID:22528724

  13. Duplication of the MECP2 region is a frequent cause of severe mental retardation and progressive neurological symptoms in males.

    PubMed

    Van Esch, Hilde; Bauters, Marijke; Ignatius, Jaakko; Jansen, Mieke; Raynaud, Martine; Hollanders, Karen; Lugtenberg, Dorien; Bienvenu, Thierry; Jensen, Lars Riff; Gecz, Jozef; Moraine, Claude; Marynen, Peter; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Froyen, Guy

    2005-09-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of the MECP2 gene at Xq28 are associated with Rett syndrome in females and with syndromic and nonsyndromic forms of mental retardation (MR) in males. By array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH), we identified a small duplication at Xq28 in a large family with a severe form of MR associated with progressive spasticity. Screening by real-time quantitation of 17 additional patients with MR who have similar phenotypes revealed three more duplications. The duplications in the four patients vary in size from 0.4 to 0.8 Mb and harbor several genes, which, for each duplication, include the MR-related L1CAM and MECP2 genes. The proximal breakpoints are located within a 250-kb region centromeric of L1CAM, whereas the distal breakpoints are located in a 300-kb interval telomeric of MECP2. The precise size and location of each duplication is different in the four patients. The duplications segregate with the disease in the families, and asymptomatic carrier females show complete skewing of X inactivation. Comparison of the clinical features in these patients and in a previously reported patient enables refinement of the genotype-phenotype correlation and strongly suggests that increased dosage of MECP2 results in the MR phenotype. Our findings demonstrate that, in humans, not only impaired or abolished gene function but also increased MeCP2 dosage causes a distinct phenotype. Moreover, duplication of the MECP2 region occurs frequently in male patients with a severe form of MR, which justifies quantitative screening of MECP2 in this group of patients. PMID:16080119

  14. Symptom severity of beet western yellows virus strain ST9 is conferred by the ST9-associated RNA and is not associated with virus release from the phloem.

    PubMed

    Sanger, M; Passmore, B; Falk, B W; Bruening, G; Ding, B; Lucas, W J

    1994-04-01

    The ST9 strain of beet western yellows virus (BWYV ST9) is unique among BWYV strains because it encapsidates not only its 5.6-kb genomic RNA but also a 2.8-kb RNA of distinct nucleotide sequence, designated as the ST9-associated RNA. We obtained isolates of BWYV ST9 that are free of the associated RNA by transfecting Nicotiana tabacum protoplasts with transcripts of an ST9 genomic cDNA clone. Aphids were fed on extracts of infected protoplasts and were transferred to young Shepherd's Purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris) plants. When the protoplast inoculum was ST9 genomic transcript or virion RNA of the L-1 strain of BWYV (free of the associated RNA), symptoms were mild and characteristic of BWYV L-1. When ST9-associated RNA was included in the inoculum with genomic RNA of either source, subsequently infected Shepherd's Purse plants showed the severe symptoms that are characteristic of BWYV ST9. Inclusion of ST9-associated RNA in the inoculum with ST9 genomic RNA increased the accumulation of capsid antigen and ST9 genomic RNA, relative to infections initiated with ST9 genomic RNA alone. Using gold-labeled antibody and electron microscopy, we assessed the distribution of virions in Shepherd's Purse plants. Regardless of whether the associated RNA was present, sites showing immunoreactivity above background levels were restricted to the phloem, suggesting that the increased BWYV ST9 titer and symptom severity that are correlated with the presence of the ST9-associated RNA are not due to escape of the infection from phloem limitation. PMID:8128637

  15. Neural activation during response inhibition in adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Preliminary findings on the effects of medication and symptom severity

    PubMed Central

    Congdon, Eliza; Altshuler, Lori L.; Mumford, Jeanette A.; Karlsgodt, Katherine H.; Sabb, Fred W.; Ventura, Joseph; McGough, James J.; London, Edythe D.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Bilder, Robert M.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have suggested that they have deficient response inhibition, but findings concerning the neural correlates of inhibition in this patient population are inconsistent. We used the Stop-Signal task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare neural activation associated with response inhibition between adults with ADHD (N = 35) and healthy comparison subjects (N = 62), and in follow-up tests to examine the effect of current medication use and symptom severity. There were no differences in Stop-Signal task performance or neural activation between ADHD and control participants. Among the ADHD participants, however, significant differences were associated with current medication, with individuals taking psychostimulants (N = 25) showing less stopping-related activation than those not currently receiving psychostimulant medication (N = 10). Follow-up analyses suggested that this difference in activation was independent of symptom severity. These results provide evidence that deficits in inhibition-related neural activation persist in a subset of adult ADHD individuals, namely those individuals currently taking psychostimulants. These findings help to explain some of the disparities in the literature, and advance our understanding of why deficits in response inhibition are more variable in adult, as compared with child and adolescent, ADHD patients. PMID:24581734

  16. Significance of 40-, 45-, and 48-kDa Proteins in the Moderate-to-Severe Clinical Symptoms of Buckwheat Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Joongbum; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Choi, Jaehee; Park, Mi-Ran; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Kim, Jihyun; Ahn, Kangmo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between the allergen components and moderate-to-severe allergic reactions in patients with buckwheat allergy. Methods Fifteen patients with a history of buckwheat ingestion and a buckwheat specific IgE level?0.35 kU/L were enrolled. They were divided into 2 groups according to clinical severity scores, with 0-1 being asymptomatic-to-mild and 2-4 being moderate-to-severe symptoms. Immunoblotting was performed to investigate IgE reactivity toward buckwheat allergens and to measure intensity of each component by using a reflective densitometer. Results The proportions of positive band to the 16 kDa (62.5% vs 0%, P=0.026) and 40-50 kDa (87.5% vs 28.6%, P=0.041) buckwheat allergens in the grade 2-4 group were higher than those in grade 0-1 group. The level of buckwheat specific IgE of grade 2-4 group was higher than that of grade 0-1 group (41.3 kU/L vs 5.5 kU/L, P=0.037). The median optical densities (ODs) of IgE antibody binding to 40-50 kDa protein were higher in the grade 2-4 group, compared with those in the grade 0-1 group (130% OD vs 60.8% OD, P=0.037). Conclusions The 40-50 kDa protein is implicated as an important allergen to predict moderate-to-severe clinical symptoms in Korean children with buckwheat allergy. PMID:25553261

  17. Prevalence of pain and association with psychiatric symptom severity in perinatally HIV-infected children as compared to controls living in HIV-affected households.

    PubMed

    Serchuck, Leslie K; Williams, Paige L; Nachman, Sharon; Gadow, Kenneth D; Chernoff, Miriam; Schwartz, Lynnae

    2010-05-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of pain and psychiatric symptoms in perinatally HIV-infected children at entry into P1055, a multicenter investigation of the prevalence and severity of psychiatric symptoms in HIV-infected children. Subjects 6-17 years of age and their primary caregivers were recruited from 29 International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials sites in the USA and Puerto Rico. A total of 576 children (320 HIV and 256 HIV- children) were enrolled from June 2005 to September 2006. Subject self-reports of pain were measured by the Wong-Baker visual analog scale and Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Symptomatology for anxiety, depression, and dysthymia was assessed through Symptom Inventory instruments. Caregiver's assessment of their child's pain and psychiatric symptomatology was similarly measured. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate predictors of pain. We found that a higher proportion of HIV-infected than uninfected subjects reported pain in the last two months (41% vs 32%, p=0.04), last two weeks (28% vs 19%, p=0.02), and lasting more than one week (20% vs 11%, p=0.03). Among HIV-infected youth, females (OR=1.53, p=0.09), White race (OR=2.15, p=0.04), and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Class C (OR=1.83, p=0.04) were significantly more likely to report pain. For all subjects, only 52% of caregivers recognized their child's pain and just 22% were aware that pain affected their child's daily activities. The odds of reported pain in HIV increased with higher symptom severity for generalized anxiety (OR=1.14, p=0.03), major depression (OR=1.15, p=0.03), and dysthymia (OR=1.18, p=0.01). This study underscores the importance of queries concerning pain and emotional stressors in the care of HIV and uninfected children exposed to HIV individuals. The discordance between patient and caregiver reports of pain and its impact on activities of daily living highlights that pain in children is under-recognized and therefore potentially under-treated. PMID:20401767

  18. STRUCTURE-TOXICITY RELATIONSHIPS FOR INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS CAUSING TYPE(II) NARCOSIS SYNDROME

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several structure-activity relationships have been published for estimating the lethality of nonpolar nonelectrolytes to fish. The vast majority of non-reactive industrial chemicals produce toxicity symptoms consistent with narcosis. However, researchers have found that many chem...

  19. Oil body-associated hazelnut allergens including oleosins are underrepresented in diagnostic extracts but associated with severe symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oil body-associated allergens such as oleosins have been reported for important allergenic foods such as peanut, sesame and hazelnut. Here we investigate whether oil body associated proteins (OAPs) are linked with specific clinical phenotypes and whether they are represented in skin prick test (SPT) reagents. Methods A hazelnut OAP fraction was characterized by mass-spectrometry (MS) to identify its major constituents. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies were generated against hazelnut OAPs. The presence of OAPs in commercially available hazelnut SPTs was studied by immunoblot and spiking experiments. OAP-specific IgE antibodies were measured in sera from patients with a convincing history of hazelnut allergy by RAST (n?=?91), immunoblot (n?=?22) and basophil histamine release (BHR; n?=?14). Results Hazelnut OAPs were analysed by MS and found to be dominated by oleosins at ~14 and ~17 kDa, and a 27 kDa band containing oleosin dimers and unidentified protein. In 36/91 sera specific IgE against hazelnut OAPs was detected, and confirmed to be biologically active by BHR (n?=?14). The majority (21/22) recognized the oleosin bands at 17 kDa on immunoblot, of which 11 exclusively. These OAP-specific IgE responses dominated by oleosin were associated with systemic reactions to hazelnut (OR 4.24; p?=?0.015) and negative SPT (?2 6.3, p?=?0.012). Immunoblot analysis using OAP-specific rabbit antiserum demonstrated that commercial SPT reagents are virtually devoid of OAPs, sometimes (3/9) resulting in false-negative SPT. Spiking of SPT reagents with OAP restored serum IgE binding of these false-negative patients on immunoblot at mainly 17 kDa. Conclusion Hazelnut allergens found in oil bodies dominated by oleosin are associated with more severe systemic reactions and negative SPT. Defatted diagnostic extracts are virtually devoid of these allergens, resulting in poor sensitivity for detection of IgE antibodies against these clinically relevant molecules. PMID:24484687

  20. Progression, Symptoms and Psychosocial Concerns among Those Severely Affected by Multiple Sclerosis: A Mixed-Methods Cross-Sectional Study of Black Caribbean and White British People

    PubMed Central

    Koffman, Jonathan; Gao, Wei; Goddard, Cassie; Burman, Rachel; Jackson, Diana; Shaw, Pauline; Barnes, Fiona; Silber, Eli; Higginson, Irene J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Multiple sclerosis is now more common among minority ethnic groups in the UK but little is known about their experiences, especially in advanced stages. We examine disease progression, symptoms and psychosocial concerns among Black Caribbean (BC) and White British (WB) people severely affected by MS. Design Mixed methods study of 43 BC and 43 WB people with MS (PwMS) with an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) ?6 involving data from in clinical records, face-to-face structured interviews and a nested-qualitative component. Progression Index (PI) and Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) were calculated. To control for selection bias, propensity scores were derived for each patient and adjusted for in the comparative statistical analysis; qualitative data were analysed using the framework approach. Results Median EDSS for both groups was (6.5; range: 6.0–9.0). Progression Index (PI) and Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) based on neurological assessment of current EDSS scores identified BC PwMS were more likely to have aggressive disease (PI F?=?4.04, p?=?0.048, MSSS F?=?10.30, p<0.001). Patients’ reports of the time required to reach levels of functional decline equivalent to different EDSS levels varied by group; EDSS 4: BC 2.7 years v/s WB 10.2 years (U?=?258.50, p?=?0.013), EDSS 6?6.1 years BC v/s WB 12.7 years (U?=?535.500, p?=?0.011), EDSS 8: BC 8.7 years v/s WB 10.2 years. Both groups reported high symptom burden. BC PwMS were more cognitively impaired than WB PwMS (F?=?9.65, p?=?0.003). Thematic analysis of qualitative interviews provides correspondence with quantitative findings; more BC than WB PwMS referred to feelings of extreme frustration and unresolved loss/confusion associated with their rapidly advancing disease. The interviews also reveal the centrality, meanings and impact of common MS-related symptoms. Conclusions Delays in diagnosis should be avoided and more frequent reviews may be justified by healthcare services. Culturally acceptable interventions to better support people who perceive MS as an assault on identity should be developed to help them achieve normalisation and enhance self-identity. PMID:24098384

  1. Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Symptoms of Severe Agitation and Aggression: Consensus Statement on Treatment Options, Clinical Trials Methodology, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Salzman, C; Jeste, D; Meyer, RE; Cohen-Mansfield, J; Cummings, J; Grossberg, G; Jarvik, L; Kraemer, H; Lebowitz, B; Maslow, K; Pollock, B; Raskind, M; Schultz, S; Wang, P; Zito, JM; Zubenko, GS

    2009-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been used off-label in clinical practice for treatment of serious dementia-associated agitation and aggression. Following reports of cerebrovascular adverse events associated with the use of atypical antipsychotic in elderly patients with dementia, the FDA issued black box warnings for several atypical antipsychotics, titled “Cerebrovascular Adverse Events, including Stroke, in Elderly Patients with Dementia.” Subsequently, the FDA initiated a meta-analysis of safety data from 17 registration trials across six antipsychotic drugs (five atypical antipsychotics and haloperidol). In 2005, the Agency issued a black box warning regarding increased risk of mortality associated with the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs in this patient population. Geriatric mental health experts participating in a 2006 consensus conference reviewed evidence on the safety and efficacy of antipsychotics, as well as nonpharmacologic approaches, in treating dementia-related symptoms of agitation and aggression. They concluded that, while problems in clinical trials design may have been one of the contributors to the failure to find a signal of drug efficacy, the findings related to drug safety should be taken seriously by clinicians in assessing the potential risks and benefits of treatment in a frail population, and in advising families about treatment. Information provided to patients and family members should be documented in the patient’s chart. Drugs should be used only when non-pharmacologic approaches have failed to adequately control behavioral disruption. Participants also agreed that that there is a need for an FDA-approved medication for the treatment of severe, persistent or recurrent dementia-related symptoms of agitation and aggression (even in the absence of psychosis), that are unresponsive to nonpharmacologic intervention. The authors have outlined methodological enhancements to better evaluate treatment approaches in future registration trials, and they provided an algorithm for improving the treatment of these patients in nursing home and non-nursing home settings. PMID:18494535

  2. Multiple White Matter Volume Reductions in Patients with Panic Disorder: Relationships between Orbitofrontal Gyrus Volume and Symptom Severity and Social Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Jun; Asami, Takeshi; Hayano, Fumi; Yoshimi, Asuka; Hayasaka, Shunsuke; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Whitford, Thomas J.; Inoue, Tomio; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Numerous brain regions are believed to be involved in the neuropathology of panic disorder (PD) including fronto-limbic regions, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. However, while several previous studies have demonstrated volumetric gray matter reductions in these brain regions, there have been no studies evaluating volumetric white matter changes in the fiber bundles connecting these regions. In addition, although patients with PD typically exhibit social, interpersonal and occupational dysfunction, the neuropathologies underlying these dysfunctions remain unclear. A voxel-based morphometry study was conducted to evaluate differences in regional white matter volume between 40 patients with PD and 40 healthy control subjects (HC). Correlation analyses were performed between the regional white matter volumes and patients' scores on the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Patients with PD demonstrated significant volumetric reductions in widespread white matter regions including fronto-limbic, thalamo-cortical and cerebellar pathways (p<0.05, FDR corrected). Furthermore, there was a significant negative relationship between right orbitofrontal gyrus (OFG) white matter volume and the severity of patients' clinical symptoms, as assessed with the PDSS. A significant positive relationship was also observed between patients' right OFG volumes and their scores on the GAF. Our results suggest that volumetric reductions in widespread white matter regions may play an important role in the pathology of PD. In particular, our results suggest that structural white matter abnormalities in the right OFG may contribute to the social, personal and occupational dysfunction typically experienced by patients with PD. PMID:24663245

  3. Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajesh; Vasudevan, Biju; Pragasam, Vijendran

    2013-01-01

    Severe cutaneous drug reactions are one of the commonest medical challenges presenting to an emergency room in any hospital. The manifestations range from maculopapular rash to severe systemic symptoms like renal failure and cardiovascular compromise. Toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythroderma, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis and drug induced vasculitis are the common cutaneous drug reactions which can have severe morbidity and even mortality. Careful history taking of the lag period after drug intake and associated symptoms, along with detailed examination of the skin, mucosa and various systems, help in early diagnosis of these reactions. Early stoppage of the incriminating drug, specific therapy including corticosteroids, cyclosporine and intravenous immunoglobulin depending on the case along with supportive therapy and local measures help in salvaging most patients. An overview of these important cutaneous drug reactions along with their management is being reviewed in this article. PMID:24600147

  4. Clinical Factors Predicting Late Severe Urinary Toxicity After Postoperative Radiotherapy for Prostate Carcinoma: A Single-Institute Analysis of 742 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzarini, Cesare, E-mail: cozzarini.cesare@hsr.it [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Fiorino, Claudio [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Da Pozzo, Luigi Filippo [Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Alongi, Filippo; Berardi, Genoveffa; Bolognesi, Angelo [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Briganti, Alberto [Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Broggi, Sara [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Deli, Aniko [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Guazzoni, Giorgio [Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Perna, Lucia [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Pasetti, Marcella; Salvadori, Giovannella [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Montorsi, Francesco; Rigatti, Patrizio [Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Di Muzio, Nadia [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical factors independently predictive of long-term severe urinary sequelae after postprostatectomy radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Between 1993 and 2005, 742 consecutive patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy with either adjuvant (n = 556; median radiation dose, 70.2 Gy) or salvage (n = 186; median radiation dose, 72 Gy) intent. Results: After a median follow-up of 99 months, the 8-year risk of Grade 2 or greater and Grade 3 late urinary toxicity was almost identical (23.9% vs. 23.7% and 12% vs. 10%) in the adjuvant and salvage cohorts, respectively. On univariate analysis, acute toxicity was significantly predictive of late Grade 2 or greater sequelae in both subgroups (p <.0001 in both cases), and hypertension (p = .02) and whole-pelvis radiotherapy (p = .02) correlated significantly in the adjuvant cohort only. The variables predictive of late Grade 3 sequelae were acute Grade 2 or greater toxicity in both groups and whole-pelvis radiotherapy (8-year risk of Grade 3 events, 21% vs. 11%, p = .007), hypertension (8-year risk, 18% vs. 10%, p = .005), age {<=} 62 years at RT (8-year risk, 16% vs. 11%, p = .04) in the adjuvant subset, and radiation dose >72 Gy (8-year risk, 19% vs. 6%, p = .007) and age >71 years (8-year risk, 16% vs. 6%, p = .006) in the salvage subgroup. Multivariate analysis confirmed the independent predictive role of all the covariates indicated as statistically significant on univariate analysis. Conclusions: The risk of late Grade 2 or greater and Grade 3 urinary toxicity was almost identical, regardless of the RT intent. In the salvage cohort, older age and greater radiation doses resulted in a worse toxicity profile, and younger, hypertensive patients experienced a greater rate of severe late sequelae in the adjuvant setting. The causes of this latter correlation and apparently different etiopathogenesis of chronic damage in the two subgroups were unclear and deserve additional investigation.

  5. Cognitive impairments in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia types 1, 2 and 3 are positively correlated to the clinical severity of ataxia symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jianhua; Wu, Chuanjia; Lei, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoning

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study is to assess cognitive function in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia types 1, 2 and 3 (SCA1, SCA2 and SCA3). Methods: We performed neuropsychological examinations on 8 SCA1 patients, 2 SCA2 patients, and 8 SCA3 patients, as well as 32 healthy subjects matching these patients in age, gender, nationality, and years of education. The neuropsychological examinations were focused on testing executive functions, visuo-spatial perception and verbal memory, attention, immediate and delayed recall, logical thinking function and orientation function. Results: SCA1 patients had significantly impaired executive function, visuo-spatial perception, and attention compared to healthy subjects. Cognitive disorders such as immediate and delayed recall, executive function and verbal memory were observed in SCA2 and SCA3 patients, while attention and visuo-spatial function were not affected. The severity of motor impairment was determined using the international cooperative ataxia rating scale, the scores of which ranged from 11 to 78. The number of patients with mild ataxia, moderate ataxia and severe ataxia was 3, 11, and 3, respectively, with the most severe ataxia occurring on a patient with SCA1. The scores of activities of daily living scale ranged from 20 to 66. Conclusions: Our results showed that mild executive dysfunction occurred in patients with SCA1, SCA2 and SCA3, and verbal fluency and word memory dysfunctions were detected in patients with SCA2 and SCA3. In addition, we found that the decreased logical thinking function and orientation function were observed in patients with SCA1, SCA2 and SCA3. The cognitive status was correlated with the clinical severity of ataxia symptoms rather than age, age of onset, years of education and the duration of disease. PMID:25664104

  6. Implication of global environmental changes on chemical toxicity-effect of water temperature, pH, and ultraviolet B irradiation on acute toxicity of several pharmaceuticals in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungkon; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Pan-Gyi; Lee, Chulwoo; Choi, Kyunghee; Choi, Kyungho

    2010-04-01

    Global environmental change poses emerging environmental health challenges throughout the world. One of such threats could be found in chemical safety in aquatic ecosystem. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of several environmental factors, such as water pH, temperature and ultraviolet light on the toxicity of pharmaceutical compounds in water, using freshwater invertebrate Daphnia magna. Seven pharmaceuticals including ibuprofen, acetaminophen, lincomycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline and sulfathiazole were chosen as test compounds based on their frequent detection in water. The experimental conditions of environmental parameters were selected within the ranges that could be encountered in temperate environment, i.e., water temperature (15, 21, and 25 degrees C), pH (7.4, 8.3, and 9.2), and UV-B light intensity (continuous irradiation of 15.0 microW/cm(2)). For acetaminophen, enrofloxacin and sulfathiazole, decrease in water pH generally led to increase of acute lethal toxicity, which could be explained by the unionized fraction of pharmaceuticals. Increase of water temperature enhanced the acute toxicity of the acetaminophen, enrofloxacin and chlortetracycline, potentially due to alteration in toxicokinetics of chemicals as well as impact on physiological mechanisms of the test organism. The presence of UV-B light significantly increased the toxicity of sulfathiazole, which could be explained by photo-modification of this chemical that lead to oxidative stress. Under the UV light, however, acute toxicity of enrofloxacin decreased, which might be due to photo-degradation. Since changing environmental conditions could affect exposure and concentration-response profile of environmental contaminants, such conditions should be identified and evaluated in order to better manage ecosystem health under changing global environment. PMID:19936919

  7. Plasma profile of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in cocaine users under outpatient treatment: influence of cocaine symptom severity and psychiatric co-morbidity.

    PubMed

    Araos, Pedro; Pedraz, María; Serrano, Antonia; Lucena, Miguel; Barrios, Vicente; García-Marchena, Nuria; Campos-Cloute, Rafael; Ruiz, Juan J; Romero, Pablo; Suárez, Juan; Baixeras, Elena; de la Torre, Rafael; Montesinos, Jorge; Guerri, Consuelo; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Martínez-Riera, Roser; Torrens, Marta; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús; Mason, Barbara J; Pavón, Francisco J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    The treatment for cocaine use constitutes a clinical challenge because of the lack of appropriate therapies and the high rate of relapse. Recent evidence indicates that the immune system might be involved in the pathogenesis of cocaine addiction and its co-morbid psychiatric disorders. This work examined the plasma pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine profile in abstinent cocaine users (n?=?82) who sought outpatient cocaine treatment and age/sex/body mass-matched controls (n?=?65). Participants were assessed with the diagnostic interview Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Diseases according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12)/stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) were decreased in cocaine users, although all cytokines were identified as predictors of a lifetime pathological use of cocaine. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), chemokine (C-X3 -C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1)/fractalkine and CXCL12/SDF-1 positively correlated with the cocaine symptom severity when using the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cocaine abuse/dependence. These cytokines allowed the categorization of the outpatients into subgroups according to severity, identifying a subgroup of severe cocaine users (9-11 criteria) with increased prevalence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders [mood (54%), anxiety (32%), psychotic (30%) and personality (60%) disorders]. IL-1? was observed to be increased in users with such psychiatric disorders relative to those users with no diagnosis. In addition to these clinical data, studies in mice demonstrated that plasma IL-1?, CX3CL1 and CXCL12 were also affected after acute and chronic cocaine administration, providing a preclinical model for further research. In conclusion, cocaine exposure modifies the circulating levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. Plasma cytokine/chemokine monitoring could improve the stratification of cocaine consumers seeking treatment and thus facilitate the application of appropriate interventions, including management of heightened risk of psychiatric co-morbidity. Further research is necessary to elucidate the role of the immune system in the etiology of cocaine addiction. PMID:24854157

  8. Prognostic significance of atrial fibrillation and severity of symptoms of heart failure in patients with low gradient aortic stenosis and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Michele; Fabris, Enrico; Morosin, Marco; Merlo, Marco; Barbati, Giulia; Pinamonti, Bruno; Gatti, Giuseppe; Pappalardo, Aniello; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the clinical outcomes of patients with low-gradient aortic stenosis despite preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and to assess reliable prognostic clinical-instrumental features in patients experiencing or not experiencing aortic valve replacement (AVR). Clinical-laboratory and echocardiographic data from 167 patients (median age 78 years, interquartile range 69 to 83) with aortic valve areas <1.0 cm(2), mean gradients ?30 mm Hg, and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (?55%), enrolled from 2005 to 2010, were analyzed. During a mean follow-up period of 44 ± 23 months, 33% of patients died. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of death were baseline New York Heart Association functional class III or IV (hazard ratio 2.16, p = 0.038) and atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio 2.00, p = 0.025). Conversely, AVR was protective (hazard ratio 0.25, p = 0.01). The magnitude of the protective effect of AVR seemed to be relatively more important in patients with atrial fibrillation than in those in sinus rhythm, independently of the severity of symptoms. Age >70 years showed a trend toward being a prognostic predictor (p = 0.082). In conclusion, in patients with low-gradient aortic stenosis despite a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, AVR was strongly correlated with a better prognosis. Patients with atrial fibrillation associated with advanced New York Heart Association class had the worst prognosis if treated medically but at the same time a relative better benefit from surgical intervention. PMID:25316349

  9. Multi-analyte profile analysis of plasma immune proteins: altered expression of peripheral immune factors is associated with neuropsychiatric symptom severity in adults with and without chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Huckans, Marilyn; Fuller, Bret E; Olavarria, Hannah; Sasaki, Anna W; Chang, Michael; Flora, Kenneth D; Kolessar, Michael; Kriz, Daniel; Anderson, Jeanne R; Vandenbark, Arthur A; Loftis, Jennifer M

    2014-03-01

    BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated differences in the expression of 47 inflammatory factors and to evaluate the potential role of peripheral immune activation in HCV-associated neuropsychiatric symptoms-depression, anxiety, fatigue, and pain. An additional objective was to evaluate the role of immune factor dysregulation in the expression of specific neuropsychiatric symptoms to identify biomarkers that may be relevant to the treatment of these neuropsychiatric symptoms in adults with or without HCV. MethodsBlood samples and neuropsychiatric symptom severity scales were collected from HCV-infected adults (HCV+, n = 39) and demographically similar noninfected controls (HCV-, n = 40). Multi-analyte profile analysis was used to evaluate plasma biomarkers. ResultsCompared with HCV- controls, HCV+ adults reported significantly (P < 0.050) greater depression, anxiety, fatigue, and pain, and they were more likely to present with an increased inflammatory profile as indicated by significantly higher plasma levels of 40% (19/47) of the factors assessed (21%, after correcting for multiple comparisons). Within the HCV+ group, but not within the HCV- group, an increased inflammatory profile (indicated by the number of immune factors > the LDC) significantly correlated with depression, anxiety, and pain. Within the total sample, neuropsychiatric symptom severity was significantly predicted by protein signatures consisting of 4-10 plasma immune factors; protein signatures significantly accounted for 19-40% of the variance in depression, anxiety, fatigue, and pain. ConclusionsOverall, the results demonstrate that altered expression of a network of plasma immune factors contributes to neuropsychiatric symptom severity. These findings offer new biomarkers to potentially facilitate pharmacotherapeutic development and to increase our understanding of the molecular pathways associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms in adults with or without HCV. PMID:24683507

  10. Symptom Management

    MedlinePLUS

    Symptom Management A brain injury can affect a person physically and psychologically, and sometimes the symptoms don't appear ... Diagnosis and Assessment Treatment and Recovery Caregiving Symptom Management Life After TBI Defense and Veterans Brain Injury ...

  11. Relationship between the prefrontal function and the severity of the emotional symptoms during a verbal fluency task in patients with major depressive disorder: a multi-channel NIRS study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomin; Sun, Gaoxiang; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Xu, Bo; Shen, Chenyu; Shi, Lujie; Ma, Xiangyun; Ren, Xiajin; Feng, Kun; Liu, Pozi

    2014-10-01

    Multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive and low-cost functional neuroimaging technique in psychiatric research, and it has been wildly used for detecting the spatiotemporal characteristics of brain activity. In order to evaluate the clinical value of NIRS data in the assistant diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD), prefrontal cortex (PFC) hemoglobin concentration exchange of 30 MDD patients combined with anxious and obsessive-compulsive symptom was detected by NIRS under voice fluency task (VFT), then the relationship between the severity of depressive, anxious and obsessive-compulsive symptom assessed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) with NIRS data in PFC was analyzed. Hypoactivation in lateral and lower PFC of MDD patients was confirmed in this study. Furthermore, Spearman correlation found that oxy-hemoglobin concentration ([oxy-Hb]) exchange in right-lateral PFC was associated with the severity of anxiety, while bilateral PFC and antero-medial PFC were associated with severity of depression. Meanwhile, no statistical correlation was observed on the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptom. The results prompted that MDD patients with anxiety and obsession-compulsion symptom showed a PFC hypoactivation state in NIRS. Furthermore, the function of right-lateral PFC was associated with anxiety symptom, while bilateral PFC and antero-medial PFC were associated with depression symptom. Different from depression and anxiety, obsession-compulsion may have a different biological character in PFC function. PMID:24842802

  12. Severe uvular edema and nasal mucosal necrosis due to Ecbalium elaterium (squirting cucumber): an allergic reaction or direct toxic effect?

    PubMed

    Eken, Cenker; Ozbek, Kerem; Yildirim, Canan Kuk; Eray, Oktay

    2008-03-01

    Ecbalium elaterium or squirting cucumber is a plant growing in the Mediterranean region, belong to Cucurbitaceae family. Its juice has been used as an herbal medicine since ancient times because of its cathartic and anti-inflammatory effects. It has been reported to cause upper airway edema, especially after the administration of its undiluted form. It has generally been attributed to allergic reaction. In this case report we aimed to interrogate this anticipation by presenting a case of severe uvular edema and nasal mucosal necrosis after dripping undiluted Ecbalium elaterium juice that did not improved by anti-allergic therapies. PMID:18344108

  13. An evaluation of the bioavailability and aquatic toxicity attributed to ambient copper concentrations in surface waters from several parts of the world.

    PubMed

    Van Genderen, Eric; Adams, William; Cardwell, Rick; van Sprang, Patrick; Arnold, Ray; Santore, Robert; Rodriguez, Patricio

    2008-10-01

    Ambient concentrations of metals in surface waters have become an important consideration when establishing water quality criteria and conducting risk assessments. This study sought to estimate amounts of copper that may be released into fresh and estuarine waters considering ambient concentrations, toxicity thresholds, and bioavailability. Cumulative distribution functions of ambient copper concentrations were compared statistically for individual sites within 14 surface waters of North America and Europe to identify differences among mean distribution variables (e.g., slopes, intercepts, and inflection points). Results illustrated that the majority of distributions among sites differed significantly. These differences illustrate the variability in ambient copper concentrations in surface waters due to geographic location, regional geology, and anthropogenic influence. Additionally, surface water quality data were used for streams and lakes in Chile, Europe, and North America (including 1 saltwater estuary) to estimate bioavailable copper concentrations in ambient surface waters (based on predictions using biotic ligand models). The amount of dissolved metal that could be added to surface waters without exceeding toxicity thresholds was calculated by subtracting ambient surface water concentrations from chronic (reproduction) no-observable-effect concentrations (NOEC) for Daphnia magna using the freshwater data and 48-h median-effect (normal shell development) concentrations (EC50) for Mytilus edulis using that for saltwater. Because ambient dissolved copper concentrations were, on average, only a small fraction (18%) of predicted effects threshold, an average of 14 +/- 17 microg/L (+/-SD) of copper could be added before exceeding the D. magna chronic NOEC or the M. edulis EC50. However, several sites were identified as having ambient copper concentrations in excess of these toxicity thresholds. The risks posed by copper to sensitive indicator species in surface waters can now be readily computed to facilitate site-specific consideration of point and nonpoint sources of metal. PMID:18598100

  14. Impact of atypical antipsychotics on quality of life, self-report of symptom severity, and demand of services in chronically psychotic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter L. Zhang; Juan M. Santos; John Newcomer; Barbara A. Pelfrey; Mark C. Johnson; Gabriel A. de Erausquin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated whether the introduction of atypical neuroleptics in the formulary of a large community mental health clinic had any impact on demand for services, quality of life, symptom presentation and cost of care of patients with chronic psychotic illnesses over a 3-year period. Methods: BJC Behavioral Health Services provides and coordinates mental health services for citizens residing

  15. Relation of the hypertonic saline responsiveness of the airways to exercise induced asthma symptom severity and to histamine or methacholine reactivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H K Makker; S T Holgate

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conflicting views exist over whether responsiveness of the airways to hypertonic saline relates to non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness measured by histamine or methacholine challenge. The bronchoconstrictor responses to exercise and hypertonic saline are reported to be closely related, but the relationship between the symptoms of exercise induced asthma and airway responsiveness to hypertonic saline is not known. METHODS: In 29

  16. A preliminary path analysis: Effect of psychopathological symptoms, mental and physical dysfunctions related to quality of life and body mass index on fatigue severity of Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hosseininezhad, Mozaffar; Rezaei, Sajjad

    2012-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease with fatigue as most prevalent symptom. Psychopathological symptoms, physical and mental dysfunctions and body mass abnormalities potentially could deteriorate fatigue. Thus, in this study, we aimed at evaluating the effect of these factors on fatigue severity of MS patients. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 162 patients with mean age of 34.1 ± 9.4 (16-58 years) were recruited by consecutive sampling. All the patients, after completing demographic information were evaluated using Persian versions of Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21), and short form Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36). Results Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between fatigue severity and depression, anxiety, stress, physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) (P < 0.01). Findings of path analysis demonstrated that PCS is the only variable which has a direct effect on fatigue severity (? = -0.278, P < 0.05). Moreover, the strongest standard coefficient (?) belonged to cause and effect relationship between MCS and depression (? = -0.691, P < 0.0001). Conclusion Present study made the role of psychopathological symptoms and physical and mental dysfunctions prominent in exacerbation of fatigue severity. Moreover, we can refer to more sensible effect of physical dysfunction related to life on fatigue. PMID:24250873

  17. Five-Year Risk of Cardiac Mortality in Relation to Initial Severity and One-Year Changes in Depression Symptoms After Myocardial Infarction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Lespérance; Nancy Frasure-Smith; Mario Talajic; Martial G. Bourassa

    Background—Although previous research demonstrated an independent link between depression symptoms and cardiac mortality after myocardial infarction (MI), depression was assessed only once, and a dose-response relationship was not evaluated. Methods and Results—We administered the Beck Depression Inventory to 896 post-MI patients during admission and at 1 year. Five-year survival was ascertained using Medicare data. We observed a significant long-term dose-response

  18. Substance abuse and personality disorders in homeless drop-in center clients: symptom severity and psychotherapy retention in a randomized clinical trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel A. Ball; Patricia Cobb-Richardson; Adrian J. Connolly; Cesar T. Bujosa; Thomas W. O'Neall

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychiatric symptoms, psychosocial problems, and treatment response of personality-disordered substance abusers receiving services within a homeless drop-in center. Fifty-two homeless clients were assessed after program admission and randomly assigned to receive either individual psychotherapy focused on personality disorder and substance abuse relapse prevention (dual-focus schema therapy [DFST]) or standard group substance abuse counseling (SAC). Client functioning

  19. Decompressive colonoscopy with intracolonic vancomycin administration for the treatment of severe pseudomembranouscolitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Shetler; R. Nieuwenhuis; Sherry M. Wren; G. Triadafilopoulos

    2001-01-01

      Background: We explored the potential of early decompressive colonoscopy with intracolonic vancomycin administration as an\\u000a adjunctive therapy for severe pseudomembranous Clostridium difficile colitis with ileus and toxic megacolon. Methods: We reviewed\\u000a the symptoms, signs, laboratory tests, radiographic findings, and outcomes from the medical records of seven patients who\\u000a experienced eight episodes of severe pseudomembranous colitis with ileus and toxic megacolon.

  20. Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bigelow Laboratory

    Primarily through the use of engaging graphics, this resource outlines where Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) occur in U.S. waters. It also addresses the differences between toxic and non-toxic HABs, which organisms in the food web are affected, how specific toxins work and the symptoms associated with them, and the causative phytoplankton species.

  1. Extracorporeal Cardiac Shock Wave Therapy Ameliorates Clinical Symptoms and Improves Regional Myocardial Blood Flow in a Patient with Severe Coronary Artery Disease and Refractory Angina

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Christian; Lindner, Oliver; Bitter, Thomas; Hering, Detlef; Burchert, Wolfgang; Horstkotte, Dieter; Faber, Lothar

    2009-01-01

    Different therapeutic options are being used for chronic coronary artery disease (CAD). We report about a 51-year-old female with CAD and refractory angina pectoris despite maximally tolerated medical therapy and after both percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The patient received cardiac shock wave therapy (CSWT) over a period of 6 month. There was no arrhythmia during or after treatment; enzyme levels were normal at all times. PET imaging showed a substantial improvement of myocardial stress perfusion. Since the patient reported that she now was fully capable to deal with her everyday life, further treatment options were postponed. Our case report suggests that ultrasound-guided CSWT is able to improve symptoms and perfusion in ischemic myocardium. PMID:19724656

  2. Organic dust toxic syndrome among farmers.

    PubMed Central

    Rask-Andersen, A

    1989-01-01

    Clinical symptoms and exposure conditions were investigated in 80 farmers with organic dust toxic syndrome, defined as the occurrence of febrile reactions after exposure to organic dust in subjects with no evidence of allergic alveolitis. The material was compiled from a field study of febrile reactions in the farming community and the diagnosis was based on interviews performed by physicians. Of the 75 men (mean age 44) and five women (mean age 39), only 13% of the men and none of the women were current smokers. One attack had been experienced by 44% and the remaining subjects had had two or more attacks, often several years apart. The duration of symptoms was 24 hours or less in 46% of the farmers and in 95% of the cases the symptoms lasted less than one week. The attacks were most common in the autumn and were usually provoked by handling grain (80% of the farmers with organic dust toxic syndrome). Other causes were hay, straw, wood chips, and silocapping material. The material was usually described as extremely mouldy and the episodes were usually provoked by unusual work tasks such as cleaning grain bins or removing mouldy feed. Twenty three farmers had consulted physicians: five of nine examined during symptoms had slightly abnormal chest radiographs and two of four examined had decreased arterial oxygen tension. Spirometry performed during a symptom free interval was normal. PMID:2713279

  3. Palliative chemotherapy in head and neck squamous cell cancer - What is best in Indian population? A time without symptoms, treatment toxicity score based study

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, V.; Anand, B. B.; Suresh, A. V. S.; Sinha, Sudha; Babu, S. Chinna; Suresh, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients with recurrent and metastatic head and neck Squamous Cell Cancer (HNSCC) have poor prognosis with limited treatment options. In view of decimal prognosis, the treatment decision should include quality of life (QOL) issues, cost-effectiveness besides the response rates and survival. Aim: Present retrospective analysis was conducted to evaluate efficacy (disease-free survival), pharmacoeconomics, and toxicity profile of four (4) different regimens, viz. gefitinib alone, gefitinib with methotrexate, methotrexate alone, or 5-FU with cisplatin. Materials and Methods: Case records between 2007 September and 2008 September were analyzed, 68 patients were found suitable for analysis. Patients received gefitinib (250 mg/day), methotrexate as 50 mg intramuscular weekly or a combination of the same or 5-FU 750 mg/m2/day for 4 days along with cisplatin 75 mg/m2/day on day 1 in 21-day cycle. Results: A total of 68 patients received therapy. Fifty-one patients have clinically meaningful response (stable disease + complete + partial responses) (75%) and had symptomatic improvement. The median progression-free survival was significantly superior in responders (those who achieved partial or complete response) (8.4 months vs. 3.1 months, P=0.001). Methotrexate with gefitinib had maximum median survival and better overall QOL compared to the other treatment regimens. Weekly methotrexate is relatively cost-effective followed by methotrexate with gefitinib and gefitinib alone. 5-FU with cisplatin in our experience does not appear so attractive in view of high complication rates (when given in full doses) and prolonged hospital stay. Conclusion: Based on the results of this retrospective analysis, methotrexate weekly as single agent or in combination with gefitinib appears as an attractive alternative regimen for patients with metastatic HNSCC including those having poor performance status. A prospective study was planned and submitted to the local ethics committee based on above results to validate these results and compare methotrexate and gefitinib arm with 5-FU + cisplatin. PMID:23878480

  4. HIV Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) HIV symptoms Photo courtesy of AIDS.gov Facing AIDS ... and brain Return to top More information on HIV symptoms Explore other publications and websites Basic Information ...

  5. Association between endometriosis stage, lesion type, patient characteristics and severity of pelvic pain symptoms: a multivariate analysis of over 1000 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Vercellini; L. Fedele; G. Aimi; G. Pietropaolo; D. Consonni; P. G. Crosignani

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between lesion type, disease stage and severity of pain was studied in a large group of women with endometriosis to verify whether endometrial implants at different sites determine specific complaints and to evaluate the validity of the current classification system in women with symptomatic disease. METHODS: A total of 1054 consecutive women with endometriosis undergoing first-line conservative

  6. Language and Communication Skills in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Contribution of Cognition, Severity of Autism Symptoms, and Adaptive Functioning to the Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjellmer, Liselotte; Hedvall, Asa; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher; Norrelgen, Fritjof

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of cognitive function, severity of autism, and adaptive functioning to the variability in language and communication skills in 129 preschool children (aged 24-63 months) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were selected from a representative research cohort of 208 preschool children on the basis…

  7. The Impact of Race as a Risk Factor for Symptom Severity and Age at Diagnosis of Uterine Leiomyomata among Affected Sisters

    PubMed Central

    HUYCK, Karen L.; PANHUYSEN, Carolien I.M.; T. CUENCO, Karen; ZHANG, Jingmei; GOLDHAMMER, Hilary; JONES, Emlyn S.; SOMASUNDARAM, Priya; LYNCH, Allison M.; HARLOW, Bernard L.; LEE, Hang; STEWART, Elizabeth A.; MORTON, Cynthia C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To identify risk factors for uterine leiomyomata (UL) in a racially diverse population of women with a family history of UL and to evaluate their contribution to disease severity and age at diagnosis. Study Design We collected and analyzed epidemiological data from 285 sister pairs diagnosed with UL. Risk factors for UL-related outcomes were compared among black (n=73) and white (n=212) sister pairs using univariate and multivariate regression models. Results Black women reported an average age at diagnosis of 5.3 years younger (SE 1.1, p<0.001) and were more likely to report severe disease (OR=5.22, CI 95% 1.99–13.7, p<0.001) than white women of similar socioeconomic status. Conclusions Self-reported race is a significant factor in the severity of UL among women with a family history of UL. Differences in disease presentation between races likely reflect underlying genetic heterogeneity. The affected sister-pair study design can address both epidemiological and genetic hypotheses about UL. PMID:18226615

  8. How useful are screening instruments for toddlers to predict outcome at age 4? General development, language skills, and symptom severity in children with a false positive screen for autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Dereu, Mieke; Roeyers, Herbert; Raymaekers, Ruth; Meirsschaut, Mieke; Warreyn, Petra

    2012-10-01

    Screening instruments for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often generate many false positives. It is argued that these children may have other developmental difficulties and are also in need of thorough assessment and early intervention. The current study looked at the predictive validity of positive screens on the Checklist for Early Signs of Developmental Disorders (CESDD) and the Early Screening of Autistic Traits questionnaire (ESAT) at age 2 towards language, cognitive function, and symptom severity at age 4. Children who screened positive on the ESAT scored lower for both language and cognitive functioning at age 4 compared with children who screened negative on the ESAT. Also, the more signs of ASD that were recognized on the CESDD or ESAT, the lower the scores for language and cognitive functioning at age 4. False positive screens could be differentiated from true positive screens on the CESDD only in symptom severity score on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). It seems that early screeners for ASD also detect children with other developmental disorders and that diagnostic instruments such as the ADOS are warranted to differentiate between children with ASD and other developmental problems. PMID:22580987

  9. Salmonellosis Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Funding About NIAID News & Events NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Salmonellosis Salmonellosis Cause Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Complications Research Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page Get email updates Order publications Related Links Foodborne ...

  10. Norovirus Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Norovirus Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent ... Norovirus Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  11. Toxic Synovitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Toxic Synovitis KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Toxic ... two, and causes no long-term problems. About Toxic Synovitis Toxic synovitis (also known as transient synovitis ) ...

  12. An evaluation of the bioavailability and aquatic toxicity attributed to ambient zinc concentrations in fresh surface waters from several parts of the world.

    PubMed

    Van Genderen, Eric; Adams, William; Cardwell, Rick; Volosin, Joe; Santore, Robert; Rodriguez, Patricio

    2009-07-01

    Ambient concentrations of metals in surface waters have become an important consideration when establishing water quality criteria and conducting risk assessments. This study sought to estimate amounts of zinc that may be released into freshwater considering ambient concentrations, toxicity thresholds, and bioavailability. Cumulative distribution functions of ambient zinc concentrations were compared statistically for streams and lakes in Europe, North America, and South America to identify differences among mean distribution variables (e.g., slopes, intercepts, and inflection points). Results illustrated that most of the distributions among sites differed significantly. These differences illustrate the variability in ambient zinc concentrations in surface waters because of geographic location, regional geology, and anthropogenic influence. Additionally, water quality data were used to estimate bioavailable zinc concentrations in ambient surface waters (based on predictions using biotic ligand models). The amount of dissolved metal that could be added to surface waters without exceeding toxicity thresholds was calculated by subtracting ambient surface water concentrations from chronic no observable effect concentrations (NOEC; reproduction for Daphnia magna) or 10% effective concentrations (EC10; growth rate for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Because ambient dissolved-zinc concentrations were, on average, below predicted effects thresholds, an average of 57.1 +/- 175 microg/L (+/- SD) of zinc could be added before exceeding the D. magna chronic NOEC or the P. subcapitata chronic EC10. However, numerous sites (17%) were identified as having ambient zinc concentrations in excess of these toxicity thresholds. This article uses existing biotic ligand models for zinc to estimate the potential magnitudes and variabilities of bioavailable zinc concentrations in fresh surface waters from different regions of the world. PMID:19278290

  13. Acute and late gastrointestinal toxicity after radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients: Consequential late damage

    SciTech Connect

    Heemsbergen, Wilma D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: w.heemsbergen@nki.nl; Peeters, Stephanie T.H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Koper, Peter [Department of Radiotherapy, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiotherapy, Haga Hospital, Den Haag (Netherlands); Hoogeman, Mischa S. [Department of Radiotherapy, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lebesque, Joos V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: Late gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity after radiotherapy can be partly explained by late effects of acute toxicity (consequential late damage). We studied whether there is a direct relationship between acute and late GI toxicity. Patients and Methods: A total of 553 evaluable patients from the Dutch dose escalation trial (68 Gy vs. 78 Gy) were included. We defined three outcomes for acute reactions: 1) maximum Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute toxicity, 2) maximum acute mucous discharge (AMD), and 3) maximum acute proctitis. Within a multivariable model, late endpoints (overall toxicity and five toxicity indicators) were studied as a function of acute toxicity, pretreatment symptoms, and relevant dose parameters. Results: At multivariable analysis, AMD and acute proctitis were strong predictors for overall toxicity, 'intermittent bleeding,' and 'incontinence pads' (p {<=} 0.01). For 'stools {>=}6/day' all three were strong predictors. No significant associations were found for 'severe bleeding' and 'use of steroids.' The predictive power of the dose parameters remained at the same level or became weaker for most late endpoints. Conclusions: Acute GI toxicity is an independent significant predictor of late GI toxicity. This suggests a significant consequential component in the development of late GI toxicity.

  14. Mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced behavioral toxicities

    PubMed Central

    Vichaya, Elisabeth G.; Chiu, Gabriel S.; Krukowski, Karen; Lacourt, Tamara E.; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Dantzer, Robert; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Walker, Adam K.

    2015-01-01

    While chemotherapeutic agents have yielded relative success in the treatment of cancer, patients are often plagued with unwanted and even debilitating side-effects from the treatment which can lead to dose reduction or even cessation of treatment. Common side effects (symptoms) of chemotherapy include (i) cognitive deficiencies such as problems with attention, memory and executive functioning; (ii) fatigue and motivational deficit; and (iii) neuropathy. These symptoms often develop during treatment but can remain even after cessation of chemotherapy, severely impacting long-term quality of life. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms responsible for the development of these behavioral toxicities, however, neuroinflammation is widely considered to be one of the major mechanisms responsible for chemotherapy-induced symptoms. Here, we critically assess what is known in regards to the role of neuroinflammation in chemotherapy-induced symptoms. We also argue that, based on the available evidence, neuroinflammation is unlikely the only mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced behavioral toxicities. We evaluate two other putative candidate mechanisms. To this end we discuss the mediating role of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) activated in response to chemotherapy-induced cellular damage. We also review the literature with respect to possible alternative mechanisms such as a chemotherapy-induced change in the bioenergetic status of the tissue involving changes in mitochondrial function in relation to chemotherapy-induced behavioral toxicities. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the emergence of fatigue, neuropathy, and cognitive difficulties is vital to better treatment and long-term survival of cancer patients. PMID:25954147

  15. Indoor environmental exposures and symptoms.

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The label "sick building syndrome" is often used to imply the absence of a physiologic basis for symptoms in the built environment. Although building-related illness is widely recognized but considered rare, several well-studied mechanisms may be responsible for many symptoms in buildings. These mechanisms do not explain why some individuals perceive disability. Until researchers distinguish physiologic mechanisms from other aspects of disease and study them systematically, poorly defined symptoms will remain poorly understood. The disability associated with such symptoms and syndromes, not the physiology, is the primary interest and generates controversy. PMID:12194903

  16. Pulmonary toxicity following exposure to a tile coating product containing alkylsiloxanes. A clinical and toxicological evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Nørgaard, A. W.; Hansen, J. S.; Sørli, J. B.; Jacobsen, P.; Lynggard, F.; Levin, M.; Nielsen, G. D.; Wolkoff, P.; Ebbehøj, N. E.; Larsen, S. T.

    2014-01-01

    Context Coating products are widely used for making surfaces water and dirt repellent. However, on several occasions the use of these products has been associated with lung toxicity. Objective In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects of an aerosolized tile-coating product. Methods Thirty-nine persons, who reported respiratory and systemic symptoms following exposure to the tile-coating product, were clinically examined. The product was analysed chemically and furthermore, the exposure scenario was reconstructed using a climate chamber and the toxicological properties of the product were studied using in vivo and by in vitro surfactometry. Results The symptoms developed within few hours and included coughing, tachypnoea, chest pain, general malaise and fever. The physical examination revealed perihilar lung infiltrates on chest radiograph and reduced blood oxygen saturation. The acute symptoms resolved gradually within 1–3 days and no delayed symptoms were observed. By means of mass spectrometry and X-ray spectroscopy, it was shown that the product contained non-fluorinated alkylsiloxanes. The exposure conditions in the supermarket were reconstructed under controlled conditions in a climate chamber and particle and gas exposure levels were monitored over time allowing estimation of human exposure levels. Mice exposed to the product developed symptoms of acute pulmonary toxicity in a concentration-and time-dependent manner. The symptoms of acute pulmonary toxicity likely resulted from inhibition of the pulmonary surfactant function as demonstrated by in vitro surfactometry. Among these patients only a partial association between the level of exposure and the degree of respiratory symptoms was observed, which could be because of a high inter-individual difference in sensitivity and time-dependent changes in the chemical composition of the aerosol. Conclusion Workers need to cautiously apply surface coating products because the contents can be highly toxic through inhalation, and the aerosols can disperse to locations remote from the worksite and affect bystanders. PMID:24815546

  17. Paliperidone overdose with delayed onset of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Levine, Michael; Lovecchio, Frank; Tafoya, Paul; Graham, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Paliperidone, or 9-hydroxy risperidone, is the newest atypical antipsychotic agent to be approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration. Despite being the primary active metabolite of risperidone, paliperidone differs in several ways from risperidone. The most notable difference is that paliperidone is formulated as an extended-release product. We present a case of a 14-year-old, 59-kg girl with a history of psychosis and major depressive disorder who developed toxicity after an ingestion of 180 mg (3.1 mg/kg) of paliperidone. This case is not only one of the first cases of paliperidone overdose described in the literature but also is unique in that it describes delayed onset of toxicity, as well as extended duration of symptoms. PMID:21376420

  18. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Carotid Artery Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid artery disease may not cause signs or symptoms until it severely narrows or blocks a carotid artery. Signs and symptoms may include a bruit (broo- ...

  19. Toxicity of antimony and its compounds.

    PubMed

    Winship, K A

    1987-01-01

    Experimental and clinical experience with compounds containing antimony have shown that the trivalent compounds are generally more toxic than the pentavalent ones. APT can cause severe pain and tissue necrosis and is therefore not given by intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. APT has the actions and uses of AST, but it is less soluble and more irritating than the sodium salt which is therefore more suitable for intravenous use. Trivalent antimony compounds are toxic when used topically. Adverse effects are similar for all trivalent compounds, and include nausea, vomiting, weakness and myalgia, abdominal colic, diarrhoea, and skin rashes, including pustular eruptions. Hypersensitivity reactions also occur. Respiratory symptoms include cough, dyspnoea, and chronic lung changes. Cardiotoxicity is the most important and may produce arrhythmias, myocardial depression and damage, Stokes-Adams attacks, heart failure, and cardiac arrest. Hepatic damage and necrosis, as well as blood dyscrasias, may occur. Toxic effects on the kidney may follow chronic use. Continuous treatment with small doses of antimony may give rise to symptoms of subacute poisoning, similar to those of chronic arsenic poisoning, due to accumulation of antimony in the body, especially if trivalent compounds are used, because of their long biological half-lives. Reproductive disorders and chromosome damage have been reported; antimony compounds are, therefore, potentially toxic to reproduction and have mutagenic, and oncogenic potential. Antimony compounds should, therefore, not be used during pregnancy or in the presence of hepatic, renal, or heart disease. Pentavalent antimony preparations especially the organic compounds, together with non-metallic synthetic preparations, such as the diamidines, have now replaced APT for use in leishmaniasis. Because of the toxicity of antimony compounds, investigations have been undertaken to reduce their adverse effects by combining them with chelating agents. These preparations appear to have reduced the toxic effects of antimony without affecting the efficacy of the preparations. Liposome-encapsulated antimony products have, more recently, been shown to be much less toxic because of the reduced dose of the antimony compound required for effective therapy. The historical uses of antimony were based on the belief that the topical and systemic adverse effects, for example, skin eruptions and diarrhoea and vomiting, were signs that the condition being treated was responding by being brought to the surface to relieve congestion at the diseased area. There is no evidence in topical use, but there is evidence that such use can cause severe reactions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3307336

  20. Coping with Positive and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela L. Rollins; Gary R. Bond; Paul H. Lysaker; John H. McGrew; Michelle P. Salyers

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although coping with positive symptoms of schizophrenia has been studied widely, few studies have examined coping with negative symptoms. This study compares the appraisal of stressfulness and coping patterns in response to positive and negative symptoms experienced by clients with schizophrenia attending a community mental health center.Methods: Clients were interviewed to assess symptom severity, appraisal of symptom stressfulness, and

  1. Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search ANAUSA.org Connect with us! Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma Early symptoms are easily overlooked, thus making ... are symptoms, however, indicating the possibility of an acoustic neuroma . The first symptom in 90% of those ...

  2. Opioid rotation for toxicity reduction in terminal cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noe´mi D. de Stoutz; Eduardo Bruera; Maria Suarez-Almazor

    1995-01-01

    Accumulation of active (toxic) metabolites of opioids might explain cases of opioid toxicity when high doses are used for long periods of time. Other mechanisms of late toxicity of opioids may be found at the receptor level. Whatever the cause, a change of opioids using equianalgesic doses can be expected to improve symptoms of toxicity in some patients, while maintaining

  3. Free phenytoin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Imam, Syed Haider; Landry, Kristen; Kaul, Viren; Gambhir, Harvir; John, Dinesh; Kloss, Brian

    2014-10-01

    Phenytoin has a narrow therapeutic window, and when managing cases of toxicity, clinicians are very wary of this fact. Typically, if patient presents with symptoms suggestive of phenytoin toxicity, total serum phenytoin is promptly ordered. That could be falsely low especially in elderly or critically ill patients, which may lead to a low albumin level resulting in this discrepancy. The free phenytoin can be best estimated using the Sheiner-Tozer equation. Herein, we describe a case of an elderly male patient who presented with drowsiness, gait changes, and elevated liver enzymes and a normal total serum phenytoin level of 18 ng/dL (normal, 10-20 ng/dL).After taking his albumin level into account, his free phenytoin level was calculated to be 27 ng/dL, and the phenytoin was discontinued leading to resolution of his symptoms as well as a return of his liver function panel values to baseline. PMID:24768668

  4. Intravenous lipid emulsion for treatment of local anesthetic toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kosh, M Caroline; Miller, April D; Michels, Jill E

    2010-01-01

    Clinical question Is intravenous lipid emulsion a safe and effective therapy for the reversal and treatment of local anesthetic toxicity? Results Systematic reviews, human case reports, and experimental animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy in successfully reversing cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, and cardiac collapse seen with severe systemic local anesthetic toxicity. There are fewer data to support treatment of neurologic toxicities associated with local anesthetics. Implementation Intravenous lipid emulsion 20% should be available whenever patients receive large doses of local anesthetics in operating rooms and emergency departments. Various dosing protocols have been published in the medical literature. Although the dosing protocols are based on low-level evidence, a lack of major adverse events makes lipid emulsion an appropriate therapy for treating cardiotoxic symptoms induced by local anesthetics. PMID:20957136

  5. Psychologic sequelae of chronic toxic waste exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Foulks, E.; McLellen, T. (Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Exposure to toxic industrial substances has been a topic of increasing concern to environmentalists, government agencies, industrial engineers, and medical specialists. Our study focuses on the psychologic symptom responses of a community to perceived long-term exposure to toxic waste products. We compared their symptom clusters, as shown by their responses to questions on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-90 Item (SCL-90) and the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS), with symptom levels of normal and depressed subjects. Issues of media coverage, litigation, and potential for compensation complicate the psychiatric epidemiology of the subject.

  6. Anti-rPru p 3 IgE levels are inversely related to the age at onset of peach-induced severe symptoms reported by peach-allergic adults.

    PubMed

    Pastorello, Elide Anna; Farioli, Laura; Stafylaraki, Chrysi; Mascheri, Ambra; Scibilia, Joseph; Pravettoni, Valerio; Primavesi, Laura; Piantanida, Marta; Nichelatti, Michele; Asero, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Sensitisation to peach lipid transfer protein (LTP; Pru p 3) is significantly associated with severe allergic symptoms in adults, but little is known about the age at onset of peach allergy. We investigated a possible correlation between specific IgE levels to Pru p 3 and the age at onset of peach allergy. One hundred and forty-eight patients allergic to peach were divided into 6 classes according to the age at onset. Sera were analyzed for IgE antibodies to peach, rPru p 3, rPru p 1, rPru p 4, rBet v 1, rBet v 2, total IgE titre, and tryptase; all collected data were statistically analysed. A significant inverse correlation was found between the age at onset of peach allergy and anti-rPru p 3 IgE levels at diagnosis (p < 0.0005; Spearman's ? = -0.3833). In contrast, the age at onset was directly correlated with both anti-rPru p 1 IgE levels (p = 0.0001; Spearman's ? = 0.3197) and anti-rBet v 1 IgE levels (p = 0.0006; Spearman's ? = 0.2914) at diagnosis. No correlations were detected between the reported age at onset and anti-peach, anti-rPru p 4, anti-rBet v 2 IgE and total IgE values and serum tryptase levels. At diagnosis, when peach allergy starts at a younger age, it is likely associated with Pru p 3 sensitisation, and the younger the onset, the higher the IgE titres. When peach allergy starts at an older age, it is more likely the result of cross-reactivity to Bet v1. PMID:23817315

  7. Digitalis toxicity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a medication prescribed to certain heart patients. Digitalis toxicity is a complication of digitalis therapy, or it ... Digitalis toxicity can be caused by high levels of digitalis in the body. It may also be caused by ...

  8. Asbestos Toxicity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be displayed correctly. Information for the Community: Asbestos Toxicity File Formats Help: How do I view different ... updated: April 19, 2007 Content source: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ATSDR Home Privacy Policy ...

  9. Toxic megacolon

    MedlinePLUS

    Toxic megacolon occurs as a complication of inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease , and infections of the colon. The term "toxic" means that this complication occurs with infection or ...

  10. Texas A&M University System Extension: Toxic Plant Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Toxic Plant Database was developed by a team of Professors working through Texas Cooperative Extension, a division of the Texas A&M University System. Although the database focuses on toxic plants in Texas, many of the plants are found in other states as well as Mexico. This is a well-organized website containing pictures, maps, plant descriptions, information on the toxic agent, symptoms of poisoning, habitat, distribution, and "Integrated Toxic Plant Management for each toxic plant." Site users may search this extensive listing of Toxic Plants by the following categories: Common or Scientific Name, Region, Symptom, Livestock, or Plant Images. This site also links to a glossary of relevant terms.

  11. The Impact of Depressive Symptoms in Adults with ADHD Symptoms on Family Function and ADHD Symptoms of Their Children

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Lee, Jong-Ha; Chun, Duk Hee; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2014-01-01

    Objective People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit considerable impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. The present study aimed to examine the patterns of associations between ADHD symptoms, depression, and family functioning. Methods The sample consisted of 1,022 adults randomly selected from a district in Seoul, South Korea. Several self-assessment scales were utilized to rate ADHD symptoms (both past and current), current symptoms of depression, and level of family functioning. ADHD symptoms in the children of these participants were also assessed. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were performed; structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to determine the best fitting model. Results Adult ADHD symptoms were positively associated with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, in turn, mediated the relationship between adult ADHD symptoms and cohesion among family members. In addition, depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between adult ADHD symptoms and their children's ADHD symptoms. Conclusion The relationship between adult ADHD symptoms and family dysfunction may be influenced by depressive symptoms. When treating ADHD in adults, clinicians should pay attention to the presence or absence of depression. PMID:24843366

  12. Symptoms of Pneumocystis pneumonia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Symptoms of Pneumocystis pneumonia The symptoms of PCP are fever, dry cough, ... Diagnosis & Testing Treatment & Outcomes Statistics Additional Information Pneumocystis pneumonia Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & ...

  13. Symptom burden in individuals with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Hirsh, Adam T.; Gallegos, Juan C.; Gertz, Kevin J.; Engel, Joyce M.; Jensen, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    The current study sought to (1) determine the relative frequency and severity of eight symptoms in adults with cerebral palsy (CP), (2) examine the perceived course of these eight symptoms over time, and (3) determine the associations between the severity of these symptoms and psychosocial functioning. Eighty-three adults with CP completed a measure assessing the frequency, severity, and perceived course of eight symptoms (pain, weakness, fatigue, imbalance, numbness, memory loss, vision loss, and shortness of breath). Respondents also completed measures of community integration and psychological functioning. The results indicated that pain, fatigue, imbalance, and weakness were the most common and severe symptoms reported. All symptoms were reported to have either stayed the same or worsened, rather than resolved, over time. The symptoms were more closely related to social integration than to home integration, productive activity, or psychological functioning. Memory loss was a unique predictor of social integration in the multivariate context. This study highlighted several common and problematic symptoms experienced by adults with CP. Additional research is needed to identify the most effective treatments for those symptoms that affect community integration and psychological functioning as a way to improve the quality of life of individuals with CP. PMID:21174251

  14. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in trauma-exposed college students: The role

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The present study utilized regression analysis to examine the unique relationships between various trauma-related cognitions and PTSD symptoms after to PTSD symptom severity. Gender and anxiety symptoms were also related to PTSD symptom severity

  15. Behavioral inhibition and PTSD symptoms in veterans

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Catherine E.; VanMeenen, Kirsten M.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperamental bias to respond to novel stimuli with avoidance behaviors, is a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear whether BI accounts for additional variance in PTSD symptom severity beyond that accounted for by general anxiety. Here, 109 veterans (mean age 50.4 years, 9.2% female) provided self-assessment of PTSD symptoms, state and trait anxiety, combat exposure, and current (adult) and retrospective (childhood) BI. Adult BI was correlated with anxiety and PTSD symptom severity, especially cluster C (avoidance) symptoms, but not with combat exposure. A regression model including adult BI, state and trait anxiety, and combat exposure was able to correctly classify over 80% of participants according to presence or absence of severe PTSD symptoms. Because avoidance behaviors are a core component of PTSD, self-assessments of BI may be an important tool in understanding PTSD and potentially assessing vulnerability to the disorder. PMID:22397911

  16. Bedbugs: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases and treatments A - D Bedbugs Signs, symptoms Bedbugs: Signs and symptoms Bedbug bites : The bites often ... hiding place. Serious and life-threatening reactions to bedbug bites Although less common, it is possible to ...

  17. Toxic Newts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-09-26

    The father and son team of Brodie and Brodie track down the predator able to stomach a mysteriously hyper-toxic newt, an example of an evolutionary arms race in action. From Evolution: Evolutionary Arms Race.

  18. Traumatic War Stressors and Psychiatric Symptoms Among World War II, Korean, and Vietnam War Veterans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Fontana; Robert Rosenheck

    1994-01-01

    Three hypotheses regarding symptoms of war-related posttraumatic stress disorder and general psychiatric distress were tested: that symptoms are more severe the more severe the traumatic exposure, regardless of the war in question; that symptoms are less severe the older the veterans’ age; and that symptom levels differ across sociocultural cohorts. A total of 5,138 war zone veterans who were seeking

  19. Toxic compounds in honey.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. PMID:24214851

  20. Rangeland Drought Management for Texans: Toxic Range Plants 

    E-print Network

    Hart, Charles R.; Carpenter, Bruce B.

    2001-05-03

    are toxic The first step in managing for toxic plants is being able to identify them. Ranchers must be able to: Identify plants that are toxic to livestock in their area Understand what makes them poisonous Recognize the symptoms produced when live...- stock consume them Identifying toxic plants before they become a problem can prevent livestock poisoning problems. Taking pre- ventive measures is preferable to having to perform autopsies on stricken animals to determine the cause of death. Extension...

  1. Detection of sub-clinical lead toxicity in monocasters

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, B.D.; Krishnaswamy, K. [Food and Drug Toxicology Research Centre National Institute of Nutrition, Jamai Osmania (India)

    1995-06-01

    Lead poisoning has been documented since antiquity but occupational lead intoxication still continues to occur. Now there is a growing consensus that low levels of lead exposure often do not result in the manifestation of toxic symptoms, but may have subclinical toxicity on haemopoitic and renal system. Such toxicities are reported even at blood lead concentrations which were thought to be safe (60-80 {mu}g/dl) a decade ago. One of the several effects of lead, is inhibition of erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (d-ALAD), rate limiting enzyme of the heme synthesis. Similar effect on d-ALAD has been reported even at the blood lead concentrations of 20-30 {mu}g/dl which are much below the toxic limits of 60 {mu}g/dl. Occupational lead nephropathy has been reported from several countries. Ultrastructural alteration in renal tubules, due to chronic exposure of lead, are seen in both animals and human renal biopsy samples. However, detecting early renal damage is a difficult task, since the routine renal function tests like creatine clearance, Insulin clearance (GFR) etc. are altered only after severe kidney damage. Recently increased urinary excretion of lysomal enzyme N-acetyl-B-D-glucosaminidase, a marker of early nephrotoxicity has been reported in the workers exposed to various chemicals including lead. The present study has therefore been undertaken to evaluate the subclinical lead toxicity on haemopoetic and renal system using non invassive techniques in monocasters, who are occupationally exposed to lead fumes while preparing the type set letter blocks. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Urinary symptoms in breast cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Kristine A; Boyington, Alice R; Ismail-Khan, Roohi; Wyman, Jean F

    2012-02-01

    A large body of research has documented the prevalence and severity of menopausal symptoms, especially vasomotor symptoms, in breast cancer survivors and their impact on quality of life. However, urinary symptoms as part of the constellation of menopausal symptoms have received relatively little attention. Thus, less is known about the prevalence and severity of urinary symptoms in breast cancer survivors. The authors of this report conducted a systematic review of studies published between 1990 and 2010 to describe the prevalence and severity of urinary symptoms in breast cancer survivors. In total, 16 eligible studies that involved >2500 women were identified. The studies varied with respect to purpose, design, and nature of the samples included; the majority used the same definition and assessment approach for urinary symptoms. Prevalence rates for symptoms ranged from 12% of women reporting burning or pain on micturition to 58% reporting difficulty with bladder control. Although, in many studies, the largest percentage of women rated symptoms as mild, 23% reported severe symptoms. Symptoms appeared to adversely affect women's quality of life. The authors concluded that there is a need for additional research assessing the natural history of urinary symptoms using consensus definitions and validated measures in diverse populations. Nevertheless, this review suggested that clinicians should screen for urinary symptoms in breast cancer survivors and should offer treatment recommendations or make referrals as appropriate. PMID:21751193

  3. Protection Against Toxic Substances In Space Travel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H. Bovee; J. E. Schubert

    1963-01-01

    Of the many sources of toxic contaminants in the space cabin atmosphere, thermal decomposition products from elastomers, plastics and other compounds are the most hazardous. A study of the decomposition characteristics and toxicity of several of these materials indicates that the smoke and fumes given off contribute significantly to the toxicity predicted on the basis of gaseous decomposition products only.

  4. Fractionation and toxicity evaluation of waste waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Galassi; E Benfenati

    2000-01-01

    Several toxicity-based procedures have been proposed for waste water risk assessment but the toxic agents could never be identified in these very complex mixtures. A procedure was adopted using disposable solid-phase extraction cartridges to extract organic chemicals and preparative HPLC to fractionate them in relation of their hydrophobicity. Acute toxicity of whole samples and their fractions was measured on Daphnia

  5. Screening wastewater for toxicity to activated sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    Several toxicity tests were compared to define their utility for prediction of toxicity to activated sludge. The tests included: (1) oxygen uptake rates in batch tests with activated sludge, (2) adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements in the same batch tests, (3) Warburg respirometer studies with activated sludge, and (4) a luminescent bacteria test (Microtox\\/sup TM\\/). An evaluation of the toxicity tests

  6. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polyoxymethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Schneider, J. E.; Brauer, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of polyoxymethylene was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Under several test conditions, this material gave shorter times to death than many other synthetic polymers. Carbon monoxide appeared to be the principal toxicant in the pyrolysis gases.

  7. Chronic respiratory failure due to toxic epidermal necrosis in a 10 year old girl.

    PubMed

    Thimmesch, M; Gilbert, A; Tuerlinckx, D; Bodart, E

    2015-02-01

    Toxic epidermal necrosis is a severe mucocutaneous disease with a high mortality rate. A third of the patients surviving the acute phase will develop pulmonary complications. The most frequent complication is bronchiolitis obliterans. Despite well-conducted treatment, in most cases, lung injury often leads to chronic respiratory failure. We describe here the case of a young patient that presented a toxic epidermal necrosis at the age of 3 years. Poor therapeutic compliance result in chronic respiratory failure and after 7 years of follow-up, pulmonary transplant remains the only long-term alternative. Close monitoring of respiratory symptoms in the course of toxic epidermal necrosis, intense treatment as soon as they appear and a long-term follow-up are essential to postpone chronic respiratory failure. PMID:25324191

  8. The Relationship between Depressive Symptoms in Outpatients with Chronic Illness and Health Care Costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Mi Na; Kwang-Soo Kim; Kyoung-Uk Lee; Jeong-Ho Chae; Jin-Ho Kim; Dai-Jin Kim; Won-Myong Bahk; Yun-Sig Jang; Ae-Kyoung Lee; Young Sup Woo; Pyeoung-Soo Lee

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between depressive symptoms and health care costs in outpatients with chronic medical illnesses in Korea, we screened for depressive symptoms in 1,118 patients with a chronic medical illness and compared the severity of somatic symptoms and health care costs. Patients and Methods: Data were compared between outpatients with depressive symptoms and those without depressive symptoms.

  9. JAMA Patient Page: Vaginal Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Vaginal Symptoms V aginal symptoms are one of the ... includes an article about diagnosing vaginal symptoms. DIAGNOSING VAGINAL SYMPTOMS FOR MORE INFORMATION • American College of Obstetricians ...

  10. The symptom index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swarnjit Singh; Joel E. Richter; Laurence A. Bradley; Julie M. Haile

    1993-01-01

    The symptom index is a quantitative measure developed for assessing the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux and symptoms. Controversy exists, however, over its accuracy and the appropriate threshold for defining acid-related symptoms of heartburn and chest pain. Therefore, a retrospective review was done of 153 consecutive patients referred to our esophageal laboratory. Three groups were identified: patients with normal 24-hr pH

  11. Symptoms and Signs Associated with Postpartum Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a common triphasic autoimmune disease in women with thyroid peroxidase (TPO) autoantibodies. This study evaluated women's thyroid disease symptoms, physical findings, stress levels, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels across six postpartum months in three groups, TPO negative, TPO positive, and PPT positive women. Methods. Women were recruited in midpregnancy (n = 631) and TPO status was determined which then was used to form the three postpartum groups. The three groups were compared on TSH levels, thyroid symptoms, weight, blood pressure, heart rate, a thyroid exam, and stress scores. Results. Fifty-six percent of the TPO positive women developed PPT. Hypothyroid group (F (2, 742) = 5.8, P = .003) and hyperthyroid group (F (2, 747) = 6.6, P = .001) subscale scores differed by group. Several symptoms and stress scores were highest in the PPT group. Conclusions. The normal postpartum is associated with many symptoms that mimic thyroid disease symptoms, but severity is greater in women with either TPO or PPT positivity. While the most severe symptoms were generally seen in PPT positive women, even TPO positive women seem to have higher risk for these signs and symptoms. PMID:25405057

  12. Type A Behavior Pattern and symptom reports: A prospective investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Candace Offutt; J. Michael Lacroix

    1988-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the Type A Behavior Pattern and reporting of a constellation of physical symptoms related to respiratory infections using a prospective design. The results indicate that Types A and B students did not differ significantly in their reports of the frequency or severity of the constellation of symptoms or of individual symptoms over an 87-day

  13. Toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with antiepileptic drugs and cranial radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Elazzazy, Shereen; Abu Hassan, Taghrid; El Seid, Ashraf; Jacob, Cicy Mary

    2013-01-01

    Case reports on the development of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) associated with concurrent administration of phenytoin with cranial radiation therapy (Ahmed (2004), Criton et al. (1997), and Rzany et al. (1996)), but reports about erythema multiforme, which can develop in patients treated with levetiracetam and cranial irradiation, are very limited. This paper presents evidence that TEN may be induced by concurrent use of radiation with both phenytoin and levetiracetam. Our case is a 42-year-old male patient, a case of gliosarcoma who developed purpuric dermatitis associated with phenytoin when combined with cranial radiation therapy; although phenytoin was discontinued and switched to levetiracetam, the patient had more severe symptoms of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) on levetiracetam; the patient improved with aggressive symptom management, discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and holding radiotherapy. Although TEN is a rare toxicity, physicians should pay a special attention to the monitoring of brain tumor patients on antiepileptic prophylaxis during cranial irradiation; furthermore, patients should be counselled to notify their physicians if they develop any new or unusual symptoms. PMID:23984137

  14. Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Associated with Antiepileptic Drugs and Cranial Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abu Hassan, Taghrid; El Seid, Ashraf; Jacob, Cicy Mary

    2013-01-01

    Case reports on the development of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) associated with concurrent administration of phenytoin with cranial radiation therapy (Ahmed (2004), Criton et al. (1997), and Rzany et al. (1996)), but reports about erythema multiforme, which can develop in patients treated with levetiracetam and cranial irradiation, are very limited. This paper presents evidence that TEN may be induced by concurrent use of radiation with both phenytoin and levetiracetam. Our case is a 42-year-old male patient, a case of gliosarcoma who developed purpuric dermatitis associated with phenytoin when combined with cranial radiation therapy; although phenytoin was discontinued and switched to levetiracetam, the patient had more severe symptoms of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) on levetiracetam; the patient improved with aggressive symptom management, discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and holding radiotherapy. Although TEN is a rare toxicity, physicians should pay a special attention to the monitoring of brain tumor patients on antiepileptic prophylaxis during cranial irradiation; furthermore, patients should be counselled to notify their physicians if they develop any new or unusual symptoms. PMID:23984137

  15. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Bridge 4 Life Clinical Trials Guides Newsletters Nutrition & Wellness PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Understanding Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Symptoms English | Español Not everyone experiences ...

  16. Reducing Livestock Losses To Toxic Plants 

    E-print Network

    McGinty, Allan; Machen, Richard V.

    2000-04-25

    ; grass ergot, urination, ataxia, prostration dallisgrass ergot causes acute ergot of cereal Chronic - Gangrene symptoms. grains Colubrina texensis Hogplum Hepatic toxin Symptoms similar to Livestock poisoning is rare. lechuguilla poisoning Conium Poison...TexasAgriculturalExtensionService The Texas A&M University System Reducing Livestock Losses to Toxic Plants B-1499 Sand Shinnery L Perennial Broomweed Texas Agricultural Extension Service a71 Zerle L. Carpenter, Director a71 The Texas A&M University...

  17. Boron toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross O. Nable; Gary S. Bañuelos; Jeffrey G. Paull

    1997-01-01

    Whilst of lesser prevalence than B deficient soils, B-rich soils are important, causing B toxicity in the field and decreased crop yields in different regions of the world. The highest naturally occurring concentrations of soil B are in soils derived from marine evaporites and marine argillaceous sediment. In addition, various anthropogenic sources of excess B may increase soil B to

  18. Toxic remediation

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Stephen M. (Alamed County, CA); Schonberg, Russell G. (Santa Clara County, CA); Fadness, David R. (Santa Clara County, CA)

    1994-01-01

    What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

  19. Defining and measuring negative symptoms of schizophrenia in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Marder, Stephen R; Kirkpatrick, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Recent attention has focused on negative symptoms as a target for new therapeutic approaches including pharmacological agents, medical devices, and psychosocial treatments. Each of these approaches requires an instrument for measuring the severity of negative symptoms as well as changes in severity over time. The instrument selected should provide coverage for the domains of negative symptoms; it should be sensitive to change; it should be reliable and relatively brief; and it should be useful for large international trials. These criteria were used to evaluate a number of older instruments including the Schedule for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), and the Negative Symptom Assessment Scale (NSA). Two newer scales, the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) and the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) were developed following a National Institute of Mental Health consensus meeting and addressed some of the shortcomings of earlier instruments. PMID:24275698

  20. Multidimensional analysis of the symptoms of chronic bronchitis and emphysema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Kinsman; Enrique Fernandez; Marsha Schocket; Jerald F. Dirks; Nicholas A. Covino

    1983-01-01

    Subjective symptoms and experiences were explored within a group of 146 severe, chronic bronchitis and emphysema patients. Eighty-nine symptoms and experiences, derived from initial interviews with 29 patients, were rated according to the frequency of occurrence during breathing difficulties. Key cluster analyses were used to derive a Bronchitis-Emphysema Symptom Checklist (BESC) measuring 11 symptom categories: Helplessness-Hopelessness, Decathexis, Fatigue, Poor Memory,

  1. Chronic fatigue syndrome following a toxic exposure.

    PubMed

    Racciatti, D; Vecchiet, J; Ceccomancini, A; Ricci, F; Pizzigallo, E

    2001-04-10

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a clinical entity characterized by severe fatigue lasting more than 6 months and other well-defined symptoms. Even though in most CFS cases the etiology is still unknown, sometimes the mode of presentation of the illness implicates the exposure to chemical and/or food toxins as precipitating factors: ciguatera poisoning, sick building syndrome, Gulf War syndrome, exposure to organochlorine pesticides, etc. In the National Reference Center for CFS Study at the Department of Infectious Diseases of 'G. D'Annunzio' University (Chieti) we examined five patients (three females and two males, mean age: 37.5 years) who developed the clinical features of CFS several months after the exposure to environmental toxic factors: ciguatera poisoning in two cases, and exposure to solvents in the other three cases. These patients were compared and contrasted with two sex- and age-matched subgroups of CFS patients without any history of exposure to toxins: the first subgroup consisted of patients with CFS onset following an EBV infection (post-infectious CFS), and the second of patients with a concurrent diagnosis of major depression. All subjects were investigated by clinical examination, neurophysiological and immunologic studies, and neuroendocrine tests. Patients exposed to toxic factors had disturbances of hypothalamic function similar to those in controls and, above all, showed more severe dysfunction of the immune system with an abnormal CD4/CD8 ratio, and in three of such cases with decreased levels of NK cells (CD56+). These findings may help in understanding the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in CFS. PMID:11327394

  2. Pharmacogenetic markers of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Borroni, R G

    2014-04-01

    Different responses, in terms both of efficacy and toxicity, are commonly observed for any drug administered to apparently homogeneous groups of patients. It is estimated that adverse drug reactions (ADRs) cause 3-6% of all hospitalizations, accounting for 5% to 9% of hospital admission costs. The skin is often involved in ADRs and although most cutaneous ADRs have a favorable course, they may present as severe adverse cutaneous drug reactions (SCARs), such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (also referred to as drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome), and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. SCARs are associated with significant mortality and require prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment. Pharmacogenetics studies individual variants in the DNA sequence associated with drug efficacy and toxicity, allowing prescription of a drug to patients expected to benefit from it, and excluding from treatment those who are at risk of developing ADRs. Pharmacogenetics already achieved several important results in the prevention of SCARs, and pharmacogenetic testing is now recommended by regulatory agencies before administration of abacavir and carbamazepine, leading to reduced incidence of SCARs. In this review, the pharmacogenetic associations of SCARs that have been validated in independent, case-control association studies will be presented. By familiarizing with principles of pharmacogenetics, dermatologists should be able to correlate specific cutaneous ADR phenotypes to the underlying genotype, thus contributing to better drug safety and facilitating drug discovery, development and approval. PMID:24819643

  3. Shellfish Toxicity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Arnold, Thomas

    This eMedicine Clinical Knowledge Base webpage features information about shellfish toxicity for physicians and other healthcare professionals. Highlighting the four distinct shellfish poisoning syndromes - Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), Neurologic shellfish poisoning (NSP), Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) this webpage discusses background, pathophysiology, frequency, mortality/morbidity, age, and clinical descriptions. It also takes a deeper look at differentials, laboratory workup, treatment, medication, follow-up, medical/legal pitfalls, special concerns, and a bibliography.

  4. Toxic optic neuropathy following ingestion of homeopathic medication Arnica-30.

    PubMed

    Venkatramani, Devendra V; Goel, Shubhra; Ratra, Vineet; Gandhi, Rashmin Anilkumar

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of acute, bilateral and severe vision loss after inadvertent consumption of a large quantity of the homoeopathic medication Arnica-30. Severe vomiting which required hospitalization preceded visual symptoms. In the acute stage, pupillary responses to light were absent and fundus examination was normal. Vision loss followed a fluctuating course, with profound loss noted after 6 weeks along with bilateral optic disc pallor. Neuro-ophthalmic examination and detailed investigations were performed, including magnetic resonance imaging, electroretinography (ERG) and visual evoked potentials (VEP). Ocular coherence tomography (OCT) showed gross thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer. While a differential diagnosis of posterior ischemic optic neuropathy was kept in mind, these findings supported a diagnosis of bilateral toxic optic neuropathy. Arnica-30 is popularly used to accelerate wound healing, including after oculoplastic surgery. While homeopathic medicines are generally considered safe due to the very low concentrations involved, Arnica-30 may be neurotoxic if consumed internally in large quantities. PMID:22877081

  5. Assessment of symptom clusters in people with cancer.

    PubMed

    Paice, Judith A

    2004-01-01

    The control, and ideally prevention, of symptoms such as pain, depression, and fatigue is dependent on a comprehensive clinical assessment. Furthermore, to advance the science of this field, symptom research requires the use of multidimensional instruments with proven validity and reliability in a cancer population across the lifespan. Studies demonstrate a significant correlation among pain, depression, fatigue, and other symptoms commonly seen throughout the course of cancer. Therefore, multidimensional scales incorporating the most common symptoms would ensure systematic assessment. Optimally, valid and reliable tools that measure symptom clusters would be feasible for use in both clinical and research settings. Currently available instruments that measure symptom clusters include the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale, the M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory, the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist, the Symptom Distress Scale, and others. Special populations include cancer patients with advanced disease, where symptom prevalence is expected to increase. Newer tools that attempt to address these populations are the Brief Hospice Inventory and the Hospice Quality of Life Index, appropriate for cancer patients with more advanced disease. Each of these tools has demonstrated utility in measuring symptom severity and quality of life. Few scales have been validated in the measurement of symptom clusters in children, in cognitively impaired adults, or in non-English speaking patients from various cultural backgrounds. The strengths and limitations presented in the clinical and research uses of each these instruments will be presented, as will be areas for future investigation. PMID:15263048

  6. Residency Program Influenza Algorithm: Updated 07/14/10 Symptomatic with Rapid Onset of Symptoms: Fevers> 100 F URI Symptoms no Fevers

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    : Fevers> 100° F URI Symptoms no Fevers PLUS: Respiratory Symptoms (Cough with or without sore throat nausea/diarrhea. ~ ASSUME INFLUENZA DO NOT COME TO WORK ~ ~ ! ~ If Fevers> 100°F develop: If symptoms are not ASSUME INFLUENZA progressive and !!Q fevers develop: I Assume URI. If severe symptoms w/o fevers: Stay

  7. Turning the Tide on Toxics in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Dept. of Ecology, Olympia.

    This booklet provides a guide for the safe use and disposal of toxic chemicals found around the home. Toxicity ratings given to compounds are explained along with the amount needed for a probable fatal dose for a 150-pound person. Each category of hazardous waste is provided with typical examples of the toxicants, a toxicity rating, several…

  8. Neurofilaments Are Nonessential to the Pathogenesis of Toxicant Induced Axonal Degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Derek Stone; Alan P. Peterson; Joel Eyer; T. Gregory Oblak; Dale W. Sickles

    2001-01-01

    Axonal neurofilament (NF) accumulations occur before devel- opment of symptoms and before other pathological changes among idiopathic neurodegenerative diseases and toxic neu- ropathies, suggesting a cause-effect relationship. The depen- dence of symptoms and axonal degeneration on neurofilament accumulation has been tested here in a transgenic mouse model (Eyer and Peterson, 1994) lacking axonal NFs and using two prototypic toxicant models.

  9. Toxic effects of herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Ridker, P M

    1987-01-01

    At least 26 herbal teas contain toxic ingredients, many of which have caused serious gastrointestinal, hematologic, cardiac, and nervous system disease. The severity of illness following herbal tea use has ranged from contact dermatitis to fulminant hepatic failure and death. Most of these teas are available in health food stores and there is no requirement that their toxic potential be labeled for consumer protection. Patients on anticoagulant drugs should avoid herbal teas containing coumarin. PMID:3300573

  10. Holiday plants with toxic misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Evens, Zabrina N; Stellpflug, Samuel J

    2012-12-01

    Several plants are used for their decorative effect during winter holidays. This review explores the toxic reputation and proposed management for exposures to several of those, namely poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima), English holly (Ilex aquifolium), American holly (Ilex opaca), bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), Jerusalem cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum), American mistletoe (Phoradendron serotinum), and European mistletoe (Viscum album). PMID:23359840

  11. Dissociative symptoms and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Medford, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the relationship between various types of dissociative symptoms, including symptoms of depersonalization, derealization, and conversion disorders, and epilepsy. After introductory remarks concerning dissociation, this relationship is discussed through two main themes: firstly, the phenomenology and mechanisms of so-called 'dreamy states' in epilepsy and their closest analogs in psychiatric disorders, and secondly, the similarities and differences between epileptic seizures and psychogenic nonepileptic attacks. Although epileptic and dissociative symptoms may appear similar to observers, they arise through different mechanisms and have different experiential qualities. PMID:24196397

  12. Neurobehavioral toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, B.

    2000-01-01

    A growing number of agents are known to perturb one or more of the interconnected processes of the central nervous system. At the same time, there is an increase in the incidence of neurobehavioral disorders that are confronting clinicians with baffling symptoms and presentations that seem uncommon. Fundamental to the assessment of the environmental-relatedness of the syndromes is a work and exposure history, including information different from that routinely obtained in the clinical setting. Exposure examples are described to suggest the scope of inquiry necessary to differentiate neurotoxic syndromes from nonneurotoxic illness. PMID:10745641

  13. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Should I Know About Screening? Â Stay Informed Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  14. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  15. [Neurological symptoms in poisoning].

    PubMed

    Neu, I

    1980-10-01

    Acute and chronic intoxications become manifest in primary neurological symptoms. After a definition of poisoning the autonomic, neurological and psychological disturbances are briefly discussed and the therapeutic measures presented in a table. Later, the neurological symptoms are described with reference to oberservations of cases of lead, thallium, E 605 (parathion), carbon monoxide, mercury, amphetamine and botulin poisoning. Four table and 9 figures supplement the text. PMID:6775212

  16. Contact Dermatitis: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatments A - D Contact dermatitis Signs and symptoms Contact dermatitis: Signs and symptoms Allergic contact dermatitis : Testing ... these symptoms, you need immediate medical care. Allergic contact dermatitis This skin condition occurs when you have ...

  17. A comparative study of the toxicity of Gonyaulax monilata and Gymnodinium breve to various marine organisms

    E-print Network

    Sievers, Anita Marie

    1967-01-01

    (mldred, uteidinger and gilliams, 1964, ? kcl'arran, + Q. , 19b5). dork by hay and Aldrich (19(&5) supported this imolication, since they fourd th"t oysters wldch had ingested g, ~ produced toxic symptoms, inc. 'uding des&, wi en fed to chic...?xs. Cultures of intact organisms of another species oi' Gt? g. ?g~, found in thc British Isles, were used by abbott and I?allantine ('l957) to study the action ci' the toxin on a number of marine animals including sever:-. , 1 species of fish, annal?. d worn...

  18. Cortical neuroanatomic correlates of symptom severity in primary progressive aphasia

    E-print Network

    Dickerson, Brad

    for localizing and quantifying the se- verity of anatomic abnormalities. Methods: Patients with PPA were rated using the PASS and underwent performance-based lan- guage testing and MRI scans that were processed heterogeneity2,3 and in part because of a paucity of clinical assessment instru- ments specifically tailored

  19. Pharmacology of hallucinations: several mechanisms for one single symptom?

    PubMed

    Rolland, Benjamin; Jardri, Renaud; Amad, Ali; Thomas, Pierre; Cottencin, Olivier; Bordet, Régis

    2014-01-01

    Hallucinations are complex misperceptions, that principally occur in schizophrenia or after intoxication induced by three main classes of drugs: psychostimulants, psychedelics, and dissociative anesthetics. There are at least three different pharmacological ways to induce hallucinations: (1) activation of dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) with psychostimulants, (2) activation of serotonin 5HT2A receptors (HT2ARs) with psychedelics, and (3) blockage of glutamate NMDA receptors (NMDARs) with dissociative anesthetics. In schizophrenia, the relative importance of NMDAR and D2R in the occurrence of hallucinations is still debated. Slight clinical differences are observed for each etiology. Thus, we investigated whether the concept of hallucination is homogenous, both clinically and neurobiologically. A narrative review of the literature is proposed to synthesize how the main contributors in the field have approached and tried to solve these outstanding questions. While some authors prefer one explanatory mechanism, others have proposed more integrated theories based on the different pharmacological psychosis models. In this review, such theories are discussed and faced with the clinical data. In addition, the nosological aspects of hallucinations and psychosis are addressed. We suggest that if there may be common neurobiological pathways between the different pharmacological systems that are responsible for the hallucinations, there may also be unique properties of each system, which explains the clinical differences observed. PMID:24991548

  20. Perfectionism and depression symptom severity in major depressive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murray W. Enns; Brian J. Cox

    1999-01-01

    In recent years it has been recognized that perfectionism is a multidimensional construct and two Multidimensional Perfectionism Scales have been developed and investigated in relative isolation [Frost, R.O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., & Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 449–468; Hewitt, P.L., & Flett, G.L. (1991). Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: Conceptualization,

  1. Symptom severity, treatment engagement, and outcomes for culturally diverse youth

    E-print Network

    Tsai, Katherine HsiuJung; Tsai, Katherine HsiuJung

    2012-01-01

    family therapy versus community control: Engagement,Family-based treatment for childhood antisocial behavior: Experimental influences on dropout and engagement.perceptions of engagement levels for these families were

  2. Toxic terror

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    A review of toxic materials in the environment explores the evolution of public awareness of the problem, public and governmental reaction, the effort to establish standards of safe levels and danger thresholds, and the struggle to implement and enforce environmental policy. Separate chapters deal with environmental premises and scientific realities, the DDT debate and birth of environmentalism, the disaster of Love Canal, pesticides, PCBs, PBBs, formaldehyde, dioxin, air pollution, water pollution, nuclear energy and radioactive materials, acid rain, and the status of American health. The book concludes with a chapter on the need for scientific research and hard evidence to either prove or disprove the pessimism of those who warn of a threat to human health and survival.

  3. Characterization of toxicants in retorted marlstone

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, T.T.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to quantify the effects of two types of retorted oil shale on plant germination and growth, identify the responsible toxicants, and quantify the toxicity of the plants to grazing animals. it was found that Unishale B did not affect germination but did affect the growth of several plant species. Li and B were shown to affect plant growth in Unishale B while As and Sr did not. As, B, Sr, and Li, plus unknown toxicants or synergistic affects, were shown to be germination toxicant in decarbonized shale while Li and unknown toxicants or synergistic affects were shown to be plant growth toxicants. F and Se were shown to accumulate in plants grown on Unishale B in high enough concentrations to be toxic to animals. Molybedenosis was shown to be a disease threat to animals grazing on plants grown on Unishale B.

  4. Natural History of Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Tamar E.; Chamot, Eric; Salter, Amber R.; Cutter, Gary R.; Kalina, Jennifer T.; Herbert, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry is a database that contains information from over 35,000 patient volunteers on symptom severity in 11 domains commonly affected in multiple sclerosis (MS): mobility, hand function, vision, fatigue, cognition, bowel/bladder function, sensory, spasticity, pain, depression, and tremor/coordination. The Registry affords a unique opportunity to study the frequency and severity of domain-specific impairment in a contemporary, mostly treated MS cohort over the course of the disease. The objective of this work was to calculate symptom prevalence in each of the 11 domains for years 0 to 30 from symptom onset. The resulting “symptom prevalence tables” demonstrate that a majority of participants perceive at least some degree of impairment in most domains as early as the first year of disease. The severity of impairment increases with disease duration across all domains, but the patterns of disability accumulation differ. The symptom prevalence tables illustrate the magnitude of perceived impact of the disease and highlight the extent of unmet need in symptomatic management. The tables are easy to use and allow MS patients and their clinicians to compare an individual's own impairment in any of the 11 domains to that of NARCOMS participants with the same disease duration. PMID:24453777

  5. Dose-Volume Effects on Patient-Reported Acute Gastrointestinal Symptoms During Chemoradiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ronald C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mamon, Harvey J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ancukiewicz, Marek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Killoran, Joseph H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Crowley, Elizabeth M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wo, Jennifer Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ryan, David P. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hong, Theodore S., E-mail: tshong1@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Research on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in rectal cancer is limited. We examined whether dose-volume parameters of the small bowel and large bowel were associated with patient-reported gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemoradiation treatment for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: 66 patients treated at the Brigham and Women's Hospital or Massachusetts General Hospital between 2006 and 2008 were included. Weekly during treatment, patients completed a questionnaire assessing severity of diarrhea, urgency, pain, cramping, mucus, and tenesmus. The association between dosimetric parameters and changes in overall GI symptoms from baseline through treatment was examined by using Spearman's correlation. Potential associations between these parameters and individual GI symptoms were also explored. Results: The amount of small bowel receiving at least 15 Gy (V15) was significantly associated with acute symptoms (p = 0.01), and other dosimetric parameters ranging from V5 to V45 also trended toward association. For the large bowel, correlations between dosimetric parameters and overall GI symptoms at the higher dose levels from V25 to V45 did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.1), and a significant association was seen with rectal pain from V15 to V45 (p < 0.01). Other individual symptoms did not correlate with small bowel or large bowel dosimetric parameters. Conclusions: The results of this study using PROs are consistent with prior studies with physician-assessed acute toxicity, and they identify small bowel V15 as an important predictor of acute GI symptoms during 5-FU-based chemoradiation treatment. A better understanding of the relationship between radiation dosimetric parameters and PROs may allow physicians to improve radiation planning to optimize patient outcomes.

  6. Dopaminergic symptoms in migraine.

    PubMed

    Barbanti, Piero; Fofi, L; Aurilia, C; Egeo, G

    2013-05-01

    Migraine pain is often preceded, accompanied and followed by dopaminergic symptoms (premonitory yawning and somnolence, accompanying nausea and vomiting, postdromal somnolence, euphoria and polyuria). After reviewing evidence from pharmacological, biochemical, genetic and animal experimental studies on the relationship between dopamine and migraine, and matching these data with patients' clinical features, we postulate that migraine attacks could be characterized by an ictal dopamine release in a subject with dopamine receptor hypersensitivity due to a chronic dopaminergic deficit synergistic to serotoninergic impairment. Our review suggests that when the attack begins, a low dopamine plasma concentration stimulates hypersensitive central presynaptic dopamine receptors thus causing prodromal symptoms such as yawning and somnolence. Increasing dopamine levels, though still insufficient to stop trigeminovascular activation, stimulate postsynaptic dopamine receptors thus inducing nausea, vomiting and hypotension. Finally, dopamine levels slowly return to baseline, giving rise to somnolence and fatigue, but, in some cases, continue to rise triggering postdromal symptoms such as euphoria and polyuria. PMID:23695049

  7. Recent advances of pharmacogenomics in severe cutaneous adverse reactions: immune and nonimmune mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dao, Ro-Lan; Su, Shih-Chi; Chung, Wen-Hung

    2015-04-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) are severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) which are majorly caused by drugs. Though the incidence rate is low, SCAR sometimes can be life-threatening and leads to lifelong sequelae. Many pharmacogenomic associations in immune and nonimmune related genes with the development of SCAR have been discovered recently and the pharmacogenetic tests have been applied to prevent specific drug-induced SCAR. In this review, we discuss the recent advances of pharmacogenomics in SCAR. PMID:25938070

  8. Asthma Outcomes: Asthma Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Jerry A.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Canino, Glorisa J.; Elward, Kurtis S.; Kattan, Meyer; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Mitchell, Herman; Sutherland, E. Rand; Minnicozzi, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Respiratory symptoms are commonly used to assess the impact of patient-centered interventions. Objective At the request of National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies, an expert group was convened to propose which measurements of asthma symptoms should be used as a standardized measure in future clinical research studies. Methods Asthma symptom instruments were classified as daily diaries (prospectively recording symptoms between research visits) or retrospective questionnaires (completed at research visits). We conducted a systematic search in PubMed and a search for articles that cited key studies describing development of instruments. We classified outcome instruments as either core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to study aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results Four instruments (3 daily diaries, 1 for adults and 2 for children; and 1 retrospective questionnaire for adults) were identified. Minimal clinically important differences have not been established for these instruments, and validation studies were only conducted in a limited number of patient populations. Validity of existing instruments may not be generalizable across racial-ethnic or other subgroups. Conclusions An evaluation of symptoms should be a core asthma outcome measure in clinical research. However, available instruments have limitations that preclude selection of a core instrument. The working group participants propose validation studies in diverse populations, comparisons of diaries versus retrospective questionnaires, and evaluations of symptom assessment alone versus composite scores of asthma control. PMID:22386505

  9. Prevalence of GERD symptoms in a representative Israeli adult population.

    PubMed

    Sperber, Ami D; Halpern, Zamir; Shvartzman, Pesach; Friger, Michael; Freud, Tami; Neville, Anat; Fich, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms in the general population is lower in Asian than Western countries. Data are lacking for countries in the Middle East. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and severity of GERD symptoms among Israeli Jews. A questionnaire including 8 specific questions for GERD symptoms was administered by telephone interview to a representative sample of the population. One thousand two hundred twenty-one of 1839 individuals were successfully contacted and 981 had valid, complete data. The mean age was 45.0 years and 55% were females. Over the previous year 34.8% of the respondents reported suffering any GERD symptom. Of these 11.6% reported retrosternal burning, 11.7% retrosternal pain, 19.0% an acid taste in the mouth, and 17.5% reflux of gastric content. In all, 6.5%, 5.2%, 10.4%, and 7.9%, respectively, suffered these symptoms at least once a week, and 2.0%, 1.8%, 2.4%, and 2.3%, respectively, defined their symptoms as frequent and severe. Male sex (P=0.01) and a functional lower gastrointestinal (GI) disorder (P<0.0001) contributed significantly to the severity of upper GI reflux-like symptoms. In conclusion, GERD symptoms are common among Israeli Jews. The symptoms are generally of mild-to-moderate severity and are significantly associated with lower functional GI disorders. PMID:17450026

  10. Toxic Amblyopia (Nutritional Amblyopia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Those Blind From Birth Additional Content Medical News Toxic Amblyopia (Nutritional Amblyopia) by James Garrity, MD NOTE: ... Optic Neuropathies) Papilledema Optic Neuritis Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Toxic Amblyopia Toxic amblyopia (nutritional amblyopia) is damage to ...

  11. Control of air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.

    1995-03-01

    For more than 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory has supported the US DOE`s Flue Gas Cleanup Program objective by developing new or improved environmental controls for industries that use fossil fuels. Argonne`s pollutant emissions research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing, to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. The work on air toxics is currently divided into two components: Investigating measures to improve the removal of mercury in existing pollution-control systems applied to coal combustion; and, Developing sensors and control techniques for emissions found in the textile industry.

  12. Decreased milk drinking causing flecainide toxicity in an older child

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Ben; Mangat, Jasveer; Barton, Chris; Hawcutt, Daniel B

    2012-01-01

    Flecainide is a class IC antiarrhythmic agent, used frequently in all age groups for the treatment of tachyarrhythmias. Flecainide blocks the voltage-gated sodium channel in the myocardium, leading to prolongation of depolarisation resulting in slowed conduction velocity. Within a paediatric population, flecainide is indicated primarily for supraventricular tachycardia resulting from atrioventricular nodal re-entry and accessory pathway mediated re-entry. It can be considered for use in patients with atrial tachycardia, fascicular ventricular tachycardia, benign right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. It is well documented to cause paradoxical proarryhthmia in children, with evidence that milk can reduce absorption in infants. The authors present the case of an older child whose flecainide levels were persistently subtherapeutic until he reduced his milk intake. At this time he developed symptoms of severe flecainide toxicity associated with increased levels. PMID:22729333

  13. Clinical implications of panic symptoms in dental phobia.

    PubMed

    Potter, Carrie M; Kinner, Dina G; Tellez, Marisol; Ismail, Amid I; Heimberg, Richard G

    2014-10-01

    The occurrence of panic symptoms in various anxiety disorders has been associated with more severely impaired and difficult-to-treat cases, but this has not been investigated in dental phobia. We examined the clinical implications of panic symptoms related to sub-clinical and clinically significant dental phobia. The sample consisted of 61 patients at a university dental clinic who endorsed symptoms of dental phobia, 25 of whom met criteria for a formal diagnosis of dental phobia. Participants with dental phobia endorsed more panic symptoms than did those with sub-clinical dental phobia. In the total sample, greater endorsement of panic symptoms was associated with higher dental anxiety, more avoidance of dental procedures, and poorer oral health-related quality of life. Among those with dental phobia, certain panic symptoms exhibited associations with specific anxiety-eliciting dental procedures. Panic symptoms may serve as indicators of clinically significant dental phobia and the need for augmented treatment. PMID:25173979

  14. Toad venom poisoning: resemblance to digoxin toxicity and therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, R M; Cohen, R A; Khan, I A

    2003-01-01

    A healthy man developed gastrointestinal symptoms after ingesting purported aphrodisiac pills. He had severe unrelenting bradycardia, hyperkalaemia, and acidosis. He rapidly developed severe life threatening cardiac arrhythmias and died after a few hours. He was found to have positive serum digoxin concentrations, although he was not taking digoxin. Toad venom poisoning is similar to digitalis toxicity and carries a high mortality. Cardiac glycoside poisoning can occur from ingestion of various plants and animal toxins, and the venom gland of cane toad (Bufo marinus) contains large quantities of cardiac glycosides. Toad venom, a constituent of an aphrodisiac, was considered responsible for the development of clinical manifestations and death in this patient. Digoxin specific Fab fragment has been reported to be beneficial in the treatment of toad venom poisoning. This report alerts physicians to the need to be aware of a new community toxic exposure, as prompt treatment with digoxin specific Fab fragment may be life saving. The treatment approach to patients with suspected toad venom poisoning is described. PMID:12639891

  15. Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Symptoms in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Klest, Bridget; Freyd, Jennifer J.; Foynes, Melissa Ming

    2013-01-01

    Eight-hundred thirty-three members of an ethnically diverse longitudinal cohort study in Hawaii were surveyed about their personal exposure to several types of traumatic events, socioeconomic resources, and mental health symptoms. Results replicated findings from prior research that while men and women are exposed to similar rates of trauma overall, women report more exposure to traumas high in betrayal (HB), while men report exposure to more traumas lower in betrayal (LB). Trauma exposure was predictive of mental health symptoms, with neglect, household dysfunction, and HB traumas predicting symptoms of depression, anxiety, PTSD, dissociation, and sleep disturbance, and LB traumas predicting PTSD and dissociation symptoms. Native Hawaiian ethnicity and poorer socioeconomic status were predictive of greater trauma exposure and symptoms. Results suggest that more inclusive definitions of trauma are important for gender equity, and that ethnic group variation in symptoms is better explained by factors such as differential trauma exposure and economic and social status differences, rather than minority status per se. PMID:24660048

  16. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... variable from one person to another. Although the mean survival time with ALS is three to five years, many people live five, 10 or more years. Symptoms can begin in the muscles that control speech and swallowing or in the hands, arms, ...

  17. Tetanus: Symptoms and Complications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... materials (aspiration pneumonia) Breathing difficulty, possibly leading to death (10-20% of cases are fatal) Â Top of Page Related Page Symptoms/Complications for Clinicians Related Links Tetanus Vaccination Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination File Formats Help: How do I ...

  18. E. coli Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 5 days after eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated liquids. Symptoms may last for 8 days, and most people recover completely from the disease. Last Updated November 16, 2011 Stay Connected: Home | Contact Us | Help | Site Map | Accessibility | Privacy Policy | Disclaimer | Website Links & Policies | ...

  19. Bullying and PTSD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idsoe, Thormod; Dyregrov, Atle; Idsoe, Ella Cosmovici

    2012-01-01

    PTSD symptoms related to school bullying have rarely been investigated, and never in national samples. We used data from a national survey to investigate this among students from grades 8 and 9 (n = 963). The prevalence estimates of exposure to bullying were within the range of earlier research findings. Multinomial logistic regression showed that…

  20. Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptoms in Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siener, Shannon; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations among several measures of emotion regulation, and their links to depressive symptoms, in a sample of children ages 10-12 years old (N = 87). Both temporal features of emotion regulation and regulation processes involved in the evaluation, monitoring, and modification of emotion were assessed through parent and…

  1. Cerebellar symptoms heralding bilirubin encephalopathy in Crigler-Najjar syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tabarki, Brahim; Khalifa, Monia; Yacoub, Moncef; Tlili, Kalthoum; Essoussi, Ahmed S

    2002-09-01

    Children with Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I are at increased risk for neurologic deficits. Cerebellar symptoms are not prominent and appear in adolescent or adult patients with this syndrome. We report a 2-year-old female with Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I who presented severe cerebellar symptoms revealing bilirubin encephalopathy. The patient improved slowly with the duration of phototherapy. Cerebellar symptoms can be the initial manifestation of kernicterus in children with Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I. PMID:12393137

  2. Cerebellar symptoms heralding bilirubin encephalopathy in crigler-najjar syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brahim Tabarki; Monia Khalifa; Moncef Yacoub; Kalthoum Tlili; Ahmed S Essoussi

    2002-01-01

    Children with Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I are at increased risk for neurologic deficits. Cerebellar symptoms are not prominent and appear in adolescent or adult patients with this syndrome. We report a 2-year-old female with Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I who presented severe cerebellar symptoms revealing bilirubin encephalopathy. The patient improved slowly with the duration of phototherapy. Cerebellar symptoms can be the

  3. Predictors of depressive symptoms post-acute coronary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tasneem Z. Naqvi; Asim M. Rafique; Vonny Andreas; Masoud Rahban; James Mirocha; Syed S. A. Naqvi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We examined the influence of gender on the prevalence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and the severity of depressive symptoms post-ACS.Methods: Patients received a Zung self-assessment questionnaire at hospital discharge for unstable angina (UA) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and returned it by mail. Major depressive symptoms were diagnosed based on a summed depressive symptoms (SDS) score of >50.

  4. Acute toxicity of seeds of the sapodilla (Achras sapota L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, P D; Simon, W R; West, M E

    1984-01-01

    An aqueous extract of the sapodilla seed (Achras sapota L.) was acutely toxic to mice and rats (i.p. LD50 = 190 and 250 mg/kg, respectively) with symptoms of dyspnoea, apnoea and convulsions. Soxhlet extraction and chromatographic separation of the seed constituents yielded a brown amorphous solid containing saponin. This was heat-stable and toxic by the i.p. route (LD50 = 30-50 mg/kg) but non-toxic by the oral route in mice and rats. It is proposed that the toxicity of the sapodilla seed is due mainly to the saponin content. PMID:6719472

  5. Anchoring the Panic Disorder Severity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keough, Meghan E.; Porter, Eliora; Kredlow, M. Alexandra; Worthington, John J.; Hoge, Elizabeth A.; Pollack, Mark H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Simon, Naomi M.

    2012-01-01

    The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) is a clinician-administered measure of panic disorder symptom severity widely used in clinical research. This investigation sought to provide clinically meaningful anchor points for the PDSS both in terms of clinical severity as measured by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) and to extend…

  6. Jatropha Toxicity—A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakshit K. Devappa; Harinder P. S. Makkar; Klaus Becker

    2010-01-01

    Jatropha is a nonedible oil seed plant belonging to Euphorbiaceae family. Global awareness of sustainable and alternative energy resources has propelled research on Jatropha oil as a feedstock for biodiesel production. During the past two decades, several cultivation projects were undertaken to produce Jatropha oil. In future, the increased cultivation of toxic Jatropha plants and utilization of its agro-industrial by-products

  7. Severe eosinophilic pneumonia presenting during gemcitabine adjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Gemcitabine is widely accepted as the standard treatment for pancreatic cancer, but it can cause unpredictable side effects. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a rare complication with gemcitabine, but is sometimes fatal. We describe a cured case of acute, severe gemcitabine-induced pulmonary toxicity. The patient was a 76-year-old man with pancreatic cancer who was receiving adjuvant gemcitabine chemotherapy after surgery. The patient received gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 for three 4-week cycles, with intervals of 1 week. He developed severe general fatigue on day 1 of the third cycle. Computed tomography showed diffuse ground-glass opacity with pleural effusion. There was no increase in ?-D-glucan, and cytomegalovirus antigenemia assays were negative. No bacteria or acid-fast bacilli were found. The number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was increased. Considering these data, we diagnosed eosinophilic pneumonia induced by gemcitabine. The patient was immediately treated with a steroid and neutrophil elastase inhibitor under respiratory supportive therapy. After 4 weeks, his pulmonary symptoms were markedly improved. Physicians should be cognizant of the possible association of serious pulmonary toxicity with gemcitabine treatment. A delay in diagnosis and treatment could lead to a fatal outcome. PMID:23883337

  8. Severe eosinophilic pneumonia presenting during gemcitabine adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yakabe, Tomomi; Kitahara, Kenji; Komiya, Kazutoshi; Sueoka-Aragane, Naoko; Kimura, Shinya; Sugioka, Takashi; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Gemcitabine is widely accepted as the standard treatment for pancreatic cancer, but it can cause unpredictable side effects. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a rare complication with gemcitabine, but is sometimes fatal. We describe a cured case of acute, severe gemcitabine-induced pulmonary toxicity. The patient was a 76-year-old man with pancreatic cancer who was receiving adjuvant gemcitabine chemotherapy after surgery. The patient received gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 for three 4-week cycles, with intervals of 1 week. He developed severe general fatigue on day 1 of the third cycle. Computed tomography showed diffuse ground-glass opacity with pleural effusion. There was no increase in ?-D-glucan, and cytomegalovirus antigenemia assays were negative. No bacteria or acid-fast bacilli were found. The number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was increased. Considering these data, we diagnosed eosinophilic pneumonia induced by gemcitabine. The patient was immediately treated with a steroid and neutrophil elastase inhibitor under respiratory supportive therapy. After 4 weeks, his pulmonary symptoms were markedly improved. Physicians should be cognizant of the possible association of serious pulmonary toxicity with gemcitabine treatment. A delay in diagnosis and treatment could lead to a fatal outcome. PMID:23883337

  9. Severe Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2005-04-01

    Meteorologists disagree as to what constitutes severe weather. However, most concur that thunderstorms, tornadoes, and hurricanes, all considered to be "convective" weather, fit the definition of severe weather, which is a weather condition likely to cause hardship. This science guide will explore each of the three weather phenomena. By virtue of their locations, most students are familiar with at least one of the three severe weather events. Students who tour the web sites will have an opportunity to make connections between the familiar and the perhaps less understood weather events.

  10. Use of a simple symptom questionnaire to predict Barrett’s esophagus in patients with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren B. Gerson; Robert Edson; Philip W. Lavori; George Triadafilopoulos

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Accurately predicting Barrett’s esophagus (BE) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is difficult. Using logistic regression analysis of symptom questionnaire scores we created a model to predict the presence of BE.METHODS:We conducted a logistic regression analysis of symptom data collected prospectively on 517 GERD patients and created a prediction model based on patient gender, age, ethnicity, and symptom severity.RESULTS:There

  11. Use of a simple symptom questionnaire to predict Barrett's esophagus in patients with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren B. Gerson; Robert Edson; Philip W. Lavori; George Triadafilopoulos

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Accurately predicting Barrett's esophagus (BE) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is difficult. Using logistic regression analysis of symptom questionnaire scores we created a model to predict the presence of BE.METHODS:We conducted a logistic regression analysis of symptom data collected prospectively on 517 GERD patients and created a prediction model based on patient gender, age, ethnicity, and symptom severity.RESULTS:There

  12. Management of thalidomide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ghobrial, Irene M; Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2003-01-01

    Thalidomide has re-emerged as a novel antineoplastic agent with immunomodulatory and antiangiogenic activities. In the early sixties, it was withdrawn from the market after its infamous association with congenital abnormalities that left about 10,000 children affected world-wide. With strict regulations and precautions, thalidomide is now approved by the FDA for the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum. Its role in cancer therapy is promising, with clinical trials in the past 5 years showing significant activity in multiple myeloma. Several trials are ongoing in other malignancies, such as myelodysplastic syndrome, agnogenic myeloid metaplasia, renal cell carcinoma, and prostate cancer. The major toxicities of thalidomide are birth defects, sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, somnolence, rash, fatigue, and constipation. Less common side effects include deep venous thrombosis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, elevated liver enzymes, malaise, and peripheral edema. The incidence and severity of adverse events are related to dose and duration of therapy. Doses of the drug of 200 mg/day or less are usually well tolerated. In this review, we will discuss the incidence and management of the side effects of thalidomide and the precautions and interventions needed to minimize the toxicities of this drug. PMID:15334875

  13. Severe Storms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Part of the University of Illinois Weather World 2010 project, this guide uses multimedia technology and the dynamic capabilities of the web to incorporate text, colorful diagrams, animations, computer simulations, audio, and video to introduce topics and concepts in the atmospheric sciences. This module is a combination of two elements. The first is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Severe Storms Spotters Guide. The second is a section discussing the efforts and results of modeling severe storms. The Spotters Guide contains supplemental instructional resources and a program designed to familiarize meteorologists and advanced severe storm spotters with the building blocks of convective storm structure. The focus of the training series is the development of a thunderstorm spectrum and a discussion of the physical characteristics and severe weather potential of the various storm types in the spectrum.

  14. Sever's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pretty frightening, Sever's disease is really a common heel injury that occurs in kids. It can be ... inflammation (swelling) of the growth plate in the heel. A growth plate, also called an epiphyseal plate, ...

  15. Toxicity of palytoxin after repeated oral exposure in mice and in vitro effects on cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Del Favero, Giorgia; Beltramo, Dario; Sciancalepore, Marina; Lorenzon, Paola; Coslovich, Tamara; Poli, Mark; Testai, Emanuela; Sosa, Silvio; Tubaro, Aurelia

    2013-12-01

    Palytoxin (PLTX) is a highly toxic hydrophilic polyether detected in several edible marine organisms from intra-tropical areas, where seafood poisoning were reported. Symptoms usually start with gastro-intestinal malaise, often accompanied by myalgia, muscular cramps, dyspnea and, sometimes, arrhythmias. Monitoring programs in the Mediterranean Sea have detected PLTX-like molecules in edible mollusks and echinoderms. Despite the potential exposure of the human population and its high toxic potential, the toxicological profile of the molecule is still an issue. Thus, the effects of repeated oral administration of PLTX in mice were investigated. Seven days of PLTX administration caused lethality and toxic effects at doses ? 30 ?g/kg/day. A NOAEL was estimated equal to 3 ?g/kg/day, indicating a quite steep dose-response curve. This value, due to the limited number of animal tested, is provisional, although represents a sound basis for further testing. Macroscopic alterations at gastrointestinal level (gastric ulcers and intestinal fluid accumulation) were observed in mice dead during the treatment period. Histological analysis highlighted severe inflammation, locally associated with necrosis, at pulmonary level, as well as hyper-eosinophilia and fiber separation in myocardium. A cardiac damage was supported by the in vitro effect of the toxin on cardiomyocytes, indicating a severe and irreversible impairment of their electrical properties: electrophysiological recordings detected a progressive cell depolarization, arrest of action potentials and beating. PMID:23770425

  16. Experimental investigation of the effects of naturalistic dieting on bulimic symptoms: moderating effects of depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Presnell, Katherine; Stice, Eric; Tristan, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Prospective studies suggest that dieting increases risk for bulimic symptoms, but experimental trials indicate dieting reduces bulimic symptoms. However, these experiments may be unrepresentative of real-world weight loss dieting. In addition, the fact that most dieters do not develop eating disorders suggests moderating factors may be important. Accordingly, we randomly assigned 157 female intermittent dieters to either diet as they usually do for weight loss or eat as they normally do when not dieting for 4 weeks. Naturalistic dieting halted the weight gain shown by controls, but did not result in significant weight loss. Although there was no main effect of the dieting manipulation on bulimic symptoms, moderation analyses indicated that naturalistic dieting decreased bulimic symptoms among participants with initially low depressive symptoms. Results suggest that self-initiated weight loss dieting is not particularly effective, which appears to explain several discrepancies in the literature. Additionally, depressive symptoms may be an important determinant of bulimic symptoms that eclipses the effects of naturalistic dieting on this outcome. PMID:17662503

  17. Gender differences in the perceptions of common cold symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally Macintyre

    1993-01-01

    Higher rates of reported morbidity among women are sometimes attributed to lower thresholds among women for experiencing and reporting symptoms. Gender differences in the perception of signs and symptoms of minor illness were examined on data from the MRC Common Cold Unit. Volunteers assessed the presence and severity of colds at the end of their stay in the Unit, using

  18. Brain morphometry changes and depressive symptoms after traumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Hudak; Matthew Warner; Carlos Marquez de la Plata; Carol Moore; Caryn Harper; Ramon Diaz-Arrastia

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms. Recent imaging studies on spontaneous depression have implicated several brain structures; however, few studies have done the same for post-TBI depression. We report on a pilot observational study correlating atrophy of brain regions of interest in subjects after TBI with depressive symptoms measured by the Beck Depression

  19. Age differences and similarities in the correlates of depressive symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Nolen-Hoeksema; Cheryl Ahrens

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated whether several life events or concerns were differentially related to depressive symptoms across 3 adult age groups (young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults). They examined the relationships of 2 measures of depressive symptoms to work status and satisfaction, relationship status and satisfaction, loneliness, recent losses, parenting strain, and caregiving. Some differences between age groups in these

  20. Age Differences and Similarities in the Correlates of Depressive Symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Nolen-Hoeksema; Cheryl Ahrens

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated whether several life events or concerns were differentially related to depressive symptoms across 3 adult age groups (young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults). They examined the relationships of 2 measures of depressive symptoms to work status and satisfaction, relationship status and satisfaction, loneliness, recent losses, parenting strain, and caregiving. Some differences between age groups in these

  1. Chronic rhinosinusitis: correlation of symptoms with computed tomography scan findings

    PubMed Central

    Amodu, Enema Job; Fasunla, Ayotunde James; Akano, Aliu Oyebamiji; Daud Olusesi, Abiodun

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Symptomatology, nasal endoscopy and Computerised Tomographic (CT) scan have been used to diagnose chronic rhinosinusitis. The value of disease severity score in the assessment of chronic rhinosinusitis has not been well investigated. Hence, this study aims to correlate the pre-operative symptom severity score as well as overall disease severity scoreof patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with CT scan scores. Methods This is a prospective study of 60 patients diagnosed clinically with chronic rhinosinusitis. Each patientsubjectively assessed his/her presenting symptoms and severity of disease on a visual analogue scale. The patients had CT scan of the paranasal sinuses which were graded and scored using Lund-Mackay grading system. The correlation study between severity of symptoms/disease severity and CT scores was performed. The level of statistical significance was considered at p < 0.05 and confidence interval at 95%. Results All patients had more than one symptom with mean symptom severity scores highest for nasal discharge and nasal obstruction. There was a significant correlation between CT scores and nasal discharge (r = -0.132; p = 0.03)and nasal obstruction (r = 0.193; p = 0.049). No correlation with other symptoms. There wasno correlation between the overall disease severity scores and the Lund-Mackay CT scores (r = 0.195; p = 0.6). Conclusion This study showed that CT scan scores can help clinicians to predict severity of symptom for nasal obstruction and discharge but not for other symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis. However, there was no association of CT score with the overall disease severity score. PMID:25368729

  2. Symptom Burden in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Mark P.; Kuehn, Carrie M.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Cardenas, Diane D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine (1) the frequency, severity, and reported course of 7 symptoms in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and (2) the association between these symptoms and patient functioning. Design Postal survey. Setting Community. Intervention A survey that included measures of the frequency, severity, and recalled course of pain, fatigue, numbness, weakness, shortness of breath, vision loss, and memory loss, as well as a measure of community integration and psychologic functioning was mailed to a sample of persons with SCI. One hundred forty-seven usable surveys were returned (response rate, 43% of surveys mailed). Main Outcome Measures The frequency and average severity of each symptom was computed, and the frequencies of each type of reported course were noted. Analyses estimated the associations among the symptoms, and between symptom severity and measures of patient functioning. Results The most common symptoms were pain, weakness, fatigue, and numbness. All symptoms were reported to remain the same or to get worse more often than they were reported to improve once they began. Pain, weakness, fatigue, and memory loss were the symptoms most closely associated with patient functioning. Conclusions Patients with SCI must deal with a number of secondary complications in addition to any disability caused by the injury itself. Of 7 symptoms studied, pain, weakness, and fatigue appeared to be most common and most closely linked to patient social and mental health functioning. Research is needed to identify the causal relationships between perceived symptoms and quality of life in patients with SCI and to identify effective treatments for those symptoms shown to impact patient functioning. PMID:17466734

  3. Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Michael; Torchia, Daniele; Romanelli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome is a severe idiosyncratic drug reaction with a long latency period. It has been described using many terms; however, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome appears to be the most appropriate. This syndrome causes a diverse array of clinical symptoms, anywhere from 2 to 8 weeks after initiating the offending drug. Standardized criteria for the diagnosis have been developed; however, their utility remains to be validated. Unfortunately, the management of drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome is not well supported by strong evidence-based data. PMID:23882307

  4. Symptoms of Lewy Body Dementia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dementia occurs before or within 1 year of Parkinson's symptoms are diagnosed with DLB. People who have an ... include sound, taste, smell, and touch. Parkinsonism or Parkinson's Disease symptoms, take the form of changes in gait; the ...

  5. Eliminating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil for rice cultivation using plant growth promoting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Radziah, Othman; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Razi, Ismail Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum toxicity is widely considered as the most important limiting factor for plants growing in acid sulfate soils. A study was conducted in laboratory and in field to ameliorate Al toxicity using plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), ground magnesium limestone (GML) and ground basalt. Five-day-old rice seedlings were inoculated by Bacillus sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophila, Burkholderia thailandensis and Burkholderia seminalis and grown for 21 days in Hoagland solution (pH 4.0) at various Al concentrations (0, 50 and 100 ?M). Toxicity symptoms in root and leaf were studied using scanning electron microscope. In the field, biofertilizer (PGPB), GML and basalt were applied (4 t·ha-1 each). Results showed that Al severely affected the growth of rice. At high concentrations, the root surface was ruptured, leading to cell collapse; however, no damages were observed in the PGPB inoculated seedlings. After 21 days of inoculation, solution pH increased to >6.0, while the control treatment remained same. Field study showed that the highest rice growth and yield were obtained in the bio-fertilizer and GML treatments. This study showed that Al toxicity was reduced by PGPB via production of organic acids that were able to chelate the Al and the production of polysaccharides that increased solution pH. The release of phytohormones further enhanced rice growth that resulted in yield increase. PMID:25710843

  6. Latent Class Analysis of YBOCS Symptoms in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Delucchi, Kevin L.; Katerberg, Hilga; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Denys, Damiaan A.J.P.; Lochner, Christine; Stack, Denise E.; den Boer, Johan A.; van Balkom, Anton J.L.M.; Jenike, Michael A.; Stein, Dan J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Mathews, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is phenomenologically heterogeneous, and findings of underlying structure classification based on symptom grouping have been ambiguous to date. Variable-centered approaches, primarily factor analysis, have been used to identify homogeneous groups of symptoms, but person-centered latent methods have seen little use. This study was designed to uncover sets of homogeneous groupings within 1611 individuals with OCD, based on symptoms. Method Latent class analysis (LCA) models using 61 obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) collected from the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale were fit. Relationships between latent class membership and treatment response, gender, symptom severity and comorbid tic disorders were tested for relationship to class membership. Results LCA models of best fit yielded three classes. Classes differed only in frequency of symptom endorsement. Classes with higher symptom endorsement were associated with earlier age of onset, being male, higher YBOCS symptom severity scores, and comorbid tic disorders. There were no differences in treatment response between classes. Conclusions These results provide support for the validity of a single underlying latent OCD construct, in addition to the distinct symptom factors identified previously via factor analyses. PMID:21145539

  7. Cadmium as a respiratory toxicant

    SciTech Connect

    Grose, E.C.; Graham, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cadmium is a major respiratory toxicant as evidenced by numerous human and animal studies. Controlled animal inhalation studies provide supporting evidence to the associations observed in epidemiological studies that Cd has the potential to cause lung fibrosis, emphysema, cancer, and kidney disease after prolonged exposure. Shorter-term exposure studies indicate that mechanisms thought to be involved in several of these chronic disease states (especially fibrosis and emphysema) are acutely activated. The evidence of toxicity is sufficiently clear that a TLV has been set and the International Agency for Research on Cancer has named Cd as a Group B1 substance (probable human carcinogen). The risk to Cd exposure is enhanced by its chemical and physical properties that result in bioaccumulation. Thus, even a low-level exposure over long periods of time would be expected to reach doses that could be toxic.

  8. Aloe-induced Toxic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ha Na; Kim, Young Mook; Kim, Byoung Ho; Sohn, Kyoung Min; Choi, Myung Jin; Choi, Young Hee

    2010-01-01

    Aloe has been widely used in phytomedicine. Phytomedicine describes aloe as a herb which has anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-aging effects. In recent years several cases of aloe-induced hepatotoxicity were reported. But its pharmacokinetics and toxicity are poorly described in the literature. Here we report three cases with aloe-induced toxic hepatitis. A 57-yr-old woman, a 62-yr-old woman and a 55-yr-old woman were admitted to the hospital for acute hepatitis. They had taken aloe preparation for months. Their clinical manifestation, laboratory findings and histologic findings met diagnostic criteria (RUCAM scale) of toxic hepatitis. Upon discontinuation of the oral aloe preparations, liver enzymes returned to normal level. Aloe should be considered as a causative agent in hepatotoxicity. PMID:20191055

  9. Menthol Toxicity: An Unusual Cause of Coma

    PubMed Central

    Baibars, Motaz; Eng, Simona; Shaheen, Khaldoon; Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Alraies, M. Chadi

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) consider menthol an effective substance, which help in common cold symptoms and labeled to have low toxicity profile. Direct exposure to high menthol amount has been reported in animal; but no studies have been done to show the effect of menthol on long-term use in humans. Up to our knowledge we are reporting a rare case of chronic exposure to significant amount of menthol associated with cutaneous, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. PMID:23251165

  10. Severe valproic acid intoxication is associated with atrial tachycardia: secondary detoxication by hemoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Meyer, S; Kuhlmann, M K; Peters, F T; Limbach, H G; Lindinger, A

    2005-01-01

    Valproic acid is an anticonvulsant drug which is associated with serious toxicity including fatal outcome in case of severe intoxication. Secondary detoxication by hemodialysis or hemoperfusion has been employed successfully in valproic acid intoxication. Cardiac arrhythmias have only been described rarely in valproic acid intoxication in humans. We report on a 15 year-old boy with severe valproic acid intoxication (valproic acid plasma level on admission: 1 150 mg/l) who presented with coma, hypernatremia and atrial tachycardia. The patient was successfully treated with hemoperfusion and intensive supportive care without implementation of a specific antiarrhythmic therapy. We conclude that patients with severe valproic acid intoxication may benefit from secondary detoxication. In addition to generally known symptoms valproic acid intoxication may also be associated with cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:15770579

  11. When caregiving ends: the course of depressive symptoms after bereavement.

    PubMed

    Aneshensel, Carol S; Botticello, Amanda L; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko

    2004-12-01

    This study describes depressive symptoms among caregivers following bereavement and connects these trajectories to earlier features of caregiving using life course and stress process theory. Data are from a six-wave longitudinal survey (five years) of spouses and adult children caring for someone with Alzheimer's Disease. The analytic subsample (N = 291) is defined by death of the care-recipient after the baseline interview. A latent class mixture model is used to identify distinctive clusters of depressive symptoms over time. Of the four trajectories identified, three represent stable symptom levels over time, with two-thirds being repeatedly symptomatic (medium symptom levels), compared to two smaller groups of repeatedly asymptomatic (effectively absent of symptoms) and repeatedly distressed (severe symptoms). In contrast, about one in five caregivers experiences improved emotional well-being over time, the temporarily distressed, who progress from severe to moderate symptom levels. Caregivers with few symptoms before bereavement tend to maintain these states afterwards, but emotionally distressed caregivers tend to become more distressed. Role overload before bereavement substantially increases the odds of following an unfavorable trajectory afterwards, whereas self-esteem and socioemotional support play protective roles. These results demonstrate that caregivers are not uniform in their emotional responses to bereavement, but follow several distinct trajectories. These trajectories are linked to their previous experiences as caregivers, in particular exposure to stressors and access to resources. These findings suggest that intervention during caregiving may facilitate adaptation following death of a loved one. PMID:15869114

  12. Quinclorac Ester Toxicity and Metabolism in Leafy Spurge ( Euphorbia esula) Soil Systems: Effects of Foliar vs Soil Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald G. Rusness; Janice K. Huwe; Gerald L. Lamoureux

    1998-01-01

    Quinclorac and 13 synthesized esters were monitored for toxicity in foliar- and soil-treated leafy spurge plants. Foliar treatment at 0.5 ?mol\\/plant with quinclorac resulted with 100% mortality, whereas treatment with esters at 2 ?mol\\/plant showed initial toxicity symptoms, but the plants recovered with time (24 weeks). Foliar toxicity symptoms and mortality increased throughout 24 weeks after soil treatment at 0.4

  13. The 4-Item Negative Symptom Assessment (NSA-4) Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Morlock, Robert; Coon, Cheryl; van Willigenburg, Arjen; Panagides, John

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To assess the ability of mental health professionals to use the 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment instrument, derived from the Negative Symptom Assessment-16, to rapidly determine the severity of negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Design. Open participation. Setting. Medical education conferences. Participants. Attendees at two international psychiatry conferences. Measurements. Participants read a brief set of the 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment instructions and viewed a videotape of a patient with schizophrenia. Using the 1 to 6 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment severity rating scale, they rated four negative symptom items and the overall global negative symptoms. These ratings were compared with a consensus rating determination using frequency distributions and Chi-square tests for the proportion of participant ratings that were within one point of the expert rating. Results. More than 400 medical professionals (293 physicians, 50% with a European practice, and 55% who reported past utilization of schizophrenia ratings scales) participated. Between 82.1 and 91.1 percent of the 4-items and the global rating determinations by the participants were within one rating point of the consensus expert ratings. The differences between the percentage of participant rating scores that were within one point versus the percentage that were greater than one point different from those by the consensus experts was significant (p<0.0001). Participants rating of negative symptoms using the 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment did not generally differ among the geographic regions of practice, the professional credentialing, or their familiarity with the use of schizophrenia symptom rating instruments. Conclusion. These findings suggest that clinicians from a variety of geographic practices can, after brief training, use the 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment effectively to rapidly assess negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:20805916

  14. Toxic Effects of Borassus flabellifer (Palmyrah Palm) in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arseculeratne, S. N.; Panabokke, R. G.; Tennekoon, G. E.; Bandunatha, C. H. S. R.

    1971-01-01

    The fleshy, food storage scales of the young shoot of the palmyrah palm (Borassus flabellifer) is a food item, consumed by the people of this country. This material, kottakilangu when fed to rats for 5-10 days, produced toxic symptoms which included ataxia, immobility of the hind limbs, laboured respiration and death. The histological abnormalities were mainly confined to the liver, which showed severe congestion of the centrilobular region, hydropic and fatty degeneration. Certain batches of kottakilangu produced in addition, reduction of succinic dehydrogenase activity of the liver when examined histochemically. Liver mitochondria from intoxicated rats showed a reduction of succinic oxidase and to a lesser extent, succinic dehydrogenase activity in vitro Aqueous extracts of kottakilangu also produced inhibition of succinic oxidase activity of normal rat liver mitochondria in vitro. This activity was heat stable and dependent on the concentration of the extract. It was concluded that kottakilangu has at least 2 toxic factors, a lethal factor and a mitochondrion-damaging factor. The possible significance of this food in human nutrition in relation to liver disease is pointed out. ImagesFigs. 2-4Figs. 5-7 PMID:5125266

  15. Toxic Inhalational Injury-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kim, Hyung Young; Yu, Jinho; Jhang, Won-Kyoung; Park, Seong-Jong; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Cho, Young Ah; Kim, Sun-A; Jang, Se Jin

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease in children (chILD) is a group of disorders characterized by lung inflammation and interstitial fibrosis. In the past recent years, we noted an outbreak of child in Korea, which is possibly associated with inhalation toxicity. Here, we report a series of cases involving toxic inhalational injury-associated chILD with bronchiolitis obliterans pattern in Korean children. This study included 16 pediatric patients confirmed by lung biopsy and chest computed tomography, between February 2006 and May 2011 at Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital. The most common presenting symptoms were cough and dyspnea. The median age at presentation was 26 months (range: 12-47 months), with high mortality (44%). Histopathological analysis showed bronchiolar destruction and centrilobular distribution of alveolar destruction by inflammatory and fibroproliferative process with subpleural sparing. Chest computed tomography showed ground-glass opacities and consolidation in the early phase and diffuse centrilobular nodular opacity in the late phase. Air leak with severe respiratory difficulty was associated with poor prognosis. Although respiratory chemicals such as humidifier disinfectants were strongly considered as a cause of this disease, further studies are needed to understand the etiology and pathophysiology of the disease to improve the prognosis and allow early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23772158

  16. Signs and symptoms of dementia.

    PubMed

    Sandilyan, Malarvizhi Babu; Dening, Tom

    2015-06-10

    The clinical features of dementia are usually considered in two groups: cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms. Among cognitive symptoms, problems with memory are typical of most forms of dementia, but problems with language and executive functioning are also prevalent. Non-cognitive symptoms is a somewhat unsatisfactory general term for a group of problems that include mood disorders, psychotic symptoms and various other changes in behaviour. In assessment and management, it is important to look for underlying causes of symptoms and try to understand the perspective of the individual with dementia, because their behaviour may be communicating an important message. PMID:26058652

  17. How common are symptoms? Evidence from a New Zealand national telephone survey

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, Keith J; Faasse, Kate; Crichton, Fiona; Grey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the frequency of symptoms in a general population sample over the previous week and the associations between symptom reporting and demographic factors, medical visits and medication use. Design A representative general population sample (n=1000) was recruited using random digit dialling. Participants were asked whether they had experienced any of a list of 46 symptoms in the previous 7?days and if so, whether the symptom was mild, moderate or severe. Demographic data and information on medical visits and medication use were also collected. Results Symptom reporting was very common. The median number of symptoms reported by participants in the previous week was 5 with only 10.6% of participants reporting no symptoms. The five most common symptoms in the previous 7?days were: back pain (38%), fatigue (36%), headache (35%), runny or stuffy nose (34%) and joint pain (34%). The five symptoms rated highest in terms of severity were sexual difficulties, vomiting, tremor, suicidal thoughts and sleep problems. Symptom reporting was significantly positively associated with medical visits in the previous year and current medication taking. Women reported a significantly greater number of symptoms. We found no significant association between age or household size and symptom reporting. Conclusions This population-based study found that symptoms are more commonly experienced in the general population than previously estimated and are strongly associated with healthcare visits. Appreciation of the high prevalence of symptoms may help normalise the experience of symptom reports among the general population. PMID:24928596

  18. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Aarsland, D.; Marsh, L.; Schrag, A.

    2009-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in Parkinson's disease, even at the earliest stages, and have important consequences for quality of life and daily functioning, are associated with increased carer burden and increased risk for nursing home admission. In addition to cognitive impairment, a wide range of neuropsychiatric symptoms have been reported. In this paper, the epidemiology, clinical course, diagnosis, and management of some of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms in PD are discussed: depression, anxiety, apathy, fatigue and psychotic symptoms. Although much is known regarding the prevalence and course of these symptoms, the empirical evidence for how to manage these symptoms is limited at best. There is thus an urgent need for systematic studies for the pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of these symptoms. PMID:19768724

  19. Development of severe accident procedures for Ringhals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Lutz; E. Frantz; S. R. Prokopovich; R. Bastien

    1988-01-01

    Symptom based procedures have been developed for Ringhals to improve the ability of nuclear power plant operators to respond to severe accident transients leading to core melt and reactor vessel failure. These severe accident procedures, together with the existing Ringhals emergency operating procedures, constitute an integrated package of consistent operator actions for dealing with severe accidents in both the short

  20. Biochar reduces copper toxicity in Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Buss, Wolfram; Kammann, Claudia; Koyro, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    Mining, smelting, land applications of sewage sludge, the use of fungicides containing copper (Cu), and other human activities have led to widespread soil enrichment and contamination with Cu and potentially toxic conditions. Biochar (BC) can adsorb several substances, ranging from herbicides to plant-inhibiting allelochemicals. However, the range of potential beneficial effects on early-stage plant growth with regard to heavy metal toxicity is largely unexplored. We investigated the ameliorating properties of a forestry-residue BC under Cu toxicity conditions on early plant growth. Young quinoa plants () were grown in the greenhouse in the presence of 0, 2, and 4% BC application (w/w) added to a sandy soil with 0, 50, or 200 ?g g Cu supplied. The plants without BC showed severe stress symptoms and reduced growth shortly after Cu application of 50 ?g g and died at 200 ?g Cu g. Increasing BC concentrations in the growth medium significantly increased the plant performance without Cu toxicity or under Cu stress. At the 4% BC application rate, the plants with 200 ?g g Cu almost reached the same biomass as in the control treatment. In the presence of BC, less Cu entered the plant tissues, which had reduced Cu concentrations in the order roots, shoots, leaves. The amelioration effect also was reflected in the plant-soil system CO gas exchange, which showed clear signs of improvement with BC presence. The most likely ameliorating mechanisms were adsorption of Cu to negatively charged BC surfaces and an improvement of the water supply. Overall, BC seems to be a beneficial amendment with the potential to ameliorate Cu toxicity in sandy soils. Further research with a broad spectrum of different soil types, BCs, and crop plants is required. PMID:22751058

  1. RESULTS OF SOLID PHASE SEDIMENT TOXICITY TESTS WITH REDUCED SEDIMENT VOLUMES FOR SEDIMENT TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development and standardization of sediment toxicity test methods for freshwater organisms have been underway for several years. Both EPA and ASTM have published methods for assessing the short-term (e.g., 10-d) toxicity of sediments to two benthic freshwater organisms (Hyalella ...

  2. Myristicin and phenytoin toxicity in an infant.

    PubMed

    Sivathanu, Shobhana; Sampath, Sowmya; David, Henry Suresh; Rajavelu, Kulandai Kasthuri

    2014-01-01

    A developmentally normal infant presented with repeated episodes of afebrile status epilepticus following nutmeg ingestion. He had developed two episodes of afebrile status epilepticus and had received different treatments earlier, but the details of treatment were not available. On admission, he redeveloped convulsions and loading doses of phenytoin, phenobarbitone and midazolam were administered. However, seizures persisted and extrapyramidal movements, nystagmus and visual dysfunction were noted. Iatrogenic phenytoin toxicity was considered and confirmed by drug levels. His symptoms completely disappeared after discontinuation of phenytoin therapy. The initial seizures were attributed to myristicin, an active component of nutmeg, because of the temporal association. However, the subsequent seizures were due to phenytoin toxicity caused by administration of multiple loading doses. This case highlights that nutmeg, a spice, can cause serious toxic effects like status epilepticus. Furthermore, treatment of status epilepticus with phenytoin can cause iatrogenic seizures due to its narrow therapeutic range. PMID:24903724

  3. Toxic substances handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

  4. Toxic Shock Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about it, then take some precautions. What Is Toxic Shock Syndrome? If you're a girl who's ... period, you may have heard frightening stories about toxic shock syndrome (TSS), a serious illness originally linked ...

  5. Toxicity of Two Different Sized Lanthanum Oxides in Cultured Cells and Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the use of both nano- and micro-sized lanthanum has been increasing in the production of optical glasses, batteries, alloys, etc. However, a hazard assessment has not been performed to determine the degree of toxicity of lanthanum. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the toxicity of both nano- and micro-sized lanthanum oxide in cultured cells and rats. After identifying the size and the morphology of lanthanum oxides, the toxicity of two different sized lanthanum oxides was compared in cultured RAW264.7 cells and A549 cells. The toxicity of the lanthanum oxides was also analyzed using rats. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations of micro-La2O3 in the RAW264.7 cells, with and without sonication, were 17.3 and 12.7 times higher than those of nano-La2O3, respectively. Similar to the RAW264.7 cells, the toxicity of nano-La2O3 was stronger than that of micro-La2O3 in the A549 cells. We found that nano-La2O3 was absorbed in the lungs more and was eliminated more slowly than micro-La2O3. At a dosage that did not affect the body weight, numbers of leukocytes, and concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase and albumin in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids, the weight of the lungs increased. Inflammatory effects on BAL decreased over time, but lung weight increased and the proteinosis of the lung became severe over time. The effects of particle size on the toxicity of lanthanum oxides in rats were less than in the cultured cells. In conclusion, smaller lanthanum oxides were more toxic in the cultured cells, and sonication decreased their size and increased their toxicity. The smaller-sized lanthanum was absorbed more into the lungs and caused more toxicity in the lungs. The histopathological symptoms caused by lanthanum oxide in the lungs did not go away and continued to worsen until 13 weeks after the initial exposure. PMID:26191385

  6. Predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms following childbirth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following childbirth has gained growing attention in the recent years. Although a number of predictors for PTSD following childbirth have been identified (e.g., history of sexual trauma, emergency caesarean section, low social support), only very few studies have tested predictors derived from current theoretical models of the disorder. This study first aimed to replicate the association of PTSD symptoms after childbirth with predictors identified in earlier research. Second, cognitive predictors derived from Ehlers and Clark’s (2000) model of PTSD were examined. Methods N = 224 women who had recently given birth completed an online survey. In addition to computing single correlations between PTSD symptom severities and variables of interest, in a hierarchical multiple regression analyses posttraumatic stress symptoms were predicted by (1) prenatal variables, (2) birth-related variables, (3) postnatal social support, and (4) cognitive variables. Results Wellbeing during pregnancy and age were the only prenatal variables contributing significantly to the explanation of PTSD symptoms in the first step of the regression analysis. In the second step, the birth-related variables peritraumatic emotions and wellbeing during childbed significantly increased the explanation of variance. Despite showing significant bivariate correlations, social support entered in the third step did not predict PTSD symptom severities over and above the variables included in the first two steps. However, with the exception of peritraumatic dissociation all cognitive variables emerged as powerful predictors and increased the amount of variance explained from 43% to a total amount of 68%. Conclusions The findings suggest that the prediction of PTSD following childbirth can be improved by focusing on variables derived from a current theoretical model of the disorder. PMID:25026966

  7. Chromium toxicity in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arun K. Shanker; Carlos Cervantes; Herminia Loza-Tavera; S. Avudainayagam

    2005-01-01

    Due to its wide industrial use, chromium is considered a serious environmental pollutant. Contamination of soil and water by chromium (Cr) is of recent concern. Toxicity of Cr to plants depends on its valence state: Cr(VI) is highly toxic and mobile whereas Cr(III) is less toxic. Since plants lack a specific transport system for Cr, it is taken up by

  8. UNIFIED AIR TOXICS WEBSITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic air pollutants are also referred to as air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). They are generally defined as those pollutants that are known or suspected to cause serious health problems. Routine toxic air pollutants are emitted by a variety of industrial sources and...

  9. How Toxic Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crellin, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the relative danger from toxicity of some typical chemicals. Notes that some materials in solutions have low toxicity, but in dust form have high toxicity. Suggests that more chemical compounds should be treated as the dangerous compounds they are. Lists common compounds found in the lab. (MVL)

  10. [Advances in studies on toxicity of aconite].

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong-Chang; Sun, Gui-Bo; Zhang, Qiang; Ye, Zu-Guang; Sun, Xiao-Bo

    2013-04-01

    Aconite has the efficacy of reviving yang for resuscitation, dispelling cold and relieving pain, which is widely used in clinic, and shows unique efficacy in treating severe diseases. However, aconite has great toxicity, with obvious cardio-toxicity and neurotoxicity. Its toxicological mechanism main shows in the effect on voltage-dependent sodium channels, release of neurotransmitters and changes in receptors, promotion of lipid peroxidation and cell apoptosis in heart, liver and other tissues. Aconite works to reduce toxicity mainly through compatibility and processing. Besides traditional processing methods, many new modern processing techniques could also help achieve the objectives of detoxification and efficacy enhancement. In order to further develop the medicinal value of aconite and reduce its side effect in clinical application, this article gives comprehensive comments on aconite's toxicity characteristics, mechanism and detoxification methods on the basis of relevant reports for aconite's toxicity and the author's experimental studies. PMID:23944022

  11. Multiple perspectives on symptom interpretation in primary care research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Assessment and management of symptoms is a main task in primary care. Symptoms may be defined as 'any subjective evidence of a health problem as perceived by the patient’. In other words, symptoms do not appear as such; symptoms are rather the result of an interpretation process. We aim to discuss different perspectives on symptom interpretation as presented in the disciplines of biomedicine, psychology and anthropology and the possible implications for our understanding of research on symptoms in relation to prevalence and diagnosis in the general population and in primary care. Discussion Symptom experiences are embedded in a complex interplay between biological, psychological and cultural factors. From a biomedical perspective, symptoms are seen as possible indicators of disease and are characterized by parameters related to seriousness (e.g. appearance, severity, impact and temporal aspects). However, such symptom characteristics are rarely unambiguous, but merely indicate disease probability. In addition, the GP’s interpretation of presenting symptoms will also be influenced by other factors. From a psychological perspective, factors affecting interpretation are in focus (e.g. internal frame of reference, attention to sensations, illness perception and susceptibility to suggestion). These individual factors cannot stand alone either, but are influenced by the surroundings. Anthropological research suggests that personal experiences and culture form a continuous feedback relationship which influence when and how sensations are understood as symptoms of disease and acted upon. Summary The different approaches to symptom interpretation imply that we need to be cautious and conscious when interpreting survey findings that are based on symptom prevalence in the general population or in primary care. These findings will reflect a variety of interpretations of sensations, which are not equivalent to expressions of underlying disease. Furthermore, if diagnosis of disease is based exclusively on the presence of specific symptom characteristics, we may risk reinforcing a dualistic approach, including medicalisation of normal phenomena and devaluation of medically unexplained symptoms. Future research in primary care could gain from exploring symptoms as a generic phenomenon and raised awareness of symptom complexity. PMID:24188544

  12. Toxicities of raw Alocasia odora.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeong Mi; Lee, Byeong Kook; Chun, Byeong Jo

    2011-10-01

    Alocasia, the Araceae family, is a genus of more than 100 species of perennial, herbaceous, diminutive to extremely large, usually robust herbs with a clear-to-milky latex. They are distributed throughout subtropical and tropical Asia and in the tropical western pacific as well as eastern Australia. Despite easy access to A odora, there have been no published reports in English regarding the toxic symptoms following the ingestion of raw A odora. Here, the clinical manifestations of 2 patients that ingested raw A odora are described. Two patients experienced oral numbness and intractable tongue pain, and 1 patient required endotracheal intubation because of upper respiratory tract obstruction. Although conservative treatment is the primary approach to A odora poisoning, physicians should be aware of the potential for upper respiratory obstruction in patients exposed to A odora, as well as the need for controlling tongue pain. PMID:21177728

  13. Psychological Symptoms of Residents in the Aftermath of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Accident and Restart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Prince-Embury; James F. Rooney

    1988-01-01

    Psychological symptoms of 108 residents in the vicinity of Three Mile Island were assessed following the restart of the nuclear plant in 1985. Findings suggest that psychological symptoms in the community remain chronically elevated since the time of the 1979 accident but may not have been substantially impacted by restart. Twenty-five percent of the variance in global severity of symptoms

  14. The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety\\/depressive symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Nolen-Hoeksema

    2000-01-01

    Several studies have shown that people who engage in ruminative responses to depressive symptoms have higher levels of depressive symptoms over time, after accounting for baseline levels of depressive symptoms. The analyses reported here showed that rumination also predicted depressive disorders, including new onsets of depressive episodes. Rumination predicted chronicity of depressive disorders before accounting for the effects of baseline

  15. The Prevalence and Incremental Validity of Identity Problem Symptoms in a High School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Steven L.; Weems, Carl F.; Petkus, Veronica F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the expression, prevalence, and incremental validity of identity problem symptoms in adolescence. A sample of high school students (N = 140) aged 15-18 completed measures of identity problem symptoms, identity status, and psychological symptom severity. Findings suggested that 14.3% would meet DSM IV criteria for identity…

  16. Burns and the toxic effects of a derivative of hydrazine.

    PubMed

    Dhennin, C; Vesin, L; Feauveaux, J

    1988-04-01

    Comments are presented on a case history of extensive burns associated with 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) toxicity in a 31-year-old man. Neurological symptoms dominated early developments. Specific treatment with pyridoxine, while begun late, effected a quite rapid resolution and the subsequent progression of treatment was straightforward. In reviewing previous reported findings, the authors have clarified the distinctive characteristics of UDMH toxicity, the methods for its detection and modes of treatment. They draw conclusions, based on problems encountered, linked to the exceptional character of acute UDMH toxicity especially in its association with extensive burns. PMID:3292016

  17. Scabies: Disease Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Disease When a person is ... reaction) to the proteins and feces of the parasite. Severe itching (pruritus), especially at night, is the ...

  18. Symptom reporting in childhood asthma: a comparison of assessment methods

    PubMed Central

    Halterman, J S; Yoos, H L; Kitzman, H; Anson, E; Sidora?Arcoleo, K; McMullen, A

    2006-01-01

    Background One barrier to receiving adequate asthma care is inaccurate estimations of symptom severity. Aims To interview parents of children with asthma in order to: (1) describe the range of reported illness severity using three unstructured methods of assessment; (2) determine which assessment method is least likely to result in a “critical error” that could adversely influence the child's care; and (3) determine whether the likelihood of making a “critical error” varies by sociodemographic characteristics. Methods A total of 228 parents of children with asthma participated. Clinical status was evaluated using structured questions reflecting National Asthma Education and Prevention Panel (NAEPP) criteria. Unstructured assessments of severity were determined using a visual analogue scale (VAS), a categorical assessment of severity, and a Likert scale assessment of asthma control. A “critical error” was defined as a parent report of symptoms in the lower 50th centile for each method of assessment for children with moderate–severe persistent symptoms by NAEPP criteria. Results Children with higher severity according to NAEPP criteria were rated on each unstructured assessment as more symptomatic compared to those with less severe symptoms. However, among the children with moderate–severe persistent symptoms, many parents made a critical error and rated children in the lower 50th centile using the VAS (41%), the categorical assessment (45%), and the control assessment (67%). The likelihood of parents making a critical error did not vary by sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions All of the unstructured assessment methods tested yielded underestimations of severity that could adversely influence treatment decisions. Specific symptom questions are needed for accurate severity assessments. PMID:16705016

  19. Depressive Symptoms and Concussions in Aging Retired NFL Players

    PubMed Central

    Didehbani, Nyaz; Munro Cullum, C.; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Hart, John

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression). PMID:23644673

  20. Gossypol toxicity from cottonseed products.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, Ivana Cristina N; Fonseca, Nayanna Brunna S; Oloris, Silvia Catarina S; Melo, Marília M; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2014-01-01

    Gossypol is a phenolic compound produced by pigment glands in cotton stems, leaves, seeds, and flower buds (Gossypium spp.). Cottonseed meal is a by-product of cotton that is used for animal feeding because it is rich in oil and proteins. However, gossypol toxicity limits cottonseed use in animal feed. High concentrations of free gossypol may be responsible for acute clinical signs of gossypol poisoning which include respiratory distress, impaired body weight gain, anorexia, weakness, apathy, and death after several days. However, the most common toxic effects is the impairment of male and female reproduction. Another important toxic effect of gossypol is its interference with immune function, reducing an animal's resistance to infections and impairing the efficiency of vaccines. Preventive procedures to limit gossypol toxicity involve treatment of the cottonseed product to reduce the concentration of free gossypol with the most common treatment being exposure to heat. However, free gossypol can be released from the bound form during digestion. Agronomic selection has produced cotton varieties devoid of glands producing gossypol, but these varieties are not normally grown because they are less productive and are more vulnerable to attacks by insects. PMID:24895646

  1. Gossypol Toxicity from Cottonseed Products

    PubMed Central

    Gadelha, Ivana Cristina N.; Fonseca, Nayanna Brunna S.; Oloris, Silvia Catarina S.; Melo, Marília M.

    2014-01-01

    Gossypol is a phenolic compound produced by pigment glands in cotton stems, leaves, seeds, and flower buds (Gossypium spp.). Cottonseed meal is a by-product of cotton that is used for animal feeding because it is rich in oil and proteins. However, gossypol toxicity limits cottonseed use in animal feed. High concentrations of free gossypol may be responsible for acute clinical signs of gossypol poisoning which include respiratory distress, impaired body weight gain, anorexia, weakness, apathy, and death after several days. However, the most common toxic effects is the impairment of male and female reproduction. Another important toxic effect of gossypol is its interference with immune function, reducing an animal's resistance to infections and impairing the efficiency of vaccines. Preventive procedures to limit gossypol toxicity involve treatment of the cottonseed product to reduce the concentration of free gossypol with the most common treatment being exposure to heat. However, free gossypol can be released from the bound form during digestion. Agronomic selection has produced cotton varieties devoid of glands producing gossypol, but these varieties are not normally grown because they are less productive and are more vulnerable to attacks by insects. PMID:24895646

  2. Symptoms in VDU operators.

    PubMed

    Dain, S J; McCarthy, A K; Chan-Ling, T

    1988-03-01

    The investigation of the role of visual and ocular characteristics of visual display unit (VDU) operators in the causation of subjective visual fatigue has not been reported previously. A retrospective study in which the visual and ocular characteristics of symptomatic and asymptomatic VDU operators was carried out in order to determine whether such a relation could be demonstrated. Three groups totaling 1013 VDU operators from two semigovernment organizations were assessed using either a full eye examination or a modified clinical screening technique. Before examination, the operators completed a short questionnaire on the symptoms they experienced when using VDU's. Significant differences between the symptomatic and asymptomatic operators in some groups were found for over-refraction (spherical equivalent and cylindrical) and near horizontal heterophoria. Despite the existence of this relation, no basis for valid visual standards could be established. In particular, no basis was found for the automatic prescribing of low plus corrections and, in the absence of clearly definable visual standards, the involvement of clinical judgment in the assessment of operators was found to be necessary. PMID:3364524

  3. The toxicity of depleted uranium.

    PubMed

    Briner, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a clear and defined set of symptoms. Chronic low-dose, or subacute, exposure to depleted uranium alters the appearance of milestones in developing organisms. Adult animals that were exposed to depleted uranium during development display persistent alterations in behavior, even after cessation of depleted uranium exposure. Adult animals exposed to depleted uranium demonstrate altered behaviors and a variety of alterations to brain chemistry. Despite its reduced level of radioactivity evidence continues to accumulate that depleted uranium, if ingested, may pose a radiologic hazard. The current state of knowledge concerning DU is discussed. PMID:20195447

  4. The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    PubMed Central

    Briner, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a clear and defined set of symptoms. Chronic low-dose, or subacute, exposure to depleted uranium alters the appearance of milestones in developing organisms. Adult animals that were exposed to depleted uranium during development display persistent alterations in behavior, even after cessation of depleted uranium exposure. Adult animals exposed to depleted uranium demonstrate altered behaviors and a variety of alterations to brain chemistry. Despite its reduced level of radioactivity evidence continues to accumulate that depleted uranium, if ingested, may pose a radiologic hazard. The current state of knowledge concerning DU is discussed. PMID:20195447

  5. Neuroanatomical Dissections of Unilateral Visual Neglect Symptoms: ALE Meta-Analysis of Lesion-Symptom Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Chechlacz, Magdalena; Rotshtein, Pia; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral visual neglect is commonly defined as impaired ability to attend to stimuli presented on the side of visual space contralateral to the brain lesion. However, behavioral analyses indicate that different neglect symptoms can dissociate. The neuroanatomy of the syndrome has been hotly debated. Some groups have argued that the syndrome is linked to posterior parietal cortex lesions, while others report damage within regions including the superior temporal gyrus, insula, and basal ganglia. Several recent neuroimaging studies provide evidence that heterogeneity in the behavioral symptoms of neglect can be matched by variations in the brain lesions, and that some of the discrepancies across earlier findings might have resulted from the use of different neuropsychological tests and/or varied measures within the same task for diagnosing neglect. In this paper, we review the evidence for dissociations between both the symptoms and the neural substrates of unilateral visual neglect, drawing on ALE (anatomic likelihood estimation) meta-analyses of lesion-symptom mapping studies. Specifically, we examine dissociations between neglect symptoms associated with impaired control of attention across space (in an egocentric frame of reference) and within objects (in an allocentric frame of reference). Results of ALE meta-analyses indicated that, while egocentric symptoms are associated with damage within perisylvian network (pre- and postcentral, supramarginal, and superior temporal gyri) and damage within sub-cortical structures, more posterior lesions including the angular, middle temporal, and middle occipital gyri are associated with allocentric symptoms. Furthermore, there was high concurrence in deficits associated with white matter lesions within long association (superior longitudinal, inferior fronto-occipital, and inferior longitudinal fasciculi) and projection (corona radiata and thalamic radiation) pathways, supporting a disconnection account of the syndrome. Using this evidence we argue that different forms of neglect link to both distinct and common patterns of gray and white matter lesions. The findings are discussed in terms of functional accounts of neglect and theoretical models based on computational studies of both normal and impaired attention functions. PMID:22907997

  6. Boron toxicity in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings in relation to soil temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Mahalakshmi; S. K. Yau; J. Ryan; J. M. Peacock

    1995-01-01

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient in crop growth but its sufficiency range is narrow. Boron toxicity is a widespread problem in arid and semi-arid areas with cold weather. We investigated the effect of soil temperature (5, 10 and 15°C) on development of symptoms of B toxicity, plant growth and plant development, and on content and concentration of B in

  7. Oral methylprednisolone acetate (Medrol Tablets) for seasonal rhinitis: examination of dose and symptom response.

    PubMed

    Brooks, C D; Karl, K J; Francom, S F

    1993-09-01

    The authors compared the effect of several doses an oral corticosteroid on symptom profile and severity in ragweed hay fever. Thirty-one patients were randomized to receive 0, 6, 12, or 24 mg methylprednisolone (Medrol Tablets [MP], Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI). A baseline week in which no treatment was given preceded the treatment comparison. At the end of this week, symptom diaries showed that most of the subjects were experiencing moderate or severe symptoms. The corticoid produced dose-related reduction in all symptoms. The difference between placebo and 24 mg MP was significant for all the symptoms monitored, except itching, which benefited marginally. With 6 mg MP, congestion, drainage, and eye symptoms showed significant drug-placebo differences but itching, running/blowing, and sneezing did not. Not all rhinitis symptoms responded equally to corticoid treatment. Those that responded least could reflect histamine effect, which was not effectively suppressed by low-dose, short-term corticoid treatment. PMID:8227478

  8. Effect of prucalopride on symptoms of chronic constipation

    PubMed Central

    Tack, J; Stanghellini, V; Dubois, D; Joseph, A; Vandeplassche, L; Kerstens, R

    2013-01-01

    Background Prucalopride is a 5-HT4 receptor agonist with gastrointestinal prokinetic activities. This integrated analysis of data from three 12-week, double-blind trials evaluated the effect of prucalopride 2 mg q.d. on common constipation symptoms in women in whom laxatives had failed to provide adequate relief. The effect of prucalopride on bowel function was outside the scope of the analysis and has been described elsewhere. Methods Women with self-reported inadequate relief from laxatives and included in the prucalopride 2 mg or placebo arm of the trials were selected for analysis. Symptom severity was determined with the Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms (PAC–SYM) questionnaire. Observed changes from baseline in individual item scores were also evaluated by calculating Cohen's D effect sizes using baseline standard deviation (SD) (>0.2–0.5, >0.5–0.8 and >0.8 for small, moderate and large effects, respectively). Key Results Data were analyzed for 936 women. The proportion of women with a PAC-SYM severity score >2 at baseline was 50.0% for abdominal symptoms, 71.4% for stool symptoms, and 15.5% for rectal symptoms. Excluding the women without presence of a symptom at baseline from the effect size calculations showed that prucalopride 2 mg had a large effect (>0.8) on all PAC-SYM items, including abdominal pain, abdominal discomfort, bloating, straining, and painful bowel movements. For abdominal symptoms and stool symptoms, effect sizes with prucalopride 2 mg were 1.3–2.3 times larger than those with placebo. Conclusions & Inferences Prucalopride 2 mg q.d. for 12 weeks alleviates common constipation symptoms in women in whom laxatives had failed to provide adequate relief. PMID:24106924

  9. Know the symptoms. Take action.

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    1 " " Know the symptoms. Take action. heart attack c a l l Don't Take a Chance With a Heart Attack: Know the Facts and Act Fast More than 1 million people in the United States have heart attacks each attack happens, delay in treatment can be deadly. Learn the warning symptoms of a heart attack, and know

  10. Know the symptoms. Take action.

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    heart attack Know the symptoms. Take action. c a l l Important Information Fill out the next two:____________________________ Home phone:_______________________ Work phone: ________________________ December 2011 #12;Heart Attack might be having heart attack symptoms or a heart attack, call 9­1­1 immediately. Don't ignore your pain

  11. Photographic sensing of boron and chloride toxicities of citrus trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Cardenas; A. Paynado; H. W. Gausman; A. H. Gerbermann; R. L. Bowen

    1971-01-01

    Film density measurements were used to discriminate between healthy Red Blush grapefruit trees and trees whose foliage exhibited boron (B) and chloride (Cl⁻) toxicity symptoms (affected). Citrus trees were photographed from an aircraft (3000 ft altitude) and a Truco's aerial lift (9 ft above trees) with a Hasselblad camera. Light reflectance of foliage of B⁻ and Cl⁻-affected trees produced pinkish

  12. Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hee Jeong; Cho, Soo Churl; Ha, Jihyun; Yune, Sook Kyung; Kim, Seog Ju; Hwang, Jaeuk; Chung, Ain; Sung, Young Hoon; Lyoo, In Kyoon

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between attention deficit-hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and Internet addiction. In total, 535 elementary school students (264 boys, 271 girls; mean age, 11.0 +/- 1.0 years) were recruited. The presence or severity of Internet addiction was assessed by the Young's Internet Addiction test. Parents and teachers of the children completed the DuPaul's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rating scale (ARS; Korean version, K-ARS) and Child Behavior Checklists. Children with the highest and lowest quartiles in K-ARS scores were defined to be in ADHD and non-ADHD groups, respectively. Five children (0.9%) met criteria for a definite Internet addiction and 75 children (14.0%) met criteria for a probable Internet addiction. K-ARS scores had significant positive correlations with Young's Internet Addiction test scores. The Internet addiction group had higher total scores of K-ARS and ADHD-related subcategories in the Child Behavior Checklists than the non-addiction group. The ADHD group had higher Internet addiction scores compared with the non-ADHD group. Therefore, significant associations have been found between the level of ADHD symptoms and the severity of Internet addiction in children. In addition, current findings suggest that the presence of ADHD symptoms, both in inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity domains, may be one of the important risk factors for Internet addiction. PMID:15482579

  13. Symptom burden and infection occurrence among individuals with extremity lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Ridner, S H; Deng, J; Fu, M R; Radina, E; Thiadens, S R J; Weiss, J; Dietrich, M S; Cormier, J N; Tuppo, C M; Armer, J M

    2012-09-01

    Currently, there is a lack of data related to differences in symptoms and infection across different types and anatomical sites of lymphedema. The objective of this study was to examine differences in symptoms and infection status among individuals with lymphedema of the upper or lower extremities. The National Lymphedema Network initiated an online survey of self-report lymphedema data from March 2006 through January 2010. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney tests, and Chi-square tests were used to analyze data. 723 individuals with upper extremity lymphedema and 1114 individuals with lower extremity lymphedema completed the survey. Individuals with extremity lymphedema experienced high symptom burden and infectious complications. Compared with individuals with upper extremity lymphedema, individuals with lower extremity lymphedema experienced more frequent and more severe symptoms (p<.001), infection episodes (p<.001), and infection-related hospitalizations (p<.001). No statistically significant differences of symptom burden and infection status were identified between individuals with lower extremity primary and secondary lymphedema. Individuals with extremity lymphedema experience substantial symptom burden and infectious complications; however, those with lower extremity lymphedema have more severe symptoms and more infections than those with upper extremity lymphedema. PMID:23342931

  14. The effect of wheat germ extract on premenstrual syndrome symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ataollahi, Maryam; Akbari, Sedigheh Amir Ali; Mojab, Faraz; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Pre-menstrual syndrome is one of the most common disorders in women and impairs work and social relationships. Several treatment modalities have been proposed including herbal medicines. Considering the properties of wheat germ, this study aimed to determine the effects of wheat germ extract on the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. This triple blind clinical trial was conducted on 84 women working in hospitals affiliated to Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Subjects completed daily symptom record form for two consecutive months. After definitive diagnosis of premenstrual syndrome, they were randomly divided into two groups of 50 people. Then, for two consecutive months, 400 mg capsules of wheat germ extract or placebo were used three times a day, from day 16 until day 5 of the next menstrual cycle. Wheat germ significantly reduced physical symptoms (63.56%), psychological symptoms (66.30%), and the general score (64.99%). Although the severity of symptoms decreased in both groups, this reduction was more significant in the wheat germ extract group (p < 0.001). On the other hand, physical symptoms decreased only in the wheat germ extract (p < 0.001) and there was no statistically significant difference in the placebo group. No complications were observed in any of the groups. It seems that using wheat germ extract reduces general, psychological and physical symptoms. PMID:25561922

  15. The influence of climacteric symptoms on women's lives and activities.

    PubMed

    Bie?, Agnieszka; Rzo?ca, Ewa; Iwanowicz-Palus, Gra?yna; Pa?czyk-Szeptuch, Ma?gorzata

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we performed an analysis of the influence of climacteric symptoms on women's lives and activities, i.e. their quality of life (QoL). The study was performed between October 2011 and February 2012. It included 148 women aged 44-62. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instrument was the Blatt-Kupperman index. The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire on socio-demographic data, quality of life, and the influence of climacteric symptoms on life and its various aspects. The respondents experiencing moderate or severe climacteric symptoms also had stronger feelings of failure (p = 0.005), feeling that opportunities are still available (p = 0.002), of losing their youth and beauty (p < 0.0001), compared to those who had slight or no symptoms. The intensity of climacteric symptoms significantly affects women's lives and activities, i.e., their QoL. The reported intensity of climacteric symptoms is influenced by the respondents' education, residence, marital status and professional activity. The more severe the climacteric symptoms, the lower the women's quality of life, as evidenced for example by the feeling of failure and of losing one's youth, beauty and opportunities. PMID:25854298

  16. Symptoms and signs of progressive hydrocephalus.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, M; Engleman, H; Minns, R A

    1989-01-01

    The clinical features of 107 cases of children with hydrocephalus and measured raised intraventricular pressure were analysed retrospectively. Fifty one children had recently been diagnosed as having hydrocephalus, and the remainder had had shunts injected to direct the cerebrospinal fluid. The most common symptoms in the group were vomiting, behavioural changes, drowsiness, and headaches. The most common clinical signs were inappropriately increasing occipitofrontal head circumferences, tense anterior fontanelles, splayed sutures, and distension of the scalp veins. Half the infantile cases of hydrocephalus were without symptoms, and a quarter of the cases with cerebrospinal fluid shunts and measured raised intraventricular pressure were without signs. There were no fewer than 33 different clinical signs including several unusual ones, such as macular rash and sweating. We believe that the presentation of hydrocephalus with raised intraventricular pressure is sufficiently variable, unusual, or even absent to justify the direct measurement of intracranial pressure. PMID:2923462

  17. Personality disorder symptoms and marital functioning.

    PubMed

    South, Susan C; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2008-10-01

    Pathological personality is strongly linked with interpersonal impairment, yet no study to date has examined the relationship between concurrent personality pathology and dysfunction in marriage--a relationship that most people find central to their lives. In a cross-sectional study of a community sample of married couples (N = 82), the authors used multilevel modeling to estimate the association of self- and spouse-reported symptoms of personality disorder (PD) with levels of marital satisfaction and verbal aggression and perpetration of physical violence. Inclusion of self- and spouse report of total PD symptoms resulted in improved model fit and greater variance explained, with much of the improvement coming after the addition of spouse report. The incremental validity of spouse report for several of the 10 PD scales was supported for marital satisfaction and verbal aggression, particularly for the Borderline and Dependent PD scales. PMID:18837594

  18. Personality Disorder Symptoms and Marital Functioning

    PubMed Central

    South, Susan C.; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    Pathological personality is strongly linked with interpersonal impairment, yet, no study to date has examined the relationship between concurrent personality pathology and dysfunction in marriage—a relationship most people find central to their lives. In a cross-sectional study of a community sample of married couples (N=82), multilevel modeling was used to estimate the association of self- and spouse reported PD symptoms with levels of marital satisfaction and verbal aggression and perpetration of physical violence. Including self- and spouse report of total PD symptoms resulted in improved model fit and greater variance explained, with much of the improvement coming after the addition of spouse-report. The incremental validity of spouse-report of several of the ten PD scales was supported for marital satisfaction and verbal aggression, particularly for borderline and dependent PD features. PMID:18837594

  19. [Ten-years records of organic arsenic (diphenylarsinic acid) poisoning: epidemiology, clinical feature, metabolism, and toxicity].

    PubMed

    Ishi, Kazuhiro; Tamaoka, Akira

    2015-01-01

    We report here the symptoms of diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) poisoning recorded over 10 years since the DPAA contamination of the potable well water was first detected in the Kamisu City, Ibaraki Prefecture, in 2003. The poisoning symptoms associated with the cerebellum and brainstem included nystagmus, tremors, myoclonus, and cerebellar ataxia as well as the symptoms associated with the temporal and occipital lobes such as memory impairment, sleep disorder, and visual disturbance. Some of the affected children exhibited mental retardation. Moreover, reduced blood flow and reduced glucose metabolism in the cerebella, brainstem, and temporal and occipital lobes persisted for several years among the DPAA-exposed persons. Based on the animal studies for DPAA intoxication, the target organs for the DPAA toxicity were determined to be the central nervous system (CNS), liver, and biliary system. In particular, DPAA tends to persist in the brain for a long time, resulting in long-term impacts on the brain. The cerebral blood flow and brain glucose metabolism, which can be measured by positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), respectively, are useful objective clinical markers to determine the effect of DPAA on CNS. We believe that continuous monitoring of the DPAA-exposed people may promote the effect of carcinogen and accelerate brain aging. PMID:25585431

  20. [Clinical symptoms of hypogonadism after radical prostatectomy].

    PubMed

    Ridderskamp, D; Zellner, M

    2011-04-01

    This study checked whether the prevalence of hypogonadal symptoms [measured using the Aging Males' Symptoms Scale (AMSS)] after radical prostatectomy can give information about the prevalence of hypogonadism in this group of patients. Distribution of the level of complaints (no, mild, moderate or severe) on the AMSS after radical prostatectomy (n=576) was analyzed in all patients (G) and stratified by the point in time of data collection [surgery to AMSS less (K1) and more than 1 year (K2)].The total score shows more patients with mild and moderate symptoms in G, K1, and K2 compared with the control (G 57.6 and 23.4%, K1 59.1 and 22.4%, K2 40 and 35.6% vs 36.5 and 11.2%). In the somatic score G and K1 show 2.4% (G) and 1.7% (K1) less patients with no and 1.5% (G) and 0.9% (K1) less patients with little complaints compared with the control; 2.6% (G) and 1.8% (K1) more patients state moderate and 1.2% (G) and 0.8% (K1) more severe complaints. K2 shows fewer patients with no and mild (22.2 and 31.1% vs 33.3 and 39.3%) and more with moderate and severe complaints (33.3 and 13.3% vs 21.0 and 6.4%) compared with the control. In the psychological score patients in G and K1 state less mild complaints (G 33.9%, K1 32.8% vs 41.8%), more patients state no complaints (G 45.8%, K1 47.3% vs 43.6%) as well as moderate and severe complaints (G 12.8%, K1 12.8% vs 10.9% and G 7.5%, K1 7.2% vs 3.7 %) compared with the control. K2 shows more complaints of all levels compared with the control (mild 46.7 vs 41.8%, moderate 13.3 vs 10.9%, and severe 11.1 vs 3.7%). In the sexual score all groups of patients show significantly more severe complaints (G 89.6%, K1 89.5%, K2 91.1% vs 6.1%).Multiple factors influenced by surgery and diagnosis of cancer which are independent of hormonal effects make distribution of hypogonadal symptoms on the AMSS not suitable to give information about the prevalence of hypogonadism after radical prostatectomy. An analysis of serum testosterone seems to be essential. PMID:21424426

  1. A prospective population-based study of menopausal symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorraine Dennerstein; Emma C Dudley; John L Hopper; Janet R Guthrie; Henry G Burger

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To identify symptoms that change in prevalence and severity during midlife and evaluate their relationships to menopausal status, hormonal levels, and other factors.Methods: In a longitudinal, population-based study of 438 Australian-born women observed for 7 years with an 89% retention rate, 172 advanced from premenopause to perimenopause or postmenopause. Annual measures included a 33-item symptom check list; psychosocial, lifestyle,

  2. Computer Use Patterns Associated with Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cammie Chaumont Menéndez; Benjamin C. Amick; Jack T. Dennerlein; Ronald B. Harrist; Mark Jenkins; Michelle Robertson; Jeffrey N. Katz

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Over half of surveyed college students are experiencing pain they are attributing to computer use. The study objective was\\u000a to evaluate the effect of computing patterns on upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms. Methods Symptom experiences and computing\\/break patterns were reported several times daily over three weeks for 30 undergraduate\\u000a students over a semester. Two-level logistic regression models described the daily

  3. An Evaluation of Stress Symptoms Associated with Academic Sexual Harassment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Fine McDermut; David A. F. Haaga; Lindsey Kirk

    2000-01-01

    It is clear that sexual assault can precipitate posttraumatic stress disorder. Some theorists have suggested that less severe sexually harassing behaviors may also have trauma-like sequelae. In a study evaluating this hypothesis, 69 female participants completed self-report measures of instances of sexual harassment, basic beliefs, psychological distress\\/symptoms, and PTSD symptoms. Participants watched videotapes depicting sexual harassment, emotional arousal (not sexual

  4. Symptom Dimensions are Associated with Age of Onset and Clinical Course of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kichuk, Stephen A.; Torres, Albina R.; Fontenelle, Leonardo F.; Rosário, Maria Conceição; Shavitt, Roseli G.; Miguel, Eurípedes C.; Pittenger, Christopher; Bloch, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analysis of the heterogeneous symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has found a four-factor structure of symptom dimensions consisting of cleaning, forbidden thoughts, symmetry, and hoarding. Research into age of onset of symptom dimensions has yielded inconsistent results, and it is unknown whether symptoms along these dimensions differ in their clinical course. We assessed age of onset and clinical course of different OCD symptom dimensions in a large cohort of adult patients. Nine-hundred fifty-five subjects were assessed using the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. For age of onset analysis, we tested across three methods of classification: (1) primary (more severe) symptom dimension (2) clinically significant symptoms within a dimension or (3) any symptoms within a dimension. Age of onset was defined as the earliest age of onset reported for any individual item within a symptom dimension. For analysis of different types of clinical course, we used chi-square tests to assess for differences between primary symptom dimensions. OCD symptoms in the symmetry dimension had an earlier age of onset than other OCD symptom dimensions. These findings remained significant across all three methods of classification and controlling for gender and comorbid tics. No significant differences were found between the other dimensions. Subjects with primary OCD symptoms in the forbidden thoughts dimension were more likely to report a waxing-and-waning course, whereas symmetry symptoms were less likely to be associated with a waxing-and-waning course. PMID:23410525

  5. The relationships between obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions and cognitions in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Brakoulias, Vlasios; Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Milicevic, Denise; Hannan, Anthony; Martin, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have linked obsessive-compulsive symptoms to specific obsessive-compulsive cognitions, however methodologies have varied, and no study has determined obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the most widely used clinician rating scale, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Considering that almost all studies that used factor analysis to ascertain OCD symptom dimensions were based on the Y-BOCS and that self-report instruments assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms correlate poorly with the Y-BOCS, there is a need to use the Y-BOCS to examine the relationship between obsessive-compulsive cognitions and obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions. This study examined the relationship between five Y-BOCS-derived obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions and the three obsessive-compulsive cognitive domains identified by the obsessive-beliefs questionnaire (OBQ). The symmetry/ordering symptom dimension was associated with increased perfectionism/intolerance of uncertainty, the unacceptable/taboo thoughts symptom dimension was associated with increased importance/control of thoughts and the doubt/checking symptom dimension was associated with increased responsibility/threat estimation. There was no statistical evidence of an association between any OBQ belief sub-scale and the hoarding symptom dimension nor the contamination/cleaning symptom dimension. The findings encourage symptom-based approaches to cognitive-behavioural therapy for some OCD symptoms and call for further research on cognitions associated with contamination/cleaning symptoms and hoarding. PMID:24142072

  6. Toxic optic neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anat Kesler; Pazit Pianka

    2003-01-01

    Toxic optic neuropathy is a complex, multifactorial disease potentially affecting individuals of all ages, races, places,\\u000a and economic strata. Etiology includes nutritional, environmental, toxicologic, and genetic factors. Most cases of nutritional\\u000a amblyopia are encountered in disadvantaged countries. However, toxic amblyopia related to drug treatment or alcohol abuse\\u000a is also encountered in the Western world. Typically, toxic and nutritional optic neuropathy

  7. Neuroprotection of MPTP-induced toxicity in zebrafish dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Enid T; Baranowski, Timothy C; Blavo, Delali O; Cato, Candace; Doan, Thanh N; Rubinstein, Amy L

    2005-11-30

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by a severe loss of dopaminergic neurons resulting in a range of motor deficits. The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is known to cause a similar loss of dopaminergic neurons in the human midbrain with corresponding Parkinsonian symptoms. Several animal species have also shown sensitivity to MPTP, including primates, mice, goldfish, and, most recently, zebrafish. This study demonstrates that the effect of MPTP on dopaminergic neurons in zebrafish larvae is mediated by the same pathways that have been demonstrated in mammalian species. MPTP-induced neurodegeneration was prevented by co-incubation with either the monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitor l-deprenyl or the dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor nomifensine. Furthermore, targeted inactivation of the DAT gene by antisense morpholinos also protected neurons from MPTP damage. Thus, the mechanism for MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuron toxicity in mammals is conserved in zebrafish larvae. Effects on swimming behavior and touch response that result from MPTP damage are partially ameliorated by both l-deprenyl and DAT knockdown. PMID:16209898

  8. Management of Toxicities of Combined Modality Therapy for Intrathoracic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Weakland; Wagner

    1996-07-01

    BACKGROUND: Combined radiation and chemotherapy for intrathoracic tumors can produce appreciable morbidity. Apprehension about the severity of these toxicities may inhibit optimal patient care. METHODS: The literature on recognition, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and management of these toxicities is reviewed and combined with the experiences of the authors to produce management recommendations. RESULTS: Toxicities include acute and chronic esophagitis, early and late pneumonitis with fibrosis, myelosuppression, and neurologic deficits. Measures are available to minimize their severity and to reduce their impact on the patient. CONCLUSIONS: The morbidity of combined radiation and chemotherapy patients with intrathoracic tumors can be minimized by recognizing potential toxicities and by applying appropriate prophylactic and management measures. PMID:10765224

  9. Protecting reproductive health and the environment: toxics use reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, K

    1993-01-01

    Toxics use reduction is a new chemical hazard management approach that has emerged in several state laws over the past years. While toxics use reduction has been promoted as a means of preventing environmental pollution, little thought has been given to its adoption as a means of managing reproductive hazards. This paper provides illustrations of use reduction approaches to conventionally recognized reproductive and developmental toxicants. These approaches will require the opening of a new dialogue between industrial designers and process managers and those most concerned about reproductive health. Several different strategies are proposed that might be adopted into state programs for promoting reduction in the use of reproductive and developmental toxicants. PMID:8243394

  10. Predictors for Rectal and Intestinal Acute Toxicities During Prostate Cancer High-Dose 3D-CRT: Results of a Prospective Multicenter Study

    SciTech Connect

    Vavassori, Vittorio [Department of Radiotherapy, Ospedale di Circolo, Varese (Italy); Fiorino, Claudio [Department of Medical Physics, Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: fiorino.claudio@hsr.it; Rancati, Tiziana [Prostate Programme, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura sui Tumori, Milan (Italy); Magli, Alessandro [Department of Radiotherapy, Ospedale di Circolo, Varese (Italy); Fellin, Gianni [Department of Radiotherapy, Ospedale Santa Chiara, Trento (Italy); Baccolini, Michela [Department of Medical Physics, Ospedale Villa Maria Cecilia, Lugo (Italy); Bianchi, Carla [Department of Medical Physics, Ospedale di Circolo, Varese (Italy); Cagna, Emanuela [Department of Radiotherapy, Ospedale Sant' Anna, Como (Italy); Mauro, Flora A. [Department of Radiotherapy, Ospedale Villa Maria Cecilia, Lugo (Italy); Monti, Angelo F. [Department of Medical Physics, Ospedale Sant' Anna, Como (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy, Istituto per la Ricerca e la Cura del Cancro, Candiolo (Italy); Munoz, Fernando [Department of Radiotherapy, Istituto per la Ricerca e la Cura del Cancro, Candiolo (Italy); Department of Medical Physics, Ospedale Sant' Anna, Como (Italy); Stasi, Michele [Department of Medical Physics, Istituto per la Ricerca e la Cura del Cancro, Candiolo (Italy); Franzone, Paola [Department of Radiotherapy, Ospedale SS. Antonio e Biagio, Alessandria (Italy); Valdagni, Riccardo [Prostate Programme, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura sui Tumori, Milan (Italy)

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: To find predictors for rectal and intestinal acute toxicity in patients with prostate cancer treated with {>=}70 Gy conformal radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between July 2002 and March 2004, 1,132 patients were entered into a cooperative study (AIROPROS01-02). Toxicity was scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer scale and by considering the changes (before and after treatment) of the scores of a self-administered questionnaire on rectal/intestinal toxicity. The correlation with a number of parameters was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Concerning the questionnaire, only moderate/severe complications were considered. Results: Of 1,132 patients, 1,123 were evaluable. Of these patients, 375, 265, and 28 had Grade 1, 2, and 3 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer toxicity, respectively. The mean rectal dose was the most predictive parameter (p = 0.0004; odds ratio, 1.035) for Grade 2 or worse toxicity, and the use of anticoagulants/antiaggregants (p 0.02; odds ratio, 0.63) and hormonal therapy (p = 0.04, odds ratio, 0.65) were protective. The questionnaire-based scoring revealed that a greater mean rectal dose was associated with a greater risk of bleeding; larger irradiated volumes were associated with frequency, tenesmus, incontinence, and bleeding; hormonal therapy was protective against frequency and tenesmus; hemorrhoids were associated with a greater risk of tenesmus and bleeding; and diabetes associated highly with diarrhea. Conclusion: The mean rectal dose correlated with acute rectal/intestinal toxicity in three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer, and hormonal therapy and the use of anticoagulants/antiaggregants were protective. According to the moderate/severe injury scores on the self-assessed questionnaire, several clinical and dose-volume parameters were independently predictive for particular symptoms.

  11. Psychotic symptoms in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Hall, Devin; Finger, Elizabeth C

    2015-07-01

    Although psychotic features have long been recognized in association with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), recent genetic discoveries enabling further subtyping of FTD have revealed that psychotic symptoms are frequent in some forms of FTD. Hallucinations and delusions can even precede onset of other cognitive or behavioural symptoms in patients with FTD. In this review, we explore the frequency and types of psychotic symptoms reported in patients with FTD, as well as in other neuropsychiatric disorders, to aid practitioners' consideration of these features in the diagnosis of FTD and related disorders. PMID:26008815

  12. Infants’ symptoms of illness assessed by parents: Impact and implications

    PubMed Central

    Ertmann, Ruth K.; Siersma, Volkert; Reventlow, Susanne; Söderström, Margareta

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Some parents with a sick infant contact a doctor, while others do not. The reasons underlying such parental decisions have not been thoroughly studied. The purpose of this study was to explore how the actual symptoms in the infant were associated with parent-rated illness, illness severity, and the probability of the parents contacting a doctor. Design A retrospective questionnaire and a prospective diary study covering 14 months of the participating infants’ lives. Setting and subjects The 194 participating infants were followed for three months prospectively from the age of 11 to 14 months using diary cards, and retrospectively from birth until the age of 11 months by a questionnaire. Results During the three months of the diary card prospective follow-up, the infants had symptoms on average every second day, and the vast majority (92%) had 10 or more days with at least one symptom; 38% of the infants were reported to have had five or more symptoms for more than five days. Fever, earache, and vomiting were the symptoms most likely to cause parents to rate their infant as ill. Earache was the symptom that triggered doctor contact most immediately. The parent-rated illness severity was strongly related to the tendency to contact a doctor. However, this association was markedly weaker when adjustment was made for the infant not eating normally, having a cough, or running a fever. Conclusion Specific symptoms such as fever, earache, and vomiting were strongly associated with the probability of parents rating the infant as ill. An earache would cause the parents to contact a doctor. Fever and vomiting were other symptoms triggering doctor contacts. First, these symptoms could cause the parents to want a doctor's expert evaluation of the infant's illness; second, the parents could expect medication to be necessary; or third, it could just be difficult for the parents to handle the ill infant. PMID:21591836

  13. Use of patient-reported outcomes to measure symptoms and health related quality of life in the clinic.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Alexandra; Sebag-Montefiore, David; Davidson, Susan; Velikova, Galina

    2015-03-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in routine practice in cancer care to measure symptoms and health related quality of life (HRQOL). PROs are designed to capture the patient's perspective of their care and treatment, and complement the traditional clinical outcomes of survival and toxicity assessment. Integrating routine collection and feedback of PROs has been found to improve care for patients on both an individual level, through improved communication and management of symptoms, and at an organizational level, by enabling aggregation of data to compare performance. This article reviews the benefits and challenges of introducing patient-reported assessments into routine clinical practice. Methods for choosing a questionnaire; collection and presentation of results; timing and frequency of administration as well as clinician training methods to aid the ability of clinicians to integrate the use of PROs into their own practice are described. Electronic PRO capture and integration with electronic health records seems to provide the most effective method for seamless integration into existing patient care pathways. Case studies from our own practice illustrate the issues raised. Electronic methods enabling immediate collection, scoring and interpretation of the data, as well as real-time data capture, email alert systems and individualized, online self-management advice may enable severe symptoms to be managed in a more timely manner. Evaluation methods are described to establish the effectiveness of the PRO intervention. Engaging stakeholders throughout the process of initial consultation and development, during delivery and evaluation is key to success. Future work needs to focus on the effectiveness of PROs in longer-term follow-up of patients in routine care and the relationship between the PRO severity grading and clinician severity grading using the Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events (CTCAE). PMID:25448486

  14. Exploring Cyberbullying and Other Toxic Behavior in Team Competition Online Games

    E-print Network

    Kwak, Haewoon; Han, Seungyeop

    2015-01-01

    In this work we explore cyberbullying and other toxic behavior in team competition online games. Using a dataset of over 10 million player reports on 1.46 million toxic players along with corresponding crowdsourced decisions, we test several hypotheses drawn from theories explaining toxic behavior. Besides providing large-scale, empirical based understanding of toxic behavior, our work can be used as a basis for building systems to detect, prevent, and counter-act toxic behavior.

  15. Avoidance Symptoms and Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Arab Immigrant Women

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Anne E.; Aroian, Karen J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether the avoidance symptom criterion required for a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is overly conservative. Arab immigrant women (N = 453), many of whom reported experiencing multiple traumatic events, completed the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale in Arabic as part of a face to face interview. Analyses indicated all but one avoidance symptom was reported less frequently than reexperiencing and arousal symptoms. However, those who fully met reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal symptom criteria had worse symptom severity and functioning than those who fully met reexperiencing and arousal symptom criteria, but only partially met avoidance symptom criterion. Study findings support importance of the PTSD avoidance symptom criterion. PMID:18956451

  16. Low blood sugar symptoms (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nervousness and irritability are signs that a person's blood sugar is getting dangerously low. A person showing any of these symptoms should check their blood sugar. If the level is low (70 mg/dl), ...

  17. Menopause: Symptom Relief and Treatments

    MedlinePLUS

    ... More information on menopause symptom relief and treatments Learning about menopause treatment options Most women do not ... medicine, and blood pressure medicine. Try taking slow, deep breaths when a flash starts. If you’re ...

  18. Chickenpox (Varicella) Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Manual Manual Appendices References & Resources Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Signs & Symptoms Language: English ... of Page Related Page Chickenpox Complications Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Language: English Español (Spanish) ...

  19. Signs and Symptoms of Mumps

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Resources MMWR Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Signs & Symptoms of Mumps Language: English ... Action Coalition's website (www.vaccineinformation.org). Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats ...

  20. Treatment of severe malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Warrell, D A

    1989-01-01

    In the treatment of severe Plasmodium falciparum infection antimalarial drugs should, ideally, be given by controlled rate intravenous infusion until the patient is able to swallow tablets. In cases where infection has been acquired in a chloroquine resistant area, and where it has broken through chloroquine prophylaxis or where the geographical origin or species are uncertain, quinine is the treatment of choice. When access to parenteral quinine is likely to be delayed, parenteral quinidine is an effective alternative. A loading dose of quinine is recommended in order to achieve therapeutic plasma concentrations as quickly as possible. In the case of chloroquine sensitive P. falciparum infection, chloroquine, which can be given safely by slow intravenous infusion, may be more rapidly effective and has fewer toxic effects than quinine. There is limited experience with parenteral administration of pyrimethamine sulphonamide combinations such as Fansidar, and resistance to these drugs has developed in South East Asia and elsewhere. Mefloquine and halofantrine cannot be given parenterally. Qinghaosu derivatives are not readily available and have not been adequately tested outside China. Supportive treatment includes the prevention or early detection and treatment of complications, strict attention to fluid balance, provision of adequate nursing for unconscious patients and avoidance of harmful ancillary treatments. Anaemia is inevitable and out of proportion to detectable parasitaemia. Hypotension and shock ('algid malaria') are often attributable to secondary gram-negative septicaemia requiring appropriate antimicrobial therapy and haemodynamic resuscitation. Many patients with severe falciparum malaria are hypovolaemic on admission to hospital and require cautious fluid replacement. Failure to rehydrate these patients may lead to circulatory collapse, lactic acidosis, renal failure and severe hyponatraemia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2693726

  1. Low toxicity corrosion inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, P.; Naraghi, A.R.; Saffer, C.E. [Champion Technologies, Inc., Fresno, TX (United States)

    1996-12-01

    This paper discusses the design and testing of low toxicity corrosion inhibitors. New chemistries have been investigated with respect to corrosion protection and impact on the marine environment. The resulting chemicals, while they are effective corrosion inhibitors, present significant improvements in terms of environmental properties over current products. The discussion includes results of the corrosion inhibition, toxicity, biodegradability and partitioning studies.

  2. Toxic leucoencephalopathy after ‘chasing the dragon’

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajinder; Saini, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Toxic leucoencephalopathy (TLE) is a rare neurological complication of heroin abuse. ‘Chasing the dragon’ is an inhalational mode of heroin abuse that originated in Southeast Asia. Intriguingly, no cases of TLE have been reported from this region, although the inhalational mode of heroin abuse is common. We herein report the case of a middle-aged man with a history of polysubstance abuse who presented with progressive neurological symptoms and progressed to an uncommunicative state. While the initial impression was that of iatrogenic parkinsonism, diffuse leucoencephalopathy with sparing of the cerebellum was noted on magnetic resonance imaging. In view of his history of inhalational heroin abuse close to the onset of the neurological symptoms, a diagnosis of TLE was made. No clinical improvement was noted with administration of a dopaminergic agent. This is the first known case of delayed TLE following heroin inhalation from Southeast Asia with the unusual feature of cerebellar sparing. PMID:26106246

  3. Symptoms associated with dietary fiber supplementation over time in individuals with fecal incontinence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the severity of adverse gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during supplementation with dietary fiber or placebo over time in adults with fecal incontinence. Secondary aims were to determine the relationship between symptom severity and upset and their association...

  4. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of honokiol microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianqian; Li, Jianguo; Zhang, Wei; An, Quan; Wen, Jianhua; Wang, Aiping; Jin, Hongtao; Chen, Shizhong

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of honokiol microemulsion. In the acute toxicity tests, the mice were intravenously injected graded doses of honokiol microemulsion and were observed for toxic symptoms and mortality daily for 14 days. In the sub-chronic toxicity study, rats were injected honokiol microemulsion at doses of 100, 500, 2500 ?g/kg body weight (BW) for 30 days. After 30 days treatment and 14 days recovery, the rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histological examination. In the acute toxicity tests, the estimated median lethal dosage (LD50) was 50.5mg/kg body weight in mice. In the sub-chronic toxicity tests, the non-toxic reaction dose was 500 ?g/kg body weight. In each treatment group, degeneration or/and necrosis in vascular endothelial cells and structure change of vessel wall can be observed in the injection site (cauda vein) of a few animals while there were no changes in the vessels of other organs. The overall findings of this study indicate that the honokiol microemulsion is non-toxic up to 500 ?g/kg body weight, and it has irritation to the vascular of the injection site which should be paid attention to in clinical medication. PMID:25481277

  5. Lower urinary tract symptoms in men.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, John M; Wilt, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a highly prevalent and costly condition that affects older men worldwide. Many affected men develop lower urinary tract symptoms, which can have a negative impact on their quality of life. In the past, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was the mainstay of treatment. However, several efficacious drug treatments have been developed, which have transformed BPH from an acute surgical entity to a chronic medical condition. Specifically, multiple clinical trials have shown that ? adrenoceptor antagonists can significantly ameliorate lower urinary tract symptoms. Moreover, 5? reductase inhibitors, alone or combined with an ? adrenoceptor antagonist, can reverse the natural course of BPH, reducing the risk of urinary retention and the need for surgical intervention. Newer medical regimens including the use of antimuscarinic agents or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, have shown promise in men with predominantly storage symptoms and concomitant erectile dysfunction, respectively. For men who do not adequately respond to conservative measures or pharmacotherapy, minimally invasive surgical techniques (such as transurethral needle ablation, microwave thermotherapy, and prostatic urethral lift) may be of benefit, although they lack the durability of TURP. A variety of laser procedures have also been introduced, whose improved hemostatic properties abrogate many of the complications associated with traditional surgery. PMID:25125424

  6. Analysis of a ToxCast? HTS Toxicity Signature for putative Vascular Disruptor Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown the importance of blood vessel formation during embryo development and the strong correlation to developmental toxicity. Several developmental toxicants, such as thalidomide, have been identified which specifically target the forming embryonic vasculatur...

  7. STATUS AND NEEDS FOR TOXIC EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR REGIONAL DISPERSION AND DEPOSITION MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 established several study and regulatory requirements for toxic air pollutants that make dispersion and deposition modeling and the associated toxic emission inventories necessary. here are currently no comprehensive regional emis...

  8. Automated Test Systems for Toxic Vapor Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, C. B.; Hammond, T. A.; Schwindt, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has been using Personal Computer based Data Acquisition and Control Systems (PCDAS) for about nine years. These systems control the generation of toxic vapors of known concentrations under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. The PCDAS also logs the test conditions and the test article responses in data files for analysis by standard spreadsheets or custom programs. The PCDAS was originally developed to perform standardized qualification and acceptance tests in a search for a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) toxic vapor detector to replace the hydrazine detectors for the Space Shuttle launch pad. It has since become standard test equipment for the TVDL and is indispensable in producing calibration standards for the new hydrazine monitors at the 10 part per billion (ppb) level. The standard TVDL PCDAS can control two toxic vapor generators (TVG's) with three channels each and two flow/ temperature / humidity (FTH) controllers and it can record data from up to six toxic vapor detectors (TVD's) under test and can deliver flows from 5 to 50 liters per minute (L/m) at temperatures from near zero to 50 degrees Celsius (C) using an environmental chamber to maintain the sample temperature. The concentration range for toxic vapors depends on the permeation source installed in the TVG. The PCDAS can provide closed loop control of temperature and humidity to two sample vessels, typically one for zero gas and one for the standard gas. This is required at very low toxic vapor concentrations to minimize the time required to passivate the sample delivery system. Recently, there have been several requests for information about the PCDAS by other laboratories with similar needs, both on and off KSC. The purpose of this paper is to inform the toxic vapor detection community of the current status and planned upgrades to the automated testing of toxic vapor detectors at the Kennedy Space Center.

  9. Automated Test Systems for Toxic Vapor Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, C. B.; Hammond, T. A.; Schwindt, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has been using Personal Computer based Data Acquisition and Control Systems (PCDAS) for about nine years. These systems control the generation of toxic vapors of known concentrations under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. The PCDAS also logs the test conditions and the test article responses in data files for analysis by standard spreadsheets or custom programs. The PCDAS was originally developed to perform standardized qualification and acceptance tests in a search for a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) toxic vapor detector to replace the hydrazine detectors for the Space Shuttle launch pad. It has since become standard test equipment for the TVDL and is indispensable in producing calibration standards for the new hydrazine monitors at the 10 part per billion (ppb) level. The standard TVDL PCDAS can control two toxic vapor generators (TVG's) with three channels each and two flow/temperature/humidity (FIFH) controllers and it can record data from up to six toxic vapor detectors (TVD's) under test and can deliver flows from 5 to 50 liters per minute (L/m) at temperatures from near zero to 50 degrees Celsius (C) using an environmental chamber to maintain the sample temperature. The concentration range for toxic vapors depends on the permeation source installed in the TVG. The PCDAS can provide closed loop control of temperature and humidity to two sample vessels, typically one for zero gas and one for the standard gas. This is required at very low toxic vapor concentrations to minimize the time required to passivate the sample delivery system. Recently, there have been several requests for information about the PCDAS by other laboratories with similar needs, both on and off KSC. The purpose of this paper is to inform the toxic vapor detection community of the current status and planned upgrades to the automated testing of toxic vapor detectors at the Kennedy Space Center.

  10. Ammonia and sediment toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ogle, R.S.; Hansen, S.R. [S.R. Hansen and Associates, Concord, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Ammonia toxicity to aquatic organisms has received considerable study, with most of these studies focusing on water column organisms. However, with the development and implementation of sediment (and pore water) toxicity tests, the toxicity of ammonia to benthic infauna and other sediment toxicity test organisms has become important, especially since sediment/porewater ammonia occurs at higher concentrations than in the water column. Unfortunately, there has been very little of this type information, especially for marine/estuarine organisms. This laboratory determined the toxicity of ammonia to three key marine/estuarine test organisms: the amphipod Eohaustorius estuarius, the bivalve Mytilus edulis, and the echinoderm Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Because sediment/porewater pH can differ substantially from typical seawater pH, the toxicity evaluations covered a range of pH levels (6, 7, 8, and 9). Eohaustorius results indicate that while Total Ammonia increased in toxicity (measured as EC50) as pH increased (from 460 mg/L at pH 6, to 13 mg/L at pH 9), unionized ammonia toxicity decreased from 0.13 mg/L at pH 6 to 2.8 mg/L at pH 9. The amphipod was much less sensitive to ammonia than were the bivalve and echinoderm, with an unionized ammonia EC50 at pH 8 of 2.14 mg/L relative to 0.43 mg/L for the mussel and 0.13 mg/L for the purple urchin. These results are discussed with respect to design and interpretation of sediment toxicity test results, including an interpretation approach based on partitioning of Toxic Units (TU).

  11. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ratnaike, R

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption occurs from skin contact and inhalation. Arsenic exerts its toxicity by inactivating up to 200 enzymes, especially those involved in cellular energy pathways and DNA synthesis and repair. Acute arsenic poisoning is associated initially with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and severe diarrhoea. Encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy are reported. Chronic arsenic toxicity results in multisystem disease. Arsenic is a well documented human carcinogen affecting numerous organs. There are no evidence based treatment regimens to treat chronic arsenic poisoning but antioxidants have been advocated, though benefit is not proven. The focus of management is to reduce arsenic ingestion from drinking water and there is increasing emphasis on using alternative supplies of water. PMID:12897217

  12. Acute chemical toxicity of uranium.

    PubMed

    Kathren, Ronald L; Burklin, Richard K

    2008-02-01

    Although human experience with uranium spans more than 200 years, the LD50 for acute intake in humans has not been well established. Large acute doses of uranium can produce death from chemical toxicity in rats, guinea pigs, and other small experimental animals, with variation in sensitivity among species. However, there has never been a death attributable to uranium poisoning in humans, and humans seem to be less sensitive to both acute and chronic toxic effects of uranium than other mammalian species studied. Highly relevant data on uranium toxicity in humans are available from the experience of persons administered large doses of uranium for therapy of diabetes and from acute accidental inhalation intakes. Although the data on which to establish oral and inhalation acute LD50 for uranium in humans are sparse, they are adequate to conclude that the LD50 for oral intake of soluble uranium compounds exceeds several grams of uranium and is at least 1.0 g for inhalation intakes. For intakes of uranium compounds of lesser solubility, acute LD50 values are likely to be significantly greater. It is suggested that 5 g be provisionally considered the acute oral LD50 for uranium in humans. For inhalation intakes of soluble compounds of uranium, 1.0 g of uranium is proposed as the provisional acute inhalation LD50. PMID:18188051

  13. Menstrual cycle effects on psychological symptoms in women with PTSD.

    PubMed

    Nillni, Yael I; Pineles, Suzanne L; Patton, Samantha C; Rouse, Matthew H; Sawyer, Alice T; Rasmusson, Ann M

    2015-02-01

    The menstrual cycle has been implicated as a sex-specific biological process influencing psychological symptoms across a variety of disorders. Limited research exists regarding the role of the menstrual cycle in psychological symptoms among women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study examined the severity of a broad range of psychological symptoms in both the early follicular (Days 2-6) and midluteal (6-10 days postlutenizing hormone surge) phases of the menstrual cycle in a sample of trauma-exposed women with and without PTSD (N = 49). In the sample overall, total psychological symptoms (d = 0.63), as well as depression (d = 0.81) and phobic anxiety (d = 0.81) symptoms, specifically, were increased in the early follicular compared to midluteal phase. The impact of menstrual cycle phase on phobic anxiety was modified by a significant PTSD × Menstrual Phase interaction (d = 0.63). Women with PTSD reported more severe phobic anxiety during the early follicular versus midluteal phase, whereas phobic anxiety did not differ across the menstrual cycle in women without PTSD. Thus, the menstrual cycle appears to impact fear-related symptoms in women with PTSD. The clinical implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed. PMID:25613589

  14. Toxic Shock Syndrome (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Toxic Shock Syndrome KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > ... and Treatment When to Call the Doctor About Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a ...

  15. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: BIOLOGICAL TOXICITY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Engineering Bulletin is intended to provide site managers with information on ecological assessment and biological toxicity testing, applicability of biological toxicity testing, planning effective biological toxicity assessments, descriptions of test methods, limitations, c...

  16. Encephalopathy in Wilson Disease: Copper Toxicity or Liver Failure?

    PubMed Central

    Ferenci, Peter; Litwin, Tomasz; Seniow, Joanna; Czlonkowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complex syndrome of neurological and psychiatric signs and symptoms that is caused by portosystemic venous shunting with or without liver disease irrespective of its etiology. The most common presentation of Wilson disease (WD) is liver disease and is frequently associated with a wide spectrum of neurological and psychiatric symptoms. The genetic defect in WD leads to copper accumulation in the liver and later in other organs including the brain. In a patient presenting with Wilsonian cirrhosis neuropsychiatric symptoms may be caused either by the metabolic consequences of liver failure or by copper toxicity. Thus, in clinical practice a precise diagnosis is a great challenge. Contrary to HE in neurological WD consciousness, is very rarely disturbed and pyramidal signs, myoclonus dominate. Asterixis and many other clinical symptoms may be present in both disease conditions and are quite similar. However details of neurological assessment as well as additional examinations could help in differential diagnosis.

  17. Nitrofurantoin-induced pulmonary toxicity: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kabbara, Wissam K; Kordahi, Melissa C

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a case of lung injury attributed to the use of Nitrofurantoin and a review of the relevant literature. An 88-year-old woman was admitted to the floor for the evaluation of recent symptoms of dyspnea, fatigue and productive cough. She was initiated on nitrofurantoin 300mg per day for the treatment of a urinary tract infection 3 days earlier. Upon examination, chest auscultation revealed bilateral inspiratory crackles. Chest radiograph showed bilateral airspace and interstitial infiltrates. Laboratory studies revealed an elevated white blood cell count of 13,500/?L (reference range=5200-12,400/?L) and blood eosinophilia (10%, reference range: 0-7%). Using clinical judgment and the algorithm of Naranjo, it was determined that nitrofurantoin use was the probable cause of the patient's lung injury. Symptomatic improvement was observed shortly after the drug was discontinued. A review of information from several European and North American pharmacovigilance databases (through June 2014) identified several reports of suspected nitrofurantoin-induced toxicity, including reports of acute toxicity reactions, which were related in many ways to the case we are reporting here. PMID:25747822

  18. The harmful chemistry behind krokodil (desomorphine) synthesis and mechanisms of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Alves, Emanuele Amorim; Grund, Jean-Paul Cornelis; Afonso, Carlos Manuel; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira; Carvalho, Félix; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2015-04-01

    "Krokodil" is the street name for the homemade injectable mixture that has been used as a cheap substitute for heroin. Its use begun in Russia and Ukraine and nowadays is being spread over several other countries. Desomorphine is the semi-synthetic opioid claimed to be the main component of krokodil and considered to be responsible for its psychoactive characteristics. The starting materials for desomorphine synthesis are codeine tablets, alkali solutions, organic solvent, acidified water, iodine and red phosphorus, all of which are easily available in retail outlets, such as supermarkets, drugstores, etc. The resulting product is a light brown liquid that is called krokodil. People who inject krokodil present a great variety of serious signs and symptoms, including thrombophlebitis, ulcerations, gangrene, and necrosis, quickly evolving to limb amputation and death. These effects are thought to result from the toxic components produced as byproducts during the homemade drug synthesis. In this work, we reviewed several aspects of krokodil use, including its epidemiology, pharmacology and the chemical properties of the main active ingredient (desomorphine). To enhance our understanding of the clinical and toxic effects and to support the implementation of harm reduction measures, we also describe the "bathtub chemistry" of krokodil and the content of the final solution. PMID:25710781

  19. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment

    PubMed Central

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial. PMID:25133142

  20. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment.

    PubMed

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-08-16

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial. PMID:25133142

  1. Symptom Burden in Persons with Myotonic and Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Amanda E.; McMullen, Kara; Jensen, Mark P.; Carter, Gregory T.; Molton, Ivan R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examines the prevalence of pain, fatigue, imbalance, memory impairment and vision loss in persons with myotonic and facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, and their association with functioning. Design A survey (n=170) included measures of severity (0–10 scales) and course of these symptoms, as well as measures of social integration, home competency, mental health and productive activity. Descriptive and regression analyses examined the associations between symptoms and functioning. Results Fatigue (91%), imbalance (82%) and pain (77%) were most commonly reported. The most severe symptom was fatigue (mean severity 5.14 ± 2.81), followed by imbalance (4.95 ± 3.25). Symptoms were most likely to stay the same or worsen since onset. Controlling for potential medical and demographic confounds, symptoms were associated with 17% of the mental health variance, 10% of home competency, 10% of social integration, 16% of productive activity for DM1 and 12% of productive activity for FSHD. Conclusions Pain, fatigue and imbalance are common in persons with muscular dystrophy. Interventions may be useful to mitigate their impact on functioning. Further research should examine these relationships to guide clinical practices. PMID:24247759

  2. ACUTE TOXICITY OF TRIPHENYLTIN HYDROXIDE TO THREE CLADOCERAN SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of an organotin pesticide, triphenyltin hydroxide, was assessed with several freshwater cladoceran species, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia were exposed for 48 h to triphenyltin hydroxide in static acute toxicity tests. Values of the 48-h trimmed...

  3. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF POLYELECTROLYTES TO SELECTED AQUATIC ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although polyelectrolytes are widely used to control solids in potable water and municipal wastewater, very few studies have been made to assess their toxicity to aquatic animals. Consequently, the authors tested the acute toxicity of several polyelectrolytes to rainbow trout, la...

  4. Toxic quail: A cultural?ecological investigation of coturnism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce W. Kennedy; Louis Evan Grivetti

    1980-01-01

    Archaeological, mythological, and historical evidence reveals a long association between European Migratory Quail (Cotumix cotumix cotumix) and human diet. Despite this evidence cotumix presents a toxic threat to potential consumers in several European and African regions. The authors trace the history of coturnism (poisoning by toxic quail) and examine Sergent's hypothesis that human poisoning by quail is due to cotumix

  5. Fabry disease: a survey of visual and ocular symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Pinakin Gunvant

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate a visual symptoms survey on patients with a known diagnosis of Fabry disease, and to compare the scores to those from a group of healthy subjects. Materials and methods An ocular symptom survey instrument was used to evaluate the symptoms of general ocular problems like itching, tearing, dryness, burning sensation, sensation of foreign body, difficulty in scotopic and photopic vision, and asthenopic symptoms. The survey instrument was administered to 95 participants (75 patients with Fabry disease and 20 healthy controls; median age: 32.5 years [standard deviation: 19.1 years] and 42.6 years [standard deviation: 14.7 years], respectively). A Mann–Whitney test was performed to evaluate the difference between the Fabry group and the healthy controls for each symptom survey severity score. A P-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results Of the survey instrument items, it was found that compared to the control group, the mean severity score of the Fabry disease group was significant for “dryness” of the eyes (P=0.02), “blurry/dim vision” (P=0.02), “hard to see in dark places” (P=0.01), and “halos around light” (P=0.01). The Fabry group also had a mean severity score for “soreness/tiredness” that was significantly higher than that of the control group (P=0.009). Conclusion The patients with Fabry disease may be suffering from ocular and visual symptoms related to manifestations of the disease. Further quantitative testing is needed to investigate the ocular and visual symptoms. PMID:25170250

  6. Differences in the symptom experience of older versus younger oncology outpatients: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mortality rates for cancer are decreasing in patients under 60 and increasing in those over 60 years of age. The reasons for these differences in mortality rates remain poorly understood. One explanation may be that older patients received substandard treatment because of concerns about adverse effects. Given the paucity of research on the multiple dimensions of the symptom experience in older oncology patients, the purpose of this study was to evaluate for differences in ratings of symptom occurrence, severity, frequency, and distress between younger (< 60 years) and older ( ? 60 years) adults undergoing cancer treatment. We hypothesized that older patients would have significantly lower ratings on four symptom dimensions. Methods Data from two studies in the United States and one study in Australia were combined to conduct this analysis. All three studies used the MSAS to evaluate the occurrence, severity, frequency, and distress of 32 symptoms. Results Data from 593 oncology outpatients receiving active treatment for their cancer (i.e., 44.4% were?symptoms, after controlling for significant covariates, older patients reported significantly lower occurrence rates for 15 (46.9%) symptoms, lower severity ratings for 6 (18.9%) symptoms, lower frequency ratings for 4 (12.5%) symptoms, and lower distress ratings for 14 (43.8%) symptoms. Conclusions This study is the first to evaluate for differences in multiple dimensions of symptom experience in older oncology patients. For almost 50% of the MSAS symptoms, older patients reported significantly lower occurrence rates. While fewer age-related differences were found in ratings of symptom severity, frequency, and distress, a similar pattern was found across all three dimensions. Future research needs to focus on a detailed evaluation of patient and clinical characteristics (i.e., type and dose of treatment) that explain the differences in symptom experience identified in this study. PMID:23281602

  7. Acute Methylenedioxypyrovalerone Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Froberg, Blake A; Levine, Michael; Beuhler, Michael C; Judge, Bryan S; Moore, Philip W; Engebretsen, Kristin M; Mckeown, Nathanael J; Rosenbaum, Christopher D; Young, Amy C; Rusyniak, Daniel E

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the acute clinical effects, laboratory findings, complications, and disposition of patients presenting to the hospital after abusing synthetic cathinone. We conducted a retrospective multicenter case series of patients with synthetic cathinone abuse by searching for the terms bath salts, MDPV, methylenedioxypyrovalerone, mephedrone, methcathinone, methylone, methedrone, and cathinone within the "agent" field of a national clinical toxicology database (ToxIC). The medical records of these patients were obtained and abstracted by investigators at each study site. Patients with confirmatory testing that identified a synthetic cathinone in either blood or urine were included in the series. Patients who had either an undetectable synthetic cathinone test or no confirmatory testing were excluded. A data abstraction sheet was used to obtain information on each patient. We entered data into an Excel spreadsheet and calculated descriptive statistics. We identified 23 patients with confirmed synthetic cathinone exposure-all were positive for methylenedioxyprovalerone (MDPV). Eighty-three percent were male and 74 % had recreational intent. The most common reported clinical effects were tachycardia (74 %), agitation (65 %), and sympathomimetic syndrome (65 %). Acidosis was the most common laboratory abnormality (43 %). Seventy-eight percent of patients were treated with benzodiazepines and 30 % were intubated. Ninety-six percent of patients were hospitalized and 87 % were admitted to the ICU. The majority (61 %) of patients was discharged home but 30 % required inpatient psychiatric care. There was one death in our series. The majority of patients presenting to the hospital after abusing MDPV have severe sympathomimetic findings requiring hospitalization. A number of these patients require inpatient psychiatric care after their acute presentation. PMID:25468313

  8. Human symptoms-disease network.

    PubMed

    Zhou, XueZhong; Menche, Jörg; Barabási, Albert-László; Sharma, Amitabh

    2014-01-01

    In the post-genomic era, the elucidation of the relationship between the molecular origins of diseases and their resulting phenotypes is a crucial task for medical research. Here, we use a large-scale biomedical literature database to construct a symptom-based human disease network and investigate the connection between clinical manifestations of diseases and their underlying molecular interactions. We find that the symptom-based similarity of two diseases correlates strongly with the number of shared genetic associations and the extent to which their associated proteins interact. Moreover, the diversity of the clinical manifestations of a disease can be related to the connectivity patterns of the underlying protein interaction network. The comprehensive, high-quality map of disease-symptom relations can further be used as a resource helping to address important questions in the field of systems medicine, for example, the identification of unexpected associations between diseases, disease etiology research or drug design. PMID:24967666

  9. The CAESAR models for developmental toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The new REACH legislation requires assessment of a high number of chemicals in the European market for several endpoints. Developmental Toxicity results amongst the most difficult endpoint to assess, due to the complexity, length and costs of experiments. Following the encouragem...

  10. TOXIC RESPONSES OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish reproduction is arguably one of the most sensitive indicators of exposure to environmental chemicals. Reproductive toxicity can simply be referred to as an alteration in reproductive success. It can occur at several developmental stages (larval, juvenile, and adult) with le...

  11. TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT TEST SUBMISSIONS (TSCATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions (TSCATS) is an online index to unpublished, nonconfidential studies covering chemical testing results and adverse effects of chemicals on health and ecological systems. The studies are submitted by U.S. industry to EPA under several s...

  12. Arsenic toxicity and potential mechanisms of action

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael F Hughes

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to the metalloid arsenic is a daily occurrence because of its environmental pervasiveness. Arsenic, which is found in several different chemical forms and oxidation states, causes acute and chronic adverse health effects, including cancer. The metabolism of arsenic has an important role in its toxicity. The metabolism involves reduction to a trivalent state and oxidative methylation to a pentavalent

  13. Toxic inhalational exposures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tze-Ming Benson; Malli, Harjoth; Maslove, David M; Wang, Helena; Kuschner, Ware G

    2013-01-01

    Respirable toxicants are a spectrum of irritant and nonirritant gases, vapors, fumes, and airborne particles that can be entrained into the body through the respiratory tract, resulting in exposures that cause pulmonary injury and/or systemic disease. Sources of respirable toxicants include structural fires, industrial accidents, domestic mishaps, and intentional releases of injurious agents on the battleground (warfare) or in civilian settings (acts of terrorism). Acute toxic inhalational exposures may result in respiratory failure, multisystem organ dysfunction, and death. Management of victims includes assessment and protection of the airway, monitoring and treatment of systemic toxicity, and delivery of exposure-specific and nonspecific therapies that improve outcomes. Treatments may include antidotes, hyperbaric oxygen, and other nonspecific life-supporting interventions. PMID:22232204

  14. Aspects of aluminum toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hewitt, C.D.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.R. (Univ. of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. The widespread occurrence of aluminum, both in the environment and in foodstuffs, makes it virtually impossible for man to avoid exposure to this metal ion. Attention was first drawn to the potential role of aluminum as a toxic metal over 50 years ago, but was dismissed as a toxic agent as recently as 15 years ago. The accumulation of aluminum, in some patients with chronic renal failure, is associated with the development of toxic phenomena; dialysis encephalopathy, osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy, and an anemia. Aluminum accumulation also occurs in patients who are not on dialysis, predominantly infants and children with immature or impaired renal function. Aluminum has also been implicated as a toxic agent in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, Guamiam amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and parkinsonism-dementia. 119 references.

  15. Toxic shock syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by a toxin produced by some types of Staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock-like ... men. Risk factors include: Recent childbirth Infection with Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ), commonly called a Staph infection Foreign ...

  16. BIOMARKERS OF REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification and verification of anatomical, endocrine, cellular and molecular biomarkers is crucial for successful clinical diagnosis and treatment of toxicity and disease, as well as basic toxicological, epidemiological and other research. Various in situ biomarkers of repro...

  17. Temporal and spatial scales of effects of toxic and non-toxic stressors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H. II; Specht, D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Newport, OR (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Estuarine ecosystems are potentially subjected to over 25 types of non-toxic stressors, including sedimentation, nutrients, exotic species, and habitat loss. Many non-toxic stressors operate over entire estuaries. For example, spread of exotics such as Spartina in Willapa Bay, WA may impact much of the intertidal area. Alterations due to toxic pollutants tend to be localized near their inputs. However, trophic transport can spread DDT and PCBs throughout a much wider area. Toxic pollutants are often introduced into the environment rapidly through discharges and spills, and then affect organisms fairly rapidly (within minutes to over a life cycle). The time course for non-toxic stressors is more variable. Some non-toxic alterations are very rapid, such as physical manipulation of habitats (e.g., filling). Alterations to habitats or watershed inputs are gradual, and thus difficult to detect in standard studies. For example, a slight increase in segmentation is difficult to quantify over a few years, but over decades could have major effects on estuarine ecosystems. The duration of effects of toxic pollutants depends upon their dilution, degradation and burial rates, and range from minutes for rapidly diluted soluble pollutants to decades or centuries for recalcitrant pollutants such as DDT. Duration of effects for non-toxic stressors are often ``permanent`` over ecological time for two reasons. Firstly, many non-toxic alterations are due to changes in watersheds, which recover slowly if logged or not at all if native habitat is transformed for development or farming. Secondly, several of the non-toxic stressors, such as invasions of exotics, result in a new, ``stable`` ecological system, so there is no recovery in the sense that pollutants degrade.

  18. Recurrent amiodarone pulmonary toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chendrasekhar, A; Barke, R A; Druck, P

    1996-01-01

    Amiodarone, a widely used antiarrhythmic drug, is associated with pulmonary toxicity, with an estimated mortality of 1% to 33%. Standard treatment for amiodarone pulmonary toxicity (APT) has been discontinuance of the drug and steroid therapy. We report a case of APT that recurred after withdrawal of steroids and failed to respond to reinstatement of steroid therapy. Recurrent APT is a rare clinical entity that has been reported only twice in recent literature. PMID:8545700

  19. Toxic & Harmful Algal Blooms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Teaching unit investigates differences between toxic and non-toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs), where they occur in U.S. waters, causative phytoplankton species, technologies for detecting blooms, which organisms in the food web are affected and how, effects of specific toxins on humans. Five lessons contain: background and glossary; instructions for classroom and lab activities; online data; web links for further study. Lessons are aligned to teaching standards.

  20. AQUATIC TOXICITY OF TRICLOSAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Orvos; Donald J. Versteeg; Josef Inauen; Marie Capdevielle; Arthur Rothenstein; Virginia Cunningham

    2002-01-01

    The aquatic toxicity of triclosan (TCS), a chlorinated biphenyl ether used as an antimicrobial in consumer products, was studied with activated-sludge microorganisms, algae, invertebrates, and fish. Triclosan, a compound used for inhibiting microbial growth, was not toxic to wastewater microorganisms at concentrations less than aqueous solubility. The 48-h Daphnia magna median effective concentration (EC50) was 390 mg\\/L and the 96-h