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1

Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Hair and Severity of Symptoms among Children with Autism  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the levels of ten toxic metals and essential elements in hair samples of children with autism, and to correlate the level of these elements with the severity of autism. Method: The participants were 44 children, age 3 to 9 years, with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition, (DSM-IV). The severity of autistic symptomatology was measured by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Hair analysis was performed to evaluate the long term metal exposure and mineral level. Results: By comparing hair concentration of autistic vs nonautistic children, elevated hair concentrations were noted for aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, antimony, nickel, lead, and vanadium. Hair levels of calcium, iron, iodine, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, and selenium were considered deficient. There was a significant positive correlation between lead & verbal communication (p = 0.020) and general impression (p = 0.008). In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between zinc & fear and nervousness (p = 0.022). Conclusion: Our data supports the historic evidence that heavy metals play a role in the development of ASD. In combination with an inadequate nutritional status the toxic effect of metals increase along with the severity of symptoms.

BLAUROCK-BUSCH, Eleonor; AMIN, Omnia R.; DESSOKI, Hani H.; RABAH, Thanaa

2012-01-01

2

Menopausal symptoms: is spirituality associated with the severity of symptoms?  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore whether spirituality was associated with menopausal symptoms. Menopausal symptoms, spirituality, health and menopausal status, and socio-demographic variables were assessed in a community sample of 710 peri- and postmenopausal women. A structural model was explored using structural equation modeling. The results evidence spirituality as a significant contributor regarding the severity of most menopausal symptoms. Among others, spirituality had a significant weight in depressive mood (? = -.414; p < .001), anxiety (? = -.308; p < .001), cognitive impairment (? = -.287; p < .001), aches/pain (? = -.148; p < .001), vasomotor (? = -.125; p = .005) and sexual symptoms (? = -.211; p < .001). Some socio-demographic variables, as well as perceived health, also predicted the menopausal symptoms' severity. Therefore, spirituality can have a positive impact on the menopausal symptoms' reporting. PMID:23471772

Pimenta, Filipa; Maroco, João; Ramos, Catarina; Leal, Isabel

2014-08-01

3

Symptom & Toxicity Management - National Cancer Institute  

Cancer.gov

With the help of the CCOPs, MB-CCOPs and Research Bases, more clinical trials than ever before are incorporating patient-reported outcomes to better capture the clinical benefit and risks of cancer therapies. CCOP network studies include symptom management, toxicity reduction, supportive and palliative care, and quality of life.

4

Impact of ADHD symptoms on autism spectrum disorder symptom severity.  

PubMed

Despite the official exclusion criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the DSM-IV and ICD-10, patients with ASD often show ADHD symptoms. We aimed to examine the potential influence of ADHD symptoms on autistic psychopathology in a large sample of patients with ASD. We tested the hypothesis that patients with ASD and an additional ADHD (ASD+) would show a higher severity of autistic symptoms than those with ASD only (ASD-). We measured autistic symptoms using the autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS-G), the autism diagnostic interview (ADI-R), and the social responsiveness scale (SRS). To measure overall psychopathology and ADHD symptoms, we used the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and the ADHD rating scale (FBB-ADHS), respectively. Group differences between the ASD+ and the ASD- group (group division was conducted according to the results of the FBB-ADHS) were calculated using a univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ASD+ group showed a greater severity of autistic symptoms than the ASD- group, measured by the SRS and the ADI-R. Especially in the social interaction subscale (ADI-R), a significantly higher symptom severity was found in the ASD+ group. No significant group differences were found regarding autistic symptoms measured by the ADOS-G. Patients with ASD and an additional ADHD expressed a stronger severity of autistic symptoms than patients with ASD only. According to our results, the possibility of a co-diagnosis of ADS and ADHD, as is being planned in the DSM-5, is in line with earlier studies, is highly reasonable, will simplify research, and have therapeutic implications. PMID:23973801

Sprenger, Linda; Bühler, Eva; Poustka, Luise; Bach, Christiane; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Bachmann, Christian

2013-10-01

5

Severe amiodarone induced pulmonary toxicity  

PubMed Central

A known complication of Amiodarone therapy is Amiodarone induced Pulmonary Toxicity (APT). Several features of this adverse effect make it difficult to diagnosis and treat. The case of a 63-year-old male with classic radiographic and histologic findings of APT is discussed. Clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnostic findings, and treatment strategies are reviewed. The patient was successfully managed with pulse high dose steroid therapy.

Nacca, Nicholas; Yuhico, Luke S; Pinnamaneni, Sowmya; Szombathy, Tamas

2012-01-01

6

ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY OF SEVERAL TOXIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The hydroxyl radical initiated gas phase oxidation of several toxic compounds in nitrous acid, oxides of nitrogen, in air mixtures were investigated. The chemical species studied were: formaldehyde, acrylonitrile, vinylidene chloride, trichloroethylene, allyl chloride, acetaldehy...

7

Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity\\u000a disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore,\\u000a 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and ASD symptoms. OCD patients showed\\u000a increased ADHD and autism symptom frequencies, OCD + ADHD patients reporting more autism symptoms

Gideon E. Anholt; Danielle C. Cath; Patricia van Oppen; Merijn Eikelenboom; Johannes H. Smit; Harold van Megen

2010-01-01

8

Autism and ADHD symptoms in patients with OCD: are they associated with specific OC symptom dimensions or OC symptom severity?  

PubMed

In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and ASD symptoms. OCD patients showed increased ADHD and autism symptom frequencies, OCD + ADHD patients reporting more autism symptoms (particularly attention switching and social skills problems) than OCD - ADHD patients. Attention switching problems were most significant predictors of OC symptom dimensions (except hoarding) and of symptom severity. Hoarding was not associated with elevated autism scale scores, but with inattention. In conclusion, attention switching problems may reflect both symptom overlap and a common etiological factor underlying ASD, ADHD and OCD. PMID:20039111

Anholt, Gideon E; Cath, Danielle C; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J L M

2010-05-01

9

New classification scheme for atrial fibrillation symptom severity and burden.  

PubMed

Although atrial fibrillation (AF) symptom severity is used to guide clinical care, a simple, standardized assessment tool is not available for routine clinical use. We sought to develop and validate a patient-generated score and classification scheme for AF-related symptom severity and burden. Atrial Fibrillation Symptom and Burden, a simple 2-part questionnaire, was designed to assess (1) AF symptom severity using 8 questions to determine how symptoms affect daily life and (2) AF burden using 6 questions to measure AF frequency, duration, and health-care utilization. The resulting score was used to classify patients into 4 classes of symptom and burden severity. Patients were asked to complete the questionnaire, a survey evaluating the questionnaire, and an Short Form-12v2 generic health-related quality-of-life form. Validation of the questionnaire included assessments of its reliability and construct and known groups validity. The strength of interrater agreement between patient-generated and blinded provider-generated classifications of AF symptom severity was also assessed. The survey had good internal consistency (Cronbach ? >0.82) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.93). There was a good linear correlation with health-related quality-of-life aggregates measured by Pearson correlation coefficient (r = 0.62 and 0.42 vs physical component summary and mental component summary, respectively). Compared with physical and mental component summary scores, the patient-generated symptom severity classification scheme showed robust discrimination between mild and moderate severity (p <0.0001 and p = 0.0009) and between moderate and severe groups (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.012). In conclusion, this simple patient-generated AF classification scheme is robust, internally consistent, reproducible, and highly correlated with standardized quality-of-life measures. PMID:24878121

Koci, Florian; Forbes, Peter; Mansour, Moussa C; Heist, E Kevin; Singh, Jagmeet P; Ellinor, Patrick T; Ruskin, Jeremy N

2014-07-15

10

Peripheral oxytocin is associated with reduced symptom severity in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Emerging evidence from clinical trials suggests that oral estrogen and intranasal oxytocin might reduce symptom severity in schizophrenia. Whether increases in endogenous hormones are similarly associated with improved symptoms is unknown. We investigated the effects of menstrual cycle phase and related fluctuations in peripheral hormone levels on clinical symptoms in women with chronic schizophrenia. Method Twenty-three women with schizophrenia were administered the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), a measure of clinical symptom severity, at two menstrual cycle phases: 1) early follicular (Days 2–4; low estrogen/progesterone) and 2) midluteal (Days 20–22; high estrogen/progesterone). Twenty-seven males with schizophrenia and 58 controls (31 female) completed testing at comparable intervals. Men were included to examine whether the relationships between clinical symptoms and hormone levels in women generalize to men. Plasma hormone assays of estrogen, oxytocin, progesterone, and testosterone were obtained. Results Female patients showed less severe symptoms during the midluteal versus early follicular phase (p’s<0.01). Oxytocin did not fluctuate across phases, but in female patients (p’s<0.01) higher oxytocin levels were associated with less severe positive symptoms and overall psychopathology. In both sexes, higher oxytocin levels were associated with more prosocial behaviors (p<0.05). Conclusion Consistent with previous findings in acutely ill patients, our results suggest that clinical symptoms vary across the menstrual cycle in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Similar to recent findings regarding benefits of intranasal oxytocin, these new findings indicate that high levels of endogenous oxytocin might improve positive symptom severity and general psychopathology in women and social behaviors in both sexes.

Rubin, Leah H.; Carter, C. Sue; Drogos, Lauren; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Sweeney, John A.; Maki, Pauline M.

2010-01-01

11

Dissociation between symptoms and histological severity in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Objectives The relationship between patient symptoms and histological severity of Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EE) is not known. We created a pediatric EE symptom score (PEESS) and compared the results with histological findings in the esophagus. Methods Subjects ages 3–18 years with a histologic diagnosis of EE or their parent completed a survey rating the frequency and severity of their gastrointestinal symptoms. Scores ranged from 0–98. Eosinophil numbers in esophageal biopsy specimens were correlated with the PEESS. Results Forty-nine subjects completed the PEESS. The symptom score did not correlate with the peak eosinophil count (r2=0.079). Newly diagnosed, untreated EE subjects (N=15) had a mean score of 24.7 ± 16.4 with a modest correlation between the PEESS and the number of eosinophils in the distal esophagus (r2=0.37). The mean PEESS score in the 34 treated patients was lower than in untreated patients [15.6 ± 12.9. p=0.046]. The mean score for treated patients in histologic remission was the same as treated patients with active EE, irrespective of treatment type. Abdominal pain was the most frequent and severe symptom reported. Of 20/34 subjects (58.8%) in histologic remission, 17 (85%) continued to report symptoms with a mean score of 17.4 ± 9.9 (range 1–38). Three children with active histologic EE (10%) reported no symptoms. Conclusions Children with untreated EE had a higher PEESS than treated subjects. Symptoms persisted in 85% of EE patients despite histologic resolution and 10% with active EE reported no symptoms. Our data indicates a dissociation between symptoms and histology in pediatric EE.

Pentiuk, Scott; Putnam, Phillip E.; Collins, Margaret H.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

2009-01-01

12

Gynecologic oncology patients' satisfaction and symptom severity during palliative chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Research on quality and satisfaction with care during palliative chemotherapy in oncology patients has been limited. The objective was to assess the association between patient's satisfaction with care and symptom severity and to evaluate test-retest of a satisfaction survey in this study population. Methods A prospective cohort of patients with recurrent gynecologic malignancies receiving chemotherapy were enrolled after a diagnosis of recurrent cancer. Patients completed the Quality of End-of-Life care and satisfaction with treatment scale (QUEST) once upon enrollment in an outpatient setting and again a week later. Patients also completed the Mini-Mental Status Exam, the Hospital Anxiety/Depression Scale, a symptom severity scale and a demographic survey. Student's t-test, correlation statistics and percent agreement were used for analysis. Results Data from 39 patients were analyzed. Mean (SD) quality of care summary score was 41.95 (2.75) for physicians and 42.23 (5.42) for nurses (maximum score was 45; p = 0.76 for difference in score between providers). Mean (SD) satisfaction of care summary score was 29.03 (1.92) for physicians and 29.28 (1.70) for nurses (maximum score was 30; p = 0.49 for difference between providers). Test-retest for 33 patients who completed both QUEST surveys had high percent agreement (74–100%), with the exception of the question regarding the provider arriving late (45 and 53%). There was no correlation between quality and satisfaction of care and symptom severity. Weakness was the most common symptom reported. Symptom severity correlated with depression (r = 0.577 p < 0.01). There was a trend towards a larger proportion of patients reporting pain who had three or more prior chemotherapy regimens (p = 0.075). Prior number of chemotherapy regimens or time since diagnosis was not correlated with symptom severity score. Anxiety and depression were correlated with each other (r = 0.711, p < 0.01). There was no difference in symptom severity score at enrollment between those patients who have since died (n = 19) versus those who are still alive. Conclusion The QUEST Survey has test-retest reliability when used as a written instrument in an outpatient setting. However, there was no correlation between this measure and symptom severity. Patient evaluation of care may be more closely related to the interpersonal aspects of the health care provider relationship than it is to physical symptoms.

von Gruenigen, Vivian E; Hutchins, Jessica R; Reidy, Anne Marie; Gibbons, Heidi E; Daly, Barbara J; Eldermire, Elisa M; Fusco, Nancy L

2006-01-01

13

Symptom severity and QOL scales for urinary incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symptoms of incontinence are common, particularly among older people, and incontinence can have a severe effect on the quality of life of some individuals at any age. A number of treatments are available, most of which aim to reduce the occurrence of incontinent episodes or to limit the effects of the disorder on everyday life. In research and clinical practice,

Michelle J Naughton; Jenny Donovan; Xavier Badia; Jacques Corcos; Momokazu Gotoh; Con Kelleher; Bertrand Lukacs; Christine Shaw

2004-01-01

14

Linguistic Correlates of Asymmetric Motor Symptom Severity in Parkinson's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asymmetric motor severity is common in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and provides a method for examining the neurobiologic mechanisms underlying cognitive and linguistic deficits associated with the disorder. In the present research, PD participants (N = 31) were assessed in terms of the asymmetry of their motor symptoms. Interviews with the…

Holtgraves, Thomas; McNamara, Patrick; Cappaert, Kevin; Durso, Raymond

2010-01-01

15

Gynecologic oncology patients' satisfaction and symptom severity during palliative chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Research on quality and satisfaction with care during palliative chemotherapy in oncology patients has been limited. The objective was to assess the association between patient's satisfaction with care and symptom severity and to evaluate test-retest of a satisfaction survey in this study population. METHODS: A prospective cohort of patients with recurrent gynecologic malignancies receiving chemotherapy were enrolled after a

Vivian E von Gruenigen; Jessica R Hutchins; Anne Marie Reidy; Heidi E Gibbons; Barbara J Daly; Elisa M Eldermire; Nancy L Fusco

2006-01-01

16

Anamnestic index severity and signs and symptoms of TMD.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and to characterize the symptoms and clinical signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) related to each severity category of Fonseca's anamnestic index in a sample of Brazilian young adults (mean age 21.61+/-1.91 years, 87% females and 13% males), by the application of an anamnestic index proposed by Fonseca (1992) and by clinical examination considering mandibular range of motion and tenderness to palpation of stomatognathic system structures. A significant number of participants were classified with mild TMD (43.2%) and moderate TMD (34.8%). Pain frequency during mastication, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain, and TMJ sounds were shown to be good predictors of TMD severity. Neck pain, headache, difficulty during mouth opening and lateral deviation, and tenderness to palpation of masticatory sites and during protrusion accompanied the TMD severity but failed to demonstrate differences between moderate and severe groups, showing a poor ability to determine TMD severity progression. This study suggests that not only the frequency of signs and symptoms of TMD should be determined, but also symptom severity and its relationship to the presence of clinical signs in order to discriminate patients with real treatment needs in nonpatient samples. PMID:16711273

Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Chaves, Thaís Cristina; de Oliveira, Anamaria S; Monteiro-Pedro, Vanessa

2006-04-01

17

Symptom overreporting obscures the dose-response relationship between trauma severity and symptoms.  

PubMed

We investigated whether symptom overreporting affects the dose-response relationship between self-reported abuse severity and psychiatric symptoms in two samples. The first sample (N=599) consisted of adults who had previously reported to a public commission that they had been witnesses to or victims of childhood sexual abuse by Roman Catholic Church representatives. The second sample (N=1756) consisted of general population respondents who indicated that they had been victims of non-familial childhood sexual abuse. Using a web-based data collection procedure, both samples completed the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18), items addressing abuse severity, and items flagging symptom overreporting. Adjusting for overreporting reduced the proportion of participants with clinically raised BSI-18 scores from 60% to 47% in sample 1 and from 26% to 22% in sample 2. Also, in both samples, normal range reporting participants exhibited the typical dose-response relationship between trauma severity and BSI-18 scores, whereas this pattern was largely non-significant in overreporting participants. Our findings show that symptom overreporting has a psychometric impact that may obscure relationships between clinically relevant variables and should therefore preferably be monitored in surveys. PMID:24704260

Merckelbach, Harald; Langeland, Willie; de Vries, Gerard; Draijer, Nel

2014-07-30

18

Linguistic Correlates of Asymmetric Motor Symptom Severity in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Asymmetric motor severity is common in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and provides a method for examining the neurobiologic mechanisms underlying cognitive and linguistic deficits associated with the disorder. In the present research, PD participants (N = 31) were assessed in terms of the asymmetry of their motor symptoms. Interviews with the participants were analyzed with the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program. Three measures of linguistic complexity – the proportion of verbs, proportion of function words, and sentence length – were found to be affected by symptom asymmetry. Greater left-side motor severity (and hence greater right hemisphere dysfunction) was associated with the production of significantly fewer verbs, function words, and shorter sentences. Hence, the production of linguistic complexity in a natural language context was associated with relatively greater right hemisphere involvement. The potential neurobiological mechanisms underlying this effect are discussed.

Holtgraves, Thomas; McNamara, Patrick; Cappaert, Kevin; Durso, Raymond

2009-01-01

19

Indicate severe toxicity of highway runoff.  

PubMed

Road runoff is recognized as a substantial nonpoint source of contamination to the aquatic environment. Highway seasonal first flushes contain particularly high concentrations of pollutants. To fully account for the toxicity potential of the runoff, the cumulative effects of the pollutants should be assessed, ideally by biological analyses. Acute toxicity tests with were used to measure the toxicity of runoff from three major highway sections in Israel for 2 yr. Highway first flushes resulted in the mortality of all tested individuals within 24 to 48 h. A first flush collected from Highway 4 (traffic volume: 81,200 cars d) remained toxic even after dilution to <5% (48 h EC <5%). Synthetic solutions with metal concentrations corresponding to highways' first flushes revealed a synergistic adverse effect on survival and a potential additive effect of nonmetal pollutants in the runoff. Because daphnids and other invertebrates constitute the base of the aquatic food chain, detrimental effects of highway runoff may propagate to higher levels of biological organization. The observed high potential of environmental contamination warrants the control of highway runoff in proximity to natural watercourses. PMID:24216417

Dorchin, Achik; Shanas, Uri

2013-09-01

20

Single nucleotide polymorphisms predict symptom severity of autism spectrum disorder  

PubMed Central

Autism is widely believed to be a heterogeneous disorder; diagnosis is currently based solely on clinical criteria, although genetic, as well as environmental, influences are thought to be prominent factors in the etiology of most forms of autism. Our goal is to determine whether a predictive model based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can predict symptom severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We divided 118 ASD children into a mild/moderate autism group (n = 65) and a severe autism group (n = 53), based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). For each child, we obtained 29 SNPs of 9 ASD-related genes. To generate predictive models, we employed three machine-learning techniques: decision stumps (DSs), alternating decision trees (ADTrees), and FlexTrees. DS and FlexTree generated modestly better classifiers, with accuracy = 67%, sensitivity = 0.88 and specificity = 0.42. The SNP rs878960 in GABRB3 was selected by all models, and was related associated with CARS assessment. Our results suggest that SNPs have the potential to offer accurate classification of ASD symptom severity.

Jiao, Yun; Chen, Rong; Ke, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Lu; Chu, Kangkang; Lu, Zuhong; Herskovits, Edward H

2011-01-01

21

Role of Folic Acid on Symptoms of Chronic Arsenic Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic arsenic toxicity (Arsenicosis) due to drinking of arsenic contaminated ground water is a global problem. However, its treatment is unsatisfactory. Methylation of arsenic facilitates its urinary excretion. Persons with relatively lower proportion of urinary dimethyl arsenic acid (DMA) are found to have at greater risk of developing symptoms of arsenicosis including its complications. The biochemical pathway responsible for methylation of arsenic is a folate-dependent pathway. Studies in rodents and humans suggest that folate nutritional status influences the metabolism of arsenic. Methods: The present study compares the effect of giving folic acid on 32 arsenicosis patients during a 6-month period and comparing the results with clinical effect of taking only arsenic-free safe water on 45 age and sex-matched arsenic-affected people for the same period. Results: There was significant improvement of arsenical skin lesion score of both patients treated with folic acid (2.96 ± 1.46 to 1.90 ± 0.90, P < 0.001) and arsenic free safe water (2.91 ± 1.26 to 1.62 ± 1.05, P < 0.001) for a period of 6 months. Significant improvement in systemic disease score was also observed from the baseline systemic score in folic acid treated group (4.78 ± 3.43 to 1.00 ± 1.56, P < 0.001) and the group treated with arsenic-free water (1.87 ± 2.11 to 0.82 ± 1.62, P < 0.001). However, there was a significant increased improvement of systematic disease score in the folic acid treated group compared to the control group taking arsenic free water (P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study provides evidence that folic acid treatment in arsenicosis cases could help in reducing clinical symptoms of arsenicosis.

Ghose, Nelima; Majumdar, Kunal Kanti; Ghose, A. K.; Saha, C. K.; Nandy, A. K.; Mazumder, D. N. Guha

2014-01-01

22

Effects of neuregulin-1 genetic variation and depression symptom severity on longitudinal patterns of psychotic symptoms in primary care attendees.  

PubMed

A better understanding of the factors associated with psychotic symptoms could aid early identification and treatment of psychotic disorders. Previous studies have typically utilized cross-sectional study designs and have focused on individuals with psychotic disorders. Thus, examination of promising correlates of psychotic symptoms using longitudinal designs among more broadly defined populations is warranted. Two such correlates are neuregulin-1 (NRG1) genotypic variation and depression symptom severity. Both NRG1 and depression symptom severity have cross-sectional evidence for an association with psychosis but their affect on longitudinal patterns of psychotic symptoms and their potential interaction effects are less clear. Using repeated measures analysis of variance and covariance we modeled the main and interaction effects of NRG1 genotypic variation and depressive symptom severity on longitudinal psychotic symptom patterns in 301 primary care attendees assessed annually over 4 years. One-fifth (19.9%) of the participants reported one or more psychotic symptoms over the 4-year assessment period. We observed a curvilinear (i.e., cubic) association between depression symptom severity at baseline and longitudinal patterns of psychotic symptoms but did not observe a main effect for NRG1 genotypic variation on psychotic symptom patterns. However, NRG1 rs6994992 genotype moderated the curvilinear association between depression symptom severity and psychotic symptom patterns. Specifically, depression symptom severity had less of an effect on longitudinal psychotic symptoms among carriers of the rs6994992 TT genotype compared to CC and CT carriers. Our findings suggest a curvilinear association between depression symptom severity and longitudinal patterns of psychotic symptoms that is moderated by NRG1 genotype. PMID:24123921

Bousman, C A; Potiriadis, M; Everall, I P; Gunn, J M

2014-01-01

23

Smoking in Schizophrenia: Diagnostic Specificity, Symptom Correlates, and Illness Severity  

PubMed Central

Background: Cigarette smoking was consistently found to be more prevalent in individuals with schizophrenia than in other psychiatric groups and the general population. These findings have been interpreted as evidence of a specific association between schizophrenia and smoking. However, the supporting data come primarily from cross-sectional studies, which are susceptible to confounding. Our aim was to test specificity of this link longitudinally in an epidemiologic sample. Methods: A cohort of 542 inpatients with psychosis was followed for 10 years after first hospitalization, completing 5 face-to-face interviews. Assessments included ratings of specific symptoms (psychotic, negative, disorganized, and depressive), Global Assessment of Functioning, and a categorical measure of cigarette consumption. All participants were assigned longitudinal consensus diagnoses by study psychiatrists, and 229 were diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SZ). Results: At baseline, 52.4% of participants were current smokers and 69.3% were lifetime smokers. Smoking rates did not differ among the diagnostic groups (schizophrenia spectrum, major depressive, bipolar, or other psychotic disorder) at any assessment point. Smokers were more severely ill than nonsmokers but did not differ in specific symptoms either cross-sectionally or longitudinally. Among smokers, changes in cigarette consumption were linked only with changes in depression (??=?.16, P?symptoms, but cigarette consumption covaried with depression over time. Given the devastating health consequences of cigarette use, smoking cessation interventions are urgently needed in this population and should specifically address depression.

Kotov, Roman; Guey, Lin T.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Schwartz, Joseph E.

2010-01-01

24

Psychometric properties of the modified Symptom Severity Index (SSI).  

PubMed

The psychometric properties of the modified Symptom Severity Index were investigated to assess the relationships among dimensions of pain in temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The 15-item instrument is composed of ordinal scales assessing five pain dimensions (intensity, frequency, duration, unpleasantness and difficulty to endure) as experienced in three locations (temple, temporomandibular joint (TMJ), masseter). In 108 closed-lock subjects, Cronbach's alpha was used to measure internal consistency resulting in 31 of the 105 pair-wise comparisons >or=0.71. Multilevel exploratory factor analysis was used to assess dimensionality between items. Two factors emerged, termed temple pain and jaw pain. The jaw pain factor comprised the TMJ and masseter locations, indicating that subjects did not differentiate between these two locations. With further analysis, the jaw pain factor could be separated into temporal aspects of pain (frequency, duration) and affective dimensions (intensity, unpleasantness, endurability). Temple pain could not be further reduced; this may have been influenced by concurrent orofacial pains such as headache. Internal consistency was high, with alphas >or=0.92 for scales associated with all factors. Excellent test-retest reliability was found for repeat testing at 2-48 h in 55 subjects (Intra-class correlation coefficients = 0.97, 95%CI 0.96-0.99). In conclusion, the modified Symptom Severity Index has excellent psychometric properties for use as an instrument to measure pain in subjects with TMD. The most important characteristic of this pain is location, while the temporal dimensions are important for jaw pain. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and assess relationships between dimensions of pain as experienced in other chronic pain disorders. PMID:19889036

Nixdorf, D R; John, M T; Wall, M M; Fricton, J R; Schiffman, E L

2010-01-01

25

[Severe toxic diarrhoea in cyclosporin treated 11-years old girl with nephrotic syndrome].  

PubMed

A 11-years old cyclosporin-treated girl with nephrotic syndrome, complicated by severe toxic diarrhoea with excessive metabolic alkalosis and dyselektrolitemia (hyponatremia, hypokaliemia, hypochloremia) and transient immunoglobulin deficiency is reported. Ultrasonography shows thickeness of the colonic wall as a symptom of colonic inflammation. After discontinuation of cyclosporin therapy, excluding infectious origin of diarrhoea (bacterial, viral and fungal infection), partial parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition (Peptisorb), probiotics and antidiarrhoeal drugs were used in the treatment. After introducing steroids orally (Entocort) complete resolution of symptoms were observed. PMID:17874629

Stawarski, Andrzej; Iwa?czak, Barbara; Wawro, Anna; Iwa?czak, Franciszek; Piasecka, Agata; Sarnowska, Marta; Makulska, Irena

2007-06-01

26

Relationship between Affective Symptoms and Malnutrition Severity in Severe Anorexia Nervosa  

PubMed Central

Background Very few studies have investigated the relationship between malnutrition and psychological symptoms in Anorexia Nervosa (AN). They have used only body weight or body mass index (BMI) for the nutritional assessment and did not always report on medication, or if they did, it was not included in the analysis of results, and they did not include confounding factors such as duration of illness, AN subtype or age. The present study investigates this relationship using indicators other than BMI/weight, among which body composition and biological markers, also considering potential confounders related to depression and anxiety. Methods 155 AN patients, (DSM-IV) were included consecutively upon admission to inpatient treatment. Depression, anxiety, obsessive behaviours and social functioning were measured using various scales. Nutritional status was measured using BMI, severity of weight loss, body composition, and albumin and prealbumin levels. Results No correlation was found between BMI at inclusion, fat-free mass index, fat mass index, and severity of weight loss and any of the psychometric scores. Age and medication are the only factors that affect the psychological scores. None of the psychological scores were explained by the nutritional indicators with the exception of albumin levels which was negatively linked to the LSAS fear score (p?=?0.024; beta?=??0.225). Only the use of antidepressants explained the variability in BDI scores (p?=?0.029; beta?=?0.228) and anxiolytic use explained the variability in HADs depression scores (p?=?0.037; beta?=?0.216). Conclusion The present study is a pioneer investigation of various nutritional markers in relation to psychological symptoms in severely malnourished AN patients. The clinical hypothesis that malnutrition partly causes depression and anxiety symptoms in AN in acute phase is not confirmed, and future studies are needed to back up our results.

Mattar, Lama; Huas, Caroline; group, EVHAN; Godart, Nathalie

2012-01-01

27

Children with Autism: Sleep Problems and Symptom Severity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships between the specific sleep problems and specific behavioral problems of children with autism were evaluated. Mothers' reports of sleep habits and autism symptoms were collected for 109 children with autism. Unlike previous research in this area, only children diagnosed with autism without any commonly comorbid diagnoses (e.g.,…

Tudor, Megan E.; Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.

2012-01-01

28

Red clover causing symptoms suggestive of methotrexate toxicity in a patient on high-dose methotrexate.  

PubMed

The case report discusses a very serious interaction between red clover and methotrexate not previously documented. It highlights the potential pitfalls of concomitant use of herbal remedies and conventionally prescribed drugs and the importance of advising our patients about OTC drugs. A 52-year-old woman attended her general practitioner for advice on menopausal flushing. She was on methotrexate weekly injections for severe psoriasis and was not keen to consider anything that would possibly affect her skin. Alternative therapies were discussed and red clover was suggested. This was bought OTC. After the third day of taking red clover capsules (430 mg), the patient developed severe vomiting and epigastric pain. She contacted the dermatology clinic that administers the methotrexate injection and was thought to have symptoms suggestive of methotrexate toxicity even though her liver function tests remained within normal levels. She had been receiving methotrexate injections for nearly two years with no adverse effects. The only new drug that had been started was red clover and this was thought to be the probable cause of the toxicity. It was withdrawn. The patient made a full recovery and received her next injection of methotrexate with no adverse effects. The interaction was reported to the MHRA with a yellow card. PMID:24072635

Orr, Ancel; Parker, Rachel

2013-09-01

29

Psychological Symptoms and Drug Use Severity among Israeli Adolescents Presenting for Outpatient Drug Abuse Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to assess the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and the relation between psychological symptoms and drug use severity, among 117 Israeli adolescents presenting for outpatient drug abuse treatment. Psychological symptoms were assessed via both adolescent self-report and parent report. Drug use was…

Diamond, G.M.; Izzard, M.C.; Kedar, T.; Hutlzer, A.; Mell, H.

2005-01-01

30

Psychological symptoms and drug use severity among Israeli adolescents presenting for outpatient drug abuse treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and the relation between psychological symptoms and drug use severity, among 117 Israeli adolescents presenting for outpatient drug abuse treatment. Psychological symptoms were assessed via both adolescent self-report and parent report. Drug use was assessed using both adolescent self-report and urinalysis. Results showed that 58%

Gary M. Diamond; Miriam C. Izzard; Tami Kedar; Anat Hutlzer; Haim Mell

2005-01-01

31

Posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity and HIV-risk behaviors among substance-dependent inpatients.  

PubMed

Despite findings that the co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) is associated with heightened risk for a variety of risky behaviors, few studies have examined behaviors linked to heightened risk for HIV infection and transmission in particular, or explored the unique associations between specific PTSD symptom clusters and these HIV-risk behaviors. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the associations between PTSD symptom severity and HIV-risk behaviors (i.e., risky sexual behavior [RSB] and injection drug use [INJ]) within an ethnically diverse sample of 85 SUD patients in residential SUD treatment. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires assessing PTSD symptom severity and HIV-risk behaviors, including RSB and INJ. Results demonstrated significant positive associations between PTSD symptom severity and RSB; however, no significant relationship between PTSD symptom severity and INJ was found. Furthermore, the severity of hyperarousal symptoms in particular was found to significantly predict RSB above and beyond age and all other PTSD symptom clusters. Results of this study suggest that PTSD symptoms (and, more specifically, the hyperarousal symptoms of PTSD) may heighten the risk for some forms of HIV-risk behaviors (RSB) but not others (INJ). Results highlight the importance of identifying and targeting hyperarousal symptoms in the treatment of SUD patients experiencing symptoms of PTSD in order to reduce HIV infection or transmission risk. PMID:23356590

Weiss, Nicole H; Tull, Matthew T; Borne, Meghan E R; Gratz, Kim L

2013-01-01

32

[A case of toxic epidermal necrolysis with severe intestinal manifestation].  

PubMed

TEN is a severe dermatological disorder characterized by extended epidermal necrosis. Disseminated mucosal erosions have been occasionally reported to occur in the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) with severe intestinal manifestation. A 52-year-old woman was admitted with high fever, skin eruption and severe diarrhea. She was diagnosed as toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which was most likely due to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). After skin lesion recovered, fever and bloody diarrhea went on. Colonoscopy and X-ray revealed lead-pipe like stenotic long loops which was caused by erosion and sublation of whole mucosa of large intestinum, and severe stenosis of ileum end. The ileo-cecal region was resected on the 216(th) hospital day. Pathological examination showed sublation of mucoepithelium and inflammatory change in the muco-submucosal layer, but muscular layers of mucosa remained intact. Pathologically, the intestinal lesion resemble the changes in the early skin lesions and seems to be part of the systemic lesion of TEN. PMID:18772576

Otomi, Megumi; Yano, Mitsuyasu; Aoki, Hidetoshi; Takahashi, Kouji; Omoya, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Nakamoto, Jiro; Kataoka, Koichi; Yagi, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Yosuke

2008-09-01

33

Severe citrate toxicity complicating volunteer apheresis platelet donation.  

PubMed

We report a case of severe citrate toxicity during volunteer donor apheresis platelet collection. The donor was a 40-year-old female, first-time apheresis platelet donor. Past medical history was remarkable for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and depression. Reported medications included bumetanide, pravastatin, and paroxetine. Thirty minutes from the start of the procedure, the donor noted tingling around the mouth, hands, and feet. She then very rapidly developed acute onset of severe facial and extremity tetany. Empirical treatment with intravenous calcium gluconate was initiated, and muscle contractions slowly subsided over approximately 10 to 15 minutes. The events are consistent with a severe reaction to calcium chelation by sodium citrate anticoagulant resulting in symptomatic systemic hypocalcemia. Upon additional retrospective analysis, it was noted that bumetanide is a loop diuretic that may cause significant hypocalcemia. We conclude that careful screening for medications and underlying conditions predisposing to hypocalcemia is recommended to help prevent severe reactions due to citrate toxicity. Laboratory measurement of pre-procedure serum calcium levels in selected donors may identify cases requiring heightened vigilance. The case also illustrates the importance of maintaining preparedness for managing rare but serious reactions in volunteer apheresis blood donors. PMID:17111419

Bell, A M; Nolen, J D L; Knudson, C M; Raife, T J

2007-02-01

34

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptom Severity, Proton Pump Inhibitor Use, and Esophageal Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Hypothesis Screening for esophageal adenocarcinoma has focused on identifying Barrett esophagus (BE) in patients with severe, long-standing symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease(GERD). Unfortunately, 95%of patients who develop esophageal adenocarcinoma are unaware of the presence of BE before their cancer diagnosis, which means they never had been selected for screening. One possible explanation is that no correlation exists between the severity of GERD symptoms and cancer risk. We hypothesize that severe GERD symptoms are not associated with an increase in the prevalence of BE, dysplasia, or cancer in patients undergoing primary endoscopic screening. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting University hospital. Patients A total of 769 patients with GERD. Interventions Primary screening endoscopy performed from November 1, 2004, through June 7, 2007. Main Outcomes Measures Symptom severity, proton pump inhibitor therapy, and esophageal adenocarcinogenesis (ie, BE, dysplasia, or cancer). Results Endoscopy revealed adenocarcinogenesis in 122 patients. An increasing number of severe GERD symptoms correlated positively with endoscopic findings of esophagitis (odds ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.09). Conversely, an increasing number of severe GERD symptoms were associated with decreased odds of adenocarcinogenesis (odds ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.98). Patients taking proton pump inhibitors were 61.3% and 81.5% more likely to have adenocarcinogenesis if they reported no severe typical or atypical GERD symptoms, respectively, compared with patients taking proton pump inhibitors, who reported that all symptoms were severe. Conclusions Medically treated patients with mild or absent GERD symptoms have significantly higher odds of adenocarcinogenesis compared with medically treated patients with severe GERD symptoms. This finding may explain the failure of the current screening paradigm in which the threshold for primary endoscopic examination is based on symptom severity.

Nason, Katie S.; Wichienkuer, Promporn Paula; Awais, Omar; Schuchert, Matthew J.; Luketich, James D.; O'Rourke, Robert W.; Hunter, John G.; Morris, Cynthia D.; Jobe, Blair A.

2014-01-01

35

Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and daily ambient exposures to toxic and criteria air pollutants.  

PubMed Central

Although acute adverse effects on asthma have been frequently found for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's principal criteria air pollutants, there is little epidemiologic information on specific hydrocarbons from toxic emission sources. We conducted a panel study of 22 Hispanic children with asthma who were 10-16 years old and living in a Los Angeles community with high traffic density. Subjects filled out symptom diaries daily for up to 3 months (November 1999 through January 2000). Pollutants included ambient hourly values of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide and 24-hr values of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm (PM10, and elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) PM10 fractions. Asthma symptom severity was regressed on pollutants using generalized estimating equations, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) was regressed on pollutants using mixed models. We found positive associations of symptoms with criteria air pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, PM10), EC-OC, and VOCs (benzene, ethylbenzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 1,3-butadiene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene). Selected adjusted odds ratios for bothersome or more severe asthma symptoms from interquartile range increases in pollutants were, for 1.4 ppb 8-hr NO2, 1.27 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.54]; 1.00 ppb benzene, 1.23 (95% CI, 1.02-1.48); 3.16 ppb formaldehyde, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.04-1.80); 37 microg/m3 PM10, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.11-1.90); 2.91 microg/m3 EC, 1.85 (95% CI, 1.11-3.08); and 4.64 microg/m3 OC, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.12-3.17). Two-pollutant models of EC or OC with PM10 showed little change in odds ratios for EC (to 1.83) or OC (to 1.89), but PM10 decreased from 1.45 to 1.0. There were no significant associations with PEF. Findings support the view that air toxins in the pollutant mix from traffic and industrial sources may have adverse effects on asthma in children.

Delfino, Ralph J; Gong, Henry; Linn, William S; Pellizzari, Edo D; Hu, Ye

2003-01-01

36

Predictors of PTSD Symptom Severity and Social Reactions in Sexual Assault Victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demographics, assault variables, and postassault responses were analyzed as correlates of PTSD symptom severity in a sample of 323 sexual assault victims. Regression analyses indicated that less education, greater perceived life threat, and receipt of more negative social reactions upon disclosing assault were each related to greater PTSD symptom severity. Ethnic minority victims reported more negative social reactions from others.

Sarah E. Ullman; Henrietta H. Filipas

2001-01-01

37

Trichotillomania and emotion regulation: Is symptom severity related to alexithymia?  

PubMed

Previous research on trichotillomania (TTM) has demonstrated an emotion regulation function of hair pulling behavior. One condition that can impede the regulation of emotions is alexithymia. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between the degree of alexithymia and the severity of hair pulling behavior in individuals with TTM. Multiple strategies were used to recruit a sample of 105 participants via the internet. All participants were diagnosed with TTM by an experienced clinician via a subsequent phone-interview. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to test the potential predictive value of the different facets of alexithymia (20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale) on the severity of TTM (Massachusetts General Hospital Hair-Pulling Scale). Both the difficulty in identifying feelings (DIF) facet of alexithymia (p=0.045) and depression (p=0.049) were significant predictors of the severity of TTM. In conclusion, alexithymia seems to play a role in hair pulling behavior in individuals with TTM. However, the significant association was small in terms of the overall variance explained, thus warranting further research. If replicated in prospective studies, then these results indicate that therapeutic approaches aimed at supporting patients in recognizing and differentiating feelings might be useful for the treatment of TTM. PMID:24768249

Rufer, Michael; Bamert, Tsering; Klaghofer, Richard; Moritz, Steffen; Schilling, Lisa; Weidt, Steffi

2014-08-15

38

Quality of life, social support, and severity of psychiatric symptoms in Jordanian patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The major purposes of this study were to examine levels and correlations of quality of life (QOL), social support, and severity of psychiatric symptoms as well as to identify the variables that best predict QOL among Jordanian patients with schizophrenia. Descriptive cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 160 patients selected through systematic random sampling from two psychiatric outpatient clinics. Results showed that the highest domain of QOL was the social relationship domain, and the highest source of social support was perceived from significant others. Severity of affective symptoms was the highest, and severity of positive symptoms was the lowest. QOL correlated positively with social support, patients' educational and income level, and employment; and negatively with severity of psychiatric symptoms, duration of untreated illness, and duration of treatment. Support from friends, duration of untreated illness, income level, and severity of affective symptoms predicted QOL and accounting for 47.3% of the variance. PMID:24118684

Hamaideh, S; Al-Magaireh, D; Abu-Farsakh, B; Al-Omari, H

2014-06-01

39

Effectiveness of atrial fibrillation monitor characteristics to predict severity of symptoms of atrial fibrillation.  

PubMed

The goal of treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF) is often to control symptoms. It remains unclear whether targets for treatment such as AF rate or AF burden are correlated with AF symptom severity. Two hundred eighty-six patients completed a questionnaire of their general health and well-being, including a detailed AF symptom assessment immediately followed by a 7-day continuous monitor. AF characteristics assessed from the monitor included AF burden, AF rate, sinus rhythm rate, frequency and severity of pauses, and premature atrial contraction or premature ventricular contraction burden. Characteristics were analyzed separately for patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF. Symptom severity was assessed using the University of Toronto Atrial Fibrillation Severity Scale. Monitor characteristics were compared with AF symptom severity. The mean age of the cohort was 61.8 years and the majority of subjects were male (65.4%). Co-morbidities included hypertension (64.5%), sleep apnea (38.4%), congestive heart failure (19.6%), and diabetes (16.4%). In those with persistent or paroxysmal AF, there were no significant predictors of AF symptom severity. Specifically, heart rate in AF or sinus rhythm, AF burden, or premature atrial contraction or premature ventricular contraction burden was not predictive of AF symptom severity. After adjusting for potential cofounders (including age, gender, and co-morbidities), these findings persisted. In conclusion, there is no value in using AF monitor characteristics to predict symptoms in patients with AF. PMID:24698459

Patel, Nikhil; Chung, Eugene H; Mounsey, John Paul; Schwartz, Jennifer D; Pursell, Irion; Gehi, Anil K

2014-05-15

40

The epidemiology of anal incontinence and symptom severity scoring  

PubMed Central

For many patients, anal incontinence (AI) is a devastating condition that can lead to social isolation and loss of independence, contributing to a substantial economic health burden, not only for the individual but also for the allocation of healthcare resources. Its prevalence is underestimated because of poor patient reporting, with many unrecorded but symptomatic cases residing in nursing homes. Endosonography has improved our understanding of the incidence of post-obstetric sphincter tears that are potentially suitable for repair and those cases resulting from anorectal surgery, most notably after fistula and hemorrhoid operations. The clinical scoring systems assessing the severity of AI are discussed in this review, along with their limitations. Improvements in the standardization of these scales will advance our understanding of treatment response in an era where the therapeutic options have multiplied and will permit a better comparison between specific therapies.

Nevler, Avinoam

2014-01-01

41

The epidemiology of anal incontinence and symptom severity scoring.  

PubMed

For many patients, anal incontinence (AI) is a devastating condition that can lead to social isolation and loss of independence, contributing to a substantial economic health burden, not only for the individual but also for the allocation of healthcare resources. Its prevalence is underestimated because of poor patient reporting, with many unrecorded but symptomatic cases residing in nursing homes. Endosonography has improved our understanding of the incidence of post-obstetric sphincter tears that are potentially suitable for repair and those cases resulting from anorectal surgery, most notably after fistula and hemorrhoid operations. The clinical scoring systems assessing the severity of AI are discussed in this review, along with their limitations. Improvements in the standardization of these scales will advance our understanding of treatment response in an era where the therapeutic options have multiplied and will permit a better comparison between specific therapies. PMID:24759339

Nevler, Avinoam

2014-05-01

42

The Characteristics of Anxiety and Depression Symptom Severity in Older Adults Living in Public Housing  

PubMed Central

Background Anxiety and depression are common in older adult public housing residents and frequently co-occur. To more fully understand anxiety and depression in this socioeconomically disadvantaged population, this study relies on the Social Antecedent Model of Psychopathology to characterize anxiety and depression symptoms concurrently. Methods 190 public housing residents aged 60 years and older in Rochester, NY, participated in a research interview during which they reported on variables across the six stages of the Social Antecedent Model. GAD-7 and PHQ-9 assessed anxiety and depression symptoms, respectively. Results In these older adult residents, anxiety and depression symptom severity scores were correlated (r = 0.61; p < 0.001). Correlates of anxiety and depression symptom severity were similar for both outcomes and spanned the six stages of the Social Antecedent Model. Multivariate linear regression models identified age, medical comorbidity, mobility, social support, maladaptive coping, and recent life events severity as statistically significant correlates. The regression models accounted for 43% of anxiety and 48% of depression symptom variability. Conclusions In public housing residents, late-life anxiety and depression symptoms were moderately correlated. Anxiety symptom severity correlates were largely consistent with those found for depression symptom severity. The broad distribution of correlates across demographic, social, medical, and behavioral domains suggests that the context of late-life anxiety and depression symptomatology in public housing is complex and that multidisciplinary collaborative care approaches may be warranted in future interventions.

Simning, Adam; Conwell, Yeates; Fisher, Susan G.; Richardson, Thomas M.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

2013-01-01

43

Validity of symptom and clinical measures of asthma severity for primary outpatient assessment of adult asthma.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Symptom and pulmonary function measures of asthma severity are used for severity classification in practice guidelines. However, there is limited methodological evidence in support of their validity and utility. AIM: To validate initial symptom and forced expiratory volume (FEV1) measures of asthma severity with the subsequent risks of exacerbations resulting in emergency room (ER) visits, hospitalisation, and sickness absence from work. In addition, symptom-based measures of change in asthma severity were also evaluated against the concurrent risks of asthma exacerbations. METHOD: A cohort of 361 adult asthmatic patients in general outpatient clinics was studied. At initial interview, frequencies of asthmatic symptoms and nocturnal exacerbations, FEV1, and a severity score combining these measures, were recorded. At re-interview in the third year, the frequencies of asthma exacerbations resulting in ER visits, hospitalisation, and sickness absence, and a self-assessed global measure of change in severity and serially-assessed change in symptom frequencies, were measured. RESULTS: All individual symptom and FEV1 measures were strongly related to the subsequent risks of ER visits, hospitalisation, and sick absence. A severity score of more than 3 (moderate to severe asthma) and self-assessed change in asthma severity were most strongly and significantly associated with greatly increased risks of all outcomes. Individual symptoms and FEV1 measures alone did not show high sensitivities, but the severity score combining these measures gave much more satisfactory validity. Perhaps not surprisingly, self-assessed change in asthma appeared to give the most satisfactory validity. CONCLUSION: These results support the validity and clinical utility of a simple clinical score based on symptom and FEV1 measures, and self-assessed measure of change in severity, for risk classification in contemporary clinical practice guidelines.

Ng, T P

2000-01-01

44

Validating the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale with Persons Who Have Severe Mental Illnesses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Interview data collected from 275 clients with severe mental illnesses are used to test the construct and criterion validity of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (PSS). Method: First, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses are used to test whether the scale reflects the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom

O'Hare, Thomas; Shen, Ce; Sherrer, Margaret

2007-01-01

45

[Episodic manifestation of hemiparkinson syndrome with severe dementia personality change and precursors of paranoid hallucination symptoms].  

PubMed

A case of episodic manifestation of semiparalysis agitans is described, accompanied by severe demential personality change and precursory hallucinatory symptoms, which is made the basis for the discussion of aspects of mental disorders, notably dementia and symptoms resembling schizophrenia, in Parkinsonian patients. By way of allusion to Glass, a diagnosis including a very extensive, complex, symptomatology is made of a Parkinsonian syndrome. PMID:2587667

Postrach, F

1989-09-01

46

Sinus pericranii with severe symptom due to transient disorder of venous return--case report.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of sinus pericranii in a 22-year-old female presenting with severe headache, vomiting, bradycardia, and bradypnea following excessive distention of the tumor. After tumor removal, the symptoms were completely relieved. The symptoms were thought to be due to transient impairment of blood flow in the superior sagittal sinus. PMID:1717865

Anegawa, S; Hayashi, T; Torigoe, R; Nakagawa, S; Ogasawara, T

1991-05-01

47

Asthma severity and PTSD symptoms among inner city children: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Although the association between posttraumatic stress symptoms and asthma severity among children has been hypothesized, it has yet to be explored rigorously. This study sought to describe the posttraumatic stress symptoms of children with asthma and explore the relationship between asthma severity and posttraumatic stress symptoms in an inner city sample with high rates of traumatic exposures. Children aged 7 to 17 years, with a clinician-defined asthma diagnosis, were recruited from an inner city outpatient asthma clinic. Caregivers completed measures assessing the child's asthma and posttraumatic stress symptoms and health care utilization. Children also completed measures of asthma, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and asthma-related quality of life. In all, 24 children-caregiver dyads were enrolled. The sample was 79% male and 83% African American, and the mean age was 11 years. Overall the sample had severe asthma, with 33% having been hospitalized over the past year. In addition, 25% of the sample met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) criteria for the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder, and 74% of the sample experienced a traumatic event. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were found to be significantly related to asthma severity, quality of life, and health care utilization. Assessing for and treating posttraumatic stress symptoms among children with severe asthma may help to improve their asthma course and quality of life. Further research should explore this relationship and related treatment implications. PMID:19042774

Vanderbilt, Douglas; Young, Robin; MacDonald, Helen Z; Grant-Knight, Wanda; Saxe, Glenn; Zuckerman, Barry

2008-01-01

48

The Contribution of High Levels of Somatic Symptom Severity to Sickness Absence Duration, Disability and Discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The primary objectives were to compare the duration of sickness absence in employees with high levels of somatic symptom\\u000a severity (HLSSS) with employees with lower levels of somatic symptom severity, and to establish the long-term outcomes concerning\\u000a return to work (RTW), disability and discharge. Secondary objective was to evaluate determinants of the duration of sickness\\u000a absence in employees with

Rob HoedemanAnnette; Annette H. Blankenstein; Boudien Krol; Petra C. Koopmans; Johan W. Groothoff

2010-01-01

49

Factors associated with severity of symptoms in patients with chronic unexplained muscular aching.  

PubMed Central

Subjects with chronic, diffuse, unexplained muscular aching were recruited--21 from a primary care practice, nine from a rheumatology practice, and two from a pain clinic. No additional criteria were used to select subjects. Subjects with mild or moderate symptoms differed from those with severe symptoms with respect to the following characteristics: the presence of fatigue on awakening, the number of tender points, difficulty in sleeping, and the degree of tenderness in typical fibromyalgia areas as measured by a dolorimeter. These findings suggest that muscular aching is likely to be of greater severity if other symptoms or signs of fibromyalgia are also present.

Kolar, E; Hartz, A; Roumm, A; Ryan, L; Jones, R; Kirchdoerfer, E

1989-01-01

50

[Severe toxic acute liver failure: etiology and treatment].  

PubMed

Many substances, drugs or not, can be responsible for acute hepatitis. Nevertheless, toxic etiology, except when that is obvious like in acetaminophen overdose, is a diagnosis of elimination. Major causes, in particular viral etiologies, must be ruled out. Acetaminophen, antibiotics, antiepileptics and antituberculous drugs are the first causes of drug-induced liver injury. Severity assessment of the acute hepatitis is critical. Acute liver failure (ALF) is defined by the factor V, respectively more than 50% for the mild ALF and less than 50% for the severe ALF. Neurological examination must be extensive to the search for encephalopathy signs. According to the French classification, fulminant hepatitis is defined by the presence of an encephalopathy in the two first weeks and subfulminant between the second and 12th week after the advent of the jaundice. During acetaminophen overdose, with or without hepatitis or ALF, intravenous N-acetylcysteine must be administered as soon as possible. In the non-acetaminophen related ALF, N-acetylcysteine improves transplantation-free survival. Referral and assessment in a liver transplantation unit should be discussed as soon as possible. PMID:23683460

Amathieu, R; Levesque, E; Merle, J-C; Chemit, M; Costentin, C; Compagnon, P; Dhonneur, G

2013-06-01

51

N-acetyl cysteine prevents synergistic, severe toxicity from two hits of oxidative stress.  

PubMed

The two hit hypothesis of neurodegeneration states that cells that have been severely stressed once are more vulnerable to the negative impact of a second hit. In other words, the toxicity of two hits of severe stress may be synergistic in neurons. We previously developed a two hit model of proteotoxic neurodegeneration using the proteasome inhibitor MG132. In that study, we found that the potent antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine was able to protect against the toxicity associated with dual MG132 hits. N-acetyl cysteine has been shown to ameliorate cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's patients and to reduce the symptoms of blast injury in soldiers. These studies and many others in experimental models of neurodegeneration suggest that N-acetyl cysteine can protect neurons even when they are severely injured. In the present study, we tested the hypotheses that dual hits of hydrogen peroxide and paraquat would elicit synergistic neurodegeneration and that this extreme toxicity would be prevented by N-acetyl cysteine. The findings reveal for the first time that neuronal N2a cells are much more sensitive to oxidative stress from hydrogen peroxide treatment when they have been exposed previously to the same toxin. Two hits of hydrogen peroxide also caused severe loss of glutathione. N-acetyl cysteine attenuated the loss of glutathione and reduced the near-complete loss of cells after exposure to dual hydrogen peroxide hits. The present study supports the notion that N-acetyl cysteine can robustly protect against severe, unremitting oxidative stress in a glutathione-dependent manner. PMID:24361774

Unnithan, Ajay S; Jiang, Yiran; Rumble, Jennifer L; Pulugulla, Sree H; Posimo, Jessica M; Gleixner, Amanda M; Leak, Rehana K

2014-02-01

52

Urinary symptoms: prevalence and severity in British men aged 55 and over.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To measure the prevalence and severity of urinary symptoms among men aged 55 and over in the British population. DESIGN--Cross sectional population survey using a postal questionnaire. SETTING--North West Thames health region. SUBJECTS--1480 men aged 55 years and over randomly selected from 8 general practices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Self reported frequency and severity of urinary symptoms, their bothersomeness and previous prostate surgery. RESULTS--The response rate among eligible subjects was 78%. The prevalence of moderate and severe symptoms was 204 per 1000, rising from 160 per 1000 in the 55-59 age group to 259 per 1000 in the 70-74 age group and declining after the age of 80 to 119 per thousand in the 85+ age group. Twelve per cent of men reported previous prostate surgery, and the probability of having had surgery increases steadily with age. About a third of those undergoing surgery have recurrence or persistence of symptoms after surgery. Of men with moderate and severe symptoms, 27.9% reported that their symptoms were a medium or big problem, 36.9% reported that their symptoms interfered with their daily activities at least some of the time, and 43.1% were unhappy or 'felt terrible' about the prospect of a future with their current symptoms. CONCLUSION--The prevalence of urinary symptoms in men is lower than previously reported, although there is a substantial number of men who are bothered by, or who find their lives adversely effected by them.

Hunter, D J; McKee, C M; Black, N A; Sanderson, C F

1994-01-01

53

Comparison of Depressive Symptom Severity Scores in Low-Income Women  

PubMed Central

Background The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) are considered reliable and valid for measuring depressive symptom severity and screening for a depressive disorder. Few studies have examined the convergent or divergent validity of these two measures, and none have been conducted among low-income women – even though rates of depression in this group are extremely high. Moreover, variation in within-subject scores suggests these measures may be less comparable in select subgroups. Objective We sought to compare these two measures in terms of construct validity, and examine whether within-subject differences in depressive symptom severity scores could be accounted for by select characteristics in low-income women. Method In a sample of 308 low-income women, construct validity was assessed using a multitrait-monomethod matrix approach, between-instrument differences in continuous symptom severity scores were regressed on select characteristics using backward stepwise selection, and differences in depressive symptom classification were assessed using the Mantel-Haenszel test. Results Convergent validity was high (rs = 0.80, p < .001). Among predictors that included age, race, education, number of chronic health conditions, history of depression, perceived stress, anxiety, and/or the number of generalized symptoms, none explained within-subject differences in depressive symptom scores between the BDI-II and PHQ-9 (p > .05, R2 < 0.04). Similarly, there was consistency in depressive symptom classification (X2 = 172 and 172.6, p < .0001). Discussion These findings demonstrate the BDI-II and PHQ-9 perform similarly among low-income women in terms of depressive symptom severity measurement and classifying levels of depressive symptoms, and do not vary across subgroups based on select demographics.

Kneipp, Shawn M.; Kairalla, John A.; Stacciarini, Jeanne Marie R.; Pereira, Deidre; Miller, M. David

2010-01-01

54

A defect in carbohydrate metabolism ameliorates symptom severity in virus-infected Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Altered starch accumulation is a characteristic biochemical symptom of virus infection in plants. To assess its biological importance, infection of Arabidopsis thaliana with Turnip vein-clearing virus, Cucumber mosaic virus or Cauliflower mosaic virus was investigated in plants grown under continuous illumination (under which there is no net breakdown of starch) and in pgm1 mutant plants lacking chloroplastic phosphoglucomutase, an enzyme required for starch biosynthesis. Virus-infected wild-type plants grown under continuous light exhibited more severe leaf symptoms, but no reduction in growth compared with plants grown under diurnal illumination. Comparing lines grown in perpetual light, pgm1 mutant plants displayed less severe symptoms than the wild-type controls. However, accumulation of all three viruses was similar in wild-type and mutant plants and was unaffected by the light regime. The results show that, although changes in starch accumulation during infection are not required for successful viral infection, carbohydrate metabolism does influence symptom development. PMID:17170466

Handford, Michael G; Carr, John P

2007-01-01

55

Symptom Profile and Severity in a Sample of Nigerians with Psychotic versus Nonpsychotic Major Depression  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic strategies in managing patients with psychotic major depression (PMD) differ from those with non-psychotic major depression (NMD), because of differences in clinical profile and outcome. However, there is underrecognition of psychotic symptoms in depressed patients. Previous studies in Western population suggest that certain symptom patterns, apart from psychosis which may be concealed, can facilitate the discrimination of PMD from NMD. These studies may have limited applicability to sub-Saharan Africa due to cross-cultural differences in the phenomenology of depression. This study compared the rates and severity of depressive symptoms in outpatients with PMD (n = 129) and NMD (n = 117) using the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression (SCID) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). Patients with PMD had statistically significantly higher rates of suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt, psychomotor agitation, insomnia, and reduced appetite. Patients with NMD were more likely to manifest psychomotor retardation and somatic symptoms. PMD was associated with greater symptom severity. On logistic regression analysis, suicidal ideation, psychomotor disturbances, insomnia, and somatic symptoms were predictive of diagnostic status. The presence of these symptoms clusters may increase the suspicion of occult psychosis in patients with depression, thereby informing appropriate intervention strategies.

Adeosun, Increase Ibukun; Jeje, Oyetayo

2013-01-01

56

Severe neurological symptoms in a patient with advanced renal cell carcinoma treated with sunitinib.  

PubMed

Neurological symptoms are uncommon in patients administered sunitinib therapy; however, a few cases of dramatic neurotoxicity attributable to the development of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome have been reported. Here, we report a case of a 71-year old woman with severe neurological symptoms occurring during sunitinib therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The clinical symptoms were typical for reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome, but there were no accompanying neuroimaging abnormalities. A Naranjo probability score of 3 indicates the adverse drug reaction was possible, but we discuss other potential causes of this event. PMID:23037634

Duchnowska, Renata; Miciuk, Beata; Bodnar, Lubomir; Wa?niewski, Leszek; Szczylik, Cezary

2013-06-01

57

Overactive bladder symptom severity is associated with falls in community-dwelling adults: LOHAS study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the association between overactive bladder (OAB) symptom severity and falls and the contribution of OAB symptoms to falls in a community-dwelling population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting 2 Japanese municipalities. Participants A total of 2505 residents aged over 40?years, who participated in health check-ups conducted in 2010. OAB symptom assessed via overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) was divided into six categories based on distribution and Japanese clinical guidelines. Mobility problems and depressive symptoms were assessed via the Timed Up and Go test and the short form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, respectively. Primary outcome measures Self-reported any fall and frequent fall (?2) over the 1-month period. Independent contributions to any fall and frequent falls were assessed via logistic regression to generate population-attributable fractions (PAFs), assuming separate causal relationships between OAB symptoms, mobility problems and depressive symptoms and any or frequent falls. Results Among the total 1350 participants (mean age: 68.3?years) analysed, any fall and frequent falls were reported by 12.7% and 4.4%, respectively. Compared with no OABSS score, moderate-to-severe OAB and mild OAB were associated with any fall (adjusted ORs 2.37 (95% CI 1.12 to 4.98) and 2.51 (95% CI 1.14 to 5.52), respectively). Moderate-to-severe OAB was also strongly associated with frequent falls (adjusted OR 6.90 (95% CI 1.50 to 31.6)). Adjusted PAFs of OAB symptoms were 40.7% (95% CI 0.7% to 64.6%) for any fall and 67.7% (95% CI ?23.1% to 91.5%) for frequent falls. Further, these point estimates were similar to or larger than those of mobility problems and depressive symptoms. Conclusions An association does indeed exist between OAB symptom severity and falls, and OAB symptoms might be important contributors to falls among community-dwelling adults. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to examine whether or not OAB symptoms predict risk of future falls and fall-related injuries.

Kurita, Noriaki; Yamazaki, Shin; Fukumori, Norio; Otoshi, Kenichi; Otani, Koji; Sekiguchi, Miho; Onishi, Yoshihiro; Takegami, Misa; Ono, Rei; Horie, Shigeo; Konno, Shin-ichi; Kikuchi, Shin-ichi; Fukuhara, Shunichi

2013-01-01

58

Plasma Copper and Zinc Concentration in Individuals with Autism Correlate with Selected Symptom Severity  

PubMed Central

Aim: To assess plasma zinc and copper concentration in individuals with autism and correlate these levels with symptom severity. Subjects and methods: Plasma from 102 autistic individuals, and 18 neurotypical controls, were tested for plasma zinc and copper using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Copper and zinc levels and Cu/Zn were analyzed for possible correlation with severity of 19 symptoms. Results: Autistic individuals had elevated plasma levels of copper and Cu/Zn and lower, but not significantly lower, plasma Zn compared to neurotypical controls. There was a correlation between Cu/Zn and expressive language, receptive language, focus attention, hyperactivity, fine motor skills, gross motor skills and Tip Toeing. There was a negative correlation between plasma zinc concentration and hyperactivity, and fine motor skills severity. Discussion: These results suggest an association between plasma Cu/Zn and severity of symptoms associated with autism.

Russo, Anthony J.; Bazin, Andrea P.; Bigega, Richard; Carlson, Robert S.; Cole, Martin G.; Contreras, Dilenia C.; Galvin, Matthew B.; Gaydorus, Sayde S.; Holik, Sierra D.; Jenkins, Gavin P.; Jones, Brandon M.; Languell, Penelope A.; Lyman, Padraic J.; March, Kareem P.; Meuer, Katie A.; Peterson, Serena R.; Piedmonte, Matthew T.; Quinn, Michael G.; Smaranda, Nicole C.; Steves, Patrick L.; Taylor, Heather P.; Waddingham, Teagan E.; Warren, Janine S.

2012-01-01

59

Poor quality of life among untreated Thai and Cambodian children without severe HIV symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are limited data on quality of life (QOL)1in untreated HIV-infected children who do not have severe HIV symptoms. Moreover, such data do not exist for Asian children. Poor QOL could be a factor in deciding if antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be initiated. Thai and Cambodian children (n=294), aged 1–11 years, naïve to ART, with mild to moderate HIV symptoms

Torsak Bunupuradah; Thanyawee Puthanakit; Pope Kosalaraksa; Stephen J. Kerr; Azar Kariminia; Rawiwan Hansudewechakul; Suparat Kanjanavanit; Chaiwat Ngampiyaskul; Jurai Wongsawat; Wicharn Luesomboon; Theshinee Chuenyam; Saphonn Vonthanak; Mean Chhi Vun; Ung Vibol; Bun Vannary; Kiat Ruxrungtham; Jintanat Ananworanich

2012-01-01

60

A Construct Study of the Eight Symptoms of Severe Parental Alienation Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey study was conducted of adults who self-reported having children who were severely alienated from them. The primary research questions addressed were: (1) To what extent were the eight symptoms of Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS)-as identified by the construct's originator, Dr. Richard Gardnerreported to be manifested by the alienated children? And (2) holding severity constant, to what degree did

Amy J. L. Baker; Douglas C. Damall

2007-01-01

61

Prediction of work functioning following accidental injury: The contribution of PTSD symptom severity and other established risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses to a mail survey were used to investigate the contribution of PTSD symptom severity to work functioning in 69 previously employed adult survivors of accidental injury approximately 8 months post?hospitalization. Associations of PTSD symptom severity with other established risk factors for poor work functioning were also examined. Participants were initially divided into three groups based on PTSD symptom severity

Lynda R. Matthews; Darien Chinnery

2005-01-01

62

Effects of three types of potentially biasing information on symptom severity judgments for major depressive episode.  

PubMed

Two experiments examined the effects of potentially biasing information on judgments of symptom severity pertaining to the diagnosis of major depressive episode (MDE). In both experiments, clinicians viewed videotapes of two actor-simulated patients responding to questions from a standardized diagnostic interview. In Study 1, an expectancy effect was found for both patients such that prior information about a clear-cut history of depression resulted in lower rated severity of current symptoms. In addition, a halo effect was observed for one patient in Study 1 and both patients in Study 2: Clear-cut depressive nonverbal behavior (DNVB) resulted in greater rated severity for symptoms that should not have been affected (e.g., appetite/weight change, suicidal ideation). Clear-cut versus near-threshold information for the two essential criteria for MDE did not affect subsequent judgments in either study. Implications for diagnostic interviewing are discussed. PMID:12357447

Mumma, Gregory H

2002-10-01

63

Psychopathology and alexithymia in severe mental illness: the impact of trauma and posttraumatic stress symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To empirically investigate whether or not symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are essential for transferring\\u000a the negative effects of trauma on the severity of severe mental illness (SMI) as recently suggested by an interactive model.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  About 122 inpatients with either schizophrenia or major affective disorder were administered the Posttraumatic Diagnostic\\u000a Scale, the Symptom Checklist and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale.

Carsten Spitzer; Matthias Vogel; Sven Barnow; Harald J. Freyberger; Hans Joergen Grabe

2007-01-01

64

Co-occurring prescription opioid use problems and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Prescription opioids are the most rapidly growing category of abused substances, and result in significant morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Co-occurring with psychiatric disorders, persons with prescription opioid problems have negative treatment outcomes. Data are needed on the prevalence of co-occurring prescription opioid abuse and specific disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to better inform clinical practice. Objective: To determine prevalence rates of current co-occurring prescription opioid use problems and PTSD symptom severity among patients in community addiction treatment settings. Methods: We abstracted administrative and chart information on 573 new admissions to three addictive treatment agencies during 2011. Systematic data were collected on PTSD symptoms, substance use, and patient demographics. Results: Prescription opioid use was significantly associated with co-occurring PTSD symptom severity (OR: 1.42, p?severity. The odds of having co-occurring PTSD symptoms and prescription opioid use problem were nearly three times greater among females versus males (OR: 2.63, p?symptom severity. Being female or younger increase the likelihood of this co-morbidity. Further research is needed to confirm these finding, particularly using more rigorous diagnostic procedures. These data suggest that patients with prescription opioid use problems should be carefully evaluated for PTSD symptoms. PMID:24809229

Meier, Andrea; Lambert-Harris, Chantal; McGovern, Mark P; Xie, Haiyi; An, Melissa; McLeman, Bethany

2014-07-01

65

Severity and duration of nausea and vomiting symptoms in pregnancy and spontaneous abortion  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Earlier studies have shown an inverse association between the presence of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) and spontaneous abortion (SAB), but no study to date has examined the effects of symptom duration on the risk of SAB. METHODS We examined NVP symptom severity and duration in relation to the occurrence of SAB. Data were collected from 2407 pregnant women in three US cities between 2000 and 2004 through interviews, ultrasound assessments and medical records abstractions. Discrete-time continuation ratio logistic survival models were used to examine the association between NVP and pregnancy loss. RESULTS Lack of NVP symptoms was associated with increased risk for SAB [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): (2.4, 4.3)], compared with having any symptoms. Reduced risks for SAB were found across most maternal age groups for those with NVP for at least half of their pregnancy, but the effects were much stronger in the oldest maternal age group [OR = 0.2, 95% CI: (0.1, 0.8)]. CONCLUSIONS The absence of NVP symptoms is associated with an increased risk of early pregnancy loss. As symptom duration decreases, the likelihood of early loss increases, especially among women in the oldest maternal age group.

Chan, Ronna L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Savitz, David A.; Herring, Amy H.; Daniels, Julie L.; Peterson, Herbert B.; Martin, Sandra L.

2010-01-01

66

Toxicity of several important agricultural antibiotics to Artemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible effects of antibiotic drug contamination in marine and brackish systems were evaluated using a new methodological approach. Five drugs, namely aminosidine (A), bacitracin (B), erythromycin (E), flumequine (F) and lincomycin (L), were subjected to toxicity tests using nauplii and cysts of Artemia as a model of drug contamination from intensive farming. Tests on nauplii were performed by the

Luciana Migliore; Cinzia Civitareale; Gianfranco Brambilla; Gianluigi Dojmi Di Delupis

1997-01-01

67

Problematic Alcohol Use Among Individuals with HIV: Relations with Everyday Memory Functioning and HIV Symptom Severity.  

PubMed

Problematic alcohol use has been shown to negatively impact cognitive functions germane to achieving optimal HIV health outcomes. The present study, a secondary data analysis, examined the impact of problematic alcohol use on aspects of everyday memory functioning in a sample of 172 HIV-infected individuals (22 % female; M age = 48.37 years, SD = 8.64; 39 % Black/non-Hispanic). Additionally, we tested whether self-reported memory functioning explained the relation between problematic alcohol use and HIV symptom severity. Results indicated that problematic patterns of alcohol use were associated with lower total memory functioning, retrieval (e.g., recall-difficulty) and memory for activity (e.g., what you did yesterday) and greater HIV symptom severity. Memory functioning mediated the relation between problematic alcohol use and HIV symptom severity. However, the direction of this relation was unclear as HIV symptom severity also mediated the relation between problematic alcohol use and memory functioning. Findings highlight the importance of integrated care for HIV and alcohol use disorders and suggest that routine alcohol and cognitive screenings may bolster health outcomes among this vulnerable population. PMID:23979498

Heinz, Adrienne J; Fogler, Kethera A; Newcomb, Michael E; Trafton, Jodie A; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

2014-07-01

68

Validating the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale With Persons Who Have Severe Mental Illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Interview data collected from 275 clients with severe mental illnesses are used to test the construct and criterion validity of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (PSS). Method: First, exploratory and con- firmatory factor analyses are used to test whether the scale reflects the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symp- tom criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Thomas O'Hare; Ce Shen; M. Sherrer

2007-01-01

69

Incidence and Prediction of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Severely Injured Accident Victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was designed to as- sess the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in severely injured acci- dent victims and to predict the presence of PTSD symptoms at a 12-month follow-up. Method: A longitudinal, 1-year follow-up study was carried out with 106 consecu- tive patients with severe accidental inju- ries who were admitted to the trauma surgeons' intensive

Ulrich Schnyder; Hanspeter Moergeli; Richard Klaghofer; D. Claus Buddeberg

2001-01-01

70

Effect of Treatment with Ginger on the Severity of Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common disorder. Although the etiology of PMS is not clear, to relieve from this syndrome different methods are recommended. One of them is use of medicinal herbs. This study was carried out to evaluate effects of ginger on severity of symptoms of PMS. This study was a clinical trial, double-blinded work, and participants were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 35) and control (n = 35) groups. To determine persons suffering from PMS, participants completed daily record scale questionnaire for two consecutive cycles. After identification, each participant received two ginger capsules daily from seven days before menstruation to three days after menstruation for three cycles and they recorded severity of the symptoms by daily record scale questionnaire. Data before intervention were compared with date 1, 2, and 3 months after intervention. Before intervention, there were no significant differences between the mean scores of PMS symptoms in the two groups, but after 1, 2, and 3 months of treatment, there was a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.0001). Based on the results of this study, maybe ginger is effective in the reduction of severity of mood and physical and behavioral symptoms of PMS and we suggest ginger as treatment for PMS.

Khayat, Samira; Kheirkhah, Masoomeh; Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra; Fanaei, Hamed; Kasaeian, Amir; Javadimehr, Mani

2014-01-01

71

Vilazodone in the treatment of major depressive disorder: efficacy across symptoms and severity of depression.  

PubMed

Vilazodone is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and serotonin 1A receptor partial agonist approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adults. To assess the efficacy of vilazodone across a range of symptoms and severities of depression, data from two phase III, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were pooled for analysis. Overall improvement in depressive symptoms measured using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was statistically significant (P<0.05) for vilazodone treatment compared with placebo as early as Week 1 and continued throughout double-blind treatment. Vilazodone treatment compared with placebo showed significant improvement on all 10 individual MADRS symptom items at end of treatment (P<0.01). Rates of response and remission were significantly greater in the vilazodone group relative to the placebo group, with numbers needed to treat ranging from eight to nine for response and 12-17 for remission. Between-group treatment differences in MADRS and the other outcome measures were similar among all depression subgroups, with no consistent pattern associated with depression severity. These findings support the efficacy of vilazodone across a broad range of depressive symptoms and severities for the treatment of major depressive disorder. PMID:24247740

Khan, Arif; Sambunaris, Angelo; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam; Robinson, Donald S

2014-03-01

72

Childhood Maltreatment and Social Anxiety Disorder: Implications for Symptom Severity and Response to Pharmacotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood maltreatment has been associated with symptom severity, reduced quality of life, and impaired functioning in adults with social anxiety disorder (SAD). No study has investigated how childhood maltreatment impacts pharmacotherapy outcomes in this population, despite evidence for such a link in depression. The current study replicates previous work on childhood maltreatment within SAD and examines its impact on response to pharmacotherapy. Methods 156 individuals seeking treatment for SAD completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, which measures various types of abuse and neglect, along with measures of symptom severity, quality of life, and disability. Data from a subset of patients enrolled in a paroxetine trial (N=127) were analyzed to gauge the impact of childhood maltreatment on attrition and treatment response. Results All types of maltreatment except for sexual abuse and physical abuse were related to greater symptom severity. Emotional abuse and neglect were related to greater disability, and emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical abuse were related to decreased quality of life. Emotional abuse significantly predicted attrition. A time by emotional abuse interaction suggests that for those who stayed the course, the impact of emotional abuse on severity of social anxiety weakened significantly over time. Conclusions Emotional maltreatment was most strongly linked to dysfunction in SAD, despite a tendency in the anxiety literature to focus on the effects of sexual and physical abuse. Additionally, individuals reporting emotional abuse were more likely to dropout from pharmacotherapy, but those who stayed the course displayed similar outcomes to those without such a history.

Bruce, Laura C.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Blanco, Carlos; Schneier, Franklin R.; Liebowitz, Michael R.

2011-01-01

73

Comparison of Effluent Toxicity Results Using 'Ceriodaphnia dubia' Cultured on Several Diets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several diets have been proposed for Ceriodaphnia dubia, but no single diet has been universally accepted as optimal for toxicity testing. Although several diets for Ceriodaphnia dubia culturing and testing are commonly used, little or no data exist on wh...

T. J. Norberg-King S. Schmidt

1993-01-01

74

Does Narcolepsy Symptom Severity Vary According to HLA-DQB1*0602 Allele Status?  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate associations between HLA-DQB1*0602 allele status and measures of narcolepsy symptom severity. Design: Cross-sectional study of population-based narcolepsy patients. Setting: King County, Washington. Participants: All prevalent cases (n = 279) of physician-diagnosed narcolepsy ascertained from 2001-2005. Interventions: N/A Measurements: Narcolepsy diagnosis was based on cataplexy status, diagnostic sleep study results, and chart review. The number of HLA-DQB1 alleles was determined from buccal genomic DNA. Symptom severity instruments included the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Ullanlinna Narcolepsy Scale (UNS), age of symptom onset, subjective sleep latency and duration, and various clinical sleep parameters. We used linear regression adjusted for African American race and an extended chi-square test of trend to assess relationships across ordered groups defined by allele number (0, 1, or 2). Results: Narcolepsy patients were 63% female and 82% Caucasian, with a mean age of 47.6 years (SD = 17.1). One hundred forty-one (51%) patients had no DQB1*0602 alleles; 117 (42%) had one; and 21 (7%) had two. In the complete narcolepsy sample after adjustment for African American race, we observed a linear relationship between HLA-DQB1*0602 frequency and sleepiness as defined by the ESS (P < 0.01), narcolepsy severity as defined by UNS (P < 0.001), age of symptom onset (P < 0.05), and sleep latency (P < 0.001). In univariate analyses, HLA-DQB1*0602 frequency was also associated with napping (P < 0.05) and increased car and work accidents or near accidents (both P < 0.01). Habitual sleep duration was not associated with HLA status. These race-adjusted associations remained for the ESS (P < 0.05), UNS (P < 0.01), and sleep latency (P < 0.001) when restricting to narcolepsy with cataplexy. Conclusions: Narcolepsy symptom severity varies in a linear manner according to HLA-DQB1*0602 allele status. These findings support the notion that HLA-DQ is a disease-modifying gene. Citation: Watson NF; Ton TGN; Koepsell TD; Gersuk VH; Longstreth WT. Does narcolepsy symptom severity vary according to HLA-DQB1*0602 allele status? SLEEP 2010;33(1):29-35.

Watson, Nathaniel F.; Ton, Thanh G.N.; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Gersuk, Vivian H.; Longstreth, W.T.

2010-01-01

75

Anxiety Sensitivity and Breath-Holding Duration in Relation to PTSD Symptom Severity among Trauma Exposed Adults  

PubMed Central

The present investigation examined the main and interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and behavioral distress tolerance, indexed using the breath-holding task, in relation to PTSD symptom severity among trauma-exposed adults. Participants were 88 adults (63.6% women; Mage = 22.9, SD = 9.1, Range = 18-62), recruited from the community, who met DSM-IV-TR PTSD Criterion A for lifetime trauma exposure. Covariates included number of potentially traumatic events, nonclinical panic attack history, and participant sex. Anxiety sensitivity was significantly incrementally associated with PTSD total symptom severity, as well as Avoidance and Hyperarousal symptom severity (p's < .01). Breath-holding duration was not significantly related to PTSD symptom severity (p's > .05). However, breath-holding duration emerged as a significant moderator of the association between anxiety sensitivity and PTSD Avoidance symptom severity, such that lower breath-holding duration exacerbated the effect of heightened anxiety sensitivity with regard to PTSD Avoidance symptom severity.

Berenz, Erin C.; Vujanovic, Anka A.; Coffey, Scott F.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

2011-01-01

76

Posttraumatic stress symptoms are associated with the frequency and severity of delinquency among detained boys.  

PubMed

Trauma and posttraumatic stress symptoms increasingly are recognized as risk factors for involvement with the juvenile justice system, and detained youth evidence higher rates of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to their nondetained peers. Using a sample of 83 detained boys aged 12 to 17, we tested the hypothesis that degree of PTSD symptomatology would be positively associated with arrest frequency and delinquency severity. Results indicated that 95% of participants had experienced trauma, and 20% met criteria for Full or Partial PTSD. As predicted, severity of PTSD symptoms was associated with degree of delinquency, and this effect remained present for the past year delinquency variables after controlling for the total number of traumas reported. PMID:21916694

Becker, Stephen P; Kerig, Patricia K

2011-01-01

77

Poor quality of life among untreated Thai and Cambodian children without severe HIV symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are limited data on quality of life (QOL) in untreated HIV-infected children who do not have severe HIV symptoms. Moreover, such data do not exist for Asian children. Poor QOL could be a factor in deciding if antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be initiated. Thai and Cambodian children (n=294), aged 1–11 years, naïve to ART, with mild to moderate HIV

Torsak Bunupuradah; Thanyawee Puthanakit; Pope Kosalaraksa; Stephen J. Kerr; Azar Kariminia; Rawiwan Hansudewechakul; Suparat Kanjanavanit; Chaiwat Ngampiyaskul; Jurai Wongsawat; Wicharn Luesomboon; Theshinee Chuenyam; Saphonn Vonthanak; Mean Chhi Vun; Ung Vibol; Bun Vannary; Kiat Ruxrungtham; Jintanat Ananworanich

2011-01-01

78

Isolation of Acinetobacter lwoffii from a lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) with severe respiratory symptoms.  

PubMed

Although Acinetobacter lwoffii is generally considered an ubiquitous and opportunistic bacterium, this germ has been isolated from the pulmonary and abdominal air sac swabs obtained from a Lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis), which died of a severe respiratory disease. Bacteriological tests (phenotypic and genotypic) led to the identification of A. lwoffii in pure culture. All the other parrots in the breeding centre were treated orally with oxytetracycline for 14 days and 3 months later no bird showed any signs of respiratory symptoms. PMID:15999637

Robino, P; Bert, E; Tramuta, C; Cerruti Sola, S; Nebbia, P

2005-05-01

79

Toxicity of methylenebisthiocyanate (MBT) to several freshwater organisms  

SciTech Connect

The organo-sulfur compound methylenebisthiocyanate (MBT) has successfully been used as preservative in latex emulsions, starches and gums, acrylic fibers, coatings, curing salts for hide and leather and cutting oil systems. The greatest application of MBT is for cooling water systems and paper mill systems as effective inhibitor of algae, fungi and bacteria, in particular the sulfate reducing anaerobic Desulfovibrio sp. Because MBT is not substantive to cellulose or other particulate matter, or to debris in systems, it remains in the water. However, MBT hydrolyzes rapidly above pH 8.0. No data are available on residues of MBT in the aquatic environment. Information on the toxicity of MBT, except for its effects on bacteria and algae, is scarce. Therefore research was carried out to evaluate its risk to aquatic life.

Maas-Diepeveen, L.; van Leeuwen, C.J. (Ministry of Transport and Public Works, Lelystad (Netherlands))

1988-05-01

80

Toxicity of methylenebisthiocyanate (MBT) to several freshwater organisms  

SciTech Connect

The organo-sulfur compound methylenebisthiocyanate (MBT) has successfully been used as preservative in latex emulsions, starches and gums, acrylic fibers, coatings, curing salts for hide and leather and cutting oil systems. The greatest application of MBT is for cooling water systems and paper mill systems as effective inhibitor of algae, fungi and bacteria, in particular the sulfate reducing anaerobic Desulfovibrio sp. However, MBT hydrolyzes rapidly above pH 8.0. The half-conversion time at pH 8.0 is about 4.5. No data are available on residues of MBT in the aquatic environment. Information on the toxicity of MBT, except for its effects on bacteria and algae, is scarce. Therefore research was carried out to evaluate its risk to aquatic life.

Maas-Diepeveen, J.L.; van Leeuwen, C.J.

1988-04-01

81

When Parents With Severe Mental Illness Lose Contact With Their Children: Are Psychiatric Symptoms or Substance Use to Blame?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month research interviews over a total 30-month period following each participant's entry into

Danson Jones; Rosemarie Lillianne Macias; Paul B. Gold; Paul Barreira; William Fisher

2008-01-01

82

Health-related quality of life improves with treatment-related GERD symptom resolution after adjusting for baseline severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severity and frequency of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) related symptoms are associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL). This study evaluated the association between baseline heartburn severity and endpoint HRQL of patients treated for heartburn and the relationship between complete resolution of heartburn symptoms and HRQL outcomes after controlling for baseline severity. We completed a secondary analysis of clinical

Dennis A Revicki; Marc W Zodet; Sandra Joshua-Gotlib; Douglas Levine; Joseph A Crawley

2003-01-01

83

Emotion regulation difficulties in trauma survivors: the role of trauma type and PTSD symptom severity.  

PubMed

Two different hypotheses regarding the relationship between emotion regulation and PTSD are described in the literature. First, it has been suggested that emotion regulation difficulties are part of the complex sequelae of early-onset chronic interpersonal trauma and less common following late-onset or single-event traumas. Second, PTSD in general has been suggested to be related to emotion regulation difficulties. Bringing these two lines of research together, the current study aimed to investigate the role of trauma type and PTSD symptom severity on emotion regulation difficulties in a large sample of trauma survivors (N=616). In line with the hypotheses, PTSD symptom severity was significantly associated with all variables assessing emotion regulation difficulties. In addition, survivors of early-onset chronic interpersonal trauma showed higher scores on these measures than survivors of single-event and/or late-onset traumas. However, when controlling for PTSD symptom severity, the group differences only remained significant for 2 out of 9 variables. The most robust findings were found for the variable "lack of clarity of emotions." Implications for future research, theoretical models of trauma-related disorders, and their treatment will be discussed. PMID:21035621

Ehring, Thomas; Quack, Dorothea

2010-12-01

84

Health Care Utilization and Symptom Severity in Ghanaian Children - a Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing health care utilization behavior for children with mild or severe disease symptoms in rural Ghana. Between March and September 2008 a cross-sectional health care utilization survey was conducted and 8,715 caregivers were interviewed regarding their intended behavior in case their children had mild or severe fever or diarrhea. To show associations between hospital attendance and further independent factors (e.g. travel distance or socio-economic status) prevalence ratios were calculated for the four disease symptoms. A Poisson regression model was used to control for potential confounding. Frequency of hospital attendance decreased constantly with increasing distance to the health facility. Being enrolled in the national health insurance scheme increased the intention to attend a hospital. The effect of the other factors diminished in the Poisson regression if modeled together with travel distance. The observed associations weakened with increasing severity of symptoms, which indicates that barriers to visit a hospital are less important if children experience a more serious illness. As shown in other studies, travel distance to a health care provider had the strongest effect on health care utilization. Studies to identify local barriers to access health care services are important to inform health policy making as they identify deprived populations with low access to health services and to early treatment.

Krumkamp, Ralf; Sarpong, Nimako; Kreuels, Benno; Ehlkes, Lutz; Loag, Wibke; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Zeeb, Hajo; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; May, Jurgen

2013-01-01

85

Symptom severity and psychological sequelae in rosacea: Results of a survey.  

PubMed

Rosacea is associated with mental distress and depression, yet no studies have looked at the mediating effect of stigmatization and other factors on psychological sequelae. Using a survey of affected individuals, the objective of this study was to explore relationships between self-reported symptom severity, discomfort, stress reactivity, quality of life, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Participants were recruited from the mailing list of a German rosacea organization. The survey instrument included the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), the rejection scale of the Questionnaire on Experience with Skin Complaints (QES), and the German version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D). A total of 168 persons with rosacea were participated. The sample returned a HADS anxiety score of 7.2?±?4.60, a HADS depression score of 5.1?±?4.09, a DLQI of 4.05?±?4.67, and a QES rejection score of 2.,61?±?3.,37. Path analysis suggested that symptoms of anxiety and depression are linked with somatic symptoms indirectly, mediated through quality of life and stigmatization. Men are more negatively affected. Physicians treating rosacea patients should consider recommending psychological co-treatment for patients who have experienced stigmatization or who report low life quality. PMID:24088195

Böhm, Dana; Schwanitz, Petra; Stock Gissendanner, Scott; Schmid-Ott, Gerhard; Schulz, Wolfgang

2014-10-01

86

Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

Kelsey, Chris R., E-mail: kelse003@mc.duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Horwitz, Mitchell E. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cellular Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Folz, Rodney J. [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Disorders Medicine, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY (United States); Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cellular Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2011-11-01

87

Clinical and pathophysiological correlates of the symptom severity of stress urinary incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and hypothesis  The pathophysiology of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is multifactorial. The aim of this study was to explore the factor\\u000a determining the symptom severity of SUI.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  One hundred twenty-four women with SUI were retrospectively investigated. Clinical data for analyses included demographics,\\u000a pelvic organ prolapse quantification, SUI severity using a 4-point Likert scale, ultrasound, 1-h pad tests, and urodynamic\\u000a studies.

Jenn-Ming Yang; Shwu-Huey Yang; Shu-Yu Yang; Evelyn Yang; Wen-Chen Huang; Chii-Ruey Tzeng

2010-01-01

88

DUF1220 dosage is linearly associated with increasing severity of the three primary symptoms of autism.  

PubMed

One of the three most frequently documented copy number variations associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a 1q21.1 duplication that encompasses sequences encoding DUF1220 protein domains, the dosage of which we previously implicated in increased human brain size. Further, individuals with ASD frequently display accelerated brain growth and a larger brain size that is also associated with increased symptom severity. Given these findings, we investigated the relationship between DUF1220 copy number and ASD severity, and here show that in individuals with ASD (n = 170), the copy number (dosage) of DUF1220 subtype CON1 is highly variable, ranging from 56 to 88 copies following a Gaussian distribution. More remarkably, in individuals with ASD CON1 copy number is also linearly associated, in a dose-response manner, with increased severity of each of the three primary symptoms of ASD: social deficits (p = 0.021), communicative impairments (p = 0.030), and repetitive behaviors (p = 0.047). These data indicate that DUF1220 protein domain (CON1) dosage has an ASD-wide effect and, as such, is likely to be a key component of a major pathway underlying ASD severity. Finally, these findings, by implicating the dosage of a previously unexamined, copy number polymorphic and brain evolution-related gene coding sequence in ASD severity, provide an important new direction for further research into the genetic factors underlying ASD. PMID:24651471

Davis, Jonathan M; Searles, Veronica B; Anderson, Nathan; Keeney, Jonathon; Dumas, Laura; Sikela, James M

2014-03-01

89

Electroconvulsive Therapy on Severe Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Comorbid Depressive Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is not currently used as a first-line treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, several related case reports have demonstrated that ECT seems to be effective for severe OCD, especially when first-line therapies have failed. In this study, we describe the courses, detailed parameters, effects, and follow-up information relating to three patients with severe OCD who were treated by modified bifrontal ECT after their first-line anti-OCD treatments pharmacotherapy, behavioral therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy failed. The number of ECT procedures administered in each case is as follows: Case 1, eight; Case 2, three; and Case 3, four. In all three cases, the patients' depressive symptoms improved considerably after the ECT procedures. In addition, the condition of all three patients' OCD significantly improved and remained stable at regular follow-ups. ECT may play an effective role in treating severe OCD.

Liu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Keyong; Wang, Chen; Zhu, Chunyan

2014-01-01

90

Vascular factors are associated with the severity of the neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Introduction: The purpose of this study is to determine whether vascular risk factors are associated with severity of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in patients of Alzheimer's dementia. Methods: We reviewed medical records of 162 patients with Alzheimer's dementia. The NPS were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Hypertension and cardiovascular events were detected through detailed history taking. Diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia were uncovered through laboratory test. The asymptomatic stroke and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) were defined by magnetic resonance imaging. Partial correlation analysis was used. Results: Hypertension was correlated with the severity of apathy (r = 0.231, p = 0.015). The asymptomatic stroke was related to the severity of depression (r = 0.255, p = 0.007). The remaining vascular factors were not significant. Conclusion: Presence of hypertension and asymptomatic stroke are related with the severity of apathy and depression in Alzheimer's dementia. PMID:24188046

Moon, Yeonsil; Kim, Heejin; Ok Kim, Jin; Han, Seol-Heui

2014-07-01

91

Mindfulness and experiential avoidance as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder avoidance symptom severity.  

PubMed

Mindfulness reflects an awareness of present moment experiences through an attitude of acceptance and openness (Bishop et al., 2004; Cardaciotto, Herbert, Forman, Moitra, & Farrow, 2008). Experiential avoidance, by contrast, refers to attempts to change, alter, or avoid private experiences (e.g., thoughts, feelings, sensations), and it is believed to underlie a number of psychopathologies, including PTSD (Hayes, Wilson, Gifford, Follette, & Strosahl, 1996). We were interested in the ability of mindfulness to predict the variance of PTSD avoidance symptom severity above and beyond experiential avoidance. 378 introductory psychology students were administered self-report measures of PTSD, mindfulness, experiential avoidance, thought suppression, alexithymia, and avoidant coping. Mindfulness, specifically nonjudgment of experiences, accounted for a unique portion of the variance in PTSD avoidance symptoms. PMID:20304602

Thompson, Brian L; Waltz, Jennifer

2010-05-01

92

Contributions of pain sensitivity and colonic motility to IBS symptom severity and predominant bowel habits  

PubMed Central

Objectives Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients show pain hypersensitivity and hypercontractility in response to colonic or rectal distention. Aims were to determine whether predominant bowel habits and IBS symptom severity are related to pain sensitivity, colon motility, or smooth muscle tone. Methods 129 patients classified as IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D, n=44), IBS with constipation (IBS-C, n=29), mixed IBS (IBS-M, n=45) and unspecified IBS (IBS-U, n=11) based on stool consistency, and 30 healthy controls (HC) were studied. A manometric catheter containing a 600-ml capacity plastic bag was positioned in the descending colon. Pain threshold was assessed using a barostat. Motility was assessed for 10 min with the bag minimally inflated (individual operating pressure or IOP), 10 min at 20 mmHg above the IOP, and for 15-min recovery following bag inflation. Motility was also recorded for 30 min following an 810-kcal meal. Results Compared to HC, IBS patients had lower pain thresholds (medians: 30 vs. 40 mmHg, p<0.01), but IBS subtypes were not different. IBS symptom severity was correlated with pain thresholds (rho=-0.36, p<0.001). During distention, the motility index (MI) was significantly higher in IBS compared to HC (909±73 vs. 563±78, p<0.01). Average barostat bag volume at baseline was higher (muscle tone lower) in HC compared to IBS-D and IBS-M but not compared to IBS-C. The baseline MI and bag volume differed between IBS-D and IBS-C and correlated with symptoms of abdominal distention and dissatisfaction with bowel movements. Pain thresholds and MI during distention were uncorrelated. Conclusions Pain sensitivity and colon motility are independent factors contributing to IBS symptoms. Treatment may need to address both and to be specific to predominant bowel habit.

Kanazawa, Motoyori; Palsson, Olafur S; Thiwan, Syed IM; Turner, Marsha J; van Tilburg, Miranda AL; Gangarosa, Lisa M; Chitkara, Denesh K; Fukudo, Shin; Drossman, Douglas A; Whitehead, William E

2013-01-01

93

One-year severity of depressive symptoms: results from the NESDA study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to simultaneously examine a wide range of risk factors and clinical characteristics in their predictive value for the 1-year severity of depressive symptoms. Data from 789 participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), a large psychiatric cohort study, with a major depressive disorder (MDD) at baseline were used. Depression severity at 1-year follow-up was studied using linear and multinomial logistic regression models. Results of the analyses showed that high neuroticism, no partner and older age were found predictive of a poorer outcome independent of baseline clinical characteristics. Further, comorbid anxiety disorder, first episode, having a moderate subtype (vs. melancholic), and higher baseline depression severity predicted poorer outcome. To conclude, both risk factors and clinical characteristics independently predicted 1-year severity of depressive symptoms. The findings indicate that the prediction of prognosis and identification of persons at risk of a poor outcome should not only be based on clinical characteristics, but on risk factors as well. PMID:21802149

Lamers, Femke; Beekman, Aartjan T F; de Jonge, Peter; Smit, Johannes H; Nolen, Willem A; Penninx, Brenda W J H

2011-12-30

94

Severity of depressive symptoms, hippocampal sclerosis, auditory memory, and side of seizure focus in temporal lobe epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between severity of depressive symptoms and performance on three Wechsler Memory Scale-III auditory memory and learning subtests was examined in 84 inpatients diagnosed with medically intractable seizures of left (n=46, LTLE) or right (n=38, RTLE) temporal lobe origin. Depressive symptom severity was associated with auditory recall test performance in individuals with LTLE, but not RTLE. Multiple regression analyses

Mario F. Dulay; Bruce K. Schefft; Jamison D. Fargo; Michael D. Privitera; Hwa-shain Yeh

2004-01-01

95

A Preliminary Examination of Trauma History, Locus of Control, and PTSD Symptom Severity in African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research has established a relationship between external locus of control and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity among Caucasians. There is also evidence that African Americans tend to exhibit an elevated external locus of control. However, the relationship between external control and PTSD symptom severity has not been…

Hood, Sarah K.; Carter, Michele M.

2008-01-01

96

Effect of baseline symptom severity on continence improvement mediated by oxybutynin chloride topical gel  

PubMed Central

Background In a recent placebo-controlled Phase III study, oxybutynin chloride topical gel (OTG) significantly improved urinary continence in patients with overactive bladder. In this post hoc analysis, the effect of incontinence severity on OTG-mediated improvement in continence was evaluated. Methods Change from baseline in the number of incontinence episodes was evaluated in patients with two to three incontinence episodes/day (moderate incontinence) and those with more than three incontinence episodes/day (severe incontinence). Results In patients with moderate (n = 171) and severe (n = 556) incontinence, reduction in incontinence episodes (mean ± standard deviation) was greater (P < 0.01) with OTG (moderate, ?1.7 ± 1.4; severe, ?3.6 ± 3.0) than with placebo (moderate, ?1.2 ± 1.3; severe, ?3.1 ± 3.4). Continence achievement rate with OTG was 48.2% (placebo, 24.4%) among patients with moderate incontinence and 17.8% (placebo, 12.1%) among those with severe incontinence. Conclusion Absolute placebo-adjusted reduction in incontinence episodes with OTG was not affected by baseline incontinence severity. Continence achievement was more likely if symptoms were less severe.

Sand, Peter K; MacDiarmid, Scott A; Thomas, Heather; Caramelli, Kim E; Hoel, Gary

2011-01-01

97

Cardiac I123-MIBG Correlates Better than Ejection Fraction with Symptoms Severity in Systolic Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background The association of autonomic activation, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and heart failure functional class is poorly understood. Objective Our aim was to correlate symptom severity with cardiac sympathetic activity, through iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy and with LVEF in systolic heart failure (HF) patients without previous beta-blocker treatment. Methods Thirty-one patients with systolic HF, class I to IV of the New York Heart Association (NYHA), without previous beta-blocker treatment, were enrolled and submitted to 123I-MIBG scintigraphy and to radionuclide ventriculography for LVEF determination. The early and delayed heart/mediastinum (H/M) ratio and the washout rate (WR) were performed. Results According with symptom severity, patients were divided into group A, 13 patients in NYHA class I/II, and group B, 18 patients in NYHA class III/IV. Compared with group B patients, group A had a significantly higher LVEF (25% ± 12% in group B vs. 32% ± 7% in group A, p = 0.04). Group B early and delayed H/M ratios were lower than group A ratios (early H/M 1.49 ± 0.15 vs. 1.64 ± 0.14, p = 0.02; delayed H/M 1.39 ± 0.13 vs. 1.58 ± 0.16, p = 0.001, respectively). WR was significantly higher in group B (36% ± 17% vs. 30% ± 12%, p= 0.04). The variable that showed the best correlation with NYHA class was the delayed H/M ratio (r= -0.585; p=0.001), adjusted for age and sex. Conclusion This study showed that cardiac 123I-MIBG correlates better than ejection fraction with symptom severity in systolic heart failure patients without previous beta-blocker treatment.

Miranda, Sandra M.; Moscavitch, Samuel D.; Carestiato, Larissa R.; Felix, Renata M.; Rodrigues, Ronaldo C.; Messias, Leandro R.; Azevedo, Jader C.; Nobrega, Antonio Claudio L.; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco

2013-01-01

98

Activity parameters of subthalamic nucleus neurons selectively predict motor symptom severity in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous disorder that leads to variable expression of several different motor symptoms. While changes in firing rate, pattern, and oscillation of basal ganglia neurons have been observed in PD patients and experimental animals, there is limited evidence linking them to specific motor symptoms. Here we examined this relationship using extracellular recordings of subthalamic nucleus neurons from 19 PD patients undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation. For each patient, ?10 single units and/or multi-units were recorded in the OFF medication state. We correlated the proportion of neurons displaying different activities with preoperative Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale subscores (OFF medication). The mean spectral power at sub-beta frequencies and percentage of units oscillating at beta frequencies were positively correlated with the axial and limb rigidity scores, respectively. The percentage of units oscillating at gamma frequency was negatively correlated with the bradykinesia scores. The mean intraburst rate was positively correlated with both bradykinesia and axial scores, while the related ratio of interspike intervals below/above 10 ms was positively correlated with these symptoms and limb rigidity. None of the activity parameters correlated with tremor. The grand average of all the significantly correlated subthalamic nucleus activities accounted for >60% of the variance of the combined bradykinetic-rigid and axial scores. Our results demonstrate that the occurrence of alterations in the rate and pattern of basal ganglia neurons could partly underlie the variability in parkinsonian phenotype. PMID:24790198

Sharott, Andrew; Gulberti, Alessandro; Zittel, Simone; Tudor Jones, Adam A; Fickel, Ulrich; Münchau, Alexander; Köppen, Johannes A; Gerloff, Christian; Westphal, Manfred; Buhmann, Carsten; Hamel, Wolfgang; Engel, Andreas K; Moll, Christian K E

2014-04-30

99

Symptom Severity Predicts Degree of T Cell Activation In Adult Women Following Childhood Maltreatment  

PubMed Central

Although depression is often associated with a reduction in cellular immune responses, other types of emotional disturbance and psychopathology can activate certain aspects of immunity. Activation markers on T cells, in particular, have been found to be elevated in post-traumatic stress states. However, little is known about the relationship between the severity of PTSD symptoms and the degree of change in T cell phenotypes, or about the potential role of neuroendocrine factors in mediating the association. Twenty-four women with a history of sexual trauma during childhood, including 11 who met diagnostic criteria for PTSD, were compared to 12 age-matched, healthy women without a history of maltreatment. The women provided fasted blood samples for enumeration of cell subsets by immunofluorescence and 24-hour urine samples for analysis of catecholamine and cortisol levels. The percent of T cells expressing CD45RA, an early activation marker, was higher in the PTSD diagnosed women, and the levels correlated positively with intrusive symptoms and negatively with avoidant symptoms. These alterations in cell surface markers did not appear to be mediated by norepinephrine (NE) or cortisol, making them a distinctive and independent biomarker of arousal and disturbance in PTSD.

Lemieux, Andrine; Coe, Christopher L.; Carnes, Molly

2008-01-01

100

Effect of light intensity on manganese toxicity symptoms and callose formation in cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cowpea typical Mn toxicity symptoms are brown speckles on mature leaves representing depositions mainly in the cell walls and formation of non-constitutive callose. The histochemical charecterization of the brown speckles indicates the presence of oxidized Mn. However, the reducing agent hydroxylamine hydrochloride only slightly while thioglycolic acid almost completely decolorized the speckles. Brown boron-deficient roots treated with hydroxylamine hydrochloride

A. H. Wissemeier; W. J. Horst

1992-01-01

101

Evaluation of toxic conditions associated with oranging symptoms of rice in a flooded Oxisol in Sumatra, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxic conditions of Oxisol soils attributed to oranging symptoms of rice grown in the Sitiung Transmigration area, Sumatra, Indonesia were evaluated in the laboratory. Changes of pH and Eh of flooded soils, and concentrations of nutrients in the soils and in the rice plants were measured. The soils were clayey, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic, Typic Haplorthox. It was found that Eh

A. Jugsujinda; W. H. Patrick

1993-01-01

102

Reversal of the signs and symptoms of moderately severe idiopathic scoliosis in response to physical methods.  

PubMed

This report describes improved signs and symptoms of previously untreated symptomatic spinal deformity in an adult female diagnosed with moderately severe thoracic scoliosis at the age of .7 years. Current treatment initiated at the age of forty included massage therapy, manual traction, ischemic pressure, and comprehensive manipulative medicine (CMM). A left-right chest circumference inequity was reduced by >10 cm, in correlation with improved appearance of the ribcage deformity and a 40% reduction in magnitude of Cobb angle, which had been stable for 30 years. The changes occurred gradually over an eight-year period, with the most rapid improvement occurring during two periods when CMM was employed. PMID:15457757

Hawes, Martha C; Brooks, William J

2002-01-01

103

Severity of cutaneous findings predict the presence of systemic symptoms in pediatric maculopapular cutaneous mastocytosis.  

PubMed

Although the prognosis of maculopapular cutaneous mastocytosis (MPCM), also referred to as urticaria pigmentosa, is often benign, clinicians lack evidence to reliably predict those at risk of associated systemic manifestations. We sought to elucidate clinical markers of disease severity to provide better treatment and prognostic information for individuals with MPCM. A retrospective chart review querying characteristics of children diagnosed with MPCM in the Emory Dermatology Clinic was performed. Follow-up was obtained through a clinical encounter or telephone interview. Linear regression was used to determine predictors of the number of MPCM-related systemic symptoms. Of 67 subjects, 57% were male, and the mean age of onset was 4.5 months. The maximum number of MPCM lesions was 1 to 10 in 16%, 11 to 30 in 33%, 31 to 50 in 25%, 51 to 100 in 6%, and more than 100 in 20% of subjects. For their MPCM lesions, 46% of subjects reported itching, 34% flushing, and 25% blistering. Reported systemic symptoms included diarrhea (22%), abdominal pain (15%), wheezing or dyspnea (13%), vomiting (10%), bone pain (10%), headaches (8%), cough (10%), rhinorrhea (8%), irritability (6%), and anaphylaxis (1.5%). In a multivariate linear regression analysis, the maximum number of MPCM lesions (p = 0.02) and the number of skin symptoms (p < 0.01) were statistically significant predictors of the number of systemic symptoms, controlling for age of onset, body sites involved, and sex. The correlation between cutaneous findings and symptomatology could aid clinicians in identifying individuals with MPCM who might warrant systemic evaluation and therapy. PMID:24612340

Barnes, Meredith; Van, Livia; Delong, Laura; Lawley, Leslie P

2014-05-01

104

PHARMACOKINETICS AND DRUG DISPOSITION A pharmacokinetic-based test to prevent severe 5-fluorouracil toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) plays a key role in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to 5-fluoro-5,6-dihydrouracil (5-FDHU), and as such, an impairment of DPD has been recognized as an important factor for altered 5-FU and 5-FDHU pharmacokinetics, predisposing patients to the development of severe 5-FU-associated toxicity. Our objectives were to avoid severe 5-FU toxicities in patients with greatly

Guido Bocci; Cecilia Barbara; Francesca Vannozzi

105

Effects of Fenugreek Seed on the Severity and Systemic Symptoms of Dysmenorrhea  

PubMed Central

Background Primary dysmenorrhea is a prevalent disorder and its unfavorable effects deteriorates the quality of life in many people across the world. Based on some evidence on the characteristics of fenugreek as a medical plant with anti-inflammato-ry and analgesic properties, this double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial was conducted. The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of fenugreek seeds on the severity of primary dysmenorrhea among students. Methods Unmarried Students were randomly assigned to two groups who received fenugreek (n = 51) or placebo (n = 50). For the first 3 days of menstruation, 2–3 capsules containing fenugreek seed powder (900 mg) were given to the subjects three times daily for two consecutive menstrual cycles. Pain severity was evaluated using a visual analog scale and systemic symptoms were assessed using a multidimensional verbal scale. Results Pain severity at baseline did not differ significantly between the two groups. Pain severity was significantly reduced in both groups after the intervention; however, the fenugreek group experienced significantly larger pain reduction (p < 0.001). With respect to the duration of pain, there was no meaningful difference between the two cycles in the placebo group (p = 0.07) but in the fenugreek group, the duration of pain decreased between the two cycles (p < 0.001). Systemic symptoms of dysmenorrhea (fatigue, headache, nausea, vomiting, lack of energy, syncope) decreased in the fenugreek seed group (p < 0.05). No side effects were reported in the fenugreek group. Conclusion These data suggest that prescription of fenugreek seed powder during menstruation can reduce the severity of dysmenorrhea.

Younesy, Sima; Amiraliakbari, Sedigheh; Esmaeili, Somayeh; Alavimajd, Hamid; Nouraei, Soheila

2014-01-01

106

Association of urologic symptoms and chronic illnesses in men and women: Contributions of symptom severity and duration. Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate the association between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and chronic illnesses such as heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, and depression in men and women, and 2) to determine whether a dose-response relationship exists in the association between the severity and duration of urologic symptoms and major chronic illnesses. Materials and Methods The Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey used a multistage stratified design to recruit a random sample of 5,503 adults age 30-79. Urologic symptoms comprising the American Urological Association symptom index were included in the analysis. Results Statistically significant associations, consistent by gender, were observed between depression and all urologic symptoms. Nocturia of any degree of severity or duration was associated with heart disease among men and with diabetes among women. Among men, a dose-response relationship was observed in the association of symptom severity and/or duration of urinary intermittency and frequency with heart disease, and in the association of urinary urgency with diabetes. Among women, a history of heart disease was associated with weak stream and straining, while a history of hypertension was associated with urgency and weak stream. Conclusions Results indicate a dose-response relationship in the association of both severity and duration of urologic symptoms with major chronic illnesses. An association between urinary symptoms and depression was observed in both men and women. In contrast, the association between LUTS and heart disease, diabetes, or hypertension varied by gender, suggesting different mechanisms of association in men and women.

Kupelian, Varant; Rosen, Raymond C.; Link, Carol L.; McVary, Kevin T.; Aiyer, Lalitha Padmanabhan; Mollon, Patrick; Kaplan, Steven A.; McKinlay, John B.

2009-01-01

107

Longitudinal Changes in Total Brain Volume in Schizophrenia: Relation to Symptom Severity, Cognition and Antipsychotic Medication  

PubMed Central

Studies show evidence of longitudinal brain volume decreases in schizophrenia. We studied brain volume changes and their relation to symptom severity, level of function, cognition, and antipsychotic medication in participants with schizophrenia and control participants from a general population based birth cohort sample in a relatively long follow-up period of almost a decade. All members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with any psychotic disorder and a random sample not having psychosis were invited for a MRI brain scan, and clinical and cognitive assessment during 1999–2001 at the age of 33–35 years. A follow-up was conducted 9 years later during 2008–2010. Brain scans at both time points were obtained from 33 participants with schizophrenia and 71 control participants. Regression models were used to examine whether brain volume changes predicted clinical and cognitive changes over time, and whether antipsychotic medication predicted brain volume changes. The mean annual whole brain volume reduction was 0.69% in schizophrenia, and 0.49% in controls (p?=?0.003, adjusted for gender, educational level, alcohol use and weight gain). The brain volume reduction in schizophrenia patients was found especially in the temporal lobe and periventricular area. Symptom severity, functioning level, and decline in cognition were not associated with brain volume reduction in schizophrenia. The amount of antipsychotic medication (dose years of equivalent to 100 mg daily chlorpromazine) over the follow-up period predicted brain volume loss (p?=?0.003 adjusted for symptom level, alcohol use and weight gain). In this population based sample, brain volume reduction continues in schizophrenia patients after the onset of illness, and antipsychotic medications may contribute to these reductions.

Veijola, Juha; Guo, Joyce Y.; Moilanen, Jani S.; Jaaskelainen, Erika; Miettunen, Jouko; Kyllonen, Merja; Haapea, Marianne; Huhtaniska, Sanna; Alaraisanen, Antti; Maki, Pirjo; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Nikkinen, Juha; Starck, Tuomo; Remes, Jukka J.; Tanskanen, Paivikki; Tervonen, Osmo; Wink, Alle-Meije; Kehagia, Angie; Suckling, John; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Barnett, Jennifer H.; Barnes, Anna; Koponen, Hannu J.; Jones, Peter B.; Isohanni, Matti; Murray, Graham K.

2014-01-01

108

Relationship between imaging biomarkers, age, progression and symptom severity in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The early diagnostic value of glucose hypometabolism and atrophy as potential neuroimaging biomarkers of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been extensively explored using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The vast majority of previous imaging studies neglected the effects of single factors, such as age, symptom severity or time to conversion in MCI thus limiting generalisability of results across studies. Here, we investigated the impact of these factors on metabolic and structural differences. FDG-PET and MRI data from AD patients (n = 80), MCI converters (n = 65) and MCI non-converters (n = 64) were compared to data of healthy subjects (n = 79). All patient groups were split into subgroups by age, time to conversion (for MCI), or symptom severity and compared to the control group. AD patients showed a strongly age-dependent pattern, with younger patients showing significantly more extensive reductions in gray matter volume and glucose utilisation. In the MCI converter group, the amount of glucose utilisation reduction was linked to the time to conversion but not to atrophy. Our findings indicate that FDG-PET might be more closely linked to future cognitive decline whilst MRI being more closely related to the current cognitive state reflects potentially irreversible damage. PMID:24179852

Dukart, Juergen; Mueller, Karsten; Villringer, Arno; Kherif, Ferath; Draganski, Bogdan; Frackowiak, Richard; Schroeter, Matthias L

2013-01-01

109

Molecular Neurobiology of Depression: PET Findings on the Elusive Correlation with Symptom Severity  

PubMed Central

Molecular mechanisms in the brain are assumed to cause the symptoms and severity of neuropsychiatric disorders. This review concerns the elusive nature of relationships between the severity of depressive disorders and neuromolecular processes studied by positron emission tomography (PET). Recent PET studies of human depression have focused on serotonergic, dopaminergic, muscarinic, nicotinic, and GABAergic receptors, as well as central processes dependent on monoamine oxidase, phosphodiesterase type 4, amyloid plaques, neurofibrillar tangles, and P-glycoprotein. We find that reliable causal links between neuromolecular mechanisms and relief from depressive disorders have yet to be convincingly demonstrated. This situation may contribute to the currently limited use of PET for exploring the neuropathways that are currently viewed as being responsible for beneficial effects of antidepressant treatment regimes.

Smith, Donald F.; Jakobsen, Steen

2013-01-01

110

WHEN PARENTS WITH SEVERE MENTAL ILLNESS LOSE CONTACT WITH THEIR CHILDREN: ARE PSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOMS OR SUBSTANCE USE TO BLAME?  

PubMed Central

This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month research interviews over a total 30-month period following each participant’s entry into the project. Severe substance abuse was documented as present or absent for the 6-month interval preceding each interview. Results revealed that incidence of severe substance abuse was repeatedly associated with less frequent parent-child contact, even after controlling for psychiatric symptoms, diagnosis, gender, age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Neither psychiatric diagnosis nor symptom severity predicted frequency of child contact when substance abuse was taken into account. Mental health agencies offering parenting classes for adults with serious mental illness should incorporate substance use interventions to reduce loss of child custody and strengthen parent-child relationships.

Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William

2009-01-01

111

Symptom complaints following combat-related traumatic brain injury: relationship to traumatic brain injury severity and posttraumatic stress disorder.  

PubMed

Patients with a history of mild (n = 134) or moderate-to-severe (n = 91) TBI were asked to complete the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. Consistent with prior research, significantly more postconcussion symptoms were endorsed by the mild group. After controlling for age, time since injury, and mechanism of injury, TBI severity continued to be significantly related to postconcussion complaints on the NSI. However, after controlling for these same variables, along with posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity, there no longer were differences between the TBI severity groups. That is, patients with mild TBI did not endorse significantly more complaints (adjusted mean = 22.4) than the moderate-to-severe group (adjusted mean = 21.8). These findings suggest that much of the symptom complaints in mildly injured patients may be due to emotional distress. PMID:19758488

Belanger, Heather G; Kretzmer, Tracy; Vanderploeg, Rodney D; French, Louis M

2010-01-01

112

Comparison of effluent toxicity results using Ceriodaphnia dubia cultured on several diets  

SciTech Connect

Several diets have been proposed for Ceriodaphnia dubia, but no single diet has been universally accepted as optimal for toxicity testing. Although several diets for Ceriodaphnia dubia culturing and testing are commonly used, little or no data exist on whether toxicity varies with the diet. This study evaluated several combinations of yeast-Cerophyl-trout chow (YCT), Selenastrum capricornutum, and Selenastrum capricornutum-Cerophyl foods for routine culture performance and the sensitivity of the offspring in subsequent acute toxicity tests with effluents. Variations in the diets included use of a vitamin-fortified yeast added to the YCT, algae (Selenastrum capricornutum) grown in two different algal media, and different feeding rates of the algae-Cerophyl diets. Eleven diets were evaluated in a multigeneration feeding study, but only seven were used in subsequent toxicity tests. The young produced from each of the seven diets were tested in 48-h acute tests with three different effluents across the generations. Toxicity tests with the effluents gave LC50s that were within a factor of two of one another, regardless of the food used for culturing. These results indicate that several diets are satisfactory for culturing Ceriodaphnia dubia and that the results of the toxicity tests are comparable.

Norberg-King, T.J.; Schmidt, S. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Environmental Research Lab.)

1993-10-01

113

Influence of the Serotonin Transporter 5HTTLPR Polymorphism on Symptom Severity in Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

PubMed Central

5HTTLPR polymorphism of serotonin transporter yields short (S) and long (L) alleles. SS and LS genotypes are associated with reduced expression of serotonin transporter. This cross-sectional study investigated the association of 5HTTLPR with symptom severity of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Patients with IBS (Rome III) and healthy controls were included. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva, and 5HTTLPR alleles were assessed by polymerase chain reaction. IBS symptom severity was evaluated by means of IBS-SSS questionnaire. Two hundreds and four IBS patients (159 females; mean age: 39.6±12.3 years; 106 with constipation: C-IBS; 98 with diarrhea: D-IBS) and 200 healthy controls (154 females; mean age: 40.4±15.8 years) were enrolled. The overall IBS-SSS value was higher in LS/SS than LL patients (319.0±71.5 versus 283.8±62.3; P?=?0.0006). LS/SS patients had also higher values of abdominal pain (59.7±21.0 versus 51.0±18.8; P?=?0.020) and bowel dissatisfaction (80.1±23.9 versus 70.5±22.8; P?=?0.035). The overall IBS-SSS values in C-IBS and D-IBS patients were 317.2±68.3 and 296.1±71.4, respectively (P?=?0.192), with significantly higher values for abdominal distension (65.0±24.4 versus 51.4±24.8; P?=?0.0006), but not for bowel dissatisfaction (80.5±21.7 versus 72.9±25.7; P?=?0.138). Frequencies of 5HTTLPR genotypes did not differ significantly when comparing IBS patients (overall or upon stratification in C-IBS and D-IBS) with healthy controls. In conclusion, the LS and SS genotypes are significantly correlated with IBS symptom severity, although their possible direct causal role remains to be proven. In addition, the present findings do not support an association of 5HTTLPR with IBS or its clinical presentation in terms of bowel habit predominance.

Colucci, Rocchina; Gambaccini, Dario; Ghisu, Narcisa; Rossi, Giuseppe; Costa, Francesco; Tuccori, Marco; De Bortoli, Nicola; Fornai, Matteo; Antonioli, Luca; Ricchiuti, Angelo; Mumolo, Maria Gloria; Marchi, Santino; Blandizzi, Corrado; Bellini, Massimo

2013-01-01

114

Severe propylene glycol toxicity secondary to use of anti-epileptics.  

PubMed

Propylene glycol toxicity presenting as high anion gap metabolic acidosis and osmolar gap has been extensively reported in literature, and most of them are secondary to intravenous lorazepam infusion. However, propylene glycol is used as a solvent in a number of medications that are frequently utilized in critical care setting, and hence one should be aware that the toxicity is possible from a variety of medication. Phenobarbital and phenytoin are one of those, and we hereby report a novel case of propylene glycol toxicity secondary to phenobarbital and phenytoin infusion in a patient with refractory status epilepticus. Furthermore, our patient had end-stage renal disease, which we think could have been an important precipitating factor for the toxicity. Because most of the symptoms from propylene glycol toxicity can mimic sepsis-which is very common in critical care unit patients-this life threatening scenario could be easily missed. Regular monitoring of osmolar gap is an easily available intervention in the at risk patients. PMID:22926232

Pillai, Unnikrishnan; Hothi, Jatinder C; Bhat, Zeenat Y

2014-01-01

115

The Relationship between Attention/Vigilance and Symptom Severity in Schizophrenic Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective In schizophrenia, neurocognitive functions are one to two standard deviations below the normal controls and these deficits have a significant relationship with overall functioning and poor outcome. According to this fact, it is important to investigate the factors that effect neurocognition in schizophrenic patients. This study was carried out to demonstrate the relationship between attention/vigilance and some demographic and clinical variables in Iranian schizophrenic patients. Methods This was a cross-sectional study; the participants were 60 Iranian schizophrenic patients. They were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the Continuous Performance Test. Results No significant relationship was found between gender, age, education, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores and CPS scores. Conclusions Our findings suggest that contrary to some domains of cognitive functions, in schizophrenia, attention/vigilance is not influenced by severity of symptoms.

Moshki, Pegah; Asgharpour, Mania; Moshki, Hamid

2012-01-01

116

Interdisciplinary residential treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury: effects on symptom severity and occupational performance and satisfaction.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. This study examined outcomes of an 8-wk residential treatment program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHOD. Twenty-six veterans completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-2nd Edition, and PTSD Checklist before and after treatment. RESULTS. Veterans demonstrated significant improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction with their performance, as well as in PTSD and depression symptom severity after residential PTSD/TBI treatment. Additionally, improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction were associated with decreases in depression symptom severity. CONCLUSION. Although preliminary, results suggest that veterans with PTSD and a history of TBI experienced significant decreases in PTSD and depression symptom severity and improvement in self-perception of performance and satisfaction in problematic occupational areas. Changes in occupational areas and depression symptom severity were related, highlighting the importance of interdisciplinary treatment. PMID:25005504

Speicher, Sarah M; Walter, Kristen H; Chard, Kathleen M

2014-01-01

117

Parent Alcoholism Impacts the Severity and Timing of Children's Externalizing Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous studies show that children of alcoholic parents have higher rates of externalizing symptoms compared to their peers, it remains unclear whether the timing of children's externalizing symptoms is linked to that of their parent's alcohol-related symptoms. Using a multilevel modeling approach, we tested whether children aged 2…

Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie; Zucker, Robert A.

2010-01-01

118

Multi-domain patient reported outcomes of irritable bowel syndrome: exploring person centered perspectives to better understand symptom severity scores  

PubMed Central

Objectives Patient reported outcomes (PRO) assessing multiple gastrointestinal symptoms are central to characterizing the therapeutic benefit of novel agents for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Common approaches that sum or average responses across different illness components must be unidimensional and have small unique variances to avoid aggregation bias and misinterpretation of clinical data. This study sought to evaluate the unidimensionality of the IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS) and to explore person centered cluster analytic methods for characterizing multivariate-based patient profiles. Methods Ninety-eight Rome-diagnosed IBS patients completed the IBS-SSS and a single, global item of symptom severity (UCLA Symptom Severity Scale) at pretreatment baseline of an NIH funded clinical trial. A k-means cluster analyses were performed on participants symptom severity scores. Results The IBS-SSS was not unidimensional. Exploratory cluster analyses revealed four common symptom profiles across five items of the IBS-SSS. One cluster of patients (25%) had elevated scores on pain frequency and bowel dissatisfaction, with less elevated but still high scores on life interference and low pain severity ratings. A second cluster (19%) was characterized by intermediate scores on both pain dimensions, but more elevated scores on bowel dissatisfaction. A third cluster (18%) was elevated across all IBS-SSS sub-components. The fourth and most common cluster (37%) had relatively low scores on all dimensions except bowel dissatisfaction and life interference due to IBS symptoms. Conclusions PRO endpoints and research on IBS more generally relying on multicomponent assessments of symptom severity should take into account the multidimensional structure of symptoms to avoid aggregation bias and to optimize the sensitivity of detecting treatment effects.

Lackner, Jeffrey M.; Jaccard, James; Baum, Charles

2012-01-01

119

Anxiety sensitivity and breath-holding duration in relation to PTSD symptom severity among trauma exposed adults.  

PubMed

The present investigation examined the main and interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and behavioral distress tolerance, indexed using the breath-holding task, in relation to PTSD symptom severity among trauma-exposed adults. Participants were 88 adults (63.6% women; M(age)=22.9, SD=9.1, range=18-62), recruited from the community, who met DSM-IV-TR PTSD Criterion A for lifetime trauma exposure. Covariates included number of potentially traumatic events, nonclinical panic attack history, and participant sex. Anxiety sensitivity was significantly incrementally associated with PTSD total symptom severity, as well as Avoidance and Hyperarousal symptom severity (p's<.01). Breath-holding duration was not significantly related to PTSD symptom severity (p's>.05). However, breath-holding duration emerged as a significant moderator of the association between anxiety sensitivity and PTSD Avoidance symptom severity, such that lower breath-holding duration exacerbated the effect of heightened anxiety sensitivity with regard to PTSD Avoidance symptom severity. PMID:22047652

Berenz, Erin C; Vujanovic, Anka A; Coffey, Scott F; Zvolensky, Michael J

2012-01-01

120

The Impact of Obesity on Urinary Incontinence Symptoms, Severity, Urodynamic Characteristics and Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare urinary incontinence (UI) severity measures and impact of stress UI in normal, overweight and obese women. Materials and Methods Baseline characteristics of subjects in the Stress Incontinence Surgical Treatment Efficacy Trial (SISTEr, N=655) and the TOMUS (N=597) were analyzed. Body mass index [BMI] was defined as normal (<25 kg/m2), overweight (25kg/m2 ?BMI<30 kg/m2) and obese (?30 kg/m2). Independent UI severity measures included 3 day diary including incontinence episode frequency (IEF), Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI) scores, and valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP) from urodynamic testing (UDS). Impact was measured using the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ). Multivariable regression models were fit for each severity measures (UDI, IEF, VLPP and IIQ) on weight category. Covariates included age and variables significantly associated with BMI in bivariate analysis. Results Mean age (SD) of participants was 51.9 (10.3) in SISTEr and 52.9 (11.0) in TOMUS. In each trial, 45% of subjects were obese. In SISTEr, multivariable regression analyses showed that increasing BMI was independently associated with higher mean UDI scores (p=0.003), IEF (p<0.0001), VLPP (p=0.003) and IIQ score (p=0.0004). In TOMUS, increasing BMI was not associated with UDI scores (p=0.24), but was associated with higher IEF (p=0.0003), VLPP (p=0.0006) and IIQ score (p<0.0001). Conclusion Obese women undergoing surgery for stress urinary incontinence report more incontinence episodes, more symptom distress and worse quality of life despite better measure of urethral function (higher VLPP) on urodynamics.

Richter, Holly E.; Kenton, Kimberly; Huang, Liyuan; Nygaard, Ingrid; Kraus, Stephen; Whitcomb, Emily; Chai, Toby C.; Lemack, Gary; Sirls, Larry; Dandreo, Kimberly J.; Stoddard, Anne

2012-01-01

121

Quantitative evaluation of severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in patients with vascular dementia  

PubMed Central

To quantitatively evaluate severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) for vascular dementia (VD). Changes of 51 patients with VD in BPSD between the first and 24th week were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and the behavioral pathology in Alzheimer’s disease (BEHAVE-AD) rating scale, in detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) represented by diurnal activity (DA), evening activity (EA), and nocturnal activity (NA), and the relationships were analyzed. The subscores of activity disturbances, diurnal rhythm disturbances, and anxieties and phobias in the BEHAVE-AD score, and that of agitation, irritability, and sleep disorder in the NPI score were significantly increased compared with the first week, as was for the changes for EA in the DFA value. A linear correlation was observed between the changes of activity disturbances plus anxieties and phobias, and those of DA, and between the development of diurnal rhythm and those of EA, the vehement and autism scores and those of DA, and the difference in sleep disorder scores and those of EA, respectively. Analysis of DA, NA, and EA may reflect the fluctuational degrees of VD-BPSD, can provide a useful assessment of VD-BPSD accompanied by clinical scores for VD.

2013-01-01

122

Elevated monoamine oxidase a binding during major depressive episodes is associated with greater severity and reversed neurovegetative symptoms.  

PubMed

Inadequate treatment response occurs in approximately 40% of major depressive episodes (MDEs), and one approach to solve this is careful matching of treatment to the specific pathologies of MDE. One such biological abnormality is elevated monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) levels, which occurs in the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex (PFC and ACC) during MDE; however, the subtypes for which this abnormality is most prominent are unknown. We hypothesized that MAO-A levels in the PFC and ACC are most elevated in MDE with greater severity and reversed neurovegetative symptoms (hypersomnia and either hyperphagia or weight gain). MAO-A VT (an index of MAO-A density) was measured using [(11)C]harmine positron emission tomography (PET) in 42 subjects with MDEs secondary to major depressive disorder and 37 healthy controls. The effect of severity and reversed neurovegetative symptoms on MAO-A VT in the PFC and ACC was analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Greater severity and reversed neurovegetative symptoms were associated with elevated MAO-A VT in the PFC and ACC (MANOVA, severity: F(2,38)=5.44, p=0.008; reversed neurovegetative symptoms: F(2,38)=5.13, p=0.01). Increased MAO-A level, when greater severity and reversed neurovegetative symptoms are present, may explain the association of these clinical features with a preferential response to MAO inhibitors, which is especially well-evidenced for reversed neurovegetative symptoms in MDE. As MAO-A creates oxidative stress, facilitates apoptosis, and metabolizes monoamines, therapeutics opposing these processes are predicted to best treat MDE with greater severity and reversed neurovegetative symptoms. PMID:24154665

Chiuccariello, Lina; Houle, Sylvain; Miler, Laura; Cooke, Robert G; Rusjan, Pablo M; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Levitan, Robert D; Kish, Stephen J; Kolla, Nathan J; Ou, Xiaoming; Wilson, Alan A; Meyer, Jeffrey H

2014-03-01

123

Vocal cord paresis and diaphragmatic dysfunction are severe and frequent symptoms of GDAP1-associated neuropathy.  

PubMed

Cranial nerve involvement in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is rare, though there are a number of CMT syndromes in which vocal cord paralysis is a characteristic feature. CMT disease due to mutations in the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 gene (GDAP1) has been reported to be associated with vocal cord and diaphragmatic palsy. In order to address the prevalence of these complications in patients with GDAP1 mutations we evaluated vocal cord and respiratory function in nine patients from eight unrelated families with this disorder. Hoarseness of the voice and inability to speak loudly were reported by eight patients and one had associated symptoms of respiratory insufficiency. Patients were investigated by means of peripheral and phrenic nerve conduction studies, flexible laryngoscopy, pulmonary function studies and polysomnography. Nerve conduction velocities and pathological studies were compatible with axonal CMT (CMT2). Flexible laryngoscopy showed left vocal cord palsy in four cases, bilateral cord palsies in four cases and was normal in one case. Restrictive respiratory dysfunction was seen in the eight patients with vocal cord paresis who were all chair-bound. These eight had confirmed phrenic nerve dysfunction on neurophysiology evaluation. The patient with normal vocal cord and pulmonary function had a less severe clinical course.This study shows that CMT patients with GDAP1 mutations develop severe disability due to weakness of limb muscles and that laryngeal and respiratory muscle involvement occurs late in the disease process when significant proximal upper limb weakness has developed. The early and predominant involvement of the left vocal cord innervated by the longer left recurrent laryngeal nerve suggests a length dependent pattern of nerve degeneration. In GDAP1 neuropathy, respiratory function should be thoroughly investigated because life expectancy can be compromised due to respiratory failure. PMID:18812441

Sevilla, Teresa; Jaijo, Teresa; Nauffal, Dolores; Collado, Diego; Chumillas, María José; Vilchez, Juan J; Muelas, Nuria; Bataller, Luis; Domenech, Rosalía; Espinós, Carmen; Palau, Francesc

2008-11-01

124

Severe toxicity and polymerase-? gene abnormalities in Malawian adults on stavudine-based antiretroviral therapy.  

PubMed

In a cohort study of Malawian adults who were followed up through their second year of stavudine-containing antiretroviral therapy, we sequenced the polymerase-? gene (POLG) of 10 of the 14 patients with the most severe stavudine side effects. No mutations were observed, suggesting that monogenic POLG mutations are not a common pathogenic determinant of severe stavudine-associated mitochondrial toxicity in Malawians. PMID:23962909

van Oosterhout, Joep J; Gardner, Kristian; Mallewa, Jane; Kaunda, Symon; Kampira, Elizabeth; Payne, Brendan; Heyderman, Robert S; Chinnery, Patrick

2013-11-01

125

Severe Late Toxicities Following Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy Compared to Radiotherapy Alone in Cervical Cancer: An Inter-era Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare rates of severe late toxicities following concomitant chemoradiotherapy and radiotherapy alone for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials Patients with cervical cancer were treated at a single institution with radiotherapy alone or concomitant chemoradiotherapy for curative intent. Severe late toxicity was defined as grade ?3 vaginal, urologic, or gastrointestinal toxicity or any pelvic fracture, using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 (CTCAE), occurring ?6 months from treatment completion and predating any salvage therapy. Severe late toxicity rates were compared after adjusting for pertinent covariates. Results At 3 years, probability of vaginal severe late toxicity was 20.2% for radiotherapy alone and 35.1% for concomitant chemoradiotherapy (P=.026). At 3 years, probability of skeletal severe late toxicity was 1.6% for radiotherapy alone and 7.5% for concomitant chemoradiotherapy (P=.010). After adjustment for case mix, concomitant chemoradiotherapy was associated with higher vaginal (hazard ratio [HR] 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–5.2, P<001), and skeletal (HR 7.0, 95% CI 1.4–34.1, P=.016) severe late toxicity. Compared to high dilator compliance, moderate (HR 3.6, 95% CI 2.0–6.5, P<.001) and poor (HR 8.5, 95% CI 4.3–16.9, P<.001) dilator compliance was associated with higher vaginal severe late toxicity. Age >50 was associated with higher vaginal (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.0, P=.013) and skeletal (HR 5.7, 95% CI 1.2–27.0, P=.028) severe late toxicity. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy was not associated with higher gastrointestinal (P=.886) or urologic (unadjusted, P=.053; adjusted, P=.063) severe late toxicity. Conclusion Compared to radiotherapy alone, concomitant chemoradiotherapy is associated with higher rates of severe vaginal and skeletal late toxicities. Other predictive factors include dilator compliance for severe vaginal late toxicity and age for severe vaginal and skeletal late toxicities.

Gondi, Vinai; Bentzen, S?ren M.; Sklenar, Kathryn L.; Dunn, Emily F.; Petereit, Daniel G.; Tannehill, Scott P.; Straub, Margaret; Bradley, Kristin A.

2013-01-01

126

A case series of children with apparent mercury toxic encephalopathies manifesting with clinical symptoms of regressive autistic disorders.  

PubMed

Impairments in social relatedness and communication, repetitive behaviors, and stereotypic abnormal movement patterns characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). It is clear that while genetic factors are important to the pathogenesis of ASDs, mercury exposure can induce immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions similar to traits defining or associated with ASDs. The Institutional Review Board of the Institute for Chronic Illnesses (Office for Human Research Protections, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, IRB number IRB00005375) approved the present study. A case series of nine patients who presented to the Genetic Centers of America for a genetic/developmental evaluation are discussed. Eight of nine patients (one patient was found to have an ASD due to Rett's syndrome) (a) had regressive ASDs; (b) had elevated levels of androgens; (c) excreted significant amounts of mercury post chelation challenge; (d) had biochemical evidence of decreased function in their glutathione pathways; (e) had no known significant mercury exposure except from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho(D)-immune globulin preparations; and (f) had alternate causes for their regressive ASDs ruled out. There was a significant dose-response relationship between the severity of the regressive ASDs observed and the total mercury dose children received from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho (D)-immune globulin preparations. Based upon differential diagnoses, 8 of 9 patients examined were exposed to significant mercury from Thimerosal-containing biologic/vaccine preparations during their fetal/infant developmental periods, and subsequently, between 12 and 24 mo of age, these previously normally developing children suffered mercury toxic encephalopathies that manifested with clinical symptoms consistent with regressive ASDs. Evidence for mercury intoxication should be considered in the differential diagnosis as contributing to some regressive ASDs. PMID:17454560

Geier, David A; Geier, Mark R

2007-05-15

127

Clinician ratings vs. global ratings of symptom severity: a comparison of symptom measures in the bipolar disorder module, phase II, Texas Medication Algorithm Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares ratings obtained with an itemized, clinician-rated, symptom severity measure—the 24-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS24)—to a Physician Global Rating Scale (PhGRS), a Patient Global Rating Scale (PtGRS) and the clinician-completed Multnomah Community Ability Scale (MCAS) in patients with bipolar disorder (BPD). A total of 69 patients (25 inpatients and 44 outpatients) with BPD were enrolled in a

E. Sherwood Brown; A. John Rush; Melanie M Biggs; Kathy Shores-Wilson; Thomas J Carmody; Trisha Suppes

2003-01-01

128

Bleeding symptoms and laboratory correlation in patients with severe von Willebrand disease.  

PubMed

Type 3 von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a rare bleeding disorder with markedly decreased or absent von Willebrand factor (VWF) protein, accompanied by a parallel decrease in VWF function and factor VIII (FVIII) activity. The goal of this study was to describe the population of patients enrolled in the USA Centers for Disease Control Universal Data Collection (UDC) study with type 3 VWD, defined as a VWF:Ag of <10%, and to correlate bleeding symptoms with VWF and FVIII levels. Data on 150 patients were analysed. Almost all patients experienced bleeding episodes (98%) and required blood and/or factor product treatment (92%). While oral mucosal bleeding (the site of first bleed in 54%) was most common, subsequent muscle and joint bleeds were also seen (28%, 45%, respectively), and intracranial haemorrhage occurred in 8% of individuals. Mean age of first bleed was lower in those with either a FVIII < or =5% or a VWF:Ag <1%. Univariate marginal model analysis showed lower levels of FVIII and VWF:Ag both predicted a higher risk of joint bleeding. Longitudinal multivariate analysis found a lower FVIII level (P = 0.03), increasing age (P < 0.0001), history of joint bleeding (P = 0.001), higher body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.0001), and use of home infusion (P = 0.02) were all negatively associated with joint mobility. Low levels of VWF:Ag (P = 0.003) and male sex (P = 0.007) were also negatively associated with joint function. This study documents the strong bleeding phenotype in severe VWD and provides data to help target therapy, including prophylaxis, for patients most at risk of bleeding complications. PMID:19473418

Metjian, A D; Wang, C; Sood, S L; Cuker, A; Peterson, S M; Soucie, J M; Konkle, B A

2009-07-01

129

The Frequency and Severity of Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Early Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective Although gastrointestinal dysfunctions occur in the majority of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), they are often unrecognized because many patients remain relatively asymptomatic in the early stage. We investigated the frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with PD using newly developed gastrointestinal symptom questionnaires. Methods Early PD patients with a symptom duration not exceeding 3 years were included in this study. All PD patients were evaluated using a questionnaire, which consisted of three relevant domains: oropharyngoesophageal (10 items); gastric (3 items); and intestinal-anorectal (7 items). The frequency of symptoms was calculated as a proportion with an item score ? 2. Results Of the 54 patients enrolled, 48 patients (88.9%) responded that bowel symptoms developed before the onset of Parkinsonian motor symptoms, and four patients reported that the onset of two types of symptoms (i.e., bowel and neurological) occurred approximately simultaneously, with only months between them. The frequencies of gastrointestinal symptoms are as follows: speech disturbance (40.7%), drooling (24.1%), sense of getting stuck (31.5%), choking (27.8%), globus pharyngis (16.7%), repetitive deglutition (29.6%), pain during swallowing (5.6%), food regurgitation (3.7%), acid reflux (7.4%), nausea/vomiting (11.1%), early satiety (16.7%), postprandial fullness (14.8%), epigastric soreness (9.3%), abdominal pain (3.7%), constipation (46.3%), excessive strain during defecation (33.3%), fecal incontinence (7.4%), tenesmus (20.4%), loose stool or diarrhea (3.7%), and difficulty in relaxing anal sphincter (11.1%). Two patients were scored at zero. Conclusions Our findings confirm that gastrointestinal dysfunction occurs in early PD in relatively high frequency.

Sung, Hye-Young; Park, Jeong-Wook; Kim, Joong-Seok

2014-01-01

130

9 CFR 309.4 - Livestock showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...infectious equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), dourine, acute influenza, generalized osteoporosis, glanders (farcy), acute inflammatory lameness or extensive fistula shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

2013-01-01

131

9 CFR 309.4 - Livestock showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...infectious equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), dourine, acute influenza, generalized osteoporosis, glanders (farcy), acute inflammatory lameness or extensive fistula shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

2011-01-01

132

9 CFR 309.4 - Livestock showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...  

...infectious equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), dourine, acute influenza, generalized osteoporosis, glanders (farcy), acute inflammatory lameness or extensive fistula shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

2014-01-01

133

9 CFR 309.4 - Livestock showing symptoms of certain metabolic, toxic, nervous, or circulatory disturbances...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...infectious equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), dourine, acute influenza, generalized osteoporosis, glanders (farcy), acute inflammatory lameness or extensive fistula shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

2012-01-01

134

Effects of Ambient Pollen Concentrations on Frequency and Severity of Asthma Symptoms Among Asthmatic Children  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies on the associations between ambient pollen exposures and daily respiratory symptoms have produced inconsistent results. We investigated these relationships in a cohort of asthmatic children, using pollen exposure models to estimate individual ambient exposures. Methods Daily symptoms of wheeze, night symptoms, shortness of breath, chest tightness, persistent cough and rescue medication use were recorded in a cohort of 430 children age 4-12 years with asthma in Connecticut, Massachusetts and New York. Daily ambient exposures to tree, grass, weed and all-type pollen were estimated using mixed effects models. We stratified analyses by asthma maintenance medication and sensitization to grass or weed pollens. Separate logistic regression analysis using generalized estimating equations were performed for each symptom outcome and pollen type. We adjusted analyses for maximum daily temperature, maximum 8-hr average ozone, fine particles (PM2.5), season and antibiotic use. Results Associations were observed among children sensitized to specific pollens; these associations varied by use of asthma maintenance medication. Exposures to even relatively low levels of weed pollen (6-9 grains/m3) were associated with increased shortness of breath, chest tightness, rescue medication use, wheeze, and persistent cough, compared with lower exposure among sensitized children taking maintenance medication. Grass pollen exposures ?2 grains/m3 were associated with wheeze, night symptoms, shortness of breath and persistent cough compared with lower exposure among sensitized children who did not take maintenance medication. Conclusion Even low-level pollen exposure was associated with daily asthmatic symptoms.

Triche, Elizabeth W.; Leaderer, Brian P.; Bell, Michelle L.

2011-01-01

135

Difference in symptom severity between early and late grass pollen season in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis  

PubMed Central

Background For the development of forecasts for seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms, it is essential to understand the relationship between grass pollen concentrations and the symptoms of grass pollen allergic patients. Objective The aim of this study was to delineate this relationship between seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms and grass pollen concentrations in the Netherlands. Methods Grass pollen allergic patients (n = 80 [2007] - 84 [2008]) were enrolled into the study. They were asked to enter their seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms (runny nose, sneezing, blocked nose, post nasal drip, and eye symptoms) daily on a scale from 0 to 3 to the study centre either by short message service (SMS) or by internet from May-July 2007 and April-July 2008. Daily pollen counts were used to define the early and the late grass pollen season as the period 'before and during' respectively 'after' the first grass pollen peak (more than 150 pollen/m3). Results At similar grass pollen concentrations, the daily mean of the individual maximum symptom scores reported in the early season were higher as compared to that reported in the late season [differences of -0.41 (2007) and -0.30 (2008)]. This difference could not be explained by medication use by the patients nor by co-sensitization to birch. Conclusions We conclude that seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms at similar grass pollen concentrations are more severe in the early flowering season as compared to those in the late flowering season. This finding is not only relevant for development of forecasts for seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms but also for understanding symptom development and planning and analysis of clinical studies.

2011-01-01

136

Propafenone associated severe central nervous system and cardiovascular toxicity due to mirtazapine: a case of severe drug interaction.  

PubMed

We describe a rare case of severe drug-drug interaction between propafenone and mirtazapine leading to propafenone toxicity. A 69-year-old Caucasian male taking propafenone for atrial fibrillation was prescribed mirtazapine for insomnia. Subsequent to the first dose of mirtazapine the patient experienced seizures, bradycardia and prolonged QRS as well as QTc intervals on EKG. The patient was admitted to the ICU and recovered after supportive management. Propafenone is an established class IC antiarrhythmic drug commonly used in the treatment of atrial fibrillation. It is metabolized through the CYP4502D6 pathway. Five to 10 percent of Caucasians are poor metabolizers. Mirtazapine is a commonly prescribed antidepressant drug, which is also metabolized through and may modulate the CYP4502D6 pathway leading to altered metabolism of propafenone and possible adverse effects. In this case, toxicity was reversed once the offending drugs were discontinued. An extensive review of the literature revealed this to be the first described case of drug interaction between propafenone and mirtazapine. PMID:24791374

Rajpurohit, Naveen; Aryal, Sudeep Raj; Khan, Muhammad A; Stys, Adam T; Stys, Tomasz P

2014-04-01

137

Ropinirole improves depressive symptoms and restless legs syndrome severity in RLS patients: a multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled study.  

PubMed

Comorbid depressive symptoms in restless legs syndrome (RLS) remain a treatment challenge, as some antidepressants aggravate RLS symptoms. Preliminary data in depressive patients suggest antidepressant properties of ropinirole. The present study investigates the effects of ropinirole immediate release (IR) on depressive symptoms and RLS severity. A multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized (3:1) study was performed including patients with moderate to severe idiopathic RLS and at least mild depressive symptoms. Ropinirole IR (in flexible doses up to 4 mg/day) or placebo was given for 12 weeks including an uptitration phase of 7 weeks. Visits were scheduled at screening, baseline, and weeks 1, 4, and 12 with additional telephone contacts for dosing decisions. The modified intent to treat population comprised 231 patients (171 ropinirole, 60 placebo). The MADRS (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale) scores decreased from baseline to week 12 from 18.8 to 8.7 in the ropinirole group and from 18.4 to 12.1 in the placebo group (primary endpoint, adjusted mean treatment difference -3.6 (95% CI: -5.6 to -1.6, significance in favor of ropinirole: P < 0.001). The superiority of ropinirole compared to placebo was confirmed by the Hamilton Scale for Depression and Beck Depression Inventory-II scores. RLS severity scores (IRLS) decreased by 14.7 (ropinirole) and by 9.9 (placebo, P < 0.001) points. Three out of four subdomains of the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale improved significantly. The findings indicate that mild to moderate depressive symptoms should not be treated before sufficient therapy for RLS. Antidepressant medication can be necessary if depression symptoms still persist even if RLS symptoms are ameliorated. PMID:21188406

Benes, Heike; Mattern, Wolfgang; Peglau, Ines; Dreykluft, Tillmann; Bergmann, Lars; Hansen, Corinna; Kohnen, Ralf; Banik, Norbert; Schoen, S W; Hornyak, Magdolna

2011-06-01

138

Discrepancies between explicit and implicit self-esteem are linked to symptom severity in borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

The present study examined whether discrepancies between explicit and implicit self-esteem are associated with symptom severity in a sample of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). We hypothesized that implicit-explicit self-esteem discrepancies foster autoaggressive behavior and dysphoria, and impair self-perception. We found that the two forms of self-esteem discrepancies, damaged and fragile self-esteem were related to the severity of overall borderline symptoms, autoaggression, dysphoria, and deficits in self-perception. In contrast, more general psychopathological impairment, such as depression, was not related to self-esteem discrepancies. Taken together our results indicate that discrepancies between explicit and implicit self-esteem are associated with certain borderline symptoms that may be based on internal tension. The findings can be interpreted within the framework of self-discrepancies and dichotomous attitudes in patients with BPD. PMID:20435296

Vater, Aline; Schröder-Abé, Michela; Schütz, Astrid; Lammers, Claas-Hinrich; Roepke, Stefan

2010-12-01

139

A Case of Reversible Neuropsychiatry Symptoms in HIV due to Toxic Leukoencephalopathy  

PubMed Central

Mothball ingestion has been previously cited to induce toxic-leukoencephalopathy, secondary to the destructive effects of paradichlorobenzene on central nervous system white matter. This case presents a 37-year-old woman who experienced a neuropsychiatric syndrome consistent with paradichlorobenzene-induced toxic leukoencephalopathy after two decades of mothball abuse. Her clinical presentation was insidious, involving fluctuating cognitive decline, depression, and psychosis. This was further complicated by an human immunodeficiency virus infection and concomitant cocaine abuse. Ultimately, her clinical findings were attributed to a reversible toxic-leukoencephalopathy from mothball ingestion, and her magnetic resonance imaging findings were consistent with symmetric leukoencephalopathy and atrophy. Though leukoencephalopathy in human immunodeficiency virus has numerous potential etiologies, a patient with a history of substance abuse warrants consideration of toxin-induced leukoencephalopathy, and further inquiry regarding abuse of other substances is appropriate.

Garakani, Amir; Krauskopf, Katherine A.; Robinson-Papp, Jessica

2013-01-01

140

A Case of Reversible Neuropsychiatry Symptoms in HIV due to Toxic Leukoencephalopathy.  

PubMed

Mothball ingestion has been previously cited to induce toxic-leukoencephalopathy, secondary to the destructive effects of paradichlorobenzene on central nervous system white matter. This case presents a 37-year-old woman who experienced a neuropsychiatric syndrome consistent with paradichlorobenzene-induced toxic leukoencephalopathy after two decades of mothball abuse. Her clinical presentation was insidious, involving fluctuating cognitive decline, depression, and psychosis. This was further complicated by an human immunodeficiency virus infection and concomitant cocaine abuse. Ultimately, her clinical findings were attributed to a reversible toxic-leukoencephalopathy from mothball ingestion, and her magnetic resonance imaging findings were consistent with symmetric leukoencephalopathy and atrophy. Though leukoencephalopathy in human immunodeficiency virus has numerous potential etiologies, a patient with a history of substance abuse warrants consideration of toxin-induced leukoencephalopathy, and further inquiry regarding abuse of other substances is appropriate. PMID:24307979

Liu, Michelle C; Garakani, Amir; Krauskopf, Katherine A; Robinson-Papp, Jessica

2013-09-01

141

Discordance between physical symptoms versus perception of severity by women with nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP).  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) is a multifaceted condition that affects more than half of pregnant women and can range in severity from mild nausea to severe dehydration. Presently physicians evaluate mostly physical symptoms of NVP in trying to assess the severity of the condition. The objective of this study was to investigate how factors, other than the physical morbidity of nausea and vomiting, influence self-perception of NVP by affected women. METHODS: Five hundred women with NVP calling a 1-800 NVP Healthline were asked to rate their NVP severity and report their nausea duration and number of vomiting/retching episodes. RESULTS: Nausea and vomiting/retching correlated significantly but very poorly with self-assessment of NVP severity. There was also a correlation between nausea duration and vomiting/retching frequency however the correlations were weak and overall physical symptoms could only explain 14% of the variability of women's feelings and perceptions through multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Physical symptoms weakly correlate with self-assessment of NVP severity. Other aspects of this condition, most probably psychosocial, influence women's perception of NVP severity. PMID:12153704

Chandra K, Kiran; Magee L, Laura; Koren G, Gideon

2002-08-01

142

Longitudinal course of symptom severity and fluctuation in patients with treatment-resistant unipolar and bipolar depression.  

PubMed

Little is currently known about the long-term course of symptom severity and fluctuation in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). We assessed this using the longitudinal interval follow-up evaluation in 115 patients with TRD (84 unipolar, 31 bipolar) with 1-7 years (median 36 months) of follow-up. Of the follow-up months, 39.2% were spent asymptomatic and 21.1% at sub-threshold symptom level, while 15.8% were spent at mild, 13.9% at moderate, and 10.0% at severe depressive episode level. Significantly more unipolar than bipolar patients were continuously symptomatic during follow-up (43% vs. 29%). Patients had a mean of 1.0 (S.D.=1.2) symptom severity level fluctuations per year. High fluctuating patients had significantly poorer global functioning and quality of life. Although most patients with TRD achieve an asymptomatic state, they continue to fluctuate and experience depressive symptoms in the majority of months, mostly at subclinical or mild severity. However, there are important differences between unipolar and bipolar TRD, with unipolar patients more likely to experience an unremitting depressive state. Additionally, a more fluctuating longitudinal illness course is associated with poorer function and quality of life, and with a bipolar diagnosis. We suggest that the longitudinal illness course is an important outcome to be considered in future TRD research. PMID:23601791

Vergunst, Francis K; Fekadu, Abebaw; Wooderson, Sarah C; Tunnard, Catherine S; Rane, Lena J; Markopoulou, Kalypso; Cleare, Anthony J

2013-05-30

143

Emergency Medical Service and In-Hospital Vital Signs as Predictors of Subsequent PTSD Symptom Severity in Pediatric Injury Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The present study investigated the extent to which heart rate (HR) levels soon after a traumatic event predicted posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity assessed 6 weeks and 6 months later in child trauma victims. Methods: Participants consisted of 82 children (56 boys, 26 girls) aged 8-18 who were admitted to a…

Nugent, Nicole R.; Christopher, Norman C.; Delahanty, Douglas L.

2006-01-01

144

Making meaningful space for oneself: photo-based dialogue with siblings of refugee children with severe withdrawal symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study explores the use of children's photographs to establish a dialogue about everyday life with healthy siblings of refugee children with severe withdrawal symptoms (SWS). Asylum-seeking refugee children in Sweden with SWS have been officially observed since 2000, yet research has overlooked their healthy siblings. We studied three healthy siblings and found photography to be an applicable communicative

Malin Svensson; Solvig Ekblad; Henry Ascher

2009-01-01

145

Predictors of Posttraumatic Distress 1 Year after Exposure to Community Violence: The Importance of Acute Symptom Severity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this longitudinal study of 333 primarily male, Hispanic survivors of community violence, the authors investigated the effects of 4 categories of risk factors on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity: demographic characteristics, pretraumatic psychological factors, characteristics of the trauma, and reactions to the trauma.…

Denson, Thomas F.; Marshall, Grant N.; Schell, Terry L.; Jaycox, Lisa H.

2007-01-01

146

A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Childhood Trauma on Symptoms and Functioning of People with Severe Mental Health Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationship between childhood trauma and the psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial functioning of adults with severe mental health problems. Participants (n?=?31) were recruited from the caseloads of community mental health services in Northern Ireland and assessed at baseline, 9 months, and 18 months. More than half had a history of childhood trauma (n?=?17). There were no differences

Gavin Davidson; Ciaran Shannon; Ciaran Mulholland; Jim Campbell

2009-01-01

147

The Association of Quality of Social Relations, Symptom Severity and Intelligence with Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited quality of social relations, milder symptom severity and higher intelligence were shown to account for higher anxiety levels in autism spectrum disorders. The current study replicated and extended earlier findings by combining these three determinants of anxiety in autism spectrum disorders in one study. The sample consisted of 134…

Eussen, Mart L. J. M.; Van Gool, Arthur R.; Verheij, Fop; De Nijs, Pieter F. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

2013-01-01

148

What Symptoms Predict the Diagnosis of Mania in Persons with Severe/Profound Intellectual Disability In Clinical Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: While researchers have attempted to address the difficulties of diagnosing affective disorders in the intellectually disabled population, diagnosing bipolar disorder in an individual with severe intellectual disability (ID) remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to identify what symptoms can predict a diagnosis of mania in the…

Matson, J. L.; Gonzalez, M. L.; Terlonge, C.; Thorson, R. T.; Laud, R. B.

2007-01-01

149

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms are Associated with the Frequency and Severity of Delinquency Among Detained Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trauma and posttraumatic stress symptoms increasingly are recognized as risk factors for involvement with the juvenile justice system, and detained youth evidence higher rates of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to their nondetained peers. Using a sample of 83 detained boys aged 12 to 17, we tested the hypothesis that degree of PTSD symptomatology would be positively

Stephen P. Becker; Patricia K. Kerig

2011-01-01

150

Inflammatory Cytokine Expression Is Associated with Chikungunya Virus Resolution and Symptom Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chikungunya virus infection zones have now quickly spread from Africa to parts of Asia, North America and Europe. Originally thought to trigger a disease of only mild symptoms, recently Chikungunya virus caused large-scale fatalities and widespread economic loss that was linked to recent virus genetic mutation and evolution. Due to the paucity of information on Chikungunya immunological progression, we

Alyson A. Kelvin; David Banner; Giuliano Silvi; Maria Luisa Moro; Nadir Spataro; Paolo Gaibani; Francesca Cavrini; Anna Pierro; Giada Rossini; Mark J. Cameron; Jesus F. Bermejo-Martin; Stéphane G. Paquette; Luoling Xu; Ali Danesh; Amber Farooqui; Ilaria Borghetto; David J. Kelvin; Vittorio Sambri; Salvatore Rubino

2011-01-01

151

Examining the role of emotional avoidance in the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity and worry.  

PubMed

A growing body of literature suggests that worry is a cognitive activity functioning to avoid unpleasant internal experiences such as negative thoughts, emotions, and somatic responses. Given the highly aversive internal events associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), individuals experiencing PTSD symptoms following exposure to a traumatic event may be particularly motivated to engage in avoidant regulation strategies such as worry. Surprisingly, however, few studies to date have examined the relationship between PTSD and worry as well as potential factors that might explain this association. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the association between PTSD symptom severity and worry and the extent to which emotional avoidance explains this relationship. To this end, 207 college students with a history of traumatic exposure (meeting Criterion A for a PTSD diagnosis) completed a series of questionnaires assessing history of exposure to potentially traumatic events, PTSD symptom severity, emotional avoidance tendencies, and worry. Results demonstrated that PTSD symptom severity was positively associated with worry and emotional avoidance. Further, emotional avoidance was found to fully account for this relationship, providing support for the proposed emotionally avoidant function of worry. The implications of these findings for future research and the treatment of worry among individuals with a history of traumatic exposure are discussed. PMID:21337211

Tull, Matthew T; Hahn, Kathryn S; Evans, Shenell D; Salters-Pedneault, Kristalyn; Gratz, Kim L

2011-01-01

152

Acute toxicity of zinc to several aquatic species native to the Rocky Mountains.  

PubMed

National water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life are based on toxicity tests, often using organisms that are easy to culture in the laboratory. Species native to the Rocky Mountains are poorly represented in data sets used to derive national water-quality criteria. To provide additional data on the toxicity of zinc, several laboratory acute-toxicity tests were conducted with a diverse assortment of fish, benthic invertebrates, and an amphibian native to the Rocky Mountains. Tests with fish were conducted using three subspecies of cutthroat trout (Colorado River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus, greenback cutthroat trout O. clarkii stomias, and Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. clarkii virginalis), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi), longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), and flathead chub (Platygobio gracilis). Aquatic invertebrate tests were conducted with mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus, Drunella doddsi, Cinygmula sp. and Ephemerella sp.), a stonefly (Chloroperlidae), and a caddis fly (Lepidostoma sp.). The amphibian test was conducted with tadpoles of the boreal toad (Bufo boreas). Median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s) ranged more than three orders of magnitude from 166 ?g/L for Rio Grande cutthroat trout to >67,000 ?g/L for several benthic invertebrates. Of the organisms tested, vertebrates were the most sensitive, and benthic invertebrates were the most tolerant. PMID:21811884

Brinkman, Stephen F; Johnston, Walter D

2012-02-01

153

Specific Impairment of Smiling Increases the Severity of Depressive Symptoms in Patients with Facial Neuromuscular Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Depressive symptoms and related emotional distress are prevalent among patients with facial neuromuscular disorders, and\\u000a the psychological distress impacts the functional disabilities associated with the facial impairment. A specific impairment\\u000a in the ability to smile may elevate the risk for depression, with patients experiencing a reduced physiological feedback associated\\u000a with smiling as well as the social consequences of the

Jessie M. VanSwearingen; Jeffrey F. Cohn; Anu Bajaj-Luthra

1999-01-01

154

Postprandial oxytocin secretion is associated with severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in anorexia nervosa  

PubMed Central

Objective Anorexia nervosa, a psychiatric disorder characterized by self-induced starvation, is associated with endocrine dysfunction and comorbid anxiety and depression. Animal data suggest that oxytocin may have anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. We have reported increased postprandial oxytocin levels in women with active anorexia nervosa (AN), and decreased levels in weight-recovered women with anorexia nervosa (ANWR) compared to healthy controls (HC). A meal may represent a significant source of stress in patients with disordered eating. We therefore investigated the association between post-prandial oxytocin secretion and symptoms of anxiety and depression in anorexia nervosa. Method We performed a cross-sectional study of 35 women (13 AN, 9 ANWR and 13 HC). Serum oxytocin and cortisol and plasma leptin levels were measured fasting and 30, 60, and 120min after a standardized mixed meal. The area under the curve (AUC), and for oxytocin, postprandial nadir and peak levels were determined. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). Results In women with anorexia nervosa, oxytocin AUC and post-prandial nadir and peak levels were positively associated with STAI scores. Oxytocin AUC and nadir levels were positively associated with BDI-II scores. After controlling for cortisol AUC, most relationships remained significant. After controlling for leptin AUC, all of the relationships remained significant. Oxytocin secretion explained up to 51% of the variance in STAI trait and 24% of BDI-II scores. Conclusions Abnormal post-prandial oxytocin secretion in women with anorexia nervosa is associated with increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. This may represent an adaptive response of oxytocin secretion to food-related symptoms of anxiety and depression.

Lawson, Elizabeth A.; Holsen, Laura M.; Santin, McKale; DeSanti, Rebecca; Meenaghan, Erinne; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Herzog, David B.; Goldstein, Jill M.; Klibanski, Anne

2013-01-01

155

Pre-abstinence smoke intake and smoking motivation as predictors of severity of cigarette withdrawal symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-nine cigarette smokers completed a smoking motivation questionnaire and had expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) and plasma nicotine concentrations measured prior to abstaining from smoking for 24 h. Before and after the abstinence period, the subjects rated mood and physical symptoms known to be affected by cigarette abstinence (e.g. irritability, restlessness). Scores on the “dependent smoking” subscale of the smoking motivation

Robert J. West; Michael A. H. Russell

1985-01-01

156

Amyloid-associated activity contributes to the severity and toxicity of a prion phenotype.  

PubMed

The self-assembly of alternative conformations of normal proteins into amyloid aggregates has been implicated in both the acquisition of new functions and in the appearance and progression of disease. However, while these amyloidogenic pathways are linked to the emergence of new phenotypes, numerous studies have uncoupled the accumulation of aggregates from their biological consequences, revealing currently underappreciated complexity in the determination of these traits. Here, to explore the molecular basis of protein-only phenotypes, we focused on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sup35/[PSI(+)] prion, which confers a translation termination defect and expression level-dependent toxicity in its amyloid form. Our studies reveal that aggregated Sup35 retains its normal function as a translation release factor. However, fluctuations in the composition and size of these complexes specifically alter the level of this aggregate-associated activity and thereby the severity and toxicity of the amyloid state. Thus, amyloid heterogeneity is a crucial contributor to protein-only phenotypes. PMID:25023996

Pezza, John A; Villali, Janice; Sindi, Suzanne S; Serio, Tricia R

2014-01-01

157

Clinician ratings vs. global ratings of symptom severity: a comparison of symptom measures in the bipolar disorder module, phase II, Texas Medication Algorithm Project.  

PubMed

This study compares ratings obtained with an itemized, clinician-rated, symptom severity measure--the 24-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS(24))--to a Physician Global Rating Scale (PhGRS), a Patient Global Rating Scale (PtGRS) and the clinician-completed Multnomah Community Ability Scale (MCAS) in patients with bipolar disorder (BPD). A total of 69 patients (25 inpatients and 44 outpatients) with BPD were enrolled in a feasibility study of the use of medication algorithms in the treatment of BPD. Clinicians at each visit completed the BPRS(24), PhGRS and MCAS, and patients completed the PtGRS. Analyses compared the BPRS(24) and BPRS subscales with the PtGRS, PhGRS and MCAS. PtGRS scores correlated poorly with BPRS(24) and with PhGRS scores at baseline, although PtGRS change scores correlated moderately with BPRS(24) change scores. Baseline BPRS(24) and PhGRS scores correlated moderately at baseline with somewhat stronger correlations found on change scores for the two measures. MCAS scores showed moderate correlations with BPRS(24) scores both at baseline and with change over time. Global assessments by patients or physicians only moderately or poorly reflected BPRS(24) scores. Itemized symptom measures to gauge severity of illness or change over time are preferred over patient or physician global judgments. PMID:12606018

Brown, E Sherwood; Rush, A John; Biggs, Melanie M; Shores-Wilson, Kathy; Carmody, Thomas J; Suppes, Trisha

2003-02-15

158

A Cluster Model of Temperament as an Indicator of Antidepressant Response and Symptom Severity in Major Depression  

PubMed Central

Objective Not enough is known about which patients suffering from major depressive disorder benefit from antidepressant drug treatment. Individual temperament is relatively stable over a person's lifespan and is thought to be largely biologically predefined. We assessed how temperament profiles are related to depression and predict the efficacy of antidepressant treatment. Methods We recruited one hundred Finnish outpatients (aged 19 to 72) suffering from major depressive disorder, of whom 86 completed the 6-week study. We assessed their temperament features with the Temperament and Character Inventory and used cluster analysis to determine the patient's temperament profile. We also categorized the patients according to the vegetative symptoms of major depressive disorder. Results There was an association between skewed temperament profile and severity of major depressive disorder, but the temperament profiles alone did not predict antidepressant treatment response. Those with higher baseline vegetative symptoms score had modest treatment response. Our model with baseline Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) vegetative symptoms, age and temperament clusters as explanatory variables explained 20% of the variance in the endpoint MADRS scores. Conclusion The temperament clusters were associated both with severity of depression and antidepressive treatment response of depression. The effect of the temperament profile alone was modest but, combined with vegetative symptoms of depression, their explanatory power was more marked suggesting that there could be an association of these two in the biological basis of MDD.

Kampman, Olli; Illi, Ari; Viikki, Merja; Setala-Soikkeli, Eija; Leinonen, Esa

2014-01-01

159

The relationship of theory of mind and executive functions to symptom type and severity in children with autism.  

PubMed

Although neurocognitive impairments in theory of mind and in executive functions have both been hypothesized to play a causal role in autism, there has been little research investigating the explanatory power of these impairments with regard to autistic symptomatology. The present study examined the degree to which individual differences in theory of mind and executive functions could explain variations in the severity of autism symptoms. Participants included 31 verbal, school-aged children with autism who were administered a battery of tests assessing the understanding of mental states (knowledge and false belief) and executive control skills (working memory, combined working memory and inhibitory control, and planning) and who were behaviorally evaluated for autism severity in the three core symptom domains. Whereas theory of mind and executive control abilities explained the significant variance beyond that accounted for by language level in communication symptoms, neither explained the significant variance in reciprocal social interaction or repetitive behaviors symptoms. These findings are discussed in terms of a proposed distinction between higher level, cognitive-linguistic aspects of theory of mind and related executive control skills, and more fundamental social-perceptual processes involved in the apprehension of mental state information conveyed through eyes, faces, and voices, which may be more closely linked to autistic deficits in social reciprocity. PMID:15115068

Joseph, Robert M; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

2004-01-01

160

Impact of non-cardiovascular disease comorbidity on cardiovascular disease symptom severity: A population-based study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Non-cardiovascular comorbidity is common in cardiovascular disease (CVD) populations but its influence on chest pain (CP) and shortness of breath (SOB) symptom-specific physical limitations is unknown. We wanted to test the a priori hypothesis that an unrelated comorbidity would influence symptom-specific physical limitations and to investigate this impact in different severities of CVD. Method and results The study was based on 5426 patients from ten family practices, organised into eight a priori exclusive severity groups: (i) no CVD or osteoarthritis (OA) (reference), (ii) index hypertension, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and heart failure (HF) without OA, (iii) index OA without CVD and (iv) same CVD groups with comorbid OA. The measure of CP physical limitations was Seattle Angina Questionnaire and for SOB physical limitations was the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. Adjusted baseline associations between the cohorts and symptom-specific physical limitations were assessed using linear regression methods. In the study population, 1443 (27%) reported CP and 2097 (39%) SOB. CP and SOB physical limitations increased with CVD severity in the index and comorbid groups. Compared with the respective index CVD group, the CP physical limitation scores for comorbid CVD groups with OA were lower by: ? 14.7 (95% CI ? 21.5, 7.8) for hypertension, ? 5.5 (? 10.4, ? 0.7) for IHD and ? 22.1 (? 31.0, ? 6.7) for HF. For SOB physical limitations, comorbid scores were lower by: ? 9.2 (? 13.8, ? 4.6) for hypertension, ? 6.4 (? 11.1, ? 1.8) for IHD and ? 8.8 (? 19.3, 1.65) for HF. Conclusions CP and SOB are common symptoms, and OA increases the CVD symptom-specific physical limitations additively. Comorbidity interventions need to be developed for CVD specific health outcomes.

Rushton, C.A.; Kadam, U.T.

2014-01-01

161

Gambling and the onset of comorbid mental disorders: a longitudinal study evaluating severity and specific symptoms.  

PubMed

While the association between gambling disorders and comorbid mental disorders has been extensively studied, only a few studies have used longitudinal data or evaluated the association across different levels of gambling behavior and specific gambling-related symptoms. In this study, longitudinal data from waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were used to determine whether different levels of gambling behavior and gambling-related symptoms were associated with the onset of psychiatric disorders. Although NESARC used DSM-IV diagnoses, for this study, the recently published DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder were used to group the NESARC respondents (N=34,653) into three levels of gambling (gambling disorder, sub-threshold gambling disorder, and recreational gambling) and one non-gambling comparison group. Three years after the initial intake interview, compared to the non-gamblers, those reporting any gambling behavior at baseline were at increased risk to have any mood, anxiety, or substance use disorders (recreational gambling: adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.10-1.23; sub-threshold gambling disorder: AOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.63-1.92; gambling disorder: AOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.83-3.46). Similar graded relationships were found for a number of specific disorders. In addition, multiple specific gambling-related symptoms were associated with comorbid disorders, possibly suggesting the interaction of different mechanisms linking gambling disorder and the onset of comorbid psychopathology. In conclusion, a graded or dose-response relationship exists between different levels of gambling and the onset of comorbid psychopathology. Among gambling groups, those with a gambling disorder were at the highest risk for the new onset of comorbid conditions and those with recreational gambling were at the lowest risk, while the risk among participants with sub-threshold gambling disorder fell between these two groups. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2014;20:207-219). PMID:24847994

Parhami, Iman; Mojtabai, Ramin; Rosenthal, Richard J; Afifi, Tracie O; Fong, Timothy W

2014-05-01

162

Psychiatric disorders and symptom severity in referred versus non-referred overweight children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This study aimed firstly to investigate whether youngsters referred for overweight treatment differ from non-referred overweight\\u000a youngsters on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and psychological symptoms. Secondly, the potentially moderating role\\u000a of age, gender, socio-economic status and degree of overweight in the association of referral status and mental disorder in\\u000a overweight youth was explored.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Participants were 155 overweight youngsters enrolled

Leen Van Vlierberghe; Caroline Braet; Lien Goossens; Saskia Mels

2009-01-01

163

Severe depression as the sole symptom of affective focal status epilepticus.  

PubMed

Depression as well as fear, joy and anger have been described as the semiological features of focal epileptic seizures. When emotions present as the sole symptoms of epileptic seizures, they may easily be misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder. We describe a patient with affective focal status epilepticus, secondary to limbic encephalitis, in which depression was the only clinical manifestation. Through EEG correlates the epileptic nature of depression could be proven. Furthermore, we discuss the association between epilepsy and depression, as well as the link between ictal depression and suicidal rates. PMID:24827645

Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Noachtar, Soheyl

2014-01-01

164

Cerebellar networks in individuals at ultra high-risk of psychosis: Impact on postural sway and symptom severity.  

PubMed

Despite known deficits in postural control in patients with schizophrenia, this domain has not been investigated in youth at ultra high-risk (UHR) for psychosis. This is particularly relevant as postural control implicates dysfunction in the cerebellum-a region implicated in cognitive dysmetria conceptions of schizophrenia but poorly understood in the prodrome. Here, we extended our understanding of movement abnormalities in UHR individuals to include postural control, and have linked these deficits to both symptom severity and cerebello-cortical network connectivity. UHR and healthy control participants completed an instrumentally based balance task to quantify postural control along with a resting state brain imaging scan to investigate cerebellar networks. We also quantified positive and negative symptom severity with structured clinical interviews. The UHR group showed overall increased postural sway and decreased cerebello-cortical resting state connectivity, relative to controls. The decreased cerebello-cortical connectivity was seen across multiple networks. Postural sway was also correlated with cerebellar connectivity in this population and uniquely positively correlated with the severity of negative symptoms. Finally, symptom severity was also associated with cerebellar connectivity. Together, our results point to a potential deficit in sensory integration as an underlying contributor to the increased postural sway, and provide evidence of cerebellar abnormalities in UHR individuals. These results extend our understanding of the motor abnormalities of UHR individuals beyond striatum-based dyskinesias to include postural control and sensory integration deficits, and implicate the cerebellum as a distinct neural substrate preceding the onset of psychosis. Taken together, our results extend the cognitive dysmetria framework to UHR populations. Hum Brain Mapp 35:4064-4078, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24464473

Bernard, Jessica A; Dean, Derek J; Kent, Jerillyn S; Orr, Joseph M; Pelletier-Baldelli, Andrea; Lunsford-Avery, Jessica R; Gupta, Tina; Mittal, Vijay A

2014-08-01

165

Ambulatory gastrojejunal manometry in severe motility-like dyspepsia: lack of correlation between dysmotility, symptoms, and gastric emptying  

PubMed Central

Background—Previous studies have failed to identify manometric patterns of gastrointestinal motor activity that can distinguish dyspepsia from health. ?Aims—To test the hypothesis that the combined use of prolonged, ambulatory, antrojejunal manometry and computer aided analysis in patients selected for the severity of their symptoms could reveal new insights into gastrointestinal motor activity in patients with severe motility-like dyspesia ?Methods—Twenty four hour antrojejunal ambulatory manometry was performed in 14 patients and 10 healthy volunteers. Parameters characterising digestive and fasted motility were obtained by a validated computer program and visual analysis. Scoring systems quantified the degree of dysmotility as well as the severity of symptoms. Gastric emptying times were measured in each patient. ?Results—There was a high prevalence of antral and jejunal dysmotility both during the interdigestive period (71% of patients) and in the postprandial period (78%). During the interdigestive period there was a reduced incidence of antral and jejunal phases, a larger contribution of phase 2 during migrating motor complex cycles, and aberrant configuration of jejunal phase 3 in 29% of patients. Postprandially, the most frequent finding was antral (29% of patients) or jejunal (29%) hypomotility or hypermotility. Minute rhythm was present both during the postprandial (29% of patients) and the interdigestive period (21%). There was no positive correlation between symptom scores, gastric half emptying times, or motility scores. ?Conclusion—Even with the use of prolonged recordings and advanced computer aided analysis, it is not possible to identify a specific motor pattern which can discriminate patients with severe motility-like dyspepsia from those with other diseases or even healthy individuals. Clinical symptoms or gastric half emptying times are poor predictors of gastrointestinal dysmotility in patients with functional dyspepsia. ?? Keywords: dyspepsia; ambulatory; gastrointestinal manometry; gastric emptying

Wilmer, A; Van Cutsem, E; Andrioli, A; Tack, J; Coremans, G; Janssens, J

1998-01-01

166

Motor difficulties in autism spectrum disorder: linking symptom severity and postural stability.  

PubMed

Postural stability is a fundamental aspect of motor ability that allows individuals to sustain and maintain the desired physical position of one's body. The present study examined postural stability in average-IQ adolescents and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Twenty-six individuals with ASD and 26 age-and-IQ-matched individuals with typical development stood on one leg or two legs with eyes opened or closed on a Wii balance board. Results indicated significant group differences in postural stability during one-legged standing, but there were no significant group differences during two-legged standing. This suggests that static balance during more complex standing postures is impaired in average-IQ individuals with ASD. Further, current ASD symptoms were related to postural stability during two-legged standing in individuals with ASD. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23132272

Travers, Brittany G; Powell, Patrick S; Klinger, Laura G; Klinger, Mark R

2013-07-01

167

Comparison of intranasal azelastine to intranasal fluticasone propionate for symptom control in moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis.  

PubMed

Intranasal corticosteroids are considered the most effective therapy for moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) and recommended first line in guidelines. It is uncertain whether intranasal antihistamines have comparable efficacy. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of azelastine (AZE; 137 ?g/spray) and fluticasone propionate (FP; 50 ?g/spray), both given as 1 spray/nostril bid (i.e., approved dosing regimen in the United States), in SAR via a post hoc analysis of data from a previously published direct-comparison study. Six hundred ten moderate-to-severe SAR patients (?12 years old) were randomized into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. The primary efficacy variable was change from baseline in reflective total nasal symptom score (rTNSS (morning and evening), over 14 days. Reflective total ocular symptom score (rTOSS) was a key secondary variable. Reflective total of seven symptom scores (rT7SS [nasal plus ocular symptoms]) and time to ?50% reduction from baseline in these key parameters were also analyzed. AZE and FP reduced rTNSS from baseline by a similar degree (-3.25 versus -3.84; p = 0.2014). Patients experienced comparable improvement in rTOSS (-2.62 versus -2.17; p = 0.2371) and rT7SS (-5.83 versus -6.05; p = 0.7820). FP was superior to AZE in alleviating rhinorrhea (-1.15 versus -0.87; p = 0.0433), but AZE showed comparable efficacy for all other nasal and ocular symptoms. There was no clinically or statistically significant difference between AZE (-1.17) and FP (-1.43) for reduction in the overall rhinitis quality of life questionnaire score (although FP, but not AZE, significantly differed from placebo). A similar proportion of patients in the AZE and FP groups achieved a 50% reduction in rTNSS. However, more AZE patients (53.0%) exhibited a 50% reduction in rTOSS by day 14 versus FP (39.6%), and ?3 days faster (p = 0.028). Intranasal AZE (137 micrograms/spray) and intranasal FP (50 micrograms/spray), both 1 spray/nostril b.i.d., had comparable efficacy in symptom control in moderate-to-severe SAR. PMID:23127291

Carr, Warner W; Ratner, Paul; Munzel, Ullrich; Murray, Ruth; Price, David; Canonica, G Walter; Mullol, Joaquim; Virchow, J Christian; Lieberman, Phil; Meltzer, Eli; Bachert, Claus

2012-01-01

168

Disease severity measures in a population of psoriasis patients: the symptoms of psoriasis correlate with self-administered psoriasis area severity index scores.  

PubMed

Because of the difficulty and expense of objectively measuring psoriasis severity, very little information exists on the severity of psoriasis in populations. We determined severity in a psoriasis patient population using the validated self-administered psoriasis area and severity index (SAPASI). This population consisted of 578 university dermatology clinic psoriasis patients, and data were analyzed from 317 (55%) questionnaire respondents. The majority of our sample was women (57%), and non-Caucasians represented a larger portion (8 %) in our sample compared with some previous studies. In our population, the reported frequencies of skin and joint symptoms were as follows: pruritus (95 %), skin burning (81 %), joint pain (69%), arthritis (51%), and psoriatic arthritis (20%). The SAPASI was significantly associated with severity of pruritus, burning, joint pain, and psoriatic arthritis. There was a significant negative correlation between the number of treatments employed and the SAPASI. This study provides results of a detailed measurement of the severity of psoriasis in a psoriasis patient population and relates this severity to population characteristics. PMID:8752834

Fleischer, A B; Feldman, S R; Rapp, S R; Reboussin, D M; Exum, M L; Clark, A R; Rajashekhar, V

1996-07-01

169

Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndromes: Severe Neurological Symptoms Resulting from Relatively Benign or Occult Tumours--Two Case Reports  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Paraneoplastic syndromes represent rare symptom complexes resulting from the ability of tumour cells to disrupt the homeostatic processes of various bodily systems. Here we present two cases to demonstrate how such tumours may evade detection even after extensive investigation and how even relatively benign tumours can produce severe neurological symptoms. Case 1. A 69-year-old female was admitted with a subacute onset of dysarthria, ataxia, and cerebellar signs. Workup revealed a relatively benign Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. Case 2. A 64-year-old female was admitted with acute leg weakness, which progressed to quadriplegia and was eventually fatal over the ensuing months. Her Ca-125 was elevated, though three different CT views of her pelvis and surgical exploration failed to demonstrate any malignancy. Discussion. These cases highlight how even relatively benign or very small tumours may result in severe neurological symptoms. Suspecting and investigating paraneoplastic syndromes (PNSs) are crucial as up to 80% of patients present with PNS before there is any other indication of malignancy. A PET scan and regular surveillance may reveal occult malignancies better than CT or MRI. Neuromodulatory therapies and treatment of the underlying malignancy remain the best management options in these patients.

Ghadiri-Sani, M.; Smith, Dave; Doran, Mark

2013-01-01

170

Behaviorally-inhibited temperament is associated with severity of PTSD symptoms and faster eyeblink conditioning in veterans  

PubMed Central

Prior studies have sometimes demonstrated facilitated acquisition of classically-conditioned responses and/or resistance to extinction in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unclear whether these behaviors are acquired as a result of PTSD or exposure to trauma, or reflect pre-existing risk factors that confer vulnerability for PTSD. Here, we examined classical eyeblink conditioning and extinction in veterans self-assessed for current PTSD symptoms, exposure to combat, and the personality trait of behavioral inhibition (BI), a risk factor for PTSD. 128 veterans were recruited (mean age 51.2 years; 13.3% female); 126 completed self-assessment, with 25.4% reporting a history of exposure to combat and 30.9% reporting severe, current PTSD symptoms (PTSS). PTSD symptom severity was correlated with current BI (R2=0.497) and PTSS status could be predicted based on current BI and combat history (80.2% correct classification). A subset of the veterans (n=87) also completed eyeblink conditioning. Among veterans without PTSS, childhood BI was associated with faster acquisition; veterans with PTSS showed delayed extinction, under some conditions. These data demonstrate a relationship between current BI and PTSS, and suggest that the facilitated conditioning sometimes observed in PTSD patients may partially reflect personality traits such as childhood BI that pre-date and contribute to vulnerability for PTSD.

Myers, Catherine E.; VanMeenen, Kirsten M.; McAuley, J. Devin; Beck, Kevin D.; Pang, Kevin C. H.; Servatius, Richard J.

2012-01-01

171

Severe hypoxia enhances central nervous system and cardiovascular toxicity of bupivacaine in lightly anesthetized pigs.  

PubMed

Toxic systemic reactions to bupivacaine usually involve a number of factors, including hypoxia and acidosis. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that cardiovascular and central nervous system responses to bupivacaine overdose are proportional to the severity of hypoxia. The central nervous system and cardiovascular toxicity of bupivacaine was examined in three groups of pigs breathing 30%, 15%, or 10% O2, 70% N2O, and He (FIO2 = 0.15 and 0.1 groups). The 18 2-week-old pigs (6 animals per treatment) were paralyzed with pancuronium and their lungs ventilated mechanically. During the intravenous infusion of bupivacaine 2 mg.kg-1.min-1, four readily identified toxic endpoints (seizures, arrhythmias, isoelectric electroencephalogram, asystole) were observed in all animals, with the exception that 1 pig in the FIO2 = 0.3 group and 1 in the FIO2 = 0.15 group had no arrhythmias. Bupivacaine doses producing seizures, isoelectric EEG, and asystole were significantly less in the FIO2 = 0.1 groups as compared to the other groups. Arrhythmias occurred before seizures in all animals in the FIO2 = 0.1 group but in only 1 of 5 and 2 of 5 animals in the FIO2 = 0.15 and 0.3 groups, respectively. There was no significant difference between the arrhythmic dose of bupivacaine in the FIO2 = 0.3 versus 0.1 animals (8.4 +/- 2.4 vs. 4.0 +/- 1.4 mg.kg-1), but the dose was significantly less in the FIO2 = 0.1 animals than in the FIO2 = 0.15 animals (12.5 +/- 5.6 mg.kg-1). Arterial pH was stable in all three groups during bupivacaine infusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1609987

Heavner, J E; Dryden, C F; Sanghani, V; Huemer, G; Bessire, A; Badgwell, J M

1992-07-01

172

Clinical Features of Severe Wasp Sting Patients with Dominantly Toxic Reaction: Analysis of 1091 Cases  

PubMed Central

Background Massive wasp stings have been greatly underestimated and have not been systematically studied. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features and treatment strategies of severe wasp stings. Methods and Findings A multicenter retrospective study was undertaken in 35 hospitals and medical centers including 12 tertiary care hospitals and 23 secondary care hospitals in the Hubei Province, China. The detailed clinical data of 1091 hospitalized wasp sting patients were investigated. Over three-fourths (76.9%) of the cases had 10 or more stings and the in-hospital mortality of patients was 5.1%. Forty-eight patients died of organ injury following toxic reactions to the stings, whereas six died from anaphylactic shock. The in-hospital mortality in patients with >10 stings was higher than that of ?10 stings (5.2% vs. 1.0%, p?=?0.02). Acute kidney injury (AKI) was seen in 21.0% patients and most patients required blood purification therapy. Rhabdomyolysis was seen in 24.1% patients, hemolysis in 19.2% patients, liver injury in 30.1% patients, and coagulopathy in 22.5% patients. Regression analysis revealed that high creatinine level, shock, oliguria, and anemia were risk factors for death. Blood purification therapy was beneficial for patients with ?20 stings and delayed hospital admission of patients (?4 hours after sting). Conclusions In China, most patients with multiple wasp stings presented with toxic reactions and multiple organ dysfunction caused by the venom rather than an anaphylactic reaction. AKI is the prominent clinical manifestation of wasp stings with toxic reaction. High creatinine levels, shock, oliguria, and anemia were risk factors for death.

Ding, Fengfei; Xie, Minjie; Lv, Jiagao; Yao, Jihua; Pan, Dengji; Sun, Qian; Liu, Chenchen; Chen, Tie; Li, Shusheng; Wang, Wei

2013-01-01

173

Perceptions of symptoms of severe childhood malaria among Mijikenda and Luo residents of coastal Kenya.  

PubMed

Effective community based malaria control programmes require an understanding of current perceptions of malaria as a disease and its severe manifestations. Quantitative and qualitative surveys of mothers on the Kenyan Coast suggest that fever is conceptualised in biomedical terms whereas the aetiology of severe malaria is perceived to be of more complex cultural origin. This is reflected in the treatments sought for convulsions. The results are discussed in the context of ethnographic factors. To be effective, future health information programmes must take cultural beliefs into account. PMID:7738084

Mwenesi, H A; Harpham, T; Marsh, K; Snow, R W

1995-04-01

174

Symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease in severely mentally retarded people: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs when stomach acid frequently backs up (or refluxes) into the gullet (or esophagus), and it has serious consequences for the quality of life. Usually this is felt as heartburn. Because severely mentally retarded people usually do not utter complaints of heartburn, it requires a high index of suspicion to discover possible GERD. Therefore it

Anke JE de Veer; Judith T Bos; Riet C Niezen-de Boer; Clarisse JM Böhmer; Anneke L Francke

2008-01-01

175

Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Hispanics: Symptom Characteristics and Prediction of Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature suggests that an increasing number of Hispanic people suffer with GAD, and possible associated problems include high costs for treatment and elevated risk of severe impairment. The current study examined components of anxiety, as measured by currently available assessment instruments in both English and Spanish languages, among bilingual Hispanic individuals with GAD. Participants completed all instruments in both languages.

Michiyo Hirai; Melinda A. Stanley; Diane M. Novy

2006-01-01

176

Prevalence and Severity of Menstrual Symptoms among Institutionalised Women with an Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Perimenstrual syndrome (PMS) among women with an intellectual disability (ID) has not been investigated in Taiwan. This study explores the prevalence/severity of PMS experienced by women with ID who are institutionalised. Method: Ninety two female residents aged 15 to 54 at six public institutions completed a structured interview…

Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Jane Zxy-Yann; Pu, Cheng-Yun

2009-01-01

177

The Impact of Child Symptom Severity on Depressed Mood Among Parents of Children with ASD: The Mediating Role of Stress Proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress proliferation (the tendency of stressors to engender additional stressors in other life domains) is explored in a sample of 68 parents of children identified with ASD. Regression analyses showed that parent depression was predicted by both child symptom severity and by stress proliferation and that stress proliferation partially mediated the effect of child symptom severity on parent depression. In

Paul R. Benson

2006-01-01

178

Severe speech delay as the presenting symptom of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency.  

PubMed

Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency typically presents with muscular hypotonia, global developmental delay, extrapyramidal signs, and seizures during infancy and childhood. The authors report a 5-year-old child with guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency who presented with severe speech delay, emphasizing the importance of an early screening for disorders of creatine synthesis and transport in every infant or child with isolated speech delay of unknown cause. PMID:17641269

Vodopiutz, J; Item, C B; Häusler, M; Korall, H; Bodamer, O A

2007-06-01

179

A short antisense oligonucleotide ameliorates symptoms of severe mouse models of spinal muscular atrophy.  

PubMed

Recent reports underscore the unparalleled potential of antisense-oligonucleotide (ASO)-based approaches to ameliorate various pathological conditions. However, in vivo studies validating the effectiveness of a short ASO (<10-mer) in the context of a human disease have not been performed. One disease with proven amenability to ASO-based therapy is spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). SMA is a neuromuscular disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. Correction of aberrant splicing of the remaining paralog, SMN2, can rescue mouse models of SMA. Here, we report the therapeutic efficacy of an 8-mer ASO (3UP8i) in two severe models of SMA. While 3UP8i modestly improved survival and function in the more severe Taiwanese SMA model, it dramatically increased survival, improved neuromuscular junction pathology, and tempered cardiac deficits in a new, less severe model of SMA. Our results expand the repertoire of ASO-based compounds for SMA therapy, and for the first time, demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of a short ASO in the context of a human disease. PMID:25004100

Keil, Jeffrey M; Seo, Joonbae; Howell, Matthew D; Hsu, Walter H; Singh, Ravindra N; DiDonato, Christine J

2014-01-01

180

[Severe drug-induced skin reactions : Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis].  

PubMed

Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are characterized by extensive blistering of the skin and mucosa; they are considered as one disease entity with varying severity. They are rare but potentially life-threatening and accompanied by high mortality. A clear clinical diagnosis is needed to direct specific therapy, but supportive therapy remains most important. In order to identify and withdraw the inducing drug, a very detailed and thorough medication history has to be obtained. Among the highly suspected (strongly associated) agents are allopurinol, antibacterial sulfonamides, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs of the oxicam type, various anti-epileptics and nevaripine. Together they account for more than half of the cases of SJS/TEN. Although a drug is not always the cause, it is considered very like in approximately 75% of cases. Infections have also to be considered as etiologic factors. PMID:24820799

Mockenhaupt, M

2014-05-01

181

Genome-wide supported variant MIR137 and severe negative symptoms predict membership of an impaired cognitive subtype of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Progress in determining the aetiology of schizophrenia (Sz) has arguably been limited by a poorly defined phenotype. We sought to delineate empirically derived cognitive subtypes of Sz to investigate the association of a genetic variant identified in a recent genome-wide association study with specific phenotypic characteristics of Sz. We applied Grade of Membership (GoM) analyses to 617 patients meeting ICD-10 criteria for Sz (n=526) or schizoaffective disorder (n=91), using cognitive performance indicators collected within the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank. Cognitive variables included subscales from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, the Controlled Oral Word Association Test and the Letter Number Sequencing Test, and standardised estimates of premorbid and current intelligence quotient. The most parsimonious GoM solution yielded two subtypes of clinical cases reflecting those with cognitive deficits (CDs; N=294), comprising 47.6% of the sample who were impaired across all cognitive measures, and a cognitively spared group (CS; N=323) made up of the remaining 52.4% who performed relatively well on all cognitive tests. The CD subgroup were more likely to be unemployed, had an earlier illness onset, and greater severity of functional disability and negative symptoms than the CS group. Risk alleles on the MIR137 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) predicted membership of CD subtype only in combination with higher severity of negative symptoms. These findings provide the first evidence for association of the MIR137 SNP with a specific Sz phenotype characterised by severe CDs and negative symptoms, consistent with the emerging role of microRNAs in the regulation of proteins responsible for neural development and function. PMID:22733126

Green, M J; Cairns, M J; Wu, J; Dragovic, M; Jablensky, A; Tooney, P A; Scott, R J; Carr, V J

2013-07-01

182

Comparisons of Exercise Dose and Symptom Severity Between Exercisers and Nonexercisers in Women During and After Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

Context Although numerous studies of the efficacy of exercise are reported, few studies have evaluated changes in characteristics of exercise dose in women with cancer both during and after cancer treatment. Objectives To describe the characteristics of exercise dose (i.e., frequency, duration, and intensity), and to evaluate for differences in symptom severity (i.e., fatigue, sleep disturbance, depression, pain) between women who did and did not exercise during and after cancer treatment. Methods In a sample of 119 women, two groups were classified: exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers were defined as women who met specific criteria for frequency (three times per week), duration (20 minutes per session), intensity (moderate), and mode (aerobic). Nonexercisers were defined as women who did not meet all of these criteria. Evaluation of exercise dose was completed at baseline (T1: the week before chemotherapy cycle two), at the end of cancer treatment (T2), and at the end of the study (T3: approximately one year after the T1 assessment) using self-report exercise questionnaires. Results Approximately 50% of the participants exercised during and 70% exercised after treatment. At T1, exercisers had lower total fatigue, lower behavioral and sensory subscale fatigue scores, and lower depression scores (P =0.038) than nonexercisers. No significant differences in sleep disturbance or pain were found between groups. At T2, exercisers had lower cognitive/mood subscale fatigue and depression scores than nonexercisers (P =0.047). At T3, no significant differences were found between groups in any symptom severity scores. Conclusion Both during and after cancer treatment, achieving or maintaining exercise guideline levels were met by most patients. Further study is needed to examine the link between exercise dose and symptom severity.

Cho, Maria H.; Dodd, Marylin J.; Cooper, Bruce A.; Miaskowski, Christine

2012-01-01

183

Comorbidity in hyperactive children: issues related to selection bias, gender, severity, and internalizing symptoms.  

PubMed

Parental behavior ratings of hyperactive boys and girls aged 6-11 years seen for evaluation in a general outpatient child psychiatry clinic and in a specialty "attention deficit disorder" (ADD) program were analyzed. The pattern of comorbidity in the two groups showed no significant differences. Most of the associated internalizing and externalizing behavioral scales in hyperactive boys and in hyperactive girls were elevated and in clinical ranges except for the "somatic complaints" scale. Comorbidity in both hyperactive boys and girls was related to the severity of the hyperactivity itself. PMID:8810113

Gabel, S; Schmitz, S; Fulker, D W

1996-01-01

184

Is there an association between mastalgia and fibromyalgia? Comparing prevalence and symptom severity.  

PubMed

To determine the prevalence of mastalgia in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and the prevalence of FM in patients with mastalgia in order to investigate coexistence, and to compare the pain patterns in the case of mastalgia or FM alone versus the two in combination. Fifty consecutive patients with mastalgia and 50 consecutive patients with FM were assessed and examined both for the existence and severity of mastalgia and FM. A high proportion of patients with mastalgia (36%) fulfilled the criteria for FM and 42% had mastalgia in the FM group. Two distinctive entities mastalgia and FM, being both unexplained pain syndromes, seem to frequently coexist. Patients with mastalgia or FM should be thoroughly questioned considering each of the diseases so that in case of coexistence an appropriate therapy might be implemented for a successful pain management. PMID:21345678

Genc, Volkan; Genc, Aysun; Ustuner, Evren; Dusunceli, Ebru Bilge; Oztuna, Derya; Bayar, Sancar; Kurtais, Yesim

2011-08-01

185

Relationship between severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and schizotypy in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Purpose Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients exhibit a noninhibition response pattern very similar to that observed in schizotypy patients in cognitive tasks. It has been suggested that the reduced cognitive inhibition observed in both schizotypy and OCD may result in the frequent entry into awareness of unacceptable urges and intrusive thoughts. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the severity of obsession or compulsion and schizotypy in OCD. Patients and methods Sixty subjects (25 males and 35 females) who were OCD outpatients in the University Hospital at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine during the period 2008–2010 were enrolled in the study. Assessments of these patients were made using the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). The Pearson correlation coefficients between Y-BOCS and SPQ scores were calculated. Furthermore, hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to assess whether schizotypy predicted the severity of obsession and compulsion. Results By calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient, it was found that the Y-BOCS obsession score, not the Y-BOCS compulsion score, was correlated with the SPQ total score. Results of the hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis showed that SPQ total score was a significant predictor of the Y-BOCS obsession score, after accounting for control variables (ie, HAM-D and HAM-A). Conclusion Results of this study showed that the Y-BOCS obsession score, not the Y-BOCS compulsion score, was correlated with the SPQ total score. This finding suggests that OCD patients with an elevated SPQ total score experience a reduction of cognitive inhibition, resulting in the frequent entry into obsession. Future longitudinal studies are recommended to clarify the effect of schizotypy on the clinical course of OCD.

Yamamoto, Haruka; Tsuchida, Hideto; Nakamae, Takashi; Nishida, Seiji; Sakai, Yuki; Fujimori, Akihito; Narumoto, Jin; Wada, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Takafumi; Taga, Chiaki; Fukui, Kenji

2012-01-01

186

A cross-sectional analysis of symptom severity in adults with influenza and other acute respiratory illness in the outpatient setting  

PubMed Central

Background Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are common in outpatient practice, and the severity of symptoms contributes to the overall burden of illness. We examined the association between a subjective symptom severity score, demographic and clinical characteristics, and presence of laboratory-confirmed influenza among central Wisconsin adults who sought care for ARI during four influenza seasons. We hypothesized that adults with laboratory-confirmed influenza would rate their symptoms as more severe relative to adults without influenza, and vaccinated adults with influenza would rate symptoms as less severe than those who were not vaccinated. Methods Patients with acute respiratory illness, including feverishness or cough symptoms???7 days duration, were prospectively enrolled and tested for influenza by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) during influenza seasons 2007–08 through 2010–11. Perceived severity was self-rated during the enrollment interview for eight symptoms, on a scale of 0 (absent) to 3 (severe). Scores for each symptom were summed to generate a combined severity score ranging from 1 to 24 for each individual. The association between influenza test result and severity score was examined using linear regression. Results There were 2,374 individuals included in the analysis, including 324 with RT-PCR confirmed influenza. The mean symptom severity score was 12.3 (±4.1) points, and the most common symptoms were cough (92%), fatigue (91%), and nasal congestion (84%). In the final adjusted model, influenza infection was the strongest independent predictor of higher severity score, with a mean increase of 1.7 points compared to those who were influenza negative (p?symptom severity was modified by age (p?symptom severity was 31% lower in those who were vaccinated as compared to those who were not vaccinated. Conclusions Influenza is associated with more severe symptoms of acute respiratory illness. The association between influenza vaccination and reduced symptom severity in older adults should be confirmed and explored further in other populations and seasons.

2014-01-01

187

Aberrant error processing in relation to symptom severity in obsessive-compulsive disorder: A multimodal neuroimaging study  

PubMed Central

Background Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by maladaptive repetitive behaviors that persist despite feedback. Using multimodal neuroimaging, we tested the hypothesis that this behavioral rigidity reflects impaired use of behavioral outcomes (here, errors) to adaptively adjust responses. We measured both neural responses to errors and adjustments in the subsequent trial to determine whether abnormalities correlate with symptom severity. Since error processing depends on communication between the anterior and the posterior cingulate cortex, we also examined the integrity of the cingulum bundle with diffusion tensor imaging. Methods Participants performed the same antisaccade task during functional MRI and electroencephalography sessions. We measured error-related activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the error-related negativity (ERN). We also examined post-error adjustments, indexed by changes in activation of the default network in trials surrounding errors. Results OCD patients showed intact error-related ACC activation and ERN, but abnormal adjustments in the post- vs. pre-error trial. Relative to controls, who responded to errors by deactivating the default network, OCD patients showed increased default network activation including in the rostral ACC (rACC). Greater rACC activation in the post-error trial correlated with more severe compulsions. Patients also showed increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the white matter underlying rACC. Conclusions Impaired use of behavioral outcomes to adaptively adjust neural responses may contribute to symptoms in OCD. The rACC locus of abnormal adjustment and relations with symptoms suggests difficulty suppressing emotional responses to aversive, unexpected events (e.g., errors). Increased structural connectivity of this paralimbic default network region may contribute to this impairment.

Agam, Yigal; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Isom, Marlisa; Falkenstein, Martha J.; Jenike, Eric; Wilhelm, Sabine; Manoach, Dara S.

2014-01-01

188

Predictors of Severe Acute and Late Toxicities in Patients With Localized Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) causes acute and late toxicities that affect various organs and functions. In a large cohort of patients treated with RT for localized head and neck cancer (HNC), we prospectively assessed the occurrence of RT-induced acute and late toxicities and identified characteristics that predicted these toxicities. Methods and Materials: We conducted a randomized trial among 540 patients treated with RT for localized HNC to assess whether vitamin E supplementation could improve disease outcomes. Adverse effects of RT were assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Acute Radiation Morbidity Criteria during RT and one month after RT, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme at six and 12 months after RT. The most severe adverse effect among the organs/tissues was selected as an overall measure of either acute or late toxicity. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were considered as severe. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify all independent predictors (p < 0.05) of acute or late toxicity and to estimate odds ratios (OR) for severe toxicity with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Grade 3 or 4 toxicity was observed in 23% and 4% of patients, respectively, for acute and late toxicity. Four independent predictors of severe acute toxicity were identified: sex (female vs. male: OR = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.80), Karnofsky Performance Status (OR = 0.67 for a 10-point increment, 95% CI: 0.52-0.88), body mass index (above 25 vs. below: OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.22-2.90), TNM stage (Stage II vs. I: OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.25-2.92). Two independent predictors were found for severe late toxicity: female sex (OR = 3.96, 95% CI: 1.41-11.08) and weight loss during RT (OR = 1.26 for a 1 kg increment, 95% CI: 1.12-1.41). Conclusions: Knowledge of these predictors easily collected in a clinical setting could help tailoring therapies to reduce toxicities among patients treated with RT for HNC.

Meyer, Francois, E-mail: francois.meyer@chuq.qc.ca [Laval University Cancer Research Center, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Fortin, Andre; Wang, Chang Shu [Radiation Therapy Department, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Liu, Geoffrey [Applied Molecular Oncology, Ontario Cancer Institute/Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Bairati, Isabelle [Laval University Cancer Research Center, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec - L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada)

2012-03-15

189

Technetium-99m Ethyl Cysteinate Dimer (ECD) Cerebral Accumulation and Symptom and Sign Severity during Hypothyroidism  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to correlate hypothyroid-related symptomatology with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during hypothyroidism. METHODS Nine thyroidectomized patients underwent neuropsychological testing and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of their brains with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD), a lipophilic cerebral blood flow radiotracer, while hypothyroid, and again following thyroid hormone replacement. Neuropsychological test scores and TSH levels while hypothyroid were correlated with rCBF in hypothyroid-affected areas of the brain. RESULTS Correlations were found during hypothyroidism between the noted parameters and ECD radiotracer accumulation in the following respective regions, all of which demonstrated hypothyroid-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) aberrations: TSH and left middle occipital gyrus; psychomotor performance speed and left precentral gyrus; and depression and right middle frontal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, right insula, and left thalamus. CONCLUSION Severity of psychomotor impairment and depression, and TSH level during hypothyroidism appeared to correlate with CBF to brain regions associated with motor activity, mood and vision, respectively; and previously shown to manifest significantly altered rCBF during hypothyroidism.

Beason-Held, Lori L.

2010-01-01

190

Antisense oligonucleotides delivered to the mouse CNS ameliorate symptoms of severe spinal muscular atrophy.  

PubMed

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in the SMN1 gene that result in a deficiency of SMN protein. One approach to treat SMA is to use antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to redirect the splicing of a paralogous gene, SMN2, to boost production of functional SMN. Injection of a 2'-O-2-methoxyethyl-modified ASO (ASO-10-27) into the cerebral lateral ventricles of mice with a severe form of SMA resulted in splice-mediated increases in SMN protein and in the number of motor neurons in the spinal cord, which led to improvements in muscle physiology, motor function and survival. Intrathecal infusion of ASO-10-27 into cynomolgus monkeys delivered putative therapeutic levels of the oligonucleotide to all regions of the spinal cord. These data demonstrate that central nervous system-directed ASO therapy is efficacious and that intrathecal infusion may represent a practical route for delivering this therapeutic in the clinic. PMID:21368223

Passini, Marco A; Bu, Jie; Richards, Amy M; Kinnecom, Cathrine; Sardi, S Pablo; Stanek, Lisa M; Hua, Yimin; Rigo, Frank; Matson, John; Hung, Gene; Kaye, Edward M; Shihabuddin, Lamya S; Krainer, Adrian R; Bennett, C Frank; Cheng, Seng H

2011-03-01

191

Subgroup analysis of symptoms and their effect on functioning, exercise capacity, and physical activity in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about symptom clusters and their effect on outcomes in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Purposes To determine whether subgroups of patients with COPD could be identified by symptom ratings, whether they differed on selected demographic and clinical characteristics, and whether they differed on functioning, exercise capacity, and physical activity. Method Subjects with severe COPD (n = 596) were drawn from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial dataset. Data were drawn from questionnaires and clinical measures. Results Two subgroup clusters emerged from four symptoms. Mean age and the proportion of participants with higher education, higher income levels, and using oxygen at rest were significantly different between subgroups. Participants with high levels of symptoms had lower functioning and decreased exercise capacity. Symptom cluster subgroups were significantly associated with social functioning. Conclusion These findings suggest that screening for high levels of symptoms may be important in patients with severe COPD.

Park, Soo Kyung; Meldrum, Catherine A.; Larson, Janet L.

2014-01-01

192

Clinician and caregiver agreement on neuropsychiatric symptom severity: a study using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory - Clinician rating scale (NPI-C).  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are highly prevalent in dementia. The recently developed Neuropsychiatric Inventory - Clinician rating scale (NPI-C) includes clinical judgment and new symptom domains. Our objective was to evaluate NPI-C reliability and to compare caregiver and clinician ratings across the range of mild to severe cognitive impairment. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study. Participants were geriatric memory clinic patients and nursing-home residents (n = 30) with an established diagnosis of dementia or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). A psychiatrist (MK) interviewed caregiver-patient dyads using the NPI-C. Neuropsychological tests and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were used to assess cognitive impairment. Two NPI-C caregiver interviews were videotaped and rated by psychologists and geriatricians. Intra-class correlations (ICCs) were used to examine inter-rater agreement. Correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate caregiver and psychiatrist NPI-C ratings. Disagreement between caregiver and clinician was expressed in delta scores and examined across the range of mild to severe cognitive impairment, using Levene's homogeneity of variances tests. Results: Inter-rater agreement on ratings of two caregiver videos was high (ICC = 0.99-1.0). Clinician-caregiver concordance on NPI-C total severity ratings was high (r = 0.77). Variability in clinician-caregiver concordance was associated with cognitive impairment: MMSE (P = 0.02), CAMCOG-R (Cambridge Cognitive Examination-revised) total scores (P = 0.02), CAMCOG-R Memory scores (P = 0.04) and Language scores (P = 0.01). Conclusions: The NPI-C is a reliable measure of NPS in patients with MCI or dementia. Clinician-caregiver agreement on NPS severity may vary with cognitive impairment, underlining the importance of clinician-based measures of NPS. PMID:24622334

Zaidi, Shirin; Kat, Martin G; de Jonghe, Jos F M

2014-07-01

193

Toxicity of a glufosinate- and several glyphosate-based herbicides to juvenile amphibians from the Southern High Plains, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesticide toxicity is often proposed as a contributing factor to the world-wide decline of amphibian populations. We assessed acute toxicity (48 h) of a glufosinate-based herbicide (Ignite® 280 SL) and several glyphosate-based herbicide formulations (Roundup WeatherMAX®, Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Super Concentrate®, Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Ready-To-Use Plus®) on two species of amphibians housed on soil or moist paper

Simon K. Dinehart; Loren M. Smith; Scott T. McMurry; Todd A. Anderson; Philip N. Smith; David A. Haukos

2009-01-01

194

Is Zinc Concentration in Toxic Phase Plasma Related to Dengue Severity and Level of Transaminases?  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the relationship between plasma zinc values and the severity of dengue viral infection (DVI) and DVI-caused hepatitis. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted during 2008–2010 in hospitalized children aged <15 years confirmed with DVI. Complete blood count, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and zinc values (mcg/dL) were determined twice: first during the toxic phase (Zn1) and secondly two weeks after recovery (Zn2). Results 39 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 9.7±3.7 years, and 15/39 diagnosed with dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Zn1 values were lower than Zn2 values [median (IQR): 46.0 (37.0, 58.0) vs 65.0 (58.0, 81.0) mcg/dL, respectively, p <0.01]. Zn1 but not Zn2 values had a negative correlation with AST and ALT (rs?=??0.33, p?=?0.04 and rs?=??0.31, p?=?0.05, respectively). Patients with DSS had lower Zn1 but not Zn2 values compared with non-DSS patients [median (IQR) Zn1, 38.0 (30.0, 48.0) vs 52.5 (41.2, 58.7), p?=?0.02; Zn2, 61.0 (56.0, 88.0) vs 65.0 (59.5, 77.5), respectively, p?=?0.76]. Zn1 values showed a decreasing trend across increasing dengue severity groups (p?=?0.02). Age <5 years and DVI-associated diarrhea were associated with low Zn1. Conclusion Children who had a higher grade of dengue disease severity and liver cell injury had lower Zn1 values. Low Zn1 values were probably caused by loss from diarrhea and from zinc translocating to liver cells.

Laoprasopwattana, Kamolwish; Tangcheewawatthanakul, Chonthicha; Tunyapanit, Wanutsanun; Sangthong, Rassamee

2013-01-01

195

Flu Symptoms & Severity  

MedlinePLUS

... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd Atlanta, GA 30333 800-CDC-INFO (800-232- ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA 800-CDC-INFO (800- ...

196

COMPARATIVE ACUTE TOXICITIES OF SEVERAL PESTICIDES AND METALS TO MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA AND POSTLARVAL PENAEUS DUORARUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of toxic chemicals on estuarine and marine crustaceans are often evaluated using the mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. n a literature survey of results of acute toxicity tests with estuarine crustaceans, Mysidae and Penaeidae were generally the two most sensitive families. owever,...

197

Toxicity of several insecticide formulations against adult German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).  

PubMed

Toxicity of bendiocarb, chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, hydramethylnon, malathion, propetamphos, propoxur, and pyrethrins against the adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), was investigated. At LD50, cyfluthrin was the most toxic insecticide to adult males (0.53 microgram/g), adult females (1.2 micrograms/g), and gravid females (0.85 microgram/g). Malathion was the least toxic insecticide to adult males (464.83 micrograms/g), adult females (335.83 micrograms/g), and gravid females (275.90 micrograms/g). Males and gravid females were generally more sensitive than nongravid females to the insecticides that we tested. In tests with malathion, however, males were more tolerant. The order of toxicity of the insecticide classes varied among the stages of adult German cockroaches. The order of toxicity for males and nongravid females was pyrethroids greater than pyrethrins = organophosphates (except malathion) greater than carbamates = amidinohydrazone. The order of toxicity for gravid females was pyrethroids greater than pyrethrins = organophosphates (except malathion) greater than carbamates greater than amidinohydrazone. These differences in toxicity suggest that sex differences should be considered when determining insecticide toxicity for German cockroaches. PMID:2280048

Abd-Elghafar, S F; Appel, A G; Mack, T P

1990-12-01

198

Relationship of Somatic Symptoms With Depression Severity, Quality of Life, and Health Resources Utilization in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Seeking Primary Health Care in Spain  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the relationship between the characteristics of somatic symptoms and depression severity, quality of life (QOL), and health resources utilization in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) in primary care setting. Method: This cross-sectional, nationwide epidemiologic study, carried out in 1150 primary care patients with DSM-IV–defined MDD, evaluated the characteristics of somatic symptoms by means of the Standardized Polyvalent Psychiatric Interview. Depression severity and QOL were evaluated by means of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the Physical and Mental Component Summaries of the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Health resources utilization was measured in terms of doctor consultations and hospitalizations. The associations were assessed by means of adjusted analyses. The study was carried out from April 2004 to July 2004. Results: Disability associated with somatic symptoms and number of somatic symptoms were strongly associated with increased depression severity (2.45 and 0.29 increase in SDS score, respectively) and health resources utilization (odds ratios of 1.42 and 1.04, respectively). Associated disability, frequency, and persistence during leisure time of somatic symptoms were strongly associated with poorer QOL. In contrast, we found a weaker relationship between duration and intensity of somatic symptoms and depression severity, QOL, and health resources utilization. Conclusions: Of the studied somatic symptom characteristics, somatic symptom–associated disability and number of somatic symptoms are strongly associated with increased depression severity and health resources utilization, as well as with decreased QOL. Our results may help physicians identify relevant characteristics of somatic symptoms to more effectively diagnose and treat depression in primary care patients.

Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Caballero, Luis; Romera, Irene; Aragones, Enric; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Quail, Deborah; Gilaberte, Inmaculada

2008-01-01

199

An Exploration of Family Problem-Solving and Affective Involvement as Moderators Between Disease Severity and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

PubMed Central

Little is known about how family functioning relates to psychosocial functioning of youth with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The study aim was to examine family problem solving and affective involvement as moderators between adolescent disease severity and depressive symptoms. Participants were 122 adolescents with IBD and their parents. Measures included self-reported and parent-reported adolescent depressive symptoms, parent-reported family functioning, and physician-completed measures of disease severity. Disease severity was a significant predictor of adolescent-reported depressive symptoms, but not parent-reported adolescent depressive symptoms. Family affective involvement significantly predicted parent-reported adolescent depressive symptoms, while family problem-solving significantly predicted adolescent self-report of depressive symptoms. Neither affective involvement nor problem-solving served as moderators. Family affective involvement may play an important role in adolescent emotional functioning but may not moderate the effect of disease severity on depressive symptoms. Research should continue to examine effects of family functioning on youth emotional functioning and include a sample with a wider range of disease severity to determine if interventions aimed to enhance family functioning are warranted.

Schuman, Shana L.; Graef, Danielle M.; Janicke, David M.; Gray, Wendy N.; Hommel, Kevin A.

2014-01-01

200

Comparative toxicity of oil, dispersant, and oil plus dispersant to several marine species.  

PubMed

Dispersants are a preapproved chemical response agent for oil spills off portions of the U.S. coastline, including the Texas-Louisiana coast. However, questions persist regarding potential environmental risks of dispersant applications in nearshore regions (within three nautical miles of the shoreline) that support dense populations of marine organisms and are prone to spills resulting from human activities. To address these questions, a study was conducted to evaluate the relative toxicity of test media prepared with dispersant, weathered crude oil, and weathered crude oil plus dispersant. Two fish species, Cyprinodon variegatus and Menidia beryllina, and one shrimp species, Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia), were used to evaluate the relative toxicity of the different media under declining and continuous exposure regimes. Microbial toxicity was evaluated using the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fisheri. The data suggested that oil media prepared with a chemical dispersant was equal to or less toxic than the oil-only test medium. Data also indicated that continuous exposures to the test media were generally more toxic than declining exposures. The toxicity of unweathered crude oil with and without dispersant was also evaluated using Menidia beryllina under declining exposure conditions. Unweathered oil-only media were dominated by soluble hydrocarbon fractions and found to be more toxic than weathered oil-only media in which colloidal oil fractions dominated. Total concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in oil-plus-dispersant media prepared with weathered and unweathered crude oil were both dominated by colloidal oil and showed no significant difference in toxicity. Analysis of the toxicity data suggests that the observed toxicity was a function of the soluble crude oil components and not the colloidal oil. PMID:15648769

Fuller, Chris; Bonner, James; Page, Cheryl; Ernest, Andrew; McDonald, Thomas; McDonald, Susanne

2004-12-01

201

Perceived discrimination is associated with severity of positive and depression/anxiety symptoms in immigrants with psychosis: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Immigration status is a significant risk factor for psychotic disorders, and a number of studies have reported more severe positive and affective symptoms among immigrant and ethnic minority groups. We investigated if perceived discrimination was associated with the severity of these symptoms among immigrants in Norway with psychotic disorders. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of 90 immigrant patients (66% first-generation, 68% from Asia/Africa) in treatment for psychotic disorders were assessed for DSM-IV diagnoses with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID-I, sections A-E) and for present symptom severity by The Structured Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (SCI-PANSS). Perceived discrimination was assessed by a self-report questionnaire developed for the Immigrant Youth in Cultural Transition Study. Results Perceived discrimination correlated with positive psychotic (r = 0.264, p < 0.05) and depression/anxiety symptoms (r = 0.282, p < 0.01), but not negative, cognitive, or excitement symptoms. Perceived discrimination also functioned as a partial mediator for symptom severity in African immigrants. Multiple linear regression analyses controlling for possible confounders revealed that perceived discrimination explained approximately 10% of the variance in positive and depression/anxiety symptoms in the statistical model. Conclusions Among immigrants with psychotic disorders, visible minority status was associated with perceived discrimination and with more severe positive and depression/anxiety symptoms. These results suggest that context-specific stressful environmental factors influence specific symptom patterns and severity. This has important implications for preventive strategies and treatment of this vulnerable patient group.

2011-01-01

202

The association of pain severity and pain interference levels with abuse experiences and mental health symptoms among 300 mothers: baseline data analysis for a 7-year prospective study.  

PubMed

Women who experience interpersonal violence are at increased risk for anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and chronic pain and other physical disorders. Although the effects of mental health disorders on women's functioning and well-being are well established, less is known about the effects of pain. We examined participants' (n = 300 mothers) experiences of pain severity and pain interference. Higher levels of pain severity and pain interference were significantly associated with anxiety, PTSD, and depression symptoms. Mental health symptoms compounded by pain, may leave abused women less able to access resources or practice safety behaviors to protect themselves and their children. PMID:23301564

Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith; Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John

2013-01-01

203

Phospholipase A2 activity in three species of littoral freshwater rotifers exposed to several toxicants.  

PubMed

We analyzed three species of Lecane, a littoral rotifer, for susceptibility to six metals and four organic toxicants using a fluorometric assay based on inhibition of activity of the enzyme phospholipase A2. The metallic toxicants that we tested included Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg (as HgCl2), and Ti; the organic toxicants included benzene, ethyl acetate, toluene, and vinyl acetate. The three species differed greatly with respect to their susceptibility to the various toxicants. Lecane quadridentata, for example, was particularly sensitive to the four organic compounds (median effective concentration values [EC50] ranged from 6.6 x 10(-4)-0.987 mg/L). Lecane luna, in contrast, seemed particularly sensitive to metals (EC50 values ranged from 2 x 10(-6)-1.92 mg/L). Lecane hamata was relatively insensitive to organic solvents (EC50 values ranged from 4.25-126.5 mg/L). PMID:14551999

Pérez-Legaspi, Ignacio Alejandro; Rico-Martínez, Roberto

2003-10-01

204

General-Linear-Models Approach for Comparing the Response of Several Species in Acute-Toxicity Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acute toxicity tests (bioassays) estimate the concentration of a chemical required to produce a response (usually death) in fifty percent of a population (the LC50). Simple comparisons of LC5C values among several species are often inadequate because spec...

K. L. Daniels, J. C. Goyert, M. P. Farrell, R. H. Strand

1982-01-01

205

Effectiveness and Toxicity of Several DTPA Broadening Agents for Biological ESR Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness of a standard ESR broadening agent, potassium trioxalatochromiate (CrOx), for use with the spin-label tempone, was compared to that of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) containing an ion (Gd, Cr, Mn, Fe) with a large magnetic moment. Signal attenuation, line broadening, toxicity, and cell membrane permeability were compared. As a broadening agent, CrOx was most effective, followed by Fe-DTPA. CrOx proved mildly toxic while Gd-DTPA and Fe-DTPA were virtually nontoxic. The human red blood cell membrane was tested for permeability to Fe- and Gd-DTPA and found to be impermeable to both. In situations where toxicity to cells is critical, the DTPA chelates, particularly Fe-DTPA, may prove an acceptable substitute for CrOx.

Zaplatin, A. N.; Baker, Kent A.; Kleinhans, F. W.

206

The relationship between severe maternal morbidity and psychological health symptoms at 6-8 weeks postpartum: a prospective cohort study in one English maternity unit  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of severe maternal morbidity is increasing in high-income countries. However, little has been known about the impact on postnatal morbidity, particularly on psychological health outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between severe maternal morbidity (ie. major obstetric haemorrhage, severe hypertensive disorders or intensive care unit/obstetric high dependency unit admission) and postnatal psychological health symptoms, focusing on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms at 6–8 weeks postpartum. Method A prospective cohort study was undertaken of women who gave birth over six months in 2010 in an inner city maternity unit in England. Primary outcomes were prevalence of PTSD symptoms namely: 1) intrusion and 2) avoidance as measured using the Impact of Event Scale at 6 – 8 weeks postpartum via a self-administered postal questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included probable depression. Data on incidence of severe maternal morbidity were extracted from maternity records. Multivariable logistic regression analysis examined the relationship between severe maternal morbidity and PTSD symptoms taking into account factors that might influence the relationship. Results Of women eligible to participate (n=3509), 52% responded. Prevalence of a clinically significant level of intrusion and avoidance were 6.4% (n=114) and 8.4% (n=150) respectively. There was a higher risk of PTSD symptoms among women who experienced severe maternal morbidity compared with women who did not (adjusted OR = 2.11, 95%CI = 1.17-3.78 for intrusion; adjusted OR = 3.28, 95%CI = 2.01-5.36 for avoidance). Higher ratings of reported sense of control during labour/birth partially mediated the risk of PTSD symptoms. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence or severity of symptoms of depression. Conclusion This is one of the largest studies to date of PTSD symptoms among women who had recently given birth. Findings showed that an experience of severe maternal morbidity was independently associated with symptoms of PTSD. Individually tailored care that increases women’s sense of control during labour may be a protective factor with further work required to promote effective interventions to prevent these symptoms. Findings have important implications for women’s health and the content and organisation of maternity services during and after the birth.

2014-01-01

207

Nonlinear speech analysis algorithms mapped to a standard metric achieve clinically useful quantification of average Parkinson's disease symptom severity  

PubMed Central

The standard reference clinical score quantifying average Parkinson's disease (PD) symptom severity is the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). At present, UPDRS is determined by the subjective clinical evaluation of the patient's ability to adequately cope with a range of tasks. In this study, we extend recent findings that UPDRS can be objectively assessed to clinically useful accuracy using simple, self-administered speech tests, without requiring the patient's physical presence in the clinic. We apply a wide range of known speech signal processing algorithms to a large database (approx. 6000 recordings from 42 PD patients, recruited to a six-month, multi-centre trial) and propose a number of novel, nonlinear signal processing algorithms which reveal pathological characteristics in PD more accurately than existing approaches. Robust feature selection algorithms select the optimal subset of these algorithms, which is fed into non-parametric regression and classification algorithms, mapping the signal processing algorithm outputs to UPDRS. We demonstrate rapid, accurate replication of the UPDRS assessment with clinically useful accuracy (about 2 UPDRS points difference from the clinicians' estimates, p < 0.001). This study supports the viability of frequent, remote, cost-effective, objective, accurate UPDRS telemonitoring based on self-administered speech tests. This technology could facilitate large-scale clinical trials into novel PD treatments.

Tsanas, Athanasios; Little, Max A.; McSharry, Patrick E.; Ramig, Lorraine O.

2011-01-01

208

Main and Interactive Effects of a Nonclinical Panic Attack History and Distress Tolerance in Relation to PTSD Symptom Severity  

PubMed Central

The current study investigated the main and interactive effects of a nonclinical panic attack history and distress tolerance in relation to PTSD symptoms. The sample consisted of 91 adults (62.6% women; Mage = 23.45, SD = 9.56) who met DSM-IV criteria for trauma exposure, 53.8% of whom met criteria for a recent (past two years) history of nonclinical panic attacks. Results indicated that distress tolerance, as measured by the Distress Tolerance Scale (Simons & Gaher, 2005), was significantly related to all PTSD symptom clusters, and a nonclinical panic attack history was significantly related to PTSD re-experiencing and hyperarousal symptoms. The interaction of a nonclinical panic attack history and distress tolerance significantly predicted unique variance in only PTSD hyperarousal symptoms. Implications and future directions are discussed for the role of nonclinical panic attacks and distress tolerance in PTSD symptom expression.

Marshall-Berenz, Erin C.; Vujanovic, Anka A.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

2010-01-01

209

Toxicity of Aroclor ® 1254 and its physiological activity in several estuarine organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of high concentrations of a PCB (Aroclor 1254) in the Pensacola estuary prompted field and laboratory studies by the Gulf Breeze Environmental Research Laboratory (EPA). Monitoring of the estuary indicates the chemical is present in all components-particularly in sediments and fishes. Residues appear to be diminishing in sediments. Toxicity tests show estuarine species sensitive at ppb concentrations in

D. R. Nimmo; D. J. Hansen; J. A. Couch; N. R. Cooley; P. R. Parrish; J. I. Lowe

1975-01-01

210

Toxic effects of several phthalate esters on the embryos and larvae of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the most widely used plasticizers in the world, phthalate esters (PAEs) are potential endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs).\\u000a In the present study, the toxicity of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di (2-ethylhexyl)\\u000a phthalate (DEHP) on embryogenesis and larvae development of the marine univalve Haliotis diversicolor supertexta was examined in laboratory. The results show that the malformation

Zhihui Yang; Xiangjing Zhang; Zhonghua Cai

2009-01-01

211

Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale - PTPB Version (BMSLSS-PTPB): Psychometric Properties and Relationship with Mental Health Symptom Severity Over Time  

PubMed Central

Youth life satisfaction is a component of subjective well-being, an important part of a strengths-based approach to treatment. This study establishes the psychometric properties of the Brief Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale – PTPB version (BMSLSS-PTPB). The BMSLSS-PTPB shows evidence of construct validity with significant correlations as expected to measures of youth hope and youth symptom severity, and no relationship as expected to youth treatment outcome expectations. A longitudinal analysis was conducted examining the relationship between youth-reported life satisfaction and mental health symptom severity (youth, caregiver-, and clinician-report) for 334 youth (aged 11–18 years) receiving in-home treatment. Results indicate that life satisfaction consistently increases over the course of treatment but increases faster in youth whose symptom severity, as rated by all reporters, decreases. Implications, future directions, and limitations of the study are discussed.

Athay, M. Michele; Kelley, Susan Douglas; Dew-Reeves, Sarah E.

2012-01-01

212

Successful treatment of severe carbamazepine toxicity with 5 % albumin-enhanced continuous venovenous hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Carbamazepine overdose is a common, toxic ingestion, manifesting as central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory depression. Carbamazepine is highly protein bound with a large volume of distribution and, therefore, inefficiently removed by conventional hemodialysis. We describe the successful use of continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) with 5 % albumin enhanced dialysate in a 31-year-old female who developed CNS depression, hypotension and respiratory failure, requiring mechanical ventilation, after an intentional ingestion of approximately 10 g of extended release carbamazepine, Tegretol CR(®). The peak drug level was 26 mcg/ml, therapeutic range 8-12 mcg/ml, with toxicity often developing a level above 15 mcg/ml. Normal half-life of drug elimination is 35-60 h in carbamazepine naïve patients. In contrast, with albumin-enhanced dialysis, we observed a drug half-life of 18 h. She was extubated on day two and was transferred to inpatient psychiatry by day 3 without significant neurologic sequelae. In vitro studies have been done with bovine blood demonstrating significant carbamazepine removal using CVVHD with albumin-enhanced dialysate. There has been very limited experience using albumin-enhanced CVVHD in an adult patient with carbamazepine toxicity. PMID:24449266

Narayan, Rajeev; Rizzo, Meagan; Cole, Michael

2014-06-01

213

Resistance to boron toxicity amongst several barley and wheat cultivars: A preliminary examination of the resistance mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of resistance toB toxicity in barley and wheat was studied in a solution culture experiment using several cultivars displaying a large range of sensitivity to excessB supply. Plants were cultured for 35 d atB concentrations ranging from normal to excessive (15 to 5000 ?M, respectively) then examined for dry matter production and theB distribution between roots and shoots.

Ross O. Nable; Glen Osmond

1988-01-01

214

Frequency of symptoms, determinants of severe symptoms, validity of and cut-off score for Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) as a screening tool: A cross-sectional survey among midlife Nepalese women  

PubMed Central

Background Majority of Nepalese women live in remote rural areas, where health services are not easily accessible. We determined the validity of Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) as a screening tool for identification of women with severe menopausal symptoms and cut-off MRS score for referral. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between February and August, 2008. Trained health workers administered MRS and a questionnaire to 729 women (40 to 65 years) attending health screening camps in Kaski district of Western Development Region of Nepal. Information about demographics, menopausal status, and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), chronic disease, self-perceived general health and reproductive history was also collected. Menopausal status was classified according to the Staging of Reproductive Ageing Workshop (STRAW). We calculated rates of menopausal symptoms, sensitivity, and specificity and likelihood ratios of MRS scores for referral to a gynaecologist. We also carried out multivariate analyses to identify the predictors for referral to a gynaecologist for severe symptoms. Results A total 729 women were interviewed. Mean age at menopause was 49.9 years (SD 5.6). Most frequently reported symptoms were, sleeping problems (574, 78.7%), physical and mental exhaustion (73.5%), hot flushes (508, 69.7%), joint and muscular discomfort (500, 68.6%) and dryness of vagina (449, 61.6%). Postmenopausal women (247, 33.9%) and perimenopausal (215, 29.5%) women together experienced significantly higher prevalence of all symptoms than the premenopausal (267, 36.6%) women. MRS score of ?16 had highest ratio for (sensitivity + specificity)/2. Women who reported urogenital symptoms [OR 5.29, 95% CI 2.59, 10.78], and self perceived general health as poor [OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11, 1.53] were more likely to be referred to a gynaecologist for severe menopausal symptoms. While women reporting somatic [OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.63, 0.82] and psychological [OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74, 0.99] symptoms were less likely to be referred. Conclusion MRS may be used as a screening tool at a cut-off score of ?16 with least misclassification rate. However, its utility may be limited by woman's general health status and occurrence of urogenital symptoms.

2011-01-01

215

The antineoplastic antibiotic taurolidine promotes lung and liver metastasis in two syngeneic osteosarcoma mouse models and exhibits severe liver toxicity.  

PubMed

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent primary bone tumor. Despite multiagent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, patients with metastatic disease have a poor prognosis. Moreover, currently used chemotherapeutics have severe toxic side effects. Thus, novel agents with improved antimetastatic activity and reduced toxicity are needed. Taurolidine, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial, has recently been shown to have antineoplastic properties against a variety of tumors and low systemic toxicity. Consequently, we investigated in our study the antineoplastic potential of taurolidine against OS in two different mouse models. Although both OS cell lines, K7M2 and LM8, were sensitive for the compound in vitro, intraperitoneal application of taurolidine failed to inhibit primary tumor growth. Moreover, it enhanced the metastatic load in both models 1.7- to 20-fold and caused severe liver deformations and up to 40% mortality. Thus, systemic toxicity was further investigated in tumor-free mice histologically, by electron microscopy and by measurements of representative liver enzymes. Taurolidine dose-dependent fibrous thickening of the liver capsule and adhesions and atrophies of the liver lobes were comparable in healthy and tumor-bearing mice. Liver toxicity was further indicated by up to eightfold elevated levels of the liver enzymes alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and GLDH in the circulation. Ultrastructural analysis of affected liver tissue showed swollen mitochondria with cristolysis and numerous lipid vacuoles in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. The findings of our study question the applicability of taurolidine for OS treatment and may suggest the need for caution regarding the widespread clinical use of taurolidine as an antineoplastic agent. PMID:22120774

Arlt, Matthias J E; Walters, Denise K; Banke, Ingo J; Steinmann, Patrick; Puskas, Gabor J; Bertz, Josefine; Rentsch, Katharina M; Ehrensperger, Felix; Born, Walter; Fuchs, Bruno

2012-09-01

216

Perceived discrimination is associated with severity of positive and depression\\/anxiety symptoms in immigrants with psychosis: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Immigration status is a significant risk factor for psychotic disorders, and a number of studies have reported more severe\\u000a positive and affective symptoms among immigrant and ethnic minority groups. We investigated if perceived discrimination was\\u000a associated with the severity of these symptoms among immigrants in Norway with psychotic disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Cross-sectional analyses of 90 immigrant patients (66% first-generation, 68% from Asia\\/Africa)

Akiah O Berg; Ingrid Melle; Jan Ivar Rossberg; Lie Kristin Romm; Sara Larsson; Trine V Lagerberg; Ole A Andreassen; Edvard Hauff

2011-01-01

217

Cytoplasmic Expression of Mouse Prion Protein Causes Severe Toxicity in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

To test if Caenorhabditis elegans could be established as a model organism for prion study, we created transgenic C. elegans expressing the cytosolic form of the mouse prion .protein, MoPrP(23-231), which lacks the N-terminal signal sequence and the C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinisotol (GPI) anchor site. We report here that transgenic worms expressing MoPrP(23-231)–CFP exhibited a wide range of distinct phenotypes: from normal growth and development, reduced mobility and development delay, complete paralysis and development arrest, to embryonic lethality. Similar levels of MoPrP (23-231)-CFP were produced in animals exhibiting these distinct phenotypes, suggesting that MoPrP (23-231)-CFP might have misfolded into distinct toxic species. In combining with the observation that mutations in PrP that affect prion pathogenesis also affect the toxic phenotypes in C. elegans, we conclude that the prion protein folding mechanism is similar in mammals and C. elegans. Thus, C. elegans can be a useful model organism for prion research.

Park, Kyung-Won; Li, Liming

2008-01-01

218

Disease Severity Measures in a Population of Psoriasis Patients: The Symptoms of Psoriasis Correlate With Self-Administered Psoriasis Area Severity Index Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the difficulty and expense of objectively measuring psoriasis severity, very little information exists on the severity of psoriasis in populations. We determined severity in a psoriasis patient population using the validated self-administered psoriasis are and severity index (SAPASI). This population consisted of 578 university dermatology clinic psoriasis patient, and data were analyzed from 317 (55%) questionnaire respondents. The

Alan B. Fleischer Jr.; Steven R. Feldman; Stephen R. Rapp; David M. Reboussin; M. Lyn Exum; Adele R. Clark; Veena Rajashekhar

1996-01-01

219

Identifying risk factors for symptoms of severe trichinellosis--a case study of 143 infected persons in Brasov, Romania 2001-2008.  

PubMed

The presence of the parasite Trichinella spiralis in humans does not always manifest itself with obvious clinical symptoms; the clinical manifestations of trichinellosis are polymorphic and can cause diagnostic difficulties. Our aim was to identify risk factors that can be linked to the severity of the disease. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 143 cases of trichinellosis admitted to the Infectious Disease Hospital in Bra?ov, Romania during 2001-2008. We found that children 10 and younger were less prone to exhibit medium or severe symptoms. Patients with leukocytosis had a 1.75 times higher risk of developing medium to severe symptoms relative to those with normal white blood cell counts. Patients with high eosinophil counts had a 2.05 times higher risk of exhibiting average or serious symptoms relative to those with low or normal eosinophil counts. Repeated consumption of contaminated meat increased the chances of developing discernible forms of the disease by 5.25 fold when compared to those who only occasionally ate meat contaminated with Trichinella. Regular consumption of raw or undercooked meat increased the chances of developing medium or severe forms of this disease by 1.67 times when compared to those who consume meat that had been thoroughly cooked. PMID:23433989

B?lescu, Alexandru; Nemet, Codruta; Zamfir, Carmen; Ispas, Daniel; Idomir, Mihaela

2013-05-20

220

Effects of several variables on whole effluent toxicity test performance and interpretation  

SciTech Connect

Protocol changes and options contained within US Environmental Protection Agency whole effluent toxicity tests represent variables that have the potential to affect bioassay performance and interpretation of results. Variables evaluated in this study include: the change in allowable age in the Pimephales promelas acute bioassay from up to 90 d to a maximum of 14 d, age-specific acute responses of P. promelas among the allowable ages of 1 to 14 d, change in the chronic growth endpoint definition from final mass to biomass, differences between hemacytometer and fluorometer measurements in the Selenastrum capricornutum protocol, and options for statistical interpretation of species sensitivity in multiple test/species screening bioassays. Clear age-related sensitivity and precision differences were observed in acute responses of P. promelas. Results obtained using the younger age classes were typically more variable in studies of both 1- to 14-d-old and 14- to 90-d-old P. promelas. In the experiments on 1- to 14-d-old organisms, larvae at 1 d of age were significantly less sensitive. In the tests on 14- to 90-d-old organisms, the 14-d-old organisms were significantly less sensitive. The change in endpoint definition in the P. promelas chronic bioassay resulted in an apparent increase in toxic response in the inhibition concentration (ICp) value for each bioassay, evaluated by the biomass method, with no general improvement in statistical interest precision estimates and no predictable impact on the no-observed-effect concentration endpoint. Fluorometric scoring in the Selenastrum bioassay was significantly more precise and better capable of estimating counts than hemacytometer measurements. Discrepancies associated with commonly used statistical endpoints used to determine the most sensitive species were identified, and potential solutions were proposed.

Markle, P.J.; Gully, J.R.; Baird, R.B.; Nakada, K.M.; Bottomley, J.P.

2000-01-01

221

Anxiety and Avoidance in Infants and Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evidence for Differing Symptom Severity and Presentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the symptoms of anxiety in very young children with autism spectrum disorders, particularly comparisons between Autistic Disorder (AD) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). In the current study, toddlers (i.e., 17-37 months of age) with diagnoses of either AD (N = 159) or PDD-NOS (N = 154)…

Davis, Thompson E., III; Fodstad, Jill C.; Jenkins, Whitney S.; Hess, Julie A.; Moree, Brittany N.; Dempsey, Tim; Matson, Johnny L.

2010-01-01

222

Genotoxicity of several polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hydroxylated PBDEs, and their mechanisms of toxicity.  

PubMed

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been extensively utilized as flame retardants, and recently there has been concern about potential adverse effects in humans and wildlife. Their hydroxylated analogs (OH-BDEs) have received increasing attention due to their potential for endocrine and neurological toxicities. However, the potentials and mechanisms of genotoxicity of these brominated compounds have scarcely been investigated. In the present study, genotoxicity of tetra-BDEs, penta BDE, octa-BDE, deca-BDE, and tetra-OH-BDEs were investigated by use of chicken DT40 cell lines including wild-type cells and a panel of mutant cell lines deficient in DNA repair pathways. Tetra-BDEs have greater genotoxic potential than do the other BDEs tested. OH-tetra-BDEs were more genotoxic than tetra-BDEs. DT40 cells, deficient in base excision repair (Pol?(-/-)) and translesion DNA synthesis (REV3(-/-)) pathways, were hypersensitive to the genotoxic effects of tetra-BDEs and OH-tetra-BDEs. The observation of chromosomal aberrations and gamma-H2AX assay confirmed that the studied brominated compounds caused double strand breaks. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) significantly rescued the Pol?(-/-) and REV3(-/-) mutants, which is consistent with the hypothesis that PBDEs and OH-BDEs cause DNA damage mediated through reactive oxygen species (ROS). Some tetra-BDEs and OH-tetra-BDEs caused base damage through ROS leading to replication blockage and subsequent chromosomal breaks. PMID:21545137

Ji, Kyunghee; Choi, Kyungho; Giesy, John P; Musarrat, Javed; Takeda, Shunichi

2011-06-01

223

Passive Coping Response to Depressive Symptoms among Low-Income Homebound Older Adults: Does It Affect Depression Severity and Treatment Outcome?  

PubMed Central

Due to their homebound state, lack of financial resources, and/or other life demands, a significant proportion of depressed, low-income homebound older adults experience depression. Because of their limited access to psychotherapy, most of these older adults self-manage their depressive symptoms. The purposes of this study were to examine (1) the relationship between homebound older adults’ coping responses to depressed mood and the severity of their depressive symptoms at baseline (n =121), and (2) the moderating effect of passive coping responses on the relationship between participation in problem-solving therapy (PST: in-person or telehealth delivery) and depressive symptoms at 12- and 24-week follow-ups. Controlling for the effects of demographic and disability characteristics, cognitive passive coping was significantly associated with baseline depressive symptoms, while behavioral passive coping was not. The main effect of baseline cognitive passive coping response was also significant in mixed-effects regression analysis, but the interaction between coping pattern and group was not significant. The results point to a possibility that cognitive passive copers may have benefited as much from PST as the rest of the PST participants. Further research needs to examine the moderating effect of coping responses to depressive symptoms on treatment efficacy of PST and other psychosocial interventions for late-life depression.

Choi, Namkee G.; Hegel, Mark T.; Sirrianni, Leslie; Marinucci, Mary Lynn; Bruce, Martha L.

2012-01-01

224

Severe skeletal toxicity from protracted etidronate therapy for generalized arterial calcification of infancy.  

PubMed

Generalized arterial calcification (AC) of infancy (GACI) is an autosomal recessive disorder that features hydroxyapatite deposition within arterial elastic fibers. Untreated, approximately 85% of GACI patients die by 6 months of age from cardiac ischemia and congestive heart failure. The first-generation bisphosphonate etidronate (EHDP; ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonic acid, also known as 1-hydroxyethylidene-bisphosphonate) inhibits bone resorption and can mimic endogenous inorganic pyrophosphate by blocking mineralization. With EHDP therapy for GACI, AC may resolve without recurrence upon treatment cessation. Skeletal disease is not an early characteristic of GACI, but rickets can appear from acquired hypophosphatemia or prolonged EHDP therapy. We report a 7-year-old boy with GACI referred for profound, acquired, skeletal disease. AC was gone after 5 months of EHDP therapy during infancy, but GACI-related joint calcifications progressed. He was receiving EHDP, 200?mg/day orally, and had odynodysphagia, diffuse opioid-controlled pain, plagiocephaly, facial dysmorphism, joint calcifications, contractures, and was wheelchair bound. Biochemical parameters of mineral homeostasis were essentially normal. Serum osteocalcin was low and the brain isoform of creatine kinase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP-5b) were elevated as in osteopetrosis. Skeletal radiographic findings resembled pediatric hypophosphatasia with pancranial synostosis, long-bone bowing, widened physes, as well as metaphyseal osteosclerosis, cupping and fraying, and "tongues" of radiolucency. Radiographic features of osteopetrosis included osteosclerosis and femoral Erlenmeyer flask deformity. After stopping EHDP, he improved rapidly, including remarkable skeletal healing and decreased joint calcifications. Profound, but rapidly reversible, inhibition of skeletal mineralization with paradoxical calcifications near joints can occur in GACI from protracted EHDP therapy. Although EHDP treatment is lifesaving in GACI, surveillance for toxicity is crucial. PMID:22972716

Otero, Jesse E; Gottesman, Gary S; McAlister, William H; Mumm, Steven; Madson, Katherine L; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Sheen, Campbell; Millán, José Luis; Ericson, Karen L; Whyte, Michael P

2013-02-01

225

Magnitutde and Characterization of Toxicity in Sediments from Several Ukrainian Estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

During the Soviet era, Ukraine was one of the most important industrial and agricultural regions of the Soviet Union. A consequence of this industrial and agricultural activity was the contamination of several areas of the country, including the estuaries, with pollutants includ...

226

Effectiveness of combined high-dosed trospium and solifenacin depending on severity of OAB symptoms in elderly men and women under cyclic therapy  

PubMed Central

Material and methods 313 patients, 196 women and 117 men over 65 (average age 68.6) were included in this study. All patients underwent urodynamic examination before enrollment and after the study was completed. For clinical evaluation of LUT state ICIQ-SF questionnaires and bladder diaries were used. Patients with moderate (?, n = 155) and severe (?, n = 158) symptoms of OAB. Each group was divided into subgroups in which patients received Trospium 60 mg/day and Solifenacin 20 mg/day during two cycles – 1.5 and 1 month with one month interval (?1 and ?1); subgroups in which second cycle was substituted with placebo (?2, ?2), and control groups (?3, ?3). Results In groups with moderate symptoms of OAB ratio of patients demonstrated decrease of frequency of EI ?1.5 a day remained at the level of 45-60% during all observation period. In subgroups with severe symptoms of OAB percentage of such patients was 55.3% for the subgroup which received two cycle therapy, and decreased to 26% in the subgroup which underwent 1 cycle therapy. Urodynamic indices for state of LUT correlated with clinical indicators (r =0.57-0.71 at p? 0.05). Conclusions Short single cycle of high-dosed Solifenacin and Trospium in elderly patients with moderate symptoms of OAB enables to maintain long therapeutic effect with acceptable level of side effects. This treatment algorithm applied in two cycle course is an effective and safe method for management of severe symptoms of OAB in elderly patients without increased risk of side effects.

Loparev, Sergey; Iwanowskaya, Marina; Kosilova, Liliya

2014-01-01

227

Hepatoprotective effect of Bathysa cuspidata in a murine model of severe toxic liver injury  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of a bark extract of Bathysa cuspidata extract (BCE) in a murine model of severe liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Forty-two Wistar rats were randomized into six groups of seven animals each: Group 1(G1): CCl4; Group 2 (G2): dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) + CCl4; Group 3 (G3): BCE 400 mg/kg alone; Group 4 (G4): BCE 200 mg/kg + CCl4; Group 5 (G5): BCE 400 mg/kg + CCl4; Group 6 (G6): DMSO alone. The extract was administered by gavage for 18 days beginning 6 days prior to the first application of CCl4. After completing CCl4 administration, the animals were euthanized. The animals in G1, G2, G4 and G5 experienced significant body weight loss and had an increased liver somatic index compared with G3 and G6 (P < 0.05). A significant reduction in serum aspartate and alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase (P < 0.05) and a significant increase in the activity of the anti-oxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase were found in G5 (P < 0.05). Lower proportions of cellular necrosis and lipid droplets were found in the livers of animals in G4 and G5 compared with G1 and G2 (P < 0.05). These results confirm the marked hepatoprotective activity of the bark extract of Bathysa cuspidata in severe injuries induced by CCl4 in rats and suggest that this effect may be associated with the inhibition of oxidative damage.

Goncalves, Reggiani V; Novaes, Romulo D; Leite, Joao P V; Vilela, Emerson F; Cupertino, Marli C; Nunes, Liria G; Matta, Sergio L P

2012-01-01

228

The M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory-Head and Neck Module, a Patient-Reported Outcome Instrument, Accurately Predicts the Severity of Radiation-Induced Mucositis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory-Head and Neck (MDASI-HN) module, a symptom burden instrument, with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck (FACT-HN) module, a quality-of-life instrument, for the assessment of mucositis in patients with head-and-neck cancer treated with radiotherapy and to identify the most distressing symptoms from the patient's perspective. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with head-and-neck cancer (n = 134) completed the MDASI-HN and FACT-HN before radiotherapy (time 1) and after 6 weeks of radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (time 2). The mean global and subscale scores for each instrument were compared with the objective mucositis scores determined from the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. Results: The global and subscale scores for each instrument showed highly significant changes from time 1 to time 2 and a significant correlation with the objective mucositis scores at time 2. Only the MDASI scores, however, were significant predictors of objective Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events mucositis scores on multivariate regression analysis (standardized regression coefficient, 0.355 for the global score and 0.310 for the head-and-neck cancer-specific score). Most of the moderate and severe symptoms associated with mucositis as identified on the MDASI-HN are not present on the FACT-HN. Conclusion: Both the MDASI-HN and FACT-HN modules can predict the mucositis scores. However, the MDASI-HN, a symptom burden instrument, was more closely associated with the severity of radiation-induced mucositis than the FACT-HN on multivariate regression analysis. This greater association was most likely related to the inclusion of a greater number of face-valid mucositis-related items in the MDASI-HN compared with the FACT-HN.

Rosenthal, David I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail: dirosenthal@mdanderson.org; Mendoza, Tito R. [Department of Symptom Research, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Chambers, Mark [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Burkett, V. Shannon [Department of Symptom Research, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hessell, Amy C.; Lewin, Jan S. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ang, K. Kian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kies, Merrill S. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gning, Ibrahima; Wang, Xin S.; Cleeland, Charles S. [Department of Symptom Research, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2008-12-01

229

Assessment of 5-hydroxytryptamine efflux in rat brain during a mild, moderate and severe serotonin-toxicity syndrome  

PubMed Central

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)-toxicity syndrome, an iatrogenic brain disorder induced by excessive efflux of 5-HT, has received much attention because of increasing incidents of serotonergic antidepressants. However, the neural mechanism by which extracellular 5-HT is elevated to a toxic level for the syndrome remains to be determined. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that extracellular 5-HT is composed of two component effluxes responsible for distinct aspects of the syndrome. The first set of experiments was to characterize the syndrome by measuring changes in neuromuscular signs, body-core temperature and mortality rate. Our results indicate that the syndrome severity can be categorized into mild, moderate and severe levels. The second set of experiments was to determine a threshold of extracellular 5-HT for induction of each level of the syndrome. Our results demonstrate that there were an 11-fold increase in the mild syndrome and an over 55-fold increase in the severe syndrome. In the last series of experiments, the excessive increases in 5-HT were pharmacologically separated into primary and secondary component effluxes with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonists cyproheptadine and ketanserin and NMDA receptor antagonist (+)-MK-801. Our results suggest primary component efflux was caused by direct drug effects on 5-HT biosynthetic and metabolic pathways and secondary efflux ascribed to indirect drug effect on a positive feedback circuit involving 5-HT2A and NMDA receptors. In summary, the primary efflux could be an initial cause for the induction of the syndrome while the secondary efflux might involve deterioration of the syndrome.

Zhang, Gongliang; Krishnamoorthy, Swapna; Ma, Zhiyuan; Vukovich, Nick P.; Huang, Xupei; Tao, Rui

2009-01-01

230

Non-eating disorders psychopathology in children and adolescents with eating disorders: Implications for malnutrition and symptom severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo compare the general psychopathology in an eating disorders (ED) and a child mental health outpatient sample and investigate the implications of comorbidity on psychological and physical measures of ED severity.

Brett McDermott; David Forbes; Chris Harris; Julie McCormack; Peter Gibbon

2006-01-01

231

Use of a single [ 123 I]-FP-CIT SPECT to predict the severity of clinical symptoms of Parkinson disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the ability of a single SPECT performed in the early stage of Parkinson’s disease (PD)\\u000a to predict disease severity in 19 patients with early PD. [123I]-FP-CIT striatal uptake was expressed as a ratio of specific:nonspecific uptake for defined brain areas. Clinical severity\\u000a was determined by the UPDRS at baseline and 12–15 months following

Ruth Djaldetti; Therese A. Treves; Ilan Ziv; Eldad Melamed; Yair Lampl; Mordechai Lorberboym

2009-01-01

232

Anxiety Sensitivity and Panic Reactivity to Bodily Sensations: Relation to Quit-Day (Acute) Nicotine Withdrawal Symptom Severity Among Daily Smokers Making a Self-Guided Quit Attempt  

PubMed Central

The current investigation explored the main and interactive effects of panic attacks in response to laboratory-induced bodily sensations and anxiety sensitivity in predicting acute nicotine withdrawal symptoms among daily smokers making a self-guided quit attempt. Participants were 99 daily smokers (58% women; Mage = 28.4 years, SD = 11.7) who completed a battery of questionnaires, a voluntary hyperventilation challenge, and a measure of nicotine withdrawal symptoms 12 hr after making a self-guided quit attempt. Results indicated that the interaction of anxiety sensitivity and panic responsivity to the challenge predicted quit-day nicotine withdrawal symptom severity above and beyond the main effects (p < .05). The form of the interaction indicated that the relationship between postchallenge panic attack status and acute nicotine withdrawal was more robust among individuals who were low in anxiety sensitivity. Individuals who did not experience a panic attack posthyperventilation who were also low in anxiety sensitivity reported the lowest levels of nicotine withdrawal. Results suggest that anxiety sensitivity may be less relevant with regard to acute nicotine withdrawal severity among individuals with panic-related problems.

Marshall, Erin C.; Johnson, Kirsten; Bergman, Jenna; Gibson, Laura E.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

2010-01-01

233

The Impact of Pretreatment Prostate Volume on Severe Acute Genitourinary Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the impact of pretreatment prostate volume on the development of severe acute genitourinary toxicity in patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2007, a consecutive sample of 214 patients who underwent IMRT (75.6 Gy) for prostate cancer at two referral centers was analyzed. Prostate volumes were obtained from computed tomography scans taken during treatment simulation. Genitourinary toxicity was defined using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 3.0 guidelines. Acute toxicity was defined as any toxicity originating within 90 days of the completion of radiation therapy. Patients were characterized as having a small or large prostate depending on whether their prostate volume was less than or greater than 50 cm{sup 3}, respectively. Genitourinary toxicity was compared in these groups using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to further assess the impact of prostate volume on severe (Grade 3) acute genitourinary toxicity. Results: Patients with large prostates (>50 cm{sup 3}) had a higher rate of acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity (p = .02). Prostate volume was predictive of the likelihood of developing acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity on bivariate (p = .004) and multivariate (p = .006) logistic regression. Every 27.0 cm{sup 3} increase in prostate volume doubled the likelihood of acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity. Conclusions: Patients with larger prostates are at higher risk for the development of severe acute genitourinary toxicity when treated with IMRT for prostate cancer.

Aizer, Ayal A., E-mail: Ayal.Aizer@yale.ed [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Anderson, Nicole S.; Oh, Steven C.; Yu, James B.; McKeon, Anne M.; Decker, Roy H.; Peschel, Richard E. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

2011-02-01

234

A case report of severe visceral beta2-microglobulin-derived amyloidosis without obvious joint symptoms or radiological findings in a chronic hemodialyzed patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

Beta-2-microglobulin-derived amyloidosis (Abeta2M amyloidosis) is a critical complication for patients undergoing long-term renal replacement therapy. Osteoarticular lesions, rather than visceral organs, are susceptible to this type of amyloidosis, and the visceral form seems to occur at a relatively late stage. Herein, we report a case of severe visceral Abeta2M amyloidosis without obvious joint symptoms or radiological findings in a chronic hemodialyzed patient who had received long-term treatment with glucocorticoid steroids for systemic lupus erythematosus. It should be noted that prominent visceral Abeta2M amyloidosis can develop without any osteoarticular symptoms or radiological abnormalities in dialyzed patients undergoing prolonged glucocorticoid therapy. PMID:19527472

Koda, Ryo; Yamazaki, Hajime; Kazama, Junichiro; Ito, Tomoyuki; Saeki, Takako; Emura, Iwao; Miyamura, Syoji; Narita, Ichiei; Gejyo, Fumitake

2009-06-01

235

Severe Gouty Arthritis and Mild Neurologic Symptoms Due to F199C, a Newly Identified Variant of the Hypoxanthine Guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase  

PubMed Central

A deficiency in hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) activity leads to overproduction of uric acid. According to the degree of enzymatic deficiency, a large spectrum of neurologic features can also be observed, ranging from mild or no neurologic involvement to complete Lesch-Nyhan disease. Herein, we describe a patient with hyperuricemia, juvenile-onset gouty arthritis, nephrolithiasis, and mild neurologic symptoms, attributed to a newly identified variant of the hprt gene, c.596T>G, resulting in the amino acid change p.F199C. Residual HPRT activity (8%) protected against severe neurologic involvement in this patient. Modeling of the mutated protein was used to predict the mechanisms that led to partial enzymatic activity. Careful neurologic examination is warranted in juvenile and middle-aged patients with gout, in order to detect mild symptoms that may lead to a diagnosis of HPRT deficiency.

Ea, Hang-Korng; Bardin, Thomas; Jinnah, H. A.; Aral, Bernard; Liote, Frederic; Ceballos-Picot, Irene

2010-01-01

236

Basal ganglia dysfunction in OCD: subthalamic neuronal activity correlates with symptoms severity and predicts high-frequency stimulation efficacy  

PubMed Central

Functional and connectivity changes in corticostriatal systems have been reported in the brains of patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD); however, the relationship between basal ganglia activity and OCD severity has never been adequately established. We recently showed that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a central basal ganglia nucleus, improves OCD. Here, single-unit subthalamic neuronal activity was analysed in 12 OCD patients, in relation to the severity of obsessions and compulsions and response to STN stimulation, and compared with that obtained in 12 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). STN neurons in OCD patients had lower discharge frequency than those in PD patients, with a similar proportion of burst-type activity (69 vs 67%). Oscillatory activity was present in 46 and 68% of neurons in OCD and PD patients, respectively, predominantly in the low-frequency band (1–8?Hz). In OCD patients, the bursty and oscillatory subthalamic neuronal activity was mainly located in the associative–limbic part. Both OCD severity and clinical improvement following STN stimulation were related to the STN neuronal activity. In patients with the most severe OCD, STN neurons exhibited bursts with shorter duration and interburst interval, but higher intraburst frequency, and more oscillations in the low-frequency bands. In patients with best clinical outcome with STN stimulation, STN neurons displayed higher mean discharge, burst and intraburst frequencies, and lower interburst interval. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis of a dysfunction in the associative–limbic subdivision of the basal ganglia circuitry in OCD's pathophysiology.

Welter, M-L; Burbaud, P; Fernandez-Vidal, S; Bardinet, E; Coste, J; Piallat, B; Borg, M; Besnard, S; Sauleau, P; Devaux, B; Pidoux, B; Chaynes, P; Tezenas du Montcel, S; Bastian, A; Langbour, N; Teillant, A; Haynes, W; Yelnik, J; Karachi, C; Mallet, L

2011-01-01

237

The Quality of Spousal Social Support as a Moderator of the Associations Between Child Maltreatment Severity and Adult Trauma Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child maltreatment has been linked to a myriad of long-term difficulties, including trauma symptomatology. However, not all victims experience long-term distress. Thus, a burgeoning area of research focuses on factors that may impede or facilitate resiliency to the psychological correlates of child maltreatment. Specifically, the severity of the abusive acts may be associated with greater long-term difficulties. To date, however,

Sarah E Evans

2010-01-01

238

[Severe infection from invasive beta-hemolytic streptococcus group A. Three cases of toxic shock observed in resuscitation].  

PubMed

Group A streptococci (GAS) may cause a variety of infections, some of which are severe and may be life-threatening. Patients affected by severe invasive GAS infections may develop, early in the course of the infection, a syndrome characterized by circulatory insufficiency with multiple organ failure: Streptococcal Toxic Shock-Like syndrome (Strep-TSLS). The presence of shock and organ failure differentiate it from other types of invasive GAS infections. Three cases patients presenting with the Strep-TSLS, over a period of 16 months in our multidisciplinary 10-bed ICU are described. The Strep-TSLS was of nosocomial origin in the first case, due to poststernotomy wound infection, caused from erysipela in the second patient, and associated to a puerperal sepsis in the third case, respectively. In this small series the primary sources of streptococcal infection associated with the syndrome are confirmed to be in soft tissues and skin. One patient died early after the admission to the ICU, whereas the other two patients completely recovered with appropriate antibiotic and supportive treatment although early diagnosis and radical operative debridement may have been conclusive in one case. All 3 observed cases fulfilled the consensus case definition of "certain case of Strep-TSLS", whose criteria have been recently revised. PMID:10522133

Emmi, V; Brancaglione, A; Capra Marzani, F; Guzzardi, A; Braschi, A

1999-09-01

239

Adaptive behaviors in high-functioning Taiwanese children with autism spectrum disorders: an investigation of the mediating roles of symptom severity and cognitive ability.  

PubMed

We investigated the relationship among cognitive level, autistic severity and adaptive function in a Taiwanese sample of 94 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (mean full scale intelligent quotients FSIQ = 84.8). Parents and teachers both completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II and the Social Responsiveness Scale. Correlational and regression analyses were used to explore the relationships among the constructs of cognitive, symptomatic and adaptive domains. Results revealed that average General Adaptive Composites of these children (home: 74.0; school: 74.6) was below average FSIQ. Profile analysis revealed that Social domain was the weakness among the adaptive abilities assessed at school and home. Cognitive abilities had positive relationship with adaptive function, while autistic severity had a weak negative relationship with adaptive function. Also, the younger the age the child got diagnosed, the less severe the current symptoms of autism were. The implication for emphasizing adaptive skills intervention was discussed. PMID:23073728

Chang, Chen-Lin; Lung, For-Wey; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen

2013-06-01

240

CASE REPORT Total Management of a Severe Case of Systemic Keloids Associated With High Blood Pressure (Hypertension): Clinical Symptoms of Keloids May Be Aggravated by Hypertension.  

PubMed

Introduction: Many cases of severe keloid are associated with high blood pressure (hypertension). An analysis of 100 consecutive patients with keloid in our department in 2011 revealed that patients with multiple (>3) or large keloids (>10 cm(2)) were significantly more likely to have hypertension than patients with mild keloids (<2 or <10 cm(2)). In the present paper, a case of severe keloids associated with hypertension is described. How such patients should be treated is discussed. Methods: This 63-year-old woman had hypertension together with severe keloids that covered her right elbow, wrist joints, and thumb and made it difficult for her to use her right hand. The contractures were released by using surgery and postoperative radiation therapy. The internal medicine clinic started her on a Ca-channel blocker (amlodipine besilate) and an angiotensin II blocker (candesartan cilexetil). Results: The contractures were completely released by a distally based radial artery flap and postoperative 4 MeV electron beam irradiation (15 Gy/3 fractions for 3 days). The angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and the Ca-channel blocker improved the objective symptoms of the remaining keloids. Conclusions: If patients with severe keloids present, the possibility of hypertension should be considered: the patient may have hypertension already or may be affected in the future. Hypertension may be a risk factor of keloid deterioration. Antihypertensive treatment may reduce symptoms of patients with severe keloids. At present, surgery and postoperative radiotherapy appear to be the only solution to the functional problems experienced by patients with severe keloids. PMID:23837108

Ogawa, Rei; Arima, Juri; Ono, Shimpei; Hyakusoku, Hiko

2013-01-01

241

CASE REPORT Total Management of a Severe Case of Systemic Keloids Associated With High Blood Pressure (Hypertension): Clinical Symptoms of Keloids May Be Aggravated by Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Many cases of severe keloid are associated with high blood pressure (hypertension). An analysis of 100 consecutive patients with keloid in our department in 2011 revealed that patients with multiple (>3) or large keloids (>10 cm2) were significantly more likely to have hypertension than patients with mild keloids (<2 or <10 cm2). In the present paper, a case of severe keloids associated with hypertension is described. How such patients should be treated is discussed. Methods: This 63-year-old woman had hypertension together with severe keloids that covered her right elbow, wrist joints, and thumb and made it difficult for her to use her right hand. The contractures were released by using surgery and postoperative radiation therapy. The internal medicine clinic started her on a Ca-channel blocker (amlodipine besilate) and an angiotensin II blocker (candesartan cilexetil). Results: The contractures were completely released by a distally based radial artery flap and postoperative 4 MeV electron beam irradiation (15 Gy/3 fractions for 3 days). The angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and the Ca-channel blocker improved the objective symptoms of the remaining keloids. Conclusions: If patients with severe keloids present, the possibility of hypertension should be considered: the patient may have hypertension already or may be affected in the future. Hypertension may be a risk factor of keloid deterioration. Antihypertensive treatment may reduce symptoms of patients with severe keloids. At present, surgery and postoperative radiotherapy appear to be the only solution to the functional problems experienced by patients with severe keloids.

Ogawa, Rei; Arima, Juri; Ono, Shimpei; Hyakusoku, Hiko

2013-01-01

242

Relationship between depressive symptom severity and emergency department use among low-income, depressed homebound older adults aged 50 years and older  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research found a high prevalence of depression, along with chronic illnesses and disabilities, among older ED patients. This study examined the relationship between depressive symptom severity and the number of ED visits among low-income homebound older adults who participated in a randomized controlled trial of telehealth problem-solving therapy (PST). Methods The number of and reasons for ED visits were collected from the study participants (n=121 at baseline) at all assessment points—baseline and 12- and 24-week follow-ups. Depressive symptoms were measured with the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD). All multivariable analyses examining the relationships between ED visits and depressive symptoms were conducted using zero-inflated Poisson regression models. Results Of the participants, 67.7% used the ED at least once and 61% of the visitors made at least one return visit during the approximately 12-month period. Body pain (not from fall injury and not including chest pain) was the most common reason. The ED visit frequency at baseline and at follow-up was significantly positively associated with the HAMD scores at the assessment points. The ED visit frequency at follow-up, controlling for the ED visits at baseline, was also significantly associated with the HAMD score change since baseline. Conclusions The ED visit rate was much higher than those reported in other studies. Better education on self-management of chronic conditions, depression screening by primary care physicians and ED, and depression treatment that includes symptom management and problem-solving skills may be important to reduce ED visits among medically ill, low-income homebound adults. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00903019

2012-01-01

243

Efficacy and safety of E-OA-07 in moderate to severe symptoms of osteoarthritis: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study.  

PubMed

The efficacy and safety of a polyherbal preparation E-OA-07 was compared against placebo in patients with moderate to severe symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, in a double-blind, randomized, parallel groups study. Male or female subjects with American Rheumatism Association functional class II/III and Kellgren Lawrence grade 2 or 3 OA of the knee, who had moderate to severe OA symptoms as recorded by a score of at least 60 on the modified version of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index, and an overall pain score of at least 70 mm on a 100 mm Visual analogue (VAS) scale were studied. Subjects received 2 capsules of E-OA-07 or placebo twice daily for 12 weeks and paracetamol up to 2 gm per day as rescue medication. Efficacy outcome measures were WOMAC and VAS scores, functional tests for joint mobility and gait, consumption of rescue medication, investigator's global assessment and subjects' opinion. Safety was assessed through incidence of adverse events and subject's assessment of tolerability. After 12 weeks of treatment, there was a significant reduction of WOMAC scores in the E-OA-07 group as compared with placebo (P < 0.01). Mean (±SEM) reductions in WOMAC scores of pain, stiffness, and physical function for E-OA-07 versus placebo were 8.86 (1.77) versus 2.50 (0.76), 3.00 (0.65) versus 0.75 (0.45), and 30.00 (5.22) versus 10.87 (2.18). Significant between-group differences were also observed for VAS scores of pain and stiffness. The symptom alleviating effect of E-OA-07 persisted over a follow-up period of 4 and 6 weeks as VAS pain and stiffness scores continued to remain statistically lower (P < 0.01) in the E-OA-07 group than placebo. Subject's opinion was significantly greater in favor of E-OA-07 than placebo, whereas both groups received favorable responses from investigator. Consumption of rescue medication and tolerability ratings were similar between the 2 groups. One E-OA-07 subject was hospitalized due to accidental fall and withdrawn from the study. No other serious adverse event occurred. The effect of E-OA-07 in relieving moderate to severe symptoms of OA of the knee is well tolerated, superior, and more persistent than placebo. PMID:21317618

Kulkarni, Mugdha P; Shakeel, Aliya; Shinde, Bhakti S; Rosenbloom, Richard A

2011-01-01

244

How do you feel? Self-esteem predicts affect, stress, social interaction, and symptom severity during daily life in patients with chronic illness.  

PubMed

Self-esteem has been demonstrated to predict health and well-being in a number of samples and domains using retrospective reports, but little is known about the effect of self-esteem in daily life. A community sample with asthma (n = 97) or rheumatoid arthritis (n = 31) completed a self-esteem measure and collected Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data 5x/day for one week using a palmtop computer. Low self-esteem predicted more negative affect, less positive affect, greater stress severity, and greater symptom severity in daily life. Naturalistic exploration of mechanisms relating self-esteem to physiological and/or psychological components in illness may clarify causal relationships and inform theoretical models of self-care, well-being, and disease management. PMID:18809639

Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua M; Santuzzi, Alecia M

2008-10-01

245

Oil body-associated hazelnut allergens including oleosins are underrepresented in diagnostic extracts but associated with severe symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background Oil body-associated allergens such as oleosins have been reported for important allergenic foods such as peanut, sesame and hazelnut. Here we investigate whether oil body associated proteins (OAPs) are linked with specific clinical phenotypes and whether they are represented in skin prick test (SPT) reagents. Methods A hazelnut OAP fraction was characterized by mass-spectrometry (MS) to identify its major constituents. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies were generated against hazelnut OAPs. The presence of OAPs in commercially available hazelnut SPTs was studied by immunoblot and spiking experiments. OAP-specific IgE antibodies were measured in sera from patients with a convincing history of hazelnut allergy by RAST (n?=?91), immunoblot (n?=?22) and basophil histamine release (BHR; n?=?14). Results Hazelnut OAPs were analysed by MS and found to be dominated by oleosins at ~14 and ~17 kDa, and a 27 kDa band containing oleosin dimers and unidentified protein. In 36/91 sera specific IgE against hazelnut OAPs was detected, and confirmed to be biologically active by BHR (n?=?14). The majority (21/22) recognized the oleosin bands at 17 kDa on immunoblot, of which 11 exclusively. These OAP-specific IgE responses dominated by oleosin were associated with systemic reactions to hazelnut (OR 4.24; p?=?0.015) and negative SPT (?2 6.3, p?=?0.012). Immunoblot analysis using OAP-specific rabbit antiserum demonstrated that commercial SPT reagents are virtually devoid of OAPs, sometimes (3/9) resulting in false-negative SPT. Spiking of SPT reagents with OAP restored serum IgE binding of these false-negative patients on immunoblot at mainly 17 kDa. Conclusion Hazelnut allergens found in oil bodies dominated by oleosin are associated with more severe systemic reactions and negative SPT. Defatted diagnostic extracts are virtually devoid of these allergens, resulting in poor sensitivity for detection of IgE antibodies against these clinically relevant molecules.

2014-01-01

246

Self-reported symptoms in patients on hemodialysis with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism receiving combined therapy with cinacalcet and low-dose vitamin D sterols.  

PubMed

Patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism experience a variety of clinical symptoms which may adversely affect physical and mental function. As part of a multicenter, open-label clinical trial, subjects completed a questionnaire that included the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 and 14 kidney disease-related symptoms at multiple time points during the study. Out of the 567 subjects who received at least one dose of cinacalcet, 528 to 535 (93.8-94.4%) completed all or portions of the questionnaire at baseline. The median bioactive parathyroid hormone (PTH) was 294 pg/mL (10%, 90% range, 172-655 pg/mL). Following treatment with cinacalcet and low-dose vitamin D sterols, subjects reported significant improvement in the frequency of pain in muscles, joints and bones, stiff joints, dry skin, itchy skin, excessive thirst, and trouble with memory. At end of the efficacy assessment phase (Weeks 16 to 22), the magnitude of improvement was the greatest in joint pain, bone pain, dry skin, and excessive thirst (>5 on a 0-100 scale; P < 0.001). There were no clinically or statistically significant changes in any of the Short Form-36 subscales or in the physical or mental health composite scores. Among patients on hemodialysis with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, treatment with cinacalcet and low-dose vitamin D sterols results in significant improvement in pain in the muscles, joints and bones, joint stiffness, dry and itchy skin, excessive thirst, and trouble with memory. PMID:22118402

Chertow, Glenn M; Lu, Z John; Xu, Xiao; Knight, Tyler G; Goodman, William G; Bushinsky, David A; Block, Geoffrey A

2012-04-01

247

Assessment of 5-hydroxytryptamine efflux in rat brain during a mild, moderate and severe serotonin-toxicity syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)-toxicity syndrome, an iatrogenic brain disorder induced by excessive efflux of 5-HT, has received much attention because of increasing incidents of serotonergic antidepressants. However, the neural mechanism by which extracellular 5-HT is elevated to a toxic level for the syndrome remains to be determined. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that extracellular 5-HT

Gongliang Zhang; Swapna Krishnamoorthy; Zhiyuan Ma; Nick P. Vukovich; Xupei Huang; Rui Tao

2009-01-01

248

Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Symptoms of Severe Agitation and Aggression: Consensus Statement on Treatment Options, Clinical Trials Methodology, and Policy  

PubMed Central

Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been used off-label in clinical practice for treatment of serious dementia-associated agitation and aggression. Following reports of cerebrovascular adverse events associated with the use of atypical antipsychotic in elderly patients with dementia, the FDA issued black box warnings for several atypical antipsychotics, titled “Cerebrovascular Adverse Events, including Stroke, in Elderly Patients with Dementia.” Subsequently, the FDA initiated a meta-analysis of safety data from 17 registration trials across six antipsychotic drugs (five atypical antipsychotics and haloperidol). In 2005, the Agency issued a black box warning regarding increased risk of mortality associated with the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs in this patient population. Geriatric mental health experts participating in a 2006 consensus conference reviewed evidence on the safety and efficacy of antipsychotics, as well as nonpharmacologic approaches, in treating dementia-related symptoms of agitation and aggression. They concluded that, while problems in clinical trials design may have been one of the contributors to the failure to find a signal of drug efficacy, the findings related to drug safety should be taken seriously by clinicians in assessing the potential risks and benefits of treatment in a frail population, and in advising families about treatment. Information provided to patients and family members should be documented in the patient’s chart. Drugs should be used only when non-pharmacologic approaches have failed to adequately control behavioral disruption. Participants also agreed that that there is a need for an FDA-approved medication for the treatment of severe, persistent or recurrent dementia-related symptoms of agitation and aggression (even in the absence of psychosis), that are unresponsive to nonpharmacologic intervention. The authors have outlined methodological enhancements to better evaluate treatment approaches in future registration trials, and they provided an algorithm for improving the treatment of these patients in nursing home and non-nursing home settings.

Salzman, C; Jeste, D; Meyer, RE; Cohen-Mansfield, J; Cummings, J; Grossberg, G; Jarvik, L; Kraemer, H; Lebowitz, B; Maslow, K; Pollock, B; Raskind, M; Schultz, S; Wang, P; Zito, JM; Zubenko, GS

2009-01-01

249

Multiple White Matter Volume Reductions in Patients with Panic Disorder: Relationships between Orbitofrontal Gyrus Volume and Symptom Severity and Social Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Numerous brain regions are believed to be involved in the neuropathology of panic disorder (PD) including fronto-limbic regions, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. However, while several previous studies have demonstrated volumetric gray matter reductions in these brain regions, there have been no studies evaluating volumetric white matter changes in the fiber bundles connecting these regions. In addition, although patients with PD typically exhibit social, interpersonal and occupational dysfunction, the neuropathologies underlying these dysfunctions remain unclear. A voxel-based morphometry study was conducted to evaluate differences in regional white matter volume between 40 patients with PD and 40 healthy control subjects (HC). Correlation analyses were performed between the regional white matter volumes and patients' scores on the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Patients with PD demonstrated significant volumetric reductions in widespread white matter regions including fronto-limbic, thalamo-cortical and cerebellar pathways (p<0.05, FDR corrected). Furthermore, there was a significant negative relationship between right orbitofrontal gyrus (OFG) white matter volume and the severity of patients' clinical symptoms, as assessed with the PDSS. A significant positive relationship was also observed between patients' right OFG volumes and their scores on the GAF. Our results suggest that volumetric reductions in widespread white matter regions may play an important role in the pathology of PD. In particular, our results suggest that structural white matter abnormalities in the right OFG may contribute to the social, personal and occupational dysfunction typically experienced by patients with PD.

Konishi, Jun; Asami, Takeshi; Hayano, Fumi; Yoshimi, Asuka; Hayasaka, Shunsuke; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Whitford, Thomas J.; Inoue, Tomio; Hirayasu, Yoshio

2014-01-01

250

Streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections and psychosocial stress predict future tic and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Background: One goal of this prospective longitudinal study was to identify new group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to healthy control subjects. We then examined the power of GABHS infections and measures of psychosocial stress to predict future tic, obsessive-compulsive (OC), and depressive symptom severity. Methods: Consecutive ratings of tic, OC and depressive symptom severity were obtained for 45 cases and 41 matched control subjects over a two-year period. Clinical raters were blinded to the results of laboratory tests. Laboratory personnel were blinded to case or control status and clinical ratings. Structural equation modeling for unbalanced repeated measures was used to assess the sequence of new GABHS infections and psychosocial stress and their impact on future symptom severity. Results: Increases in tic and OC symptom severity did not occur after every new GABHS infection. However, the structural equation model found that these newly diagnosed infections were predictive of modest increases in future tic and OC symptom severity, but did not predict future depressive symptom severity. In addition, the inclusion of new infections in the model greatly enhanced, by a factor of three, the power of psychosocial stress in predicting future tic and OC symptom severity. Conclusions: Our data suggest that a minority of children with TS and early-onset OCD were sensitive to antecedent GABHS infections. These infections also enhanced the predictive power of current psychosocial stress on future tic and OC symptom severity.

Lin, Haiqun; Williams, Kyle A.; Katsovich, Liliya; Findley, Diane B.; Grantz, Heidi; Lombroso, Paul J.; King, Robert A.; Bessen, Debra E.; Johnson, Dwight; Kaplan, Edward L.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F.

2009-01-01

251

A short 2 week dose titration regimen reduces the severity of flu-like symptoms with initial interferon gamma-1b treatment.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives: Flu-like symptoms (FLS) are commonly experienced by patients receiving interferon gamma-1b which may cause discontinuation or disruption of dosing during initial therapy or on re-initiation following a break in therapy. In contrast to Type I interferons, the impact of dose-titration on FLS has not been reported and is not a practice described or included in the approved prescribing information for interferon gamma-1b.The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a 2 week titration regimen on the severity of FLS during the initial 3 weeks of therapy with three times weekly subcutaneous injections of interferon gamma-1b. Methods: Healthy men and women were randomized into a double-blind, two-period, crossover study. Each study period was 3 weeks in duration and there was a minimum 15 day washout between treatment periods. Two treatment regimens were compared: No Titration dosing (full 50?mcg/m(2) subcutaneously [SC] three times weekly for 3 weeks) and Titration (15?mcg/m(2) SC three times weekly during week 1, 30?mcg/m(2) SC three times weekly during week 2 followed by the full dose of 50?mcg/m(2) SC three times weekly during week 3). Subjects remained in the clinic for at least 12 hours following each injection. FLS was based on a composite score for fever, chills, tiredness and muscle aches assessed at baseline and 4, 8 and 12 hours following each injection. Acetaminophen was allowed at the discretion of the PI. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in FLS severity at 8 hours averaged over the 3 weeks of treatment. Additional endpoints included FLS at 4 and 12 hours, individual flu-like symptoms, rates of discontinuation, incidence of FLS and acetaminophen use. Clinical trials registration: NCT 01929382. Results: Of the 40 subjects randomized, there were 15 (37.5%) discontinuations. Titration resulted in a significant reduction in FLS severity at 8 hours (p?=?0.023) averaged over the 3 week treatment period. The difference in 3 week FLS severity reflects differences during week 1 treatment, indicating an early peak in FLS severity during the No Titration treatment and subsequent development of tolerance. In contrast, titration results in near baseline severity scores throughout the treatment period. Similar trends were seen for 4 and 12 hour FLS severity scores. Of the individual FLS, difference in fever severity was most marked. Safety profiles for both regimens were consistent with the approved prescribing information for interferon gamma-1b. Study limitations included the use of healthy subjects rather than disease subjects, the lack of a validated assessment tool for evaluating FLS and the relatively high discontinuation rate. Conclusion: A short 2 week, dose-titration regimen reduces FLS severity following interferon gamma-1b treatment initiation in normal subjects. PMID:24576196

Devane, John G; Martin, Mary L; Matson, Mark A

2014-06-01

252

Effect of Toxic Leadership.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When focusing on toxic leadership, many researchers emphasize the symptoms of toxicity (i.e., individual characteristics, traits) and not the disease (i.e., culture, climate, outcomes). Although characteristics and traits may be helpful in identifying tox...

D. W. Aubrey

2012-01-01

253

Menopausal Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Menopause is considered to be a major turning point in a women's life. It is accompanied by a variety of physical and psychological\\u000a changes that can significantly impair one's quality of life. Menopausal symptoms among cancer survivors often occur at an\\u000a earlier age, and can be more frequent, last longer, and be more severe than are seen in women experiencing

Debra L. Barton; Aditya Bardia; Charles Loprinzi

254

Discordance between self-reported symptom severity and psychosocial functioning ratings in depressed outpatients: Implications for how remission from depression should be defined  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of depression is based on the presence of symptoms along with functional impairment. One might therefore expect the definition of remission of depressive disorder to be based on the resolution of both symptoms and functional impairments. This, however, is not how the field has been defining remission. Rather, in treatment studies of depression, remission has been defined in

Mark Zimmerman; Joseph B. McGlinchey; Michael A. Posternak; Michael Friedman; Daniela Boerescu; Naureen Attiullah

2006-01-01

255

The Efficacy of Echinacea Compound Herbal Tea Preparation on the Severity and Duration of Upper Respiratory and Flu Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of an echinacea compound herbal tea preparation (Echinacea Plus®) given at early onset of cold or flu symptoms in a ran- dom assignment double-blind placebo-controlled study. Design and Subjects: A total of 95 subjects with early symptoms of cold or flu (runny nose, scratchy throat, fever) were randomly assigned

G. Frank Lindenmuth; Elise B. Lindenmuth

2000-01-01

256

STRUCTURE-TOXICITY RELATIONSHIPS FOR INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS CAUSING TYPE(II) NARCOSIS SYNDROME  

EPA Science Inventory

Several structure-activity relationships have been published for estimating the lethality of nonpolar nonelectrolytes to fish. The vast majority of non-reactive industrial chemicals produce toxicity symptoms consistent with narcosis. However, researchers have found that many chem...

257

Multi-analyte profile analysis of plasma immune proteins: altered expression of peripheral immune factors is associated with neuropsychiatric symptom severity in adults with and without chronic hepatitis C virus infection  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated differences in the expression of 47 inflammatory factors and to evaluate the potential role of peripheral immune activation in HCV-associated neuropsychiatric symptoms—depression, anxiety, fatigue, and pain. An additional objective was to evaluate the role of immune factor dysregulation in the expression of specific neuropsychiatric symptoms to identify biomarkers that may be relevant to the treatment of these neuropsychiatric symptoms in adults with or without HCV. Methods Blood samples and neuropsychiatric symptom severity scales were collected from HCV-infected adults (HCV+, n = 39) and demographically similar noninfected controls (HCV?, n = 40). Multi-analyte profile analysis was used to evaluate plasma biomarkers. Results Compared with HCV? controls, HCV+ adults reported significantly (P < 0.050) greater depression, anxiety, fatigue, and pain, and they were more likely to present with an increased inflammatory profile as indicated by significantly higher plasma levels of 40% (19/47) of the factors assessed (21%, after correcting for multiple comparisons). Within the HCV+ group, but not within the HCV? group, an increased inflammatory profile (indicated by the number of immune factors > the LDC) significantly correlated with depression, anxiety, and pain. Within the total sample, neuropsychiatric symptom severity was significantly predicted by protein signatures consisting of 4–10 plasma immune factors; protein signatures significantly accounted for 19–40% of the variance in depression, anxiety, fatigue, and pain. Conclusions Overall, the results demonstrate that altered expression of a network of plasma immune factors contributes to neuropsychiatric symptom severity. These findings offer new biomarkers to potentially facilitate pharmacotherapeutic development and to increase our understanding of the molecular pathways associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms in adults with or without HCV.

Huckans, Marilyn; Fuller, Bret E; Olavarria, Hannah; Sasaki, Anna W; Chang, Michael; Flora, Kenneth D; Kolessar, Michael; Kriz, Daniel; Anderson, Jeanne R; Vandenbark, Arthur A; Loftis, Jennifer M

2014-01-01

258

Toxic & Harmful Algal Blooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Primarily through the use of engaging graphics, this resource outlines where Toxic and Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) occur in U.S. waters. It also addresses the differences between toxic and non-toxic HABs, which organisms in the food web are affected, how specific toxins work and the symptoms associated with them, and the causative phytoplankton species.

2001-03-19

259

A single residue in the 126-kDa protein of pepper mild mottle virus controls the severity of symptoms on infected green bell pepper plants.  

PubMed

Infectious cDNA clones originally derived from a mild strain of Pepper mild mottle virus were constructed by replacing residue 649, a critical point for attenuation of this virus, with all possible amino acids. All clones were infectious to pepper plants and induced a variety of symptoms, including no visible symptoms. The results of this study showed that a single amino acid mutation at residue 649 could control the function of the 126- and 183-kDa proteins, replicases with multiple roles in the life cycle of this virus. PMID:19184640

Ichiki, T U; Nagaoka, E N; Hagiwara, K; Sasaya, T; Omura, T

2009-01-01

260

Economic modeling to assess the costs of treatment with finasteride, terazosin, and transurethral resection of the prostate for men with moderate to severe symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesWe developed a decision analytic model to compare the costs of treatment for an initial 2-year period with finasteride, terazosin, and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) in men with at least moderate symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Outcome measures were BPH treatment costs, duration of symptomatic improvement, and lost productivity days (work or other customary activity).

Franklin C. Lowe; Ron L. Mcdaniel; Joseph J. Chmiel; Alan L. Hillman

1995-01-01

261

Risk Assessment in Forensic Patients with Schizophrenia: The Predictive Validity of Actuarial Scales and Symptom Severity for Offending and Violence over 8 – 10 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of risk of violence is essential in the management of patients with schizophrenia admitted to secure hospitals. The present study was conducted to test the validity of actuarial measures and psychotic symptoms in the prediction of further violence and offending in this group. The H-10 scale of the HCR-20, Violence Risk Appraisal Guide and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised were scored retrospectively.

Lindsay Thomson; Michelle Davidson; Caroline Brett; Jonathan Steele; Rajan Darjee

2008-01-01

262

Comparison of Work-related Symptoms and Visual Contrast Sensitivity between Employees at a Severely Water-damaged School and a School without Significant Water Damage  

EPA Science Inventory

NIOSH received a request for a health hazard evaluation at a water-damaged school in New Orleans, Louisiana. Employees submitted the request because of concerns about exposure to mold in their school building. We administered a work history and health symptom questionnaire. We al...

263

Anxiety, depression and psychosomatic symptoms in patients with atopic dermatitis: comparison with normal controls and among groups of different degrees of severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disorder. The age distribution is mainly located from infancy to adolescence, which period is the most important for forming character or effecting their psychological condition. We used three types of psychological tests to investigate anxiety, depression and psychosomatic symptoms in 45 patients with atopic dermatitis and 34 normal controls. These tests consisted of the

Makoto Hashiro; Mutsuko Okumura

1997-01-01

264

The Relationship Between Parenting Style, Cognitive Style, and Anxiety and Depression: Does Increased Early Adversity Influence Symptom Severity Through the Mediating Role of Cognitive Style?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the central role accorded to cognitive style in mediating the relationship between negative parenting and the development of anxiety and depression, few studies have empirically examined this relationship. Using a clinical sample, this study examined the relationship between early experiences with low care, increased control, abuse and neglect, and symptoms of anxiety and depression, via the mediating effects of

Lata K. McGinn; Daniel Cukor; William C. Sanderson

2005-01-01

265

Females and Toxic Leadership.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Is there a gender component in toxic leadership. To adequately answer this primary research question, several other secondary research questions must be addressed: What is the definition of toxic leadership; What are the specific characteristics of toxic ...

N. Carrington

2012-01-01

266

The Manganese Toxicity of Cotton 1  

PubMed Central

Cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum. Linn. var. Sankar 4) were grown at normal and toxic levels of substrate manganese, and the altered metabolism of manganese toxic plants was studied. The tissues of plants exposed to toxic levels of manganese had higher activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase, and the activities of catalase, ascorbic acid oxidase, glutathione oxidase and cytochrome c oxidase were lowered. In addition, the high manganese tissue had lower contents of ATP and glutathione but higher amounts of ascorbic acid. The respiration of the partially expanded leaves and the growing tips of toxic plants were depressed when compared to that of the normal tissues. The metabolic changes of manganese toxicity of cotton are placed in the following order: accumulation of manganese in the leaf tissue; a rise in respiration; stimulation of polyphenol oxidase; the appearance of initial toxicity symptoms; the evolution of ethylene and stimulation of peroxidase; the presence of severe toxicity symptoms; the depression of terminal oxidases and respiration; abscission of the growing tip and proliferation of the stem tissue. The early stimulation of polyphenol oxidase may be used to detect potential manganese toxicity.

Sirkar, Sheela; Amin, J. V.

1974-01-01

267

A preliminary path analysis: Effect of psychopathological symptoms, mental and physical dysfunctions related to quality of life and body mass index on fatigue severity of Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease with fatigue as most prevalent symptom. Psychopathological symptoms, physical and mental dysfunctions and body mass abnormalities potentially could deteriorate fatigue. Thus, in this study, we aimed at evaluating the effect of these factors on fatigue severity of MS patients. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 162 patients with mean age of 34.1 ± 9.4 (16-58 years) were recruited by consecutive sampling. All the patients, after completing demographic information were evaluated using Persian versions of Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21), and short form Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36). Results Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between fatigue severity and depression, anxiety, stress, physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) (P < 0.01). Findings of path analysis demonstrated that PCS is the only variable which has a direct effect on fatigue severity (? = -0.278, P < 0.05). Moreover, the strongest standard coefficient (?) belonged to cause and effect relationship between MCS and depression (? = -0.691, P < 0.0001). Conclusion Present study made the role of psychopathological symptoms and physical and mental dysfunctions prominent in exacerbation of fatigue severity. Moreover, we can refer to more sensible effect of physical dysfunction related to life on fatigue.

Hosseininezhad, Mozaffar; Rezaei, Sajjad

2012-01-01

268

Changes in Severity of Allergy and Anxiety Symptoms Are Positively Correlated in Patients with Recurrent Mood Disorders Who Are Exposed to Seasonal Peaks of Aeroallergens  

PubMed Central

Considering clinical and animal evidence suggesting a relationship between allergy and anxiety, we hypothesized that, from low to high aeroallergen exposure, changes in anxiety symptom scores in patients with primary mood disorders will correlate with changes in allergy symptom scores. We also anticipated that sensitization to tree pollen, as determined by allergen specific IgE antibodies, will predict a greater worsening of anxiety during exposure to tree pollen. 51 patients with unipolar or bipolar disorder (age: 19-63 years, 65% female) were recruited. Tree- pollen IgE positive subjects (12) were included as the experimental group and patients negative to a multi-allergen serological test (39) were included in the control group. Self reports of anxiety and allergy symptoms were obtained once during the peak airborne pollen counts and once during the period of low airborne pollen counts, as reported by two local pollen counting stations. Using linear regression models, we confirmed a significant positive association between allergy scores and anxiety scores (p<0.04); however, the IgE specific tree pollen positivity was not significantly associated with changes in anxiety scores. Because changes in anxiety scores relate to changes in depression scores, the relationship between allergy and anxiety involves states rather than only traits, and as such, our results lead to future efforts to uncover potential anxiety triggering, exacerbating or perpetuating role of allergens in vulnerable individuals.

Postolache, Teodor T; Langenberg, Patricia; Zimmerman, Sarah A; Lapidus, Manana; Komarow, Hirsh; McDonald, Jessica S; Furst, Nancy; Dzhanashvili, Natalya; Scrandis, Debra; Bai, Jie; Postolache, Bernadine; Soriano, Joseph J; Vittone, Bernard; Guzman, Alvaro; Woo, Jong-Min; Stiller, John; Hamilton, Robert G; Tonelli, Leonardo H

2009-01-01

269

Changes in Severity of Allergy and Anxiety Symptoms Are Positively Correlated in Patients with Recurrent Mood Disorders Who Are Exposed to Seasonal Peaks of Aeroallergens.  

PubMed

Considering clinical and animal evidence suggesting a relationship between allergy and anxiety, we hypothesized that, from low to high aeroallergen exposure, changes in anxiety symptom scores in patients with primary mood disorders will correlate with changes in allergy symptom scores. We also anticipated that sensitization to tree pollen, as determined by allergen specific IgE antibodies, will predict a greater worsening of anxiety during exposure to tree pollen. 51 patients with unipolar or bipolar disorder (age: 19-63 years, 65% female) were recruited. Tree- pollen IgE positive subjects (12) were included as the experimental group and patients negative to a multi-allergen serological test (39) were included in the control group. Self reports of anxiety and allergy symptoms were obtained once during the peak airborne pollen counts and once during the period of low airborne pollen counts, as reported by two local pollen counting stations. Using linear regression models, we confirmed a significant positive association between allergy scores and anxiety scores (p<0.04); however, the IgE specific tree pollen positivity was not significantly associated with changes in anxiety scores. Because changes in anxiety scores relate to changes in depression scores, the relationship between allergy and anxiety involves states rather than only traits, and as such, our results lead to future efforts to uncover potential anxiety triggering, exacerbating or perpetuating role of allergens in vulnerable individuals. PMID:19430577

Postolache, Teodor T; Langenberg, Patricia; Zimmerman, Sarah A; Lapidus, Manana; Komarow, Hirsh; McDonald, Jessica S; Furst, Nancy; Dzhanashvili, Natalya; Scrandis, Debra; Bai, Jie; Postolache, Bernadine; Soriano, Joseph J; Vittone, Bernard; Guzman, Alvaro; Woo, Jong-Min; Stiller, John; Hamilton, Robert G; Tonelli, Leonardo H

2008-01-01

270

Symptom Management  

MedlinePLUS

... TBI Educational Materials Research DVBIC Locations Press Symptom Management A brain injury can affect a person physically ... Diagnosis and Assessment Treatment and Recovery Caregiving Symptom Management Life After TBI Defense and Veterans Brain Injury ...

271

Symptoms of Tickborne Illness  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms include headache, fatigue, and muscle aches. With Lyme disease you may also experience joint pain. The severity ... disease and the patient's personal tolerance level. Rash: Lyme disease , southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI) , Rocky Mountain ...

272

Kynurenine Pathway Pathologies: do Nicotinamide and Other Pathway Co-Factors have a Therapeutic Role in Reduction of Symptom Severity, Including Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and Fibromyalgia (FM).  

PubMed

The definition of dual tryptophan pathways has increased the understanding of the mind-body, body-mind dichotomy. The serotonergic pathway highlights the primary (endogenous) psychiatric disorders. The up-regulation of the kynurenine pathway by physical illnesses can cause neuropathic and immunological disorders1 associated with secondary neuropsychiatric symptoms. Tryptophan and nicotinamide deficiencies fall within the protein energy malnutrition (PEM) spectrum. They can arise if the kynurenine pathway is stressed by primary or secondary inflammatory conditions and the consequent imbalance of available catabolic/anabolic substrates may adversely influence convalescent phase efficiency. The replacement of depleted or reduced NAD+ levels and other cofactors can perhaps improve the clinical management of these disorders. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM) appear to meet the criteria of a tryptophan-kynurenine pathway disorder with potential neuroimmunological sequelae. Aspects of some of the putative precipitating factors have been previously outlined.2,3 An analysis of the areas of metabolic dysfunction will focus on future directions for research and management. PMID:23922501

Blankfield, Adele

2013-01-01

273

Predicting Symptom Return from Rate of Symptom Reduction in Cognitive–Behavior Therapy for Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have examined rates of symptom reduction and symptom return across treatment modalities; however, few studies have investigated the degree to which rate of symptom reduction during treatment is related to symptom return following treatment. We examined the relation between symptom return 3 and 6 months after completing treatment and several measures of symptom reduction during treatment, including amount

Darcy A. Santor; Zindel V. Segal

2001-01-01

274

Work-related symptoms and inflammation among sewage plant operatives.  

PubMed

Sewage operatives at five sewage treatment plants (n = 59) and controls not exposed to sewage (n = 55) were examined to determine work-related symptoms and inflammatory responses. Symptoms were elicited using a questionnaire, and spirometry was performed. Inflammatory markers were determined in blood and nasal lavage. Workplace endotoxin and hydrogen sulfide were measured and adeno- and enterovirus antibodies were evaluated in blood. Gastrointestinal and airway symptoms, joint pains, unusual tiredness, and toxic pneumonitis were more common among operatives, and the proportion of blood neutrophils was higher among operatives as compared with controls. A relationship was found between several reported symptoms and the inflammatory markers. Hydrogen sulfide levels were very low. Endotoxin levels were generally low, but high at some work sites. PMID:15070030

Thorn, Jörgen; Beijer, Lena

2004-01-01

275

Mild Heating of Amphotericin B-Desoxycholate: Effects on Ultrastructure, In Vitro Activity and Toxicity, and Therapeutic Efficacy in Severe Candidiasis in Leukopenic Mice  

PubMed Central

Heated (20 min at 70°C) amphotericin B-desoxycholate (hAMB-DOC) was further characterized, as was another formulation obtained after centrifugation (60 min, 3000 × g), hcAMB-DOC. Conventional AMB-DOC consisted of individual micelles (approximately 4 nm in diameter) and threadlike aggregated micelles, as revealed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. For both hAMB-DOC and hcAMB-DOC, pleiomorphic cobweb structures were observed with a mean particle size of approximately 300 nm as determined by laser diffraction. The potent antifungal activity of AMB-DOC against Candida albicans is not reduced by heating. Effective killing of C. albicans (>99.9% within 6 h) was obtained at 0.1 mg/liter with each of the AMB formulations. For AMB-DOC, hAMB-DOC, and hcAMB-DOC, cation release (86Rb+) from C. albicans of ?50% was observed at 0.8, 0.4, and 0.4 mg/liter, respectively. After heating of AMB-DOC, toxicity was reduced 16-fold as determined by red blood cell (RBC) lysis. For AMB-DOC, hAMB-DOC, and hcAMB-DOC, hemolysis of ?50% was observed at 6.4, 102.4, and 102.4 mg/liter, respectively. In contrast, AMB-DOC and its derivates showed similar toxicities in terms of cation release from RBC. For AMB-DOC, hAMB-DOC, and hcAMB-DOC, cation release (86Rb+) of ?50% was observed at 1.6, 0.8, and 0.8 mg/liter, respectively. In persistently leukopenic mice with severe invasive candidiasis, higher dosages of both hAMB-DOC and hcAMB-DOC were tolerated than those of conventional AMB-DOC (3 versus 0.8 mg/kg of body weight, respectively), resulting in significantly improved therapeutic efficacy. In conclusion, this new approach of heating AMB-DOC may be of great value for further optimizing the treatment of severe fungal infections.

van Etten, Els W. M.; van Vianen, Wim; Roovers, Patty; Frederik, Peter

2000-01-01

276

Palliative chemotherapy in head and neck squamous cell cancer - What is best in Indian population? A time without symptoms, treatment toxicity score based study  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients with recurrent and metastatic head and neck Squamous Cell Cancer (HNSCC) have poor prognosis with limited treatment options. In view of decimal prognosis, the treatment decision should include quality of life (QOL) issues, cost-effectiveness besides the response rates and survival. Aim: Present retrospective analysis was conducted to evaluate efficacy (disease-free survival), pharmacoeconomics, and toxicity profile of four (4) different regimens, viz. gefitinib alone, gefitinib with methotrexate, methotrexate alone, or 5-FU with cisplatin. Materials and Methods: Case records between 2007 September and 2008 September were analyzed, 68 patients were found suitable for analysis. Patients received gefitinib (250 mg/day), methotrexate as 50 mg intramuscular weekly or a combination of the same or 5-FU 750 mg/m2/day for 4 days along with cisplatin 75 mg/m2/day on day 1 in 21-day cycle. Results: A total of 68 patients received therapy. Fifty-one patients have clinically meaningful response (stable disease + complete + partial responses) (75%) and had symptomatic improvement. The median progression-free survival was significantly superior in responders (those who achieved partial or complete response) (8.4 months vs. 3.1 months, P=0.001). Methotrexate with gefitinib had maximum median survival and better overall QOL compared to the other treatment regimens. Weekly methotrexate is relatively cost-effective followed by methotrexate with gefitinib and gefitinib alone. 5-FU with cisplatin in our experience does not appear so attractive in view of high complication rates (when given in full doses) and prolonged hospital stay. Conclusion: Based on the results of this retrospective analysis, methotrexate weekly as single agent or in combination with gefitinib appears as an attractive alternative regimen for patients with metastatic HNSCC including those having poor performance status. A prospective study was planned and submitted to the local ethics committee based on above results to validate these results and compare methotrexate and gefitinib arm with 5-FU + cisplatin.

Anuradha, V.; Anand, B. B.; Suresh, A. V. S.; Sinha, Sudha; Babu, S. Chinna; Suresh, K.

2013-01-01

277

Adaptive Behaviors in High-Functioning Taiwanese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Investigation of the Mediating Roles of Symptom Severity and Cognitive Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the relationship among cognitive level, autistic severity and adaptive function in a Taiwanese sample of 94 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (mean full scale intelligent quotients FSIQ = 84.8). Parents and teachers both completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II and the Social Responsiveness…

Chang, Chen-Lin; Lung, For-Wey; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen

2013-01-01

278

Analysis of the Effect of Memantine in Reducing the Worsening of Clinical Symptoms in Patients with Moderate to Severe Alzheimer’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and delaying disease worsening is a relevant treatment outcome. Methods: Data from 6 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-month studies were pooled and a subgroup of patients (867 on placebo, 959 on memantine) with moderate to severe AD (Mini- Mental State Examination <20) was analyzed. ‘Any clinical worsening’ was defined as a decline

David Wilkinson; Henning Friis Andersen

2007-01-01

279

Amphetamine toxicity in the emergency department.  

PubMed

XTC and other amphetamines are considered to be safe by the majority of partying young people who are unaware of (or unwilling to know about) the acute and chronic toxicity of these substances, and these drugs are widespread, illicit stimulants. In this article, we describe four cases of severe acute toxicity due to recreational use of amphetamines 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 4-methylthioamphetamine or p-methoxyamphetamine, with emphasis on the presenting symptoms and acute treatment in the emergency department. PMID:16034267

Smets, Gert; Bronselaer, Koen; De Munnynck, Katja; De Feyter, Koen; Van de Voorde, Wim; Sabbe, Marc

2005-08-01

280

Rotavirus Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rotavirus Facebook Reccomend Twitter Tweet Share Compartir Add this ... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Symptoms Español: Síntomas Rotavirus disease is most common in infants and young ...

281

Syphilis Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Syphilis Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... occurs in four stages that sometimes overlap. Primary Syphilis The first symptom of primary syphilis is often ...

282

Comparison of chromaffin cells from several animal sources for their use as an in vitro model to study the mechanism of organophosphorous toxicity.  

PubMed

It had been observed that the chromaffin cells of bovine adrenal medulla contain high levels of neuropathy target esterase (NTE), the esterase whose inhibition and aging is associated with induction of the organophosphorous induced delayed neuropathy. In this study, total esterase and NTE activities, and their inhibition kinetics by OPs are characterized in adrenal medulla of several species in order to find the best source for chromaffin cells. Total esterase activity in membrane fraction of bovine, equine, porcine, ovine and caprine were 6100+/-840, 4200+/-270, 5000+/-120, 28800+/-3000, and 10800+/-2400mU/gtissue, respectively (mean+/-S.D., n=3-4). NTE represented around 70%, 24%, 58%, 10% and 24% of the total esterases in the same tissues, respectively. It was deduced that NTE represents between 69% and 89% of the "B-activity" (activity resistant to 40microM paraoxon) in the membrane fraction of all species. The mipafox I(50) calculated for 30-min inhibition of NTE at 37 degrees Celsius ranged between 7.4 and 12microM. These values are in the range of that for brain NTE in hen (the usual model for testing OP delayed neurotoxicity). Considering that bovine adrenal medulla contains high NTE activity, that it represents a high proportion of total activity, it is easier to dissect than adrenal medulla from equine, caprine or ovine, and is more readily available than species cited previously, and that its inhibitory properties are similar to the classical hen brain model, it is deduced that bovine adrenal medulla is the most appropriate source of chromaffin cells to study OP toxicity, with porcine as the second alternative. The kinetic properties of chromaffin cell cultures from bovine and porcine were in accordance with their properties in homogenate and subcellular fractions, and they displayed an appropriate stability and viability of the primary culture to be used in in vitro toxicological studies for both mechanistic and testing purposes. PMID:16797889

Romero, D; Quesada, E; Sogorb, M A; García-Fernández, A J; Vilanova, E; Carrera, V

2006-09-10

283

CO sub 2 - toxicity in greenhouse tomato: Interaction with carbohydrate metabolism  

SciTech Connect

Greenhouse tomatoes grown with CO{sub 2}-enrichment at 1000 ul/l exhibit a non-epinastic foliar deformation (CO{sub 2}-toxicity). Symptoms include yellowing and purpling of the leaf blade accompanied by helical twisting and undercurling of the blade and midrib. Toxicity symptoms were more severe and yield response to CO{sub 2}-enrichment was reduced in the tomato cultivar Laura compared to Michigan-Ohio. There was no clear relationship between foliar starch concentration and toxicity severity between cultivars but CO{sub 2}-enriched plants had more foliar starch than non-enriched plants. Increased foliar soluble sugar concentrations do appear to be associated with increased toxicity severity and possibly decreased yield response to CO{sub 2}-enrichment.

Tripp, K.E.; Peet, M.M.; Pharr, D.M.; Willits, D.H. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA))

1989-04-01

284

Organic dust toxic syndrome among farmers.  

PubMed Central

Clinical symptoms and exposure conditions were investigated in 80 farmers with organic dust toxic syndrome, defined as the occurrence of febrile reactions after exposure to organic dust in subjects with no evidence of allergic alveolitis. The material was compiled from a field study of febrile reactions in the farming community and the diagnosis was based on interviews performed by physicians. Of the 75 men (mean age 44) and five women (mean age 39), only 13% of the men and none of the women were current smokers. One attack had been experienced by 44% and the remaining subjects had had two or more attacks, often several years apart. The duration of symptoms was 24 hours or less in 46% of the farmers and in 95% of the cases the symptoms lasted less than one week. The attacks were most common in the autumn and were usually provoked by handling grain (80% of the farmers with organic dust toxic syndrome). Other causes were hay, straw, wood chips, and silocapping material. The material was usually described as extremely mouldy and the episodes were usually provoked by unusual work tasks such as cleaning grain bins or removing mouldy feed. Twenty three farmers had consulted physicians: five of nine examined during symptoms had slightly abnormal chest radiographs and two of four examined had decreased arterial oxygen tension. Spirometry performed during a symptom free interval was normal.

Rask-Andersen, A

1989-01-01

285

Efficacy and Safety of the Selective ?1A-Adrenoceptor Blocker Silodosin for Severe Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Associated With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Prospective, Single-Open-Label, Multicenter Study in Korea  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of silodosin 8 mg once daily in a 12-week treatment of subjects with severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods A total of 100 subjects from 10 urology centers in Korea were included in this study. The inclusion criteria were as follows: age ?50 years, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ?20, quality of life (QoL) score ?3, urine volume ?120 mL and maximal urinary flow rate (Qmax) <15 mL/s, and postvoid residual volume (PVR) <100 mL. We assessed the improvement of LUTS with change in IPSS, QoL score, Qmax, PVR, and adverse events at baseline and 4 and 12 weeks after treatment with silodosin 8 mg once daily. Results The IPSS values were 23.27±3.34, 15.89±6.26, and 13.80±6.31 at baseline, 4, and 12 weeks, respectively, with significant improvements (p<0.0001, p=0.0214, respectively). QoL scores were 4.44±0.85, 3.38±1.20, and 3.04±1.20 at baseline, 4, and 12 weeks, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (p<0.0001). There was a significant difference in Qmax between baseline and 12 weeks (p<0.0001) but not in PVR (p=0.9404) during the clinical trial. The most frequent adverse event in this study was ejaculation failure with 13 cases. However, no subject dropped out because of ejaculation failure, and in 12 of the 13 cases it was fully resolved without further treatment. Conclusions Silodosin 8 mg once daily may be effective and safe in Korean patients with severe LUTS associated with BPH.

Moon, Ki Hak; Song, Phil Hyun; Yang, Dae Yul; Park, Nam Cheol; Kim, Soo Woong; Lee, Sung Won; Kim, Sae Woong; Moon, Du Geon; Park, Jong Kwan; Ahn, Tai Young

2014-01-01

286

A Rating Scale for Psychotic Symptoms (RSPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a new rating scale for the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia and related psychoses. The scale links specific symptoms of psychopathology to dysfunction and overactivity of dopaminergic mechanisms underlying the processes of reward and selective attention. The Rating Scale for Psychotic Symptoms (RSPS) is a 44-item rating instrument with a seven-point severity scale for each item. Psychotic symptoms

Guy Chouinard; Robert Miller

1999-01-01

287

Boron toxicity in the rare serpentine plant, Streptanthus morrisonii.  

PubMed

The release of boron-laden mist from the cooling towers of some geothermal power stations in northern California potentially threatens nearby populations of the rare serpentine plant, Streptanthus morrisonii F. W. Hoffm. To assess the tolerance of S. morrisonii to high levels of boron, the effect of boron on leaf condition, life history, germination rate, growth rate, allocation and photosynthesis was measured on plants grown in a greenhouse. Relative to other species, S. morrisonii was tolerant of excess boron. On serpentine soil, mild to moderate toxicity symptoms (older leaves exhibiting chlorosis and necrosis, but few leaves killed) were apparent when the boron concentration in applied nutrient solutions was 240-650 microm. Severe toxicity symptoms (significant leaf loss, young leaves with toxicity symptoms) were apparent when the applied solution was over 1000 microm boron. Above 1000 microm boron, S. morrisonii appeared unable to complete its life cycle. On a tissue basis, boron toxicity was first observed when leaf boron content was 40-90 micromol g(-1) dry weight. In leaves with severe boron toxicity (> 35% injury), the boron content was generally above 130 micromol g(-1) dry weight. These levels were an order of magnitude above the tissue boron content of plants in the field. Prior to the onset of pronounced boron toxicity symptoms, growth rate, allocation patterns, and photosynthesis were unaffected by high boron. These results indicate that inhibition of growth and photosynthesis occurred because of a loss of viable tissue due to boron injury, rather than a progressive decline as leaf boron levels increased. PMID:15092365

Sage, R F; Ustin, S L; Manning, S J

1989-01-01

288

Mechanisms of Phosphine Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Fumigation with phosphine gas is by far the most widely used treatment for the protection of stored grain against insect pests. The development of high-level resistance in insects now threatens its continued use. As there is no suitable chemical to replace phosphine, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of phosphine toxicity to increase the effectiveness of resistance management. Because phosphine is such a simple molecule (PH3), the chemistry of phosphorus is central to its toxicity. The elements above and below phosphorus in the periodic table are nitrogen (N) and arsenic (As), which also produce toxic hydrides, namely, NH3 and AsH3. The three hydrides cause related symptoms and similar changes to cellular and organismal physiology, including disruption of the sympathetic nervous system, suppressed energy metabolism and toxic changes to the redox state of the cell. We propose that these three effects are interdependent contributors to phosphine toxicity.

Nath, Nisa S.; Bhattacharya, Ishita; Tuck, Andrew G.; Schlipalius, David I.; Ebert, Paul R.

2011-01-01

289

Respiratory symptoms of flight attendants during high-altitude flight: possible relation to cabin ozone exposure.  

PubMed

The smaller size and lighter weight of the Boeing 747SP aircraft, introduced into passenger service in 1976, permitted higher-altitude flight than older commercial aircraft and thus potentially greater ozone exposure for those of board. Concerned flight attendants distributed questionnaires relating to symptoms experienced on the Boeing 747SP and/or conventional 747 aircraft to Los Angeles- and New York-based flight attendants. Respondents reported symptoms by frequency and severity and by in-flight and after-flight occurrence. Based on the assessment of three health scientists as to ozone-relatedness, the frequency of "definite" and "probable" ozone-related symptoms of any severity reported by both groups of attendants was significantly associated with 747SP flights (chi-squares: P less than 0.05). After-flight symptoms significantly associated with 747SP experience, although fewer in number than in-flight symptoms, were all in the scientists' "definite" category. In 21 flight attendants who complained of moderate to severe symptoms during 747SP flights, a battery of pulmonary function tests performed approximately two weeks after their last 747SP flight failed to reveal abnormalities. The symptom questionnaire results are consistent with possible exposure of cabin attendants to toxic levels of ozone during the higher-altitude flights of the Boeing 747SP compared to conventional 747 aircraft. PMID:6629504

Tashkin, D P; Coulson, A H; Simmons, M S; Spivey, G H

1983-01-01

290

Cadmium toxicity  

PubMed Central

Cadmium is a well-known environmental pollutant with distinctly toxic effects on plants. It can displace certain essential metals from a wealth of metalloproteins, and thus disturb many normal physiological processes and cause severe developmental aberrant. The harmful effects of cadmium stress include, but are not limited to: reactive oxygen species overproduction, higher lipid hydroperoxide contents, and chloroplast structure change, which may lead to cell death. Plants have developed diverse mechanisms to alleviate environmental cadmium stress, e.g., cadmium pump and transporting cadmium into the leaf vacuoles. This mini-review focuses on the current research into understanding the cellular mechanisms of cadmium toxicity on cytoskeleton, vesicular trafficking and cell wall formation in plants.

Wan, Lichuan; Zhang, Haiyan

2012-01-01

291

Effect of the Botanical Compound LCS101 on Chemotherapy-Induced Symptoms in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Case Series Report  

PubMed Central

The treatment of breast cancer invariably results in severe and often debilitating symptoms that can cause significant distress and severely impair daily function and quality-of-life (QOL). We treated a series of 20 female breast cancer patients with the botanical compound LCS101 as adjuvant to conventional chemotherapy. At the end of the treatment regimen, patients rated their symptoms. 70% reported that they had either no or mildly severe levels of fatigue; 60% none to mildly severe weakness; 85% none to mildly severe pain; 70% none to mildly severe nausea; and 80% none to mildly severe vomiting. Only 20% reported severe impairment of overall function, and only 40% severely impaired QOL. No toxic effects were attributed by patients to the LCS101 treatment, and 85% reported that they believed the botanical compound had helped reduce symptoms. The effects of LCS101 on clinical outcomes in breast cancer should be tested further using randomized controlled trials.

Samuels, Noah; Maimon, Yair; Zisk-Rony, Rachel Y.

2013-01-01

292

Effect of the Botanical Compound LCS101 on Chemotherapy-Induced Symptoms in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Case Series Report.  

PubMed

The treatment of breast cancer invariably results in severe and often debilitating symptoms that can cause significant distress and severely impair daily function and quality-of-life (QOL). We treated a series of 20 female breast cancer patients with the botanical compound LCS101 as adjuvant to conventional chemotherapy. At the end of the treatment regimen, patients rated their symptoms. 70% reported that they had either no or mildly severe levels of fatigue; 60% none to mildly severe weakness; 85% none to mildly severe pain; 70% none to mildly severe nausea; and 80% none to mildly severe vomiting. Only 20% reported severe impairment of overall function, and only 40% severely impaired QOL. No toxic effects were attributed by patients to the LCS101 treatment, and 85% reported that they believed the botanical compound had helped reduce symptoms. The effects of LCS101 on clinical outcomes in breast cancer should be tested further using randomized controlled trials. PMID:23400272

Samuels, Noah; Maimon, Yair; Zisk-Rony, Rachel Y

2013-01-01

293

Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

2011-01-01

294

Physiology of metal toxicity in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum toxicity is discussed, including general effects (symptoms and physiological effects), differential aluminum tolerance in plants, beneficial effects of aluminum, and the genetic control of aluminum tolerance. Manganese and iron toxicity are discussed in the same framework. The toxicity of other metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, and Pb) is also discussed, though not as extensively as aluminum, manganese, and iron.

C. D. Foy; R. L. Chaney; M. C. White

1978-01-01

295

Importance of reflux symptoms in functional dyspepsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between symptom severity in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and quantitated oesophageal acid reflux is variable. Furthermore, when oesophageal acid exposure lies within the conventional normal range, the cause of the symptoms is unknown. This prospective study evaluated 24 hour ambulatory oesophageal pH profiles in relation to objective symptom scores in 100 dyspeptic patients who were free from ulcer

P K Small; M A Loudon; B Waldron; D Smith; F C Campbell

1995-01-01

296

Treatment of Late Stage Disease in a Model of Arenaviral Hemorrhagic Fever: T-705 Efficacy and Reduced Toxicity Suggests an Alternative to Ribavirin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing number of arenaviruses are known to cause viral hemorrhagic fever (HF), a severe and life-threatening syndrome characterized by fever, malaise, and increased vascular permeability. Ribavirin, the only licensed antiviral indicated for the treatment of certain arenaviral HFs, has had mixed success and significant toxicity. Since severe arenaviral infections initially do not present with distinguishing symptoms and are difficult

Brian B. Gowen; Donald F. Smee; Min-Hui Wong; Jeffery O. Hall; Kie-Hoon Jung; Kevin W. Bailey; John R. Stevens; Yousuke Furuta; John D. Morrey; Peter Sommer

2008-01-01

297

Pulmonary toxicity following exposure to a tile coating product containing alkylsiloxanes. A clinical and toxicological evaluation.  

PubMed

Abstract Context. Coating products are widely used for making surfaces water and dirt repellent. However, on several occasions the use of these products has been associated with lung toxicity. Objective. In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects of an aerosolized tile-coating product. Methods. Thirty-nine persons, who reported respiratory and systemic symptoms following exposure to the tile-coating product, were clinically examined. The product was analysed chemically and furthermore, the exposure scenario was reconstructed using a climate chamber and the toxicological properties of the product were studied using in vivo and by in vitro surfactometry. Results. The symptoms developed within few hours and included coughing, tachypnoea, chest pain, general malaise and fever. The physical examination revealed perihilar lung infiltrates on chest radiograph and reduced blood oxygen saturation. The acute symptoms resolved gradually within 1-3 days and no delayed symptoms were observed. By means of mass spectrometry and X-ray spectroscopy, it was shown that the product contained non-fluorinated alkylsiloxanes. The exposure conditions in the supermarket were reconstructed under controlled conditions in a climate chamber and particle and gas exposure levels were monitored over time allowing estimation of human exposure levels. Mice exposed to the product developed symptoms of acute pulmonary toxicity in a concentration-and time-dependent manner. The symptoms of acute pulmonary toxicity likely resulted from inhibition of the pulmonary surfactant function as demonstrated by in vitro surfactometry. Among these patients only a partial association between the level of exposure and the degree of respiratory symptoms was observed, which could be because of a high inter-individual difference in sensitivity and time-dependent changes in the chemical composition of the aerosol. Conclusion. Workers need to cautiously apply surface coating products because the contents can be highly toxic through inhalation, and the aerosols can disperse to locations remote from the worksite and affect bystanders. PMID:24815546

Duch, P; Nørgaard, A W; Hansen, J S; Sørli, J B; Jacobsen, P; Lynggard, F; Levin, M; Nielsen, G D; Wolkoff, P; Ebbehøj, N E; Larsen, S T

2014-06-01

298

Pulmonary toxicity following exposure to a tile coating product containing alkylsiloxanes. A clinical and toxicological evaluation  

PubMed Central

Context Coating products are widely used for making surfaces water and dirt repellent. However, on several occasions the use of these products has been associated with lung toxicity. Objective In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects of an aerosolized tile-coating product. Methods Thirty-nine persons, who reported respiratory and systemic symptoms following exposure to the tile-coating product, were clinically examined. The product was analysed chemically and furthermore, the exposure scenario was reconstructed using a climate chamber and the toxicological properties of the product were studied using in vivo and by in vitro surfactometry. Results The symptoms developed within few hours and included coughing, tachypnoea, chest pain, general malaise and fever. The physical examination revealed perihilar lung infiltrates on chest radiograph and reduced blood oxygen saturation. The acute symptoms resolved gradually within 1–3 days and no delayed symptoms were observed. By means of mass spectrometry and X-ray spectroscopy, it was shown that the product contained non-fluorinated alkylsiloxanes. The exposure conditions in the supermarket were reconstructed under controlled conditions in a climate chamber and particle and gas exposure levels were monitored over time allowing estimation of human exposure levels. Mice exposed to the product developed symptoms of acute pulmonary toxicity in a concentration-and time-dependent manner. The symptoms of acute pulmonary toxicity likely resulted from inhibition of the pulmonary surfactant function as demonstrated by in vitro surfactometry. Among these patients only a partial association between the level of exposure and the degree of respiratory symptoms was observed, which could be because of a high inter-individual difference in sensitivity and time-dependent changes in the chemical composition of the aerosol. Conclusion Workers need to cautiously apply surface coating products because the contents can be highly toxic through inhalation, and the aerosols can disperse to locations remote from the worksite and affect bystanders.

N?rgaard, A. W.; Hansen, J. S.; S?rli, J. B.; Jacobsen, P.; Lynggard, F.; Levin, M.; Nielsen, G. D.; Wolkoff, P.; Ebbeh?j, N. E.; Larsen, S. T.

2014-01-01

299

Cigarette and nicotine chewing gum toxicity in children.  

PubMed

A prospective review of 51 cases of tobacco ingestion and 5 cases of nicotine resin chewing gum exposure was conducted to evaluate the incidence and degree of toxicity caused by these products in children. A dose-response relationship was observed for cigarette exposures. Nine of 10 children ingesting more than one cigarette or three cigarette butts developed signs or symptoms, while 12 of 24 ingesting lesser amounts became symptomatic (P less than 0.01). Severe symptoms (e.g. limb jerking and unresponsiveness) were only seen with the larger amounts. Nicotine resin gum produced toxicity in 4 of 5 children who chewed 1/2 to 4 pieces. Agitation, lethargy, tachycardia, hypotension, abdominal pain, and vomiting were seen within 30 min of exposure to the gum. PMID:3346035

Smolinske, S C; Spoerke, D G; Spiller, S K; Wruk, K M; Kulig, K; Rumack, B H

1988-01-01

300

Symptoms of Pneumocystis pneumonia  

MedlinePLUS

... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Symptoms of Pneumocystis pneumonia The symptoms of PCP are fever, dry cough, ... Diagnosis & Testing Treatment & Outcomes Statistics Additional Information Pneumocystis pneumonia Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & ...

301

Severe stunting in blackgram caused by the Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) KA27 DNA B component is ameliorated by co-infection or post-infection with the KA22 DNA B: MYMV nuclear shuttle protein is the symptom determinant.  

PubMed

Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-[India:Vigna] (MYMV-[IN:Vig]), a blackgram isolate of MYMV, has five variable and infective DNA B components of which KA22 and KA27 DNA Bs share only 72% nucleotide sequence identity between them. Agroinoculation of blackgram with partial dimers of DNA A and KA27 DNA B caused severe stunting and an inordinate delay in flowering. Interestingly, co-agroinoculation of KA27+KA22 DNA B components along with DNA A ameliorated severe stunting, rescued from the delay in flowering and caused the appearance of yellow mosaic symptom characteristic of KA22 DNA B. Post-agroinoculation of KA27 DNA B-infected blackgram plants with KA22 DNA B also resulted in the amelioration from severe stunting and in the alleviation from the delay in flowering. Alleviation from KA27 DNA B-type of symptom by co-infection or post-infection with KA22 DNA B did not result in a corresponding reduction in KA27 DNA B levels. Swapping of KA27 DNA B with the nuclear shuttle protein gene (NSP) of KA22 DNA B abolished severe stunting and caused the appearance of mild yellow symptom, suggesting that the NSP is the major symptom determinant in MYMV DNA B. PMID:21310197

Mahajan, Nagrani; Parameswari, Chidambaram; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

2011-04-01

302

The Impact of Depressive Symptoms in Adults with ADHD Symptoms on Family Function and ADHD Symptoms of Their Children  

PubMed Central

Objective People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit considerable impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. The present study aimed to examine the patterns of associations between ADHD symptoms, depression, and family functioning. Methods The sample consisted of 1,022 adults randomly selected from a district in Seoul, South Korea. Several self-assessment scales were utilized to rate ADHD symptoms (both past and current), current symptoms of depression, and level of family functioning. ADHD symptoms in the children of these participants were also assessed. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were performed; structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to determine the best fitting model. Results Adult ADHD symptoms were positively associated with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, in turn, mediated the relationship between adult ADHD symptoms and cohesion among family members. In addition, depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between adult ADHD symptoms and their children's ADHD symptoms. Conclusion The relationship between adult ADHD symptoms and family dysfunction may be influenced by depressive symptoms. When treating ADHD in adults, clinicians should pay attention to the presence or absence of depression.

Hong, Soon-Beom; Lee, Jong-Ha; Chun, Duk Hee; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Cho, Soo-Churl

2014-01-01

303

Psychologic sequelae of chronic toxic waste exposure  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to toxic industrial substances has been a topic of increasing concern to environmentalists, government agencies, industrial engineers, and medical specialists. Our study focuses on the psychologic symptom responses of a community to perceived long-term exposure to toxic waste products. We compared their symptom clusters, as shown by their responses to questions on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-90 Item (SCL-90) and the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS), with symptom levels of normal and depressed subjects. Issues of media coverage, litigation, and potential for compensation complicate the psychiatric epidemiology of the subject.

Foulks, E.; McLellen, T. (Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States))

1992-02-01

304

Symptom Patterns Among Gulf War Registry Veterans  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We identify symptom patterns among veterans who believe they suffer from Gulf War–related illnesses and characterize groups of individuals with similar patterns. Methods. A mail survey was completed by 1161 veterans drawn from the Gulf War Health Registry. Results. An exploratory factor analysis revealed 4 symptom factors. A K-means cluster analysis revealed 2 groups: (1) veterans reporting good health and few moderate/severe symptoms, and (2) veterans reporting fair/poor health and endorsing an average of 37 symptoms, 75% as moderate/severe. Those in Cluster 2 were more likely to report having 1 or more of 24 medical conditions. Conclusions. These findings are consistent with previous investigations of symptom patterns in Gulf War veterans. This multisymptom illness may be more fully characterized by the extent, breadth, and severity of symptoms reported.

Hallman, William K.; Kipen, Howard M.; Diefenbach, Michael; Boyd, Kendal; Kang, Han; Leventhal, Howard; Wartenberg, Daniel

2003-01-01

305

Use of Medication Data to Validate an Association in Community-based Symptom Prevalence Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemical spill from an oil refinery in Texas City, Texas, exposed the community to more than 40 000 lbs (18 144 kg) of highly toxic and corrosive hydrofluoric acid. A symptom prevalence study indicated an association between symptom reports, most notably breathing symptoms, and hydrofluoric acid exposure. Although verification of self-reported symptoms by checking medical records or performing clinical

Hari H. Dayal; Yi-Hwei Li; Vivek Dayal; Chandra K. Mittal; Wayne Snodgrass

1994-01-01

306

Hydrocarbon toxicity: A review.  

PubMed

Abstract Context. Clinical effects of hydrocarbon exposure have been reported since 1897. These substances are ubiquitous, and their exposures are common. The specific hydrocarbon and route of exposure will determine the clinical effect, and an understanding of this is helpful in the care of the hydrocarbon-exposed patient. Objective. To complete a comprehensive review of the literature on hydrocarbon toxicity and summarize the findings. Methods. Relevant literature was identified through searches of Medline (PubMed/OVID) and Cochrane Library databases (inclusive of years 1975-2013), as well as from multiple toxicology textbooks. Bibliographies of the identified articles were also reviewed. Search terms included combinations of the following: hydrocarbons, inhalants, encephalopathy, coma, cognitive deficits, inhalant abuse, huffing, sudden sniffing death, toluene, renal tubular acidosis, metabolic acidosis, arrhythmia, dermatitis, and aspiration pneumonitis. All pertinent clinical trials, observational studies, and case reports relevant to hydrocarbon exposure and published in English were reviewed. Chronic, occupational hydrocarbon toxicity was not included. Results. Exposure to hydrocarbons occurs through one of the following routes: inhalation, ingestion with or without aspiration, or dermal exposure. Inhalational abuse is associated with central nervous system depression, metabolic acidosis, and arrhythmia. The exact mechanism of the CNS depression is unknown, but experimental evidence suggests effects on NMDA, dopamine, and GABA receptors. Chronic toluene inhalation causes a non-anion gap metabolic acidosis associated with hypokalemia. Halogenated hydrocarbon abuse can cause a fatal malignant arrhythmia, termed "sudden sniffing death". Individuals who regularly abuse hydrocarbons are more likely to be polysubstance users, exhibit criminal or violent behavior, and develop memory and other cognitive deficits. Heavy, long-term use results in cerebellar dysfunction, encephalopathy, weakness, and dementia. Neuroimaging may demonstrate leukoencephalopathy in these cases. Acute exposures improve with cessation of exposure. Electrolyte and fluid replacement will improve metabolic acidosis. Arrhythmias are precipitated via catecholamine surge, and beta blockers are presumed protective. Aspiration of hydrocarbons causes a potentially fatal pneumonitis. Symptoms may include cough, wheezing respiratory distress, and hypoxia. Bilateral interstitial infiltrates may be delayed for several hours after the development of pneumonitis. Treatment consists of supportive care, supplemental oxygen, and may require intubation and admission to an intensive care unit in severe cases. Unfortunately, aspiration pneumonitis remains a leading cause of poisoning mortality in children. Dermal exposure can cause dermatitis, chemical burns, and defatting injury. Oral exposure can cause local irritation as well as vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Conclusion. Acute hydrocarbon exposure can result in a wide array of pathology, such as encephalopathy, pneumonitis, arrhythmia, acidosis, and dermatitis. Intentional inhalational and accidental ingestion exposures with aspiration lead to the greatest morbidity and mortality. PMID:24911841

Tormoehlen, L M; Tekulve, K J; Nañagas, K A

2014-06-01

307

Prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms and reflux-associated respiratory symptoms in asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) symptoms are common in asthma and have been extensively studied, but less so in the Asian continent. Reflux-associated respiratory symptoms (RARS) have, in contrast, been little-studied globally. We report the prevalence of GORD symptoms and RARS in adult asthmatics, and their association with asthma severity and medication use. Methods A cross-sectional analytical study. A validated interviewer-administered GORD scale was used to assess frequency and severity of seven GORD symptoms. Subjects were consecutive asthmatics attending medical clinics. Controls were matched subjects without respiratory symptoms. Results The mean (SD) composite GORD symptom score of asthmatics was significantly higher than controls (21.8 (17.2) versus 12.0 (7.6); P < 0.001) as was frequency of each symptom and RARS. Prevalence of GORD symptoms in asthmatics was 59.4% (95% CI, 59.1%-59.6%) versus 28.5% in controls (95% CI, 29.0% - 29.4%). 36% of asthmatics experienced respiratory symptoms in association with both typical and atypical GORD symptoms, compared to 10% of controls (P < 0.001). An asthmatic had a 3.5 times higher risk of experiencing a GORD symptom after adjusting for confounders (OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.5-5.3). Severity of asthma had a strong dose-response relationship with GORD symptoms. Asthma medication use did not significantly influence the presence of GORD symptoms. Conclusions GORD symptoms and RARS were more prevalent in a cohort of Sri Lankan adult asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics. Increased prevalence of RARS is associated with both typical and atypical symptoms of GORD. Asthma disease and its severity, but not asthma medication, appear to influence presence of GORD symptoms.

2010-01-01

308

Texas A&M University System Extension: Toxic Plant Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Toxic Plant Database was developed by a team of Professors working through Texas Cooperative Extension, a division of the Texas A&M University System. Although the database focuses on toxic plants in Texas, many of the plants are found in other states as well as Mexico. This is a well-organized website containing pictures, maps, plant descriptions, information on the toxic agent, symptoms of poisoning, habitat, distribution, and "Integrated Toxic Plant Management for each toxic plant." Site users may search this extensive listing of Toxic Plants by the following categories: Common or Scientific Name, Region, Symptom, Livestock, or Plant Images. This site also links to a glossary of relevant terms.

309

Effects of breastfeeding on hypoestrogenic symptoms in postpartum women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the frequency and severity of hypoestrogenic symptoms in lactating and nonlactating women during the postpartum period.Study design: Women were recruited in the immediate postpartum period and evaluated during the immediate postpartum period, at 3 weeks postpartum and at 6 weeks postpartum, using self-ranked symptoms questionnaires. Hypoestrogenic symptoms were assessed using a modified Kupperman index, a menopausal symptoms

Julie Kim; Carolyn Alexander; Lisa Korst; Sanjay Agarwal

2000-01-01

310

Analyzing Toxicity Through Electrophilicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The toxicological structure-activity relationships are investigated using conceptual DFT based descriptors like global and\\u000a local electrophilicities. In the present work the usefulness of electrophilicity in predicting toxicity of several polyaromatic\\u000a hydrocarbons (PAH) is assessed. The toxicity is expressed through biological activity data (pIC50) defined as molar concentration of those chemicals necessary to displace 50% of radiolabeled tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin\\u000a (TCDD) from the

D. R. Roy; U. Sarkar; P. K. Chattaraj; A. Mitra; J. Padmanabhan; R. Parthasarathi; V. Subramanian; S. Van Damme; P. Bultinck

2006-01-01

311

Schizophrenia: The Characteristic Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific symptoms that have been felt to characterize schizophrenia have varied widely over time and across cultures, as has the diagnostic and prognostic importance placed on these symptoms. In this report, the historical concepts of what constitutes the \\

Nancy C. Andreasen; Michael Flaum

1991-01-01

312

Symptoms and Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

Symptoms and Diagnosis If you are new to dystonia, it can be a challenging disorder to understand. ... as primary, secondary, or dystonia-plus . ? If the dystonia occurs with symptoms of additional neurological disorders. Dystonia ...

313

Initial Symptoms of ALS  

MedlinePLUS

... Symptoms can begin in the muscles of speech, swallowing or in the hands, arms, legs or feet. Not all people with ALS experience the same symptoms or the same sequences or patterns of progression. But, progressive muscle weakness and paralysis ...

314

Pertussis Signs & Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Disclaimer policy. Print page View page in Español (Spanish) Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... Pertussis Homepage About Pertussis Causes & Transmission Causes & Transmission-Spanish Signs & Symptoms Symptoms-Spanish Complications Complications-Spanish Diagnosis & ...

315

Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... grow into (and restore) the body's blood cells. Hodgkin's Lymphoma Symptoms Painless, swollen lymph nodes in the ... leukemia" or "lymphoma" in the search box) Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Symptoms Swollen, painless lymph nodes in the ...

316

Hepatitis B Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Hepatitis B Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Symptoms Hepatitis B does not always cause obvious symptoms. Children are ...

317

Psoriasis: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases and treatments M - P Psoriasis Signs, symptoms Psoriasis: Signs and symptoms What you see and feel ... listed below, or you may have many. Plaque psoriasis (also called psoriasis vulgaris) Raised, reddish patches on ...

318

Nitrite and Ammonium Toxicity on Lettuce Grown under Hydroponics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrite (NO2 ?N) toxicity symptoms have been observed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) at various locations in California. The objective was to evaluate the symptoms of ammonium (NH4 ?N) and nitrite (NO2 ?N) toxicity on Sundevil iceberg lettuce and Paragon romaine lettuce and to determine lettuce growth and biomass production under different levels of NO2 ?N. Hydroponic studies under greenhouse conditions

M. Murshidul Hoque; Husein A. Ajwa; Richard Smith

2007-01-01

319

Behavioral inhibition and PTSD symptoms in veterans  

PubMed Central

Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperamental bias to respond to novel stimuli with avoidance behaviors, is a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear whether BI accounts for additional variance in PTSD symptom severity beyond that accounted for by general anxiety. Here, 109 veterans (mean age 50.4 years, 9.2% female) provided self-assessment of PTSD symptoms, state and trait anxiety, combat exposure, and current (adult) and retrospective (childhood) BI. Adult BI was correlated with anxiety and PTSD symptom severity, especially cluster C (avoidance) symptoms, but not with combat exposure. A regression model including adult BI, state and trait anxiety, and combat exposure was able to correctly classify over 80% of participants according to presence or absence of severe PTSD symptoms. Because avoidance behaviors are a core component of PTSD, self-assessments of BI may be an important tool in understanding PTSD and potentially assessing vulnerability to the disorder.

Myers, Catherine E.; VanMeenen, Kirsten M.; Servatius, Richard J.

2012-01-01

320

TETRODOTOXIN POISONING FOLLOWING INGESTION OF THE TOXIC EGGS OF THE HORSESHOE CRAB CARCINOSCORPIUS ROTUNDICAUDA, A CASE SERIES FROM 1994 THROUGH 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1994 and 2006, a total of 280 cases of varying degrees of tetrodotoxin poisoning following ingestion of the toxic eggs of the horseshoe crab, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda, were admitted to the medical service of Chon Buri Hospital. The severity of the poisoning was classified into four stages based on clinical signs and symptoms of human tetrodotoxication. Of 245 available medical

Jirasak Kanchanapongkul

321

Post-traumatic symptoms in abused children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of symptoms have been described as sequelae of physical and sexual abuse in childhood. This review suggests that some of these symptoms can be understood as developmentally mediated manifestations of post-traumatic disorders. Like traumatized combat or concentration camp survivors, severely abused children develop anxiety, compulsive repetitions, sleep disturbances and depression, ego constriction, and disturbed expressions of anger. The

Jean Goodwin

1988-01-01

322

Equol improves menopausal symptoms in Japanese women.  

PubMed

It has been well documented that the frequency of vasomotor menopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes and night sweats, of Japanese menopausal women is less than that of Western women. High intake of soy isoflavones in the traditional Japanese diet has been postulated as the possible explanation of the difference. Epidemiological studies have reported that the content of equol, which is a biologically active metabolite of the isoflavone, daidzein, is lower in the women who complain of severe vasomotor symptoms. To investigate the involvement of equol in the manifestation of menopausal symptoms, especially vasomotor symptoms, and the possible therapeutic role of a supplement containing equol (natural S-equol developed by Otsuka Pharmaceutical) on the menopausal symptoms of Japanese women, 3 randomized clinical trials were conducted. The studies indicated that a daily dose of 10 mg of natural S-equol improved menopausal symptoms. In the confirmation study, menopausal women who were equol nonproducers who consumed 10 mg/d of natural S-equol for 12 wk had significantly reduced severity and frequency of hot flashes as well as a significant reduction in the severity of neck or shoulder stiffness. The equol-ingesting group also showed trends of improvement in sweating and irritability and a significant improvement in the somatic category symptoms. Thus, it is concluded that the supplement containing natural S-equol, a novel soybean-derived functional component, has a promising role as an alternative remedy in the management of menopausal symptoms. PMID:20484552

Aso, Takeshi

2010-07-01

323

Differential pattern of response in mood symptoms and suicide risk measures in severely ill depressed patients assigned to citalopram with placebo or citalopram combined with lithium: role of lithium levels.  

PubMed

The assumption that antidepressants may reduce suicide risk by reducing depressive symptoms is not based on data. Further, it is unclear if the retrospectively based anti-suicidal effects of lithium can be prospectively evaluated using lithium as an augmenting agent to antidepressants. To verify our hypothesis, we designed and conducted an exploratory proof of concept trial of four weeks duration using a randomized, double-blind, parallel group method. Forty patients were assigned to citalopram + lithium and 40 were assigned to citalopram + placebo. The primary dependent measures were the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale (S-STS) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The reduction of S-STS scores was large (43%) and twice that seen in MADRS scores (25%) among the eighty patients included in the trial. Both response (?(2) = 8.8, p < 0.01) and remission (?(2) = 4.6, p = 0.03) rates showed similar patterns. There were no significant differences in mean total S-STS change scores among patients assigned to citalopram with placebo (4.8 ± 5.1) and patients assigned to citalopram with lithium (5.1 ± 5.2). When explored further, a subgroup of the patients assigned to citalopram and lithium achieved therapeutic serum levels and had significantly higher S-STS remission rates (45% compared to 19%, p < 0.05). There were no deaths by suicide or other causes indicating that trials enrolling acutely suicidal patients are feasible. These results suggest that citalopram may have a direct therapeutic effect on suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Further, lithium when used in therapeutic doses may augment such effects. These data warrant further exploration of lithium and an antidepressant combination for anti-suicidal effects. PMID:21752394

Khan, Arif; Khan, Shirin R F; Hobus, Joy; Faucett, James; Mehra, Vishaal; Giller, Earl L; Rudolph, Richard L

2011-11-01

324

An Algerian child homozygous for the M470V polymorphism and for a deletion of two nucleotides in exon 10 of the CFTR gene, shows severe cystic fibrosis symptoms.  

PubMed

When screening for the presence of major cystic fibrosis mutations in Algerian cystic fibrosis families by heteroduplex formation, aberrant heteroduplexes were observed for exon 10 in one family. Here we describe the clinical and molecular findings in a severely affected child of this family, homozygous for the 1609delCA and for the M470V polymorphism. PMID:1282016

Loumi, O; Cuppens, H; Bakour, R; Benabadji, M; Baghriche, M; Marynen, P; Cassiman, J J

1992-01-01

325

What is called symptom?  

PubMed

There is one concept in medicine which is prominent, the symptom. The omnipresence of the symptom seems, however, not to be reflected by an equally prominent curiosity aimed at investigating this concept as a phenomenon. In classic, traditional or conventional medical diagnostics and treatment, the lack of distinction with respect to the symptom represents a minor problem. Faced with enigmatic conditions and their accompanying labels such as chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, medically unexplained symptoms, and functional somatic syndromes, the contestation of the symptom and its origin is immediate and obvious and calls for further exploration. Based on a description of the diagnostic framework encompassing medically unexplained conditions and a brief introduction to how such symptoms are managed both within and outside of the medical clinic, we argue on one hand how unexplained conditions invite us to reconsider and re-think the concept we call a "symptom" and on the other hand how the concept "symptom" is no longer an adequate and necessary fulcrum and must be enriched by socio-cultural, phenomenological and existential dimensions. Consequently, our main aim is to expand both our interpretative horizon and the linguistic repertoire in the face of those appearances we label medically unexplained symptoms. PMID:23877313

Eriksen, Thor Eirik; Risør, Mette Bech

2014-02-01

326

E. coli Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Events NIAID > Health & Research Topics > E. coli > Understanding E. coli Understanding Overview Cause Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Complications Research Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print ...

327

Traumatic War Stressors and Psychiatric Symptoms Among World War II, Korean, and Vietnam War Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three hypotheses regarding symptoms of war-related posttraumatic stress disorder and general psychiatric distress were tested: that symptoms are more severe the more severe the traumatic exposure, regardless of the war in question; that symptoms are less severe the older the veterans’ age; and that symptom levels differ across sociocultural cohorts. A total of 5,138 war zone veterans who were seeking

Alan Fontana; Robert Rosenheck

1994-01-01

328

Lithium toxicity  

MedlinePLUS

... easily interfere with lithium in your body and cause it to build up. Acute on chronic toxicity occurs when you take lithium every day for bipolar disorder, but one day you take an extra amount ( ...

329

Toxic Newts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The father and son team of Brodie and Brodie track down the predator able to stomach a mysteriously hyper-toxic newt, an example of an evolutionary arms race in action. From Evolution: Evolutionary Arms Race.

Foundation, Wgbh E.; Productions, Clear B.

2003-09-26

330

Isolated severe bilateral bronchomalacia.  

PubMed

Airway malacia is uncommon condition having symptoms similar to common respiratory illnesses. Any child having persistent wheeze during infancy should be evaluated for airway malacia. The authors report a case of isolated severe bilateral bronchomalacia managed with tracheostomy and continuous positive pressure ventilation. PMID:23715795

Saikia, Bhaskar; Sharma, Pradeep Kumar; Sharma, Rachna; Gagneja, Vikram; Khilnani, Praveen

2014-07-01

331

[Drugs renal toxicity].  

PubMed

Drug-induced renal dysfunction is frequent in clinical practice. Outcomes may be severe, with increased morbidity and mortality. Kidneys are particularly vulnerable to drug toxicity, especially since they are highly vascularized, thus receiving about 25% of cardiac output. Furthermore, interstitial accumulation of toxic agents in papilla and the medulla often occurs due to the existence of a corticomedullary osmotic gradient. Moreover, the key role played by the renal tubule in the reabsorption processes of a number of endogenous and exogenous substances further increases the exposure of the kidney to high concentrations of potentially toxic agents, both in the tubular lumen and cells. As a result, drugs may be toxic to all of the four structures of the kidney: glomerulus, tubule, interstitium, and blood vessels. This chapter reviews the main mechanisms of drug-induced renal toxicity and then focuses on the nephrotoxicity of anti-infectious drugs: antibacterial drugs, antifungal agents, antimalariae, and antiviral drugs. NSAID and anticancer drugs renal toxicity are detailed elsewhere in this textbook. Methods used to prevent drug-induced nephrotoxicity, when known, are detailed. Risk factors are also listed, such as high-risk populations, identification and elimination of risk factors, and drug dosage adjustment in patients with baseline abnormal renal function. PMID:19345176

Karie, Svetlana; Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Deray, Gilbert; Isnard-Bagnis, Corinne

2010-02-01

332

[Psychiatric symptoms and coeliac disease].  

PubMed

Psychiatric symptoms and psychological behavioral pathologies are common in patients with untreated coeliac disease. There are several case reports of coexistence of coeliac sprue and depression, schizophrenia and anxiety. Views on association between coeliac disease and psychiatric disturbances and results of the most important studies are discussed. Biological background is referred. Malabsorption and deficiency of aminoacids and vitamins implicate reduction of synthesis of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Psychiatric symptoms could also be linked to immunological disregulation in coeliac patients. Psychological pathologies do appear in treated and untreated coeliacs, the need of psychological support is stressed. Coeliac disease should be taken into consideration in patients with psychiatric disorders, particularly if they are not responsive to psychopharmacological therapy, because withdrawal of gluten from the diet usually results in disappearance of symptoms. In recent years, an increased incidence of subclinical/silent coeliac disease has been reported. Psychiatric symptoms and psychological behavioral pathologies could be the only clinical manifestation of coeliac disease, but the epidemiological aspects need further investigation. PMID:12298186

Potocki, Pawe?; Hozyasz, Kamil

2002-01-01

333

Symptoms of Celiac Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms tend to appear in children and adults? Children tend to have the more classic signs of celiac disease, including growth problems (failure to thrive, chronic diarrhea/constipation, recurring abdominal bloating and pain, fatigue and irritability. Adults tend to have symptoms ...

334

Toxic compounds in honey.  

PubMed

There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24214851

Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

2014-07-01

335

Symptom Prevalence and Clustering of Symptoms in People Living with Chronic Hepatitis C Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of life has been shown to be poor among people living with chronic hepatitis C. However, it is not clear how this relates to the presence of symptoms and their severity. The aim of this study was to describe the typology of a broad array of symptoms that were attributed to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Phase 1 used

Carolyn A. Lang; Sue Conrad; Lyndall Garrett; Diana Battistutta; W. Graham E. Cooksley; Michael P. Dunne; Graeme A. Macdonald

2006-01-01

336

Simple Identification of Complex ADHD Subtypes Using Current Symptom Counts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of the assessment of the accuracy of simple rules based on symptom count for assigning youths to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes show that having six or more total symptoms and fewer than three hyperactive-impulsive symptoms is an accurate predictor for the latent class sever inattentive subtype.

Volk, Heather E.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Hay, David A.; Todd, Richard D.

2009-01-01

337

A characteristic symptom of calcium deficiency in maize and sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appearance of the so?called “bull?whip”; in leaves of maize plants has been recognized as a calcium deficiency symptom. Another characteristic symptom, in which the leaf edges of maize plants become serrated and curl, is often observed when there is a low calcium supply, especially in solution cultures. The effects of several factors on this symptom were investigated using solution

T. Kawaski; M. Moritsugu

1979-01-01

338

The MentDis_ICF65+ study protocol: prevalence, 1-year incidence and symptom severity of mental disorders in the elderly and their relationship to impairment, functioning (ICF) and service utilisation  

PubMed Central

Background The EU currently lacks reliable data on the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders in older people. Despite the availability of several national and international epidemiological studies, the size and burden of mental disorders in the elderly remain unclear due to various reasons. Therefore, the aims of the MentDis_ICF65+ study are (1) to adapt existing assessment instruments, and (2) to collect data on the prevalence, the incidence, and the natural course and prognosis of mental disorders in the elderly. Method/design Using a cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal design, this multi-centre study from six European countries and associated states (Germany, Great Britain, Israel, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland) is based on age-stratified, random samples of elderly people living in the community. The study program consists of three phases: (1) a methodological phase devoted primarily to the adaptation of age- and gender-specific assessment tools for older people (e.g., the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) as well as psychometric evaluations including translation, back translation; (2) a baseline community study in all participating countries to assess the lifetime, 12 month and 1 month prevalence and comorbidity of mental disorders, including prior course, quality of life, health care utilization and helpseeking, impairments and participation and, (3) a 12 month follow-up of all baseline participants to monitor course and outcome as well as examine predictors. Discussion The study is an essential step forward towards the further development and improvement of harmonised instruments for the assessment of mental disorders as well as the evaluation of activity impairment and participation in older adults. This study will also facilitate the comparison of cross-cultural results. These results will have bearing on mental health care in the EU and will offer a starting point for necessary structural changes to be initiated for mental health care policy at the level of mental health care politics.

2013-01-01

339

Tibolone and climacteric symptoms.  

PubMed

Tibolone (Livial) has advantages over other forms of hormone replacement therapy (HRT); it is easy to use and does not induce withdrawal bleeding in postmenopausal women. The evidence for the effect of tibolone on climacteric symptoms is reviewed and shows that tibolone is effective in reducing vasomotor symptoms and vaginal dryness. Tibolone's effect on a range of other symptoms such as headache and insomnia is unclear. There are reports that tibolone improves mood and libido but much of this research is methodologically flawed. Methodologically sound research is required to investigate tibolone's effect on mood and libido; such a study is in progress. PMID:7752950

Ross, L A; Alder, E M

1995-02-01

340

Dissociative symptoms and epilepsy.  

PubMed

This article considers the relationship between various types of dissociative symptoms, including symptoms of depersonalization, derealization, and conversion disorders, and epilepsy. After introductory remarks concerning dissociation, this relationship is discussed through two main themes: firstly, the phenomenology and mechanisms of so-called 'dreamy states' in epilepsy and their closest analogs in psychiatric disorders, and secondly, the similarities and differences between epileptic seizures and psychogenic nonepileptic attacks. Although epileptic and dissociative symptoms may appear similar to observers, they arise through different mechanisms and have different experiential qualities. PMID:24196397

Medford, Nick

2014-01-01

341

Defining and measuring negative symptoms of schizophrenia in clinical trials.  

PubMed

Recent attention has focused on negative symptoms as a target for new therapeutic approaches including pharmacological agents, medical devices, and psychosocial treatments. Each of these approaches requires an instrument for measuring the severity of negative symptoms as well as changes in severity over time. The instrument selected should provide coverage for the domains of negative symptoms; it should be sensitive to change; it should be reliable and relatively brief; and it should be useful for large international trials. These criteria were used to evaluate a number of older instruments including the Schedule for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), and the Negative Symptom Assessment Scale (NSA). Two newer scales, the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) and the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) were developed following a National Institute of Mental Health consensus meeting and addressed some of the shortcomings of earlier instruments. PMID:24275698

Marder, Stephen R; Kirkpatrick, Brian

2014-05-01

342

Oxygen toxicity.  

PubMed

Oxygen is one of the most widely available and used therapeutic agents in the world. However, it is all too easy forget that oxygen is a prescribable drug with specific biochemical and physiologic actions, a distinct range of effective doses and well-defined adverse effects at high doses. The human body is affected in different ways depending on the type of exposure. Short exposures to high partial pressures at greater than atmospheric pressure lead to central nervous system toxicity, most commonly seen in divers or in hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Pulmonary and ocular toxicity results from longer exposure to elevated oxygen levels at normal atmospheric pressure. PMID:24767867

Thomson, Louise; Paton, James

2014-06-01

343

[Ecstasy toxicity].  

PubMed

The substance, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ecstasy, is an amphetamine derivate. A mistaken belief that it is a safe drug of low toxicity and a long duration of action has led to its widespread popularity among teenagers and young adults in recent years. Unfortunately, ecstasy use has increased to epidemic proportions. In this review article pharmacokinetics and pathophysiology of MDMA, general medical adverse effects, cardiovascular effects, serotonin syndrome, hyponatremia, neurologic effects, hepatotoxicity, and long-term neuropsychiatric effects, clinical features of toxicity, prehospital and emergency department care problems, and mortality/morbidity, prophylactic advices are discussed. PMID:16816548

Reingardiene, Dagmara

2006-01-01

344

Comparison of the toxicity of aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei leaf using the eye irritancy test  

PubMed Central

To determine whether aqueous and ethanol fractions of the Angelica keiskei leaf exert toxicity when used for cosmetic purposes, we performed the acute eye irritancy test. Animals were treated with sample fractions (100 mg/dose) according to standard procedure guidelines. No significant changes or damage was detected in the fraction-treated groups in terms of ocular lesions in the cornea, the size of the cornea with turbidity, swelling of the eyelid and emission discharge. However, sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, a positive control, induced severe toxic symptoms. Thus, aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei do not appear to induce acute toxicity in the eye lens, as assessed from anatomical and pathological observations in the rabbit eye. Our results collectively suggest that aqueous and ethanol fractions show promise as cosmetic ingredients that do not cause eye toxicity.

SON, HYEONG-U; YOON, EUN-KYUNG; CHA, YONG-SOO; KIM, MIN-A; SHIN, YONG-KYU; KIM, JONG-MYUNG; CHOI, YONG-HEE; LEE, SANG-HAN

2012-01-01

345

Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... tachypnea) when lying down or with exertion, poor appetite and slow weight gain. Older children may show ... symptoms are difficulty breathing, excessive sweating (diaphoresis), poor appetite and failure to thrive. Older children with obstructive ...

346

Module 3 – Symptoms  

Cancer.gov

Module three of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study Original Version presents approaches to and management of commonly encountered symptoms and syndromes of cancer patients.

347

Insect Sting Allergy: Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Director, Health Initiatives View full profile Insect Sting Allergy: Symptoms Insect sting reactions can be classified as ... Calendar Read the News View Daily Pollen Count Allergy Treatment Programs At National Jewish Health, some of ...

348

Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Reduced Vision Tearing See all Symptoms > Glasses, Contacts & LASIK Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 ...

349

Bell's Palsy Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Reduced Vision Tearing See all Symptoms > Glasses, Contacts & LASIK Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 ...

350

Managing Concussion Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Symptoms HealthDay May 12, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Children's Health Concussion Transcript Concussions can pack a long-lasting ... head injury. The findings published in the journal Pediatrics are based on the experiences of 235 concussion ...

351

Rosacea: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... treatment. Subtype 1: Facial redness, flushing, visible blood vessels Signs and symptoms Flushing and redness in the center of the face. Visible broken blood vessels (spider veins). Swollen skin. Skin may be very ...

352

Symptoms of Uterine Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Announcements Radio Public Service Announcements Print Materials Campaign Research Doctors Who Use Social Media Poster Presentation Buttons and Badges Related Resources Gynecologic Cancer Symptoms Diary [PDF-503KB] Uterine Cancer fact sheet [PDF-622KB] ...

353

Worry and obsessional symptoms: a correlational analysis.  

PubMed

Several studies have suggested that worry and obsessional symptoms are systematically associated. In the present study, the relationship between worry and obsessional symptoms was confirmed. Measures included a worry content measure, a worry visual analogue scale, a modification of the everyday checking behaviours scale, and the MOCI. Worry was found to be more consistently associated with checking and doubting, than washing and slowness. It is suggested that worry and obsessional symptoms both occur in response to stress. In addition, it is suggested that worry and checking are functionally similar, and Generalised Anxiety Disorder may represent a 'cognitive' variant of obsessional checking. PMID:1567338

Tallis, F; de Silva, P

1992-03-01

354

[Neurological symptoms in poisoning].  

PubMed

Acute and chronic intoxications become manifest in primary neurological symptoms. After a definition of poisoning the autonomic, neurological and psychological disturbances are briefly discussed and the therapeutic measures presented in a table. Later, the neurological symptoms are described with reference to oberservations of cases of lead, thallium, E 605 (parathion), carbon monoxide, mercury, amphetamine and botulin poisoning. Four table and 9 figures supplement the text. PMID:6775212

Neu, I

1980-10-01

355

Association of preoperative symptom profile with psychiatric symptoms following subthalamic nucleus stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the severity of behavioral complications after deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) for Parkinson's disease and to explore possible predictive factors, the authors evaluated 22 patients for pre- and postoperative symptoms using a neurobehavioral battery. Compared to the time before STN-DBS, several behavioral symptoms had worsened in terms of prevalence and severity and appeared de novo in other patients. Apathy, anxiety, and suicidal ideation increased significantly, while depressive symptoms appeared stable. Compared with patients who improved, patients who had deteriorated behaviorally had similar prevalence and severity of preoperative behavioral symptoms but significantly shorter disease duration. PMID:19996248

Porat, Omer; Cohen, Oren S; Schwartz, Roseline; Hassin-Baer, Sharon

2009-01-01

356

Boron toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst of lesser prevalence than B deficient soils, B-rich soils are important, causing B toxicity in the field and decreased crop yields in different regions of the world. The highest naturally occurring concentrations of soil B are in soils derived from marine evaporites and marine argillaceous sediment. In addition, various anthropogenic sources of excess B may increase soil B to

Ross O. Nable; Gary S. Bañuelos; Jeffrey G. Paull

1997-01-01

357

Toxic remediation  

DOEpatents

What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

Matthews, Stephen M. (Alamed County, CA); Schonberg, Russell G. (Santa Clara County, CA); Fadness, David R. (Santa Clara County, CA)

1994-01-01

358

Fractionation and toxicity evaluation of waste waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several toxicity-based procedures have been proposed for waste water risk assessment but the toxic agents could never be identified in these very complex mixtures. A procedure was adopted using disposable solid-phase extraction cartridges to extract organic chemicals and preparative HPLC to fractionate them in relation of their hydrophobicity. Acute toxicity of whole samples and their fractions was measured on Daphnia

S Galassi; E Benfenati

2000-01-01

359

Psychiatric Symptoms in Alpha-Mannosidosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alpha-mannosidosis is characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID), moderate to severe neurosensory hearing loss, frequent infections, psychomotor disturbances and skeletal dysmorphism. For the first time, a panel of nine alpha-mannosidosis patients with psychiatric symptoms is presented. The clinical picture has several

Malm, D.; Pantel, J.; Linaker, O. M.

2005-01-01

360

Plumbism—A mimicker of common childhood symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead poisoning is a preventable entity that can affect almost every system of the body. Its toxic effects range from subtle\\u000a common childhood symptoms to even death. In a prospective study forty six children with atleast one symptom compatible with\\u000a plumbism were enrolled after screening patients attending medical services at AIIMS. The work-up included a detailed clinical\\u000a history and examination

Veena Kalra; Sheffali Gulati; K. T. Chitralekha; Pratibha Pande; S. D. Makhijani; C. S. Sharma

2000-01-01

361

Clinical characteristics and management of late urinary symptom flare following stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is increasingly utilized as primary treatment for clinically localized prostate cancer. While acute post-SBRT urinary symptoms are well recognized, the late genitourinary toxicity of SBRT has not been fully described. Here, we characterize the clinical features of late urinary symptom flare and recommend conservative symptom management approaches that may alleviate the associated bother. Methods: Between February 2008 and August 2011, 216 men with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated definitively with SBRT at Georgetown University Hospital. Treatment was delivered using the CyberKnife with doses of 35-36.25?Gy in five fractions. The prevalence of each of five Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) graded urinary toxicities was assessed at each follow-up visit. Medication usage was documented at each visit. Patient-reported urinary symptoms were assessed using the American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC)-26 at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24?months. Late urinary symptom flare was defined as an increase in the AUA symptom score of ?5 points above baseline with a degree of severity in the moderate to severe range (AUA symptom score ?15). The relationship between the occurrence of flare and pre-treatment characteristics were examined. Results: For all patients, the AUA symptom score spiked transiently at 1?month post-SBRT. Of the 216 patients, 29 (13.4%) experienced a second transient increase in the AUA symptom score that met the criteria for late urinary symptom flare. Among flare patients, the median age was 66?years compared to 70 for those without flare (p?=?0.007). In patients who experienced flare, CTCAE urinary toxicities including dysuria, frequency/urgency, and retention peaked at 9-18?months, and alpha-antagonist utilization increased at 1?month post-treatment, rose sharply at 12?months post-treatment, and peaked at 18?months (85%) before decreasing at 24?months. The EPIC urinary summary score of flare patients declined transiently at 1?month and experienced a second, more protracted decline between 6 and 18?months before returning to near baseline at 2-year post-SBRT. Statistically and clinically significant increases in patient-reported frequency, weak stream, and dysuria were seen at 12?months post-SBRT. Among flare patients, 42.9% felt that urination was a moderate to big problem at 12?months following SBRT. Conclusion: In this study, we characterize late urinary symptom flare following SBRT. Late urinary symptom flare is a constellation of symptoms including urinary frequency/urgency, weak stream, and dysuria that transiently occurs 6-18?months post-SBRT. Provision of appropriate anticipatory counseling and the maintenance of prophylactic alpha-antagonists may limit the bother associated with this syndrome. PMID:24904833

Woo, Jennifer A; Chen, Leonard N; Bhagat, Aditi; Oermann, Eric K; Kim, Joy S; Moures, Rudy; Yung, Thomas; Lei, Siyuan; Collins, Brian T; Kumar, Deepak; Suy, Simeng; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Lynch, John H; Collins, Sean P

2014-01-01

362

Clinical Characteristics and Management of Late Urinary Symptom Flare Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is increasingly utilized as primary treatment for clinically localized prostate cancer. While acute post-SBRT urinary symptoms are well recognized, the late genitourinary toxicity of SBRT has not been fully described. Here, we characterize the clinical features of late urinary symptom flare and recommend conservative symptom management approaches that may alleviate the associated bother. Methods: Between February 2008 and August 2011, 216 men with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated definitively with SBRT at Georgetown University Hospital. Treatment was delivered using the CyberKnife with doses of 35–36.25?Gy in five fractions. The prevalence of each of five Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) graded urinary toxicities was assessed at each follow-up visit. Medication usage was documented at each visit. Patient-reported urinary symptoms were assessed using the American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC)-26 at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24?months. Late urinary symptom flare was defined as an increase in the AUA symptom score of ?5 points above baseline with a degree of severity in the moderate to severe range (AUA symptom score ?15). The relationship between the occurrence of flare and pre-treatment characteristics were examined. Results: For all patients, the AUA symptom score spiked transiently at 1?month post-SBRT. Of the 216 patients, 29 (13.4%) experienced a second transient increase in the AUA symptom score that met the criteria for late urinary symptom flare. Among flare patients, the median age was 66?years compared to 70 for those without flare (p?=?0.007). In patients who experienced flare, CTCAE urinary toxicities including dysuria, frequency/urgency, and retention peaked at 9–18?months, and alpha-antagonist utilization increased at 1?month post-treatment, rose sharply at 12?months post-treatment, and peaked at 18?months (85%) before decreasing at 24?months. The EPIC urinary summary score of flare patients declined transiently at 1?month and experienced a second, more protracted decline between 6 and 18?months before returning to near baseline at 2-year post-SBRT. Statistically and clinically significant increases in patient-reported frequency, weak stream, and dysuria were seen at 12?months post-SBRT. Among flare patients, 42.9% felt that urination was a moderate to big problem at 12?months following SBRT. Conclusion: In this study, we characterize late urinary symptom flare following SBRT. Late urinary symptom flare is a constellation of symptoms including urinary frequency/urgency, weak stream, and dysuria that transiently occurs 6–18?months post-SBRT. Provision of appropriate anticipatory counseling and the maintenance of prophylactic alpha-antagonists may limit the bother associated with this syndrome.

Woo, Jennifer A.; Chen, Leonard N.; Bhagat, Aditi; Oermann, Eric K.; Kim, Joy S.; Moures, Rudy; Yung, Thomas; Lei, Siyuan; Collins, Brian T.; Kumar, Deepak; Suy, Simeng; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Lynch, John H.; Collins, Sean P.

2014-01-01

363

Contact Dermatitis: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... treatments A - D Contact dermatitis Signs and symptoms Contact dermatitis: Signs and symptoms Allergic contact dermatitis : Testing ... these symptoms, you need immediate medical care. Allergic contact dermatitis This skin condition occurs when you have ...

364

Symptom assessment in cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with cancer suffer from a multitude of symptoms. Effective treatment strategies are available for a number of the\\u000a common symptoms. A major reason for inadequate symptom relief is lack of effective symptom assessment. Accurate assessment\\u000a of symptoms is necessary before any treatment can be undertaken. Although there are many complexities involved in the assessment\\u000a of symptoms, simple, effective tools

Michael Naughton; Jade Homsi

2002-01-01

365

Acute impact of volcanic ash on asthma symptoms and treatment.  

PubMed

Information about the impacts of disasters on health is useful for establishing hazard prediction maps and action plans of disaster management. This study aims at learning effective asthma management from the volcano disaster of Mount Asama eruption in Japan on September 1, 2004. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the acute impact of volcanic ash on asthma symptoms and their treatment changes by using a questionnaire completed by 236 adult asthmatic patients and their physicians. In the ashfall over 100g/m2 area, 42.9 percent of asthma patients suffered exacerbations, PEF decreased, asthma treatments increased, and inhalation of beta2 stimulants was used most for exacerbated asthma. Compared to severe asthma patients, mild and moderate asthma patients were most at risk. Severe asthma patients were not affected since most of them knew their asthma status was severe, and did not go outside and kept windows closed. Deteriorated asthma symptoms of wheezing, chest tightness and cough appeared in the ashfall over 100g/m2 area. Ash contained inhalable 10microm diameter particles, and included high concentrations of airway toxic substrates of silica. These data suggest that ashfall over 100 g/m2 is harmful, access to these areas by asthma patients needs to be restricted, and these areas need to improve asthma treatment. In addition, the increase in the proportion of asthma patients with wheeze and cough are diagnostic clues for ash-induced asthma in affected areas, and can be used by doctors to tell whether patients are receiving sufficient asthma treatment. PMID:17903350

Shimizu, Y; Dobashi, K; Hisada, T; Ono, A; Todokoro, M; Iijima, H; Utsugi, M; Kakegawa, S; Iizuka, K; Ishizuka, T; Morikawa, A; Mori, M

2007-01-01

366

Pharmacology of Hallucinations: Several Mechanisms for One Single Symptom?  

PubMed Central

Hallucinations are complex misperceptions, that principally occur in schizophrenia or after intoxication induced by three main classes of drugs: psychostimulants, psychedelics, and dissociative anesthetics. There are at least three different pharmacological ways to induce hallucinations: (1) activation of dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) with psychostimulants, (2) activation of serotonin 5HT2A receptors (HT2ARs) with psychedelics, and (3) blockage of glutamate NMDA receptors (NMDARs) with dissociative anesthetics. In schizophrenia, the relative importance of NMDAR and D2R in the occurrence of hallucinations is still debated. Slight clinical differences are observed for each etiology. Thus, we investigated whether the concept of hallucination is homogenous, both clinically and neurobiologically. A narrative review of the literature is proposed to synthesize how the main contributors in the field have approached and tried to solve these outstanding questions. While some authors prefer one explanatory mechanism, others have proposed more integrated theories based on the different pharmacological psychosis models. In this review, such theories are discussed and faced with the clinical data. In addition, the nosological aspects of hallucinations and psychosis are addressed. We suggest that if there may be common neurobiological pathways between the different pharmacological systems that are responsible for the hallucinations, there may also be unique properties of each system, which explains the clinical differences observed.

Rolland, Benjamin; Amad, Ali; Cottencin, Olivier; Bordet, Regis

2014-01-01

367

Symptom Severity and Challenging Behavior in Children with ASD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of challenging behaviors in the autism spectrum disorders (ASD) population is often assumed to be high but relatively little research has actually been published on it. Furthermore, challenging behaviors are likely to impede progress in evidence-based treatment programs, such as early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI). Little…

Jang, Jina; Dixon, Dennis R.; Tarbox, Jonathan; Granpeesheh, Doreen

2011-01-01

368

Perfectionism and depression symptom severity in major depressive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years it has been recognized that perfectionism is a multidimensional construct and two Multidimensional Perfectionism Scales have been developed and investigated in relative isolation [Frost, R.O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., & Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 449–468; Hewitt, P.L., & Flett, G.L. (1991). Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: Conceptualization,

Murray W. Enns; Brian J. Cox

1999-01-01

369

[Toxic fungi in Buenos Aires City and surroundings].  

PubMed

In Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales,Universidad de Buenos Aires there is a service called Servicio de Identificación de Hongos Tóxicos, directed by researchers of the Program of Medicinal Plants and Fungi Involved in Biological Degradation (PROPLAME-PRHIDEB, CONICET) that assist hospitals and other health establishments, identifying the different samples of fungi and providing information about their toxicity, so that patients can receive the correct treatment. The objective of the present study was to analyze all the cases received from 1985 to 2012. This analysis permitted the confection of a table identifying the most common toxic species. The information gathered revealed that 47% of the patients were under 18 years of age and had eaten basidiomes; the remaining 53% were adults who insisted that they were able to distinguish edible from toxic mushrooms. Chlorophyllum molybdites turned out to be the main cause of fungal intoxication in Buenos Aires, which is commonly confused with Macrolepiota procera, an edible mushroom. In the second place Amanita phalloides was registered, an agaric known to cause severe symptoms after a long period of latency (6-10 hours), and which can lead to hepatic failure even requiring a transplant to prevent severe internal injuries or even death, is not early and correctly treated. PMID:24152394

Romano, Gonzalo M; Iannone, Leopoldo; Novas, María V; Carmarán, Cecilia; Romero, Andrea I; López, Silvia E; Lechner, Bernardo E

2013-01-01

370

Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Announcements Radio Public Service Announcements Print Materials Campaign Research Doctors Who Use Social Media Poster Presentation Buttons and Badges Related Resources Surveying a woman’s risk podcast Gynecologic Cancer Symptoms Diary [PDF-503KB] Ovarian Cancer fact sheet [PDF-859KB] ...

371

The association among childhood maltreatment, somatic symptom intensity, depression, and somatoform dissociative symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: a single-center cohort study.  

PubMed

Research demonstrates strong associations between childhood maltreatment and health problems that include dissociative symptoms and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). We assessed the associations among childhood maltreatment, somatic symptom severity, depression, and somatoform dissociative symptoms in all consecutive adult FMS patients of a tertiary referral pain medicine center between January 2010 and December 2011. Childhood maltreatment was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, somatoform dissociative symptoms with the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire, somatic symptom severity with the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 and depression by the Patient Health Questionnaire-2. A total of 117 patients (84% women) were included in the analysis, of whom 20.5% reported severe emotional abuse, 8.6% severe physical abuse, 12.8% severe sexual abuse, 25.6% severe emotional neglect, and 12.0% severe physical neglect in childhood and adolescence. On average, patients reported high levels of somatoform dissociative symptoms and moderate levels of somatic symptom severity and depression. Somatoform dissociative symptoms and emotional abuse were moderately correlated (r = .32). In hierarchical regression analysis, gender (p = .01) and somatic symptom severity (p < .0001) but not childhood maltreatment and depression were significant predictors of somatoform dissociative symptoms. Reports of somatoform dissociative symptoms by FMS patients might be attributed to their tendency to report multiple somatic symptoms. PMID:23627482

Bohn, Daniela; Bernardy, Kathrin; Wolfe, Frederick; Häuser, Winfried

2013-01-01

372

Severe Oxalosis With Systemic Manifestations  

PubMed Central

Ethylene glycol toxicity can have various clinical presentations with different organ system involvements. These presentations are independent of the level of toxicity. We describe a 31 years old male who presented with ethylene glycol toxicity manifesting as anuric renal failure who subsequently developed neurological sequela of its toxicity. Ethylene glycol is known to be metabolized to various metabolites and is ultimately converted to oxalate which results in crystal deposition the renal parenchyma causing renal failure. Oxalate deposition can occur in various organs including the nervous system as seen in our patient. The majority of patients do not recover from severe oxalosis despite the supportive care of hemodialysis in removing the parent compounds. Despite severe oxalosis, our patient was fortunate enough to be left with minimal neurological sequelae, and eventually was able to cease hemodialysis treatments. Keywords Ethylene glycol; Oxalate; Oxalosis; Glyoxylic acid

Samarneh, Majed Mark; Shtaynberg, Norbert; Goldman, Michael; Epstein, Edward; Kleiner, Morton; El-Sayegh, Suzanne

2012-01-01

373

Neurobehavioral toxicity.  

PubMed Central

A growing number of agents are known to perturb one or more of the interconnected processes of the central nervous system. At the same time, there is an increase in the incidence of neurobehavioral disorders that are confronting clinicians with baffling symptoms and presentations that seem uncommon. Fundamental to the assessment of the environmental-relatedness of the syndromes is a work and exposure history, including information different from that routinely obtained in the clinical setting. Exposure examples are described to suggest the scope of inquiry necessary to differentiate neurotoxic syndromes from nonneurotoxic illness.

Walker, B.

2000-01-01

374

[Toxicity of monkshood. Review.  

PubMed

Monkshood, Aconitum napellus L. (Ranunculaceae), is considered one of the most poisonous plants growing in Europe. Monkshood and other Aconitum species are still used in Oriental and homeopathic medicine as analgesics, febrifuges and hypotensives. The neurotoxin aconitine is the principal alkaloid in most subspecies of monkshood. A review is presented, which includes historical aspects of monkshood as a poisonous and medicinal plant, the mode of action of aconitine, symptoms of toxicity, treatment and reports of recent poisoning incidents. In addition, results of quantitative HPLC examination of hypogeous and epigeous organs from a population of A. napellus ssp. vulgare cultivated in Iceland are discussed. The fact that children in Iceland have commonly been known to eat the sweet tasting nectaries in monkshood prompted an investigation of the alkaloidal content of these organs specifically. The low aconitine content found in the nectaries as well as in whole flowers accords with the absence of reported toxicity arising from the handling of flowers and consumption of nectaries from A. napellus in this country. PMID:19679935

Ingolfsdottir, Kristin; Olafsson, Kjartan

1997-01-01

375

Amoebic toxic colitis: analysis of factors related to mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Toxic or fulminant colitis due to Entamoeba histolytica infrequently presents but is very serious. Unfortunately, there are numerous contradictory factors related to mortality. Methods We analyzed several cases of E. histolytica infection to determine the factors related to mortality. We included patients >15 years of age who were histopathologically diagnosed with amoebic toxic colitis and treated from January 2000 through December 2006. We evaluated demographic, clinical, laboratorial, surgical, and histopathological characteristics. Results We examined 24 patients and recorded 12 deaths (50%). Twenty patients underwent surgery within a mean time of 24 hours (range: 8–120 hours). Tenesmus and intestinal perforation were determined to be statistically significant (P<0.05) by univariate analysis. Three models of logistic regression were able to determine three statistically significant factors that affected mortality: (1) tenesmus and a lymphocyte count <1.5×103 cell/?l; 2) depth of invasion beyond the mucosa and a lymphocyte count <1.5×103 cell/?l; 3) time spent with symptoms and perforation. Conclusions The mortality rate determined in this study is similar to previously reported series. A low lymphocyte count, significant depth of invasion, and intestinal perforation were determined to be the factors related to increased mortality, while tenesmus and limited amount of time spent with symptoms were associated with survival. Quick diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important factors that reduce mortality.

Ortiz-Castillo, Fatima; Salinas-Aragon, Luis Enrique; Sanchez-Aguilar, Martin; Tapia-Perez, J Humberto; Sanchez-Reyna, Martin; Pierdant-Perez, Mauricio; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Jose Juan; Hernandez-Sierra, Juan Francisco

2012-01-01

376

Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes, flash floods, lightning, and tornadoes.

Forde, Evan B.

2004-04-01

377

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

378

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

379

Depressive symptoms amongst asthmatic children's caregivers.  

PubMed

We wanted to find out, whether the number of depressive symptoms is higher amongst asthmatic children's caregivers, compared to international data, to the Hungarian population average, and to parents of children with chronic renal disease. Are these depressive symptoms connected to the children's psychological status, asthma severity or current asthma symptoms? One-hundred and eight, 7- to 17-yr-old asthmatic children were enrolled, who have been treated at the Semmelweis University, First Department of Pediatrics. Children were suffering from asthma for at least 1 yr, with a median of 8 yr (1-16 yr), they started to develop asthmatic symptoms between the age of 0.5-14 yr (median: 3 yr). We also identified 27 children with chronic renal diseases and their caregivers, who functioned as a control group. Children were asked to complete the Hungarian-validated versions of the Child Depression Inventory, the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory for Children and the Juniper Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire. Asthma severity and current symptoms were also documented, 56% had no symptoms on the preceding week. Caregivers were asked to complete the Hungarian versions of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) short form, the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory and the Juniper Pediatric Asthma Caregivers' Quality of Life Questionnaire. Caregivers of asthmatic children had significantly more depressive symptoms (7.73 +/- 6.69 s.d.) than the age-specific normal population (p < 0.01). Caregivers of renal patients also experience more depressive symptoms (9.61 +/- 7.43 s.d.) than their healthy peers, but difference between the two chronic diseases' group did not prove to be significant. Asthmatic children's caregivers who scored more points on the BDI than the population average suffer from more anxiety symptoms, but their quality of life is not worse than the caregivers' with less depressive points. Depressive symptoms were neither connected to the children's psychological and asthmatic symptoms nor quality of life. Amongst caregivers of asthmatic children, at least mild depressive symptoms were represented amongst 39% of men and 33% of women. Gender difference was not significant, despite observations in the normal Hungarian population. Amongst caregivers of renal patients, depressive symptoms were represented in 14% of men and 50% of women. Gender difference was significant. (p = 0.05). Significant difference was observed between male asthmatic and renal caregivers, albeit difference was not significant between the female groups. No difference was found in depressive symptoms according to caregivers' level of education. Caregivers of children with asthma have more depressive symptoms than the average Hungarian population, but their results do not differ from caregivers taking care of children with chronic renal diseases. Caregivers of asthmatic children having at least mild depressive symptoms tend to have higher anxiety symptoms as well. Up to date, childhood chronic disease management and long-term care should also focus on parental psychology, mainly on depression and anxiety, as prevalence is higher than in the average population. PMID:19744221

Szabó, Alexandra; Mezei, Györgyi; Kovári, Eva; Cserháti, Endre

2010-06-01

380

Holiday plants with toxic misconceptions.  

PubMed

Several plants are used for their decorative effect during winter holidays. This review explores the toxic reputation and proposed management for exposures to several of those, namely poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima), English holly (Ilex aquifolium), American holly (Ilex opaca), bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), Jerusalem cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum), American mistletoe (Phoradendron serotinum), and European mistletoe (Viscum album). PMID:23359840

Evens, Zabrina N; Stellpflug, Samuel J

2012-12-01

381

Holiday Plants with Toxic Misconceptions  

PubMed Central

Several plants are used for their decorative effect during winter holidays. This review explores the toxic reputation and proposed management for exposures to several of those, namely poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima), English holly (Ilex aquifolium), American holly (Ilex opaca), bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), Jerusalem cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum), American mistletoe (Phoradendron serotinum), and European mistletoe (Viscum album).

Evens, Zabrina N.; Stellpflug, Samuel J.

2012-01-01

382

Symptoms of depression in ICU physicians  

PubMed Central

Background Work and family are the two domains from which most adults develop satisfaction in life. They also are responsible for stressful experiences. There is a perception in the community that work is increasingly the source of much of our stress and distress. Depressive symptoms may be related to repeated stressful experiences. Intensive care unit (ICU) physicians are exposed to major stressors. However, the existence of depressive symptoms in these doctors has been poorly studied. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and associated risk factors of depressive symptoms in junior and senior ICU physicians. Method A one-day national survey was conducted in adult intensive care units (ICU) in French public hospitals. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Centers of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Results A total of 189 ICUs participated, and 901 surveys were returned (75.8% response rate). Symptoms of depression were found in 23.8% of the respondents using the CES-D scale. Fifty-eight percent of these intensivists presenting symptoms of depression wished to leave their job compared with only 33% of those who did not exhibit signs of depression as assessed by the CES-D scale (p?symptoms. Workload (long interval since the last nonworking weekend, absence of relief of service until the next working day after a night shift) and impaired relationships with other intensivists were independently associated with the presence of depressive symptoms. A high level of burnout also was related to the presence of depressive symptoms. In contrast, no demographic factors regarding ICU physicians and no factor related to the severity of illness of patients were retained by the model. The quality of relationships with other physicians (from other departments) was associated with the absence of depressive symptoms (protective effect). Conclusions Approximately one of four intensivists presented symptoms of depression. The next step could be to test whether organization modification is associated with less depressive symptoms and less desire to leave the job.

2012-01-01

383

A Model for Predicting Central Nervous System Oxygen Toxicity from Hyperbaric Oxygen Exposures in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under certain circumstances, Navy divers breathe 100% O2 when working underwater. Serious symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) O2 toxicity can develop from hyperbaric O2 exposure; immersion and exercise are also known to exacerbate toxicity. We developed risk models for quantitative prediction of the probability of developing symptoms using a large set of human data in which occupational exposure conditions

A. L. Harabin; S. S. Survanshi; L. D. Homer

1995-01-01

384

Symptoms of autism among children with congenital deafblindness.  

PubMed

Associations between congenital deafness or blindness and autism have been found. The main consequences of congenital sensory impairment, being barriers for communication, language and social interaction development, may lead to symptoms of autism. To date only few studies have been reported concerning individuals with congenital deafblindness. This study examines symptoms of autism among 71 children with congenital deafblindness using the Autism Behavior Checklist. The cohort of children with congenital deafblindness was found to have symptoms of autism on a level similar to children with another developmental disorder than autism for example intellectual disability. No association was found between severity of congenital sensory impairment and severity or type of symptoms of autism. PMID:24127166

Dammeyer, Jesper

2014-05-01

385

Tackling Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia with Memantine  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a 52-year-old male patient suffering from chronic schizophrenia stabilized on risperidone long-acting injection (37,5?mg/2 weeks) and biperiden 4?mg/day. Residual symptoms are affective flattening, alogia, avolition, and asociality. Memantine 10?mg/day was added. After 1.5 months, the patient spontaneously referred to “feel better being in company of my relatives.” The following scales have been completed: the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (96), the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (3), the Mini Mental Scale Examination (26), and the Calgary Depression for Schizophrenia Scale (2). Memantine was increased to 20?mg/day and biperiden was decreased to 2?mg/day. Two months later, apathy and asociality considerably improved and affective flattening, alogia, and attention slightly got better (SANS 76, SAPS 1, MMSE 26, and CDSS 1). After two more months, the improvement continued in the same domains (SANS: 70, SAPS: 1 MMSE: 27, and CDSS: 1). Positive symptoms remained in full remission. It has been hypothesized that one of the causes of schizophrenia is glutamate excitotoxicity. Memantine, a glutamate receptor antagonist, could possibly ameliorate schizophrenia symptoms, the negative ones among them, used as add-on therapy to atypical antipsychotics. Memantine could be of potential help in schizophrenia patients with severe residual negative symptoms.

2014-01-01

386

Prevalence of GERD symptoms in a representative Israeli adult population.  

PubMed

The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms in the general population is lower in Asian than Western countries. Data are lacking for countries in the Middle East. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and severity of GERD symptoms among Israeli Jews. A questionnaire including 8 specific questions for GERD symptoms was administered by telephone interview to a representative sample of the population. One thousand two hundred twenty-one of 1839 individuals were successfully contacted and 981 had valid, complete data. The mean age was 45.0 years and 55% were females. Over the previous year 34.8% of the respondents reported suffering any GERD symptom. Of these 11.6% reported retrosternal burning, 11.7% retrosternal pain, 19.0% an acid taste in the mouth, and 17.5% reflux of gastric content. In all, 6.5%, 5.2%, 10.4%, and 7.9%, respectively, suffered these symptoms at least once a week, and 2.0%, 1.8%, 2.4%, and 2.3%, respectively, defined their symptoms as frequent and severe. Male sex (P=0.01) and a functional lower gastrointestinal (GI) disorder (P<0.0001) contributed significantly to the severity of upper GI reflux-like symptoms. In conclusion, GERD symptoms are common among Israeli Jews. The symptoms are generally of mild-to-moderate severity and are significantly associated with lower functional GI disorders. PMID:17450026

Sperber, Ami D; Halpern, Zamir; Shvartzman, Pesach; Friger, Michael; Freud, Tami; Neville, Anat; Fich, Alex

2007-01-01

387

Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptoms in Preadolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined associations among several measures of emotion regulation, and their links to depressive symptoms, in a sample of children ages 10-12 years old (N = 87). Both temporal features of emotion regulation and regulation processes involved in the evaluation, monitoring, and modification of emotion were assessed through parent and…

Siener, Shannon; Kerns, Kathryn A.

2012-01-01

388

Transient Neurologic Symptoms After Spinal Anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

- We recently reported several cases consistent with tran- sient radicular irritation after spinal anesthesia with hy- perbaric 5% lidocaine. The present prospective, blind, nonrandomized study was performed to determine the incidence of these transient neurologic symptoms and to identify factors that might be associated with their occurrence. We studied 270 patients scheduled for gy- necologic or obstetric procedures under

Karl F. Hampl; Markus C. Schneider; Wolfgang Ummenhofer; Jurgen Drewe

1995-01-01

389

ADHD Symptoms and Subtypes: Relationship between Childhood and Adolescent Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study aims to examine attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) symptoms and subtypes in childhood and adolescence. The results conclude the persistence of ADHD from childhood to adolescence with specific symptoms contributing to persistent ADHD.

Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Taanila, Anja; Miettunen, Jouko; Smalley, Susan L.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Moilanen, Irma K.

2007-01-01

390

Assessment of Symptoms During Gastric Emptying Scintigraphy to Correlate Symptoms to Delayed Gastric Emptying  

PubMed Central

Background Symptoms of gastroparesis based on patient recall correlate poorly with gastric emptying. Aim To determine if symptoms recorded during gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) correlate with gastric emptying and with symptoms based on patient recall. Methods Patients undergoing GES completed the Patient Assessment of GI Symptoms (PAGI-SYM) assessing symptoms over the prior 2 weeks and a questionnaire for which patients graded six symptoms during GES. A Symptom Severity Index (SSI) represented the mean of six symptoms at each time point. Key Results 560 patients underwent GES for clinical evaluation of symptoms. Of 388 patients included in the study: 232 patients had normal GES (NGES), 156 delayed GES (DGES), and 11 rapid GES (RGES). SSI increased pre- to postprandial for each group: NGES: 0.51±0.07 to 0.92±0.03, DGES: 0.60±0.09 to 1.13±0.05, and RGES: 0.56±0.12 to 0.79±0.13. DGES patients had a higher postprandial SSI than NGES patients (1.13±0.05 vs 0.92±0.03, p<0.05). Postprandial symptoms of stomach fullness (1.9±0.12 vs 1.5±0.09; p=0.011), bloating (1.4±0.11 vs 1.1±0.09; p =0.033), and abdominal pain (1.1±0.08 vs 0.7±0.12; p=0.012) were higher in DGES than NGES. Symptom severity based on PAGI-SYM for 2 weeks prior to GES correlated with symptoms during the test for nausea (NGES r=0.61, DGES r=0.70), stomach fullness (NGES r=0.47, DGES r=0.60), and bloating (NGES r=0.62, DGES r=0.66). Conclusions & Inferences Stomach fullness, bloating, and abdominal pain recorded during GES were higher in patients with delayed gastric emptying than in patients with normal gastric emptying. Symptoms recorded during GES correlated with those during daily life by patient recall.

Khayyam, Umar; Sachdeva, Priyanka; Gomez, Javier; Ramzan, Zeeshan; Smith, Michael S.; Maurer, Alan H.; Fisher, Robert S.; Parkman, Henry P.

2014-01-01

391

Asthma severity: histopathologic correlations.  

PubMed

Asthma is a disorder characterized by inflammation of the airways which leads to variable airflow obstruction and symptoms of wheezing, chest tightness, cough, and dyspnea. Decisions concerning the type and intensity of therapy for asthma are generally based on the severity of the disease in a given individual. Guidelines for asthma management classify disease severity on the basis of symptom frequency and intensity as well as the degree of physiological impairment. Because treatment decisions are currently not based on markers of airway inflammation, it is important to know how well the underlying inflammatory pathology correlates with clinical and physiological variables and whether airway inflammation, if undertreated, leads to longer term adverse outcomes such as chronic persistent airway obstruction. Studies of asthma pathology reveal an inflammatory response characterized by infiltration of the airways with eosinophils, mast cells and lymphocytes; disruption of the epithelium; thickening of the reticular basement membrane; and increases in smooth muscle mass. These findings are qualitatively found in mild as well as severe asthmatics, and attempts to draw quantitative correlations between severity and intensity of inflammation have yielded discordant results. Although antiinflammatory therapy with corticosteroids decreases the intensity of the inflammation in association with improved clinical variables, the association is circumstantial and it is unclear which marker of inflammation correlates best with the severity of acute episodes or the severity of the disease in patients who are stable. Problems in relating the underlying pathology to disease severity are largely due to inadequate tissue sampling as bronchoscopically obtained specimens do not permit an evaluation of the outer airway wall or small airways and their surrounding parenchyma. PMID:12973422

Fish, J E; Peters, S P

1999-08-01

392

Immediate versus delayed self-reporting of symptoms and side effects during chemotherapy: Does timing matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe aim of this study was to examine how patients recall symptoms at a delayed self-report. Accurate insight into toxicity symptoms during chemotherapy is essential so that nurses and doctors can assess therapeutic tolerance and adjust supportive care accordingly.

Annemarie Coolbrandt; Koen Van den Heede; Ellen Vanhove; Ann De Bom; Koen Milisen; Hans Wildiers

2011-01-01

393

Screening wastewater for toxicity to activated sludge  

SciTech Connect

Several toxicity tests were compared to define their utility for prediction of toxicity to activated sludge. The tests included: (1) oxygen uptake rates in batch tests with activated sludge, (2) adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements in the same batch tests, (3) Warburg respirometer studies with activated sludge, and (4) a luminescent bacteria test (Microtox/sup TM/). An evaluation of the toxicity tests was made with several toxicants; nickel (II), mercury (II), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC). Because of differences in toxic mechanism, some of the toxicants produced greater toxic effects in some tests than in other tests. The ATP levels decreased significant when uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation were studied (DCP and DNOC). Several procedures for measuring ATP were investigated and were found to be unsatisfactory when applied to activated sludge. A new method for extraction of ATP, which incorporated a sonic bath and trichloroacetic acid, was developed. The improved ATP method was used in the toxicity tests and for the additional studies. Current practice in environmental engineering relies on volatile suspended solids (VSS) as a measure of active biomass in activated sludge. After an improved ATP procedure was developed, ATP was investigated for estimation of active biomass. The fate of DCP in the toxicity tests was studied and an adsorptive mechanism was proposed that was based on membrane solubility. This mechanism explained the fate of DCP in the toxicity tests and is useful for understanding the fate of DCP in activated sludge.

Schneider, C.G.

1987-01-01

394

Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Meteorologists disagree as to what constitutes severe weather. However, most concur that thunderstorms, tornadoes, and hurricanes, all considered to be "convective" weather, fit the definition of severe weather, which is a weather condition likely to cause hardship. This science guide will explore each of the three weather phenomena. By virtue of their locations, most students are familiar with at least one of the three severe weather events. Students who tour the web sites will have an opportunity to make connections between the familiar and the perhaps less understood weather events.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

395

Irritable bowel-type symptoms in HMO examinees  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of irritable bowel-type symptoms in 1264 health examinees using a selfadministered questionnaire and psychological tests revealed they are common throughout adulthood. Of affected subjects 68% were female, and those with the more severe type (=3 Manning criteria) were-predominantly female (80%). Fewer Asians than other racial\\/ethnic groups had these symptoms. Nongastrointestinal symptoms, physician visits, incontinence, laxative use, a stress

George F. Longstreth; Girma Wolde-Tsadik

1993-01-01

396

Alopecia Areata: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... and treatments A - D Alopecia areata Signs, symptoms Alopecia areata: Signs and symptoms If you have alopecia areata, ... dents, white spots, and roughtness. Learn more about alopecia areata: Alopecia areata Alopecia areata: Who gets and causes ...

397

Skin Cancer: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... and treatments Q - T Skin cancer Signs, symptoms Skin cancer: Signs and symptoms The most common warning sign ... melanoma appears in many ways. Learn more about skin cancer: Skin cancer Skin cancer: Who gets and causes ...

398

Atopic Dermatitis: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms Atopic dermatitis: Signs and symptoms Atopic dermatitis (AD) looks different in infants, children, and adults. The ... what you feel) for each age group. Infants AD can begin early. A child may be 2 ...

399

Detoxification of Nerium indicum roots based on Indian system of medicine: phytochemical and toxicity evaluations.  

PubMed

Indian system of medicine describes the usage of certain very toxic plant based drugs after performing a detoxification process (Shodhana samskara). Nerium indicum is traditionally used as a medicine though known to cause severe allergic symptoms, tachycardia and gastrointestinal effects leading to fatalities. In this study, the detoxification (shodhana) for Nerium indicum was scientifically validated based on phytochemical and toxicity profiles. Shodhana was performed according to traditional literature. HPTLC densitometric studies were performed for the pre- and post-shodhana powders followed by sub-acute toxicity evaluation in rats. Preparative TLC and LC-MS showed the reduction of oleandrin peak in the post-shodhana sample. Prominent features of cardiotoxicity including tachycardia were noted in the pre-shodhana Nerium treated animals along with mortality. However, no such toxicity was encountered in the post-shodhana Nerium treated animals. Hence, using the recommended detoxification (shodhana), the toxicity of an important medicinal plant was significantly nullified. Such studies provide a scientific support towards our traditional medicinal practices using modem analytical and experimental methodologies and may prove to be very useful in establishing standard scientific procedures for routine and safe use of traditional medicines. PMID:22125956

Banerjee, Aryamitra A; Vasu, Kamala K; Pancholi, Harit; Rajani, Mandapati; Nivsarkar, Manish A

2011-01-01

400

Emotion regulation predicts symptoms of depression over five years.  

PubMed

Deficits in emotion regulation have been identified as an important risk and maintaining factor for depression. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of emotion regulation on symptoms of depression. Moreover, we investigated which specific emotion regulation skills were associated with subsequent symptoms of depression. Participants were 116 individuals (78% women, average age 35.2 years) who registered for an online-based assessment of depression and its risk-factors and reported at least some symptoms of depression. Successful application of emotion regulation skills and depressive symptom severity were assessed twice over a 5-year period. We utilized cross-lagged panel analyses to assess whether successful skills application would be negatively associated with subsequent depressive symptom severity. Cross-lagged panel analyses identified successful skills application as a significant predictor for depressive symptom severity even when controlling for the effects of initial symptoms of depression. A comparison of the effect sizes for different emotion regulation skills on subsequent depressive symptoms suggests that most of the skills included have similar predictive value. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the hypotheses that deficits in emotion regulation may contribute to the development of depression and that interventions systematically enhancing adaptive emotion regulation skills may help prevent and treat depressive symptoms. PMID:24754907

Berking, Matthias; Wirtz, Carolin M; Svaldi, Jennifer; Hofmann, Stefan G

2014-06-01

401

Psychiatric symptoms in alpha-mannosidosis.  

PubMed

Alpha-mannosidosis is characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID), moderate to severe neurosensory hearing loss, frequent infections, psychomotor disturbances and skeletal dysmorphism. For the first time, a panel of nine alpha-mannosidosis patients with psychiatric symptoms is presented. The clinical picture has several similarities: a physical o