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Sample records for severity systematic literature

  1. Frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Versluis, A; Knulst, A C; Kruizinga, A G; Michelsen, A; Houben, G F; Baumert, J L; van Os-Medendorp, H

    2015-02-01

    Food allergic patients have to deal with an avoidance diet. Confusing labelling terms or precautionary labels can result in misinterpretation and risk-taking behaviour. Even those patients that strictly adhere to their diet experience (sometimes severe) unexpected allergic reactions to food. The frequency, severity and causes of such reactions are unknown. The objective of this review was to describe the frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food in food allergic patients aged > 12 years, in order to develop improved strategies to deal with their allergy. A systematic review was carried out by two researchers, in six electronic databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, Medline, Psychinfo and Scopus). The search was performed with keywords relating to the frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food. This resulted in 24 studies which met the inclusion criteria; 18 observational and six qualitative studies. This review shows that knowledge about the frequency of unexpected reactions is limited. Peanut, nuts, egg, fruit/vegetables and milk are the main causal foods. Severe reactions and even fatalities occur. Most reactions take place at home, but a significant number also take place when eating at friends' houses or in restaurants. Labelling issues, but also attitude and risky behaviour of patients can attribute to unexpected reactions. We conclude that prospective studies are needed to get more insight in the frequency, severity, quantity of unintended allergen ingested and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food, to be able to optimize strategies to support patients in dealing with their food allergy. Although the exact frequency is not known, unexpected reactions to food occur in a significant number of patients and can be severe. For clinical practice, this means that patient education and dietary instructions are necessary. PMID:24766413

  2. Relevance of Non-communicable Comorbidities for the Development of the Severe Forms of Dengue: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Joao; George, Leyanna; Martinez, Eric; Lazaro, Adhara; Han, Wai Wai; Coelho, Giovanini E.; Runge Ranzinger, Silvia; Horstick, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Patients with dengue fever and comorbidities seem to be at higher risk of developing complications and/or severe dengue compared to healthier individuals. This study systematically reviews the evidence related to comorbidities and dengue. A systematic literature review was performed in five databases (EMBASE, PUBMED, Global Health, SciELO, Cochrane) and grey literature for full-text articles since its inceptions until October 10, 2015. A total of 230 articles were retrieved. Sixteen studies were analysed after applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Seven case control studies and nine retrospective cohort studies showed that comorbidities may contribute to severe dengue, especially 1) cardiovascular disease, 2) stroke, 3) diabetes, 4) respiratory disease and 5) renal disease, as well as old age. However, due to heterogeneity in studies, the real estimate effect of comorbidities as modifiers of dengue severity could not be established. Further research in regions with high prevalence of dengue infection would contribute to a better understanding of the relevance of comorbidities in severe dengue, especially with a standardised protocol, for outcomes, specific comorbidities, study design—best using prospective designs—and sample sizes. PMID:26727113

  3. Reviewing the literature, how systematic is systematic?

    PubMed

    MacLure, Katie; Paudyal, Vibhu; Stewart, Derek

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Professor Archibald Cochrane, after whom the Cochrane Collaboration is named, was influential in promoting evidence-based clinical practice. He called for "relevant, valid research" to underpin all aspects of healthcare. Systematic reviews of the literature are regarded as a high quality source of cumulative evidence but it is unclear how truly systematic they, or other review articles, are or 'how systematic is systematic?' Today's evidence-based review industry is a burgeoning mix of specialist terminology, collaborations and foundations, databases, portals, handbooks, tools, criteria and training courses. Aim of the review This study aims to identify uses and types of reviews, key issues in planning, conducting, reporting and critiquing reviews, and factors which limit claims to be systematic. Method A rapid review of review articles published in IJCP. Results This rapid review identified 17 review articles published in IJCP between 2010 and 2015 inclusive. It explored the use of different types of review article, the variation and widely available range of guidelines, checklists and criteria which, through systematic application, aim to promote best practice. It also identified common pitfalls in endeavouring to conduct reviews of the literature systematically. Discussion Although a limited set of IJCP reviews were identified, there is clear evidence of the variation in adoption and application of systematic methods. The burgeoning evidence industry offers the tools and guidelines required to conduct systematic reviews, and other types of review, systematically. This rapid review was limited to the database of one journal over a period of 6 years. Although this review was conducted systematically, it is not presented as a systematic review. Conclusion As a research community we have yet to fully engage with readily available guidelines and tools which would help to avoid the common pitfalls. Therefore the question remains, of not just IJCP but

  4. Severe immune thrombocytopenia after peg-interferon-alpha2a, ribavirin and telaprevir treatment completion: A case report and systematic review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Arena, Rosario; Cecinato, Paolo; Lisotti, Andrea; Buonfiglioli, Federica; Calvanese, Claudio; Grande, Giuseppe; Montagnani, Marco; Azzaroli, Francesco; Mazzella, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Mild to moderate autoimmune thrombocytopenia (AITP) is a common finding in patients receiving interferon-based antiviral treatment, due to bone marrow suppression. Here we report the case of a patient with chronic genotype 1b hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection treated with pegylated-interferon alpha-2a, ribavirin and telaprevir for 24 wk; the patient developed severe AITP three weeks after treatment withdrawal. We performed a systematic literature search in order to review all published cases of AITP related to HCV antiviral treatment. To our knowledge, this is the second case of AITP observed after antiviral treatment withdrawal. In most published cases AITP occurred during treatment; in fact, among 24 cases of AITP related to interferon-based antiviral treatment, only one occurred after discontinuation. Early diagnosis of AITP is a key factor in order to achieve an early interferon discontinuation; in the era of new direct antiviral agents those patients have to be considered for interferon-free treatment regimens. Prompt prescription of immuno-suppressant treatment (i.e., corticosteroids, immunoglobulin infusion and even rituximab for unresponsive cases) leads to favourable prognosis in most of cases. Physicians using interferon-based treatments should be aware that AITP can occur both during and after treatment, specially in the new era of interferon-free antiviral treatment. Finally, in the case of suspected AITP, presence of anti-platelet antibodies should be checked not only during treatment but also after discontinuation. PMID:26140092

  5. Pre-conception to parenting: a systematic review and meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature on motherhood for women with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Dolman, Clare; Jones, Ian; Howard, Louise M

    2013-06-01

    The majority of women with a severe mental illness (SMI) become pregnant and have children. The aim of this systematic review and meta-synthesis was to examine the qualitative research on the experiences of motherhood in women with SMI from preconception decision making to being a mother. The experiences of the health professionals treating women with SMI were also reviewed. Eleven databases were searched for papers published up to April 25, 2012, using keywords and mesh headings. A total of 23 studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria on the views of women with SMI, eight reported the views of health professionals including one which reported both. The meta-synthesis of the 23 studies on women's views produced two overarching themes Experiences of Motherhood and Experiences of Services. Sub-themes included the following: Guilt, Coping with Dual Identities, Stigma, and Centrality of Motherhood. Four themes emerged from the synthesis of the eight papers reporting the views of health professionals: Discomfort, Stigma, Need for education, and Integration of services. An understanding of the experiences of pregnancy and motherhood for women with SMI can inform service development and provision to ensure the needs of women and their families are met. PMID:23525788

  6. Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health…

  7. Thoratec CentriMag for Temporary Treatment of Refractory Cardiogenic Shock or Severe Cardiopulmonary Insufficiency: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Gillian; Payne, John; Bjessmo, Staffan; Smith, Jon; Yonan, Nizar; Firmin, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to systematically evaluate effect of CentriMag heart pump (Thoratec Corporation) as temporary ventricular assist device (VAD) and part of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) system on outcomes in patients with cardiac or cardiac-respiratory failure. A systematic search was conducted in five databases for the period 2003 to 2012. Fifty-three publications with data for 999 patients, supported with CentriMag, were included. In 72% studies, CentriMag was used as a VAD and in 25% as part of ECMO circuit. Mean duration of VAD support was 25.0 days in precardiotomy group, 10.9 days in postcardiac surgery cardiogenic shock group, 8.8 days in post-transplant graft failure and rejection group, and 16.0 days in post-LVAD placement right ventricular failure group. Survival on support was 82% (95% CI 70–92) for VAD support in precardiotomy cardiogenic shock indication, 63% (95% CI 46–78) in VAD support in postcardiac surgery cardiogenic shock indication, 62% (95% CI 46–76) in VAD support in post-transplant graft rejection or failure indication, and 83% (95% CI 73–92) in VAD support in post-LVAD placement right ventricular failure indication. CentriMag is an effective technology for temporary support of patients with cardiac and cardiorespiratory failure. PMID:25010916

  8. Testing Scientific Software: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Context Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. Objective This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. Method We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. Results We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Conclusions Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques. PMID:25125798

  9. Borderline intellectual functioning: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-12-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health problems. When adults with BIF were compared with the general population, they held lower-skilled jobs and earned less money. Although some risk factors (e.g., low birth weight) and preventive factors (e.g., education) were reported, they were not specific to BIF. The review finds that, despite the obvious everyday problems, BIF is almost invisible in the field of research. More research, societal discussion, and flexible support systems are needed. PMID:25409130

  10. [Nursing audit: systematic review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Dias, Teresa Cristina Lyporage; Santos, José Luís Guedes dos; Cordenuzzi, Onélia da Costa Pedro; Prochnow, Adelina Giacomelli

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the scientific production about audit in nursing, published in national papers, between 1998 and 2008. A systematic review of the literature was conducted, with articles being searched in the databases LILACS and SciELO, from the key words: audit, nursing, quality health care and nursing supervision. The sample consisted of ten works. The analyzed publications describe the main distortions and non-conformities found in nursing records, relating them mainly with the quality of nursing care and with the financial damage to the institutions. The publications also include the administrative role of the nurse, especially her/his leadership role in the team of nursing; and nursing audit as an educational process. PMID:22460497

  11. Antihistamines and Birth Defects: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Ailes, Elizabeth C.; Rai, Ramona P.; Anderson, Jaynia A.; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 10-15% of women reportedly take an antihistamine during pregnancy for the relief of nausea and vomiting, allergy and asthma symptoms, or indigestion. Antihistamines include histamine H1-receptor and H2-receptor antagonists. Areas covered This is a systematic evaluation of the peer-reviewed epidemiologic literature published through February 2014 on the association between prenatal exposure to antihistamines and birth defects. Papers addressing histamine H1- or H2-receptor antagonists are included. Papers addressing pyridoxine plus doxylamine (Bendectin in the United States, Debendox in the United Kingdom, Diclectin in Canada, Lenotan and Merbental in other countries) prior to the year 2001 were excluded post-hoc because of several previously published meta-analyses and commentaries on this medication. Expert opinion The literature on the safety of antihistamine use during pregnancy with respect to birth defects is generally reassuring though the positive findings from a few large studies warrant corroboration in other populations. The findings in the literature are considered in light of three critical methodological issues: (1) selection of appropriate study population; (2) ascertainment of antihistamine exposures; and (3) ascertainment of birth defects outcomes. Selected antihistamines have been very well-studied (e.g. loratadine); others, especially H2- receptor antagonists, require additional study before an assessment of safety with respect to birth defects risk could be made. PMID:25307228

  12. Creative Learning Environments in Education--A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Dan; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Collier, Chris; Digby, Rebecca; Hay, Penny; Howe, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic review of 210 pieces of educational research, policy and professional literature relating to creative environments for learning in schools, commissioned by Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS). Despite the volume of academic literature in this field, the team of six reviewers found comparatively few empirical…

  13. Fatigue following Acute Q-Fever: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Delsing, Corine E.; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Langendam, Miranda; Timen, Aura; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-term fatigue with detrimental effects on daily functioning often occurs following acute Q-fever. Following the 2007–2010 Q-fever outbreak in the Netherlands with over 4000 notified cases, the emphasis on long-term consequences of Q-fever increased. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of all relevant available literature, and to identify knowledge gaps regarding the definition, diagnosis, background, description, aetiology, prevention, therapy, and prognosis, of fatigue following acute Q-fever. Design A systematic review was conducted through searching Pubmed, Embase, and PsycInfo for relevant literature up to 26th May 2015. References of included articles were hand searched for additional documents, and included articles were quality assessed. Results Fifty-seven articles were included and four documents classified as grey literature. The quality of most studies was low. The studies suggest that although most patients recover from fatigue within 6–12 months after acute Q-fever, approximately 20% remain chronically fatigued. Several names are used indicating fatigue following acute Q-fever, of which Q-fever fatigue syndrome (QFS) is most customary. Although QFS is described to occur frequently in many countries, a uniform definition is lacking. The studies report major health and work-related consequences, and is frequently accompanied by nonspecific complaints. There is no consensus with regard to aetiology, prevention, treatment, and prognosis. Conclusions Long-term fatigue following acute Q-fever, generally referred to as QFS, has major health-related consequences. However, information on aetiology, prevention, treatment, and prognosis of QFS is underrepresented in the international literature. In order to facilitate comparison of findings, and as platform for future studies, a uniform definition and diagnostic work-up and uniform measurement tools for QFS are proposed. PMID:27223465

  14. Street Level Prostitution: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Love, Rene

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize research on female street level prostitutes for application in mental health practice and identification of future research needs. The data were from reports conducted in Westernized countries on female street level prostitutes between the years 2000 and 2014. Street level prostitutes are at high risk for HIV/STIs, chronic and acute physical/mental health problems, and violence, but there is a paucity of research on resilience and coping skills. We conclude that street level prostitutes suffer severe health disparities, yet they do not seek health care on a consistent basis. It is important for mental healthcare providers to offer women a safe, non-judgmental environment while providing assessment and referral. Future research on mental health consequences as well as resilience and coping skills would support effective interventions that address the women holistically. PMID:26379130

  15. The Effectiveness of Intensive Interaction, A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Nick; Bodicoat, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intensive Interaction is an approach used for communicating with people with profound and multiple intellectual disabilities [PMID] or autism. It has gained increased recognition as a helpful technique, but the evidence has not been systematically reviewed. Method: Computerized and hand searches of the literature were conducted using…

  16. Comorbidities in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Raghu, Ganesh; Amatto, Valeria C; Behr, Jürgen; Stowasser, Susanne

    2015-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is associated with a fatal prognosis and manifests in patients over 60 years old who may have comorbidities. The prevalence and impact of comorbidities on the clinical course of IPF is unclear.This systematic literature review examined the prevalence of comorbidities and mortality associated with comorbidities in IPF patients. Relevant observational studies published in English from January 1990 to January 2015 identified via MEDLINE and EMBASE were included; bibliographies of articles were also searched.Among the 126 studies included, prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) was 3-86%, 6-91% for obstructive sleep apnoea, 3-48% for lung cancer and 6-67% for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Nonrespiratory comorbidities included ischaemic heart disease (IHD) (3-68%) and gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) (0-94%). Mortality was highest among patients with IPF and lung cancer. Most studies assessed relatively small samples of patients with IPF.PH, COPD, lung cancer, GER and IHD are significant comorbidities; differences in IPF severity, case definitions and patient characteristics limited the comparability of findings. The identification and prompt treatment of comorbidities may have a clinically significant impact on overall outcome that is meaningful for patients with IPF. PMID:26424523

  17. Exploring prioritization through systematic literature surveys and case studies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Varun; Chauhan, Durg Singh; Dutta, Kamlesh

    2015-01-01

    The software development process is a complex process, especially when the software has to be released in a phased manner. The high stakes involved and several constraints on resources lead to the selective implementation of the user requirements at each stage of the development. If the requirements considered, do not fit well, they have to be reprioritized. The objectives of this paper are to create a background related to the area of reprioritization and to create a distinguishable position from the prioritization area. The paper elaborates on the current state of reprioritization practices adopted in the software industry. The gaps in research in the area of reprioritization to present future opportunities for the research community are also analysed. This paper builds on the findings of a systematic literature survey (to analyze state of the art in the area of reprioritization), previous case studies (to gain understanding of real scenarios through limited available information), and more detailed real case study (focussed on reprioritization alone) conducted by fewer multinational software development organizations. Based on our studies it is concluded that the efficient reprioritization methods are required to be adopted in software engineering practices of the organisation in order to sustain in the highly competitive mass market. PMID:26413445

  18. Mefloquine safety and tolerability in pregnancy: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Control of malaria in pregnant women is still a major challenge as it constitutes an important cause of maternal and neonatal mortality. Mefloquine (MQ) has been used for malaria chemoprophylaxis in non-immune travellers for several decades and it constitutes a potential candidate for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnant women (IPTp). Methods The safety of MQ, including its safety in pregnancy, is controversial and a continuing subject of debate. Published studies which evaluated the use of MQ for malaria prevention or treatment in pregnant women and which reported data on drug tolerability and/or pregnancy outcomes have been reviewed systematically. Results Eighteen articles fitted the inclusion criteria, only one study was double-blind and placebo controlled. No differences were found in the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to MQ compared to those exposed to other anti-malarials or to the general population. MQ combined with artesunate seems to be better tolerated than standard quinine therapy for treatment of non-severe falciparum malaria, but a MQ loading dose (10 mg/kg) is associated with more dizziness compared with placebo. When used for IPTp, MQ (15 mg/kg) may have more side effects than sulphadoxine- pyrimethamine. Conclusions In the published literature there are no indications that MQ use during pregnancy carries an increased risk for the foetus. Ideally, the use of MQ to prevent malaria should be based on a risk-benefit analysis of adverse effects against the risk of acquiring the infection. For this purpose double-blinded randomized controlled trials in African pregnant women are much needed. PMID:24581338

  19. Malarial pancreatitis: Case report and systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Inderpaul Singh; Agarwal, Ritesh; Behera, Digambar; Dhooria, Sahajal

    2015-01-01

    Malaria can cause a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from uncomplicated febrile illness to multiorgan failure. Pancreatitis is a rare complication of malaria with only a few reported cases. Herein, we describe a case of acute pancreatitis with multiorgan failure due to Plasmodium falciparum managed successfully with antimalarials and conservative treatment. We also perform a systematic review of literature for reports of acute pancreatitis due to Plasmodium infection. PMID:26816452

  20. [Dentists and National Socialism. Systematic Literature Review and Research Questions].

    PubMed

    Schwanke, Enno; Krischel, Matthis; Gross, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the rich literature on Nazi medicine in general, the connection between dentists and National Socialism is less well documented. Neither the elites of the field from this era nor those excluded from the profession are catalogued in a systematic manner. The aims of this contribution are to assemble and review the relevant literature and show how German dentistry organizations have handled this chapter of their professional history. Trends in the literature since the 1980s are examined and it is pointed out, which areas have received some attention and which have not yet been addressed. Thus, this contribution will serve as both the basis and the starting point for new research into the field. PMID:27141725

  1. Dengue disease surveillance: an updated systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Runge-Ranzinger, S; McCall, P J; Kroeger, A; Horstick, O

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To review the evidence for the application of tools for dengue outbreak prediction/detection and trend monitoring in passive and active disease surveillance systems in order to develop recommendations for endemic countries and identify important research needs. Methods This systematic literature review followed the protocol of a review from 2008, extending the systematic search from January 2007 to February 2013 on PubMed, EMBASE, CDSR, WHOLIS and Lilacs. Data reporting followed the PRISMA statement. The eligibility criteria comprised (i) population at risk of dengue, (ii) dengue disease surveillance, (iii) outcome of surveillance described and (iv) empirical data evaluated. The analysis classified studies based on the purpose of the surveillance programme. The main limitation of the review was expected publication bias. Results A total of 1116 papers were identified of which 36 articles were included in the review. Four cohort-based prospective studies calculated expansion factors demonstrating remarkable levels of underreporting in the surveillance systems. Several studies demonstrated that enhancement methods such as laboratory support, sentinel-based reporting and staff motivation contributed to improvements in dengue reporting. Additional improvements for passive surveillance systems are possible by incorporating simple data forms/entry/electronic-based reporting; defining clear system objectives; performing data analysis at the lowest possible level (e.g. district); seeking regular data feedback. Six studies showed that serotype changes were positively correlated with the number of reported cases or with dengue incidence, with lag times of up to 6 months. Three studies found that data on internet searches and event-based surveillance correlated well with the epidemic curve derived from surveillance data. Conclusions Passive surveillance providing the baseline for outbreak alert should be strengthened and appropriate threshold levels for outbreak

  2. Text mining applications in psychiatry: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Abbe, Adeline; Grouin, Cyril; Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Falissard, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    The expansion of biomedical literature is creating the need for efficient tools to keep pace with increasing volumes of information. Text mining (TM) approaches are becoming essential to facilitate the automated extraction of useful biomedical information from unstructured text. We reviewed the applications of TM in psychiatry, and explored its advantages and limitations. A systematic review of the literature was carried out using the CINAHL, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases. In this review, 1103 papers were screened, and 38 were included as applications of TM in psychiatric research. Using TM and content analysis, we identified four major areas of application: (1) Psychopathology (i.e. observational studies focusing on mental illnesses) (2) the Patient perspective (i.e. patients' thoughts and opinions), (3) Medical records (i.e. safety issues, quality of care and description of treatments), and (4) Medical literature (i.e. identification of new scientific information in the literature). The information sources were qualitative studies, Internet postings, medical records and biomedical literature. Our work demonstrates that TM can contribute to complex research tasks in psychiatry. We discuss the benefits, limits, and further applications of this tool in the future. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26184780

  3. Systematic Review of the Literature on Pain in Patients with Polytrauma Including Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dobscha, Steven K.; Clark, Michael E.; Morasco, Benjamin J.; Freeman, Michele; Campbell, Rose; Helfand, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the literature addressing the assessment and management of pain in patients with polytraumatic injuries including traumatic brain injury (TBI) and blast-related headache, and to identify patient, clinician and systems factors associated with pain-related outcomes. Design Systematic review. Methods We conducted searches in MEDLINE of literature published from 1950 through July 2008. Due to a limited number of studies using controls or comparators, we included observational and rigorous qualitative studies. We systematically rated the quality of systematic reviews, cohort, and case-control design studies. Results One systematic review, 93 observational studies, and one qualitative research study met inclusion criteria. The literature search yielded no published studies that assessed measures of pain intensity or pain-related functional interference among patients with cognitive deficits due to TBI, that compared patients with blast-related headache with patients with other types of headache, or that assessed treatments for blast-related headache pain. Studies on the association between TBI severity and pain reported mixed findings. There was limited evidence that the following factors are associated with pain among TBI patients: severity, location, and multiplicity of injuries; insomnia; fatigue; depression; and post-traumatic stress disorder. Conclusions Very little evidence is currently available to guide pain assessment and treatment approaches in patients with polytrauma. Further research employing systematic observational as well as controlled intervention designs is clearly indicated. PMID:19818031

  4. Sundown syndrome: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yevchak, Andrea M; Steis, Melinda R; Evans, Lois K

    2012-10-01

    The label sundown syndrome continues to be frequently used in long-term and acute care settings without consistent meaning. This study adds to the understanding of this label by synthesizing findings from research published since 1987 linked to sundown syndrome. The purpose of this systematic review is to describe, synthesize, and critique the theoretical definitions, operational definitions and measurement methods, prevalence, antecedent and precipitating factors and consequences, and effectiveness of interventions for sundown syndrome found in the published literature. Implications for research and practice are presented. PMID:22998659

  5. Biomarkers in psoriatic arthritis: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Generali, Elena; Scirè, Carlo A; Favalli, Ennio G; Selmi, Carlo

    2016-06-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is characterized by chronic inflammation of peripheral joints and axial skeleton, associated with a strong genetic background. Clinics include enthesitis or dactylitis and extra-articular involvement as uveitis or inflammatory bowel disease, while treatment options range from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to biologics, targeting TNF α or Th17. No serum autoantibody is associated with PsA, while other biomarkers have been proposed for early diagnosis or to predict treatment response. To better discuss this area of growing interest we performed a systematic review of the literature on biomarkers in PsA. Our research retrieved 408 papers, and 38 were included in the analysis. Based on the available literature, we draw some recommendations for the use of biomarkers in the management of patients with PsA. PMID:26821681

  6. [Exercise in haemodyalisis patients: a literature systematic review].

    PubMed

    Segura-Ortí, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Exercise as a therapeutic tool used in End-stage renal disease patients (ESRD) in hemodialysis (HD) is not routinately applied, as it occurs with cardiac or respiratory patients. Lack of awareness of research in this field may contribute to the current situation. Thus, the aims of this review are: 1) to systematically review the literature of exercise training on adult HD patients or patients at a pre-HD stage; 2) to show the evidence on the benefits of exercise for counteracting physiological, functional and psychological impairments found even in older ESRD patients; 3) to recommend requirements of future research in order to include exercise prescription in the HD patients treatment. The Data bases reviewed from 2005 to 2009 were: MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCOHost), SportDicus (EBSCOHost), Academic Search Complete (EBSCOHost), Fuente Académica (EBSCOHost), MedicLatina (EBSCOHost), PEDro y PubMed. Additionally, references from identified articles, several reviews on ESRD and abstracts to Nephrology Congresses were also reviewed. Randomized Controlled Trials on aerobic, strength and combined programs for HD patients were selected. Data from the studies was compiled and Van Tulder criteria were used for methodological quality assessment. Metanalysis included 6 studies on aerobic exercise, 2 on strength exercise and 5 on combined exercise programs. 640 patients were included in 16 included studies. Effects on physical function, health related quality of life and other secondary measurements were summarized by the Standardized Mean Difference (SMD) Moderate evidence exists on positive effects of aerobic training on peak oxygen consumption at the graded exercise test (SMD 6.55; CI 95%: 4.31-8.78). There is high evidence on positive effects of strength training on health related quality of life (SMD 11.03; CI 95%: 5.63-16.43). Finally, moderate evidence exists on positive effects of combined exercise on peak oxygen consumption at the graded exercise test (SMD 5.57; CI

  7. Varicella Skin Complications in Childhood: A Case Series and a Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bozzola, Elena; Bozzola, Mauro; Krzysztofiak, Andrzej; Tozzi, Alberto Eugenio; El Hachem, May; Villani, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Even if varicella is generally considered a harmless disease in childhood, severe complications may occur. We examined varicella skin complications (VSCs) in hospitalized immunologically healthy children, over a nine-year period. We also systematically analyzed previous reports to calculate the rate of VSCs in the literature. VSCs occurred in 16.4% of children hospitalized for varicella. This figure is in accordance with the literature, as the range of VSCs was 2.6%–41.2%. Skin complications may represent determinants of hospitalization and of other indirect costs in young children. PMID:27164095

  8. Varicella Skin Complications in Childhood: A Case Series and a Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Bozzola, Elena; Bozzola, Mauro; Krzysztofiak, Andrzej; Tozzi, Alberto Eugenio; El Hachem, May; Villani, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Even if varicella is generally considered a harmless disease in childhood, severe complications may occur. We examined varicella skin complications (VSCs) in hospitalized immunologically healthy children, over a nine-year period. We also systematically analyzed previous reports to calculate the rate of VSCs in the literature. VSCs occurred in 16.4% of children hospitalized for varicella. This figure is in accordance with the literature, as the range of VSCs was 2.6%-41.2%. Skin complications may represent determinants of hospitalization and of other indirect costs in young children. PMID:27164095

  9. Animal-Assisted Intervention for trauma: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    O'Haire, Marguerite E.; Guérin, Noémie A.; Kirkham, Alison C.

    2015-01-01

    Animals have a long history of inclusion in psychiatric treatment. There has been a recent growth in the empirical study of this practice, known as Animal-Assisted Intervention (AAI). We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on AAI for trauma, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Ten studies qualified for inclusion, including six peer-reviewed journal articles and four unpublished theses. Participants were predominantly survivors of child abuse, in addition to military veterans. The presentation of AAI was highly variable across the studies. The most common animal species were dogs and horses. The most prevalent outcomes were reduced depression, PTSD symptoms, and anxiety. There was a low level of methodological rigor in most studies, indicating the preliminary nature of this area of investigation. We conclude that AAI may provide promise as a complementary treatment option for trauma, but that further research is essential to establish feasibility, efficacy, and manualizable protocols. PMID:26300817

  10. Children Reading to Dogs: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sophie Susannah; Gee, Nancy R.; Mills, Daniel Simon

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite growing interest in the value of human-animal interactions (HAI) to human mental and physical health the quality of the evidence on which postulated benefits from animals to human psychological health are based is often unclear. To date there exist no systematic reviews on the effects of HAI in educational settings specifically focussing on the perceived benefits to children of reading to dogs. With rising popularity and implementation of these programmes in schools, it is essential that the evidence base exploring the pedagogic value of these initiatives is well documented. Methods Using PRISMA guidelines we systematically investigated the literature reporting the pedagogic effects of reading to dogs. Because research in this area is in the early stages of scientific enquiry we adopted broad inclusion criteria, accepting all reports which discussed measurable effects related to the topic that were written in English. Multiple online databases were searched during January-March 2015; grey literature searches were also conducted. The search results which met the inclusion criteria were evaluated, and discussed, in relation to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine levels of evidence; 27 papers were classified as Level 5, 13 as Level 4, 7 as Level 2c and 1 as Level 2b. Conclusion The evidence suggests that reading to a dog may have a beneficial effect on a number of behavioural processes which contribute to a positive effect on the environment in which reading is practiced, leading to improved reading performance. However, the evidence base on which these inferences are made is of low quality. There is a clear need for the use of higher quality research methodologies and the inclusion of appropriate controls in order to draw causal inferences on whether or how reading to dogs may benefit children’s reading practices. The mechanisms for any effect remain a matter of conjecture. PMID:26901412

  11. Landslide Susceptibility Statistical Methods: A Critical and Systematic Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihir, Monika; Malamud, Bruce; Rossi, Mauro; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility assessment, the subject of this systematic review, is aimed at understanding the spatial probability of slope failures under a set of geomorphological and environmental conditions. It is estimated that about 375 landslides that occur globally each year are fatal, with around 4600 people killed per year. Past studies have brought out the increasing cost of landslide damages which primarily can be attributed to human occupation and increased human activities in the vulnerable environments. Many scientists, to evaluate and reduce landslide risk, have made an effort to efficiently map landslide susceptibility using different statistical methods. In this paper, we do a critical and systematic landslide susceptibility literature review, in terms of the different statistical methods used. For each of a broad set of studies reviewed we note: (i) study geography region and areal extent, (ii) landslide types, (iii) inventory type and temporal period covered, (iv) mapping technique (v) thematic variables used (vi) statistical models, (vii) assessment of model skill, (viii) uncertainty assessment methods, (ix) validation methods. We then pulled out broad trends within our review of landslide susceptibility, particularly regarding the statistical methods. We found that the most common statistical methods used in the study of landslide susceptibility include logistic regression, artificial neural network, discriminant analysis and weight of evidence. Although most of the studies we reviewed assessed the model skill, very few assessed model uncertainty. In terms of geographic extent, the largest number of landslide susceptibility zonations were in Turkey, Korea, Spain, Italy and Malaysia. However, there are also many landslides and fatalities in other localities, particularly India, China, Philippines, Nepal and Indonesia, Guatemala, and Pakistan, where there are much fewer landslide susceptibility studies available in the peer-review literature. This

  12. Occupational therapy and return to work: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this review study was to gather evidence on the effectiveness in terms of return to work (RTW) of occupational therapy interventions (OTIs) in rehabilitation patients with non-congenital disorders. A secondary aim was to be able to select the most efficient OTI. Methods A systematic literature review of peer-reviewed papers was conducted using electronic databases (Cinahl, Cochrane Library, Ebsco, Medline (Pubmed), and PsycInfo). The search focussed on randomised controlled trials and cohort studies published in English from 1980 until September 2010. Scientific validity of the studies was assessed. Results Starting from 1532 papers with pertinent titles, six studies met the quality criteria. Results show systematic reviewing of OTIs on RTW was challenging due to varying populations, different outcome measures, and poor descriptions of methodology. There is evidence that OTIs as part of rehabilitation programs, increase RTW rates, although the methodological evidence of most studies is weak. Conclusions Analysis of the selected papers indicated that OTIs positively influence RTW; two studies described precisely what the content of their OTI was. In order to identify the added value of OTIs on RTW, studies with well-defined OT intervention protocols are necessary. PMID:21810228

  13. Management and leadership competence in hospitals: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Pihlainen, Vuokko; Kivinen, Tuula; Lammintakanen, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of management and leadership competence of health-care leaders and managers, especially in the hospital environment. Health-care leaders and managers in this study were both nursing and physician managers. Competence was assessed by evaluating the knowledge, skills, attitudes and abilities that enable management and leadership tasks. Design/methodology/approach - A systematic literature review was performed to find articles that identify and describe the characteristics of management and leadership competence. Searches of electronic databases were conducted using set criteria for article selection. Altogether, 13 papers underwent an inductive content analysis. Findings - The characteristics of management and leadership competence were categorized into the following groups: health-care-context-related, operational and general. Research limitations/implications - One limitation of the study is that only 13 articles were found in the literature regarding the characteristics of management and leadership competence. However, the search terms were relevant, and the search process was endorsed by an information specialist. The study findings imply the need to shift away from the individual approach to leadership and management competence. Management and leadership need to be assessed more frequently from a holistic perspective, and not merely on the basis of position in the organizational hierarchy or of profession in health care. Originality/value - The authors' evaluation of the characteristics of management and leadership competence without a concentrated profession-based approach is original. PMID:26764963

  14. Functional MRI in ADHD: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Paloyelis, Yannis; Mehta, Mitul A; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip

    2007-10-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) research in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a fast developing and very complex field. Every study appears to show differences in patterns of brain activation between cases and controls, but the interpretation of such differences is not as straightforward as it may seem. We present here a systematic review of the fMRI literature in ADHD; areas covered include executive functions, reward processing, the effects of methylphenidate, comorbidity and spontaneous brain activity in the resting state. To facilitate the interpretation of research in this area, we discuss important conceptual issues, such as the need to take group differences in performance into account or to consider the role of errors. We present common themes that emerge from these studies and we discuss possible reasons for the many discrepancies that were observed. Finally, based on existing literature and current advancements in fMRI research, we discuss the role that fMRI could play in the future as a diagnostic tool or in treatment outcome predictions, and we make predictions for the future directions of research in this field. PMID:17939771

  15. Sexting prevalence and correlates: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Klettke, Bianca; Hallford, David J; Mellor, David J

    2014-02-01

    Despite considerable controversy and speculation regarding sexting behaviour and its associated risks, to date there has been no integration and analysis of empirical literature on this topic. To collect and synthesise findings of the prevalence of sexting, its correlates, and the context in which it occurs, a systematic search of databases was conducted. Thirty-one studies, reporting on sexting prevalence and a diverse range of related variables, met inclusion criteria. The estimated mean prevalence weighted by sample size was calculated, with trends indicating sexting is more prevalent amongst adults than adolescents, older age is predictive of sexting for adolescents but not adults, and more individuals report receiving sexts than sending them. The correlates of sexting behaviour were grouped in terms of demographic variables, sexual and sexual risk behaviours, attitudes towards sexting, perceived outcomes of sexting, motivations for sexting, mental health and well-being variables, and attachment dimensions. Findings are discussed in terms of the trends indicated by the data, which provided substantiation that sexting behaviour is associated with numerous behavioural, psychological, and social factors. Limitations of the current research literature and future directions are also presented. PMID:24370714

  16. Spiritually and Religiously Integrated Group Psychotherapy: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We systematically reviewed the research literature on spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy to answer the following three questions: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group psychotherapy; and, third, what is the outcome of the group psychotherapies? We searched in two databases: PsycINFO and PubMed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria and checklists from standardized assessment tools were applied to the research literature. Qualitative and quantitative papers were included. In total, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from other types of group psychotherapies, was not fully conceptualized or understood either. However, clear and delimited conceptualization of spiritual and religious factors is crucial in order to be able to conclude the direct influences of spiritual or religious factors on outcomes. Implications for spiritually or religiously integrated group psychotherapy and conducting research in this field are propounded. PMID:24288557

  17. Classifications of Acute Scaphoid Fractures: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Ten Berg, Paul W; Drijkoningen, Tessa; Strackee, Simon D; Buijze, Geert A

    2016-05-01

    Background In the lack of consensus, surgeon-based preference determines how acute scaphoid fractures are classified. There is a great variety of classification systems with considerable controversies. Purposes The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the different classification systems, clarifying their subgroups and analyzing their popularity by comparing citation indexes. The intention was to improve data comparison between studies using heterogeneous fracture descriptions. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature based on a search of medical literature from 1950 to 2015, and a manual search using the reference lists in relevant book chapters. Only original descriptions of classifications of acute scaphoid fractures in adults were included. Popularity was based on citation index as reported in the databases of Web of Science (WoS) and Google Scholar. Articles that were cited <10 times in WoS were excluded. Results Our literature search resulted in 308 potentially eligible descriptive reports of which 12 reports met the inclusion criteria. We distinguished 13 different (sub) classification systems based on (1) fracture location, (2) fracture plane orientation, and (3) fracture stability/displacement. Based on citations numbers, the Herbert classification was most popular, followed by the Russe and Mayo classifications. All classification systems were based on plain radiography. Conclusions Most classification systems were based on fracture location, displacement, or stability. Based on the controversy and limited reliability of current classification systems, suggested research areas for an updated classification include three-dimensional fracture pattern etiology and fracture fragment mobility assessed by dynamic imaging. PMID:27104083

  18. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor mushroom improved survival and

  19. Fibrin Sealants in Dura Sealing: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibrin sealants are widely used in neurosurgery to seal the suture line, provide watertight closure, and prevent cerebrospinal fluid leaks. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the current efficacy and safety literature of fibrin sealants in dura sealing and the prevention/treatment of cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Methods A comprehensive electronic literature search was run in the following databases: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Resister of Controlled Trials, clinicaltrials.gov, MEDLINE/PubMed, and EMBASE. Titles and abstracts of potential articles of interest were reviewed independently by 3 of the authors. Results A total of 1006 database records and additional records were identified. After screening for duplicates and relevance, a total of 78 articles were assessed by the investigators for eligibility. Thirty-eight were excluded and the full-text of 40 articles were included in the qualitative synthesis. Seven of these included only safety data and were included in the safety assessment. The remaining 33 articles included findings from 32 studies that enrolled a total of 2935 patients who were exposed to fibrin sealant. Among these 33 studies there were only 3 randomized controlled trials, with the remaining being prospective cohort analysis, case controlled studies, prospective or retrospective case series. One randomized controlled trial, with 89 patients exposed to fibrin sealant, found a greater rate of intraoperative watertight dura closure in the fibrin sealant group than the control group (92.1% versus 38.0%, p<0.001); however, post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred in more fibrin sealant than control patients (6.7% versus 2.0%, p>0.05). Other clinical trials evaluated the effect of fibrin sealant in the postoperative prevention of cerebrospinal fluid leaks. These were generally lower level evidence studies (ie, not prospective, randomized, controlled trials) that were not designed or

  20. The Omaha System: a systematic review of the recent literature

    PubMed Central

    Topaz, Maxim; Golfenshtein, Nadya; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2014-01-01

    Background The Omaha System (OS) is one of the oldest of the American Nurses Association recognized standardized terminologies describing and measuring the impact of healthcare services. This systematic review presents the state of science on the use of the OS in practice, research, and education. Aims (1) To identify, describe and evaluate the publications on the OS between 2004 and 2011, (2) to identify major trends in the use of the OS in research, practice, and education, and (3) to suggest areas for future research. Methods Systematic search in the largest online healthcare databases (PUBMED, CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO, Ovid) from 2004 to 2011. Methodological quality of the reviewed research studies was evaluated. Results 56 publications on the OS were identified and analyzed. The methodological quality of the reviewed research studies was relatively high. Over time, publications’ focus shifted from describing clients’ problems toward outcomes research. There was an increasing application of advanced statistical methods and a significant portion of authors focused on classification and interoperability research. There was an increasing body of international literature on the OS. Little research focused on the theoretical aspects of the OS, the effective use of the OS in education, or cultural adaptations of the OS outside the USA. Conclusions The OS has a high potential to provide meaningful and high quality information about complex healthcare services. Further research on the OS should focus on its applicability in healthcare education, theoretical underpinnings and international validity. Researchers analyzing the OS data should address how they attempted to mitigate the effects of missing data in analyzing their results and clearly present the limitations of their studies. PMID:23744786

  1. Life beyond severe traumatic injury: an integrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Daly, John; Davidson, Patricia; Elliott, Doug; Griffiths, Rhonda

    2005-02-01

    It is only recently that recognition of the serious and debilitating sequelae of trauma has prompted exploration of outcomes beyond survival, such as disability, health status and quality of life. This paper aims to review the literature describing outcomes following severe traumatic injury to provide clinicians with a greater understanding of the recovery trajectory following severe trauma and highlight the issues faced by those recovering from such injury. Electronic databases, published reference lists and the Internet were searched to identify relevant literature. The heterogeneous nature of published literature in this area prohibited a systematic approach to inclusion of papers in this review. Trauma survivors report significant sequelae that influence functional status, psychological wellbeing, quality of life and return to productivity following severe injury. Key themes that emerge from the review include: current trauma systems which provide inadequate support along the recovery trajectory; rehabilitation referral which is affected by geographical location and provider preferences; a long-term loss of productivity in both society and the workplace; a high incidence of psychological sequelae; a link between poor recovery and increased drug and alcohol consumption; and valued social support which can augment recovery. Future research to evaluate interventions which target the recovery needs of the severely injured patients is recommended. Particular emphasis is required to develop systematic, sustainable and cost-effective follow-up to augment the successes of existing acute trauma services in providing high quality acute resuscitation and definitive trauma management. PMID:18038530

  2. Guidelines for overcoming hospital managerial challenges: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Crema, Maria; Verbano, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The need to respond to accreditation institutes’ and patients’ requirements and to align health care results with increased medical knowledge is focusing greater attention on quality in health care. Different tools and techniques have been adopted to measure and manage quality, but clinical errors are still too numerous, suggesting that traditional quality improvement systems are unable to deal appropriately with hospital challenges. The purpose of this paper is to grasp the current tools, practices, and guidelines adopted in health care to improve quality and patient safety and create a base for future research on this young subject. Methods A systematic literature review was carried out. A search of academic databases, including papers that focus not only on lean management, but also on clinical errors and risk reduction, yielded 47 papers. The general characteristics of the selected papers were analyzed, and a content analysis was conducted. Results A variety of managerial techniques, tools, and practices are being adopted in health care, and traditional methodologies have to be integrated with the latest ones in order to reduce errors and ensure high quality and patient safety. As it has been demonstrated, these tools are useful not only for achieving efficiency objectives, but also for providing higher quality and patient safety. Critical indications and guidelines for successful implementation of new health managerial methodologies are provided and synthesized in an operative scheme useful for extending and deepening knowledge of these issues with further studies. Conclusion This research contributes to introducing a new theme in health care literature regarding the development of successful projects with both clinical risk management and health lean management objectives, and should address solutions for improving health care even in the current context of decreasing resources. PMID:24307833

  3. Weight loss before conception: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Forsum, Elisabet; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Olafsdottir, Anna-Sigrid; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in women has increased during the last decades. This is a serious concern since a high BMI before conception is an independent risk factor for many adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Therefore, dietary counseling, intended to stimulate weight loss in overweight and obese women prior to conception has recently been recommended. However, dieting with the purpose to lose weight may involve health risks for mother and offspring. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify papers investigating the effects of weight loss due to dietary interventions before conception. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of weight loss prior to conception in overweight or obese women on a number of health-related outcomes in mother and offspring using studies published between January 2000 and December 2011. Our first literature search produced 486 citations and, based on predefined eligibility criteria, 58 were selected and ordered in full text. Two group members read each paper. Fifteen studies were selected for quality assessment and two of them were considered appropriate for inclusion in evidence tables. A complementary search identified 168 citations with four papers being ordered in full text. The two selected studies provided data for overweight and obese women. One showed a positive effect of weight loss before pregnancy on the risk of gestational diabetes and one demonstrated a reduced risk for large-for-gestational-age infants in women with a BMI above 25 who lost weight before pregnancy. No study investigated the effect of weight loss due to a dietary intervention before conception. There is a lack of studies on overweight and obese women investigating the effect of dietary-induced weight loss prior to conception on health-related variables in mother and offspring. Such studies are probably lacking since they are difficult to conduct. Therefore, alternative strategies to control the body weight of girls and women

  4. Intratympanic corticosteroids injections: a systematic review of literature.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Philippe; Lavigne, François; Saliba, Issam

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the evidence of intratympanic steroids injections (ITSI) for efficacy in the management of the following inner ear diseases: Ménière's disease, tinnitus, noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). The data sources were literature review from 1946 to December 2014, PubMed and Medline. A systematic review of the existing literature was performed. Databases were searched for all human prospective randomized clinical trials using ITSI in at least one treatment group. The authors identified 29 prospective randomized clinical trials investigating the benefits of an intratympanic delivery of steroids. Six articles on Ménière's disease were identified, of which one favored ITSI over placebo in vertigo control. Of the five randomized clinical trials on tinnitus therapy, one study found better tinnitus control with ITSI. The only available trial on NIHL showed significant hearing recovery with combination therapy (ITSI and oral steroids therapy). Seventeen studies were identified on ISSNHL, of which 10 investigated ITSI as a first-line therapy and 7 as a salvage therapy. Studies analysis found benefits in hearing recovery in both settings. Due to heterogeneity in treatment protocols and follow-up, a meta-analysis was not performed. Given the low adverse effects rates of ITSI therapy and good patient tolerability, local delivery should be considered as an interesting adjunct to the therapy of the ISSNHL and NIHL. Only one article over six where ITSI therapy offers potential benefits to patients with Ménière's disease in the control of tinnitus and vertigo was found. ITSI does not seem to be effective in the treatment of tinnitus. PMID:26100030

  5. Physician leadership in e-health? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Keijser, Wouter; Smits, Jacco; Penterman, Lisanne; Wilderom, Celeste

    2016-07-01

    Purpose This paper aims to systematically review the literature on roles of physicians in virtual teams (VTs) delivering healthcare for effective "physician e-leadership" (PeL) and implementation of e-health. Design/methodology/approach The analyzed studies were retrieved with explicit keywords and criteria, including snowball sampling. They were synthesized with existing theoretical models on VT research, healthcare team competencies and medical leadership. Findings Six domains for further PeL inquiry are delineated: resources, task processes, socio-emotional processes, leadership in VTs, virtual physician-patient relationship and change management. We show that, to date, PeL studies on socio-technical dynamics and their consequences on e-health are found underrepresented in the health literature; i.e. no single empirical, theoretic or conceptual study with a focus on PeL in virtual healthcare work was identified. Research limitations/implications E-health practices could benefit from organization-behavioral type of research for discerning effective physicians' roles and inter-professional relations and their (so far) seemingly modest but potent impact on e-health developments. Practical implications Although best practices in e-health care have already been identified, this paper shows that physicians' roles in e-health initiatives have not yet received any in-depth study. This raises questions such as are physicians not yet sufficiently involved in e-health? If so, what (dis)advantages may this have for current e-health investments and how can they best become involved in (leading) e-health applications' design and implementation in the field? Originality/value If effective medical leadership is being deployed, e-health effectiveness may be enhanced; this new proposition needs urgent empirical scrutiny. PMID:27397753

  6. Oats and bowel disease: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Thies, Frank; Masson, Lindsey F; Boffetta, Paolo; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2014-10-01

    Whole-grain foods such as oats may protect against colorectal cancer and have benefits on inflammatory bowel disease and coeliac disease. The present study aimed to systematically review the literature describing intervention studies that investigated the effects of oats or oat bran on risk factors for bowel disease. A literature search was conducted using Embase, Medline and the Cochrane library, which identified 654 potential articles. Thirty-eight articles describing twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Two studies carried out in participants with a history of colorectal adenomas found no effects of increased oat-bran intake on indirect risk makers for colorectal cancer. One of two interventions with oat bran in patients with ulcerative colitis showed small improvements in the patients' conditions. Most of the eleven studies carried out in adults with coeliac disease showed no negative effects of uncontaminated oat consumption. The fourteen studies carried out in volunteers with no history of bowel disease suggest that oats or oat bran can significantly increase stool weight and decrease constipation, but there is a lack of evidence to support a specific effect of oats on bowel function compared with other cereals. A long-term dietary intake of oats or oat bran could benefit inflammatory bowel disorders, but this remains to be proven. A protective effect on colorectal adenoma and cancer incidence has not yet been convincingly shown. The majority of patients with coeliac disease could consume up to 100 g/d of uncontaminated oats, which would increase the acceptability of, and adherence to, a gluten-free diet. PMID:25267242

  7. The economic burden of psoriasis: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Steven R; Burudpakdee, Chakkarin; Gala, Smeet; Nanavaty, Merena; Mallya, Usha G

    2014-10-01

    Costs associated with psoriasis present a considerable economic burden. A previously published review was lacking comprehensive data on biologics. Therefore, a systematic literature review was performed to gain a comprehensive understanding of the economic burden of psoriasis throughout the world. Studies published in the English language between January 2001 and May 2013 reporting the direct and indirect economic burden of psoriasis were identified from PubMed and conference proceedings. Thirty-five studies from 11 countries met the inclusion criteria. In 2004, the annual total cost (direct and indirect) in the USA alone was approximately US$1.40 billion. Among the European countries, the most recent studies reported an annual total cost per patient of €11,928 in Sweden, €8372 in Italy, €2866-6707 in Germany and CDN$7999 in Canada, based on treatment type. Costs associated with psoriasis are high in many countries, indicating a continued need for treatments that offer good value for money. PMID:25052261

  8. Food and Beverage Marketing to Latinos: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Adeigbe, Rebecca T; Baldwin, Shannon; Gallion, Kip; Grier, Sonya; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2015-10-01

    Obesity rates among U.S. adults and children have increased over the past two decades and, although signs of stabilization and decline among certain age groups and geographies are being reported, the prevalence of obesity among Latino adults and children remain high. The Latino population is growing in parallel to these obesity rates and marketers realize they cannot ignore this growing, high-spending, media-consuming segment. Studies examining food and beverage marketing strategies tend to discuss minority groups in general but do not account for racial and ethnic differences, reducing our ability to explain existing inequities. This article aimed to identify the food and beverage marketing strategies used to influence food environments for Latinos versus non-Latinos. A systematic literature review and analysis, guided by an established marketing conceptual framework, determined that the food and beverage marketing environment for Latinos is less likely to promote healthy eating and more likely to encourage consumption of low-nutrient, calorie-dense foods and beverages. This analysis also determined that Latinos' food environment and the placement of food retail stores appears to influence their body mass index; however, placement of these stores cannot be generalized, as geographical differences exist. While food and beverage marketing is only one of many sources of influence on food and beverage consumption, these findings reinforce the notion that Latinos are at a disadvantage when it comes to exposure of healthy lifestyle messaging and health-promoting food environments. PMID:25504570

  9. Manganese and epilepsy: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Reyes, Rodrigo E; Gutierrez-Alvarez, Angela M; Moreno, Carlos B

    2007-02-01

    Manganese is an essential trace element for the development and function of the central nervous system. Alterations in manganese concentrations, whether excessive or deficient, can be accompanied by convulsions. This article represents a systematic review of available quantitative evidence that might clarify this issue. We searched The Cochrane Library, Medline and LILACS databases from January 1966 through June 2006 and reviewed all resulting English and Spanish language publications, as well as those possibly relevant in other languages based on their abstracts. The final selection included for this review comprises all investigations in humans and animals that compared manganese levels in any tissue of a group with spontaneous or induced convulsions (with or without antiepileptic treatment) and a convulsion-free control group. The literature search identified thirteen publications since then relevant to the issue, four of which failed to meet our criteria for inclusion. Of the remaining nine, six were in humans and three in rodents. At present, there is no satisfactory explanation for the relationship between low manganese levels and the presence of convulsions. There is a documented correlation between low blood manganese levels and the presence of convulsions in both humans and animals. The lack of evidence indicating whether this is a cause or an effect of the convulsions clearly justifies more detailed follow-up investigations in humans. PMID:17166592

  10. Effectiveness of alcohol media literacy programmes: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Chloe S; Hindmarsh, Chloe S; Jones, Sandra C; Kervin, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To provide insight into some of these questions, a systematic literature review of alcohol media literacy studies was conducted. The review was guided by the following research question: What considerations are needed to develop an effective school-based alcohol media literacy programme? On the basis of a critical synthesis of 10 interventions (published in the period 1997 to May 2014), our findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the descriptive, methodological and outcome characteristics of this small body of significant research. The review provides considerations for future alcohol media literacy programmes, including the need for an interactive pedagogical approach within the naturalistic school setting, implementation fidelity and a holistic approach to programme evaluation, a means for maintaining relevance, consideration of gender differences, relevance for an international audience and use of follow-up and longitudinal data. PMID:25840435

  11. Urinothorax: Case report and systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Casallas, Alexander; Castañeda-Cardona, Camilo; Rosselli, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Urinothorax, the presence of urine in the pleural space, is a rare cause of pleural effusion, usually associated with obstructive uropathy, or urinary trauma. We present the case of a 3 year-old boy and a systematic review of the literature of the 44 cases encountered. After resection of a Wilm's tumour in the right kidney our patient presented acute respiratory distress associated with radiographically confirmed pleural effusion. With the initial diagnosis of pneumonia or malignant pleural effusion, a closed thoracotomy was performed. The liquid obtained suggested urine, which was confirmed by the laboratory. Cystoscopy with retrograde pyelography detected a fistula on the posterior wall of the right kidney. The report of cases worldwide is low, probably due to its low incidence but also to underdiagnosis. Respiratory symptoms are not always present and urological symptoms usually predominate. Diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and is confirmed by the main biochemical marker: The ratio >1.0 pleural fluid creatinine and creatinine serum. PMID:26834411

  12. Urinothorax: Case report and systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Casallas, Alexander; Castañeda-Cardona, Camilo; Rosselli, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Urinothorax, the presence of urine in the pleural space, is a rare cause of pleural effusion, usually associated with obstructive uropathy, or urinary trauma. We present the case of a 3 year-old boy and a systematic review of the literature of the 44 cases encountered. After resection of a Wilm's tumour in the right kidney our patient presented acute respiratory distress associated with radiographically confirmed pleural effusion. With the initial diagnosis of pneumonia or malignant pleural effusion, a closed thoracotomy was performed. The liquid obtained suggested urine, which was confirmed by the laboratory. Cystoscopy with retrograde pyelography detected a fistula on the posterior wall of the right kidney. The report of cases worldwide is low, probably due to its low incidence but also to underdiagnosis. Respiratory symptoms are not always present and urological symptoms usually predominate. Diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and is confirmed by the main biochemical marker: The ratio >1.0 pleural fluid creatinine and creatinine serum. PMID:26834411

  13. Family dynamics during the grieving process: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Delalibera, Mayra; Presa, Joana; Coelho, Alexandra; Barbosa, António; Franco, Maria Helena Pereira

    2015-04-01

    The loss of a loved one can affect family dynamics by changing the family system and creating the need for family members to reorganize. Good family functioning, which is characterized by open communication, expression of feelings and thoughts and cohesion among family members, facilitates adaptive adjustment to the loss. This study conducted a systematic review of the literature on family dynamics during the grieving process. A search was conducted in the EBSCO, Web of Knowledge and Bireme databases for scientific articles published from January 1980 to June 2013. Of the 389 articles found, only 15 met all the inclusion criteria. The selected studies provided evidence that dysfunctional families exhibit more psychopathological symptoms, more psychosocial morbidity, poorer social functioning, greater difficulty accessing community resources, lower functional capacity at work, and a more complicated grieving process. Family conflicts were also emphasized as contributing to the development of a complicated grieving process, while cohesion, expression of affection and good communication in families are believed to mitigate grief symptoms. PMID:25923623

  14. How does burnout affect physician productivity? A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interest in the well-being of physicians has increased because of their contributions to the healthcare system quality. There is growing recognition that physicians are exposed to workplace factors that increase the risk of work stress. Long-term exposure to high work stress can result in burnout. Reports from around the world suggest that about one-third to one-half of physicians experience burnout. Understanding the outcomes associated with burnout is critical to understanding its affects on the healthcare system. Productivity outcomes are among those that could have the most immediate effects on the healthcare system. This systematic literature review is one of the first to explore the evidence for the types of physician productivity outcomes associated with physician burnout. It answers the question, “How does burnout affect physician productivity?” Methods A systematic search was performed of: Medline Current, Medline in process, PsycInfo, Embase and Web of Science. The search period covered 2002 to 2012. The searches identified articles about practicing physicians working in civilian settings. Articles that primarily looked only at residents or medical students were excluded. Productivity was captured by hours worked, patients seen, sick leave, leaving the profession, retirement, workload and presenteeism. Studies also were excluded if: (1) the study sample was not comprised of at least 50% physicians, (2) the study did not examine the relationship between burnout and productivity or (3) a validated measure of burnout was not used. Results The search identified 870 unique citations; 5 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. This review indicates that globally there is recognition of the potential impact of physician burnout on productivity. Productivity was examined using: number of sick leave days, work ability, intent to either continue practicing or change jobs. The majority of the studies indicate there is a negative relationship between

  15. PathNER: a tool for systematic identification of biological pathway mentions in the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biological pathways are central to many biomedical studies and are frequently discussed in the literature. Several curated databases have been established to collate the knowledge of molecular processes constituting pathways. Yet, there has been little focus on enabling systematic detection of pathway mentions in the literature. Results We developed a tool, named PathNER (Pathway Named Entity Recognition), for the systematic identification of pathway mentions in the literature. PathNER is based on soft dictionary matching and rules, with the dictionary generated from public pathway databases. The rules utilise general pathway-specific keywords, syntactic information and gene/protein mentions. Detection results from both components are merged. On a gold-standard corpus, PathNER achieved an F1-score of 84%. To illustrate its potential, we applied PathNER on a collection of articles related to Alzheimer's disease to identify associated pathways, highlighting cases that can complement an existing manually curated knowledgebase. Conclusions In contrast to existing text-mining efforts that target the automatic reconstruction of pathway details from molecular interactions mentioned in the literature, PathNER focuses on identifying specific named pathway mentions. These mentions can be used to support large-scale curation and pathway-related systems biology applications, as demonstrated in the example of Alzheimer's disease. PathNER is implemented in Java and made freely available online at http://sourceforge.net/projects/pathner/. PMID:24555844

  16. What is kangaroo mother care? Systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Grace J; Valsangkar, Bina; Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Boundy, Ellen O; Wall, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC), often defined as skin–to–skin contact between a mother and her newborn, frequent or exclusive breastfeeding, and early discharge from the hospital has been effective in reducing the risk of mortality among preterm and low birth weight infants. Research studies and program implementation of KMC have used various definitions. Objectives To describe the current definitions of KMC in various settings, analyze the presence or absence of KMC components in each definition, and present a core definition of KMC based on common components that are present in KMC literature. Methods We conducted a systematic review and searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and the World Health Organization Regional Databases for studies with key words “kangaroo mother care”, “kangaroo care” or “skin to skin care” from 1 January 1960 to 24 April 2014. Two independent reviewers screened articles and abstracted data. Findings We screened 1035 articles and reports; 299 contained data on KMC and neonatal outcomes or qualitative information on KMC implementation. Eighty–eight of the studies (29%) did not define KMC. Two hundred and eleven studies (71%) included skin–to–skin contact (SSC) in their KMC definition, 49 (16%) included exclusive or nearly exclusive breastfeeding, 22 (7%) included early discharge criteria, and 36 (12%) included follow–up after discharge. One hundred and sixty–seven studies (56%) described the duration of SSC. Conclusions There exists significant heterogeneity in the definition of KMC. A large number of studies did not report definitions of KMC. Skin–to–skin contact is the core component of KMC, whereas components such as breastfeeding, early discharge, and follow–up care are context specific. To implement KMC effectively development of a global standardized definition of KMC is needed. PMID:27231546

  17. Substandard and counterfeit medicines: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Almuzaini, Tariq; Choonara, Imti; Sammons, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the evidence available of poor-quality (counterfeit and substandard) medicines in the literature. Design Systematic review. Data sources Databases used were EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed and the International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, including articles published till January 2013. Eligibility criteria Prevalence studies containing original data. WHO definitions (1992) used for counterfeit and substandard medicines. Study appraisal and synthesis Two reviewers independently scored study methodology against recommendations from the MEDQUARG Checklist. Studies were classified according to the World Bank classification of countries by income. Data extraction Data extracted: place of study; type of drugs sampled; sample size; percentage of substandard/counterfeit medicines; formulations included; origin of the drugs; chemical analysis and stated issues of counterfeit/substandard medicines. Results 44 prevalence studies were identified, 15 had good methodological quality. They were conducted in 25 different countries; the majority were in low-income countries (11) and/or lower middle-income countries (10). The median prevalence of substandard/counterfeit medicines was 28.5% (range 11–48%). Only two studies differentiated between substandard and counterfeit medicines. Prevalence data were limited to antimicrobial drugs (all 15 studies). 13 studies involved antimalarials, 6 antibiotics and 2 other medications. The majority of studies (93%) contained samples with inadequate amounts of active ingredients. The prevalence of substandard/counterfeit antimicrobials was significantly higher when purchased from unlicensed outlets (p<0.000; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.32). No individual data about the prevalence in upper middle-income countries and high-income countries were available. Limitations Studies with strong methodology were few. The majority did not differentiate between substandard and counterfeit medicines. Most studies assessed only a single therapeutic class of

  18. Preterm human milk composition: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Catherine; Watson, Mistral; Lazidis, Grace; Reeve, Sarah; Dods, Kenneth; Simmer, Karen; McLeod, Gemma

    2016-09-01

    There are wide variations in the macronutrient values adopted by neonatal intensive care units and industry to fortify milk in efforts to achieve recommended intakes for preterm infants. Contributing to this is the variation in macronutrient composition of preterm milk between and within mothers and the variable quality of milk analyses used to determine the macronutrient content of milk. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using articles published in English between 1959 and 2013 that reported the concentrations of one or more macronutrients or energy content in human preterm milk, sampled over a representative 24-h period. Searched medical databases included Ovid Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Results are presented as mean values and ranges for each macronutrient during weeks 1-8 of lactation, and preferred mean values (g/100 ml) for colostrum (week 1) and mature milk (weeks 2-8; protein: 1·27, fat: 3·46, lactose: 6·15 and carbohydrate: 7·34), using data from studies employing the highest-quality analyses. Industry-directed fortification practices using these mean values fail to meet protein targets for infants weighing <1000 g when the fortified milk is fed <170-190 ml/kg per d, and the protein:energy ratio of the fortified milk is inadequate. This study aimed to provide additional information to industry in order to guide their future formulation of breast milk fortifiers. Quality macronutrient analyses of adequately sampled preterm breast milk would improve our understanding of the level of fortification needed to meet recommended protein and energy intakes and growth targets, as well as support standardised reporting of nutritional outcomes. PMID:27522863

  19. Google Scholar as replacement for systematic literature searches: good relative recall and precision are not enough

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research indicates a high recall in Google Scholar searches for systematic reviews. These reports raised high expectations of Google Scholar as a unified and easy to use search interface. However, studies on the coverage of Google Scholar rarely used the search interface in a realistic approach but instead merely checked for the existence of gold standard references. In addition, the severe limitations of the Google Search interface must be taken into consideration when comparing with professional literature retrieval tools. The objectives of this work are to measure the relative recall and precision of searches with Google Scholar under conditions which are derived from structured search procedures conventional in scientific literature retrieval; and to provide an overview of current advantages and disadvantages of the Google Scholar search interface in scientific literature retrieval. Methods General and MEDLINE-specific search strategies were retrieved from 14 Cochrane systematic reviews. Cochrane systematic review search strategies were translated to Google Scholar search expression as good as possible under consideration of the original search semantics. The references of the included studies from the Cochrane reviews were checked for their inclusion in the result sets of the Google Scholar searches. Relative recall and precision were calculated. Results We investigated Cochrane reviews with a number of included references between 11 and 70 with a total of 396 references. The Google Scholar searches resulted in sets between 4,320 and 67,800 and a total of 291,190 hits. The relative recall of the Google Scholar searches had a minimum of 76.2% and a maximum of 100% (7 searches). The precision of the Google Scholar searches had a minimum of 0.05% and a maximum of 0.92%. The overall relative recall for all searches was 92.9%, the overall precision was 0.13%. Conclusion The reported relative recall must be interpreted with care. It is a quality

  20. Fish Intake and Venous Thromboembolism: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Franchini, Massimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Diet plays an important role in modulating the risk of arterial and venous thrombosis. Several lines of evidence attest that consumption of fish and its compounds, especially omega-3 fatty acids, may be effective to decrease the cardiovascular risk. Since the pathogenesis of arterial and venous thrombosis share some common aspects, we performed a systematic review of published clinical studies that investigated the association between fish intake and venous thrombosis. An electronic search was carried out in Medline, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science using the key words "fish" OR "seafood" AND "venous thromboembolism" OR "deep vein thrombosis" OR "pulmonary embolism", with no language or date restriction. Overall, 6 studies (5 prospective and 1 case-control) were finally identified. In only 1 small case-control study, a larger intake of total fish was found to be negatively associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism. No association was found in 4 large prospective studies, whereas a positive association was observed in the remaining. No substantial difference was also noticed between intake of fatty or lean fish. Taken together, the current epidemiological evidence does not support the existence of a significant effect of total fish consumption on the risk of venous thromboembolism. PMID:25962392

  1. Measuring the Outcome of Biomedical Research: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Thonon, Frédérique; Boulkedid, Rym; Delory, Tristan; Rousseau, Sophie; Saghatchian, Mahasti; van Harten, Wim; O’Neill, Claire; Alberti, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Background There is an increasing need to evaluate the production and impact of medical research produced by institutions. Many indicators exist, yet we do not have enough information about their relevance. The objective of this systematic review was (1) to identify all the indicators that could be used to measure the output and outcome of medical research carried out in institutions and (2) enlist their methodology, use, positive and negative points. Methodology We have searched 3 databases (Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science) using the following keywords: [Research outcome* OR research output* OR bibliometric* OR scientometric* OR scientific production] AND [indicator* OR index* OR evaluation OR metrics]. We included articles presenting, discussing or evaluating indicators measuring the scientific production of an institution. The search was conducted by two independent authors using a standardised data extraction form. For each indicator we extracted its definition, calculation, its rationale and its positive and negative points. In order to reduce bias, data extraction and analysis was performed by two independent authors. Findings We included 76 articles. A total of 57 indicators were identified. We have classified those indicators into 6 categories: 9 indicators of research activity, 24 indicators of scientific production and impact, 5 indicators of collaboration, 7 indicators of industrial production, 4 indicators of dissemination, 8 indicators of health service impact. The most widely discussed and described is the h-index with 31 articles discussing it. Discussion The majority of indicators found are bibliometric indicators of scientific production and impact. Several indicators have been developed to improve the h-index. This indicator has also inspired the creation of two indicators to measure industrial production and collaboration. Several articles propose indicators measuring research impact without detailing a methodology for calculating them. Many

  2. Iodine intake in human nutrition: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Dahl, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    The present literature review is a part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) issued in 2004. The main objective of the review is to assess the influence of different intakes of iodine at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation) in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. The literature search resulted in 1,504 abstracts. Out of those, 168 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 40 papers that were quality assessed (A, B, or C). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, and no conclusion. We found suggestive evidence for improved maternal iodine status and thyroid function by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Suggestive evidence was found for the relationship between improved thyroid function (used as an indicator of iodine status) during pregnancy and cognitive function in the offspring up to 18 months of age. Moderately to severely iodine-deficient children will probably benefit from iodine supplementation or improved iodine status in order to improve their cognitive function, while only one study showed improved cognitive function following iodine supplementation in children from a mildly iodine-deficient area (no conclusion). No conclusions can be drawn related to other outcomes included in our review. There are no new data supporting changes in dietary reference values for children or adults. The rationale for increasing the dietary reference values for pregnant and lactating women in the NNR5 needs to be discussed in a broader perspective, taking iodine status of pregnant women in the Nordic countries into account. PMID:23060737

  3. Does Engagement in Meaningful Occupation Reduce Challenging Behaviour in People with Intellectual Disabilities? A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Jo; Fazil, Qulsom

    2013-01-01

    Over several years, there has been much debate about the best way to manage challenging behaviour. Although national guidance highlights the importance of meaningful occupation, it is unclear to what extent this helps. This systematic review of the literature aimed to answer the question, "does engagement in meaningful occupation reduce…

  4. Behavioral Functionality of Mobile Apps in Health Interventions: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lister, Cameron; West, Joshua H; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2015-01-01

    Background Several thousand mobile phone apps are available to download to mobile phones for health and fitness. Mobile phones may provide a unique means of administering health interventions to populations. Objective The purpose of this systematic review was to systematically search and describe the literature on mobile apps used in health behavior interventions, describe the behavioral features and focus of health apps, and to evaluate the potential of apps to disseminate health behavior interventions. Methods We conducted a review of the literature in September 2014 using key search terms in several relevant scientific journal databases. Only English articles pertaining to health interventions using mobile phone apps were included in the final sample. Results The 24 studies identified for this review were primarily feasibility and pilot studies of mobile apps with small sample sizes. All studies were informed by behavioral theories or strategies, with self-monitoring as the most common construct. Acceptability of mobile phone apps was high among mobile phone users. Conclusions The lack of large sample studies using mobile phone apps may signal a need for additional studies on the potential use of mobile apps to assist individuals in changing their health behaviors. Of these studies, there is early evidence that apps are well received by users. Based on available research, mobile apps may be considered a feasible and acceptable means of administering health interventions, but a greater number of studies and more rigorous research and evaluations are needed to determine efficacy and establish evidence for best practices. PMID:25803705

  5. Eurythmy Therapy in clinical studies: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Büssing, Arndt; Ostermann, Thomas; Majorek, Magdalena; Matthiessen, Peter F

    2008-01-01

    Background We aimed to overview the current literature on eurythmy therapy (EYT) which is an integral part of Anthroposophic Medicine. EYT can be described as a movement therapy in which speech movements are transposed into exercises which address the patient's capability to soul expression and strengthen his salutogenetic resources. Methods We searched several databases such as Cochrane, EMBASE, NCCAM, NLM, DIMDI, CAMbase, and Medline for case-control studies, cohort studies and randomised controlled trials on the treatment effects of EYT in a clinical setting. In a second search we included journal databases from Karger, Kluwer, Springer, Thieme, and Merkurstab archive. Results We found 8 citations which met the inclusion criterion: 4 publications referring to a prospective cohort study without control group (the AMOS study), and 4 articles referring to 2 explorative pre-post studies without control group, 1 prospective, non-randomized comparative study, and 1 descriptive study with a control group. The methodological quality of studies ranged in from poor to good, and in sample size from 5 to 898 patients. In most studies, EYT was used as an add-on, not as a mono-therapy. The studies described positive treatment effects with clinically relevant effect sizes in most cases. Conclusion Indications, study designs and the usage of additional treatments within the identified studies were quite heterogeneous. Despite of this, EYT can be regarded as a potentially relevant add-on in a therapeutic concept, although its specific relevance remains to be clarified. Well performed controlled studies on this unique treatment are highly recommended. PMID:18377647

  6. Prediction of placebo responses: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Horing, Bjoern; Weimer, Katja; Muth, Eric R.; Enck, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Predicting who responds to placebo treatment—and under which circumstances—has been a question of interest and investigation for generations. However, the literature is disparate and inconclusive. This review aims to identify publications that provide high quality data on the topic of placebo response (PR) prediction. Methods: To identify studies concerned with PR prediction, independent searches were performed in an expert database (for all symptom modalities) and in PubMed (for pain only). Articles were selected when (a) they assessed putative predictors prior to placebo treatment and (b) an adequate control group was included when the associations of predictors and PRs were analyzed. Results: Twenty studies were identified, most with pain as dependent variable. Most predictors of PRs were psychological constructs related to actions, expected outcomes and the emotional valence attached to these events (goal-seeking, self-efficacy/-esteem, locus of control, optimism). Other predictors involved behavioral control (desire for control, eating restraint), personality variables (fun seeking, sensation seeking, neuroticism), or biological markers (sex, a single nucleotide polymorphism related to dopamine metabolism). Finally, suggestibility and beliefs in expectation biases, body consciousness, and baseline symptom severity were found to be predictive. Conclusions: While results are heterogeneous, some congruence of predictors can be identified. PRs mainly appear to be moderated by expectations of how the symptom might change after treatment, or expectations of how symptom repetition can be coped with. It is suggested to include the listed constructs in future research. Furthermore, a closer look at variables moderating symptom change in control groups seems warranted. PMID:25324797

  7. Severe strongyloidiasis: a systematic review of case reports

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis is commonly a clinically unapparent, chronic infection, but immuno suppressed subjects can develop fatal disease. We carried out a review of literature on hyperinfection syndrome (HS) and disseminated strongyloidiasis (DS), in order to describe the most challenging aspects of severe strongyloidiasis. Methods We conducted a structured search using PubMed to collect case reports and short case series on HS/DS published from 1991 to 2011. We restricted search to papers in English, Spanish, Italian and French. Case reports were classified as HS/DS according to given definitions. Results Records screened were 821, and 311 were excluded through titles and abstract evaluation. Of 510 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, 213 were included in qualitative analysis. As some of them were short case series, eventually the number of cases analyzed was 244. Steroids represented the main trigger predisposing to HS and DS (67% cases): they were mostly administered to treat underlying conditions (e.g. lymphomas, rheumatic diseases). However, sometimes steroids were empirically prescribed to treat signs and symptoms caused by unsuspected/unrecognized strongyloidiasis. Diagnosis was obtained by microscopy examination in 100% cases, while serology was done in a few cases (6.5%). Only in 3/29 cases of solid organ/bone marrow transplantation there is mention of pre-transplant serological screening. Therapeutic regimens were different in terms of drugs selection and combination, administration route and duration. Similar fatality rate was observed between patients with DS (68.5%) and HS (60%). Conclusions Proper screening (which must include serology) is mandatory in high - risk patients, for instance candidates to immunosuppressive medications, currently or previously living in endemic countries. In some cases, presumptive treatment might be justified. Ivermectin is the gold standard for treatment, although the optimal dosage is not clearly defined in

  8. Systematic literature review for clinical practice guideline development.

    PubMed

    O'Day, D M; Steinberg, E P; Dickersin, K

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the quality and scope of the published literature on functional impairment due to cataract in adults as reviewed for the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Clinical Practice Guideline. We examined the method of literature retrieved and analysis performed in the course of development of literature-based recommendations for the guideline panel. To collect data, we reviewed the process of literature acquisition and identification and the quality assessments made by reviewers of 14 individual topics composed of 77 issues related to the guideline. We collated this information to provide an assessment of the quality and scope of the relevant literature. Less than 4% (310) of the approximately 8,000 articles initially identified as potentially relevant to the guideline were ultimately used. The majority covered three topics (surgery and complication, 100; Nd:YAG capsulotomy, 77; and potential vision testing, 40). Three other topics--indications for surgery, preoperative medical evaluation, and rehabilitation--were devoid of articles meeting inclusion criteria. For 43 issues, there was no identifiable relevant literature. With few exceptions, the quality of the literature was rated fair to poor owing to major flaws in experimental design. Case series (256 reports) of one type or another accounted for the majority of the included literature. There were 17 random controlled trials. This review revealed a sparse and generally low-quality literature relevant to the management of functional impairment due to cataract, despite a relatively large data base in reputable peer-reviewed journals. PMID:8140702

  9. Kefir and Cancer: A Systematic Review of Literatures.

    PubMed

    Rafie, Nahid; Golpour Hamedani, Sahar; Ghiasvand, Reza; Miraghajani, Maryam

    2015-12-01

    Some studies have suggested chemopreventive effects of kefir, a fermented milk product, on carcinogenesis. The aim of this review study was to evaluate the scientific evidence for effects of kefir on cancer prevention and treatment. We systematically searched for all relevant studies published before June 2015, using PubMed, Google scholar, Cochrane and Science Direct, SID, MedLib and Srlst databases. Relevant studies were reviewed based on systematic review (PRISMA) guidelines. From a total of 2208 papers obtained at the initial database search, 11 publications including 7 in vitro and 4 experimental studies were eligible. In vitro studies on breast, colon, skin and gastric cancers and leukemia cell lines and experimental studies on different sarcomas consistently showed beneficial effects of kefir on cancer prevention and treatment. The results of this systematic review suggest that kefir may be associated with cancer prevention and it also has beneficial effects in cancer treatment. This protection may be associated with kefir bioactive components including peptides, polysaccharides and sphingolipids. PMID:26621019

  10. School Leadership and Management in South Africa: Findings from a Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Glover, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the literature on school leadership and management in South Africa, linked to the 20th anniversary of democratic government and integrated education. Design/Methodology/Approach: The authors conducted a systematic review of all published work since 2007 with a more selective…

  11. A Systematic Review of the Empirical Literature on Intercessory Prayer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Perhaps surprisingly, many social workers appear to use intercessory prayer in direct practice settings. To help inform practitioners' use of this intervention, this article evaluates the empirical literature on the topic using the following three methods: (a) an individual assessment of each study, (b) an evaluation of intercessory prayer as an…

  12. Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Injury Severity Score System: A Literature Review of Its Safety

    PubMed Central

    Joaquim, Andrei Fernandes; de Almeida Bastos, Dhiego Chaves; Jorge Torres, Hélio Henrique; Patel, Alpesh A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Systematic literature review. Objective The Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score System (TLICS) is widely used to help guide the treatment of thoracolumbar spine trauma. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety of the TLICS in clinical practice. Methods Using the Medline database without time restriction, we performed a systematic review using the keyword “Thoracolumbar Injury Classification,” searching for articles utilizing the TLICS. We classified the results according to their level of evidence and main conclusions. Results Nine articles met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. One article evaluated the safety of the TLICS based on its clinical application (level II). The eight remaining articles were based on retrospective application of the score, comparing the proposed treatment suggested by the TLICS with the treatment patients actually received (level III). The TLICS was safe in surgical and nonsurgical treatment with regards to neurologic status. Some studies reported that the retrospective application of the TLICS had inconsistencies with the treatment of burst fractures without neurologic deficits. Conclusions This literature review suggested that the TLICS use was safe especially with regards to preservation or improvement of neurologic function. Further well-designed multicenter prospective studies of the TLICS application in the decision making process would improve the evidence of its safety. Special attention to the TLICS application in the treatment of stable burst fractures is necessary. PMID:26835205

  13. Systematic Literature Review of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Clinical Trials for Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm

    PubMed Central

    Dashtipour, Khashayar; Chen, Jack J.; Frei, Karen; Nahab, Fatta; Tagliati, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim was to elucidate clinical trial efficacy, safety, and dosing practices of abobotulinumtoxinA (ABO) treatment in adult patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. To date, most literature reviews for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm have examined the effectiveness of all botulinum neurotoxin type A products as a class. However, differences in dosing units and recommended schemes provide a clear rationale for reviewing each product separately. Methods A systematic literature review was performed to identify randomized controlled trials and other comparative clinical studies of ABO in the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm published in English between January 1991 and March 2015. Medical literature databases (PubMed, Cochrane library, EMBASE) were searched. A total of five primary publications that evaluated ABO for the management of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm were identified and summarized. Results Data included 374 subjects with blepharospasm and 172 subjects with hemifacial spasm treated with ABO. Total ABO doses ranged between 80 and 340 U for blepharospasm and 25 and 85 U for hemifacial spasm, depending on the severity of the clinical condition. All studies showed statistically significant benefits for the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. ABO was generally well tolerated across the individual studies. Adverse events considered to be associated with ABO treatment included: ptosis, tearing, blurred vision, double vision, dry eyes, and facial weakness. Discussion These data from 5 randomized clinical studies represents the available evidence base of ABO in blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. Future studies in this area will add to this evidence base. PMID:26566457

  14. Productization and Commercialization of IT-Enabled Higher Education in Computer Science: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaanpää, Irja; Isomäki, Hannakaisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews research literature on the production and commercialization of IT-enabled higher education in computer science. Systematic literature review (SLR) was carried out in order to find out to what extent this area has been studied, more specifically how much it has been studied and to what detail. The results of this paper make a…

  15. Does the Finnish intervention prevent obstetric anal sphincter injuries? A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Mette Østergaard; Madsen, Mia Lund; Skriver-Møller, Anne-Cathrine; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A rise in obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) has been observed and a preventive approach, originating in Finland, has been introduced in several European hospitals. The aim of this paper was to systematically evaluate the evidence behind the ‘Finnish intervention’. Design A systematic review of the literature conducted according to the Preferred Reporting for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Outcome measures The primary outcome was OASIS. Secondary outcomes were (perinatal): Apgar scores, pH and standard base excess in the umbilical cord, and (maternal): episiotomy, intact perineum, first and second-degree perineal lacerations, duration of second stage, birth position and women's perceptions/birth experiences. Methods Multiple databases (Cochrane, Embase, Pubmed and SveMed) were systematically searched for studies published up to December 2014. Both randomised controlled trials and observational studies were eligible for inclusion. Studies were excluded if a full-text article was not available. Studies were evaluated by use of international reporting guidelines (eg, STROBE). Results Overall, 1042 articles were screened and 65 retrieved for full-text evaluation. Seven studies, all observational and with a level of evidence at 2c or lower, were included and consistently reported a significant reduction in OASIS. All evaluated episiotomy and found a significant increase. Three studies evaluated perinatal outcomes and reported conflicting results. No study reported on other perineal outcomes, duration of the second stage, birth positions or women's perceptions. Conclusions A reduction in OASIS has been contributed to the Finnish intervention in seven observational studies, all with a low level of evidence. Knowledge about the potential perinatal and maternal side effects and women's perceptions of the intervention is extremely limited and the biological mechanisms underlying the Finnish intervention are not well documented

  16. Reviewing Literature in Bioethics Research: Increasing Rigour in Non-Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Rosalind

    2015-09-01

    The recent interest in systematic review methods in bioethics has highlighted the need for greater transparency in all literature review processes undertaken in bioethics projects. In this article, I articulate features of a good bioethics literature review that does not aim to be systematic, but rather to capture and analyse the key ideas relevant to a research question. I call this a critical interpretive literature review. I begin by sketching and comparing three different types of literature review conducted in bioethics scholarship. Then, drawing on Dixon-Wood's concept of critical interpretive synthesis, I put forward six features of a good critical interpretive literature review in bioethics: answering a research question, capturing the key ideas relevant to the research question, analysing the literature as a whole, generating theory, not excluding papers based on rigid quality assessment criteria, and reporting the search strategy. PMID:25655982

  17. Daily hassles, their antecedents and outcomes among professional first responders: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Gerry; Berglund, Anna Karin; Ohlsson, Alicia

    2016-08-01

    Occupational groups such as firefighters, military officers, paramedics and police officers are exposed to a combination of acute, severe and accumulated everyday stress. Drawing on the daily hassles perspective on stress, the aim was to synthesize existing research on daily hassles in professional first responder settings into a theoretical model. A systematic mixed studies review with an integrated design was undertaken. The selection process resulted in 40 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. The selected papers represented two literature reviews, one qualitative study, eight longitudinal studies and 29 cross-sectional studies. Five superior categories emerged in the analysis: Individual antecedent and continuously framing factors, Environmental antecedent and continuously framing factors, Appraisal and coping processes, Daily hassles and Outcome. Suggestions for future research are presented. PMID:27291300

  18. Technology Interventions to Curb Obesity: A Systematic Review of the Current Literature

    PubMed Central

    Coons, Michael J.; DeMott, Andrew; Buscemi, Joanna; Duncan, Jennifer M.; Pellegrini, Christine A.; Steglitz, Jeremy; Pictor, Alexander; Spring, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a public health crisis that has reached epidemic proportions. Although intensive behavioral interventions can produce clinically significant weight loss, their cost to implement, coupled with resource limitations, pose significant barriers to scalability. To overcome these challenges, researchers have made attempts to shift intervention content to the Internet and other mobile devices. This article systematically reviews the recent literature examining technology-supported interventions for weight loss and maintenance among overweight and obese adults. Thirteen studies were identified that satisfied our inclusion criteria (12 weight loss trials, 1 weight maintenance trial). Our findings suggest that technology interventions may be efficacious at producing weight loss. However, several studies are limited by methodologic shortcomings. There are insufficient data to evaluate their efficacy for weight maintenance. Further research is needed that employs state-of-the-art methodology, with careful attention being paid to adherence and fidelity to intervention protocols. PMID:23082235

  19. Prosthetic treatment outcome in patients with severe hypodontia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Filius, M A; Cune, M S; Raghoebar, G M; Vissink, A; Visser, A

    2016-05-01

    Severe hypodontia (≥6 missing teeth) is associated with aesthetic and functional problems. Its presentation is heterogenic, and a variety of treatment modalities are used resulting in different treatment outcomes. As there is currently no standard treatment approach for patients with severe hypodontia, the literature was systematically reviewed with the focus on treatment outcomes. Medline, Embase and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched (last search 24 August 2015). This was completed with a manual search of the reference lists of the selected studies. To be included, studies had to describe dental treatment outcome measure(s) in patients with severe hypodontia; there were no language restrictions. The methodological quality was assessed using MINORS criteria. Twenty-one studies were eligible, but the diversity in type and quality did not allow for a meta-analysis; seventeen studies had a retrospective design; sixteen studies described the results of implant treatment. Treatment with (partial) dentures, orthodontics, fixed crowns or bridges was sparsely presented in the eligible studies. Implant survival, the most frequently reported treatment outcome, ranging from 35·7% to 98·7%, was influenced by 'location' and 'bone volume'. The results of implant treatment in severe hypodontia patients are promising, but due to its heterogenic presentation, its low prevalence and the poor quality of the studies, evidence-based decision-making in the treatment of severe hypodontia is not yet feasible, thus prompting further research. PMID:26899287

  20. A Systematic Literature Review Toward the Characterization of Comfort.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Sara; Caldeira, Sílvia; Martins, José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Comfort integrates the taxonomies and the classifications of nursing knowledge. Its meaning is not yet clear, although it is an important construct from which theories are developed. This article aims to analyze comfort in nursing scientific literature. The results highlight a particular interest in comfort at crisis situations such as illness, palliative care, or intensive care. Comforting seems to be a complex intervention. More studies are needed to achieve its operational assimilation and implementation in clinical practice, as well as the evaluation of its efficiency and effectiveness. PMID:26633722

  1. Breastfeeding-Associated Hypernatremia: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Lavagno, Camilla; Camozzi, Pietro; Renzi, Samuele; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Bianchetti, Mario G; Milani, Gregorio P

    2016-02-01

    There are increasing reports on hypernatremia, a potentially devastating condition, in exclusively breastfed newborn infants. Our purposes were to describe the clinical features of the condition and identify the risk factors for it. We performed a review of the existing literature in the National Library of Medicine database and in the search engine Google Scholar. A total of 115 reports were included in the final analysis. Breastfeeding-associated neonatal hypernatremia was recognized in infants who were ≤ 21 days of age and had ≥ 10% weight loss of birth weight. Cesarean delivery, primiparity, breast anomalies or breastfeeding problems, excessive prepregnancy maternal weight, delayed first breastfeeding, lack of previous breastfeeding experience, and low maternal education level were significantly associated with breastfeeding-associated hypernatremia. In addition to excessive weight loss (≥ 10%), the following clinical findings were observed: poor feeding, poor hydration state, jaundice, excessive body temperature, irritability or lethargy, decreased urine output, and epileptic seizures. In conclusion, the present survey of the literature identifies the following risk factors for breastfeeding-associated neonatal hypernatremia: cesarean delivery, primiparity, breastfeeding problems, excessive maternal body weight, delayed breastfeeding, lack of previous breastfeeding experience, and low maternal education level. PMID:26530059

  2. Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scales Based on Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Paul D; Hersey, Denise P; Leder, Steven B

    2016-06-01

    Identification of pharyngeal residue severity located in the valleculae and pyriform sinuses has always been a primary goal during fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). Pharyngeal residue is a clinical sign of potential prandial aspiration making an accurate description of its severity an important but difficult challenge. A reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scale for FEES would be beneficial. A systematic review of the published English language literature since 1995 was conducted to determine the quality of existing pharyngeal residue severity rating scales based on FEES. Databases were searched using controlled vocabulary words and synonymous free text words for topics of interest (deglutition disorders, pharyngeal residue, endoscopy, videofluoroscopy, fiberoptic technology, aspiration, etc.) and outcomes of interest (scores, scales, grades, tests, FEES, etc.). Search strategies were adjusted for syntax appropriate for each database/platform. Data sources included MEDLINE (OvidSP 1946-April Week 3 2015), Embase (OvidSP 1974-2015 April 20), Scopus (Elsevier), and the unindexed material in PubMed (NLM/NIH) were searched for relevant articles. Supplementary efforts to identify studies included checking reference lists of articles retrieved. Scales were compared using qualitative properties (sample size, severity definitions, number of raters, and raters' experience and training) and psychometric analyses (randomization, intra- and inter-rater reliability, and construct validity). Seven articles describing pharyngeal residue severity rating scales met inclusion criteria. Six of seven scales had insufficient data to support their use as evidenced by methodological weaknesses with both qualitative properties and psychometric analyses. There is a need for qualitative and psychometrically reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scales that are anatomically specific, image

  3. Prescription Medication Sharing: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Beyene, Kebede A.; Sheridan, Janie; Aspden, Trudi

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on nonrecreational prescription medication sharing. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and a customized multidatabase for all relevant articles published through 2013; our final sample comprised 19 studies from 9 countries with 36 182 participants, ranging in age from children to older adults, and published between 1990 and 2011. The prevalence rate for borrowing someone’s prescription medication was 5% to 51.9% and for lending prescription medication to someone else was 6% to 22.9%. A wide range of medicines were shared between family members, friends, and acquaintances. Sharing of many classes of prescription medication was common. Further research should explore why people share, how they decide to lend or borrow, whether they are aware of the risks, and how they assess the relevance of those risks. PMID:24524496

  4. Hepatoblastoma of the adult: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Celotti, Andrea; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Ceresoli, Marco; Tomasoni, Matteo; Raimondo, Stefano; Baggi, Paolo; Baiocchi, Gian Luca

    2016-09-01

    Hepatoblastoma is the most common malignant liver tumor in children. On the other hand in the adult HB is very rare and characterized by unfavorable prognosis. A review of the entire literature was performed: 58 articles and 63 cases of HB were found. The patient's data were collected and analyzed. No correlation with hepatitis virus was found and AFP was elevated in most cases. Usually HB forms a large single mass in the liver and presents aggressive behavior, with local invasiveness and metastatic spread. The current median survival time is 5 months, with a 1-year survival rate near 30%. Surgical resection is the only curative treatment. However major liver resections or extensive demolitions of the adjacent organs are necessary. There are no standardized protocols in the multimodal approach to this tumor. PMID:27566042

  5. Haematological cancer and quality of life: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Allart-Vorelli, P; Porro, B; Baguet, F; Michel, A; Cousson-Gélie, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of haematological cancers on quality of life (QoL). A review of the international literature was conducted from the databases 'PsycInfo' and 'Medline' using the keywords: 'haematological cancer', 'quality of life', 'physical', 'psychological', 'social', 'vocational', 'professional', 'economic', 'cognitive', and 'sexual'. Twenty-one reliable studies were analysed. Among these studies, 12 showed that haematological cancer altered overall QoL, 8 papers found a deterioration of physical dimension, 8 papers reported on functional and role dimensions, 11 papers reported on the psychological component and 9 on the social component. Moreover, one study and two manuscripts, respectively, reported deteriorated sexual and cognitive dimensions. Our review demonstrates that the different dimensions of QoL are deteriorated by haematological malignancies and, probably, by the side effects of treatment. PMID:25909835

  6. Haematological cancer and quality of life: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Allart-Vorelli, P; Porro, B; Baguet, F; Michel, A; Cousson-Gélie, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of haematological cancers on quality of life (QoL). A review of the international literature was conducted from the databases ‘PsycInfo' and 'Medline' using the keywords: 'haematological cancer', 'quality of life', 'physical', 'psychological', 'social', 'vocational', 'professional', 'economic', 'cognitive', and 'sexual'. Twenty-one reliable studies were analysed. Among these studies, 12 showed that haematological cancer altered overall QoL, 8 papers found a deterioration of physical dimension, 8 papers reported on functional and role dimensions, 11 papers reported on the psychological component and 9 on the social component. Moreover, one study and two manuscripts, respectively, reported deteriorated sexual and cognitive dimensions. Our review demonstrates that the different dimensions of QoL are deteriorated by haematological malignancies and, probably, by the side effects of treatment. PMID:25909835

  7. Mental health services assessment in Brazil: systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Pedro Henrique Antunes; Colugnati, Fernando Antonio Basile; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2015-10-01

    Assessment in the mental health area is a mechanism able to generate information that positively helps decision-making. Therefore, it is necessary to appropriate on the existing discussions, reasoning the challenges and possibilities linked to knowledge production within this scientific filed. A systematic review of publications about the Brazilian scientific production on mental health service assessment was performed, identifying and discussing methods, assessment perspectives and results. The search for articles was done in IBECS, Lilacs and Scielo databases, considering the publication of Federal Law 10.216. Thirty-five articles were selected based on the used terms and on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Scientific production in this field is concentrated in the South and Southwest regions and holds different scopes and participants. Such wide range of possibilities is adopted as a way to help improving services and decision-making processes in mental health care. Advances in humanized, participative and community care are highlighted, but requiring more investments, professional qualification and organizational improvements. It is postulated greater integration among research, with evaluations going beyond structural aspects and the comparison with hospitalocentric models. PMID:26465864

  8. Dietary Acrylamide and Human Cancer: A Systematic Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Tim R.; Barnes, Stephen; Groopman, John

    2014-01-01

    Cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the United States, and the numbers of cases are expected to continue to rise worldwide. Cancer prevention strategies are crucial for reducing the cancer burden. The carcinogenic potential of dietary acrylamide exposure from cooked foods is unknown. Acrylamide is a by-product of the common Maillard reaction where reducing sugars (i.e., fructose and glucose) react with the amino acid, asparagine. Based on the evidence of acrylamide carcinogenicity in animals, the International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified acrylamide as a group 2A carcinogen for humans. Since the discovery of acrylamide in foods in 2002, a number of studies have explored its potential as a human carcinogen. This paper outlines a systematic review of dietary acrylamide and human cancer, acrylamide exposure and internal dose, exposure assessment methods in the epidemiologic studies, existing data gaps, and future directions. A majority of the studies reported no statistically significant association between dietary acrylamide intake and various cancers, and few studies reported increased risk for renal, endometrial, and ovarian cancers; however, the exposure assessment has been inadequate leading to potential misclassification or underestimation of exposure. Future studies with improved dietary acrylamide exposure assessment are encouraged. PMID:24875401

  9. Complications in adolescent pregnancy: systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo, Walter Fernandes; Diniz, Michele Baffi; da Fonseca, Eduardo Sérgio Valério Borges; de Azevedo, Lícia Maria Ricarte; Evangelista, Carla Braz

    2015-01-01

    Sexual activity during adolescence can lead to unwanted pregnancy, which in turn can result in serious maternal and fetal complications. The present study aimed to evaluate the complications related to adolescent pregnancy, through a systematic review using the Medical Subject Headings: “pregnancy complication” AND “adolescent” OR “pregnancy in adolescence”. Only full original articles in English or Portuguese with a clearly described methodology, were included. No qualitative studies, reviews or meta-analyses, editorials, case series, or case reports were included. The sample consisted of 15 articles; in that 10 were cross-sectional and 5 were cohort studies. The overall prevalence of adolescent pregnancy was 10%, and among the Brazilian studies, the adolescent pregnancy rate was 26%. The cesarean delivery rate was lower than that reported in the general population. The main maternal and neonatal complications were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, prematurity and low birth weight, respectively. Adolescent pregnancy is related to increased frequency of neonatal and maternal complications and lower prevalence of cesarean delivery. PMID:26061075

  10. Can clinical and radiological findings predict surgery for lumbar disc herniation? A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    White, Andrew P.; Harrop, James; Dettori, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    Study design: Systematic review. Objective or clinical question: What clinical and radiological findings in patients with lumbar-herniated nucleus pulposus can serve as predictors of surgical intervention? Methods: Articles published between January 1975 and August 2011 were systematically reviewed using Pubmed, Cochrane, National Guideline Clearinghouse Databases, and bibliographies of key articles. Each article was subject to quality rating and was analyzed by two independent reviewers. Results: From 123 citations, 21 underwent full-text review. Four studies met inclusion criteria. Only baseline disability as measured by the Roland Disability Index (RDI) or the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was consistently associated with a greater likelihood of having discectomy surgery across multiple studies. With the current literature, we were not able to find an association between surgery and several characteristics including smoking status, body mass index, neurological deficit, positive straight leg testing, and level of herniation. Conclusions: From the limited data available, it appears that individual radiographic and clinical features are not able to predict the likelihood of surgical intervention. Higher baseline disability measurements (Oswestry and Roland) did correlate, however, with surgical treatment. PMID:23236305

  11. Orthodontic and dentofacial orthopedic management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    von Bremen, J; Ruf, S

    2011-08-01

    To systematically review the literature published on orthodontic treatment principles in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Several electronic databases (PubMed, Medpilot, Web of Science, and DIMDI) and orthodontic and rheumatologic literature were systematically searched for studies published until May 2010. The articles were rated by two independent reviewers and included after three selection steps (title-abstract-full text). Articles had to be studies performed on ≥ 5 patients with a disease onset before the age of 16. The selection process resulted in the inclusion of three publications on dentofacial orthopedics and six on combined surgical orthodontic therapy. The three studies on dentofacial orthopedics aimed to improve the mandibular retrusion by means of removable functional appliances (activator). Whereas these orthodontic approaches comprised relatively large and homogeneous patient samples (14, 22, and 72 subjects, aged 6-16), the surgical studies were basically case series with a large age span of the patients (5-12 subjects, aged 10-44). In these surgical treatment approaches, orthodontics was limited to pre-surgical leveling and post-surgical finishing, while the skeletal discrepancy was treated surgically by a variety of techniques (costochondral grafts, bilateral sagittal spilt osteotomy, Le Fort I, and genioplasty). The treatment goals of both approaches were improvement of esthetics and function and/or pain reduction, and both approaches showed satisfactory results. Because of the heterogeneity of the subject material and the low level of evidence of the papers, it is difficult to draw any conclusions on the orthodontic/dentofacial orthopedic management of JIA. It appears as if removable functional appliances may be beneficial in adolescent patients with JIA. PMID:21771266

  12. Study of child language development and disorders in Iran: A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Yalda; Stringer, Helen; Klee, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Child language development and disorder in Iran has been the focus for research by different professions, the most prominent ones among them being psychologists and speech therapists. Epidemiological studies indicate that between 8% and 12% of children show noticeable signs of language impairment in the preschool years; however, research on child language in Iran is not extensive compared to studies in English speaking countries, which are currently the basis of clinical decision-making in Iran. Consequently, there is no information about the prevalence of child language disorders in Iranian population. This review summarizes Iranian studies on child language development and disorder in the preschool years and aims to systematically find the most studied topics in the field of normal development, the assessment and diagnosis of language impairments as well as exploring the current gaps within the body of literature. Three main Iranian academic websites of indexed articles along with four other nonIranian databases were scrutinized for all relevant articles according to the inclusion criteria: Iranian studies within the field of Persian language development and disorders in preschool children published up to December 2013. They are classified according to the hierarchy of evidence and weighed against the criteria of critical appraisal of study types. As this is a type of nonintervention systematic review, the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses is modified to be more compatible to the designs of eligible studies, including descriptive studies, test-developing and/or diagnostic studies. Several limitations made the process of searching and retrieving problematic; e.g., lack of unified keywords and incompatibility of Persian typing structure embedded in Iranian search engines. Overall, eligible studies met the criteria up to the third level of the hierarchy of evidence that shows the necessity of conducting studies with higher levels of

  13. Ethical issues in autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in advanced breast cancer: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An effectiveness assessment on ASCT in locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer identified serious ethical issues associated with this intervention. Our objective was to systematically review these aspects by means of a literature analysis. Methods We chose the reflexive Socratic approach as the review method using Hofmann's question list, conducted a comprehensive literature search in biomedical, psychological and ethics bibliographic databases and screened the resulting hits in a 2-step selection process. Relevant arguments were assembled from the included articles, and were assessed and assigned to the question list. Hofmann's questions were addressed by synthesizing these arguments. Results Of the identified 879 documents 102 included arguments related to one or more questions from Hofmann's question list. The most important ethical issues were the implementation of ASCT in clinical practice on the basis of phase-II trials in the 1990s and the publication of falsified data in the first randomized controlled trials (Bezwoda fraud), which caused significant negative effects on recruiting patients for further clinical trials and the doctor-patient relationship. Recent meta-analyses report a marginal effect in prolonging disease-free survival, accompanied by severe harms, including death. ASCT in breast cancer remains a stigmatized technology. Reported health-related-quality-of-life data are often at high risk of bias in favor of the survivors. Furthermore little attention has been paid to those patients who were dying. Conclusions The questions were addressed in different degrees of completeness. All arguments were assignable to the questions. The central ethical dimensions of ASCT could be discussed by reviewing the published literature. PMID:21496244

  14. Strategies for Implementing School-Located Influenza Vaccination of Children: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John; Hull, Harry F.; Rousculp, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends influenza vaccinations for all children 6 months to 18 years of age, which includes school-aged children. Influenza immunization programs may benefit schools by reducing absenteeism. Methods: A systematic literature review of PubMed, PsychLit, and Dissertation Abstracts…

  15. Assessing Grant Capacity and Readiness: A Systematic Review of the Periodical Literature of Research Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preuss, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The author knew of no formalized system for appraising grant capacity and readiness so, in an effort to understand the current state of knowledge regarding assessment of these institutional factors, conducted a systematic review of the research administration literature. Every article published from 1982 through 2013 by five major journals in the…

  16. The Lived Experience of Heart Failure at the End of Life: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Faith Pratt; Thornton, Nancy; Martin, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    The growing number of older adults with heart failure (HF) suggests the need for more information about how people with this condition experience their illness and strategies for coping with this condition. To address this need, the authors conducted a systematic review of the literature and an in-depth, thematic analysis of qualitative…

  17. The Use of Motivation Theory in Engineering Education Research: A Systematic Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Philip R.; McCord, Rachel E.; Matusovich, Holly M.; Kajfez, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation is frequently studied in the context of engineering education. However, the use of the term motivation can be inconsistent, both in how clearly it is defined and in how it is implemented in research designs and practice. This systematic literature review investigates the use of motivation across recent engineering education…

  18. Integrating Enterprise Resource Planning (SAP) in the Accounting Curriculum: A Systematic Literature Review and Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blount, Yvette; Abedin, Babak; Vatanasakdakul, Savanid; Erfani, Seyedezahra

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how an enterprise resource planning (ERP) software package SAP was integrated into the curriculum of an accounting information systems (AIS) course in an Australian university. Furthermore, the paper provides a systematic literature review of articles published between 1990 and 2013 to understand how ERP systems were…

  19. The Clinical Aspects of Mirror Therapy in Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothgangel, Andreas Stefan; Braun, Susy M.; Beurskens, Anna J.; Seitz, Rudiger J.; Wade, Derick T.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical aspects of mirror therapy (MT) interventions after stroke, phantom limb pain and complex regional pain syndrome. A systematic literature search of the Cochrane Database of controlled trials, PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PEDro, RehabTrials and Rehadat, was made by two…

  20. Factors Related to the Employment of Visually Impaired Persons: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goertz, Yvonne H. H.; van Lierop, Brigitte A. G.; Houkes, Inge; Nijhuis, Frans J. N.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review of the literature is to increase understanding of the factors that influence the labor force participation of persons who are visually impaired. Labor force participation was associated with many factors, such as communication training and education. Future research should focus on high-quality studies of labor…

  1. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: A systematic literature review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were i...

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Qualitative Information from Interviews: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…

  3. Coordinated School Health Programs and Academic Achievement: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Nancy G.; Low, Barbara J.; Hollis, Christine; Cross, Alan W.; Davis, Sally M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Few evaluations of school health programs measure academic outcomes. K-12 education needs evidence for academic achievement to implement school programs. This article presents a systematic review of the literature to examine evidence that school health programs aligned with the Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) model improve…

  4. Nutrition and Adults with Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: Systematic Literature Review Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Kathleen; Traci, Meg Ann; Seekins, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 4.5 million Americans have an intellectual or developmental disability. Concern is increasing about these individuals' nutrition-related behavior and its implications for their health. This article reports on a systematic search of the current literature listed in the "PsycINFO" and "PubMed" databases related to nutritional status of…

  5. Educational Interventions for Children with ASD: A Systematic Literature Review 2008-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Caroline; Symes, Wendy; Hebron, Judith; Humphrey, Neil; Morewood, Gareth; Woods, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Systematic literature reviews can play a key role in underpinning evidence-based practice. To date, large-scale reviews of interventions for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have focused primarily on research quality. To assist practitioners, the current review adopted a broader framework which allowed for greater consideration of…

  6. The Impact of Creative Learning Environments on Learners: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jindal-Snape, Divya; Davies, Dan; Collier, Chris; Howe, Alan; Digby, Rebecca; Hay, Penny

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on a systematic review of educational research, policy and professional literature relating to creative environments for learning in schools. Despite the search yielding 210 documents, comparatively few empirical studies were published between 2005 and 2011 that addressed the review objectives. Only 18 studies included in the…

  7. Computer-Based Graphic Organizers for Students with LD: A Systematic Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciullo, Stephen; Reutebuch, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of the literature for studies that utilized computer-based graphic organizers for students with learning disabilities. A comprehensive search yielded 12 studies that were coded and analyzed. The authors investigated the effectiveness of the treatments on academic outcomes, and selected integral…

  8. A systematic review of the relationship between severe maternal morbidity and post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of severe maternal morbidity is increasing in high-income countries as a consequence, in part, of increased obstetric intervention and increasingly complex medical needs of women who become pregnant. Access to emergency obstetric care means that for the majority of women in these countries, an experience of severe maternal morbidity is unlikely to result in loss of life. However, little is known about the subsequent impact on postnatal psychological health resulting in an evidence gap to support provision of appropriate care for these women. There has recently been increasing recognition that childbirth can be a cause of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The combination of experiencing a life-threatening complication and its management may culminate in psychological trauma. This systematic review examined the association between women’s experience of severe maternal morbidity during labour, at the time of giving birth or within the first week following birth, and PTSD and its symptoms. Methods Relevant literature was identified through multiple databases, including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, Web of Science, Cochrane library and the British Library, using predetermined search strategies. The search terms included "post-traumatic stress disorder", "PTSD", "stress disorders, post-traumatic", "maternal morbidity", “pregnancy complications” “puerperal disorders”, "obstetric labo(u)r complication", "postpartum h(a)emorrhage", "eclampsia”. Studies identified were categorised according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of included studies was assessed using the relevant CASP appraisal tools. Results Eleven primary studies met review criteria. Evidence of a relationship between severe maternal morbidity and PTSD/PTSD symptoms was inconsistent and findings varied between studies. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that severe pre-eclampsia is a risk factor for PTSD and its

  9. Rapid prototyping for patient-specific surgical orthopaedics guides: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Diana; Laptoiu, Dan

    2016-06-01

    There has been a lot of hype surrounding the advantages to be gained from rapid prototyping processes in a number of fields, including medicine. Our literature review aims objectively to assess how effective patient-specific surgical guides manufactured using rapid prototyping are in a number of orthopaedic surgical applications. To this end, we carried out a systematic review to identify and analyse clinical and experimental literature studies in which rapid prototyping patient-specific surgical guides are used, focusing especially on those that entail quantifiable outcomes and, at the same time, providing details on the guides' design and type of manufacturing process. Here, it should be mentioned that in this field there are not yet medium- or long-term data, and no information on revisions. In the reviewed studies, the reported positive opinions on the use of rapid prototyping patient-specific surgical guides relate to the following main advantages: reduction in operating times, low costs and improvements in the accuracy of surgical interventions thanks to guides' personalisation. However, disadvantages and sources of errors which can cause patient-specific surgical guide failures are as well discussed by authors. Stereolithography is the main rapid prototyping process employed in these applications although fused deposition modelling or selective laser sintering processes can also satisfy the requirements of these applications in terms of material properties, manufacturing accuracy and construction time. Another of our findings was that individualised drill guides for spinal surgery are currently the favourite candidates for manufacture using rapid prototyping. Other emerging applications relate to complex orthopaedic surgery of the extremities: the forearm and foot. Several procedures such as osteotomies for radius malunions or tarsal coalition could become standard, thanks to the significant assistance provided by rapid prototyping patient-specific surgical

  10. A Systematic Literature Review of Studies Analyzing Inequalities in Health Expectancy among the Older Population

    PubMed Central

    Pongiglione, Benedetta; De Stavola, Bianca L.; Ploubidis, George B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To collect, organize and appraise evidence of socioeconomic and demographic inequalities in health and mortality among the older population using a summary measure of population health: Health Expectancy. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted. Literature published in English before November 2014 was searched via two possible sources: three electronic databases (Web of Science, Medline and Embase), and references in selected articles. The search was developed combining terms referring to outcome, exposure and participants, consisting in health expectancy, socioeconomic and demographic groups, and older population, respectively. Results Of 256 references identified, 90 met the inclusion criteria. Six references were added after searching reference lists of included articles. Thirty-three studies were focused only on gender-based inequalities; the remaining sixty-three considered gender along with other exposures. Findings were organized according to two leading perspectives: the type of inequalities considered and the health indicators chosen to measure health expectancy. Evidence of gender-based differentials and a socioeconomic gradient were found in all studies. A remarkable heterogeneity in the choice of health indicators used to compute health expectancy emerged as well as a non-uniform way of defining same health conditions. Conclusions Health expectancy is a useful and convenient measure to monitor and assess the quality of ageing and compare different groups and populations. This review showed a general agreement of results obtained in different studies with regard to the existence of inequalities associated with several factors, such as gender, education, behaviors, and race. However, the lack of a standardized definition of health expectancy limits its comparability across studies. The need of conceiving health expectancy as a comparable and repeatable measure was highlighted as fundamental to make it an informative instrument for policy

  11. Biological invasions: a field synopsis, systematic review, and database of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, Edward; Rollinson, Emily J; Laybourn, Adam J; Scott, Tracy E; Aiello-Lammens, Matthew E; Gray, Sarah M; Mickley, James; Gurevitch, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Species introductions of anthropogenic origins are a major aspect of rapid ecological change globally. Research on biological invasions has generated a large literature on many different aspects of this phenomenon. Here, we describe and categorize some aspects of this literature, to better understand what has been studied and what we know, mapping well-studied areas and important gaps. To do so, we employ the techniques of systematic reviewing widely adopted in other scientific disciplines, to further the use of approaches in reviewing the literature that are as scientific, repeatable, and transparent as those employed in a primary study. We identified 2398 relevant studies in a field synopsis of the biological invasions literature. A majority of these studies (58%) were concerned with hypotheses for causes of biological invasions, while studies on impacts of invasions were the next most common (32% of the publications). We examined 1537 papers in greater detail in a systematic review. Superior competitive abilities of invaders, environmental disturbance, and invaded community species richness were the most common hypotheses examined. Most studies examined only a single hypothesis. Almost half of the papers were field observational studies. Studies of terrestrial invasions dominate the literature, with most of these concerning plant invasions. The focus of the literature overall is uneven, with important gaps in areas of theoretical and practical importance. PMID:23404636

  12. A meta-synthesis study of literature review and systematic review published in nurse prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Darvishpour, Azar; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prescribing represents a new aspect of practice for nurses. To make qualitative results more accessible to clinicians, researchers, and policy makers, individuals are urged to synthesize findings from related studies. Therefore this study aimed to aggregate and interpret existing literature review and systematic studies to obtain new insights on nurse prescription. Methods: This was a qualitative meta synthesis study using Walsh and Downe process. In order to obtain data all Digital National Library of Medicine's databases, search engines and several related sites were used. Full texts with "review and nurs* prescri* " words in the title or abstract in English language and published without any time limitation were considered. After eliminating duplicate and irrelevant studies, 11 texts were selected. Data analysis was conducted using qualitative content analysis. Multiple codes were compared based on the differences and similarities and divided to the categories and themes. Results: The results from the meta synthesis of the 11 studies revealed 8 themes namely: leading countries in prescribing, views, features, infrastructures, benefits, disadvantages, facilitators and barriers of nursing prescription that are discussed in this article. The results led to a schematic model. Conclusion: Despite the positive view on nurse prescribing, there are still issues such as legal, administrative, weak research and educational deficiencies in academic preparation of nurses that needs more effort in these areas and requires further research. PMID:25405142

  13. Iatrogenic surgical microscope skin burns: A systematic review of the literature and case report.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Joseph; Soni, Ashwin; Calva, Daniel; Susarla, Srinivas M; Jallo, George I; Redett, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Cutaneous burns associated with microscope-use are perceived to be uncommon adverse events in microsurgery. Currently, it is unknown what factors are associated with these iatrogenic events. In this report, we describe the case of a 1-year-old patient who suffered a full thickness skin burn from a surgical microscope after a L4-S1 laminectomy. Additionally, we present a systematic review of the literature that assessed the preoperative risk, outcome, and management of iatrogenic microscope skin burns. Lastly, a summary of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database of voluntary adverse events was reviewed and analyzed for clinical cases of microscope thermal injuries. The systematic literature review identified only seven articles related to microsurgery-related cutaneous burns. From these seven studies, 15 clinical cases of iatrogenic skin burns were extracted for analysis. The systematic review of the FDA MAUDE database revealed only 60 cases of cutaneous burns associated with surgical microscopes since 2004. Few cases of microscope burns have been described in the literature; this report is, to our knowledge, one of the first comprehensive reports of this iatrogenic event in the literature. PMID:26777456

  14. High condylectomy for the treatment of mandibular condylar hyperplasia: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ghawsi, S; Aagaard, E; Thygesen, T H

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular condylar hyperplasia (MCH) is a rare, idiopathic disorder, which can cause both functional and aesthetic problems. MCH has often been described in the literature, but a comprehensive analysis of the current literature on MCH has not been undertaken. This study presents a systematic review analyzing the efficacy of high condylectomy in patients with MCH, with an emphasis on its role in the management of unilateral condylar hyperplasia. A systematic search of the current literature on high condylectomy was performed to find studies with sample sizes of more than five patients using a set of inclusion/exclusion criteria. The search terms revealed 664 studies, of which only 11 articles with a total of 289 patients were eligible for inclusion. Due to differences in the presentation of data, a meta-analysis was not conducted. High condylectomy appears to be a relevant surgical method to correct unilateral condylar hyperplasia. The current literature indicates large variations in terms of aetiology, use of diagnostic tools, and preferred time of intervention. Thus, further systematic studies are needed to determine which procedures offer the best aesthetic and functional results. PMID:26388491

  15. What Pedagogical Approaches Can Effectively Include Children with Special Educational Needs in Mainstream Classrooms? A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rix, Jonathan; Hall, Kathy; Nind, Melanie; Sheehy, Kieron; Wearmouth, Janice

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a three-year systematic literature review funded by the UK Training and Development Agency for Schools. In order to begin to answer the question posed by the title of this article, the researchers systematically reviewed the literature with reported outcomes for the academic and social inclusion of pupils with special…

  16. Productivity Loss Related to Neglected Tropical Diseases Eligible for Preventive Chemotherapy: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Rijnsburger, Adriana J.; Severens, Johan L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) not only cause health and life expectancy loss, but can also lead to economic consequences including reduced ability to work. This article describes a systematic literature review of the effect on the economic productivity of individuals affected by one of the five worldwide most prevalent NTDs: lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths (ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm infection) and trachoma. These diseases are eligible to preventive chemotherapy (PCT). Methodology/Principal Findings Eleven bibliographic databases were searched using different names of all NTDs and various keywords relating to productivity. Additional references were identified through reference lists from relevant papers. Of the 5316 unique publications found in the database searches, thirteen papers were identified for lymphatic filariasis, ten for onchocerciasis, eleven for schistosomiasis, six for soil-transmitted helminths and three for trachoma. Besides the scarcity in publications reporting the degree of productivity loss, this review revealed large variation in the estimated productivity loss related to these NTDs. Conclusions It is clear that productivity is affected by NTDs, although the actual impact depends on the type and severity of the NTD as well as on the context where the disease occurs. The largest impact on productivity loss of individuals affected by one of these diseases seems to be due to blindness from onchocerciasis and severe schistosomiasis manifestations; productivity loss due to trachoma-related blindness has never been studied directly. However, productivity loss at an individual level might differ from productivity loss at a population level because of differences in the prevalence of NTDs. Variation in estimated productivity loss between and within diseases is caused by differences in research methods and setting. Publications should provide enough information to enable

  17. A Systematic Review of the Literature on Health Literacy in Nursing Education.

    PubMed

    McCleary-Jones, Voncella

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy has an impact on patient health outcomes and should be included in prelicensure nursing curricula to prepare the next generation of nurses to provide care for patients with limited health literacy. Nursing curricula should go beyond inclusion of patient teaching strategies. This article provides a systematic review of the current literature related to health literacy in nursing education and identifies implications for nursing curricula. PMID:26237008

  18. A Systematic Literature Search on Psychological First Aid: Lack of Evidence to Develop Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Dieltjens, Tessa; Moonens, Inge; Van Praet, Koen; De Buck, Emmy; Vandekerckhove, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing psychological first aid (PFA) is generally considered to be an important element in preliminary care of disaster victims. Using the best available scientific basis for courses and educational materials, the Belgian Red Cross-Flanders wants to ensure that its volunteers are trained in the best way possible. Objective To identify effective PFA practices, by systematically reviewing the evidence in existing guidelines, systematic reviews and individual studies. Methods Systematic literature searches in five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, PILOTS and G-I-N) were conducted from inception to July 2013. Results Five practice guidelines were included which were found to vary in the development process (AGREE II score 20–53%) and evidence base used. None of them provides solid evidence concerning the effectiveness of PFA practices. Additionally, two systematic reviews of PFA were found, both noting a lack of studies on PFA. A complementary search for individual studies, using a more sensitive search strategy, identified 11 237 references of which 102 were included for further full-text examination, none of which ultimately provides solid evidence concerning the effectiveness of PFA practices. Conclusion The scientific literature on psychological first aid available to date, does not provide any evidence about the effectiveness of PFA interventions. Currently it is impossible to make evidence-based guidelines about which practices in psychosocial support are most effective to help disaster and trauma victims. PMID:25503520

  19. Movement Education and Severely Subnormal Children: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lishman, Joan

    1985-01-01

    Discuses three perspectives on literature about children classified as severely subnormal for educational purposes: perceptual motor theories, behavior modification interpretation, and Laban movement. Descriptions of each include investigations, administration, adult participants, observation schedules, teaching processes, and data gathering…

  20. Integration of Chiropractic Services in Military and Veteran Health Care Facilities: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Green, Bart N; Johnson, Claire D; Daniels, Clinton J; Napuli, Jason G; Gliedt, Jordan A; Paris, David J

    2016-04-01

    This literature review examined studies that described practice, utilization, and policy of chiropractic services within military and veteran health care environments. A systematic search of Medline, CINAHL, and Index to Chiropractic Literature was performed from inception through April 2015. Thirty articles met inclusion criteria. Studies reporting utilization and policy show that chiropractic services are successfully implemented in various military and veteran health care settings and that integration varies by facility. Doctors of chiropractic that are integrated within military and veteran health care facilities manage common neurological, musculoskeletal, and other conditions; severe injuries obtained in combat; complex cases; and cases that include psychosocial factors. Chiropractors collaboratively manage patients with other providers and focus on reducing morbidity for veterans and rehabilitating military service members to full duty status. Patient satisfaction with chiropractic services is high. Preliminary findings show that chiropractic management of common conditions shows significant improvement. PMID:26677851

  1. Links of Adolescents Identity Development and Relationship with Peers: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ragelienė, Tija

    2016-01-01

    Objective: According to Erik Erikson, the main task of adolescents is to solve the crisis of identity versus role confusion. Research has shown that a stable and strong sense of identity is associated with better mental health of adolescents. Good relationships with peers are also linked with better emotional and psychological well-being of adolescents. However, there is a lack of reviews of studies in the scientific literature examining the relationship between the adolescents’ identity development and relationships with peers. The aims of this article were to analyze links between adolescent identity development and relationships with peers identified from a literature review, summarize the results, and discuss the theoretical factors that may predict these relationships. Method: A systematic literature review. Results: Analysis of findings from the systematic literature review revealed that a good relationship with peers is positively related to adolescent identity development, but empirical research in this area is extremely limited. Conclusions: The links between adolescents’ identity development and their relationship with peers are not completely clear. The possible intermediate factors that could determine the relationship between adolescent identity development and their relationships with peers are discussed. Further empirical researches is needed in this area. PMID:27274745

  2. The use of motivation theory in engineering education research: a systematic review of literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Philip R.; McCord, Rachel E.; Matusovich, Holly M.; Kajfez, Rachel L.

    2015-03-01

    Motivation is frequently studied in the context of engineering education. However, the use of the term motivation can be inconsistent, both in how clearly it is defined and in how it is implemented in research designs and practice. This systematic literature review investigates the use of motivation across recent engineering education publications. Results show that the majority of engineering education publications referencing motivation as a concept do not provide a clear definition for the term, nor do they draw upon the existing body of literature surrounding motivation. Within the publications that do draw upon motivation literature, we found that a small number of frameworks were most prominent. We believe that both of these factors potentially inhibit the understanding of motivation in engineering education. Therefore, we provide a number of suggestions for how researchers and practitioners can work to rectify these trends.

  3. Effect of aftercare regimen with extensor tendon repair: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Kyle; Starr, Harlan; Katz, David; Seiler, John

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, advances in the treatment of extensor tendon injuries have focused mainly on changes to postoperative protocols. Traditional static splinting has been found often to result in loss of flexion as well as extension lags at the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. In addition, early motion, once thought to increase the risk of tendon rupture, has shown encouraging results. The purpose of this article was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to determine the optimal postoperative protocol following extensor tendon repair. A systematic review was conducted of PubMed and Cochrane databases to identify all English-language clinical papers reporting results on the surgical treatment and rehabilitation of extensor tendon injuries. Returned articles were reviewed and included in the study if they reported clinical outcomes following surgical repair. A statistical consultation was placed to aid with data analysis. Nineteen studies were included. Of these, eight studies used static splinting (437 tendons), 12 used dynamic splinting (600 tendons), and five used active motion (240 tendons) for their postoperative protocols. Six studies were comparative, two of which reached level I evidence, while the remaining 13 studies were case series, with level IV evidence. Overall, generally favorable results were found for all three regimens with a high degree of variability with respect to outcomes measures reported and methods used for reporting. Quantitative statistical analysis of outcome measures was not possible given this variability. However, complication rates were as follows: static splinting complication rate was 4.1% with 1.8% requiring tenolysis and 0.9% tendon ruptures, dynamic splinting complication rate was 4.3% with 3.2% extensor tendon lags and 0.2% tendon rupture, and early motion complication rate was 1.7% with 0.8% tendon ruptures. Functional results, when reported, were generally favorable for all three

  4. Systematic literature review of templates for reporting prehospital major incident medical management

    PubMed Central

    Fattah, Sabina; Rehn, Marius; Reierth, Eirik; Wisborg, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify and describe the content of templates for reporting prehospital major incident medical management. Design Systematic literature review according to PRISMA guidelines. Data sources PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Knowledge. Grey literature was also searched. Eligibility criteria for selected studies Templates published after 1 January 1990 and up to 19 March 2012. Non-English language literature, except Scandinavian; literature without an available abstract; and literature reporting only psychological aspects were excluded. Results The main database search identified 8497 articles, among which 8389 were excluded based on title and abstract. An additional 96 were excluded based on the full-text. The remaining 12 articles were included in the analysis. A total of 107 articles were identified in the grey literature and excluded. The reference lists for the included articles identified five additional articles. A relevant article published after completing the search was also included. In the 18 articles included in the study, 10 different templates or sets of data are described: 2 methodologies for assessing major incident responses, 3 templates intended for reporting from exercises, 2 guidelines for reporting in medical journals, 2 analyses of previous disasters and 1 Utstein-style template. Conclusions More than one template exists for generating reports. The limitations of the existing templates involve internal and external validity, and none of them have been tested for feasibility in real-life incidents. Trial registration The review is registered in PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42012002051). PMID:23906946

  5. Incidence rates of sickness absence related to mental disorders: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, growing attention has been given to the mental health of workers. One way to examine the mental health of workers is to look at the incidence rates of mental illness-related sickness absence. There is a scarcity of literature in which the incidence rates of mental illness-related sickness absence among different countries have been considered together. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to address the question: Are there similarities and differences in the incidence rates of mental disorder-related sickness absence among and within OECD identified Social Democratic, Liberal and Latin American country categories? In this paper, we seek to identify differences and similarities in the literature rather than to explain them. With this review, we lay the groundwork for and point to areas for future research as well as to raise questions regarding reasons for the differences and similarities. Methods A systematic literature search of the following databases were performed: Medline Current, Medline In-process, PsycINFO, Econlit and Web of Science. The search period covered 2002–2013. The systematic literature search focused on working adults between 18–65 years old who had not retired and who had mental and/or substance abuse disorders. Intervention studies were excluded. The search focused on medically certified sickness absences. Results A total of 3,818 unique citations were identified. Of these, 10 studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria; six were from Social Democratic countries. Their quality ranged from good to excellent. There was variation in the incidence rates reported by the studies from the Social Democratic, Liberal and Latin American countries in this review. Conclusions The results of this systematic review suggest that this is an emerging area of inquiry that needs to continue to grow. Priority areas to support growth include cross jurisdictional collaboration and development of a typology

  6. Clinical efficacy and safety in relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Njue, Annete; Colosia, Ann; Trask, Peter C; Olivares, Robert; Khan, Shahnaz; Abbe, Adeline; Police, Rachel; Wang, Jianmin; Ruiz-Soto, Rodrigo; Kaye, James A; Awan, Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    A systematic literature review was performed to collect and review information on the clinical efficacy and safety of treatments for relapsed/refractory (R/R) mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), with a meta-analysis, if possible. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies published in English from January 1, 1997, to August 2, 2012. Conference proceedings, bibliographic reference lists of included articles, recent reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for phase II to IV studies displaying results. Studies were included if they reported on patients with R/R MCL who were ineligible to receive high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant. Studies of patients with several non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes were only included if they reported MCL outcomes separately. We identified 59 studies in R/R MCL. Forty distinct treatment regimens were evaluated. Thirty studies included more than 15 patients with R/R MCL. Six studies were comparative (including 5 randomized controlled trials [RCTs]); 53 were single-arm. There were no common treatments among the RCTs; therefore, a meta-analysis was not feasible. Thirty-one of 59 studies reported baseline data for patients with R/R MCL. Of the 30 studies with > 15 patients with R/R MCL, 30 reported overall response rate data, 14 reported progression-free survival (PFS), and 12 reported overall survival (OS). The small number of RCTs in R/R MCL precludes identifying an optimal treatment. Small sample sizes, infrequent reporting of OS and PFS, and limited information on patient characteristics made a comparison of results difficult. High-quality comparative studies of novel therapies that have the potential to demonstrate OS advantages in R/R MCL are needed. PMID:25052050

  7. On the ocular findings in ochronosis: a systematic review of literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ochronosis/Alkaptonuria is a tyrosine metabolism disorder where accumulation of homogentisic acid, in eye, skin, cartilage and several other connective tissues leads to a black pigmentation of the affected tissues. It is autosomal-recessive inherited in men with a frequency of 1-9/1,000,000. While it is clear that pigment deposits lead to joint destruction, renal stone formation and cardiac valvulopathy respectively, the significance of ocular findings is still unclear. We therefore aim to evaluate the frequency and clinical significance of ocular findings in ochronosis and discuss possible therapeutic options. Methods Systematic review of literature via Medline and Web of Science. Only case reports in English, German, French, Spanish or Italian documenting detailed ophthalmologic examination were included. Results Our search revealed 36 case reports including 40 patients. Average age at the onset of ocular signs was 40.6 years. The most frequent sign was symmetric brown sclera pigmentation present in 82.5 percent of the patients. “Oil-drops”, brown pigment spots in the limbus are generally considered pathognomonic but were a little less frequent (75 percent). Vermiform pigment deposits at the level of the conjunctiva or increased conjunctival vessel diameter is also frequent. We found an increased incidence of central vein occlusion and elevated intraocular pressure going along with chamber angle hyperpigmentation. Another condition observed twice is rapid progressive astigmatism attributable to corneoscleral pigment accumulation. Conclusion Our observations suggest that ocular findings are of double relevance. First, characteristic ocular findings can anticipate the time of diagnosis and second, ocular findings may complicate to various conditions putting sight at risk. Opthalmologists and general physicians should be aware of both. Therapeutic options include protein restriction, administration of high dose vitamin C or nitisonone. Evidence for

  8. Recognition of facial expressions by alcoholic patients: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Donadon, Mariana Fortunata; Osório, Flávia de Lima

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol abuse and dependence can cause a wide variety of cognitive, psychomotor, and visual-spatial deficits. It is questionable whether this condition is associated with impairments in the recognition of affective and/or emotional information. Such impairments may promote deficits in social cognition and, consequently, in the adaptation and interaction of alcohol abusers with their social environment. The aim of this systematic review was to systematize the literature on alcoholics’ recognition of basic facial expressions in terms of the following outcome variables: accuracy, emotional intensity, and latency time. Methods A systematic literature search in the PsycINFO, PubMed, and SciELO electronic databases, with no restrictions regarding publication year, was employed as the study methodology. Results The findings of some studies indicate that alcoholics have greater impairment in facial expression recognition tasks, while others could not differentiate the clinical group from controls. However, there was a trend toward greater deficits in alcoholics. Alcoholics displayed less accuracy in recognition of sadness and disgust and required greater emotional intensity to judge facial expressions corresponding to fear and anger. Conclusion The current study was only able to identify trends in the chosen outcome variables. Future studies that aim to provide more precise evidence for the potential influence of alcohol on social cognition are needed. PMID:25228806

  9. Does current provision of undergraduate education prepare UK medical students in ENT? A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Gary R; Bacila, Irina A; Swamy, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To systematically identify and analyse all published literature relating to the provision of undergraduate education for preparedness in ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery, as perceived by medical students and clinicians in the UK. Design Systematic literature review. Data sources 5 major databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, Cochrane and Web of Science. The literature search was conducted from February to April 2015. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Primary research or studies that report on the provision of undergraduate education for preparedness in ENT, from the perspective of medical students and clinicians in the UK. The timescale of searches was limited from 1999 onwards (ie, the past 15 years). Data extraction The literature search was conducted by 2 independent reviewers. Search terms used involved the combination and variation of 5 key concepts, namely: medical student, clinician, ENT, undergraduate medical education and UK. A data extraction form was designed for and used in this study, based on guidelines provided by the UK National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Textual narrative synthesis was used for data analysis. Results A total of 7 studies were included in the final review. 4 main themes were identified: confidence in managing patients, teaching delivery, student assessment and duration of rotations. A consistent finding in this review was that the majority of final year medical students and junior doctors did not feel adequately prepared to practise ENT. Important factors influencing preparedness in ENT included the duration of clinical rotations, the opportunity for hands-on learning and formal assessment. Conclusions The findings of this review suggest the need for further development of the ENT undergraduate curricula across the UK. However, there is insufficient evidence from which to draw strong conclusions; this in itself is beneficial as it highlights a gap in the existing

  10. Fatal river drowning: the identification of research gaps through a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Leggat, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Drowning is a leading cause of unintentional death. Rivers are a common location for drowning. Unlike other location-specific prevention efforts (home swimming pools and beaches), little is known about prevention targeting river drowning deaths. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken using English language papers published between 1980 and 2014, exploring gaps in the literature, with a focus on epidemiology, risk factors and prevention strategies for river drowning. Results Twenty-nine papers were deemed relevant to the study design including 21 (72.4%) on epidemiology, 18 (62.1%) on risk factors and 10 (34.5%) that proposed strategies for prevention. Risk factors identified included age, falls into water, swimming, using watercraft, sex and alcohol. Discussion Gaps were identified in the published literature. These included a lack of an agreed definition for rivers, rates for fatal river drowning (however, crude rates were calculated for 12 papers, ranging from 0.20 to 1.89 per 100 000 people per annum), and consensus around risk factors, especially age. There was only one paper that explored a prevention programme; the remaining nine outlined proposed prevention activities. There is a need for studies into exposure patterns for rivers and an agreed definition (with consistent coding). Conclusions This systematic review has identified that river drowning deaths are an issue in many regions and countries around the world. Further work to address gaps in the published research to date would benefit prevention efforts. PMID:26728005

  11. Trochleoplasty versus MPFL-Reconstruction in Severe Trochlear Dysplasia. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Balcarek, Peter; Friede, Tim; Harden, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is an established operative procedure for the treatment of lateral patellar dislocation yielding good to excellent results with low rates of redislocation. However, few studies indicated less favourable results after an isolated MPFL reconstruction in patients with a severe trochlear dysplasia (Type B-D according to Dejour). In addition, some articles recommended the more invasive and demanding trochleoplasty (TP) as an additional procedure as the treatment of choice for those particular patients but the current literature lacks studies directly comparing both treatment strategies. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the results of MPFL-reconstruction techniques compared to TP-procedures with special emphasis on severe trochlear dysplasia and to assess the available scientific evidence. Materials and Methods: A systematic review (MEDline) was performed using the following mesh terms: #1. Patellar instability; #2. Patellar dislocation; #3. Patell* dislocation; #4. Trochlear dysplasia; #5. Luxating patella; #6. Luxating patellar; #7. Medial patellofemoral; #8. Medial patello-femoral; #9. Trochleoplasty; #10.Trochleoplasties; #11. MPFL. The final search algorithm (#1 OR #2 OR #3 OR #4 OR #5) AND (#7 OR #8 OR #9 OR #10 OR #11) yielded 425 articles. Two physicians independently screened all articles with decision reached by consensus. After applying the inclusion criteria (human study; MPFL reconstruction or TP procedure; exact documented pre- and postoperative validated knee score; and type of trochlear dysplasia) 8 Studies (2 MPFL studies; 6 TP studies) were available for further analysis. Statistical evaluation was performed with a random-effect meta-analysis including inverse variance weighting of pre- and postoperative mean differences. Results: All available studies were case-series (level of evidence IV). Overall, 419 knees were included in the

  12. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy and Dental Plaque: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Santin, G. C.; Oliveira, D. S. B.; Galo, R.; Borsatto, M. C.; Corona, S. A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDTa) on cariogenic dental biofilm. Types of Studies Reviewed. Studies in vivo, in vitro, and in situ were included. Articles that did not address PDTa, those that did not involve cariogenic biofilm, those that used microorganisms in the plankton phase, and reviews were excluded. Data extraction and quality assessments were performed independently by two raters using a scale. Results. Two hundred forty articles were retrieved; only seventeen of them met the eligibility criteria and were analyzed in the present review. Considerable variability was found regarding the methodologies and application protocols for antimicrobial PDTa. Two articles reported unfavorable results. Practical Implications. The present systematic review does not allow drawing any concrete conclusions regarding the efficacy of antimicrobial PDTa, although this method seems to be a promising option. PMID:25379545

  13. Transforaminal endoscopic surgery for symptomatic lumbar disc herniations: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Nellensteijn, Jorm; Bartels, Ronald; Peul, Wilco; van Royen, Barend; van Tulder, Maurits

    2009-01-01

    The study design includes a systematic literature review. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of transforaminal endoscopic surgery and to compare this with open microdiscectomy in patients with symptomatic lumbar disc herniations. Transforaminal endoscopic techniques for patients with symptomatic lumbar disc herniations have become increasingly popular. The literature has not yet been systematically reviewed. A comprehensive systematic literature search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed up to May 2008. Two reviewers independently checked all retrieved titles and abstracts and relevant full text articles for inclusion criteria. Included articles were assessed for quality and outcomes were extracted by the two reviewers independently. One randomized controlled trial, 7 non-randomized controlled trials and 31 observational studies were identified. Studies were heterogeneous regarding patient selection, indications, operation techniques, follow-up period and outcome measures and the methodological quality of these studies was poor. The eight trials did not find any statistically significant differences in leg pain reduction between the transforaminal endoscopic surgery group (89%) and the open microdiscectomy group (87%); overall improvement (84 vs. 78%), re-operation rate (6.8 vs. 4.7%) and complication rate (1.5 vs. 1%), respectively. In conclusion, current evidence on the effectiveness of transforaminal endoscopic surgery is poor and does not provide valid information to either support or refute using this type of surgery in patients with symptomatic lumbar disc herniations. High-quality randomized controlled trials with sufficiently large sample sizes are direly needed to evaluate if transforaminal endoscopic surgery is more effective than open microdiscectomy. PMID:19756781

  14. Victim Satisfaction With the Criminal Justice System and Emotional Recovery: A Systematic and Critical Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Kunst, Maarten; Popelier, Lieke; Varekamp, Ellen

    2015-07-01

    The current study systematically and critically reviewed the empirical literature to evaluate the association between satisfaction with the criminal justice system and adult crime victims' emotional recovery. Despite the widely accepted notion that involvement in the criminal justice system may impact recovery from crime victimization--either beneficially or maliciously--a systematic review of empirical studies that addresses this topic has never been conducted. Electronic literature databases (ISI Web of Knowledge [including Web of Science and MEDLINE], EBSCO host [including PsychInfo, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, ERIC, PsychARTICLES, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection], and ProQuest [including PILOTS, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts]) were searched to identify relevant quantitative studies. The Cambridge Quality Checklists were used to evaluate the quality of selected studies. These checklists can be used to assess the quality of risk and protective factors in criminal justice research. In this study they were used to explore the impact of victim satisfaction on crime victims' emotional and cognitive states post-victimization. The review process revealed mixed results, with some studies suggesting a healing impact of victim satisfaction and others not. More consistent were findings regarding the existence of an association between victim satisfaction and (alterations in) positive cognitions. However, since the majority of studies suffered from severe methodological shortcomings, definite conclusions cannot be drawn yet. PMID:25352031

  15. Honor killings in the Middle East and North Africa: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kulczycki, Andrzej; Windle, Sarah

    2011-11-01

    A systematic review of the research literature on honor killings in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) indicates a paucity of studies relative to the presumed magnitude of the problem. Forty articles were reviewed and critically appraised, of which only 9 contained primary data and 11 presented original secondary analyses. Despite a recent increase in published studies, persistent methodological limitations restrict the generalizability of findings. Most studies focus on legal aspects, determinants, and characteristics of victims and perpetrators. Victims are mostly young females murdered by their male kin. Unambiguous evidence of a decline in tolerance of honor killings remains elusive. PMID:22312039

  16. The management of greater trochanteric pain syndrome: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Reid, Diane

    2016-03-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is a common cause of lateral hip pain. Most cases respond to conservative treatments with a few refractory cases requiring surgical intervention. For many years, this condition was believed to be caused by trochanteric bursitis, with treatments targeting the bursitis. More recently gluteal tendinopathy/tears have been proposed as potential causes. Treatments are consequently developing to target these proposed pathologies. At present there is no defined treatment protocol for GTPS. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to evaluate the current evidence for the effectiveness of GTPS interventions, both conservative and surgical. PMID:26955229

  17. [Pharmacological treatment of delirium in palliative care patients. A systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Perrar, K M; Golla, H; Voltz, R

    2013-04-01

    This systematic literature review aims to collect and analyse relevant clinical trials for the drug treatment of delirium in palliative care. The search was conducted including July 2012 in Medline (from 1966) and Embase (from 1974). The search retrieved 448 studies, of which 3 studies could be included in the analysis. Treatment with the antipsychotic drug haloperidol can be recommended, which is also true to a somewhat lower extent for the antipsychotics olanzapine and aripiprazole. Treatment with lorazepam only should be avoided. This literature analysis reflects the positive clinical experience, especially when using haloperidol. To confirm these recommendations, further substantial clinical studies are needed.The English full-text version of this article can be found at SpringerLink (under "Supplemental"). PMID:23503785

  18. A Systematic Review of the Literature on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Victims of Terrorist Attacks.

    PubMed

    Paz García-Vera, María; Sanz, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Sara

    2016-08-01

    This article was aimed at systematically reviewing the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among victims of terrorist attacks. Electronic and hand searches of the literature identified 35 studies addressing PTSD prevalence based on validated diagnostic interviews. Overall, in the year after terrorist attacks, 33% to 39% of direct victims developed PTSD, whereas the percentage of indirect victims with PTSD was lower (4% in the affected community, 5%-6% among emergency, rescue, and recovery workers, and 17%-29% among relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims), but nonetheless above the prevalence in the general population. With the passing of time, a significant reduction of PTSD can be expected in the affected community and in the emergency and rescue personnel, but not in the injured victims, in the relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims, and in nontraditional, more vulnerable disaster workers. The implications of these results for the psychological treatment of terrorism victims are discussed. PMID:27388691

  19. A Systematic Review of the Literature on the Sustainability of Community Health Collaboratives.

    PubMed

    Hearld, Larry R; Bleser, William K; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Wolf, Laura J

    2016-04-01

    Recent interest in community health collaboratives has been driven by the potential of these types of organizations to solve complex health problems at the local level by bringing together stakeholders that have traditionally operated independently, and often at cross-purposes. Much of the work that is central to the mission of collaboratives can take years to reach fruition, however, and there are a number of challenges to sustaining their activities. In this article, we systematically reviewed the theoretical and empirical literature on health care collaborative sustainability, focusing on definitions and antecedents of sustainability. Given the diversity and fragmentation of this literature, we used this review as a foundation to develop a synthesized definition, conceptual groups of antecedents, and potential research propositions to help guide future research, planning, and practice of sustainable community health collaboratives. PMID:26429834

  20. Co-victims of Homicide: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Jennifer; Gordon, Ronit

    2015-10-01

    This systematic literature review examines the effects of homicide on surviving family members, the "co-victims" or "survivors" of homicide. A content analysis was conducted on 40 articles identified through a search of the literature. The research samples were predominately located in the United States, but included two U.K. samples, one Jamaican sample, and one sample from Israel. All articles were written in English. Three themes were identified. Nineteen articles explored the psychological, academic, social, occupational, and familial effects of homicide. Thirteen articles considered survivors' grieving process and how it was altered by experiences with the criminal justice system as well as coping strategies used by survivors to deal with their grief. Eight articles explored treatment interventions available to help surviving family members deal with their grief. Key findings from the articles, limitations of the current research, and implications for future research, policy, and practice are included. PMID:25377523

  1. Disaster-Driven Evacuation and Medication Loss: a Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, Sae; Hodgson, Susan; Landeg, Owen; Mayner, Lidia; Murray, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify the extent and implications of medication loss and the burden of prescription refill on medical relief teams following extreme weather events and other natural hazards. METHOD: The search strategy followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Key health journal databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Maternity and Infant Care, and Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC)) were searched via the OvidSP search engine. Search terms were identified by consulting MeSH terms. The inclusion criteria comprised articles published from January 2003 to August 2013, written in English and containing an abstract. The exclusion criteria included abstracts for conferences or dissertations, book chapters and articles written in a language other than English. A total of 70 articles which fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in this systematic review. RESULTS: All relevant information was collated regarding medication loss, prescription loss and refills, and medical aids loss which indicated a significant burden on the medical relief teams. Data also showed the difficulty in filling prescriptions due to lack of information from the evacuees. People with chronic conditions are most at risk when their medication is not available. This systematic review also showed that medical aids such as eye glasses, hearing aids as well as dental treatment are a high necessity among evacuees. DISCUSSION: This systematic review revealed that a considerable number of patients lose their medication during evacuation, many lose essential medical aids such as insulin pens and many do not bring prescriptions with them when evacuated.. Since medication loss is partly a responsibility of evacuees, understanding the impact of medication loss may lead to raising awareness and better preparations among the patients and health care professionals. People who are not prepared could have

  2. Systematic Literature Review of Randomized Control Trials Assessing the Effectiveness of Nutrition Interventions in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandayrel, Kristofer; Wong, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition interventions may play an important role in maintaining the health and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults. To the authors' knowledge, no systematic literature review has been conducted on the effectiveness of nutrition interventions in the community-dwelling older adult population. Design: Systematic literature…

  3. Impact of Peer Nutrition Education on Dietary Behaviors and Health Outcomes among Latinos: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Vega-Lopez, Sonia; Bermudez-Millan, Angela; Segura-Perez, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This systematic review assesses the impact of peer education/counseling on nutrition and health outcomes among Latinos and identifies future research needs. Design: A systematic literature search was conducted by: (1) searching Internet databases; (2) conducting backward searches from reference lists of articles of interest; (3)…

  4. Work Reintegration for Veterans With Mental Disorders: A Systematic Literature Review to Inform Research

    PubMed Central

    Fikretoglu, Deniz; Pranger, Tina; Patten, Scott; Wang, JianLi; Wong, May; Zamorski, Mark; Loisel, Patrick; Corbiére, Marc; Shields, Norman; Thompson, Jim; Pedlar, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Some veterans, and especially those with mental disorders, have difficulty reintegrating into the civilian workforce. Purpose The objectives of this study were to describe the scope of the existing literature on mental disorders and unemployment and to identify factors potentially associated with reintegration of workers with mental disorders into the workforce. Data Sources The following databases were searched from their respective inception dates: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index Nursing Allied Health (CINAHL), and PsycINFO. Study Selection In-scope studies had quantitative measures of employment and study populations with well-described mental disorders (eg, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance-use disorders). Data Extraction A systematic and comprehensive search of the relevant published literature up to July 2009 was conducted that identified a total of 5,195 articles. From that list, 81 in-scope studies were identified. An update to July 2012 identified 1,267 new articles, resulting in an additional 16 in-scope articles. Data Synthesis Three major categories emerged from the in-scope articles: return to work, supported employment, and reintegration. The literature on return to work and supported employment is well summarized by existing reviews. The reintegration literature included 32 in-scope articles; only 10 of these were conducted in populations of veterans. Limitations Studies of reintegration to work were not similar enough to synthesize, and it was inappropriate to pool results for this category of literature. Conclusions Comprehensive literature review found limited knowledge about how to integrate people with mental disorders into a new workplace after a prolonged absence (>1 year). Even more limited knowledge was found for veterans. The results informed the next steps for our research team to enhance successful reintegration of veterans with mental disorders into the civilian workplace. PMID:23043148

  5. Antibiotic resistance in primary care in Austria - a systematic review of scientific and grey literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge for health care services worldwide. While up to 90% of antibiotics are being prescribed in the outpatient sector recommendations for the treatment of community-acquired infections are usually based on resistance findings from hospitalized patients. In context of the EU-project called "APRES - the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic in primary health care in Europe with respect to antibiotic resistance" it was our aim to gain detailed information about the resistance data from Austria in both the scientific and the grey literature. Methods A systematic review was performed including scientific and grey literature published between 2000 and 2010. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and the review process followed published recommendations. Results Seventeen scientific articles and 23 grey literature documents could be found. In contrast to the grey literature, the scientific publications describe only a small part of the resistance situation in the primary health care sector in Austria. Merely half of these publications contain data from the ambulatory sector exclusively but these data are older than ten years, are very heterogeneous concerning the observed time period, the number and origin of the isolates and the kind of bacteria analysed. The grey literature yields more comprehensive and up-to-date information of the content of interest. These sources are available in German only and are not easily accessible. The resistance situation described in the grey literature can be summarized as rather stable over the last two years. For Escherichia coli e.g. the highest antibiotic resistance rates can be seen with fluorochiniolones (19%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%). Conclusion Comprehensive and up-to-date antibiotic resistance data of different pathogens isolated from the community level in Austria are presented. They could be found mainly in the grey literature, only few are

  6. A Systematic Literature Review of the Average IQ of Sub-Saharan Africans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of several reviews of the literature, Lynn [Lynn, R., (2006). Race differences in intelligence: An evolutionary analysis. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Publishers.] and Lynn and Vanhanen [Lynn, R., & Vanhanen, T., (2006). IQ and global inequality. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Publishers.] concluded that the average IQ of the Black…

  7. Breast cancer and coping among women of color: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Ellen G.; Pasick, Rena

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed form of cancer for women regardless of race/ethnicity. Women of color are diagnosed at later stages and experience greater mortality than their White counterparts. However, there has been comparatively little research on coping with breast among racial/ethnic minorities at time of diagnosis, during treatment, or in the course of survivorship. This is despite the fact that research has repeatedly shown that distress can impact disease progression and survival. The questions asked of this systematic literature review include: (1) What is known about coping with breast cancer among major racial/ethnic groups? (2) What are the strengths and gaps in research to date? Over 120 peer-reviewed published studies (1980–2012) were reviewed. A total of 33 met criteria for inclusion including 15 quantitative, 17 qualitative, and 1 mixed methods study. The majority of studies were small sample cross-sectional studies. Only five studies were longitudinal, and two randomized-controlled intervention trials sought to improve coping among survivors. The most common topic in both quantitative and qualitative studies was spirituality and coping among African American breast cancer patients. Thirteen studies included Latinas only or in combination with other groups. Only one quantitative and one qualitative study solely addressed the Asian American population exploring coping and adjustment. In the course of this systematic literature review, we elucidate what is known about coping with breast cancer among racial/ethnic minority women and identify priorities for future research. PMID:24389825

  8. Cardiovascular Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systematic Literature Review in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento-Monroy, Juan Camilo; Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Espinosa-Serna, Juan Sebastián; Herrera-Díaz, Catalina; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major predictor of poor prognosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. There is an increasing interest to identify “nontraditional” risk factors for this condition. Latin Americans (LA) are considered as a minority subpopulation and ethnically different due to admixture characteristics. To date, there are no systematic reviews of the literature published in LA and the Caribbean about CVD in RA patients. Methods. The systematic literature review was done by two blinded reviewers who independently assessed studies for eligibility. The search was completed through PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, and Virtual Health Library scientific databases. Results. The search retrieved 10,083 potential studies. A total of 16 articles concerning cardiovascular risk factors and measurement of any cardiovascular outcome in LA were included. The prevalence of CVD in LA patients with RA was 35.3%. Non-traditional risk factors associated to CVD in this population were HLA-DRB1 shared epitope alleles, rheumatoid factor, markers of chronic inflammation, long duration of RA, steroids, familial autoimmunity, and thrombogenic factors. Conclusions. There is limited data about CVD and RA in LA. We propose to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors comprehensively in the Latin RA patient and to generate specific public health policies in order to diminish morbi-mortality rates. PMID:23193471

  9. The match between institutional elderly care management research and management challenges - a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Elderly care practice and its management together with policy and research play a crucial role in responding to increasing challenges in institutional care for elderly people. Successful dialogue between these is necessary. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to compare how institutional elderly care management research meets the care challenges currently emphasized in international long-term care policy documents. Methods This paper was based on a systematic literature review. After screening 1971 abstracts using inclusion/exclusion criteria, 58 refereed articles published between 2000 and 2010 remained for analysis. The articles were analyzed using theory-based content analysis by comparing the results to the framework based on analysis of international long-term care management policy documents. Results The current challenges of long-term care management identified from policy documents were Integrated Care Management, Productivity Management, Quality Management, Workforce Management and ICT Management. The research on institutional elderly care management responded somewhat to the challenges mentioned in policy documents. However, some of the challenges were studied broadly and some were paid only minor attention. Further, only few studies focused on the core items of challenges addressed in policy documents. Conclusions Institutional care management research needs to focus more on challenges in integrated care, productivity, ICT and division of labor. Managers, researchers and policy-makers should assume more active collaborative roles in processes of research, policymaking and policy implementation. In addition managers’ and policymakers’ scientific literacy needs to be enhanced. PMID:23137416

  10. Association between particulate air pollution and venous thromboembolism: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mengoli, Carlo; Cruciani, Mario; Bonfanti, Carlo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading global problem for public health. A number of ambient pollutants have been involved, including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM). Although exposure to PM has been linked to a wide array of cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, its effect on venous thrombotic disorders is still uncertain. To elucidate this issue, we have performed a systematic review on the existing literature on the association between PM and venous thromboembolism (VTE), using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane electronic databases. Of the 158 reviewed studies, 11 of them (3 case-crossover studies, 2 time-series studies, 2 case-control studies, 2 prospective cohort studies, 2 retrospective studies) involving more than 500,000 events fulfilled the inclusion criteria and results are presented here. Because there was substantial heterogeneity in study design, duration of follow-up, statistical measure of effects, clinical outcomes and threshold, we refrained to perform a quantitative analysis of the available data and carried out only a systematic review. Overall, the literature data suggest a link between PM and VTE, but further trials on larger populations of patients with homogeneous study designs and outcomes are warranted. PMID:26639051

  11. Environmental Flows Can Reduce the Encroachment of Terrestrial Vegetation into River Channels: A Systematic Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kimberly A.; Webb, J. Angus; de Little, Siobhan C.; Stewardson, Michael J.

    2013-11-01

    Encroachment of riparian vegetation into regulated river channels exerts control over fluvial processes, channel morphology, and aquatic ecology. Reducing encroachment of terrestrial vegetation is an oft-cited objective of environmental flow recommendations, but there has been no systematic assessment of the evidence for and against the widely-accepted cause-and-effect mechanisms involved. We systematically reviewed the literature to test whether environmental flows can reduce the encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into river channels. We quantified the level of support for five explicit cause-effect hypotheses drawn from a conceptual model of the effects of flow on vegetation. We found that greater inundation, variously expressed as changes in the area, depth, duration, frequency, seasonality, and volume of surface water, generally reduces riparian vegetation abundance in channels, but most studies did not investigate the specific mechanisms causing these changes. Those that did show that increased inundation results in increased mortality, but also increased germination. The evidence was insufficient to determine whether increased inundation decreases reproduction. Our results contribute to hydro-ecological understanding by using the published literature to test for general cause-effect relationships between flow regime and terrestrial vegetation encroachment. Reviews of this nature provide robust support for flow management, and are more defensible than expert judgement-based approaches. Overall, we predict that restoration of more natural flow regimes will reduce encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into regulated river channels, partly through increased mortality. Conversely, infrequent deliveries of environmental flows may actually increase germination and subsequent encroachment.

  12. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in esophageal cancer: a case series and systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lukas, R V; Mata-Machado, N A; Nicholas, M K; Salgia, R; Antic, T; Villaflor, V M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to more clearly define the clinical course of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis due to esophageal cancer. A single institution retrospective case series was conducted. Additionally, a systematic review of the literature was performed. We present a large case series (n = 7) of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis due to esophageal cancer. Our case series and systematic review of the literature report similar findings. In our series, we report a predominance of male patients (86%) with adenocarcinoma histology (77%). Variable onset of leptomeningeal involvement of esophageal cancer in relation to the original diagnosis of the primary disease (5 months to 3 years and 11 weeks) was noted. Disease progresses quickly and overall survival is poor, measured in weeks (2.5-16 weeks) from the diagnosis of leptomeningeal involvement. Four of our patients initiated whole-brain radiation therapy with only two completing the course prior to clinical deterioration. Our patient with the longest survival (16 weeks) received intrathecal topotecan and oral temozolomide. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis secondary to esophageal cancer has a poor prognosis. A clearly beneficial treatment modality is lacking. PMID:25142531

  13. Oral leukoplakia treatment with the carbon dioxide laser: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mogedas-Vegara, Alfonso; Hueto-Madrid, Juan-Antonio; Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo; Bescós-Atín, Coro

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the literature to evaluate treatment of oral leukoplakia with the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. A comprehensive search of studies published between 1981 and 2015 and listed in the PubMed (National Library of Medicine, NCBI) database yielded 378 articles which were screened in detail. Relevant studies were selected according to predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 33 articles met the final inclusion criteria and were analysed in detail in accordance with the PRISMA-P statement. These full-text papers were classified as synopses (n = 7), recurrence and malignant transformation studies (n = 17), comparative studies between CO2 laser and cold knife surgery (n = 3) and studies evaluating the efficacy of CO2, Nd:YAG and KTP lasers. According to the literature the CO2 laser is the workhorse of oral leukoplakia treatment due to its effectiveness and low associated morbidity. However, randomized clinical trials are needed to compare CO2 laser with other lasers. The results of our systematic review showed that there is no consensus regarding the factors involved in higher recurrence and malignization rates, so further studies are needed. PMID:26920045

  14. Grey Literature Searching for Health Sciences Systematic Reviews: A Prospective Study of Time Spent and Resources Utilized

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Ahlam A.; Ratajeski, Melissa A.; Bertolet, Marnie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify estimates of time taken to search grey literature in support of health sciences systematic reviews and to identify searcher or systematic review characteristics that may impact resource selection or time spent searching. Methods A survey was electronically distributed to searchers embarking on a new systematic review. Characteristics of the searcher and systematic review were collected along with time spent searching and what resources were searched. Time and resources were tabulated and resources were categorized as grey or non-grey. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Out of 81 original respondents, 21% followed through with completion of the surveys in their entirety. The median time spent searching all resources was 471 minutes, and of those a median of 85 minutes were spent searching grey literature. The median number of resources used in a systematic review search was four and the median number of grey literature sources searched was two. The amount of time spent searching was influenced by whether the systematic review was grant funded. Additionally, the number of resources searched was impacted by institution type and whether systematic review training was received. Conclusions This study characterized the amount of time for conducting systematic review searches including searching the grey literature, in addition to the number and types of resources used. This may aid searchers in planning their time, along with providing benchmark information for future studies. This paper contributes by quantifying current grey literature search patterns and associating them with searcher and review characteristics. Further discussion and research into the search approach for grey literature in support of systematic reviews is encouraged. PMID:25914722

  15. Psychosocial interventions for patients with advanced cancer – a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Uitterhoeve, R J; Vernooy, M; Litjens, M; Potting, K; Bensing, J; De Mulder, P; van Achterberg, T

    2004-01-01

    Advanced cancer is associated with emotional distress, especially depression and feelings of sadness. To date, it is unclear which is the most effective way to address these problems. This review focuses on the effects of psychosocial interventions on the quality of life (QoL) of patients with advanced cancer. It was hypothesised that patients will benefit from psychosocial interventions by improving QoL, especially in the domain of emotional functioning. The review was conducted using systematic review methodology involving a systematic search of the literature published between 1990 and 2002, quality assessment of included studies, systematic data extraction and narrative data synthesis. In all, 10 randomised controlled studies involving 13 trials were included. Overall interventions and outcome measures across studies were heterogeneous. Outcome measures, pertaining to the QoL dimension of emotional functioning, were most frequently measured. A total of 12 trials evaluating behaviour therapy found positive effects on one or more indicators of QoL, for example, depression. The results of the review support recommendation of behaviour therapy in the care of patients with advanced cancer. PMID:15316564

  16. Economic resources consumption structure in severe hypoglycemia episodes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Michał; Rdzanek, Elżbieta; Niewada, Maciej; Czech, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with severe hypoglycemia events (SHEs) that vary in severity and resource consumption. Here we perform a systematic review in Medline of studies evaluating SHE-related health resource use. Eligible studies investigated patients with DM and included ≥10 SHEs. We also assessed studies identified in another systematic review, and through references from the included studies. We identified 14 relevant studies and used data from 11 (encompassing 6075 patients). Study results were interpreted to fit our definitions, which sometimes required assumptions. SHE type structure was synthesized using Bayesian modeling. Estimating Type 1 & 2 DM separately revealed only small differences; therefore, we used joint results. Of the analyzed SHEs, 9.97% were hospital-treated, 22.3% medical professional-treated, and 67.73% family-treated. These meta-analysis results help in understanding the structure of resource consumption following SHE and can be used in economic studies. PMID:26289736

  17. Worldwide Prevalence and Trends in Unintentional Drug Overdose: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Laura; Cerdá, Magdalena; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Background. Drug overdose is an important, yet an inadequately understood, public health problem. Global attention to unintentional drug overdose has been limited by comparison with the scope of the problem. There has been a substantial increase in drug overdose incidence and prevalence in several countries worldwide over the past decade, contributing to both increased costs and mortality. Objectives. The aim of this study was to systematically synthesize the peer-reviewed literature to document the global epidemiological profile of unintentional drug overdoses and the prevalence, time trends, mortality rates, and correlates of drug overdoses. We searched different combinations of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms in PubMed for articles published from 1980 until July 2013, and we organized these results in tabular spreadsheets and compared them. We restricted the search to English-language articles that deal with unintentional overdose, focusing on 1 or more of the following key constructs: prevalence, time trends, mortality rates, and correlates. The term “overdose” as a MeSH major topic yielded 1076 publications. In addition, we searched the following combinations of nonmajor MeSH terms: “street drugs” and “overdose” yielded 180, “death” and “overdose” yielded 114, and “poisoning” and “drug users” yielded 17. There was some overlap among the searches. Based on the search and inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected a total of 169 relevant articles for this article based on a close review of abstracts. Results. We found wide variability in lifetime prevalence of experiencing a nonfatal overdose or witnessing an overdose, and in mortality rates attributable to overdose. Lifetime prevalence of witnessed overdose among drug users (n = 17 samples) ranged from 50% to 96%, with a mean of 73.3%, a median of 70%, and a standard deviation of 14.1%. Lifetime prevalence of drug users personally experiencing a nonfatal overdose (n

  18. Arteriovenous malformations of the corpus callosum: Pooled analysis and systematic review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Pabaney, Aqueel H.; Ali, Rushna; Kole, Maximillian; Malik, Ghaus M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the corpus callosum (CC) are rare entities. We performed a systematic review of the available literature to better define the natural history, patient characteristics, and treatment options for these lesions. Methods: A MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and The Cochrane Library search were performed for studies published through June 2015. Data from all eligible studies were used to examine epidemiology, natural history, clinical features, treatment strategies, and outcomes of patients with CC-AVMs. A systematic review and pooled analysis of the literature were performed. Results: Our search yielded 37 reports and 230 patients. Mean age at presentation was 26.8 years (±13.12 years). AVMs were most commonly located in the splenium (43%), followed by the body (31%), and then the genu (23%) of the CC. A Spetzler-Martin grade of III was the most common (37%). One hundred eighty-seven (81.3%) patients presented with hemorrhage, 91 (40%) underwent microsurgical excision, and 87 (38%) underwent endovascular embolization. Radiosurgery was performed on 57 (25%) patients. Complete obliteration of the AVM was achieved in 102 (48.1%) patients and approximately twice as often when microsurgery was performed alone or in combination with other treatment modalities (94% vs. 49%; P < 0.001). Mean modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at presentation was 1.54 and mean mRS at last follow-up was 1.31. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.35). Conclusion: We present an analysis of the pooled data in the form of a systematic review focusing on management of CC-AVMs. This review aims to provide a valuable tool to aid in decision making when dealing with this particular subtype of AVM. PMID:27127713

  19. The Influence of Context on Quality Improvement Success in Health Care: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Heather C; Brady, Patrick W; Dritz, Michele C; Hooper, David K; Linam, W Matthew; Froehle, Craig M; Margolis, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Context: The mixed results of success among QI initiatives may be due to differences in the context of these initiatives. Methods: The business and health care literature was systematically reviewed to identify contextual factors that might influence QI success; to categorize, summarize, and synthesize these factors; and to understand the current stage of development of this research field. Findings: Forty-seven articles were included in the final review. Consistent with current theories of implementation and organization change, leadership from top management, organizational culture, data infrastructure and information systems, and years involved in QI were suggested as important to QI success. Other potentially important factors identified in this review included: physician involvement in QI, microsystem motivation to change, resources for QI, and QI team leadership. Key limitations in the existing literature were the lack of a practical conceptual model, the lack of clear definitions of contextual factors, and the lack of well-specified measures. Conclusions: Several contextual factors were shown to be important to QI success, although the current body of literature lacks adequate definitions and is characterized by considerable variability in how contextual factors are measured across studies. Future research should focus on identifying and developing measures of context tied to a conceptual model that examines context across all levels of the health care system and explores the relationships among various aspects of context. PMID:21166868

  20. Examining the Effects of Preschool Writing Instruction on Emergent Literacy Skills: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Anna H.; Simpson, Amber; Guo, Ying; Wang, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a systematic review of the literature involving writing interventions in the preschool setting. The information presented is timely considering the current expectations for young children to write. Framing the empirical literature within different philosophical approaches, trends were analyzed to identify…

  1. Critical Components of Successful Inclusion of Students with Severe Disabilities: Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alquraini, Turki; Gut, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the critical components of successful inclusion for students with severe disabilities. This review sets out to provide an overview of literature regarding effective practices for inclusion with a focus on critical components of successful inclusion that assist in preparing the stakeholders worldwide to work and engage…

  2. Review of the Choice and Preference Assessment Literature for Individuals with Severe to Profound Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullis, Christopher A.; Cannella-Malone, Helen I.; Basbigill, Abby R.; Yeager, Amanda; Fleming, Courtney V.; Payne, Daniel; Wu, Pei-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Since 2002, the body of literature examining choice interventions and preference assessments for individuals with severe to profound disabilities has grown substantially. This paper is an extension of the Lancioni, O'Reilly, & Emerson (1996) and Cannella, O'Reilly, & Lancioni (2005) papers and reviews 50 studies conducted between 2002 and 2010…

  3. Community-Effectiveness of Temephos for Dengue Vector Control: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    George, Leyanna; Lenhart, Audrey; Toledo, Joao; Lazaro, Adhara; Han, Wai Wai; Velayudhan, Raman; Runge Ranzinger, Silvia; Horstick, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    The application of the organophosphate larvicide temephos to water storage containers is one of the most commonly employed dengue vector control methods. This systematic literature review is to the knowledge of the authors the first that aims to assess the community-effectiveness of temephos in controlling both vectors and dengue transmission when delivered either as a single intervention or in combination with other interventions. A comprehensive literature search of 6 databases was performed (PubMed, WHOLIS, GIFT, CDSR, EMBASE, Wiley), grey literature and cross references were also screened for relevant studies. Data were extracted and methodological quality of the studies was assessed independently by two reviewers. 27 studies were included in this systematic review (11 single intervention studies and 16 combined intervention studies). All 11 single intervention studies showed consistently that using temephos led to a reduction in entomological indices. Although 11 of the 16 combined intervention studies showed that temephos application together with other chemical vector control methods also reduced entomological indices, this was either not sustained over time or–as in the five remaining studies—failed to reduce the immature stages. The community-effectiveness of temephos was found to be dependent on factors such as quality of delivery, water turnover rate, type of water, and environmental factors such as organic debris, temperature and exposure to sunlight. Timing of temephos deployment and its need for reapplication, along with behavioural factors such as the reluctance of its application to drinking water, and operational aspects such as cost, supplies, time and labour were further limitations identified in this review. In conclusion, when applied as a single intervention, temephos was found to be effective at suppressing entomological indices, however, the same effect has not been observed when temephos was applied in combination with other

  4. mHealth for HIV Treatment & Prevention: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Catalani, Caricia; Philbrick, William; Fraser, Hamish; Mechael, , Patricia; Israelski, Dennis M.

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review assesses the published literature to describe the landscape of mobile health technology (mHealth) for HIV/AIDS and the evidence supporting the use of these tools to address the HIV prevention, care, and treatment cascade. The speed of innovation, broad range of initiatives and tools, and heterogeneity in reporting have made it difficult to uncover and synthesize knowledge on how mHealth tools might be effective in addressing the HIV pandemic. To do address this gap, a team of reviewers collected literature on the use of mobile technology for HIV/AIDS among health, engineering, and social science literature databases and analyzed a final set of 62 articles. Articles were systematically coded, assessed for scientific rigor, and sorted for HIV programmatic relevance. The review revealed evidence that mHealth tools support HIV programmatic priorities, including: linkage to care, retention in care, and adherence to antiretroviral treatment. In terms of technical features, mHealth tools facilitate alerts and reminders, data collection, direct voice communication, educational messaging, information on demand, and more. Studies were mostly descriptive with a growing number of quasi-experimental and experimental designs. There was a lack of evidence around the use of mHealth tools to address the needs of key populations, including pregnant mothers, sex workers, users of injection drugs, and men who have sex with men. The science and practice of mHealth for HIV are evolving rapidly, but still in their early stages. Small-scale efforts, pilot projects, and preliminary descriptive studies are advancing and there is a promising trend toward implementing mHealth innovation that is feasible and acceptable within low-resource settings, positive program outcomes, operational improvements, and rigorous study design PMID:24133558

  5. Current methods of sedation in dental patients - a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; Cutando-Soriano, Antonio; López-Jiménez, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Objetive The main objective of this systematic literature review is to identify the safest and most effective sedative drugs so as to ensure successful sedation with as few complications as possible. Study Design A systematic literature review of the PubMed MEDLINE database was carried out using the key words “conscious sedation,” “drugs,” and “dentistry.” A total of 1,827 scientific articles were found, and these were narrowed down to 473 articles after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. These 473 studies were then individually assessed for their suitability for inclusion in this literature review. Results A total of 21 studies were selected due to their rigorous study design and conduciveness to further, more exhaustive analysis. The selected studies included a total of 1,0003 patients classified as ASA I or II. Midazolam was the drug most frequently used for successful sedation in dental surgical procedures. Ketamine also proved very useful when administered intranasally, although some side effects were observed when delivered via other routes of administration. Both propofol and nitrous oxide (N2O) are also effective sedative drugs. Conclusions Midazolam is the drug most commonly used to induce moderate sedation in dental surgical procedures, and it is also very safe. Other sedative drugs like ketamine, dexmedetomidine and propofol have also been proven safe and effective; however, further comparative clinical studies are needed to better demonstrate which of these are the safest and most effective. Key words:Conscious sedation, drugs, dentistry. PMID:27475684

  6. Community-Effectiveness of Temephos for Dengue Vector Control: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    George, Leyanna; Lenhart, Audrey; Toledo, Joao; Lazaro, Adhara; Han, Wai Wai; Velayudhan, Raman; Runge Ranzinger, Silvia; Horstick, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    The application of the organophosphate larvicide temephos to water storage containers is one of the most commonly employed dengue vector control methods. This systematic literature review is to the knowledge of the authors the first that aims to assess the community-effectiveness of temephos in controlling both vectors and dengue transmission when delivered either as a single intervention or in combination with other interventions. A comprehensive literature search of 6 databases was performed (PubMed, WHOLIS, GIFT, CDSR, EMBASE, Wiley), grey literature and cross references were also screened for relevant studies. Data were extracted and methodological quality of the studies was assessed independently by two reviewers. 27 studies were included in this systematic review (11 single intervention studies and 16 combined intervention studies). All 11 single intervention studies showed consistently that using temephos led to a reduction in entomological indices. Although 11 of the 16 combined intervention studies showed that temephos application together with other chemical vector control methods also reduced entomological indices, this was either not sustained over time or-as in the five remaining studies--failed to reduce the immature stages. The community-effectiveness of temephos was found to be dependent on factors such as quality of delivery, water turnover rate, type of water, and environmental factors such as organic debris, temperature and exposure to sunlight. Timing of temephos deployment and its need for reapplication, along with behavioural factors such as the reluctance of its application to drinking water, and operational aspects such as cost, supplies, time and labour were further limitations identified in this review. In conclusion, when applied as a single intervention, temephos was found to be effective at suppressing entomological indices, however, the same effect has not been observed when temephos was applied in combination with other interventions

  7. Quality of life in adolescent and young adult cancer patients: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Gonçalves, Vânia; Sehovic, Ivana; Bowman, Meghan L; Reed, Damon R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors experience many unique challenges and quality of life (QoL) effects that persist beyond cancer diagnosis and treatment. Due to continuous improvements in technology and cancer treatments resulting in improved survival rates, the identification of late effects, survivorship issues, and QoL is moving to the forefront of cancer research. The goal of this systematic review was to identify key psychosocial factors impacting QoL in AYA oncology populations. Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted using combinations of these phrases or keywords: “adolescent and young adult or AYA” AND “health outcomes OR quality of life OR psychology” AND “neoplasm OR cancer OR oncology”. A total of 35 articles were included in this review. Studies were classified into two categories: AYA perceptions and stakeholder perceptions. Results AYA cancer survivors were more likely to have “worse” or impaired QoL compared with the general population, regardless of other demographic factors. AYAs described both positive and negatives experiences with their medical care, the educational information received, and the supportive care services. Although health care professionals were likely to underestimate or misjudge the health preferences and support needs of AYAs, these perceptions varied across disciplines and levels of experience. Conclusion The literature is lacking in sufficient evidence-based interventions to improve QoL in AYA cancer populations. Further, the tools to adequately measure QoL in this population are also unsatisfactory. The literature, however, consistently shows agreement regarding the unique needs of this population, indicating a trend toward health care standardization within age ranges or life stages. We suggest the need for AYA-specific programs in health care institutions that comprise a multidisciplinary team that addresses all the unique medical and QoL needs of AYAs. PMID

  8. Systematic approach to managing vernal keratoconjunctivitis in clinical practice: Severity grading system and a treatment algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, Nikhil S

    2016-01-01

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis is an ocular allergy that is common in the pediatric age group. It is often chronic, severe, and nonresponsive to the available treatment options. Management of these children is difficult and often a dilemma for the practitioner. There is a need to simplify and standardize its management. To achieve this goal, we require a grading system to judge the severity of inflammation and an algorithm to select the appropriate medications. This article provides a simple and practically useful grading system and a stepladder algorithm for systematic treatment of these patients. Use of appropriate treatment modalities can reduce treatment and disease-related complications. PMID:27050351

  9. Older Women Survivors of Physical and Sexual Violence: A Systematic Review of the Quantitative Literature

    PubMed Central

    Dinnen, Stephanie; O'Donnell, Casey

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This systematic review synthesizes the quantitative empirical literature concerning older women survivors of physical and sexual assault. Methods A literature search was conducted using a range of scholarly databases. Information is presented here on the prevalence, correlates, and consequences of these types of interpersonal violence in older women. Additionally, age-related differences in prevalence, psychiatric distress, and characteristics of violence, including information on perpetrators, are reviewed. Results Overall, older women report lower lifetime and past year rates of physical and sexual assault and associated negative psychologic consequences compared to younger and middle-aged women. Additionally, older women who experienced interpersonal violence report greater psychiatric distress, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), than older women who have not experienced such events. Conclusions Some women who have been physically or sexually assaulted decades earlier in life continue to report significant levels of PTSD well into older adulthood. Gaps in the literature, including lack of information on ethnicity and culture, are presented, and future research directions are proposed. PMID:21668378

  10. Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Therapy in Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Adsuar, Jose C.; Olivares, Pedro R.; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Parraca, Jose A.; del Pozo-Cruz, Jesus; Gusi, Narcis

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on the effects of whole-body vibration therapy in patients with fibromyalgia. Design. Systematic literature review. Patients. Patients with fibromyalgia. Methods. An electronic search of the literature in four medical databases was performed to identify studies on whole-body vibration therapy that were published up to the 15th of January 2015. Results. Eight articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were analysed. According to the Dutch CBO guidelines, all selected trials had a B level of evidence. The main outcomes that were measured were balance, fatigue, disability index, health-related quality of life, and pain. Whole-body vibration appeared to improve the outcomes, especially balance and disability index. Conclusion. Whole-body vibration could be an adequate treatment for fibromyalgia as a main therapy or added to a physical exercise programme as it could improve balance, disability index, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and pain. However, this conclusion must be treated with caution because the paucity of trials and the marked differences between existing trials in terms of protocol, intervention, and measurement tools hampered the comparison of the trials. PMID:26351517

  11. Chinese herbs for memory disorders: a review and systematic analysis of classical herbal literature.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Lu, Yubo; Zhang, Anthony L; Xue, Charlie C L

    2013-02-01

    Text mining and other literature-based investigations can assist in identifying natural products for experimental and clinical research. This article details a method for systematically analyzing data derived from the classical Chinese medical literature. We present the results of electronic searches of Zhong Hua Yi Dian ("Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine"), a CD of 1000 premodern (before 1950) medical books, for single herbs, and other natural products used for dementia, memory disorders, and memory improvement. This review explores how the terminology for these disorders has changed over time and which herbs have been used more or less frequently, and compares the results from the premodern literature with the herbs indexed for memory disorders in a modern pharmacopoeia. The searches located 731 citations deriving from 127 different books written between ca. 188 ad and ca. 1920. Of the 110 different natural products identified, those most frequently cited for forgetfulness were yuan zhi (Polygala tenuifolia), fu shen (Poria cocos), and chang pu (Acorus spp.), all of which have been cited repeatedly over the past 1800 years and appear among the 31 herbs indexed in a modern pharmacopoeia. By providing a complete, hierarchically organized list of herbs for a specific disorder, this approach can assist researchers in selecting herbs for research. PMID:23433049

  12. Scaling up depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA): a systematic literature review illustrating the AIDED model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), often known by the brand name Depo-Provera, has increased globally, particularly in multiple low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). As a reproductive health technology that has scaled up in diverse contexts, DMPA is an exemplar product innovation with which to illustrate the utility of the AIDED model for scaling up family health innovations. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the enabling factors and barriers to scaling up DMPA use in LMICs. We searched 11 electronic databases for academic literature published through January 2013 (n = 284 articles), and grey literature from major health organizations. We applied exclusion criteria to identify relevant articles from peer-reviewed (n = 10) and grey literature (n = 9), extracting data on scale up of DMPA in 13 countries. We then mapped the resulting factors to the five AIDED model components: ASSESS, INNOVATE, DEVELOP, ENGAGE, and DEVOLVE. Results The final sample of sources included studies representing variation in geographies and methodologies. We identified 15 enabling factors and 10 barriers to dissemination, diffusion, scale up, and/or sustainability of DMPA use. The greatest number of factors were mapped to the ASSESS, DEVELOP, and ENGAGE components. Conclusions Findings offer early empirical support for the AIDED model, and provide insights into scale up of DMPA that may be relevant for other family planning product innovations. PMID:23915274

  13. Does Maltreatment Beget Maltreatment? A Systematic Review of the Intergenerational Literature

    PubMed Central

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Knight, Kelly E.; Lovegrove, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we critically review the literature testing the cycle of maltreatment hypothesis which posits continuity in maltreatment across adjacent generations. That is, we examine whether a history of maltreatment victimization is a significant risk factor for the later perpetration of maltreatment. We begin by establishing 11 methodological criteria that studies testing this hypothesis should meet. They include such basic standards as using representative samples, valid and reliable measures, prospective designs, and different reporters for each generation. We identify 47 studies that investigated this issue and then evaluate them with regard to the 11 methodological criteria. Overall, most of these studies report findings consistent with the cycle of maltreatment hypothesis. Unfortunately, at the same time, few of them satisfy the basic methodological criteria that we established; indeed, even the stronger studies in this area only meet about half of them. Moreover, the methodologically stronger studies present mixed support for the hypothesis. As a result, the positive association often reported in the literature appears to be based largely on the methodologically weaker designs. Based on our systematic methodological review, we conclude that this small and methodologically weak body of literature does not provide a definitive test of the cycle of maltreatment hypothesis. We conclude that it is imperative to develop more robust and methodologically adequate assessments of this hypothesis to more accurately inform the development of prevention and treatment programs. PMID:22673145

  14. Prevalence and severity of pain in adult end-stage renal disease patients on chronic intermittent hemodialysis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Brkovic, Tonci; Burilovic, Eliana; Puljak, Livia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Understanding the epidemiology of pain in patients on hemodialysis (HD) is crucial for further improvement in managing pain. The aim of this study was to systematically review available evidence on the prevalence and severity of pain in adult end-stage renal disease patients on chronic intermittent HD. Materials and methods We carried out a systematic review of the literature and developed a comprehensive search strategy based on search terms on pain and HD. We searched the databases MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO, and CINAHL from the earliest date of each database to July 24, 2014. Manuscripts in all languages were taken into consideration. Two authors performed each step independently, and all disagreements were resolved after discussion with the third author. The quality of studies was estimated using the STROBE checklist and Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Results We included 52 studies with 6,917 participants. The prevalence of acute and chronic pain in HD patients was up to 82% and 92%, respectively. A considerable number of patients suffered from severe pain. Various locations and causes of pain were described, with most of the studies reporting pain in general, pain related to arteriovenous access, headache, and musculoskeletal pain. Conclusion The findings of this systematic review indicate high prevalence of pain in HD patients and considerable gaps and limitations in the available evidence. Pain in this population should be recognized as a considerable health concern, and the nephrology community should promote pain management in HD patients as a clinical and research priority to improve patients’ quality of life and pain-related disability. PMID:27382261

  15. Dextromethorphan, chlorphenamine and serotonin toxicity: case report and systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Monte, Andrew A; Chuang, Ryan; Bodmer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review was to describe a patient with serotonin toxicity after an overdose of dextromethorphan and chlorphenamine and to perform a systematic literature review exploring whether dextromethorphan and chlorphenamine may be equally contributory in the development of serotonin toxicity in overdose. A Medline literature review was undertaken to identify cases of serotonin toxicity due to dextromethorphan and/or chlorphenamine. Case reports were included if they included information on the ingested dose or plasma concentrations of dextromethorphan and/or chlorphenamine, information about co-ingestions and detailed clinical information to evaluate for serotonin toxicity. Cases were reviewed by two toxicologists and serotonin toxicity, defined by the Hunter criteria, was diagnosed when appropriate. The literature was then reviewed to evaluate whether chlorphenamine may be a serotonergic agent. One hundred and fifty-five articles of dextromethorphan or chlorphenamine poisoning were identified. There were 23 case reports of dextromethorphan, of which 18 were excluded for lack of serotonin toxicity. No cases were identified in which serotonin toxicity could be solely attributed to chlorphenamine. This left six cases of dextrometorphane and/or chlorphenamine overdose, including our own, in which serotonin toxicity could be diagnosed based on the presented clinical information. In three of the six eligible cases dextromethorphan and chlorphenamine were the only overdosed drugs. There is substantial evidence from the literature that chlorphenamine is a similarly potent serotonin re-uptake inhibitor when compared with dextrometorphan. Chlorphenamine is a serotonergic medication and combinations of chlorphenamine and dextromethorphan may be dangerous in overdose due to an increased risk of serotonin toxicity. PMID:21175434

  16. A Systematic Review of Ethical Principles in the Plastic Surgery Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kevin C.; Pushman, Allison G.; Bellfi, Lillian T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To perform a systematic review to identify articles that discuss ethical issues relating to the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery and to evaluate whether ethical issues are underrepresented in the plastic surgery literature. Methods: Four medical databases were selected to search through the medical literature with specific inclusion criteria to disqualify irrelevant articles from the study. Appropriate articles were extracted, and their quality and validity were assessed by multiple investigators to maximize reproducibility. The data were then synthesized and analyzed for associations amongst the ethical principles. Results: Out of a total library search of >100,000 plastic surgery oriented articles, only 110 clearly focused on ethical principles. Autonomy (53%) was the most common major theme, whereas distributive justice (15%) represented the least frequently emphasized ethical principle. The proportions of each ethical principle were tested against each other for equality using Cochran's Q test; the Q test reached statistical significance (Q = 67.04, df =3, P < 0.0001), indicating that the ethical principles were not discussed equally in plastic surgery literature, which was expected because autonomy represented 53% of the manuscripts whereas distributive justice represented only 15% of manuscripts. When examining both major and minor themes, over half of the articles (61%) addressed 2 or more ethical principles. Beneficence and nonmaleficence were strongly associated (Pearson's x2 = 55.38, df =1, P<0.0001). Conclusions: Despite the extensive amount of ethical issues that plastic surgeons face, a relatively small proportion of plastic surgery literature was dedicated to discussing ethical principles. PMID:20009860

  17. Aortic Valve Repair: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Published Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fok, Matthew; Shaw, Matthew; Sancho, Elena; Abello, David; Bashir, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is widely accepted that aortic valve disease is surgically managed with aortic valve replacement (AVR) using different available prostheses. The long-term survival, durability of the valve, and freedom from reoperation after AVR are well established in published literature. Over the past two decades, aortic valve repair (AVr) has evolved into an accepted surgical option for patients with aortic valve disease. We review and analyze the published literature on AVr. Methods: A systematic review of the current literature was performed through three electronic databases from inception to August 2013 to identify all relevant studies relating to aortic valve repair. Articles selected were chosen by two reviewers. Articles were excluded if they contained a pediatric population or if the patient number was less than 50. Results: Twenty-four studies conformed to the inclusion criteria for inclusion in the systematic review. In total, 4986 patients underwent aortic valve repair. 7 studies represented bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) repair, 5 studies represented cusp prolapse, and 3 studies represented valve repair with root dilation or aneurysm. Overall weighted in-hospital mortality for all studies was low (1.46% ± 1.21). Preoperative aortic insufficiency (AI) ≥ 2+ did not correlate to reoperation for valve failure (Pearson's Rs 0.2705, P = 0.2585). AI at discharge was reported in 9 studies with a mean AI ≥ 2+ in 6.1% of patients. Weighted average percentage for valve reoperation following BAV repair was 10.23% ± 3.2. Weighted average reoperation following cusp prolapse repair was 3.83 ± 1.96. Weighted average reoperation in aortic valve sparing procedures with root replacement was 4.25% ± 2.46. Although there are limitations and complications of prosthetic valves, especially for younger individuals, there is ample published literature that confers strong evidence for AVR. On the contrary, aortic valve repair may be a useful option for selected patients

  18. Overriding parents' medical decisions for their children: a systematic review of normative literature.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Rosalind J; Notini, Lauren

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the ethical literature on conflicts between health professionals and parents about medical decision-making for children. We present the results of a systematic review which addressed the question 'when health professionals and parents disagree about the appropriate course of medical treatment for a child,under what circumstances is the health professional ethically justified in overriding the parents' wishes?’ We identified nine different ethical frameworks that were put forward by their authors as applicable across various ages and clinical scenarios. Each of these frameworks centred on a different key moral concept including harm,constrained parental autonomy, best interests, medically reasonable alternatives, responsible thinking and rationality. PMID:23824967

  19. Disability and HIV/AIDS - a systematic review of literature on Africa

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review focuses on empirical work on disability and HIV/AIDS in Africa in the past decade and considers all the literature currently accessible. The review presents data from different surveys and summarizes the findings. In this way, it convincingly reveals that people with disabilities are very vulnerable to contracting HIV, and lack access to information, testing and treatment. The review further reveals gaps in the research and areas of concern. While vulnerability and accessibility have been investigated, there are few prevalence studies or evaluations available. A certain amount of work has focused on the deaf population, but little has been done for other disability groups. A growing area of concern is sexual abuse and exploitation of people with disabilities. Only a few studies or interventions focus on this crucial area.

  20. A systematic literature review of automated clinical coding and classification systems

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Margaret; Fenton, Susan H; Jenders, Robert A; Hersh, William R

    2010-01-01

    Clinical coding and classification processes transform natural language descriptions in clinical text into data that can subsequently be used for clinical care, research, and other purposes. This systematic literature review examined studies that evaluated all types of automated coding and classification systems to determine the performance of such systems. Studies indexed in Medline or other relevant databases prior to March 2009 were considered. The 113 studies included in this review show that automated tools exist for a variety of coding and classification purposes, focus on various healthcare specialties, and handle a wide variety of clinical document types. Automated coding and classification systems themselves are not generalizable, nor are the results of the studies evaluating them. Published research shows these systems hold promise, but these data must be considered in context, with performance relative to the complexity of the task and the desired outcome. PMID:20962126

  1. A systematic literature review of the relationship between stretching and athletic injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Athletic-related injuries are a major cause for healthcare visits and financial burden for an otherwise healthy population of adults. The purpose of this article was to investigate the effects of stretching on injury prevention and to determine whether current stretching guidelines are beneficial for athletes. A systematic review of the literature was conducted through searching MEDLINE and CINAHL on topics related to stretching and injury prevention. Current belief is that stretching reduces injury incidence and that it should be performed prior to athletic activities. An examination of 11 articles provided inconclusive outcomes regarding the positive effect of stretching on injury prevention. A sport or activity-specific tailored stretch and warm-up program yielded the best outcomes in relation to preventing injuries. Direct negative effects of stretching were not identified; therefore, the application of stretching should be performed on an individual basis. PMID:25401202

  2. Public Stigma of Mental Illness in the United States: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.

    2013-01-01

    Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public’s stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public’s stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental disorders and advance research in this area. Public stigma of mental illness in the U.S. was widespread. Findings can inform interventions to reduce the public’s stigma of mental illness. PMID:22833051

  3. Epidemiological Trends of Dengue Disease in Mexico (2000–2011): A Systematic Literature Search and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dantés, Héctor Gómez; Farfán-Ale, José Arturo; Sarti, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    This systematic literature review describes the epidemiology of dengue disease in Mexico (2000–2011). The annual number of uncomplicated dengue cases reported increased from 1,714 in 2000 to 15,424 in 2011 (incidence rates of 1.72 and 14.12 per 100,000 population, respectively). Peaks were observed in 2002, 2007, and 2009. Coastal states were most affected by dengue disease. The age distribution pattern showed an increasing number of cases during childhood, a peak at 10–20 years, and a gradual decline during adulthood. All four dengue virus serotypes were detected. Although national surveillance is in place, there are knowledge gaps relating to asymptomatic cases, primary/secondary infections, and seroprevalence rates of infection in all age strata. Under-reporting of the clinical spectrum of the disease is also problematic. Dengue disease remains a serious public health problem in Mexico. PMID:25375162

  4. Systematic Classification of Disease Severity for Evaluation of Expanded Carrier Screening Panels

    PubMed Central

    Lazarin, Gabriel A.; Hawthorne, Felicia; Collins, Nicholas S.; Platt, Elizabeth A.; Evans, Eric A.; Haque, Imran S.

    2014-01-01

    Professional guidelines dictate that disease severity is a key criterion for carrier screening. Expanded carrier screening, which tests for hundreds to thousands of mutations simultaneously, requires an objective, systematic means of describing a given disease's severity to build screening panels. We hypothesized that diseases with characteristics deemed to be of highest impact would likewise be rated as most severe, and diseases with characteristics of lower impact would be rated as less severe. We describe a pilot test of this hypothesis in which we surveyed 192 health care professionals to determine the impact of specific disease phenotypic characteristics on perceived severity, and asked the same group to rate the severity of selected inherited diseases. The results support the hypothesis: we identified four “Tiers” of disease characteristics (1–4). Based on these responses, we developed an algorithm that, based on the combination of characteristics normally seen in an affected individual, classifies the disease as Profound, Severe, Moderate, or Mild. This algorithm allows simple classification of disease severity that is replicable and not labor intensive. PMID:25494330

  5. Lean interventions in healthcare: do they actually work? A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Moraros, John; Lemstra, Mark; Nwankwo, Chijioke

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lean is a widely used quality improvement methodology initially developed and used in the automotive and manufacturing industries but recently expanded to the healthcare sector. This systematic literature review seeks to independently assess the effect of Lean or Lean interventions on worker and patient satisfaction, health and process outcomes, and financial costs. Data sources We conducted a systematic literature review of Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, ABI/Inform, ERIC, EMBASE and SCOPUS. Study selection Peer reviewed articles were included if they examined a Lean intervention and included quantitative data. Methodological quality was assessed using validated critical appraisal checklists. Publically available data collected by the Saskatchewan Health Quality Council and the Saskatchewan Union of Nurses were also analysed and reported separately. Data extraction Data on design, methods, interventions and key outcomes were extracted and collated. Results of data synthesis Our electronic search identified 22 articles that passed methodological quality review. Among the accepted studies, 4 were exclusively concerned with health outcomes, 3 included both health and process outcomes and 15 included process outcomes. Our study found that Lean interventions have: (i) no statistically significant association with patient satisfaction and health outcomes; (ii) a negative association with financial costs and worker satisfaction and (iii) potential, yet inconsistent, benefits on process outcomes like patient flow and safety. Conclusion While some may strongly believe that Lean interventions lead to quality improvements in healthcare, the evidence to date simply does not support this claim. More rigorous, higher quality and better conducted scientific research is required to definitively ascertain the impact and effectiveness of Lean in healthcare settings. PMID:26811118

  6. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Obesity among Children and Adolescents: A Review of Systematic Literature Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Bucher Della Torre, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has increased worldwide and has reached alarming proportions. Currently, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the primary source of added sugar in the diet of children and adolescents. Contradictive findings from studies and reviews have fueled an endless debate on the role of SSBs in the development of childhood obesity. Methods: The primary aim of the present review of reviews was to assess how review- and study-level methodological factors explain conflicting results across reviews and meta-analyses by providing an up-to-date synthesis of recent evidence regarding the association between SSB consumption and weight gain, overweight, and obesity in a population of 6-month-old to 19-year-old children and adolescents. The secondary aim was to assess the quality of included reviews using the Assessment of Multiple SysTemAtic Reviews (AMSTAR) measurement tool. Systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses were included. The literature search was performed through the platforms Pubmed/Medline, Cinahl, and Web of Knowledge. Results: Thirteen reviews and meta-analyses were included. Nine reviews concluded that there was a direct association between SSBs and obesity in children and adolescents and four others did not. The quality of the included reviews was low to moderate, and the two reviews with the highest quality scores showed discrepant results. Conclusions: The majority of reviews concluded that there was a direct association between SSB consumption and weight gain, overweight, and obesity in children and adolescents. However, recent evidence from well-conducted meta-analyses shows discrepant results regarding the association between SSB and weight gain, overweight, and obesity among children and adolescents. Improving methodological quality of studies and reviews as well as ensuring responsible conduct of research and scientific integrity is essential for the provision

  7. Patient-centred care in general dental practice - a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Delivering improvements in quality is a key objective within most healthcare systems, and a view which has been widely embraced within the NHS in the United Kingdom. Within the NHS, quality is evaluated across three key dimensions: clinical effectiveness, safety and patient experience, with the latter modelled on the Picker Principles of Patient-Centred Care (PCC). Quality improvement is an important feature of the current dental contract reforms in England, with “patient experience” likely to have a central role in the evaluation of quality. An understanding and appreciation of the evidence underpinning PCC within dentistry is highly relevant if we are to use this as a measure of quality in general dental practice. Methods A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to identify the features of PCC relevant to dentistry and ascertain the current research evidence base underpinning its use as a measure of quality within general dental practice. Results Three papers were identified which met the inclusion criteria and demonstrated the use of primary research to provide an understanding of the key features of PCC within dentistry. None of the papers identified were based in general dental practice and none of the three studies sought the views of patients. Some distinct differences were noted between the key features of PCC reported within the dental literature and those developed within the NHS Patient Experience Framework. Conclusions This systematic review reveals a lack of understanding of PCC within dentistry, and in particular general dental practice. There is currently a poor evidence base to support the use of the current patient reported outcome measures as indicators of patient-centredness. Further research is necessary to understand the important features of PCC in dentistry and patients’ views should be central to this research. PMID:24902842

  8. Blood blister-like aneurysms: single center experience and systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Ana Marcos; Narata, Ana Paula; Yilmaz, Hasan; Bijlenga, Philippe; Radovanovic, Ivan; Schaller, Karl; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Pereira, Vitor Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Blood blister-like aneurysms (BBAs) are a controversial entity. They arise from non-branching sites on the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) and are suspected to originate from a dissection. Our aim is to describe the BBA cases seen in our center and to present a systematic review of the literature on BBAs. We analyzed the eleven cases of BBA admitted to our center from 2003 to 2012. We assessed the medical history, treatment modality (endovascular and/or surgery), complications and clinical outcome. The cohort included 8 women and 4 men with a mean age of 53.16 years. Treatment of the BBA consisted of stenting and coiling in 5 patients, stenting only in 4 patients, coiling and clipping in 1 patient, clipping only in 1 patient, and conservative treatment in 1 patient. A good outcome was found in 10 patients, as defined by a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) less than or equal to two at three months. A systematic review of the literature was performed, and 314 reported patients were found: 221 patients were treated with a primarily surgical approach, and 87 patients were treated with a primarily endovascular approach. A rescue or second treatment was required in 46 patients (21%). The overall estimated treatment morbidity rate was 17%, and the mortality rate was 15%. BBAs exhibit more aggressive behavior compared to saccular aneurysms, and more intra-operative complications occur with BBAs, independent of the treatment type offered. They are also significantly more likely to relapse and rebleed after treatment. Endovascular treatment offers a lower morbidity-mortality compared with surgical approaches. Multilayer flow-diverting stents appear to be a promising strategy. PMID:24231267

  9. Life Goals in Patients with Cancer: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hullmann, Stephanie E.; Robb, Sheri L.; Rand, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Purposes of this systematic review of life goal research in cancer patients were to: 1) identify life goal characteristics and processes being examined, 2) describe instruments used to assess life goal constructs, 3) identify theoretical models being used to guide research, and 4) summarize what is known about the impact of the cancer experience on life goal characteristics, processes, and psychological outcomes. Methods We conducted this systematic review using MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases. Inclusion criteria were: 1) published between 1993 and 2014, 2) English language, 3) cancer patient population, and 4) original research articles that assessed life goal characteristics and/or goal processes. One-hundred ninety-seven articles were screened and 27 included in the final review. Results Seven life goal characteristics and seven life goal processes were identified, and less than half of studies investigated associations between goal characteristics and processes. Conceptual definitions were not provided for about half of the identified life goal constructs. Studies used both validated and author-developed instruments to assess goal constructs. Twenty-four different theoretical models were identified, with self-regulation theory most frequently cited. Overall, the literature suggests that cancer impacts patients’ life goal characteristics and processes, and life goal disturbance is related to poorer psychological outcomes. Conclusions The impact of the cancer experience on life goals is an important and emerging area of research that would benefit from conceptual and theoretical clarity and measurement consistency. PMID:25990641

  10. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Platelet Aggregation: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Wolfgang; McKavanagh, Daniel; McCarthy, Alexandra L.; Bird, Robert; Ried, Karin; Chan, Alexandre; Isenring, Liz

    2015-01-01

    Background The potential effect of ginger on platelet aggregation is a widely-cited concern both within the published literature and to clinicians; however, there has been no systematic appraisal of the evidence to date. Methods Using the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed the results of clinical and observational trials regarding the effect of ginger on platelet aggregation in adults compared to either placebo or baseline data. Studies included in this review stipulated the independent variable was a ginger preparation or isolated ginger compound, and used measures of platelet aggregation as the primary outcome. Results Ten studies were included, comprising eight clinical trials and two observational studies. Of the eight clinical trials, four reported that ginger reduced platelet aggregation, while the remaining four reported no effect. The two observational studies also reported mixed findings. Discussion Many of the studies appraised for this review had moderate risks of bias. Methodology varied considerably between studies, notably the timeframe studied, dose of ginger used, and the characteristics of subjects recruited (e.g. healthy vs. patients with chronic diseases). Conclusion The evidence that ginger affects platelet aggregation and coagulation is equivocal and further study is needed to definitively address this question. PMID:26488162

  11. Accuracy of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction: systematic literature review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Ciro Martins; Mazin, Suleimy Cristina; dos Santos, Elisa Raphael; Cesetti, Mariana Vicente; Bächtold, Guilherme Albergaria Brízida; Cordeiro, João Henrique de Freitas; Theodoro, Fabrício Claudino Estrela Terra; Damasco, Fabiana dos Santos; Carranza, Sebastián Andrés Vernal; Santos, Adriana de Oliveira; Roselino, Ana Maria; Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) is hampered by the absence of a gold standard. An accurate diagnosis is essential because of the high toxicity of the medications for the disease. This study aimed to assess the ability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify MCL and to compare these results with clinical research recently published by the authors. A systematic literature review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: the PRISMA Statement was performed using comprehensive search criteria and communication with the authors. A meta-analysis considering the estimates of the univariate and bivariate models was performed. Specificity near 100% was common among the papers. The primary reason for accuracy differences was sensitivity. The meta-analysis, which was only possible for PCR samples of lesion fragments, revealed a sensitivity of 71% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.59; 0.81] and a specificity of 93% (95% CI = 0.83; 0.98) in the bivariate model. The search for measures that could increase the sensitivity of PCR should be encouraged. The quality of the collected material and the optimisation of the amplification of genetic material should be prioritised. PMID:25946238

  12. Systematic literature searching in policy relevant, inter-disciplinary reviews: an example from culture and sport.

    PubMed

    Schucan Bird, Karen; Tripney, Janice

    2011-09-01

    Within the systematic review process, the searching phase is critical to the final synthesis product, its use and value. Yet, relatively little is known about the utility of different search strategies for reviews of complex, inter-disciplinary evidence. This article used a recently completed programme of work on cultural and sporting engagement to conduct an empirical evaluation of a comprehensive search strategy. Ten different types of search source were evaluated, according to three dimensions: (i) effectiveness in identifying relevant studies; (ii) efficiency in identifying studies; and (iii) adding value by locating studies that were not identified by any other sources. The study found that general bibliographic databases and specialist databases ranked the highest on all three dimensions. Overall, websites and journals were the next most valuable types of source. For reviewers, these findings highlight that general and specialist databases should remain a core component of the comprehensive search strategy, supplemented with other types of sources that can efficiently identify unique or grey literature. For policy makers and other research commissioners, this study highlights the value of methodological analysis for improving the understanding of, and practice in, policy relevant, inter-disciplinary systematic reviews. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26061784

  13. Role performance of psychiatric nurses in advanced practice: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fung, Y L; Chan, Z; Chien, W T

    2014-10-01

    This paper discusses findings from a systematic review of literature pertaining to the role performance of psychiatric nurses in advanced practice. A search of 11 electronic databases was conducted to identify research involving interventions by psychiatric (or mental health) nurses in advanced practice. A total of 14 studies were identified. In this review, the role performance of psychiatric nurses in advanced practice was categorized into three themes: (1) the provision of psychosocial interventions; (2) the provision of nurse-directed services in health-care contexts; and (3) the provision of psychiatric nursing consultation services. Our results document that psychiatric nurses in advanced practice perform multifaceted roles and provide mental health-care services in various contexts. This systematic review reveals that the nurses obtain significant results in managing clients with depression and psychological stress, and demonstrates their value when developing partnerships with non-mental health service providers. One study, however, showed that the nurses had insignificant results in performing transitional care for pre-discharged mental health service users. PMID:24299195

  14. Knowledge Exchange Processes in Organizations and Policy Arenas: A Narrative Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Lemire, Marc; Denis, Jean-Louis; Tremblay, Émile

    2010-01-01

    Context: This article presents the main results from a large-scale analytical systematic review on knowledge exchange interventions at the organizational and policymaking levels. The review integrated two broad traditions, one roughly focused on the use of social science research results and the other focused on policymaking and lobbying processes. Methods: Data collection was done using systematic snowball sampling. First, we used prospective snowballing to identify all documents citing any of a set of thirty-three seminal papers. This process identified 4,102 documents, 102 of which were retained for in-depth analysis. The bibliographies of these 102 documents were merged and used to identify retrospectively all articles cited five times or more and all books cited seven times or more. All together, 205 documents were analyzed. To develop an integrated model, the data were synthesized using an analytical approach. Findings: This article developed integrated conceptualizations of the forms of collective knowledge exchange systems, the nature of the knowledge exchanged, and the definition of collective-level use. This literature synthesis is organized around three dimensions of context: level of polarization (politics), cost-sharing equilibrium (economics), and institutionalized structures of communication (social structuring). Conclusions: The model developed here suggests that research is unlikely to provide context-independent evidence for the intrinsic efficacy of knowledge exchange strategies. To design a knowledge exchange intervention to maximize knowledge use, a detailed analysis of the context could use the kind of framework developed here. PMID:21166865

  15. Trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Strohmeier, Hannah; Scholte, Willem F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Working in humanitarian crisis situations is dangerous. National humanitarian staff in particular face the risk of primary and secondary trauma exposure which can lead to mental health problems. Despite this, research on the mental health of national staff is scarce, and a systematic analysis of up-to-date findings has not been undertaken yet. Objective This article reviews the available literature on trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff. It focuses on the prevalence of selected mental health problems in relation to reference groups; sex and/or gender as predictive factors of mental health problems; and the influence of organization types on mental health problems. Method Three databases were systematically searched for relevant studies published in the English language in peer-reviewed journals. Results Fourteen articles matched the inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that national staff experience mental health problems and the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among this occupation group is mostly similar to or higher than among reference groups. Research on both substance use disorder and suicidal behavior among national staff is particularly scarce. The relation between sex and/or gender and mental health problems among national staff appears to be complex, and organizational staff support seems to be an important determinant for mental health. Conclusion All findings call for increased attention from the humanitarian community and further research on the topic. PMID:26589256

  16. Construction of tissue microarrays from core needle biopsies - a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Albanghali, Mohammad; Green, Andrew; Rakha, Emad; Aleskandarany, Mohamed; Nolan, Chris; Ellis, Ian; Cheung, Kwok-Leung

    2016-02-01

    In some clinical circumstances, core needle biopsy (CNB) may be the only source of material from cancer tissue for diagnostic use. The volume of tissue available in a CNB is low, and opportunities for research use can therefore be limited. The tissue microarray (TMA) principle, if applied to the use of CNBs, could facilitate research studies in circumstances where CNB specimens are available. However, various challenges are expected in applying such a technique in CNBs, which has limited their use in research. We therefore conducted a systematic review of the literature on this subject. A systematic search was carried out with CINAHL, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, and MEDLINE, to identify studies that have primarily developed methods for constructing TMAs from CNBs. Eight studies were found to meet the inclusion criteria; six of these employed the vertical rearrangement technique, and two used multiple layers of biopsy tissue. Representation of the CNB was significantly influenced by the quantity of tumour cells present in the original biopsy and the degree of heterogeneity of biomarker expression. This review shows that technologies have been developed to enable construction of TMAs from CNBs. However, challenges remain to improve amplification and representation. PMID:26266325

  17. Prevalence and correlates of depression among Australian women: a systematic literature review, January 1999- January 2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of depression among Australian women. This systematic review of depression among women in Australia, the largest identified to date, highlights the prevalence and correlates of depression across the life span. Results The report adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement (PRISMA). Six health related databases were selected: Medline, PsychInfo, SCOPUS, Cinhal, Informit and Cochrane Systematic Reviews. 1,888 initial articles were found, and 111 articles were considered relevant for review. Prevalence rates of depression among women ranged from 2.6% to 43.9%. Higher rates were reported for younger women, or specific population groups. Most significant correlates included, age, adverse life events, tobacco use, sole motherhood, and previous mental health problems. Conclusions Limitations include the scope of the investigation’s aims and inclusion criteria, and the failure to identify gender specific data in most studies. Publication bias was likely, given that only papers reported (or translated) in English were included. Despite the breadth of information available, there were noticeable gaps in the literature. Some studies reported on affective disorders, but did not specifically report on depression; it is concluded that each mental illness warrants separate investigation. It was also common for studies to report a total prevalence rate without separating gender. This report recommends that it is vital to separate male and female data. The report concludes that more research is needed among mid-age women, Indigenous women, non-heterosexual women and Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) women. PMID:24138703

  18. The breadth of primary care: a systematic literature review of its core dimensions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Even though there is general agreement that primary care is the linchpin of effective health care delivery, to date no efforts have been made to systematically review the scientific evidence supporting this supposition. The aim of this study was to examine the breadth of primary care by identifying its core dimensions and to assess the evidence for their interrelations and their relevance to outcomes at (primary) health system level. Methods A systematic review of the primary care literature was carried out, restricted to English language journals reporting original research or systematic reviews. Studies published between 2003 and July 2008 were searched in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, King's Fund Database, IDEAS Database, and EconLit. Results Eighty-five studies were identified. This review was able to provide insight in the complexity of primary care as a multidimensional system, by identifying ten core dimensions that constitute a primary care system. The structure of a primary care system consists of three dimensions: 1. governance; 2. economic conditions; and 3. workforce development. The primary care process is determined by four dimensions: 4. access; 5. continuity of care; 6. coordination of care; and 7. comprehensiveness of care. The outcome of a primary care system includes three dimensions: 8. quality of care; 9. efficiency care; and 10. equity in health. There is a considerable evidence base showing that primary care contributes through its dimensions to overall health system performance and health. Conclusions A primary care system can be defined and approached as a multidimensional system contributing to overall health system performance and health. PMID:20226084

  19. A systematic literature review on first aid provided by laypeople to trauma victims

    PubMed Central

    Tannvik, T D; Bakke, H K; Wisborg, T

    2012-01-01

    Death from trauma is a significant and international problem. Outcome for patients suffering out-of-hospital cardiac arrests is significantly improved by early cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The usefulness of first aid given by laypeople in trauma is less well established. The aim of this study was to review the existing literature on first aid provided by laypeople to trauma victims and to establish how often first aid is provided, if it is performed correctly, and its impact on outcome. A systematic review was carried out, according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, of all studies involving first aid provided by laypeople to trauma victims. Cochrane, Embase, Medline, Pubmed, and Google Scholar databases were systematically searched. Ten eligible articles were identified involving a total of 5836 victims. Eight studies were related to patient outcome, while two studies were simulation based. The proportion of patients who received first aid ranged from 10.7% to 65%. Incorrect first aid was given in up to 83.7% of cases. Airway handling and haemorrhage control were particular areas of concern. One study from Iraq investigated survival and reported a 5.8% reduction in mortality. Two retrospective autopsy-based studies estimated that correct first aid could have reduced mortality by 1.8–4.5%. There is limited evidence regarding first aid provided by laypeople to trauma victims. Due to great heterogeneity in the studies, firm conclusions can not be drawn. However, the results show a potential mortality reduction if first aid is administered to trauma victims. Further research is necessary to establish this. PMID:22897491

  20. Health, Climate Change and Sustainability: A systematic Review and Thematic Analysis of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, A.; Maynard, V.; Goodman, B.; Richardson, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Evidence of climate change and its impact continues to be accumulated, and it is argued that the consequences of climate change are likely to result in an increased demand on health services. It has been claimed that climate change presents new challenges for health services and that strategies should be adopted to address these challenges. Aim: The aim of this systematic review was to map published literature on health, climate change and sustainability by categorising papers according to their focus on effects, strategy and actions, and to provide a thematic analysis of their content. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted via a range of healthcare related databases i.e. Pubmed, Medline, CINAHL, AMED, ASSIA, IBSS and ISI Web of Knowledge. Searches focussed upon papers published in English between 1998 and 2008. Retrieved papers were studied by the authors in order to inform the thematic analysis of their content. Results: A total of 114 publications were retrieved, of which 36 met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. These 36 publications were categorised and are discussed according to their focus on: effects/impacts, strategy/policy, action/examples. Conclusions: A number of papers report the potential health effects of climate change while others report policies and strategies to tackle these effects. However there is an urgent need to identify and report on the implementation of strategies to mitigate and adapt to these challenges and to publish real examples of actions. Actions that are taken need to be evidence/policy based, and implementations monitored, evaluated and published. PMID:20508757

  1. Proposal of success criteria for strabismus surgery in patients with Graves' orbitopathy based on a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Jellema, Hinke Marijke; Braaksma-Besselink, Yvette; Limpens, Jacqueline; von Arx, Georg; Wiersinga, Wilmar M; Mourits, Maarten P

    2015-11-01

    Proposal of success criteria for strabismus surgery for patients with Graves' orbitopathy (GO) based on a systematic review of the literature. We performed a systematic search of OVID MEDLINE, OVID Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the publisher subset of PubMed, to identify studies reporting on success criteria of strabismus surgery in GO. In addition, we handsearched several orthoptic journals and proceedings of strabismological congresses. Of the 789 articles retrieved, 42 articles described success criteria for strabismus surgery in GO. Most studies defined success in terms of a subjective diplopia-free field in primary and down gaze. Almost half of the studies used a graded scale (excellent, good, acceptable and failure) to describe the outcome of surgery. Three of the eligible studies described a tool to quantify the field of single vision in detail. Quality of life was not reported as an outcome measure in any of the published studies. In conclusion, success criteria for strabismus surgery in patients with GO are poorly defined and no consensus is available. The lack of standardization hampers comparative studies and thus the search for the best surgical treatment for diplopia in patients with GO. Therefore, we propose strict success criteria including a tool for quantification of remaining diplopia plus a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire (the GO-QoL). PMID:25876459

  2. The balance of care approach to health and social care planning: lessons from a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Sue; Brand, Christian; Wilberforce, Mark; Challis, David

    2013-02-01

    The strategic allocation of resources is one the most difficult tasks facing health and social care decision makers, with multiple organisations delivering complex services to heterogeneous populations. The enduring appeal of the balance of care approach, a systematic framework for exploring the potential costs and consequences of changing the mix of community and institutional services in a defined geographical area, is thus unsurprising. However, no attempt has previously been made to synthesise or appraise the methodological approaches employed and lessons to inform future applications may go unheard. This paper seeks to address those concerns by reporting the findings of a systematic literature review that identified 33 examples of the model's use spanning 40 years. The majority of studies were undertaken in the UK and explored the services needed by frail older people. There is, however, nothing in the model to restrict it to this context. The paper also details the different ways key elements of the model (information about clients, resources, the appraisal of settings, costs and outcomes) have been operationalised, and considers their strengths and weaknesses. Whilst several studies identified a potential to reduce costs via the use of less institutional care, not all applications predicted cost savings. PMID:25594998

  3. Comparing the usefulness of the 1997 and 2009 WHO dengue case classification: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Horstick, Olaf; Jaenisch, Thomas; Martinez, Eric; Kroeger, Axel; See, Lucy Lum Chai; Farrar, Jeremy; Ranzinger, Silvia Runge

    2014-09-01

    The 1997 and 2009 WHO dengue case classifications were compared in a systematic review with 12 eligible studies (4 prospective). Ten expert opinion articles were used for discussion. For the 2009 WHO classification studies show: when determining severe dengue sensitivity ranges between 59-98% (88%/98%: prospective studies), specificity between 41-99% (99%: prospective study) - comparing the 1997 WHO classification: sensitivity 24.8-89.9% (24.8%/74%: prospective studies), specificity: 25%/100% (100%: prospective study). The application of the 2009 WHO classification is easy, however for (non-severe) dengue there may be a risk of monitoring increased case numbers. Warning signs validation studies are needed. For epidemiological/pathogenesis research use of the 2009 WHO classification, opinion papers show that ease of application, increased sensitivity (severe dengue) and international comparability are advantageous; 3 severe dengue criteria (severe plasma leakage, severe bleeding, severe organ manifestation) are useful research endpoints. The 2009 WHO classification has clear advantages for clinical use, use in epidemiology is promising and research use may at least not be a disadvantage. PMID:24957540

  4. Micro-costing studies in the health and medical literature: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Micro-costing is a cost estimation method that allows for precise assessment of the economic costs of health interventions. It has been demonstrated to be particularly useful for estimating the costs of new interventions, for interventions with large variability across providers, and for estimating the true costs to the health system and to society. However, existing guidelines for economic evaluations do not provide sufficient detail of the methods and techniques to use when conducting micro-costing analyses. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to review the current literature on micro-costing studies of health and medical interventions, strategies, and programs to assess the variation in micro-costing methodology and the quality of existing studies. This will inform current practice in conducting and reporting micro-costing studies and lead to greater standardization in methodology in the future. Methods/Design We will perform a systematic review of the current literature on micro-costing studies of health and medical interventions, strategies, and programs. Using rigorously designed search strategies, we will search Ovid MEDLINE, EconLit, BIOSIS Previews, Embase, Scopus, and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) to identify relevant English-language articles. These searches will be supplemented by a review of the references of relevant articles identified. Two members of the review team will independently extract detailed information on the design and characteristics of each included article using a standardized data collection form. A third reviewer will be consulted to resolve discrepancies. We will use checklists that have been developed for critical appraisal of health economics studies to evaluate the quality and potential risk of bias of included studies. Discussion This systematic review will provide useful information to help standardize the methods and techniques for conducting and reporting micro

  5. The effect of spinal manipulative therapy on experimentally induced pain: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although there is evidence that spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) can reduce pain, the mechanisms involved are not well established. There is a need to review the scientific literature to establish the evidence-base for the reduction of pain following SMT. Objectives To determine if SMT can reduce experimentally induced pain, and if so, if the effect is i) only at the level of the treated spinal segment, ii) broader but in the same general region as SMT is performed, or iii) systemic. Design A systematic critical literature review. Methods A systematic search was performed for experimental studies on healthy volunteers and people without chronic syndromes, in which the immediate effect of SMT was tested. Articles selected were reviewed blindly by two authors. A summary quality score was calculated to indicate level of manuscript quality. Outcome was considered positive if the pain-reducing effect was statistically significant. Separate evidence tables were constructed with information relevant to each research question. Results were interpreted taking into account their manuscript quality. Results Twenty-two articles were included, describing 43 experiments, primarily on pain produced by pressure (n = 27) or temperature (n = 9). Their quality was generally moderate. A hypoalgesic effect was shown in 19/27 experiments on pressure pain, produced by pressure in 3/9 on pain produced by temperature and in 6/7 tests on pain induced by other measures. Second pain provoked by temperature seems to respond to SMT but not first pain. Most studies revealed a local or regional hypoalgesic effect whereas a systematic effect was unclear. Manipulation of a “restricted motion segment” (“manipulable lesion”) seemed not to be essential to analgesia. In relation to outcome, there was no discernible difference between studies with higher vs. lower quality scores. Conclusions These results indicate that SMT has a direct local/regional hypoalgesic effect on

  6. Esophageal perforation after anterior cervical spine surgery: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Halani, Sameer H; Baum, Griffin R; Riley, Jonathan P; Pradilla, Gustavo; Refai, Daniel; Rodts, Gerald E; Ahmad, Faiz U

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Esophageal perforation is a rare but well-known complication of anterior cervical spine surgery. The authors performed a systematic review of the literature to evaluate symptomatology, direct causes, repair methods, and associated complications of esophageal injury. METHODS A PubMed search that adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines included relevant clinical studies and case reports (articles written in the English language that included humans as subjects) that reported patients who underwent anterior spinal surgery and sustained some form of esophageal perforation. Available data on clinical presentation, the surgical procedure performed, outcome measures, and other individual variables were abstracted from 1980 through 2015. RESULTS The PubMed search yielded 65 articles with 153 patients (mean age 44.7 years; range 14-85 years) who underwent anterior spinal surgery and sustained esophageal perforation, either during surgery or in a delayed fashion. The most common indications for initial anterior cervical spine surgery in these cases were vertebral fracture/dislocation (n = 77), spondylotic myelopathy (n = 15), and nucleus pulposus herniation (n = 10). The most commonly involved spinal levels were C5-6 (n = 51) and C6-7 (n = 39). The most common presenting symptoms included dysphagia (n =63), fever (n = 24), neck swelling (n = 23), and wound leakage (n = 18). The etiology of esophageal perforation included hardware failure (n = 31), hardware erosion (n = 23), and intraoperative injury (n = 14). The imaging modalities used to identify the esophageal perforations included modified contrast dye swallow studies, CT, endoscopy, plain radiography, and MRI. Esophageal repair was most commonly achieved using a modified muscle flap, as well as with primary closure. Outcomes measured in the literature were often defined by the time to oral intake following esophageal repair. Complications included

  7. The Emerging Informationist Specialty: A Systematic Review of the LiteratureEC

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Jocelyn A.; Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Canto, Candace C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: A systematic literature review was conducted to synthesize what is known about informationists, highlight program models, and suggest areas for future research. Methods: Articles retrieved through database searching were reviewed for relevance. Informationist case reports were identified and coded according to an attributes checklist. Data from other retained publications were synthesized under broad themes. The few research studies found were reviewed for level of evidence. Results: Of 113 papers reviewed, the study identified 7 classic and 8 emerging informationist programs. Two major models are apparent, clinical and research, with priorities differing according to program maturity. The literature synthesis also brought together current thinking about informationist qualifications; practice roles; setting characteristics; education and training; organizational, programmatic, and service provider success factors; and challenges and barriers. Program outcomes to date are reported, and future research topics suggested. Specific findings will assist informationist program planners. Conclusions: While the informationist concept remains in the early adopter stage, it appears that domain knowledge, continuous learning, and embedding (working in context) are essential to success. The need for librarians to transition to greater specialization and libraries to emphasize customized service was underscored. A research agenda focused on information management, dissemination, behaviors, and economics is proposed. PMID:18654656

  8. Pediatric palliative care for youth with HIV/AIDS: systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Megan L; Dallas, Ronald H; Fanone, Kathleen E; Lyon, Maureen E

    2013-01-01

    Improvement in treatment has led to decreased death in youth with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developed countries. Despite this, youth with HIV are still at risk for increased mortality and morbidity compared with their uninfected counterparts. In developing countries, high numbers of youth die from acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illnesses due to lack of access to consistent antiretroviral treatment. As a result, pediatric palliative care is a relevant topic for those providing care to youth with HIV. A systematic review was conducted to gather information regarding the status of the literature related to pediatric palliative care and medical decision-making for youth with HIV. The relevant literature published between January 2002 and June 2012 was identified through searches conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and PSYCInfo databases and a series of key words. Articles were reviewed by thematic analysis using the pillars of palliative care set out by the National Consensus Project. Twenty-one articles were retained after review and are summarized by theme. In general, few empirically based studies evaluating palliative care and medical decision-making in youth with HIV were identified. Articles identified focused primarily on physical aspects of care, with less attention paid to psychological, social, ethical, and cultural aspects of care. We recommend that future research focuses on broadening the evaluation of pediatric palliative care among youth with HIV by directly evaluating the psychological, social, ethical, and cultural aspects of care and investigating the needs of all involved stakeholders. PMID:23930080

  9. Pediatric palliative care for youth with HIV/AIDS: systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Megan L; Dallas, Ronald H; Fanone, Kathleen E; Lyon, Maureen E

    2013-01-01

    Improvement in treatment has led to decreased death in youth with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developed countries. Despite this, youth with HIV are still at risk for increased mortality and morbidity compared with their uninfected counterparts. In developing countries, high numbers of youth die from acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illnesses due to lack of access to consistent antiretroviral treatment. As a result, pediatric palliative care is a relevant topic for those providing care to youth with HIV. A systematic review was conducted to gather information regarding the status of the literature related to pediatric palliative care and medical decision-making for youth with HIV. The relevant literature published between January 2002 and June 2012 was identified through searches conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and PSYCInfo databases and a series of key words. Articles were reviewed by thematic analysis using the pillars of palliative care set out by the National Consensus Project. Twenty-one articles were retained after review and are summarized by theme. In general, few empirically based studies evaluating palliative care and medical decision-making in youth with HIV were identified. Articles identified focused primarily on physical aspects of care, with less attention paid to psychological, social, ethical, and cultural aspects of care. We recommend that future research focuses on broadening the evaluation of pediatric palliative care among youth with HIV by directly evaluating the psychological, social, ethical, and cultural aspects of care and investigating the needs of all involved stakeholders. PMID:23930080

  10. Successful Aging and Its Discontents: A Systematic Review of the Social Gerontology Literature

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Marty; Berridge, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this study was to analyze the range of critiques of successful aging models and the suggestions for improvement as expressed in the social gerontology literature. Design and Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review using the following criteria: journal articles retrieved in the Abstracts in Social Gerontology, published 1987–2013, successful aging/ageing in the title or text (n = 453), a critique of successful aging models as a key component of the article. Sixty-seven articles met the criteria. Qualitative methods were used to identify key themes and inductively configure meanings across the range of critiques. Results: The critiques and remedies fell into 4 categories. The Add and Stir group suggested a multidimensional expansion of successful aging criteria and offered an array of additions. The Missing Voices group advocated for adding older adults’ subjective meanings of successful aging to established objective measures. The Hard Hitting Critiques group called for more just and inclusive frameworks that embrace diversity, avoid stigma and discrimination, and intervene at structural contexts of aging. The New Frames and Names group presented alternative ideal models often grounded in Eastern philosophies. Implications: The vast array of criteria that gerontologists collectively offered to expand Rowe and Kahn’s original successful model is symptomatic of the problem that a normative model is by definition exclusionary. Greater reflexivity about gerontology’s use of “successful aging” and other normative models is needed. PMID:24814830

  11. Systematic Literature Review of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Clinical Trials for Adult Upper Limb Spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Dashtipour, Khashayar; Chen, Jack J.; Walker, Heather W.; Lee, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to elucidate clinical trial efficacy, safety, and dosing practices of abobotulinumtoxinA (ABO) treatment in adult patients with upper limb spasticity (ULS). Methods A systematic literature review was performed to identify randomized controlled trials and other comparative clinical studies of ABO in the treatment of adult ULS published in English between January 1991 and January 2013. Medical literature databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE) were searched, and a total of 295 records were identified. Of these, 12 primary publications that evaluated ABO for the management of ULS were included in the final data report. Synthesis Total ABO doses ranged between 500 and 1500 U for ULS. Most of the studies in ULS showed statistically significant benefits (reduction in muscle tone based on Ashworth score) of ABO vs. placebo. Statistical significance was reached for most evaluations of spasticity using the Modified Ashworth Scale. Statistically significant effects on active movement and pain were demonstrated, albeit less consistently. ABO was generally well tolerated across the individual studies; most adverse events reported were considered unrelated to treatment. Adverse events considered associated with ABO treatment included fatigue, tiredness, arm pain, skin rashes, flu-like symptoms, worsening of spasm, and weakness. Conclusions On the basis of data extracted from 12 randomized clinical studies, a strong evidence base (9/12 studies) exists for the use of ABO to reduce ULS caused by stroke. PMID:25299523

  12. Weight Loss and Black Women: A Systematic Review of the Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Porter, Jerlym S.; Martin, Iman K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Sharp, Lisa K.

    2011-01-01

    Background The excess burden of obesity among black women is well-documented. However, the behavioral weight loss intervention literature often does not report results by ethnic group or gender. Purpose The purpose of this article is to conduct a systematic review of all behavioral weight loss intervention trials published between 1990 and 2010 that included and reported results separately for black women. Methods The criteria for inclusion included: 1) participants age ≥18 years; 2) a behavioral weight loss intervention; 3) weight as an outcome variable; 4) inclusion of black women; and 5) weight loss results reported separately by ethnicity and gender. Results The literature search identified 25 studies that met inclusion criteria. Our findings suggest more intensive randomized behavioral weight loss trials with medically at-risk populations yield better results. Conclusions Well-designed and more intensive multi-site trials with medically at-risk populations currently offer the most promising results for black women. Still, black women lose less weight than other subgroups in behavioral weight loss interventions. It is now critical to expand on individual-level approaches and incorporate the biological, social, and environmental factors that influence obesity. This will help enable the adoption of healthier behaviors for this group of women disproportionately affected by obesity. PMID:22074195

  13. Pes Planus and Pediatric Obesity: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Stolzman, Stacy; Irby, Megan B.; Callahan, Allison B.; Skelton, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Children with obesity report musculoskeletal pain more than normal weight children; this may be linked with literature suggesting children with obesity have higher prevalence of pes planus (flatfoot). To further elucidate whether this relation occurs, we conducted a systematic literature review on the co-occurrence of pes planus and pediatric obesity. Empirical articles published through September 2013 were obtained through an electronic search of MEDLINE and SportDiscus; included articles examined the association between bodyweight and pes planus in children. Thirteen cross-sectional studies of varied designs were identified. Methods used to diagnose pes planus varied between studies: imaging modalities, anthropometric measurements, and clinical examination. Across all studies, pes planus prevalence among children with obesity ranged widely from 14 to 67%. Nearly all studies indicated increasing pes planus in children with increasing weight. No studies evaluated pain/complications related to pes planus. Our review suggests increased prevalence of pes planus among children with obesity or increasing weight status. Due to differing methodologies, lack of consensus regarding the pes planus definition, the dearth of investigation into pain/complications, and the few existing studies, more research is needed to determine a relation between children’s body weight, pes planus, and associated effects on pain and function. PMID:25808780

  14. Evidence for central sensitization in patients with osteoarthritis pain: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Lluch, E; Torres, R; Nijs, J; Van Oosterwijck, J

    2014-11-01

    Hyperexcitability of the central nervous system (CNS) has been suggested to play an important role in the chronic pain experienced by osteoarthritis (OA) patients. A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines was performed to evaluate the existing evidence from the literature related to the presence of central sensitization (CS) in patients with OA.Electronic databases PubMed and Web of Science were searched to identify relevant articles using pre-defined keywords regarding CS and OA. Full-text clinical reports addressing studies of CS in human adults with chronic complaints due to osteoarthritis were included and screened for methodological quality by two independent reviewers. From the 40 articles that were initially eligible for methodological quality assessment, 36 articles achieved sufficient scores and therefore were discussed. The majority of these studies were case-control studies and addressed OA of the knee joint. Different subjective and objective parameters considered manifestations of CS, which have been previously reported in other chronic pain conditions such as whiplash or rheumatoid arthritis, were established in subjects with OA pain. Overall results suggest that, although peripheral mechanisms are involved in OA pain, hypersensitivity of the CNS plays a significant role in a subgroup of subjects within this population. Although the majority of the literature provides evidence for the presence of CS in chronic OA pain, clinical identification and treatment of CS in OA is still in its infancy, and future studies with good methodological quality are necessary. PMID:24700605

  15. Systematic Association of Genes to Phenotypes by Genome and Literature Mining

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    One of the major challenges of functional genomics is to unravel the connection between genotype and phenotype. So far no global analysis has attempted to explore those connections in the light of the large phenotypic variability seen in nature. Here, we use an unsupervised, systematic approach for associating genes and phenotypic characteristics that combines literature mining with comparative genome analysis. We first mine the MEDLINE literature database for terms that reflect phenotypic similarities of species. Subsequently we predict the likely genomic determinants: genes specifically present in the respective genomes. In a global analysis involving 92 prokaryotic genomes we retrieve 323 clusters containing a total of 2,700 significant gene–phenotype associations. Some clusters contain mostly known relationships, such as genes involved in motility or plant degradation, often with additional hypothetical proteins associated with those phenotypes. Other clusters comprise unexpected associations; for example, a group of terms related to food and spoilage is linked to genes predicted to be involved in bacterial food poisoning. Among the clusters, we observe an enrichment of pathogenicity-related associations, suggesting that the approach reveals many novel genes likely to play a role in infectious diseases. PMID:15799710

  16. Laparoscopic management of intra-abdominal infections: Systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Coccolini, Federico; Tranà, Cristian; Sartelli, Massimo; Catena, Fausto; Saverio, Salomone Di; Manfredi, Roberto; Montori, Giulia; Ceresoli, Marco; Falcone, Chiara; Ansaloni, Luca

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of laparoscopy in diagnosis and treatment of intra abdominal infections. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed including studies where intra abdominal infections were treated laparoscopically. RESULTS: Early laparoscopic approaches have become the standard surgical technique for treating acute cholecystitis. The laparoscopic appendectomy has been demonstrated to be superior to open surgery in acute appendicitis. In the event of diverticulitis, laparoscopic resections have proven to be safe and effective procedures for experienced laparoscopic surgeons and may be performed without adversely affecting morbidity and mortality rates. However laparoscopic resection has not been accepted by the medical community as the primary treatment of choice. In high-risk patients, laparoscopic approach may be used for exploration or peritoneal lavage and drainage. The successful laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcers for experienced surgeons, is demonstrated to be safe and effective. Regarding small bowel perforations, comparative studies contrasting open and laparoscopic surgeries have not yet been conducted. Successful laparoscopic resections addressing iatrogenic colonic perforation have been reported despite a lack of literature-based evidence supporting such procedures. In post-operative infections, laparoscopic approaches may be useful in preventing diagnostic delay and controlling the source. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopy has a good diagnostic accuracy and enables to better identify the causative pathology; laparoscopy may be recommended for the treatment of many intra-abdominal infections. PMID:26328036

  17. Predictors of genetic testing decisions: a systematic review and critique of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sweeny, Kate; Ghane, Arezou; Legg, Angela M; Huynh, Ho Phi; Andrews, Sara E

    2014-06-01

    Genetic testing is increasingly available in medical settings and direct-to-consumer. However, the large and growing literature on genetic testing decisions is rife with conflicting findings, inconsistent methodology, and uneven attention across test types and across predictors of genetic testing decisions. Existing reviews of the literature draw broad conclusions but sacrifice nuanced analysis that with a closer look reveals far more inconsistency than homogeny across studies. The goals of this paper are to provide a systematic review of the empirical work on predictors of genetic testing decisions, highlight areas of consistency and inconsistency, and suggest productive directions for future research. We included all studies that provided quantitative analysis of subjective (e.g., perceived risk, perceived benefits of testing) and/or objective (e.g., family history, sociodemographic variables) predictors of genetic testing interest, intentions, or uptake, which produced a sample of 115 studies. From this review, we conclude that self-reported and test-related (as opposed to disorder-related or objective) predictors are relatively consistent across studies but that theoretically-driven efforts to examine testing interest across test types are sorely needed. PMID:24719248

  18. Treatment of Acne Keloidalis Nuchae: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Maranda, Eric L; Simmons, Brian J; Nguyen, Austin H; Lim, Victoria M; Keri, Jonette E

    2016-09-01

    Acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN) is a chronic inflammatory condition that leads to fibrotic plaques, papules and alopecia on the occiput and/or nape of the neck. Traditional medical management focuses on prevention, utilization of oral and topical antibiotics, and intralesional steroids in order to decrease inflammation and secondary infections. Unfortunately, therapy may require months of treatment to achieve incomplete results and recurrences are common. Surgical approach to treatment of lesions is invasive, may require general anesthesia and requires more time to recover. Light and laser therapies offer an alternative treatment for AKN. The present study systematically reviews the currently available literature on the treatment of AKN. While all modalities are discussed, light and laser therapy is emphasized due to its relatively unknown role in clinical management of AKN. The most studied modalities in the literature were the 1064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, 810-nm diode laser, and CO2 laser, which allow for 82-95% improvement in 1-5 sessions. Moreover, side effects were minimal with transient erythema and mild burning being the most common. Overall, further larger-scale randomized head to head control trials are needed to determine optimal treatments. PMID:27432170

  19. Motivation for physical activity and exercise in severe mental illness: A systematic review of intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit

    2016-06-01

    There has been increasing interest for research on motivation for physical activity (PA) and exercise among individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). The aim of this systematic review is to summarize findings from all intervention studies on PA or exercise that either include empirical data on motivational constructs or apply motivational techniques/theories in their intervention. Systematic searches of seven databases were conducted from database inception to February 2015. Studies were eligible if they: (i) included participants with SMI, (ii) had PA as part of the intervention, and (iii) reported empirical data on motivational constructs related to PA or incorporated motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Of the 79 studies that met the inclusion criteria only one had motivation for PA as its main outcome. Nine additional interventions reported empirical data on motivational constructs. Altogether these studies yielded mixed results with respect to change in motivational constructs. Only one of those examined the association between motivation and PA, but found none. Sixty-four studies reported using motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Motivational interviewing and goal-setting were the most popular techniques. Due to the exploratory nature of most of these studies, findings from intervention studies do not so far give very clear directions for motivational work with the patients. There is an urgent need for a more systematic theory based approach when developing strategies that target to increase engagement in PA among people with SMI. PMID:26916699

  20. Searching for Animal Sentience: A Systematic Review of the Scientific Literature

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Helen S.; Carder, Gemma; Cornish, Amelia R.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The emotional lives of animals is often doubted and questioned. Due to the subjective nature of animal emotions, many think that they are out of the reach of scientific measurement. In this systematic review, of over two decades of scientific literature, we found that this was not actually the case. By using a list of keywords, formed of both positive and negative emotions, and terminology relating to animal sentience, we reviewed the scientific literature. We found that the subjective lives of animals are not only a vital part of human medical research but are regularly measured and studied with scientific rigor. Abstract Knowledge of animal sentience is fundamental to many disciplines and imperative to the animal welfare movement. In this review, we examined what is being explored and discussed, regarding animal sentience, within the scientific literature. Rather than attempting to extract meaning from the many complex and abstract definitions of animal sentience, we searched over two decades of scientific literature using a peer-reviewed list of 174 keywords. The list consisted of human emotions, terminology associated with animal sentience, and traits often thought to be indicative of subjective states. We discovered that very little was actually being explored, and instead there was already much agreement about what animals can feel. Why then is there so much scepticism surrounding the science of animal sentience? Sentience refers to the subjective states of animals, and so is often thought to be impossible to measure objectively. However, when we consider that much of the research found to accept and utilise animal sentience is performed for the development of human drugs and treatment, it appears that measuring sentience is, after all, not quite as impossible as was previously thought. In this paper, we explored what has been published on animal sentience in the scientific literature and where the gaps in research lie. We drew conclusions on

  1. Efficacy of Raynaud's phenomenon and digital ulcer pharmacological treatment in systemic sclerosis patients: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    García de la Peña Lefebvre, Paloma; Nishishinya, María Betina; Pereda, Claudia Alejandra; Loza, Estíbaliz; Sifuentes Giraldo, Walter Alberto; Román Ivorra, José Andrés; Carreira, Patricia; Rúa-Figueroa, Iñigo; Pego-Reigosa, Jose María; Muñoz-Fernández, Santiago

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of current treatments for the Raynaud phenomenon (RP) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), a systematic literature search was performed using Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (from 1961 to October 2011). We included meta-analyses, systematic reviews, clinical trials, and high-quality cohort studies published in English or Spanish. Patient populations had to include adults diagnosed with limited cutaneous or diffuse SSc who had associated RP and/or digital ulcers under pharmacological treatment. Efficacy of treatments was evaluated based on: number of RP episodes, RP severity, episode-free time, ulcer improvement/healing, and appearance of new ulcers. We used the Jadad scale of methodological quality to evaluate the quality of randomized clinical trials, and the 2009 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine classification for other studies. Of a total of 1617 studies identified, only 27 fulfilled inclusion criteria. Drugs received the following grade recommendations: Grade A for nifedipine, nicardipine, quinapril, IV iloprost, bosentan, tadalafil, and MQx-503; Grade B for beraprost, cicaprost, DMSO, cyclofenil, and atorvastatin; and Grade C for misoprostol, prazosin, OPC-2826, enalapril, sildenafil, antioxidant, and stanazolol. Calcium channel blockers, prostanoids, tadalafil, and bosentan received the highest recommendation level for their effectiveness. However, most systematic reviews reviewed just a handful of studies with small sample sizes and short follow-ups. Our review shows that the existing evidence on the efficacy of RP treatment in SSc patients is inconclusive which calls for further research, especially in the form of prospective studies of high quality with long-term follow-ups. PMID:25824427

  2. The effect of spinal manipulative therapy on spinal range of motion: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) has been shown to have an effect on spine-related pain, both clinically and in experimentally induced pain. However, it is unclear if it has an immediate noticeable biomechanical effect on spinal motion that can be measured in terms of an increased range of motion (ROM). Objective To assess the quality of the literature and to determine whether or not SMT is associated with an immediate increase in ROM. Design A systematic critical literature review. Method Systematic searches were performed in Pubmed, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE using terms relating to manipulation, movement and the spine. Selection of articles was made according to specific criteria by two independent reviewers. Two checklists were created based on the needs of the present review. Articles were independently reviewed by two reviewers. Articles were given quality scores and the data synthesized for each region treated in the literature. Findings were summarized in tables and reported in a narrative fashion. Results Fifteen articles were retained reporting on experiments on the neck, lumbar spine, hip and jaw. The mean quality score was 71/100 (ranges 33/100 - 92/100). A positive effect of SMT was reported in both studies where mouth opening was assessed after cervical manipulation. In five of the nine studies on cervical ROM a positive effect was reported, whereas the remaining four studies did not show improvement. None of the three studies of the lumbar spine showed an effect of SMT on lumbar ROMs and one study of sacroiliac manipulation reported no effect on the ROM of the hip joint. In relation to the quality score, the seven highest ranked studies, showed significant positive effects of SMT on ROM. Continuing down the list, the other studies reported no significant differences in the outcomes between groups. Conclusion SMT seems sometimes to have a small effect on ROM, at least in the cervical spine. Further research should concentrate on areas

  3. Framework for Selecting Best Practices in Public Health: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Ng, Eileen; de Colombani, Pierpaolo

    2015-11-17

    Evidence-based public health has commonly relied on findings from empirical studies, or research-based evidence. However, this paper advocates that practice-based evidence derived from programmes implemented in real-life settings is likely to be a more suitable source of evidence for inspiring and guiding public health programmes. Selection of best practices from the array of implemented programmes is one way of generating such practice-based evidence. Yet the lack of consensus on the definition and criteria for practice-based evidence and best practices has limited their application in public health so far. To address the gap in literature on practice-based evidence, this paper hence proposes measures of success for public health interventions by developing an evaluation framework for selection of best practices. The proposed framework was synthesised from a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed and grey literature on existing evaluation frameworks for public health programmes as well as processes employed by health-related organisations when selecting best practices. A best practice is firstly defined as an intervention that has shown evidence of effectiveness in a particular setting and is likely to be replicable to other situations. Regardless of the area of public health, interventions should be evaluated by their context, process and outcomes. A best practice should hence meet most, if not all, of eight identified evaluation criteria: relevance, community participation, stakeholder collaboration, ethical soundness, replicability, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability. Ultimately, a standardised framework for selection of best practices will improve the usefulness and credibility of practice-based evidence in informing evidence-based public health interventions. Significance for public healthBest practices are a valuable source of practice-based evidence on effective public health interventions implemented in real-life settings. Yet, despite the

  4. Framework for Selecting Best Practices in Public Health: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    de Colombani, Pierpaolo

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based public health has commonly relied on findings from empirical studies, or research-based evidence. However, this paper advocates that practice-based evidence derived from programmes implemented in real-life settings is likely to be a more suitable source of evidence for inspiring and guiding public health programmes. Selection of best practices from the array of implemented programmes is one way of generating such practice-based evidence. Yet the lack of consensus on the definition and criteria for practice-based evidence and best practices has limited their application in public health so far. To address the gap in literature on practice-based evidence, this paper hence proposes measures of success for public health interventions by developing an evaluation framework for selection of best practices. The proposed framework was synthesised from a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed and grey literature on existing evaluation frameworks for public health programmes as well as processes employed by health-related organisations when selecting best practices. A best practice is firstly defined as an intervention that has shown evidence of effectiveness in a particular setting and is likely to be replicable to other situations. Regardless of the area of public health, interventions should be evaluated by their context, process and outcomes. A best practice should hence meet most, if not all, of eight identified evaluation criteria: relevance, community participation, stakeholder collaboration, ethical soundness, replicability, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability. Ultimately, a standardised framework for selection of best practices will improve the usefulness and credibility of practice-based evidence in informing evidence-based public health interventions. Significance for public health Best practices are a valuable source of practice-based evidence on effective public health interventions implemented in real-life settings. Yet, despite

  5. Health Care Provider Adoption of eHealth: Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Talaei-Khoei, Amir; Seale, Holly; Ray, Pradeep; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2013-01-01

    Background eHealth is an application of information and communication technologies across the whole range of functions that affect health. The benefits of eHealth (eg, improvement of health care operational efficiency and quality of patient care) have previously been documented in the literature. Health care providers (eg, medical doctors) are the key driving force in pushing eHealth initiatives. Without their acceptance and actual use, those eHealth benefits would be unlikely to be reaped. Objective To identify and synthesize influential factors to health care providers’ acceptance of various eHealth systems. Methods This systematic literature review was conducted in four steps. The first two steps facilitated the location and identification of relevant articles. The third step extracted key information from those articles including the studies’ characteristics and results. In the last step, identified factors were analyzed and grouped in accordance with the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). Results This study included 93 papers that have studied health care providers’ acceptance of eHealth. From these papers, 40 factors were identified and grouped into 7 clusters: (1) health care provider characteristics, (2) medical practice characteristics, (3) voluntariness of use, (4) performance expectancy, (5) effort expectancy, (6) social influence, and (7) facilitating or inhibiting conditions. Conclusions The grouping results demonstrated that the UTAUT model is useful for organizing the literature but has its limitations. Due to the complex contextual dynamics of health care settings, our work suggested that there would be potential to extend theories on information technology adoption, which is of great benefit to readers interested in learning more on the topic. Practically, these findings may help health care decision makers proactively introduce interventions to encourage acceptance of eHealth and may also assist health policy makers

  6. Antibiotic-Impregnated Bone Grafts in Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Anagnostakos, Konstantinos; Schröder, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    There exist several options for local antibiotic therapy in orthopaedic and trauma surgery. Over the past years, the use of antibiotic-impregnated bone grafts (AIBGs) has become a popular procedure in the treatment of bone and joint infections. A major advantage of AIBGs involves the possibility of impregnation of various antibiotics depending on the sensitivity profile of the causative organism, whereas an additional surgery with removal of the antibiotic carrier is not necessary, as in the use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement. However, generalized conclusions cannot be clearly drawn from the existing literature due to differences of bone used, impregnation method, antibiotics, their doses, laboratory circumstances, or clinical indications. The present work reviews the literature regarding this topic and sheds some light onto the choice of bone and antibiotics, manufacturing details, and clinical experience. PMID:22899933

  7. Epidemiology of Dengue Disease in the Philippines (2000–2011): A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Lulu; Roque, Vito G.; Brett, Jeremy; Dizon, Ruby; L'Azou, Maïna

    2014-01-01

    This literature analysis describes the available dengue epidemiology data in the Philippines between 2000 and 2011. Of 253 relevant data sources identified, 34, including additional epidemiology data provided by the National Epidemiology Center, Department of Health, Philippines, were reviewed. There were 14 publications in peer reviewed journals, and 17 surveillance reports/sources, which provided variable information from the passive reporting system and show broad trends in dengue incidence, including age group predominance and disease severity. The peer reviewed studies focused on clinical severity of cases, some revealed data on circulating serotypes and genotypes and on the seroepidemiology of dengue including incidence rates for infection and apparent disease. Gaps in the data were identified, and include the absence incidence rates stratified by age, dengue serotype and genotype distribution, disease severity data, sex distribution data, and seroprevalence data. Protocol registration PROSPERO CRD42012002292 PMID:25375119

  8. Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched using several terms related to severe mental illness in successive combinations with terms describing victimization. The searches identified 34 studies. Nine epidemiological studies indicate that patients with severe mental illness are more likely to be violently victimized than other community members. Young age, comorbid substance use, and homelessness are risk factors for victimization. Victimized patients are more likely to engage in violent behavior than other members of the community. Violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences for the course of their illness, and further impairs the quality of lives of patients and their families. Victimization of persons with severe mental illness is a serious medical and social problem. Prevention and management of victimization should become a part of routine clinical care for patients with severe mental illness. PMID:25336958

  9. Does severe dietary energy restriction increase binge eating in overweight or obese individuals? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    da Luz, F Q; Hay, P; Gibson, A A; Touyz, S W; Swinbourne, J M; Roekenes, J A; Sainsbury, A

    2015-08-01

    Severe dietary energy restriction is often used for overweight or obese individuals to achieve rapid weight loss and related health improvements. However, the extent of putative adverse effects on eating behaviour is unknown. We thus systematically searched seven databases for studies that assessed binge eating before and after severe dietary energy restriction (low or very low energy diets) in overweight or obese individuals. Fifteen clinically supervised interventions from 10 publications (nine of which involved only women) were included. Among individuals with clinically relevant pre-treatment binge eating disorder, severe dietary energy restriction significantly decreased binge eating in all four interventions involving this population, at least during the weight loss programme. In contrast, no consistent association between severe dietary energy restriction and the onset of bingeing was found in 11 interventions involving individuals without pre-treatment binge eating disorder, with four such interventions showing significant increases, two showing no change, and five showing significant decreases in binge eating. We conclude that clinically supervised severe dietary energy restriction appears safe and beneficial for overweight or obese individuals with pre-treatment binge eating disorder, and does not necessarily trigger binge eating in those without binge eating disorder. PMID:26094791

  10. Systematic Literature Review of Imaging Features of Spinal Degeneration in Asymptomatic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Brinjikji, W.; Luetmer, P.H.; Comstock, B.; Bresnahan, B.W.; Chen, L.E.; Deyo, R.A.; Halabi, S.; Turner, J.A.; Avins, A.L.; James, K.; Wald, J.T.; Kallmes, D.F.; Jarvik, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Degenerative changes are commonly found in spine imaging but often occur in pain-free individuals as well as those with back pain. We sought to estimate the prevalence, by age, of common degenerative spine conditions by performing a systematic review studying the prevalence of spine degeneration on imaging in asymptomatic individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a systematic review of articles reporting the prevalence of imaging findings (CT or MR imaging) in asymptomatic individuals from published English literature through April 2014. Two reviewers evaluated each manuscript. We selected age groupings by decade (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 years), determining age-specific prevalence estimates. For each imaging finding, we fit a generalized linear mixed-effects model for the age-specific prevalence estimate clustering in the study, adjusting for the midpoint of the reported age interval. RESULTS Thirty-three articles reporting imaging findings for 3110 asymptomatic individuals met our study inclusion criteria. The prevalence of disk degeneration in asymptomatic individuals increased from 37% of 20-year-old individuals to 96% of 80-year-old individuals. Disk bulge prevalence increased from 30% of those 20 years of age to 84% of those 80 years of age. Disk protrusion prevalence increased from 29% of those 20 years of age to 43% of those 80 years of age. The prevalence of annular fissure increased from 19% of those 20 years of age to 29% of those 80 years of age. CONCLUSIONS Imaging findings of spine degeneration are present in high proportions of asymptomatic individuals, increasing with age. Many imaging-based degenerative features are likely part of normal aging and unassociated with pain. These imaging findings must be interpreted in the context of the patient’s clinical condition. PMID:25430861

  11. Critical evaluation of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in Chinese patients: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, LiLi; Li, JiTao; Zhao, YanJie; Su, Yun’Ai; Si, Tianmei

    2016-01-01

    Background Paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone), the major active metabolite of risperidone, has been introduced as a novel atypical antipsychotic agent in many countries. It is available both as an oral extended-release (ER) formulation and as a long-acting injection (paliperidone palmitate, PP), which have been approved for treating schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China since 2009 and 2012, respectively. This systematic review summarizes the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in the Chinese population. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted on the databases covering international and Chinese core journals, published from January 1, 2008, to May 22, 2015. Results A total of 122 publications were retrieved, of which 63 studies were identified for inclusion; most studies were related to paliperidone ER (n=53), nine were related to PP, and one study was related to both agents. Paliperidone ER demonstrated at least comparable efficacy with active comparators, including risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone, or aripiprazole, and was found to be superior with respect to the onset of action and improvement in the Personal and Social Performance Scale score. Paliperidone ER appeared to be associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndromes; the most common treatment-emergent adverse events were extrapyramidal symptoms, akathisia, insomnia, and somnolence. Results from interventional and observational studies showed that PP was also an effective and well-tolerated treatment for Chinese patients with schizophrenia. The findings were generally consistent with those observed in non-Chinese populations. Conclusion Both paliperidone ER and PP were effective and well-tolerated agents for the treatment of schizophrenia in the Chinese population according to the data we reviewed. No new safety signals specific for the Chinese population were raised for paliperidone. Further studies may be needed to collect

  12. Barriers to workplace HIV testing in South Africa: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Weihs, Martin; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Low workplace HIV testing uptake makes effective management of HIV and AIDS difficult for South African organisations. Identifying barriers to workplace HIV testing is therefore crucial to inform urgently needed interventions aimed at increasing workplace HIV testing. This study reviewed literature on workplace HIV testing barriers in South Africa. Pubmed, ScienceDirect, PsycInfo and SA Publications were systematically researched. Studies needed to include measures to assess perceived or real barriers to participate in HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) at the workplace or discuss perceived or real barriers of HIV testing at the workplace based on collected data, provide qualitative or quantitative evidence related to the research topic and needed to refer to workplaces in South Africa. Barriers were defined as any factor on economic, social, personal, environmental or organisational level preventing employees from participating in workplace HIV testing. Four peer-reviewed studies were included, two with quantitative and two with qualitative study designs. The overarching barriers across the studies were fear of compromised confidentiality, being stigmatised or discriminated in the event of testing HIV positive or being observed participating in HIV testing, and a low personal risk perception. Furthermore, it appeared that an awareness of an HIV-positive status hindered HIV testing at the workplace. Further research evidence of South African workplace barriers to HIV testing will enhance related interventions. This systematic review only found very little and contextualised evidence about workplace HCT barriers in South Africa, making it difficult to generalise, and not really sufficient to inform new interventions aimed at increasing workplace HCT uptake. PMID:26560013

  13. Health outcomes during the 2008 financial crisis in Europe: systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Divya; Ioannidis, John P A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To systematically identify, critically appraise, and synthesise empirical studies about the impact of the 2008 financial crisis in Europe on health outcomes. Design Systematic literature review. Data sources Structural searches of key databases, healthcare journals, and organisation based websites. Review methods Empirical studies reporting on the impact of the financial crisis on health outcomes in Europe, published from January 2008 to December 2015, were included. All selected studies were assessed for risk of bias. Owing to the heterogeneity of studies in terms of study design and analysis and the use of overlapping datasets across studies, studies were analysed thematically per outcome, and the evidence was synthesised on different health outcomes without formal meta-analysis. Results 41 studies met the inclusion criteria, and focused on suicide, mental health, self rated health, mortality, and other health outcomes. Of those studies, 30 (73%) were deemed to be at high risk of bias, nine (22%) at moderate risk of bias, and only two (5%) at low risk of bias, limiting the conclusions that can be drawn. Although there were differences across countries and groups, there was some indication that suicides increased and mental health deteriorated during the crisis. The crisis did not seem to reverse the trend of decreasing overall mortality. Evidence on self rated health and other indicators was mixed. Conclusions Most published studies on the impact of financial crisis on health in Europe had a substantial risk of bias; therefore, results need to be cautiously interpreted. Overall, the financial crisis in Europe seemed to have had heterogeneous effects on health outcomes, with the evidence being most consistent for suicides and mental health. There is a need for better empirical studies, especially those focused on identifying mechanisms that can mitigate the adverse effects of the crisis. PMID:27601477

  14. Changes in Body Weight and Psychotropic Drugs: A Systematic Synthesis of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Robert; Blackmore, Angelique; Peterson, Joan; Habib, Rami; Kay, Gary Peter; Gervais, Alan; Taylor, Valerie; Wells, George

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Psychotropic medication use is associated with weight gain. While there are studies and reviews comparing weight gain for psychotropics within some classes, clinicians frequently use drugs from different classes to treat psychiatric disorders. Objective To undertake a systematic review of all classes of psychotropics to provide an all encompassing evidence-based tool that would allow clinicians to determine the risks of weight gain in making both intra-class and interclass choices of psychotropics. Methodology and Results We developed a novel hierarchical search strategy that made use of systematic reviews that were already available. When such evidence was not available we went on to evaluate randomly controlled trials, followed by cohort and other clinical trials, narrative reviews, and, where necessary, clinical opinion and anecdotal evidence. The data from the publication with the highest level of evidence based on our hierarchical classification was presented. Recommendations from an expert panel supplemented the evidence used to rank these drugs within their respective classes. Approximately 9500 articles were identified in our literature search of which 666 citations were retrieved. We were able to rank most of the psychotropics based on the available evidence and recommendations from subject matter experts. There were few discrepancies between published evidence and the expert panel in ranking these drugs. Conclusion Potential for weight gain is an important consideration in choice of any psychotropic. This tool will help clinicians select psychotropics on a case-by-case basis in order to minimize the impact of weight gain when making both intra-class and interclass choices. PMID:22719834

  15. Understanding the Components of Quality Improvement Collaboratives: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Erum; Olin, S Serene; Hill, Laura Campbell; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2013-01-01

    Context In response to national efforts to improve quality of care, policymakers and health care leaders have increasingly turned to quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) as an efficient approach to improving provider practices and patient outcomes through the dissemination of evidence-based practices. This article presents findings from a systematic review of the literature on QICs, focusing on the identification of common components of QICs in health care and exploring, when possible, relations between QIC components and outcomes at the patient or provider level. Methods A systematic search of five major health care databases generated 294 unique articles, twenty-four of which met our criteria for inclusion in our final analysis. These articles pertained to either randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental studies with comparison groups, and they reported the findings from twenty different studies of QICs in health care. We coded the articles to identify the components reported for each collaborative. Findings We found fourteen crosscutting components as common ingredients in health care QICs (e.g., in-person learning sessions, phone meetings, data reporting, leadership involvement, and training in QI methods). The collaboratives reported included, on average, six to seven of these components. The most common were in-person learning sessions, plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles, multidisciplinary QI teams, and data collection for QI. The outcomes data from these studies indicate the greatest impact of QICs at the provider level; patient-level findings were less robust. Conclusions Reporting on specific components of the collaborative was imprecise across articles, rendering it impossible to identify active QIC ingredients linked to improved care. Although QICs appear to have some promise in improving the process of care, there is great need for further controlled research examining the core components of these collaboratives related to patient- and

  16. The clinical aspects of mirror therapy in rehabilitation: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rothgangel, Andreas Stefan; Braun, Susy M; Beurskens, Anna J; Seitz, Rüdiger J; Wade, Derick T

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical aspects of mirror therapy (MT) interventions after stroke, phantom limb pain and complex regional pain syndrome. A systematic literature search of the Cochrane Database of controlled trials, PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PEDro, RehabTrials and Rehadat, was made by two investigators independently (A.S.R. and M.J.). No restrictions were made regarding study design and type or localization of stroke, complex regional pain syndrome and amputation. Only studies that had MT given as a long-term treatment were included. Two authors (A.S.R. and S.M.B.) independently assessed studies for eligibility and risk of bias by using the Amsterdam-Maastricht Consensus List. Ten randomized trials, seven patient series and four single-case studies were included. The studies were heterogeneous regarding design, size, conditions studied and outcome measures. Methodological quality varied; only a few studies were of high quality. Important clinical aspects, such as assessment of possible side effects, were only insufficiently addressed. For stroke there is a moderate quality of evidence that MT as an additional intervention improves recovery of arm function, and a low quality of evidence regarding lower limb function and pain after stroke. The quality of evidence in patients with complex regional pain syndrome and phantom limb pain is also low. Firm conclusions could not be drawn. Little is known about which patients are likely to benefit most from MT, and how MT should preferably be applied. Future studies with clear descriptions of intervention protocols should focus on standardized outcome measures and systematically register adverse effects. PMID:21326041

  17. The Impact of Billboards on Driver Visual Behavior: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    DECKER, JOHN S.; STANNARD, SARAH J.; McMANUS, BENJAMIN; WITTIG, SHANNON M. O.; SISIOPIKU, VIRGINIA P.; STAVRINOS, DESPINA

    2015-01-01

    Objective External distraction appears to affect at least 6–9% of distraction-affected motor vehicle collisions. Billboards may be good models for studying external distraction in general, and it is also desirable to understand billboard-related distraction per se. However, there has not yet been a clear consensus on the scope of billboard-related distraction or its dynamics with respect to characteristics of drivers, billboards, traffic, and the roadway. To narrow these knowledge gaps, a systematic literature review was conducted on billboard-related changes in driver visual behavior. Methods A systematic literature search yielded 443 results, of which 8 studies met all inclusion criteria. Five studies meeting all inclusion criteria were later identified and added. Results were analyzed in terms of 4 categories of visual behavior: (1) gaze variability (GV), glance pattern activity (GPA), and percentage of time spent glancing at the forward roadway; (2) glances at unexpected drive-relevant stimuli; (3) glances at expected drive-relevant stimuli; and (4) glances at billboards. Results There was considerable evidence that about 10–20% of all glances at billboards were ≥0.75 s, that active billboards drew more glances and more long glances (≥0.75 s, ≥2.0 s) than passive billboards but did not attract a longer average glance, and that there was large variability among individual billboards within categories (e.g., active vs. passive). The extent to which billboards attracted glances ≥ 2.0 s was uncertain. There was tentative evidence that billboards did not affect GPA, glances at expected drive-relevant stimuli, or the proportion of time drivers spent glancing at the forward roadway and that they did affect vertical GV and glances at unexpected drive-relevant stimuli. Conclusions Generally, billboard-related distraction appeared to be minor and regulated by drivers as the demands of the driving task changed. However, this review’s findings suggest that

  18. Oral antihypertensive therapy for severe hypertension in pregnancy and postpartum: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Firoz, T; Magee, LA; MacDonell, K; Payne, BA; Gordon, R; Vidler, M; von Dadelszen, P

    2014-01-01

    Background Pregnant and postpartum women with severe hypertension are at increased risk of stroke and require blood pressure (BP) reduction. Parenteral antihypertensives have been most commonly studied, but oral agents would be ideal for use in busy and resource-constrained settings. Objectives To review systematically, the effectiveness of oral antihypertensive agents for treatment of severe pregnancy/postpartum hypertension. Search strategy A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was performed. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials in pregnancy and postpartum with at least one arm consisting of a single oral antihypertensive agent to treat systolic BP ≥ 160 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 110 mmHg. Data collection and analysis Cochrane RevMan 5.1 was used to calculate relative risk (RR) and weighted mean difference by random effects. Main results We identified 15 randomised controlled trials (915 women) in pregnancy and one postpartum trial. Most trials in pregnancy compared oral/sublingual nifedipine capsules (8–10 mg) with another agent, usually parenteral hydralazine or labetalol. Nifedipine achieved treatment success in most women, similar to hydralazine (84% with nifedipine; relative risk [RR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.98–1.17) or labetalol (100% with nifedipine; RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.95–1.09). Less than 2% of women treated with nifedipine experienced hypotension. There were no differences in adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Target BP was achieved ∼ 50% of the time with oral labetalol (100 mg) or methyldopa (250 mg) (47% labetelol versus 56% methyldopa; RR 0.85 95% CI 0.54–1.33). Conclusions Oral nifedipine, and possibly labetalol and methyldopa, are suitable options for treatment of severe hypertension in pregnancy/postpartum. PMID:24832366

  19. Using social media for actionable disease surveillance and outbreak management. A systematic literature review

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Reynolds, Tera L.; Cameron, Mark A.; Conway, Mike; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Olsen, Jennifer M.; Pavlin, Julie A.; Shigematsu, Mika; Streichert, Laura C.; Suda, Katie J.; et al

    2015-10-05

    Here, research studies show that social media may be valuable tools in the disease surveillance toolkit used for improving public health professionals’ ability to detect disease outbreaks faster than traditional methods and to enhance outbreak response. A social media work group, consisting of surveillance practitioners, academic researchers, and other subject matter experts convened by the International Society for Disease Surveillance, conducted a systematic primary literature review using the PRISMA framework to identify research, published through February 2013, answering either of the following questions: 1) Can social media be integrated into disease surveillance practice and outbreak management to support and improvemore » public health? 2) Can social media be used to effectively target populations, specifically vulnerable populations, to test an intervention and interact with a community to improve health outcomes? Examples of social media included are Facebook, MySpace, microblogs (e.g., Twitter), blogs, and discussion forums. For Question 1, 33 manuscripts were identified, starting in 2009 with topics on Influenza-like Illnesses (n=15), Infectious Diseases (n = 6), Non-infectious Diseases (n=4), Medication and Vaccines (n=3), and Other (n=5). For Question 2, 32 manuscripts were identified, the first in 2000 with topics on Health Risk Behaviors (n=10), Infectious Diseases (n = 3), Non-infectious Diseases (n=9), and Other (n=10). The literature on the use of social media to support public health practice has identified many gaps and biases in current knowledge. Despite the potential for success identified in exploratory studies, there are limited studies on interventions and little use of social media in practice. However, information gleaned from the articles demonstrates the effectiveness of social media in supporting and improving public health and in identifying target populations for intervention. A primary recommendation resulting from the review

  20. A Systematic Literature Review of the Information-Seeking Behavior of Dentists in Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Isham, Amy; Bettiol, Silvana; Hoang, Ha; Crocombe, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the information-seeking behavior of dentists may inform ways to increase the dentist uptake of evidence-based research for clinical decision making and the practice of evidence-based dentistry, but no systematic review of dentist information-seeking behavior has been conducted. This review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on where and how dentists seek information. A literature search of Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and reference lists of English language studies from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries of dentists' information-seeking behavior published between 2002 and 2014 was conducted. Selected articles were assessed using mixed methods analysis, and the data extracted were thematically synthesized. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, and four main themes were identified: dentists' difficulty translating evidence-based resources into clinical practice; dentists' preference for face-to-face meetings, collegial discussion, and print materials over evidence-based resources; dentists' perceptions of the validity of evidence-based resources and the role of specialist and experienced dentists as information sources for general and less experienced dentists; and differences between early and late adopters of research evidence. Dentists in these studies tended to adopt new materials/techniques after discussion with a colleague, a dental specialist, or a respected dental expert. These dentists also reported lacking time, experience, skills, and confidence to find and use evidence-based resources. Many of the dentists studied were cautious about making decisions based on documentary sources like literature reviews and preferred to seek advice from an experienced or specialist colleague or to participate in face-to-face meetings. PMID:27139208

  1. Laparoscopic and Robotic-assisted Vesicovaginal Fistula Repair: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Miklos, John R; Moore, Robert D; Chinthakanan, Orawee

    2015-01-01

    Two types of laparoscopic or robotic-assisted vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) repairs, the traditional transvesical (O'Conor) and extravesical techniques, dominate the literature. The objectives of this study are to compare success rates between laparoscopic or robotic transvesical and extravesical laparoscopic VVF repair techniques and to evaluate the impact of the number of layers in the closure, interposition flaps, and intraoperative testing of the integrity of the bladder repair. Eligible studies, published between 1994 and March 10, 2014, were retrieved through Medline and bibliography searches. All study designs of laparoscopic/robotic VVF repair were included. Open laparotomy and vaginal approaches were excluded. Only 1 retrospective cohort study was included, with the remaining articles consisting of case reports and case series. Ultimately, only 44 studies were included in a systematic review: 9 articles of robotic-assisted approach, 3 laparoscopic single-site surgeries, and 32 conventional laparoscopic approaches. A literature review revealed a balanced number of reports for both transvesical and extravesical approaches. Statistical meta-analysis was not performed because of high heterogeneity. The overall success rate of laparoscopic VVF repair was 80% to 100% with a follow-up period of 1 to 74 months. The success rate of transvesical and extravesical techniques were 95.89% and 98.04% (relative risk, .98; 95% confidence interval, .94-1.02). There was no statistical difference in success rates of VVF repair with different number of layers in the fistula closure or with use of interposition flaps, but there was a small increase in success in the cases that documented intraoperative bladder filling to test the integrity of the bladder closure. In conclusion, transperitoneal extravesical VVF repair has cure rates similar to the traditional transvesical approach. Laparoscopic extravesical VVF repair is a safe, effective, minimally invasive technique with

  2. Social marketing of water and sanitation products: a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature.

    PubMed

    Evans, W D; Pattanayak, S K; Young, S; Buszin, J; Rai, S; Bihm, Jasmine Wallace

    2014-06-01

    Like commercial marketing, social marketing uses the 4 "Ps" and seeks exchange of value between the marketer and consumer. Behaviors such as handwashing, and products such as those for oral rehydration treatment (ORT), can be marketed like commercial products in developing countries. Although social marketing in these areas is growing, there has been no systematic review of the current state of practice, research and evaluation. We searched the literature for published peer-reviewed studies available through major online publication databases. We identified manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on social marketing that used at least one of the 4 Ps of marketing and had a behavioral objective targeting the behaviors or products related to improving water and sanitation. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 117 articles and reviewed a final set of 32 that met our criteria. Social marketing is a widespread strategy. Marketing efforts have created high levels of awareness of health threats and solutions, including behavior change and socially marketed products. There is widespread use of the 4 Ps of marketing, with price interventions being the least common. Evaluations show consistent improvements in behavioral mediators but mixed results in behavior change. Interventions have successfully used social marketing following widely recommended strategies. Future evaluations need to focus on mediators that explain successful behavior change in order to identify best practices and improve future programs. More rigorous evaluations including quasi-experimental designs and randomized trials are needed. More consistent reporting of evaluation results that permits meta-analysis of effects is needed. PMID:24704890

  3. How Well Is Quality Improvement Described in the Perioperative Care Literature? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma L.; Lees, Nicholas; Martin, Graham; Dixon-Woods, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Quality improvement (QI) approaches are widely used across health care, but how well they are reported in the academic literature is not clear. A systematic review was conducted to assess the completeness of reporting of QI interventions and techniques in the field of perioperative care. Methods Searches were conducted using Medline, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care database, and PubMed. Two independent reviewers used the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist, which identifies 12 features of interventions that studies should describe (for example, How: the interventions were delivered [e.g., face to face, internet]), When and how much: duration, dose, intensity), to assign scores for each included article. Articles were also scored against a small number of additional criteria relevant to QI. Results The search identified 16,103 abstracts from databases and 19 from other sources. Following review, full-text was obtained for 223 articles, 100 of which met the criteria for inclusion. Completeness of reporting of QI in the perioperative care literature was variable. Only one article was judged fully complete against the 11 TIDieR items used. The mean TIDieR score across the 100 included articles was 6.31 (of a maximum 11). More than a third (35%) of the articles scored 5 or lower. Particularly problematic was reporting of fidelity (absent in 74% of articles) and whether any modifications were made to the intervention (absent in 73% of articles). Conclusions The standard of reporting of quality interventions and QI techniques in surgery is often suboptimal, making it difficult to determine whether an intervention can be replicated and used to deliver a positive effect in another setting. This suggests a need to explore how reporting practices could be improved. PMID:27066922

  4. Using Social Media for Actionable Disease Surveillance and Outbreak Management: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Reynolds, Tera L.; Cameron, Mark A.; Conway, Mike; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Olsen, Jennifer M.; Pavlin, Julie A.; Shigematsu, Mika; Streichert, Laura C.; Suda, Katie J.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Research studies show that social media may be valuable tools in the disease surveillance toolkit used for improving public health professionals’ ability to detect disease outbreaks faster than traditional methods and to enhance outbreak response. A social media work group, consisting of surveillance practitioners, academic researchers, and other subject matter experts convened by the International Society for Disease Surveillance, conducted a systematic primary literature review using the PRISMA framework to identify research, published through February 2013, answering either of the following questions: Can social media be integrated into disease surveillance practice and outbreak management to support and improve public health? Can social media be used to effectively target populations, specifically vulnerable populations, to test an intervention and interact with a community to improve health outcomes? Examples of social media included are Facebook, MySpace, microblogs (e.g., Twitter), blogs, and discussion forums. For Question 1, 33 manuscripts were identified, starting in 2009 with topics on Influenza-like Illnesses (n = 15), Infectious Diseases (n = 6), Non-infectious Diseases (n = 4), Medication and Vaccines (n = 3), and Other (n = 5). For Question 2, 32 manuscripts were identified, the first in 2000 with topics on Health Risk Behaviors (n = 10), Infectious Diseases (n = 3), Non-infectious Diseases (n = 9), and Other (n = 10). Conclusions The literature on the use of social media to support public health practice has identified many gaps and biases in current knowledge. Despite the potential for success identified in exploratory studies, there are limited studies on interventions and little use of social media in practice. However, information gleaned from the articles demonstrates the effectiveness of social media in supporting and improving public health and in identifying target populations for intervention. A primary recommendation resulting

  5. Using social media for actionable disease surveillance and outbreak management. A systematic literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Reynolds, Tera L.; Cameron, Mark A.; Conway, Mike; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Olsen, Jennifer M.; Pavlin, Julie A.; Shigematsu, Mika; Streichert, Laura C.; Suda, Katie J.; Corley, Courtney D.; Braunstein, Lidia Adriana

    2015-10-05

    Here, research studies show that social media may be valuable tools in the disease surveillance toolkit used for improving public health professionals’ ability to detect disease outbreaks faster than traditional methods and to enhance outbreak response. A social media work group, consisting of surveillance practitioners, academic researchers, and other subject matter experts convened by the International Society for Disease Surveillance, conducted a systematic primary literature review using the PRISMA framework to identify research, published through February 2013, answering either of the following questions: 1) Can social media be integrated into disease surveillance practice and outbreak management to support and improve public health? 2) Can social media be used to effectively target populations, specifically vulnerable populations, to test an intervention and interact with a community to improve health outcomes? Examples of social media included are Facebook, MySpace, microblogs (e.g., Twitter), blogs, and discussion forums. For Question 1, 33 manuscripts were identified, starting in 2009 with topics on Influenza-like Illnesses (n=15), Infectious Diseases (n = 6), Non-infectious Diseases (n=4), Medication and Vaccines (n=3), and Other (n=5). For Question 2, 32 manuscripts were identified, the first in 2000 with topics on Health Risk Behaviors (n=10), Infectious Diseases (n = 3), Non-infectious Diseases (n=9), and Other (n=10). The literature on the use of social media to support public health practice has identified many gaps and biases in current knowledge. Despite the potential for success identified in exploratory studies, there are limited studies on interventions and little use of social media in practice. However, information gleaned from the articles demonstrates the effectiveness of social media in supporting and improving public health and in identifying target populations for intervention. A primary recommendation resulting from the review is to

  6. Bereavement care in primary care: a systematic literature review and narrative synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nagraj, Shobhana; Barclay, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Background Over half a million people die in Britain each year and, on average, a GP will have 20 patients die annually. Bereavement is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but the research evidence on which GPs and district nurses can base their practice is limited. Aim To review the existing literature concerning how GPs and district nurses think they should care for patients who are bereaved and how they do care for them. Design Systematic literature review. Method Searches of AMED, BNI, CINAHL, EMBASE, Medline and PsychInfo databases were undertaken, with citation searches of key papers and hand searches of two journals. Inclusion criteria were studies containing empirical data relating to adult bereavement care provided by GPs and district nurses. Information from data extraction forms were analysed using NVivo software, with a narrative synthesis of emergent themes. Results Eleven papers relating to GPs and two relating to district nurses were included. Both groups viewed bereavement care as an important and satisfying part of their work, for which they had received little training. They were anxious not to ‘medicalise’ normal grief. Home visits, telephone consultations, and condolence letters were all used in their support of bereaved people. Conclusion A small number of studies were identified, most of which were >10 years old, from single GP practices, or small in size and of limited quality. Although GPs and district nurses stated a preference to care for those who were bereaved in a proactive fashion, little is known of the extent to which this takes place in current practice, or the content of such care. PMID:21401990

  7. Economic Evaluations of Pharmacogenetic and Pharmacogenomic Screening Tests: A Systematic Review. Second Update of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wilffert, Bob; Boersma, Cornelis; Annemans, Lieven; Vegter, Stefan; van Boven, Job F. M.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Due to extended application of pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic screening (PGx) tests it is important to assess whether they provide good value for money. This review provides an update of the literature. Methods A literature search was performed in PubMed and papers published between August 2010 and September 2014, investigating the cost-effectiveness of PGx screening tests, were included. Papers from 2000 until July 2010 were included via two previous systematic reviews. Studies’ overall quality was assessed with the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument. Results We found 38 studies, which combined with the previous 42 studies resulted in a total of 80 included studies. An average QHES score of 76 was found. Since 2010, more studies were funded by pharmaceutical companies. Most recent studies performed cost-utility analysis, univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, and discussed limitations of their economic evaluations. Most studies indicated favorable cost-effectiveness. Majority of evaluations did not provide information regarding the intrinsic value of the PGx test. There were considerable differences in the costs for PGx testing. Reporting of the direction and magnitude of bias on the cost-effectiveness estimates as well as motivation for the chosen economic model and perspective were frequently missing. Conclusions Application of PGx tests was mostly found to be a cost-effective or cost-saving strategy. We found that only the minority of recent pharmacoeconomic evaluations assessed the intrinsic value of the PGx tests. There was an increase in the number of studies and in the reporting of quality associated characteristics. To improve future evaluations, scenario analysis including a broad range of PGx tests costs and equal costs of comparator drugs to assess the intrinsic value of the PGx tests, are recommended. In addition, robust clinical evidence regarding PGx tests’ efficacy remains of utmost importance. PMID

  8. Psychosocial Impact of Lymphedema: A Systematic Review of Literature from 2004–2011

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Mei R.; Ridner, Sheila H.; Hu, Sophia H.; Stewart, Bob R.; Cormier, Janice N.; Armer, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This systematic review aimed to evaluate the level of evidence of contemporary peer-reviewed literature published from 2004–2011 on the psychosocial impact of lymphedema. Methods Eleven electronic databases were searched and 1,311 articles retrieved; 23 met inclusion criteria. Twelve articles utilized qualitative methodology and 11 employed quantitative methodology. An established quality assessment tool was used to assess the quality of the included studies. Results The overall quality of the 23 included studies was adequate. A critical limitation of current literature is the lack of conceptual or operational definitions for the concept of psychosocial impact. Quantitative studies showed statistically significant poorer social well-being in persons with lymphedema, including perceptions related to body image, appearance, sexuality, and social barriers. No statistically significant differences were found between persons with and without lymphedema in the domains of emotional well-being (happy or sad) and psychological distress (depression and anxiety). All 12 of the qualitative studies consistently described negative psychological impact (negative self-identity, emotional disturbance, psychological distress) and negative social impact (marginalization, financial burden, perceived diminished sexuality, social isolation, perceived social abandonment, public insensitivity, non-supportive work environment). Factors associated with psychosocial impact were also identified. Conclusions Lymphedema has a negative psychosocial impact on affected individuals. The current review sheds light on the conceptualization and operationalization of the definitions of psychosocial impact with respect to lymphedema. Development of a lymphedema-specific instrument is needed to better characterize the impact of lymphedema and to examine the factors contributing to these outcomes in cancer and non-cancer-related populations. PMID:23044512

  9. Understanding the clinical spectrum of complicated Plasmodium vivax malaria: a systematic review on the contributions of the Brazilian literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The resurgence of the malaria eradication agenda and the increasing number of severe manifestation reports has contributed to a renewed interested in the Plasmodium vivax infection. It is the most geographically widespread parasite causing human malaria, with around 2.85 billion people living under risk of infection. The Brazilian Amazon region reports more than 50% of the malaria cases in Latin America and since 1990 there is a marked predominance of this species, responsible for 85% of cases in 2009. However, only a few complicated cases of P. vivax have been reported from this region. A systematic review of the Brazilian indexed and non-indexed literature on complicated cases of vivax malaria was performed including published articles, masters' dissertations, doctoral theses and national congresses' abstracts. The following information was retrieved: patient characteristics (demographic, presence of co-morbidities and, whenever possible, associated genetic disorders); description of each major clinical manifestation. As a result, 27 articles, 28 abstracts from scientific events' annals and 13 theses/dissertations were found, only after 1987. Most of the reported information was described in small case series and case reports of patients from all the Amazonian states, and also in travellers from Brazilian non-endemic areas. The more relevant clinical complications were anaemia, thrombocytopaenia, jaundice and acute respiratory distress syndrome, present in all age groups, in addition to other more rare clinical pictures. Complications in pregnant women were also reported. Acute and chronic co-morbidities were frequent, however death was occasional. Clinical atypical cases of malaria are more frequent than published in the indexed literature, probably due to a publication bias. In the Brazilian Amazon (considered to be a low to moderate intensity area of transmission), clinical data are in accordance with the recent findings of severity described in diverse P

  10. Understanding the clinical spectrum of complicated Plasmodium vivax malaria: a systematic review on the contributions of the Brazilian literature.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Marcus V G; Mourão, Maria P G; Alexandre, Márcia A A; Siqueira, André M; Magalhães, Belisa M L; Martinez-Espinosa, Flor E; Filho, Franklin S Santana; Brasil, Patrícia; Ventura, Ana M R S; Tada, Mauro S; Couto, Vanja S C D; Silva, Antônio R; Silva, Rita S U; Alecrim, Maria G C

    2012-01-01

    The resurgence of the malaria eradication agenda and the increasing number of severe manifestation reports has contributed to a renewed interested in the Plasmodium vivax infection. It is the most geographically widespread parasite causing human malaria, with around 2.85 billion people living under risk of infection. The Brazilian Amazon region reports more than 50% of the malaria cases in Latin America and since 1990 there is a marked predominance of this species, responsible for 85% of cases in 2009. However, only a few complicated cases of P. vivax have been reported from this region. A systematic review of the Brazilian indexed and non-indexed literature on complicated cases of vivax malaria was performed including published articles, masters' dissertations, doctoral theses and national congresses' abstracts. The following information was retrieved: patient characteristics (demographic, presence of co-morbidities and, whenever possible, associated genetic disorders); description of each major clinical manifestation. As a result, 27 articles, 28 abstracts from scientific events' annals and 13 theses/dissertations were found, only after 1987. Most of the reported information was described in small case series and case reports of patients from all the Amazonian states, and also in travellers from Brazilian non-endemic areas. The more relevant clinical complications were anaemia, thrombocytopaenia, jaundice and acute respiratory distress syndrome, present in all age groups, in addition to other more rare clinical pictures. Complications in pregnant women were also reported. Acute and chronic co-morbidities were frequent, however death was occasional. Clinical atypical cases of malaria are more frequent than published in the indexed literature, probably due to a publication bias. In the Brazilian Amazon (considered to be a low to moderate intensity area of transmission), clinical data are in accordance with the recent findings of severity described in diverse P

  11. Theory-Based Interventions in Physical Activity: A Systematic Review of Literature in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Jalal; Eftekhar, Hassan; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Lack of physical activity is ranked fourth among the causes of human death and chronic diseases. Using models and theories to design, implement, and evaluate the health education and health promotion interventions has many advantages. Using models and theories of physical activity, we decided to systematically study the educational and promotional interventions carried out in Iran from 2003 to 2013.Three information databases were used to systematically select papers using key words including Iranian Magazine Database (MAGIRAN), Iran Medical Library (MEDLIB), and Scientific Information Database (SID). Twenty papers were selected and studied. Having been applied in 9 studies, The Trans Theoretical Model (TTM) was the most widespread model in Iran (PENDER in 3 studies, BASNEF in 2, and the Theory of Planned Behavior in 2 studies). With regards to the educational methods, almost all studies used a combination of methods. The most widely used Integrative educational method was group discussion. Only one integrated study was done. Behavior maintenance was not addressed in 75% of the studies. Almost all studies used self-reporting instruments. The effectiveness of educational methods was assessed in none of the studies. Most of the included studies had several methodological weaknesses, which hinder the validity and applicability of their results. According to the findings, the necessity of need assessment in using models, epidemiology and methodology consultation, addressing maintenance of physical activity, using other theories and models such as social marketing and social-cognitive theory, and other educational methods like empirical and complementary are suggested. PMID:25948454

  12. Theory-based interventions in physical activity: a systematic review of literature in Iran.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Jalal; Eftekhar, Hassan; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Lack of physical activity is ranked fourth among the causes of human death and chronic diseases. Using models and theories to design, implement, and evaluate the health education and health promotion interventions has many advantages. Using models and theories of physical activity, we decided to systematically study the educational and promotional interventions carried out in Iran from 2003 to 2013.Three information databases were used to systematically select papers using key words including Iranian Magazine Database (MAGIRAN), Iran Medical Library (MEDLIB), and Scientific Information Database (SID). Twenty papers were selected and studied .Having been applied in 9 studies, The Trans Theoretical Model (TTM) was the most widespread model in Iran (PENDER in 3 studies, BASNEF in 2, and the Theory of Planned Behavior in 2 studies). With regards to the educational methods, almost all studies used a combination of methods. The most widely used Integrative educational method was group discussion. Only one integrated study was done. Behavior maintenance was not addressed in 75% of the studies. Almost all studies used self-reporting instruments. The effectiveness of educational methods was assessed in none of the studies. Most of the included studies had several methodological weaknesses, which hinder the validity and applicability of their results. According to the findings, the necessity of need assessment in using models, epidemiology and methodology consultation, addressing maintenance of physical activity, using other theories and models such as social marketing and social-cognitive theory, and other educational methods like empirical and complementary are suggested. PMID:25948454

  13. The costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of strategies to increase coverage of routine immunizations in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review of the grey literature.

    PubMed Central

    Batt, Katherine; Fox-Rushby, J. A.; Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela

    2004-01-01

    Evidence-based reviews of published literature can be subject to several biases. Grey literature, however, can be of poor quality and expensive to access. Effective search strategies also vary by topic and are rarely known in advance. This paper complements a systematic review of the published literature on the costs and effects of expanding immunization services in developing countries. The quality of data on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of strategies to increase immunization coverage is shown to be similar across literatures, but the quality of information on costing is much lower in the grey literature. After excluding poorer quality studies from this review we found the quantity of available evidence almost doubled, particularly for more complex health-system interventions and cost or cost-effectiveness analyses. Interventions in the grey literature are more up to date and cover a different geographical spread. Consequently the conclusions of the published and grey literatures differ, although the number of papers is still too low to account for differences across types of interventions. We recommend that in future researchers consider using non-English keywords in their searches. PMID:15628207

  14. Staging Models in Bipolar Disorder: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Muneer, Ather

    2016-05-31

    Bipolar disorder is manifested as severe dysregulation of mood with recurrent manic and major depressive episodes. It is associated with psychiatric and medical comorbidities, inadequate response to currently available pharmacological agents and a progressively deteriorating course in many patients. The index episode is often depressive in nature, while the first manic or hypomanic episode may occur several years later in the course of the disorder causing delay in diagnosis and use of inappropriate treatment strategies. Staging has been used to great advantage in other branches of medicine like cardiology and oncology. There is growing realization that major mental disorders are fundamentally progressive, with simpler treatment requirements and better prognosis during initial stages of the illness. Defining these conditions into clinically applicable stages not only helps in better understanding the trajectory of a particular disorder, but also assists in management. Patients with a chronic, recalcitrant condition like bipolar disorder are likely to greatly benefit from this approach. If the illness is correctly identified early in its course, proper treatment can be instigated arresting progression to latter phases which are associated with myriad complications in the biopsychosocial realm. With these considerations, a search of the MEDLINE data base was conducted to seek out literature pertaining to staging models in bipolar disorder. A thorough scrutiny of the existing research work revealed that a number of investigators have endeavored to stage define bipolar disorder. This paper outlines staging proposals for bipolar disorder which have the greatest supporting evidence in the literature. PMID:27121423

  15. Staging Models in Bipolar Disorder: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Muneer, Ather

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is manifested as severe dysregulation of mood with recurrent manic and major depressive episodes. It is associated with psychiatric and medical comorbidities, inadequate response to currently available pharmacological agents and a progressively deteriorating course in many patients. The index episode is often depressive in nature, while the first manic or hypomanic episode may occur several years later in the course of the disorder causing delay in diagnosis and use of inappropriate treatment strategies. Staging has been used to great advantage in other branches of medicine like cardiology and oncology. There is growing realization that major mental disorders are fundamentally progressive, with simpler treatment requirements and better prognosis during initial stages of the illness. Defining these conditions into clinically applicable stages not only helps in better understanding the trajectory of a particular disorder, but also assists in management. Patients with a chronic, recalcitrant condition like bipolar disorder are likely to greatly benefit from this approach. If the illness is correctly identified early in its course, proper treatment can be instigated arresting progression to latter phases which are associated with myriad complications in the biopsychosocial realm. With these considerations, a search of the MEDLINE data base was conducted to seek out literature pertaining to staging models in bipolar disorder. A thorough scrutiny of the existing research work revealed that a number of investigators have endeavored to stage define bipolar disorder. This paper outlines staging proposals for bipolar disorder which have the greatest supporting evidence in the literature. PMID:27121423

  16. Weight loss and African-American women: a systematic review of the behavioural weight loss intervention literature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The excess burden of obesity among black women is well-documented. The weight loss intervention literature often does not report results by ethnic group or gender; therefore, the purpose of this article was to conduct a systematic review of all weight loss intervention trials published between 1990 ...

  17. The State of the Art in Self-Study of Teacher Education Practices: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanassche, Eline; Kelchtermans, Geert

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a systematic review of the Self-Study of Teacher Education Practices research literature published between 1990 and 2012. Self-study research refers to teacher educators researching their practice with the purpose of improving it, making explicit and validating their professional expertise and, at the same time,…

  18. Evidence-Based Interventions for Immigrant Students Experiencing Behavioral and Academic Problems: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Aydin; Perzigian, Aaron B. T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present research review is to identify effective, high quality school-based interventions for immigrant students with disabilities or academic and behavioral problems. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to synthesize international research studies. Initial and criteria-based selection processes yielded six…

  19. The association between natural disasters and violence: A systematic review of the literature and a call for more epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Rezaeian, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    The links between disasters and violence either self-directed or interpersonal are now more recognized. Nevertheless, the amount of research is limited. This article discusses the underlying association of disasters and violence and it also outlines a systematic review of the literature from 1976 to 2011. Finally, it concludes and recommends particular approaches for further epidemiological research. PMID:24523804

  20. Transcultural Nursing Clinical Education: A Systematic Review of the Literature since 2005 with Recommendations for International Immersion Clinical Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuilkin, Deb

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review sought evidence for the effectiveness of cultural competence pedagogy approaches in professional nursing education. The objective was to rank the findings from literature published since 2005, evaluating the effectiveness of educational strategies for cultural competence of undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students. The…

  1. Physical Activity Mass Media Campaigns and Their Evaluation: A Systematic Review of the Literature 2003-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Justine E.; Bull, Fiona C.; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, mass media campaigns to promote regular moderate-intensity physical activity have increased recently. Evidence of mass media campaign effectiveness exists in other health areas, however the evidence for physical activity is limited. The purpose was to systematically review the literature on physical activity mass media campaigns,…

  2. Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Role of Family in Postsecondary Settings: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas, Bryan K.; Ramisch, Julie L.; McGowan, Beth

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a systematic review of the literature pertaining to students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and the potential role of family members in higher education settings. The research questions guiding the review included: (a) What is the identified role(s) of family members of postsecondary students with ASD in postsecondary…

  3. Disutility of illness for caregivers and families: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberg, Eve; Prosser, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Caring for an ill or disabled family member imposes a well-documented burden on the caregiver. The benefits of a health intervention may be underestimated if “spillover” effects on family members are not captured, resulting in inaccurate conclusions of economic evaluations. Objective To provide an estimate of, and to summarize measurement approaches for, the spillover disutility of illness on family members, relatives, and caregivers, through a systematic review of the literature. Methods The medical (PubMED), psychology (PsycINFO) and economics (EconLit) literatures were searched from inception through February, 2012 for published studies measuring spillover disutility of illness on family members and caregivers. Inclusion criteria were (1) studies using preference-based measures of health-related quality of life, and (2) studies reporting spillover disutility, or (3) studies reporting data from which a spillover disutility could be inferred. Results Fifteen studies were included in this review: 7 reported estimates of spillover disutility and 8 reporting data from which disutility could be inferred. Three studies found no disutility associated with spillover while 12 found measurable effects as large as −0.718 (and two found evidence of positive spillover in subsets of their samples). Generic (indirect) utility instruments were primarily used to measure spillover, including the EQ-5D, QWB and HUI (n=13), though two studies used modified versions of the time trade-off technique. Illnesses studied included childhood disorders (e.g., spina bifida, congenital malformations), diseases of the elderly (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease and dementia), physically disabling conditions (e.g., arthritis, multiple sclerosis), and medical conditions such as cancer and stroke. The persons affected by spillover included parents, grandparents, spouses/partners, other family caregivers, and household members. Conclusions There is a limited literature on the spillover

  4. Systematic Literature Review of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Clinical Trials for Lower Limb Spasticity.

    PubMed

    Dashtipour, Khashayar; Chen, Jack J; Walker, Heather W; Lee, Michael Y

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate clinical trial efficacy, safety, and dosing practices of AbobotulinumtoxinA (ABO) treatment in adult patients with lower limb spasticity.A systematic literature review was performed to identify randomized controlled trials of ABO in the treatment of adult lower limb spasticity.Of the 295 records identified, 6 primary publications evaluated ABO for the management of lower limb spasticity of various etiologies and were evaluated. Total ABO doses ranged between 500 and 2000 U for lower limb spasticity, depending on the muscles injected. All studies in lower limb spasticity showed statistically significant reduction in muscle tone based on Modified Ashworth Scale of ABO versus placebo. Significant effects on active movement and pain were demonstrated albeit less consistently. ABO was generally well tolerated across the individual studies; most adverse events reported were considered unrelated to treatment. Treatment-related adverse events included but not limited to fatigue, local pain at injection site, hypertonia, dry mouth, weakness of the noninjected muscle, abnormal gait, and urinary tract infection.These data from 6 randomized clinical studies provide the beginnings of an evidence base for the use of ABO to reduce lower limb spasticity. Ongoing studies in this area will add to this evidence base. PMID:26765447

  5. Health-seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative literature.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Thomas; Sheppard, James; de Wildt, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease acquired through contact with infested freshwater. An essential component of its control is passive case finding, which, in order to be effective, requires a detailed understanding of health-seeking behaviour. This study aimed to systematically review evidence on health-seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis, in order to determine factors influencing use or non-use of modern health services for the infection. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies reporting on factors related to seeking treatment from modern health services for schistosomiasis were obtained, combining electronic and hand searching. Data extraction and quality assessment of the included articles were performed, with all studies qualitatively analysed using thematic synthesis. A total of 19 studies were included in the review. Six themes were identified from the analysis: biomedical knowledge on schistosomiasis, perceptions of modern treatment and health services, financial considerations of treatment, perceptions on the symptoms, stigma of the infection, and physical location and community. These findings were consistent across studies of different design, setting and quality. Many of the themes identified echo existing literature on health-seeking behaviour. The synthesis also highlighted the role of stigma, and aspects of the physical location and community that may affect treatment-seeking for schistosomiasis. Health education programmes that intend to improve the utilisation of modern health services for the infection need to acknowledge the multiple determinants influencing their use. Future research should move beyond describing health-seeking behaviour to identifying the factors that underlay such behaviour. PMID:24839538

  6. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Marx, Wolfgang M; Teleni, Laisa; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Vitetta, Luis; McKavanagh, Dan; Thomson, Damien; Isenring, Elisabeth

    2013-04-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common side-effect of cytotoxic treatment. It continues to affect a significant proportion of patients despite the widespread use of antiemetic medication. In traditional medicine, ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been used to prevent and treat nausea in many cultures for thousands of years. However, its use has not been confirmed in the chemotherapy context. To determine the potential use of ginger as a prophylactic or treatment for CINV, a systematic literature review was conducted. Reviewed studies comprised randomized controlled trials or crossover trials that investigated the anti-CINV effect of ginger as the sole independent variable in chemotherapy patients. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies were assessed on methodological quality and their limitations were identified. Studies were mixed in their support of ginger as an anti-CINV treatment in patients receiving chemotherapy, with three demonstrating a positive effect, two in favor but with caveats, and two showing no effect on measures of CINV. Future studies are required to address the limitations identified before clinical use can be recommended. PMID:23550785

  7. Systematic Literature Review of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Clinical Trials for Lower Limb Spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Dashtipour, Khashayar; Chen, Jack J.; Walker, Heather W.; Lee, Michael Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To elucidate clinical trial efficacy, safety, and dosing practices of AbobotulinumtoxinA (ABO) treatment in adult patients with lower limb spasticity. A systematic literature review was performed to identify randomized controlled trials of ABO in the treatment of adult lower limb spasticity. Of the 295 records identified, 6 primary publications evaluated ABO for the management of lower limb spasticity of various etiologies and were evaluated. Total ABO doses ranged between 500 and 2000 U for lower limb spasticity, depending on the muscles injected. All studies in lower limb spasticity showed statistically significant reduction in muscle tone based on Modified Ashworth Scale of ABO versus placebo. Significant effects on active movement and pain were demonstrated albeit less consistently. ABO was generally well tolerated across the individual studies; most adverse events reported were considered unrelated to treatment. Treatment-related adverse events included but not limited to fatigue, local pain at injection site, hypertonia, dry mouth, weakness of the noninjected muscle, abnormal gait, and urinary tract infection. These data from 6 randomized clinical studies provide the beginnings of an evidence base for the use of ABO to reduce lower limb spasticity. Ongoing studies in this area will add to this evidence base. PMID:26765447

  8. Who uses sunbeds? A systematic literature review of risk groups in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Schneider, S; Krämer, H

    2010-06-01

    Skin cancer is caused by ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Indoor tanning is a totally avoidable risk behaviour. This review addresses the specific characteristics of sunbed users and the differences in motivation and risk perception compared with non-users. This review is based solely on empirical original articles. Based on literature searches with widely used reference databases ('PubMed', 'OVID', 'Social Citation Index', 'ERIC--Educational Resources Information Center', 'Web of Science' and the 'International Bibliography of the Social Sciences'), we included studies from developed nations with a publication date between 1 January 2000 and 12 August 2008. All studies were selected, classified and coded simultaneously by both authors on a blinded basis. All searches were performed on 13 and 14 August 2008. In accordance with the QUOROM and the MOOSE Statements, we identified 16 original studies. The typical sunbed user is female, between 17 and 30 years old, and tends to live a comparatively unhealthy lifestyle: Users smoke cigarettes and drink alcohol more frequently and eat less healthy food than non-users. Users are characterized by a lack of knowledge about health risks of UVR, and prompted by the frequent use of sunbeds by friends or family members and the experience of positive emotions and relaxation by indoor tanning. This review is the first systematic review on risk groups among sunbed users that has been published in a scientific journal. There is still a lack of information among users, particularly among young people regarding the safety of solariums. PMID:20015180

  9. The effectiveness of physiotherapy for cervical dystonia: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    De Pauw, Joke; Van der Velden, Kevin; Meirte, Jill; Van Daele, Ulrike; Truijen, Steven; Cras, Patrick; Mercelis, Rudy; De Hertogh, Willem

    2014-10-01

    Cervical dystonia is a form of adult-onset, focal dystonia characterized by involuntary contractions of the neck muscles, leading to a disabling, abnormal head posture. CD has a great impact on the activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life. Currently, the most widely used and recommended first line treatment is botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) injections. Physiotherapy is a potentially useful adjuvant, but little is known about its effectiveness. Consequently, our objective was to investigate the effectiveness of physiotherapy alone or as an adjuvant treatment to BoNT/A injections in cervical dystonia (CD) by means of a systematic literature review. Two online databases, PubMed and Web of Science, were searched for articles describing the effectiveness of physiotherapy treatment for CD. After screening, based on predefined in- and exclusion criteria, 16 studies were retained. Their methodological quality was assessed according to Cochrane guidelines. The methodological quality of most studies was low. Examples of shortcomings are small sample sizes, lack of randomization or blinding, and diversity in therapeutic techniques and outcome measures. Only seven studies were clinical trials; the remaining were either case reports or case series. The reported physiotherapy treatments included EMG biofeedback training, muscular elongation, postural exercises and electrotherapy. Improvements in head position, pain, cervical range of motion, quality of life and ADL have been reported, which is promising. Cautious interpretation on the effectiveness of physiotherapy as an adjuvant therapy is required. Before firm conclusions can be drawn, additional high quality trials are needed. PMID:24413637

  10. Association between estrogen levels and temporomandibular disorders: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Marcin; Szalewski, Leszek; Bakalczuk, Magdalena; Bakalczuk, Szymon; Szkutnik, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate whether the hypothesis that estrogen levels are associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in humans can be confirmed or contradicted by available literature. Material and methods A systematic review based on the content of PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases was performed. Studies were identified using a combination of key words ‘temporomandibular disorder’ and ‘estrogen’. Nine studies were included into our review. Results The relationship between estrogen levels and TMD was found in seven out of nine reviewed papers. Results from two papers suggest that a high estrogen level is associated with an increased prevalence of TMD. Five additional papers found a relationship between a low estrogen level and an increase in TMD pain. In considering the value of evidence and inconsistencies of results in the reviewed publications, we state that there is weak evidence to support the hypothesis that estrogen levels are associated with TMD. Conclusions Results of reviewed studies were divergent and sometimes contradictory. One possible explanation is that estrogen influences TMD pain processing differently than temporomandibular joints (TMJ) structures, as shown in many animal studies. Estrogen may influence TMD pain processing differently than TMJ structures. We suggest consideration of the dual action of estrogen when planning future studies on its association with TMD. PMID:26848299

  11. ScaleNet: a literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics

    PubMed Central

    García Morales, Mayrolin; Denno, Barbara D.; Miller, Douglass R.; Miller, Gary L.; Ben-Dov, Yair; Hardy, Nate B.

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) are small herbivorous insects found on all continents except Antarctica. They are extremely invasive, and many species are serious agricultural pests. They are also emerging models for studies of the evolution of genetic systems, endosymbiosis and plant-insect interactions. ScaleNet was launched in 1995 to provide insect identifiers, pest managers, insect systematists, evolutionary biologists and ecologists efficient access to information about scale insect biological diversity. It provides comprehensive information on scale insects taken directly from the primary literature. Currently, it draws from 23 477 articles and describes the systematics and biology of 8194 valid species. For 20 years, ScaleNet ran on the same software platform. That platform is no longer viable. Here, we present a new, open-source implementation of ScaleNet. We have normalized the data model, begun the process of correcting invalid data, upgraded the user interface, and added online administrative tools. These improvements make ScaleNet easier to use and maintain and make the ScaleNet data more accurate and extendable. Database URL: http://scalenet.info PMID:26861659

  12. The Preclose Technique in Percutaneous Endovascular Aortic Repair: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffan, Abdel Aziz A.; Prince, Ethan A.; Hampson, Christopher O.; Murphy, Timothy P.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To establish the efficacy and safety of the preclose technique in total percutaneous endovascular aortic repair (PEVAR).MethodsA systematic literature search of Medline database was conducted for series on PEVAR published between January 1999 and January 2012.ResultsThirty-six articles comprising 2,257 patients and 3,606 arterial accesses were included. Anatomical criteria used to exclude patients from undergoing PEVAR were not uniform across all series. The technical success rate was 94 % per arterial access. Failure was unilateral in the majority (93 %) of the 133 failed PEVAR cases. The groin complication rate in PEVAR was 3.6 %; a minority (1.6 %) of these groin complications required open surgery. The groin complication rate in failed PEVAR cases converted to groin cutdown was 6.1 %. A significantly higher technical success rate was achieved when arterial access was performed via ultrasound guidance. Technical failure rate was significantly higher with larger sheath size ({>=}20F). Conclusion. The preclose technique in PEVAR has a high technical success rate and a low groin complication rate. Technical success tends to increase with ultrasound-guided arterial access and decrease with larger access. When failure occurs, it is unilateral in the majority of cases, and conversion to surgical cutdown does not appear to increase the operative risk.

  13. Advances of Peripheral Nerve Repair Techniques to Improve Hand Function: A Systematic Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    P, Mafi; S, Hindocha; M, Dhital; M, Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Concepts of neuronal damage and repair date back to ancient times. The research in this topic has been growing ever since and numerous nerve repair techniques have evolved throughout the years. Due to our greater understanding of nerve injuries and repair we now distinguish between central and peripheral nervous system. In this review, we have chosen to concentrate on peripheral nerve injuries and in particular those involving the hand. There are no reviews bringing together and summarizing the latest research evidence concerning the most up-to-date techniques used to improve hand function. Therefore, by identifying and evaluating all the published literature in this field, we have summarized all the available information about the advances in peripheral nerve techniques used to improve hand function. The most important ones are the use of resorbable poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB), epineural end-to-end suturing, graft repair, nerve transfer, side to side neurorrhaphy and end to side neurorrhaphy between median, radial and ulnar nerves, nerve transplant, nerve repair, external neurolysis and epineural sutures, adjacent neurotization without nerve suturing, Agee endoscopic operation, tourniquet induced anesthesia, toe transfer and meticulous intrinsic repair, free auto nerve grafting, use of distal based neurocutaneous flaps and tubulization. At the same time we found that the patient’s age, tension of repair, time of repair, level of injury and scar formation following surgery affect the prognosis. Despite the thorough findings of this systematic review we suggest that further research in this field is needed. PMID:22431951

  14. Improved enteral tolerance following step procedure: systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Melissa A; Usatin, Danielle; Allen, Isabel E; Rhee, Sue; Vu, Lan

    2016-10-01

    Surgical management of children with short bowel syndrome (SBS) changed with the introduction of the serial transverse enteroplasty procedure (STEP). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis using MEDLINE and SCOPUS to determine if children with SBS had improved enteral tolerance following STEP. Studies were included if information about a child's pre- and post-STEP enteral tolerance was provided. A random effects meta-analysis provided a summary estimate of the proportion of children with enteral tolerance increase following STEP. From 766 abstracts, seven case series involving 86 children were included. Mean percent tolerance of enteral nutrition improved from 35.1 to 69.5. Sixteen children had no enteral improvement following STEP. A summary estimate showed that 87 % (95 % CI 77-95 %) of children who underwent STEP had an increase in enteral tolerance. Compilation of the literature supports the belief that SBS subjects' enteral tolerance improves following STEP. Enteral nutritional tolerance is a measure of efficacy of STEP and should be presented as a primary or secondary outcome. By standardizing data collection on children undergoing STEP procedure, better determination of nutritional benefit from STEP can be ascertained. PMID:27461428

  15. Predonation psychosocial evaluation of living kidney and liver donor candidates: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Duerinckx, Nathalie; Timmerman, Lotte; Van Gogh, Johan; van Busschbach, Jan; Ismail, Sohal Y; Massey, Emma K; Dobbels, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating a person's suitability for living organ donation is crucial, consisting not only of a medical but also of a thorough psychosocial screening. We performed a systematic literature review of guidelines, consensus statements, and protocols on the content and process of psychosocial screening of living kidney and liver donor candidates. We searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO until June 22, 2011, following the PRISMA guidelines, complemented by scrutinizing guidelines databases and references of identified publications. Thirty-four publications were identified, including seven guidelines, six consensus statements, and 21 protocols or programs. Guidelines and consensus statements were inconsistent and lacked concreteness for both their content and process, possibly explaining the observed variability in center-specific evaluation protocols and programs. Overall, recommended screening criteria are not evidence-based and an operational definition of the concept "psychosocial" is missing, causing heterogeneity in terminology. Variation also exists on methods used to psychosocially evaluate potential donors. The scientific basis of predonation psychosocial evaluation needs to be strengthened. There is a need for high-quality prospective psychosocial outcome studies in living donors, a uniform terminology to label psychosocial screening criteria, and validated instruments to identify risk factors. PMID:23889287

  16. Labor Migration and HIV Risk: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Weine, Stevan M.; Kashuba, Adrianna B.

    2013-01-01

    To inform the development of multilevel strategies for addressing HIV risk among labor migrants, 97 articles from the health and social science literatures were systematically reviewed. The study locations were Africa (23 %), the Americas (26 %), Europe (7 %), South East Asia (21 %), and Western Pacific (24 %). Among the studies meeting inclusion criteria, HIV risk was associated with multilevel determinants at the levels of policy, sociocultural context, health and mental health, and sexual practices. The policy determinants most often associated with HIV risk were: prolonged and/or frequent absence, financial status, and difficult working and housing conditions. The sociocultural context determinants most often associated with HIV risk were: cultural norms, family separation, and low social support. The health and mental health factors most often associated with HIV risk were: substance use, other STIs, mental health problems, no HIV testing, and needle use. The sexual practices most often associated with increased HIV risk were: limited condom use, multiple partnering, clients of sex workers, low HIV knowledge, and low perceived HIV risk. Magnitude of effects through multivariate statistics were demonstrated more for health and mental health and sexual practices, than for policy or sociocultural context. The consistency of these findings across multiple diverse global labor migration sites underlines the need for multilevel intervention strategies. However, to better inform the development, implementation, and evaluation of multilevel interventions, additional research is needed that overcomes prior methodological limitations and focuses on building new contextually tailored interventions and policies. PMID:22481273

  17. [Second victims of medical errors: a systematic review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Panella, Massimiliano; Rinaldi, Carmela; Vanhaecht, Kris; Donnarumma, Chiara; Tozzi, Quinto; Di Stanislao, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    "Second victims" are health care providers who remain traumatized and suffer at the psycho-physical level after being involved in a patient adverse event. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to: a) estimate the prevalence of second victims among healthcare workers, b) describe personal and work outcomes of second victims, c) identify coping strategies used by second victims to face their problems, and d) describe current support strategies. Findings reveal that the prevalence of "second victims" of medical errors is high, ranging in four studies from 10.4% to 43.3%. Medical errors have a negative impact on healthcare providers involved, leading to physical, cognitive and behavioural symptoms including the practice of defensive medicine. Managers of health organizations need to be aware of the "second victim" phenomenon and ensure adequate support is given to healthcare providers involved. The best strategy seems to be the creation of networks of support at both the individual and organizational levels. More research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of support structures for second victims and to quantify the extent of the practice of defensive medicine following medical error. PMID:24770362

  18. Social Support and HIV-related Risk Behaviors: A Systematic Review of the Global Literature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2013-01-01

    Existing empirical evidence has well documented the role of social support in both physical and psychological well-being among various populations. In the context of HIV prevention, the rapid increase of studies on social support merits a systematic review to synthesize the current global literature on association between social support and HIV-related risk behaviors. The current review reveals a complex picture of this relationship across diverse populations. Existing studies indicate that higher levels of social support are related to fewer HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers and people living with HIV/AIDS and heterosexual adults in general. However, influences of social support on HIV-related risk behaviors are inconsistent within drug users, men who have sex with men and adolescents. These variations in findings may be attributed to different measurement of social support in different studies, specific context of social support for diverse population, or various characteristics of the social networks the study population obtained support from. Future studies are needed to explore the mechanism of how social support affects HIV-related risk behaviors. HIV prevention intervention efforts need to focus on the positive effect of social support for various vulnerable and at-risk populations. Future efforts also need to incorporate necessary structure change and utilize technical innovation in order to maximize the protective role of social support in HIV risk prevention or reduction. PMID:23921582

  19. Evidence for treating rheumatoid arthritis to target: results of a systematic literature search update

    PubMed Central

    Stoffer, Michaela A; Schoels, Monika M; Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Burmester, Gerd; Bykerk, Vivian; Dougados, Maxime; Emery, Paul; Haraoui, Boulos; Gomez-Reino, Juan; Kvien, Tore K; Nash, Peter; Navarro-Compán, Victoria; Scholte-Voshaar, Marieke; van Vollenhoven, Ronald; Stamm, Tanja A

    2016-01-01

    Objective A systematic literature review (SLR; 2009–2014) to compare a target-oriented approach with routine management in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to allow an update of the treat-to-target recommendations. Methods Two SLRs focused on clinical trials employing a treatment approach targeting a specific clinical outcome were performed. In addition to testing clinical, functional and/or structural changes as endpoints, comorbidities, cardiovascular risk, work productivity and education as well as patient self-assessment were investigated. The searches covered MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases and Clinicaltrial.gov for the period between 2009 and 2012 and separately for the period of 2012 to May of 2014. Results Of 8442 citations retrieved in the two SLRs, 176 articles underwent full-text review. According to predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria, six articles were included of which five showed superiority of a targeted treatment approach aiming at least at low-disease activity versus routine care; in addition, publications providing supportive evidence were also incorporated that aside from expanding the evidence provided by the above six publications allowed concluding that a target-oriented approach leads to less comorbidities and cardiovascular risk and better work productivity than conventional care. Conclusions The current study expands the evidence that targeting low-disease activity or remission in the management of RA conveys better outcomes than routine care. PMID:25990290

  20. Evaluation and management of the patient with multiple syringomas: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kiyanna; Shinkai, Kanade

    2016-06-01

    Syringomas are benign adnexal tumors with distinct histopathologic features, including the characteristic comma ("tadpole") shaped tail comprised of dilated, cystic eccrine ducts. Clinically, syringomas typically present in adolescent females predominantly in the periorbital region. They may present as solitary or multiple lesions, and more rare sites of involvement include the genitals, palms, scalp, and the chest. Over the past 50 years, there have been >800 reported cases of syringoma either alone or in conjunction with a systemic syndrome, most commonly Down syndrome. The primary aim of this systematic review is to discuss the clinical features and associations of syringomas with a focus on the patient with multiple syringomas. Its secondary aims are to explore pathophysiology with a focus on multiple syringomas and provide comprehensive data on both traditional and novel treatments. Importantly, multiple syringomas present across a broad clinical spectrum. Though noted in many textbooks to be related to tumor syndromes, the association of syringomas with inherited tumor syndromes is only rarely reported in the literature. Despite multiple reported cases of syringoma, the pathophysiology remains poorly understood and treatment continues to pose a significant challenge. PMID:26850654

  1. Therapeutic Management of Feline Chronic Gingivostomatitis: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Winer, Jenna N.; Arzi, Boaz; Verstraete, Frank J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS) is a disease characterized by protracted and potentially debilitating oral inflammation in cats, the etiology of which is currently unknown. The purpose of this review is to apply an evidence-based medicine approach to systematically review and critically evaluate the scientific literature reporting the outcome of medical and surgical management of FCGS. Those articles meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed and assigned an “Experimental Design Grade” (EDG) and an “Evidence Grade” (EG) in order to score relative strength of study design and produced data. Studies were evaluated and compared, especially highlighting the treatments, the outcomes, and the therapeutic success rates. This review found a lack of consistency between articles’ data, rendering direct comparison of results unreliable. The field of FCGS research, and ultimately patient care, would benefit from standardizing studies by adopting use of a consistent semi-quantitative scoring system and extending follow-up duration. Future researchers should commit to large prospective studies that compare existing treatments and demonstrate the promise of new treatments. PMID:27486584

  2. The effect of office concepts on worker health and performance: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    De Croon, Einar M; Sluiter, Judith K; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2005-02-01

    Conventional and innovative office concepts can be described according to three dimensions: (1) the office location (e.g. telework office versus conventional office); (2) the office lay-out (e.g. open lay-out versus cellular office); and (3) the office use (e.g. fixed versus shared workplaces). This review examined how these three office dimensions affect the office worker's job demands, job resources, short- and long-term reactions. Using search terms related to the office concept (dimensions), a systematic literature search starting from 1972 was conducted in seven databases. Subsequently, based on the quality of the studies and the consistency of the findings, the level of evidence for the observed findings was assessed. Out of 1091 hits 49 relevant studies were identified. Results provide strong evidence that working in open workplaces reduces privacy and job satisfaction. Limited evidence is available that working in open workplaces intensifies cognitive workload and worsens interpersonal relations; close distance between workstations intensifies cognitive workload and reduces privacy; and desk-sharing improves communication. Due to a lack of studies no evidence was obtained for an effect of the three office dimensions on long-term reactions. The results suggest that ergonomists involved in office innovation could play a meaningful role in safeguarding the worker's job demands, job resources and well-being. Attention should be paid, in particular, to effects of workplace openness by providing acoustic and visual protection. PMID:15764312

  3. Health-related quality of life questionnaires in lung cancer trials: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. Treatment goals are the relief of symptoms and the increase of overall survival. With the rising number of treatment alternatives, the need for comparable assessments of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) parameters grows. The aim of this paper was to identify and describe measurement instruments applied in lung cancer patients under drug therapy. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review at the beginning of 2011 using the electronic database Pubmed. Results A total of 43 studies were included in the review. About 17 different measurement instruments were identified, including 5 generic, 5 cancer-specific, 4 lung cancer-specific and 3 symptom-specific questionnaires. In 29 studies at least 2 instruments were used. In most cases these were cancer and lung cancer-specific ones. The most frequently used instruments are the EORTC QLQ-C30 and its lung cancer modules LC13 or LC17. Only 5 studies combined (lung) cancer-specific questionnaires with generic instruments. Conclusions The EORTC-C30 and EORTC-LC13 are the most frequently used health-related quality of life measurement instruments in pharmacological lung cancer trials. PMID:23680096

  4. Components of genetic counsellor education: A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature.

    PubMed

    Ingvoldstad, C; Seven, M; Taris, N; Cordier, C; Paneque, M; Skirton, H

    2016-04-01

    The need for appropriately trained genetic counsellors to support genetic healthcare is now acknowledged. However, while programmes for education of genetic counsellors exist in a number of countries, these do not conform to any specific international standards. As genetic techniques, educational standards and professional standards have been evolved, and with increasing mobility of genetic counsellors, it is of great importance to have some comparison of education and training between different countries. This systematic review was conducted to determine the components of educational programmes for genetic counsellors worldwide that have been published in peer-reviewed literature. Databases were searched for studies published in English from 2000 to 2014 related to the topic. We identified 406 potential papers, of these, 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings indicate that, in most cases, the theoretical components of genetic counsellor programmes conform to the recommendations and requirements of relevant professional bodies. However, clinical preparation of genetic counsellors in real-life professional practice settings seems to be less well addressed as this is essential to ensure genetic counsellors are able to provide safe patient care after graduation. Further work to gain agreement internationally on genetic counsellor education is needed. PMID:26452349

  5. "What is the work of Recovery Oriented Practice? A systematic literature review".

    PubMed

    Chester, Polly; Ehrlich, Carolyn; Warburton, Loretta; Baker, David; Kendall, Elizabeth; Crompton, David

    2016-08-01

    Concepts of personal and social recovery in mental illness are constantly evolving because the journey is fluid and subject to change over time. Dynamic interactions between the complexities of human nature and mental illness create ever-altering landscapes of perplexity. The acknowledged ebb and flow of recovery in the presence of chronic and serious mental illness requires health professionals to provide a flexible suite of care, delivered through skills and methods that are responsive and meaningful to the recipient. We conducted a systematic search for qualitative literature that articulated the work of personally-supportive recovery-oriented practice (ROP) to determine the specific components of recovery-supportive work. Twenty-one articles were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria and were synthesized using a coding framework derived from Normalization Process Theory. We identified three kinds of recovery-supportive work required from health professionals: alleviating stigma, delivering effective recovery-supportive responses in the presence of complex health and social situations and managing challenges associated with the work of ROP. We discuss the resources needed for ROP and the barriers that inhibit health professionals' engagement in this work. By elucidating the work of ROP, we highlighted a disparity between health professionals' aspirations and achievements. These revelations could inform service delivery in order to better support consumer recovery in serious mental illness. PMID:27381002

  6. eHealth Literacy Interventions for Older Adults: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Background eHealth resources offer new opportunities for older adults to access health information online, connect with others with shared health interests, and manage their health. However, older adults often lack sufficient eHealth literacy to maximize their benefit from these resources. Objective This review evaluates the research design, methods, and findings of eHealth literacy interventions for older adults. Methods A systematic review of peer-reviewed research articles from 28 databases in 9 fields was carried out in January 2013. Four rounds of screening of articles in these databases resulted in a final sample of 23 articles. Results Findings indicated a significant gap in the literature for eHealth literacy interventions evaluating health outcomes as the outcome of interest, a lack of theory-based interventions, and few studies applied high-quality research design. Conclusions Our findings emphasize the need for researchers to develop and assess theory-based interventions applying high-quality research design in eHealth literacy interventions targeting the older population. PMID:25386719

  7. What proportion of Salmonella Typhi cases are detected by blood culture? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Mogasale, Vittal; Ramani, Enusa; Mogasale, Vijayalaxmi V; Park, JuYeon

    2016-01-01

    Blood culture is often used in definitive diagnosis of typhoid fever while, bone marrow culture has a greater sensitivity and considered reference standard. The sensitivity of blood culture measured against bone marrow culture results in measurement bias because both tests are not fully sensitive. Here we propose a combination of the two cultures as a reference to define true positive S. Typhi cases. Based on a systematic literature review, we identified ten papers that had performed blood and bone marrow culture for S. Typhi in same subjects. We estimated the weighted mean of proportion of cases detected by culture measured against true S. Typhi positive cases using a random effects model. Of 529 true positive S. Typhi cases, 61 % (95 % CI 52-70 %) and 96 % (95 % CI 93-99 %) were detected by blood and bone marrow cultures respectively. Blood culture sensitivity was 66 % (95 % CI 56-75 %) when compared with bone marrow culture results. The use of blood culture sensitivity as a proxy measure to estimate the proportion of typhoid fever cases detected by blood culture is likely to be an underestimate. As blood culture sensitivity is used as a correction factor in estimating typhoid disease burden, epidemiologists and policy makers should account for the underestimation. PMID:27188991

  8. Predictors of dropout in weight loss interventions: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Moroshko, I; Brennan, L; O'Brien, P

    2011-11-01

    Attendance and completion of weight loss intervention is associated with better weight loss outcomes; however, attrition is neither consistently reported nor comprehensively explored in the weight loss literature. A systematic review was undertaken to identify factors associated with attrition in weight loss interventions involving overweight or obese (body mass index ≥ 25) adults (18-65 years). Sixty-one studies published before May 2011 and addressing factors associated with weight loss programme attrition were identified. Conclusions were limited by the large number of variables explored, the small number of studies exploring each variable, the large variety of study settings and methodologies used, the inconsistent reporting of results, and the conflicting findings across studies. A consistent set of predictors has not yet been identified. The majority of studies relied on pre-treatment routinely collected data rather than variables selected because of their theoretical and/or empirical relationship with attrition. However, psychological and behavioural patient factors and processes associated with the treatment were more commonly associated with attrition than patient background characteristics. Future research should consider theoretically grounded social-psychological and behavioural processes as potential predictors of dropout. Identification of patients at risk of dropout will contribute to both the effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of weight loss interventions. PMID:21815990

  9. Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford

    2015-06-01

    We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of participant, gender, and day of the week. While the evidence regarding the association between screen time and sleep is consistent, we discuss limitations of the current studies: 1) causal association not confirmed; 2) measurement error (of both screen time exposure and sleep measures); 3) limited data on simultaneous use of multiple screens, characteristics and content of screens used. Youth should be advised to limit or reduce screen time exposure, especially before or during bedtime hours to minimize any harmful effects of screen time on sleep and well-being. Future research should better account for the methodological limitations of the extant studies, and seek to better understand the magnitude and mechanisms of the association. These steps will help the development and implementation of policies or interventions related to screen time among youth. PMID:25193149

  10. Implants in the pterygoid region: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bidra, A S; Huynh-Ba, G

    2011-08-01

    This systematic review aimed to identify clinical studies on the short-term and long-term survival of implants placed in the pterygoid region. A structured literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane databases. Relevant studies were selected according to predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data from the final included studies could only be extracted for calculating interval survival rate (ISR) and cumulative survival rate (CSR) of implants for different time intervals. The initial database search yielded 693 titles. After filtering, 32 abstracts were selected culminating in 17 full text articles. Three additional articles were added through a hand search to obtain a total of 20 articles. Application of exclusion criteria led to elimination of 11 articles. Pooled data from the final 9 articles showed a first year ISR of 92%. The CSR over a 10 year period, largely due to data from one study was 91%. The minimum follow-up period reported in various studies was less than a year. There is insufficient data about failures that occurred beyond the first year interval, making it difficult to draw conclusions about long-term survival of these implants. More studies with longer follow-up periods involving adequate number of pterygoid implants are needed. PMID:21601424

  11. Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor therapy and fetal risk: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Marchioni, Renée M; Lichtenstein, Gary R

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors (anti-TNFs) are effective in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) recalcitrant to conventional medical therapy. As the peak incidence of IBD overlaps with the prime reproductive years, it is crucial to establish pharmacologic regimens for women of childbearing age that achieve effective disease control without posing significant fetal harm. A systematic literature review was performed to identify all human studies with birth outcomes data after maternal exposure to infliximab, adalimumab, or certolizumab pegol within 3 mo of conception or during any trimester of pregnancy. Live births, spontaneous abortions or stillbirths, preterm or premature births, low birth weight or small for gestational age infants, and congenital abnormalities were recorded. Fifty selected references identified 472 pregnancy exposures. The subsequent review includes general information regarding anti-TNF therapy in pregnancy followed by a summary of our findings. The benefits of biologic modalities in optimizing disease control during pregnancy must be weighed against the potential toxicity of drug exposure on the developing fetus. Although promising overall, there is insufficient evidence to prove absolute safety for use of anti-TNFs during pregnancy given the limitations of available data and lack of controlled trials. PMID:23674866

  12. The common characteristics and outcomes of multidisciplinary collaboration in primary health care: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Schepman, Sanneke; Hansen, Johan; de Putter, Iris D.; Batenburg, Ronald S.; de Bakker, Dinny H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Research on collaboration in primary care focuses on specific diseases or types of collaboration. We investigate the effects of such collaboration by bringing together the results of scientific studies. Theory and methods We conducted a systematic literature review of PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane and EMBASE. The review was restricted to publications that test outcomes of multidisciplinary collaboration in primary care in high-income countries. A conceptual model is used to structure the analysis. Results Fifty-one studies comply with the selection criteria about collaboration in primary care. Approximately half of the 139 outcomes in these studies is non-significant. Studies among older patients, in particular, report non-significant outcomes (p < .05). By contrast, a higher proportion of significant results were found in studies that report on clinical outcomes. Conclusions and discussion This review shows a large diversity in the types of collaboration in primary care; and also thus a large proportion of outcomes do not seem to be positively affected by collaboration. Both the characteristics of the structure of the collaboration and the collaboration processes themselves affect the outcomes. More research is necessary to understand the mechanism behind the success of collaboration, especially on the exact nature of collaboration and the context in which collaboration takes place. PMID:26150765

  13. ScaleNet: a literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics.

    PubMed

    García Morales, Mayrolin; Denno, Barbara D; Miller, Douglass R; Miller, Gary L; Ben-Dov, Yair; Hardy, Nate B

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) are small herbivorous insects found on all continents except Antarctica. They are extremely invasive, and many species are serious agricultural pests. They are also emerging models for studies of the evolution of genetic systems, endosymbiosis and plant-insect interactions. ScaleNet was launched in 1995 to provide insect identifiers, pest managers, insect systematists, evolutionary biologists and ecologists efficient access to information about scale insect biological diversity. It provides comprehensive information on scale insects taken directly from the primary literature. Currently, it draws from 23,477 articles and describes the systematics and biology of 8194 valid species. For 20 years, ScaleNet ran on the same software platform. That platform is no longer viable. Here, we present a new, open-source implementation of ScaleNet. We have normalized the data model, begun the process of correcting invalid data, upgraded the user interface, and added online administrative tools. These improvements make ScaleNet easier to use and maintain and make the ScaleNet data more accurate and extendable. Database URL: http://scalenet.info. PMID:26861659

  14. What is known on angiogenesis-related rare diseases? A systematic review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Caso, Luis; Reyes-Palomares, Armando; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Quesada, Ana R; Medina, Miguel Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new vessels from pre-existing ones, is essential during ontogenetic development and is related to many important physio-pathological processes in the adult. In fact, a persistent and deregulated angiogenesis is a required event for many diseases and pathological situations, including cancer progression and metastasis. Some rare diseases are also angiogenesis-related pathologies. However, there is a lack of an exhaustive review on the topic. The main purpose of this work is to carry out a systematic review of literature to determine what (and how much) scientific information concerning angiogenesis-related rare diseases can be extracted from available sources. After exhaustive searches in bibliographic databases, preselected data were filtered by selecting only those articles on rare diseases with an Orpha number hosted in the Orphanet web. The selected bibliographic references were further curated manually. With the 187 selected references, a critical reading and analysis was carried out allowing for an identification and classification of angiogenesis-related rare diseases, the involved genes and the drugs available for their treatment, all on the basis of the information available in Orphanet database. PMID:22882737

  15. Culturally Grounded Prevention for Minority Youth Populations: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Lauricella, Michela; Valdez, Jessica K; Okamoto, Scott K; Helm, Susana; Zaremba, Colleen

    2016-02-01

    Contemporary prevention science has focused on the application of cultural adaptations of evidence-based prevention programs for minority youth populations. Far less is known about culturally grounded methods that are intended to organically develop prevention programs within specific populations and communities. This article systematically reviews recent literature on culturally grounded interventions used to prevent health disparities in ethnic minority youth populations. In this review, we assessed 31 peer-reviewed articles published in 2003 or later that fit inclusionary criteria pertaining to the development and evaluation of culturally grounded prevention programs. The evaluated studies indicated different approaches toward cultural grounding, as well as specific populations, geographic regions, and health issues that have been targeted. Specifically, the findings indicated that most of the studies focused on the development and evaluation of culturally grounded HIV/STI and substance abuse prevention programs for Mexican-American, African American, and American Indian/Alaska Native youth residing in the South or Southwestern US. These studies largely relied on community-based participatory or qualitative research methods to develop programs from the "ground up." This review has implications for the development of future culturally grounded and culturally adapted prevention programs targeting underserved minority youth populations and geographic regions. Specifically, it identifies populations and regions where culturally grounded prevention efforts are underdeveloped or non-existent, providing some scientific direction for the future development of these types of programs. PMID:26733384

  16. Screen Time and Sleep among School-Aged Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford

    2015-01-01

    Summary We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of participant, gender, and day of the week. While the evidence regarding the association between screen time and sleep is consistent, we discuss limitations of the current studies: 1.) causal association not confirmed; 2.) measurement error (of both screen time exposure and sleep measures); 3.) limited data on simultaneous use of multiple screens, characteristics and content of screens used. Youth should be advised to limit or reduce screen time exposure, especially before or during bedtime hours to minimize any harmful effects of screen time on sleep and well-being. Future research should better account for the methodological limitations of the extant studies, and seek to better understand the magnitude and mechanisms of the association. These steps will help the development and implementation of policies or interventions related to screen time among youth. PMID:25193149

  17. Tooth wear against ceramic crowns in posterior region: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hmaidouch, Rim; Weigl, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to assess tooth wear against ceramic crowns in posterior region in vitro and in vivo. An electronic PubMed search was conducted to identify studies on tooth wear against ceramic crowns in posterior region. The selected studies were analyzed in regard to type of crowns, natural antagonist, measuring protocol and outcome. From a yield of 1 000 titles, 43 articles were selected for full-text analysis; finally, no in vitro and only five in vivo studies met the inclusion criteria. As there is heterogeneity in design, used measuring method, ceramics and analysis-form, a meta-analysis was not possible. Results of these studies are very controversial which makes a scientifically valid comparison impossible. This review indicated that some all-ceramic crowns are as wear friendly as metal-ceramic crowns. Up to now, it has been impossible to associate tooth wear with any specific causal agent. The role of ceramic surface treatment that might be responsible for the changing in rate of tooth wear seems undetermined as yet through clinical trials. The literature reveals that studies on this topic are subject to a substantial amount of bias. Therefore, additional clinical studies, properly designed to diminish bias, are warranted. PMID:24136675

  18. A Systematic Review of the Literature on Cystic Echinococcosis Frequency Worldwide and Its Associated Clinical Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Budke, Christine M.; Carabin, Hélène; Ndimubanzi, Patrick C.; Nguyen, Hai; Rainwater, Elizabeth; Dickey, Mary; Bhattarai, Rachana; Zeziulin, Oleksandr; Qian, Men-Bao

    2013-01-01

    A systematic literature review of cystic echinoccocosis (CE) frequency and symptoms was conducted. Studies without denominators, original data, or using one serological test were excluded. Random-effect log-binomial models were run for CE frequency and proportion of reported symptoms where appropriate. A total of 45 and 25 articles on CE frequency and symptoms met all inclusion criteria. Prevalence of CE ranged from 1% to 7% in community-based studies and incidence rates ranged from 0 to 32 cases per 100,000 in hospital-based studies. The CE prevalence was higher in females (Prevalence Proportion Ratio: 1.35 [95% Bayesian Credible Interval: 1.16–1.53]) and increased with age. The most common manifestations of hepatic and pulmonary CE were abdominal pain (57.3% [95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.3–76.1%]) and cough (51.3% [95% CI: 35.7–66.7%]), respectively. The results are limited by the small number of unbiased studies. Nonetheless, the age/gender prevalence differences could be used to inform future models of CE burden. PMID:23546806

  19. Unhealthy diets, obesity and time discounting: a systematic literature review and network analysis.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Pepita; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Galea, Gauden; Stuckler, David

    2016-09-01

    There is an increasing policy commitment to address the avoidable burdens of unhealthy diet, overweight and obesity. However, to design effective policies, it is important to understand why people make unhealthy dietary choices. Research from behavioural economics suggests a critical role for time discounting, which describes how people's value of a reward, such as better health, decreases with delay to its receipt. We systematically reviewed the literature on the relationship of time discounting with unhealthy diets, overweight and obesity in Web of Science and PubMed. We identified 41 studies that met our inclusion criteria as they examined the association between time discount rates and (i) unhealthy food consumption; (ii) overweight and (iii) response to dietary and weight loss interventions. Nineteen out of 25 cross-sectional studies found time discount rates positively associated with overweight, obesity and unhealthy diets. Experimental studies indicated that lower time discounting was associated with greater weight loss. Findings varied by how time discount rates were measured; stronger results were observed for food than monetary-based measurements. Network co-citation analysis revealed a concentration of research in nutrition journals. Overall, there is moderate evidence that high time discounting is a significant risk factor for unhealthy diets, overweight and obesity and may serve as an important target for intervention. © 2016 The Authors Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO). PMID:27256685

  20. Unhealthy diets, obesity and time discounting: a systematic literature review and network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Galea, Gauden; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Summary There is an increasing policy commitment to address the avoidable burdens of unhealthy diet, overweight and obesity. However, to design effective policies, it is important to understand why people make unhealthy dietary choices. Research from behavioural economics suggests a critical role for time discounting, which describes how people's value of a reward, such as better health, decreases with delay to its receipt. We systematically reviewed the literature on the relationship of time discounting with unhealthy diets, overweight and obesity in Web of Science and PubMed. We identified 41 studies that met our inclusion criteria as they examined the association between time discount rates and (i) unhealthy food consumption; (ii) overweight and (iii) response to dietary and weight loss interventions. Nineteen out of 25 cross‐sectional studies found time discount rates positively associated with overweight, obesity and unhealthy diets. Experimental studies indicated that lower time discounting was associated with greater weight loss. Findings varied by how time discount rates were measured; stronger results were observed for food than monetary‐based measurements. Network co‐citation analysis revealed a concentration of research in nutrition journals. Overall, there is moderate evidence that high time discounting is a significant risk factor for unhealthy diets, overweight and obesity and may serve as an important target for intervention. © 2016 The Authors Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO) PMID:27256685

  1. Frequency of the CCR5-delta32 allele in Brazilian populations: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva-Carvalho, Wlisses Henrique Veloso; de Moura, Ronald Rodrigues; Coelho, Antonio Victor Campos; Crovella, Sergio; Guimarães, Rafael Lima

    2016-09-01

    The CCR5 is a chemokine receptor widely expressed by several immune cells that are engaged in inflammatory responses. Some populations have individuals exhibiting a 32bp deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5-delta32) that produces a truncated non-functional protein not expressed on the cell surface. This polymorphism, known to be associated with susceptibility to infectious and inflammatory diseases, such as osteomyelitis, pre-eclampsia, systemic lupus erythematous, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and HIV/AIDS, is more commonly found in European populations with average frequency of 10%. However, it is also possible to observe a significant frequency in other world populations, such as the Brazilian one. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of CCR5-delta32 genetic association studies in Brazilian populations throughout the country to estimate the frequency of this polymorphism. We also compared CCR5-delta32 frequencies across Brazilian regions. The systematic literature reviewed studies involving delta32 allele in Brazilian populations published from 1995 to 2015. Among the reviewed literature, 25 studies including 30 Brazilian populations distributed between the North, Northeast, South and Southeast regions were included in our meta-analysis. We observed an overall allelic frequency of 4% (95%-CI, 0.03-0.05), that was considered moderate and, notably, higher than some European populations, such as Cyprus (2.8%), Italy (3%) and Greece (2.4%). Regarding the regional frequency comparisons between North-Northeast (N-NE) and South-Southeast (S-SE) regions, we observed an allelic frequency of 3% (95%-CI, 0.02-0.04) and 4% (95%-CI, 0.03-0.05), respectively. The populations from S-SE regions had a slightly higher CCR5-delta32 frequency than N-NE regions (OR=1.41, p=0.002). Although there are several studies about the CCR5-delta32 polymorphism and its effect on the immune response of some infectious diseases, this report is the first meta

  2. Animal-assisted intervention for autism spectrum disorder: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    O'Haire, Marguerite E

    2013-07-01

    The inclusion of animals in therapeutic activities, known as animal-assisted intervention (AAI), has been suggested as a treatment practice for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This paper presents a systematic review of the empirical research on AAI for ASD. Fourteen studies published in peer-reviewed journals qualified for inclusion. The presentation of AAI was highly variable across the studies. Reported outcomes included improvements for multiple areas of functioning known to be impaired in ASD, namely increased social interaction and communication as well as decreased problem behaviors, autistic severity, and stress. Yet despite unanimously positive outcomes, most studies were limited by many methodological weaknesses. This review demonstrates that there is preliminary "proof of concept" of AAI for ASD and highlights the need for further, more rigorous research. PMID:23124442

  3. Managing severe cancer pain: the role of transdermal buprenorphine: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Deandrea, S; Corli, O; Moschetti, I; Apolone, G

    2009-01-01

    Pain is a frequent and important symptom in cancer patients. Among the available strong opioids, transdermal buprenorphine has been licensed in Europe since 2002, and results from a few clinical studies suggest that it may be a good alternative to the other oral or transdermal opioids. To assess the best available evidence on its efficacy and safety, we carried out a systematic literature review with the aim of pooling relevant studies. We identified 19 eligible papers describing 12 clinical studies (6 randomized controlled trials and 6 observational prospective studies), including a total of about 5000 cancer patients. Given the poor quality of reports and the heterogeneity of methods and outcomes, pooling was not feasible as the type of data was not appropriate for combining the results statistically. A meta-analysis based on individual data is ongoing in the context of the Cochrane Collaboration. In conclusion, although the narrative appraisal of each study suggests a positive risk benefit profile, well designed and statistically powered controlled clinical trials are needed to confirm this preliminary evidence. PMID:19774212

  4. Association Between Sarcopenia and Nutritional Status in Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Eglseer, Doris; Eminovic, Sandra; Lohrmann, Christa

    2016-07-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Association Between Sarcopenia and Nutritional Status in Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review" found on pages 33-41, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until June 30, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Describe the geriatric syndrome of sarcopenia. 2. Identify the outcome of the

  5. Attachment Style and Less Severe Forms of Sexual Coercion: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Karantzas, Gery C; McCabe, Marita P; Karantzas, Kellie M; Pizzirani, Bengianni; Campbell, Hilary; Mullins, Ellie R

    2016-07-01

    Few studies have examined how attachment insecurity (i.e., attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance) is associated with the more subtle and less severe forms of sexual coercion, such as verbal threats and partner manipulation. This is despite the fact that past research has indicated some of the relationship behaviors exhibited by insecurely attached individuals represent behaviors indicative of either the perpetration or victimization of less severe forms of sexual coercion. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the association between attachment style and less severe forms of sexual coercion. Our search, which included published journal papers, book chapters, and theses published between January 1970 and October 2014, yielded 1091 records. Examination of these records against exclusion criteria yielded 11 studies that focused on the associations between attachment orientation and perpetration of sexual coercion (n = 3), sexual coercion victimization (n = 3), or both perpetration and victimization (n = 5). Findings revealed that attachment anxiety appeared to be more consistently associated with being the victim of sexual coercion than attachment avoidance. In terms of perpetration, attachment avoidance was more consistently associated with sexual coercion. These findings were observed when examining the association between attachment dimensions and motives for sexual coercion. The findings also revealed gender to be a moderator for victimization. This review provides insights into how attachment style may influence the perpetration and victimization of sexual coercion. PMID:26415749

  6. Immune tolerance induction for patients with severe hemophilia A: a critical literature review.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2011-11-01

    The development of inhibitors that neutralize the function of clotting factor VIII (FVIII) is currently the most challenging complication associated with the treatment of hemophilia A as it increases the disease-related morbidity and mortality. Immune tolerance induction (ITI) is the only documented strategy to eradicate persistent inhibitors in severe hemophilia A patients. Several studies have been conducted so far to identify patient- and treatment-related factors associated with greater ITI success. The currently available literature on ITI in hemophilia A will be critically reviewed in this article. In particular, we will focus on the role of the type of FVIII product on ITI outcome by analyzing the clinical and experimental data. PMID:21818664

  7. A severe dermatologic adverse effect related with gefitinib: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Qing; Sun, Hong; Xue, Dong

    2013-09-01

    Gefitinib, a selective inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase, it's one of the most frequent drug-related adverse effects (AEs) reported in literature is dermatologic AEs. We report, a case of severe cutaneous adverse reactions induced by gefitinib as second-line treatment in a male patient with advanced non-small cell lung cancer after 1 month of treatment. Although tumor shrunk and patient got benefit from the treatment, gefitinib had to be stopped right away. We managed the symptoms of rash with a variety of treatments, including topical ethacridine lactate, antihistamine and so on. After the rash improved, we found his tumor were progress. Then he took gefitinib again without severe skin toxicity or disease progression. We think the development of gefitinib-induced rash may be a sign of effective and administrating it again maybe relieves the degree of rash. PMID:24135241

  8. Healthy Animals, Healthy People: Zoonosis Risk from Animal Contact in Pet Shops, a Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Halsby, Kate D.; Walsh, Amanda L.; Campbell, Colin; Hewitt, Kirsty; Morgan, Dilys

    2014-01-01

    Background Around 67 million pets are owned by households in the United Kingdom, and an increasing number of these are exotic animals. Approximately a third of pets are purchased through retail outlets or direct from breeders. A wide range of infections can be associated with companion animals. Objectives This study uses a systematic literature review to describe the transmission of zoonotic disease in humans associated with a pet shop or other location selling pets (incidents of rabies tracebacks and zoonoses from pet food were excluded). Data sources PubMed and EMBASE. Results Fifty seven separate case reports or incidents were described in the 82 papers that were identified by the systematic review. Summary information on each incident is included in this manuscript. The infections include bacterial, viral and fungal diseases and range in severity from mild to life threatening. Infections associated with birds and rodents were the most commonly reported. Over half of the reports describe incidents in the Americas, and three of these were outbreaks involving more than 50 cases. Many of the incidents identified relate to infections in pet shop employees. Limitations This review may have been subject to publication bias, where unusual and unexpected zoonotic infections may be over-represented in peer-reviewed publications. It was also restricted to English-language articles so that pathogens that are more common in non-Western countries, or in more exotic animals not common in Europe and the Americas, may have been under-represented. Conclusions/implications A wide spectrum of zoonotic infections are acquired from pet shops. Salmonellosis and psittacosis were the most commonly documented diseases, however more unusual infections such as tularemia also appeared in the review. Given their potential to spread zoonotic infection, it is important that pet shops act to minimise the risk as far as possible. PMID:24586679

  9. School-based diabetes interventions and their outcomes: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Pansier, Bénédicte; Schulz, Peter J

    2015-02-20

    Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases, while type 2 diabetes in children is increasing at alarming rates globally. Against this backdrop, the school is a critical environment for children with diabetes. They continue to face barriers to education that may lead to depression, poor academic performance, and poor quality of life. To address these challenges, diabetes interventions have been implemented in school and the goal was to systematically review these interventions and their outcomes between 2000 and 2013. Fifteen studies were included in the narrative synthesis. Education of school personnel was the main focus before 2006. Studies reported gains in knowledge and perceived confidence of school staff. Since 2006, more comprehensive interventions have been developed to promote better care coordination and create a safe school environment. These studies reported improved diabetes management and quality of life of students. Assessment tools varied and study design included randomized controlled trials, quantitative and qualitative methods. Although many of the studies reported a significant difference in the parameters measured, it was not possible to determine optimal ways to improve the health, quality of life and academic performance of children with diabetes, given the disparity in scope, assessment tools and measured outcomes. Experimental designs, longer follow-up studies, larger sample sizes, and a higher number of participating schools are critical issues to consider in future studies. Most of the research was conducted in North America and further research is needed in other parts of the world. Significance for public healthDiabetes is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases; both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are increasing in children globally. Against this backdrop, the school is a critical environment for children with diabetes. This systematic literature review on school-based diabetes interventions and their

  10. A Systematic Literature Review: Workplace Violence Against Emergency Medical Services Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Pourshaikhian, Majid; Abolghasem Gorji, Hassan; Aryankhesal, Aidin; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davood; Barati, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Context In spite of the high prevalence and consequences of much workplace violence against emergency medical services personnel, this phenomenon has been given insufficient attention. A systematic review can aid the development of guidelines to reduce violence. Objectives The research question addressed by this paper is, “What are the characteristics and findings of studies on workplace violence against emergency medical services personnel”? Data Sources A systematic literature review was conducted using online databases (PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Magiran) with the help of experienced librarians. Study Selection Inclusion criteria comprised studies in the English or Persian language and researcher’s access to the full text. There was no limit to the entry of the study design. Exclusion criteria included lack of access to the full text of the article, studies published in unreliable journals or conferences, and studies in which the results were shared with other medical or relief groups and there was no possibility of breaking down the results. Data Extraction A “Data extraction form” was designed by the researchers based on the goals of the study that included the title and author(s), study method (type, place of study, sample size, sampling method, and data collection/analysis tool), printing location, information related to the frequency of types of violence, characteristics of victims /perpetrators, and related factors. Results The papers reviewed utilized a variety of locations and environments, methods, and instrument samplings. The majority of the studies were performed using the quantitative method. No intervention study was found. Most studies focused on the prevalence of violence, and their results indicated that exposure to violence was high. The results are presented in six major themes. Conclusions Workplace violence and injuries incurred from it are extensive throughout the world. The important causes of violence include the

  11. Describing the Prevalence of Neural Tube Defects Worldwide: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Zaganjor, Ibrahim; Sekkarie, Ahlia; Tsang, Becky L.; Williams, Jennifer; Razzaghi, Hilda; Mulinare, Joseph; Sniezek, Joseph E.; Cannon, Michael J.; Rosenthal, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Background Folate-sensitive neural tube defects (NTDs) are an important, preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is a need to describe the current global burden of NTDs and identify gaps in available NTD data. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and searched multiple databases for NTD prevalence estimates and abstracted data from peer-reviewed literature, birth defects surveillance registries, and reports published between January 1990 and July 2014 that had greater than 5,000 births and were not solely based on mortality data. We classified countries according to World Health Organization (WHO) regions and World Bank income classifications. The initial search yielded 11,614 results; after systematic review we identified 160 full text manuscripts and reports that met the inclusion criteria. Data came from 75 countries. Coverage by WHO region varied in completeness (i.e., % of countries reporting) as follows: African (17%), Eastern Mediterranean (57%), European (49%), Americas (43%), South-East Asian (36%), and Western Pacific (33%). The reported NTD prevalence ranges and medians for each region were: African (5.2–75.4; 11.7 per 10,000 births), Eastern Mediterranean (2.1–124.1; 21.9 per 10,000 births), European (1.3–35.9; 9.0 per 10,000 births), Americas (3.3–27.9; 11.5 per 10,000 births), South-East Asian (1.9–66.2; 15.8 per 10,000 births), and Western Pacific (0.3–199.4; 6.9 per 10,000 births). The presence of a registry or surveillance system for NTDs increased with country income level: low income (0%), lower-middle income (25%), upper-middle income (70%), and high income (91%). Conclusions Many WHO member states (120/194) did not have any data on NTD prevalence. Where data are collected, prevalence estimates vary widely. These findings highlight the need for greater NTD surveillance efforts, especially in lower-income countries. NTDs are an important public health problem that can be prevented with folic acid

  12. Toxocariasis-associated cardiac diseases--A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kuenzli, Esther; Neumayr, Andreas; Chaney, Matthew; Blum, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara catis, is a worldwide occurring parasitic disease, reaching high prevalences especially in tropical and subtropical countries. The clinical presentation can range from asymptomatic seropositivity to life threatenting disease, depending on the organ system involved. Cardiac involvement, one of the possible manifestations of human Toxocara spp. infection, is rarely reported in case reports. As far as we know, no systematic reviews of clinical presentations have been published till now and no clear recommendations regarding the treatment of Toxocara spp. infection involving the heart exist. In a systematic review of the literature, 24 published cases of Toxocara spp. infection involving the heart were identified. The cardiac entities described included myocarditis, pericarditis, and Loeffler's endocarditis. The clinical presentation ranged from asymptomatic or mild disease to life threatening myocarditis/pericarditis with heart failure or cardiac tamponade, leading to death. In most cases, the diagnosis was based on a combination of clinical, laboratory and radiological findings. Only in three of the nine cases in which histological analysis was performed (either pre- or post-mortem), granulomas or remnants of the parasite were detected. In the other six cases, findings were non-specific; the damage of the heart was equally caused by direct invasion of the larvae and by immunological reactions, either caused by the systemic hypereosinophilia or by the presence of the larvae in the tissue. The treatment regimen described mostly consisted of anthelmintic drugs in combination with corticosteroids. Even though dosage and duration of treatment varied widely, ranging from days to months, most patients were treated successfully. Cardiac involvement in Toxocara spp. infection is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of a very common disease. The therapeutic regimens vary widely especially with regard to the

  13. Cost of management of severe pneumonia in young children: systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shanshan; Sammon, Peter M.; King, Isobel; Andrade, Ana Lucia; Toscano, Cristiana M.; Araujo, Sheila N; Sinha, Anushua; Madhi, Shabir A.; Khandaker, Gulam; Yin, Jiehui Kevin; Booy, Robert; Huda, Tanvir M; Rahman, Qazi S; El Arifeen, Shams; Gentile, Angela; Giglio, Norberto; Bhuiyan, Mejbah U.; Sturm–Ramirez, Katharine; Gessner, Bradford D.; Nadjib, Mardiati; Carosone–Link, Phyllis J.; Simões, Eric AF; Child, Jason A; Ahmed, Imran; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Soofi, Sajid B; Khan, Rumana J; Campbell, Harry; Nair, Harish

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood pneumonia is a major cause of childhood illness and the second leading cause of child death globally. Understanding the costs associated with the management of childhood pneumonia is essential for resource allocation and priority setting for child health. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify studies reporting data on the cost of management of pneumonia in children younger than 5 years old. We collected unpublished cost data on non–severe, severe and very severe pneumonia through collaboration with an international working group. We extracted data on cost per episode, duration of hospital stay and unit cost of interventions for the management of pneumonia. The mean (95% confidence interval, CI) and median (interquartile range, IQR) treatment costs were estimated and reported where appropriate. Results We identified 24 published studies eligible for inclusion and supplemented these with data from 10 unpublished studies. The 34 studies included in the cost analysis contained data on more than 95 000 children with pneumonia from both low– and–middle income countries (LMIC) and high–income countries (HIC) covering all 6 WHO regions. The total cost (per episode) for management of severe pneumonia was US$ 4.3 (95% CI 1.5–8.7), US$ 51.7 (95% CI 17.4–91.0) and US$ 242.7 (95% CI 153.6–341.4)–559.4 (95% CI 268.9–886.3) in community, out–patient facilities and different levels of hospital in–patient settings in LMIC. Direct medical cost for severe pneumonia in hospital inpatient settings was estimated to be 26.6%–115.8% of patients’ monthly household income in LMIC. The mean direct non–medical cost and indirect cost for severe pneumonia management accounted for 0.5–31% of weekly household income. The mean length of stay (LOS) in hospital for children with severe pneumonia was 5.8 (IQR 5.3–6.4) and 7.7 (IQR 5.5–9.9) days in LMIC and HIC respectively for these children. Conclusion This is the most

  14. Motor abilities of children and adolescents with a psychiatric condition: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Damme, Tine Van; Simons, Johan; Sabbe, Bernard; van West, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To summarize research regarding the motor abilities of children and adolescents who suffer from a common psychiatric condition. METHODS: In order to outline the current knowledge regarding the motor abilities of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) and depression, a comprehensive systematic literature search was carried out using PubMed, Medline and ERIC databases. The databases were searched for relevant English language articles published between January 1990 and April 2014. Only studies that conducted a quantitative evaluation of motor ability and concerned individuals aged 0-18 years were included. A separate search was conducted for each disorder (ASD, ADHD, DBD, depression) in conjunction with each of the following keywords: (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement skill(s), (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement abilities, (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement impairment, (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement problem(s), motor function, motor coordination, motor performance, motor deficit(s). To detect supplementary relevant literature, the reference lists of the retrieved articles were examined. RESULTS: The search strategy yielded 51 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. In total, 28 studies were included that examined the motor abilities of children and adolescents with ASD. All studies indicated that they performed below average on various standardized motor assessment instruments. The overall prevalence rate for impairment in motor abilities ranged from 33% to 100%. Twenty-seven studies examined the motor abilities of children and adolescents with ADHD. Depending on the type of motor assessment tool and the cut-off points used by different researchers, prevalence rates of impairment in motor abilities are highly variable and ranged from 8% to 73%. Remarkably, there is a paucity of research addressing the motor abilities of individuals with DBD or depression

  15. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Avan, Bilal Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Health management information systems (HMIS) produce large amounts of data about health service provision and population health, and provide opportunities for data-based decision-making in decentralized health systems. Yet the data are little-used locally. A well-defined approach to district-level decision-making using health data would help better meet the needs of the local population. In this second of four papers on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, our aim was to explore ways in which district administrators and health managers in low- and lower-middle-income countries use health data to make decisions, to describe the decision-making tools they used and identify challenges encountered when using these tools. A systematic literature review, following PRISMA guidelines, was undertaken. Experts were consulted about key sources of information. A search strategy was developed for 14 online databases of peer reviewed and grey literature. The resources were screened independently by two reviewers using pre-defined inclusion criteria. The 14 papers included were assessed for the quality of reported evidence and a descriptive evidence synthesis of the review findings was undertaken. We found 12 examples of tools to assist district-level decision-making, all of which included two key stages—identification of priorities, and development of an action plan to address them. Of those tools with more steps, four included steps to review or monitor the action plan agreed, suggesting the use of HMIS data. In eight papers HMIS data were used for prioritization. Challenges to decision-making processes fell into three main categories: the availability and quality of health and health facility data; human dynamics and financial constraints. Our findings suggest that evidence is available about a limited range of processes that include the use of data for decision-making at district level. Standardization and pre-testing in diverse settings would

  16. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Hashmi, Iram Ejaz; Schellenberg, Joanna; Avan, Bilal Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Health management information systems (HMIS) produce large amounts of data about health service provision and population health, and provide opportunities for data-based decision-making in decentralized health systems. Yet the data are little-used locally. A well-defined approach to district-level decision-making using health data would help better meet the needs of the local population. In this second of four papers on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, our aim was to explore ways in which district administrators and health managers in low- and lower-middle-income countries use health data to make decisions, to describe the decision-making tools they used and identify challenges encountered when using these tools. A systematic literature review, following PRISMA guidelines, was undertaken. Experts were consulted about key sources of information. A search strategy was developed for 14 online databases of peer reviewed and grey literature. The resources were screened independently by two reviewers using pre-defined inclusion criteria. The 14 papers included were assessed for the quality of reported evidence and a descriptive evidence synthesis of the review findings was undertaken. We found 12 examples of tools to assist district-level decision-making, all of which included two key stages-identification of priorities, and development of an action plan to address them. Of those tools with more steps, four included steps to review or monitor the action plan agreed, suggesting the use of HMIS data. In eight papers HMIS data were used for prioritization. Challenges to decision-making processes fell into three main categories: the availability and quality of health and health facility data; human dynamics and financial constraints. Our findings suggest that evidence is available about a limited range of processes that include the use of data for decision-making at district level. Standardization and pre-testing in diverse settings would increase

  17. Extrapulmonary manifestations of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Eisenhut, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis is the most important cause for admission to the paediatric intensive care unit in infants with lower respiratory tract infection. In recent years the importance of extrapulmonary manifestations of RSV infection has become evident. This systematic review aimed at summarizing the available evidence on manifestations of RSV infection outside the respiratory tract, their causes and the changes in clinical management required. Methods Databases searched were Medline (1950 to present), EMBASE (1974 to present), PubMed and reference lists of relevant articles. Summarized were the findings of articles reporting on manifestations of RSV infection outside the respiratory tract in patients of all age groups. Results Extrapulmonary manifestations reported in previous observational studies included cardiovascular failure with hypotension and inotrope requirements associated with myocardial damage as evident from elevated cardiac troponin levels (35–54% of ventilated infants), cardiac arrhythmias like supraventricular tachycardias and ventricular tachycardias, central apnoeas (16–21% of admissions), focal and generalized seizures, focal neurological abnormalities, hyponatraemia (33%) associated with increased antidiuretic hormone secretion, and hepatitis (46–49% of ventilated infants). RSV or its genetic material have been isolated from cerebrospinal fluid, myocardium, liver and peripheral blood. Conclusion The data summarized indicate a systemic dissemination of RSV during severe disease. Cerebral and myocardial involvement may explain the association of RSV with some cases of sudden infant death. In infants with severe RSV infection cardiac rhythm, blood pressure and serum sodium need to be monitored and supportive treatment including fluid management adjusted accordingly. PMID:16859512

  18. Hospitalized youth and child abuse: a systematic examination of psychiatric morbidity and clinical severity.

    PubMed

    Keeshin, Brooks R; Strawn, Jeffrey R; Luebbe, Aaron M; Saldaña, Shannon N; Wehry, Anna M; DelBello, Melissa P; Putnam, Frank W

    2014-01-01

    Many children and adolescents who require psychiatric hospitalization have been physically or sexually abused, yet the association between reported histories of abuse and the complexity and severity of mental illness among psychiatrically hospitalized youth is poorly described with regard to current inpatient psychiatric practice. We sought to determine the association between histories of abuse and psychiatric complexity and severity in psychiatrically hospitalized youth including comorbidity patterns, psychotropic medication use, reason for admission and length of hospitalization. A systematic chart review was performed on 1433 consecutive psychiatric hospitalizations of children and adolescents that occurred over a 10-month period. Children with a history of abuse were more likely to be diagnosed with multiple DSM-IV-TR disorders than non-traumatized children. A history of sexual abuse was associated with more medication use than in their non-traumatized peers and a higher likelihood of treatment with antipsychotic medications, both at admission and discharge. Physical and sexual abuse were independently associated with increased length of stays, with exposure to both physical and sexual abuse associated with a 2-day increase in duration of hospitalization compared to non-traumatized patients. The findings from this study draw attention to the adverse impact of abuse on psychiatric morbidity and complexity and suggest the need for trauma-informed treatment in psychiatric hospital settings. PMID:24041456

  19. A Strategic Study about Quality Characteristics in e-Health Systems Based on a Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Mayo, F. J.; Escalona, M. J.; Mejías, M.; Aragón, G.; García-García, J. A.; Torres, J.; Enríquez, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    e-Health Systems quality management is an expensive and hard process that entails performing several tasks such as analysis, evaluation, and quality control. Furthermore, the development of an e-Health System involves great responsibility since people's health and quality of life depend on the system and services offered. The focus of the following study is to identify the gap in Quality Characteristics for e-Health Systems, by detecting not only which are the most studied, but also which are the most used Quality Characteristics these Systems include. A strategic study is driven in this paper by a Systematic Literature Review so as to identify Quality Characteristics in e-Health. Such study makes information and communication technology organizations reflect and act strategically to manage quality in e-Health Systems efficiently and effectively. As a result, this paper proposes the bases of a Quality Model and focuses on a set of Quality Characteristics to enable e-Health Systems quality management. Thus, we can conclude that this paper contributes to implementing knowledge with regard to the mission and view of e-Health (Systems) quality management and helps understand how current researches evaluate quality in e-Health Systems. PMID:26146656

  20. The role of reduction and internal fixation of Lisfranc fracture–dislocations: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Stavlas, Panagiotis; Roberts, Craig S.; Xypnitos, Fragiskos N.

    2010-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature was performed in order to evaluate the role of reduction and internal fixation in the management of Lisfranc joint fracture–dislocations. Articles were extracted from the Pubmed database and the retrieved reports were included in the study only if pre-specified eligibility criteria were fulfilled. Eleven articles were eligible for the final analysis, reporting data for the management of 257 patients. Injuries of the first three metatarsal rays were treated by closed reduction and internal fixation with screws in 16.3% of the patients, open reduction and internal fixation with screws in 66.5% and open reduction and internal fixation with Kirschner wires (K-wires) in 17.1% of the patients. The preferred method for the stabilisation of the fourth and fifth metatarsal rays was K-wires. Screw-related complications were common and were reported in 16.1% of the cases. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society midfoot score was 78.1 points. Post-traumatic radiographic arthritis was reported in 49.6% of the patients, but only in 7.8% of them it was severe enough to warrant an arthrodesis. We conclude that open reduction and internal fixation of the first three metatarsal rays with screws is a reliable method for the management of Lisfranc injuries. This can be complemented by K-wires application in the fourth and fifth metatarsal rays if needed. PMID:20683593

  1. Associations between parent-child relationship quality and obesogenic risk in adolescence: a systematic review of recent literature.

    PubMed

    Blewitt, Claire; Bergmeier, Heidi; Macdonald, Jacqui A; Olsson, Craig A; Skouteris, Helen

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is a period of significant cognitive, social and physiological change, presenting unique risk factors for weight gain. Childhood obesity research has traditionally focused on the influence of parent-level factors on children's eating and weight status. Increasingly, emphasis is turning towards the reciprocal nature of the parent-child relationship and its influence on health behaviour. A systematic literature review was conducted to investigate the relationship between parent-child relationship quality (defined as the felt emotional bond between parent and child) and obesogenic risk (weight status, eating attitudes and behaviours, level of physical activity and sedentary behaviour) in adolescence; 26 papers were included in the review. The results neither support nor challenge an association between parent-child relationship quality and weight, with study design flaws and limited measurement of the parent-child relationship precluding robust conclusions. The review does however suggests that several aspects of the parent-child relationship are important in understanding eating attitudes and behaviours, including the felt emotional bond between the parent and child, the child's perception of how much the parent cares for them and the mother's sensitivity towards the child. The need for further longitudinal research into the association between parent-child relationship quality and obesity risk across this developmental period is discussed. PMID:27125464

  2. Prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elderly Brazilians: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Population ageing is a worldwide phenomenon that has recently challenged public healthcare systems. The knowledge of the burden of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elders is still limited, particularly in the developing world. This systematic review aimed to investigate the prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elderly Brazilians. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed in five electronic databases (from inception to January 2012) and completed by additional searches in reference lists. Two review authors independently selected the eligible studies and extracted data on participants’ characteristics and rates of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. One review author extracted methodological quality data. We performed a critical synthesis of the results, which were grouped into the diagnoses “chronic musculoskeletal pain” or “specific musculoskeletal diagnoses”. Results Twenty five studies reporting on a total of 116,091 elderly Brazilians were included. Eight studies (32%) were of high methodological quality. There was a large variation in the measure of prevalence used by individual studies and in their definition of chronic pain. Prevalence estimates reached 86% for chronic musculoskeletal pain in any location. Studies investigating multiple pain sites found the lower limb and the spine to be the most prevalent complaints (50% each). Arthritis and rheumatism (including osteoarthritis) were the most prevalent specific musculoskeletal diagnoses (9% to 40%), followed by herniated disc (6% to 27%). Conclusions Despite the growth of the elderly population worldwide, high-quality research on the burden of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in the elderly is still scarce. Future healthcare research focusing on this age group should be a priority in developing countries since their public healthcare systems are not yet fully prepared to accommodate the needs of an aging population. PMID:22642899

  3. Knowledge gaps in scientific literature on maternal mortality: a systematic review.

    PubMed Central

    Gil-González, Diana; Carrasco-Portiño, Mercedes; Ruiz, Maria Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Issues related to maternal mortality have generated a lot of empirical and theoretical information. However, despite the amount of work published on the topic, maternal mortality continues to occur at high rates and solutions to the problem are still not clear. Scientific research on maternal mortality is focused mainly on clinical factors. However, this approach may not be the most useful if we are to understand the problem of maternal mortality as a whole and appreciate the importance of economical, political and social macrostructural factors. In this paper, we report the number of scientific studies published between 2000 and 2004 about the main causes of maternal death, as identified by WHO, and compare the proportion of papers on each cause with the corresponding burden of each cause. Secondly, we systematically review the characteristics and quality of the papers on the macrostructural determinants of maternal mortality. In view of their burden, obstructed labour, unsafe abortion and haemorrhage are proportionally underrepresented in the scientific literature. In our review, most studies analysed were cross-sectional, and were carried out by developed countries without the participation of researchers in the developing countries where maternal mortality was studied. The main macrostructural factors mentioned were socioeconomic variables. Overall, there is a lack of published information about the cultural and political determinants of maternal mortality. We believe that a high-quality scientific approach must be taken in studies of maternal mortality in order to obtain robust comparative data and that study design should be improved to allow causality between macrostructural determinants and maternal mortality to be shown. PMID:17143465

  4. Systematic review on quality control for drug management programs: Is quality reported in the literature?

    PubMed Central

    Holtorf, Anke-Peggy; McAdam-Marx, Carrie; Schaaf, David; Eng, Benjamin; Oderda, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Background Maintaining quality of care while managing limited healthcare resources is an ongoing challenge in healthcare. The objective of this study was to evaluate how the impact of drug management programs is reported in the literature and to identify potentially existing quality standards. Methods This analysis relates to the published research on the impact of drug management on economic, clinical, or humanistic outcomes in managed care, indemnity insurance, VA, or Medicaid in the USA published between 1996 and 2007. Included articles were systematically analyzed for study objective, study endpoints, and drug management type. They were further categorized by drug management tool, primary objective, and study endpoints. Results None of the 76 included publications assessed the overall quality of drug management tools. The impact of 9 different drug management tools used alone or in combination was studied in pharmacy claims, medical claims, electronic medical records or survey data from either patient, plan or provider perspective using an average of 2.1 of 11 possible endpoints. A total of 68% of the studies reported the impact on plan focused endpoints, while the clinical, the patient or the provider perspective were studied to a much lower degree (45%, 42% and 12% of the studies). Health outcomes were only accounted for in 9.2% of the studies. Conclusion Comprehensive assessment of quality considering plan, patient and clinical outcomes is not yet applied. There is no defined quality standard. Benchmarks including health outcomes should be determined and used to improve the overall clinical and economic effectiveness of drug management programs. PMID:19243591

  5. Communications in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Savoia, Elena; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    During a public health crisis, public health agencies engage in a variety of public communication efforts to inform the population, encourage the adoption of preventive behaviors, and limit the impact of adverse events. Given the importance of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, it is critical to examine the extent to which this field of study has received attention from the scientific community. We conducted a systematic literature review to describe current research in the area of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, focusing on the association between sociodemographic and behavioral factors and communication as well as preparedness outcomes. Articles were searched in PubMed and Embase and reviewed by 2 independent reviewers. A total of 131 articles were included for final review. Fifty-three percent of the articles were empirical, of which 74% were population-based studies, and 26% used information environment analysis techniques. None had an experimental study design. Population-based studies were rarely supported by theoretical models and mostly relied on a cross-sectional study design. Consistent results were reported on the association between population socioeconomic factors and public health emergency preparedness communication and preparedness outcomes. Our findings show the need for empirical research to determine what type of communication messages can be effective in achieving preparedness outcomes across various population groups. They suggest that a real-time analysis of the information environment is valuable in knowing what is being communicated to the public and could be used for course correction of public health messages during a crisis. PMID:24041193

  6. Tuberculosis in Migrant Populations. A Systematic Review of the Qualitative Literature

    PubMed Central

    Abarca Tomás, Bruno; Pell, Christopher; Bueno Cavanillas, Aurora; Guillén Solvas, José; Pool, Robert; Roura, María

    2013-01-01

    Background The re-emergence of tuberculosis (TB) in low-incidence countries and its disproportionate burden on immigrants is a public health concern posing specific social and ethical challenges. This review explores perceptions, knowledge, attitudes and treatment adherence behaviour relating to TB and their social implications as reported in the qualitative literature. Methods Systematic review in four electronic databases. Findings from thirty selected studies extracted, tabulated, compared and synthesized. Findings TB was attributed to many non-exclusive causes including air-born transmission of bacteria, genetics, malnutrition, excessive work, irresponsible lifestyles, casual contact with infected persons or objects; and exposure to low temperatures, dirt, stress and witchcraft. Perceived as curable but potentially lethal and highly contagious, there was confusion around a condition surrounded by fears. A range of economic, legislative, cultural, social and health system barriers could delay treatment seeking. Fears of deportation and having contacts traced could prevent individuals from seeking medical assistance. Once on treatment, family support and “the personal touch” of health providers emerged as key factors facilitating adherence. The concept of latent infection was difficult to comprehend and while TB screening was often seen as a socially responsible act, it could be perceived as discriminatory. Immigration and the infectiousness of TB mutually reinforced each another exacerbating stigma. This was further aggravated by indirect costs such as losing a job, being evicted by a landlord or not being able to attend school. Conclusions Understanding immigrants’ views of TB and the obstacles that they face when accessing the health system and adhering to a treatment programme-taking into consideration their previous experiences at countries of origin as well as the social, economic and legislative context in which they live at host countries- has an

  7. Millennium Development Goal Four and Child Health Inequities in Indonesia: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schröders, Julia; Wall, Stig; Kusnanto, Hari; Ng, Nawi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 calls for reducing mortality of children under-five years by two-thirds by 2015. Indonesia is on track to officially meet the MDG 4 targets by 2015 but progress has been far from universal. It has been argued that national level statistics, on which MDG 4 relies, obscure persistent health inequities within the country. Particularly inequities in child health are a major global public health challenge both for achieving MDG 4 in 2015 and beyond. This review aims to map out the situation of MDG 4 with respect to disadvantaged populations in Indonesia applying the Social Determinants of Health (SDH) framework. The specific objectives are to answer: Who are the disadvantaged populations? Where do they live? And why and how is the inequitable distribution of health explained in terms of the SDH framework? Methods and Findings We retrieved studies through a systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature published in 1995-2014. The PRISMA-Equity 2012 statement was adapted to guide the methods of this review. The dependent variables were MDG 4-related indicators; the independent variable “disadvantaged populations” was defined by different categories of social differentiation using PROGRESS. Included texts were analyzed following the guidelines for deductive content analysis operationalized on the basis of the SDH framework. We identified 83 studies establishing evidence on more than 40 different determinants hindering an equitable distribution of child health in Indonesia. The most prominent determinants arise from the shortcomings within the rural health care system, the repercussions of food poverty coupled with low health literacy among parents, the impact of low household decision-making power of mothers, and the consequences of high persistent use of traditional birth attendants among ethnic minorities. Conclusion This review calls for enhanced understanding of the determinants and pathways that create

  8. Global trends on fears and concerns of genetic discrimination: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Wauters, Annet; Van Hoyweghen, Ine

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1990s, developments in the field of genetics have led to many questions on the use and possible misuse of genetic information. 'Genetic discrimination' has been defined as the differential treatment of asymptomatic individuals or their relatives on the basis of their real or assumed genetic characteristics. Despite the public policy attention around genetic discrimination, there is currently still much confusion surrounding this phenomenon. On the one hand, there is little evidence of the occurrence of genetic discrimination. On the other hand, it appears that people remain concerned about this theme, and this fear influences their health and life choices. This article makes use of a systematic literature review to investigate what is already known about the nature, extent and background of these fears and concerns. The 42 included studies have found considerable levels of concerns about genetic discrimination. Concerns dominate in insurance contexts and within personal interactions. The extent of concerns appears to vary depending on the type of genetic illness. Furthermore, installed laws prohibiting genetic discrimination do not seem to alleviate existing fears. This raises important questions as to the origins of these fears. Based on the findings, recommendations for future research are made. First, research on the background of fears is needed. Second, future research needs to assess more fully all different forms (for example, direct and indirect) of genetic discrimination. Thirdly, it has to be studied whether genetic discrimination is a form of discrimination that is distinguishable from discrimination based on an illness or disability. Finally, a last element that should be addressed in future research is the most recent developments in research on genomics, such as next-generation sequencing or genome-wide association studies. PMID:26740237

  9. Association between diabetes mellitus and osteoarthritis: systematic literature review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Louati, Karine; Vidal, Céline; Berenbaum, Francis; Sellam, Jérémie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and prevalence of DM in patients with OA and whether OA and DM are associated. Design A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. We included cohort, case–control and cross-sectional studies assessing the number of patients with DM and/or OA. The mean prevalence of OA among patients with DM and DM among patients with OA was calculated. Data from trials assessing an association of diabetes and OA were pooled and results are presented as unadjusted OR and 95% CI. Results From the 299 publications, we included 49 studies in the analysis, including 28 cross-sectional studies, 11 cohort studies and 10 case–control studies. In all, 21, 5 and 23 articles involved patients with OA exclusively, patients with DM and the general population, respectively. For 5788 patients with DM, the mean OA prevalence was 29.5±1.2%. For 645 089 patients with OA, the prevalence of DM was 14.4±0.1%. The risk of OA was greater in the DM than non-DM population (OR=1.46 (1.08 to 1.96), p=0.01), as was DM in the OA than non-OA population (OR=1.41 (1.21 to 1.65), p<0.00 001). Among the 12 studies reporting an OR adjusted on at least the body mass index, 5 showed no association of DM and OA and 7 identified DM as an independent risk factor. Conclusions This meta-analysis highlights a high frequency of OA in patients with DM and an association between both diseases, representing a further step towards the individualisation of DM-related OA within a metabolic OA phenotype. PMID:26535137

  10. Endovascular Treatment of Active Splenic Bleeding After Colonoscopy: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Corcillo, Antonella; Aellen, Steve Zingg, Tobias; Bize, Pierre; Demartines, Nicolas; Denys, Alban

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Colonoscopy is reported to be a safe procedure that is routinely performed for the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal diseases. Splenic rupture is considered to be a rare complication with high mortality and morbidity that requires immediate diagnosis and management. Nonoperative management (NOM), surgical treatment (ST), and, more recently, proximal splenic artery embolization (PSAE) have been proposed as treatment options. The goal of this study was to assess whether PSAE is safe even in high-grade ruptures. Methods: We report two rare cases of post colonoscopy splenic rupture. A systematic review of the literature from 2002 to 2010 (first reported case of PSAE) was performed and the three types of treatment compared. Results: All patients reviewed (77 of 77) presented with intraperitoneal hemorrhage due to isolated splenic trauma. Splenic rupture was high-grade in most patients when grading was possible. Six of 77 patients (7.8 %) were treated with PSAE, including the 2 cases reported herein. Fifty-seven patients (74 %) underwent ST. NOM was attempted first in 25 patients with a high failure rate (11 of 25 [44 %]) and requiring a salvage procedure, such as PSAE or ST. Previous surgery (31 of 59 patients), adhesions (10 of 13), diagnostic colonoscopies (49 of 71), previous biopsies or polypectomies (31 of 57) and female sex (56 of 77) were identified as risk factors. In contrast, splenomegaly (0 of 77 patients), medications that increase the risk of bleeding (13 of 30) and difficult colonoscopies (16 of 51) were not identified as risk factors. PSAE was safe and effective even in elderly patients with comorbidities and those taking medications that increase the risk of bleeding, and the length of the hospital stay was similar to that after ST. Conclusion: We propose a treatment algorithm based on clinical and radiological criteria. Because of the high failure rate after NOM, PSAE should be the treatment of choice to manage grade I through IV splenic

  11. Dried blood spot in the genotyping, quantification and storage of HCV RNA: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Greenman, Jamie; Roberts, Teri; Cohn, Jennifer; Messac, Luke

    2015-01-01

    The entry of new all-oral direct acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C provides an opportunity to scale up HCV care in low- and middle-income countries. In HIV, use of dried blood spots (DBS) has facilitated the diagnosis and management of HIV in resource-poor settings. DBS may be used in a similar way to facilitate diagnosis and management of HCV. Here, we present a systematic review of the literature of DBS for HCV RNA detection and genotyping. Using an a priori review protocol, three databases were searched for studies published up to August 2013 that reported the use of dried blood and serum spots in genotyping, detection and measurement of HCV RNA, as well as the rate of degradation of HCV RNA when stored in DBS at room temperature. Nine papers were eligible for inclusion; eight studied DBS and one dried serum. Two studies measured concordance between genotype and subtype determined by DBS and whole plasma and both found 100% concordance. Four studies measured endpoint detection limits of HCV RNA-positive samples by DBS and found positive predictive values of 100% down to 250, 334, 2500 and 24160 IU/mL. Two studies found deterioration of HCV RNA in DBS samples stored at room temperature, while two others failed to detect such deterioration. These results support the potential use of DBS for genotyping and HCV RNA detection. Studies of the use of DBS for HCV RNA viral load measurement and of the rate of degradation of HCV RNA when stored in DBS at ambient temperatures remain inconclusive. PMID:25367722

  12. Systematic literature review to evaluate and characterize the health economics and outcomes research studies in India

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Divya; Nair, Sunita R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This systematic literature review was conducted to identify, evaluate, and characterize the variety, quality, and intent of the health economics and outcomes research studies being conducted in India. Materials and Methods: Studies published in English language between 1999 and 2012 were retrieved from Embase and PubMed databases using relevant search strategies. Two researchers independently reviewed the studies as per Cochrane methodology; information on the type of research and the outcomes were extracted. Quality of reporting was assessed for model-based health economic studies using a published 100-point Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument. Results: Of 546 studies screened, 132 were included in the review. The broad study categories were cost-effectiveness analyses [(CEA) 54 studies], cost analyses (19 studies), and burden of illness [(BOI) 18 studies]. The outcomes evaluated were direct and indirect costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Direct medical costs assessed cost of medicines, monitoring costs, consultation and hospital charges, along with direct non-medical costs (travel and food for patients and care givers). Loss of productivity and loss of income of patients and care givers were identified as the components of indirect cost. Overall, 33 studies assessed the quality of life (QoL), and the WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) was the most commonly used instrument. Quality assessment for modeling studies showed that most studies were of high quality [mean (range) QHES score to be 75.5 (34-93)]. Conclusions: This review identified various patterns of pharmacoeconomic studies and good-quality CEA studies. However, there is a need for better assessment of utilization of healthcare resources in India. PMID:25657899

  13. Internet and Gaming Addiction: A Systematic Literature Review of Neuroimaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kuss, Daria J.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gaming addiction from a neuroscientific perspective. Neuroimaging studies offer an advantage over traditional survey and behavioral research because with this method, it is possible to distinguish particular brain areas that are involved in the development and maintenance of addiction. A systematic literature search was conducted, identifying 18 studies. These studies provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet and gaming addiction, on a variety of levels. On the molecular level, Internet addiction is characterized by an overall reward deficiency that entails decreased dopaminergic activity. On the level of neural circuitry, Internet and gaming addiction led to neuroadaptation and structural changes that occur as a consequence of prolonged increased activity in brain areas associated with addiction. On a behavioral level, Internet and gaming addicts appear to be constricted with regards to their cognitive functioning in various domains. The paper shows that understanding the neuronal correlates associated with the development of Internet and gaming addiction will promote future research and will pave the way for the development of addiction treatment approaches. PMID:24961198

  14. Paracetamol: not as safe as we thought? A systematic literature review of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Emmert; Delgado Nunes, Vanessa; Buckner, Sara; Latchem, Susan; Constanti, Margaret; Miller, Paul; Doherty, Michael; Zhang, Weiya; Birrell, Fraser; Porcheret, Mark; Dziedzic, Krysia; Bernstein, Ian; Wise, Elspeth; Conaghan, Philip G

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the adverse event (AE) profile of paracetamol. Methods We searched Medline and Embase from database inception to 1 May 2013. We screened for observational studies in English, which reported mortality, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal (GI) or renal AEs in the general adult population at standard analgesic doses of paracetamol. Study quality was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation. Pooled or adjusted summary statistics were presented for each outcome. Results Of 1888 studies retrieved, 8 met inclusion criteria, and all were cohort studies. Comparing paracetamol use versus no use, of two studies reporting mortality one showed a dose–response and reported an increased relative rate of mortality from 0.95 (0.92 to 0.98) to 1.63 (1.58 to 1.68). Of four studies reporting cardiovascular AEs, all showed a dose–response with one reporting an increased risk ratio of all cardiovascular AEs from 1.19 (0.81 to 1.75) to 1.68 (1.10 to 2.57). One study reporting GI AEs reported a dose–response with increased relative rate of GI AEs or bleeds from 1.11 (1.04 to 1.18) to 1.49 (1.34 to 1.66). Of four studies reporting renal AEs, three reported a dose–response with one reporting an increasing OR of ≥30% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate from 1.40 (0.79 to 2.48) to 2.19 (1.4 to 3.43). Discussion Given the observational nature of the data, channelling bias may have had an important impact. However, the dose–response seen for most endpoints suggests a considerable degree of paracetamol toxicity especially at the upper end of standard analgesic doses. PMID:25732175

  15. Internet and gaming addiction: a systematic literature review of neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Kuss, Daria J; Griffiths, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gaming addiction from a neuroscientific perspective. Neuroimaging studies offer an advantage over traditional survey and behavioral research because with this method, it is possible to distinguish particular brain areas that are involved in the development and maintenance of addiction. A systematic literature search was conducted, identifying 18 studies. These studies provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet and gaming addiction, on a variety of levels. On the molecular level, Internet addiction is characterized by an overall reward deficiency that entails decreased dopaminergic activity. On the level of neural circuitry, Internet and gaming addiction led to neuroadaptation and structural changes that occur as a consequence of prolonged increased activity in brain areas associated with addiction. On a behavioral level, Internet and gaming addicts appear to be constricted with regards to their cognitive functioning in various domains. The paper shows that understanding the neuronal correlates associated with the development of Internet and gaming addiction will promote future research and will pave the way for the development of addiction treatment approaches. PMID:24961198

  16. [Interventions and their effects on informal caregivers of people with dementia: a systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Mantovan, Franco; Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Huber, Markus; Schulc, Eva; Them, Christa

    2010-08-01

    In home-care situations, the caring family members of people suffering from dementia are exposed to a great number of physical, mental and social burdens, and restrictions, putting themselves at risk of falling ill. Caring family members need adequate forms of relief in order to be able to care for the family member at home for as long as possible, and with the best possible physical and psychological status. In the present paper, interventions of relief and promotion and their effects on family members caring for dementia patients have been investigated and described on the basis of a systematic literature review. The presentation of the results shows that psycho-educational, relieving, supportive, psychotherapeutic and multimodal offers as well as counselling and case/care management among caring family members have significant effects on parameters such as burdens, level of depression, subjective well-being, skills/knowledge as well as symptoms and institutionalisation of the person in need of care. None of the interventions investigated, however, covers the entire range of parameters. In order to be able to ensure the individual support of caring family members, a superordinate organisational concept (case/care management, family health nursing) which meets the needs of the caring family members, combines and interlinks tailor-made offers for caring family members is required. Registered nurses could play a central role as care managers or family health nurses in ensuring home-based care for people with dementia. Further investigations on multimodal offers and case/care management are needed. In this context, it is essential to take well-considered decisions on study design, sample size, and result parameters (assessment instruments) in order to gain significant results and homogeneous data. PMID:20687035

  17. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy as an adjunct wound treatment: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dymarek, Robert; Halski, Tomasz; Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Slupska, Lucyna; Rosinczuk, Joanna; Taradaj, Jakub

    2014-07-01

    Standard care procedures for complex wounds are sometimes supported and reinforced by physical treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT). To evaluate available evidence of ESWT effectiveness in humans, a systematic review of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, EBSCOhost, and PEDro databases. Of the 393 articles found, 13 met the publication date (year 2000-2013), study type (clinical study), language (English only), and abstract availability (yes) criteria. The 13 studies (n = 919 patients with wounds of varying etiologies) included seven randomized controlled trials that were evaluated using Cochrane Collaboration Group standards. Only studies with randomization, well prepared inclusion/exclusion criteria protocol, written in English, and full version available were analyzed. An additional six publications reporting results of other clinical studies including a total of 523patients were identified and summarized. ESWT was most commonly applied once or twice a week using used low or medium energy, focused or defocused generator heads (energy range 0.03 to 0.25 mJ/mm2; usually 0.1 mJ/mm2), and electrohydraulic or electromagnetic sources. Few safety concerns were reported, and in the controlled clinical studies statistically significant differences in rates of wound closure were reported compared to a variety of standard topical treatment modalities, sham ESWT treatment, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Based on this analysis, ESWT can be characterized as noninvasive, mostly painless, and safe. Controlled, randomized, multicenter, blind clinical trials still are required to evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of ESWT compared to sham control, other adjunctive treatments, and commonly used moisture-retentive dressings. In the future, ESWT may play an important role in wound care once evidence-based practice guidelines are developed. PMID:25019247

  18. Complications following arthroscopic fixation of acromioclavicular separations: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Woodmass, Jarret M; Esposito, John G; Ono, Yohei; Nelson, Atiba A; Boorman, Richard S; Thornton, Gail M; Lo, Ian KY

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Over the past decade, a number of arthroscopic or arthroscopically assisted reconstruction techniques have emerged for the management of acromioclavicular (AC) separations. These techniques provide the advantage of superior visualization of the base of the coracoid, less soft tissue dissection, and smaller incisions. While these techniques have been reported to provide excellent functional results with minimal complications, discrepancies exist within the literature. This systematic review aims to assess the rate of complications following these procedures. Methods Two independent reviewers completed a search of Medline, Embase, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library entries up to December 2013. The terms “Acromioclavicular Joint (MeSH)” OR “acromioclavicular* (text)” OR “coracoclavicular* (text)” AND “Arthroscopy (MeSH)” OR “Arthroscop* (text)” were used. Pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated assuming a random-effects model. Statistical heterogeneity was quantified using the I2 statistic. Level of evidence IV Results A total of 972 abstracts met the search criteria. After removal of duplicates and assessment of inclusion/exclusion criteria, 12 articles were selected for data extraction. The rate of superficial infection was 3.8% and residual shoulder/AC pain or hardware irritation occurred at a rate of 26.7%. The rate of coracoid/clavicle fracture was 5.3% and occurred most commonly with techniques utilizing bony tunnels. Loss of AC joint reduction occurred in 26.8% of patients. Conclusion Arthroscopic AC reconstruction techniques carry a distinct complication profile. The TightRope/Endobutton techniques, when performed acutely, provide good radiographic outcomes at the expense of hardware irritation. In contrast, graft reconstructions in patients with chronic AC separations demonstrated a high risk for loss of reduction. Fractures of the coracoid/clavicle remain a significant complication occurring predominately with

  19. Dorsal anterior cingulotomy and anterior capsulotomy for severe, refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: a systematic review of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lauren T; Mikell, Charles B; Youngerman, Brett E; Zhang, Yuan; McKhann, Guy M; Sheth, Sameer A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The object of this study was to perform a systematic review, according to Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) guidelines, of the clinical efficacy and adverse effect profile of dorsal anterior cingulotomy compared with anterior capsulotomy for the treatment of severe, refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS The authors included studies comparing objective clinical measures before and after cingulotomy or capsulotomy (surgical and radiosurgical) in patients with OCD. Only papers reporting the most current follow-up data for each group of investigators were included. Studies reporting results on patients undergoing one or more procedures other than cingulotomy or capsulotomy were excluded. Case reports and studies with a mean follow-up shorter than 12 months were excluded. Clinical response was defined in terms of a change in the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score. The authors searched MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge through October 2013. English and non-English articles and abstracts were reviewed. RESULTS Ten studies involving 193 participants evaluated the length of follow-up, change in the Y-BOCS score, and postoperative adverse events (AEs) after cingulotomy (n = 2 studies, n = 81 participants) or capsulotomy (n = 8 studies, n = 112 participants). The average time to the last follow-up was 47 months for cingulotomy and 60 months for capsulotomy. The mean reduction in the Y-BOCS score at 12 months' follow-up was 37% for cingulotomy and 55% for capsulotomy. At the last follow-up, the mean reduction in Y-BOCS score was 37% for cingulotomy and 57% for capsulotomy. The average full response rate to cingulotomy at the last follow-up was 41% (range 38%-47%, n = 2 studies, n = 51 participants), and to capsulotomy was 54% (range 37%-80%, n = 5 studies, n = 50 participants). The rate of transient AEs was 14.3% across

  20. Etiology of Severe Febrile Illness in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Namrata; Murdoch, David R.; Reyburn, Hugh; Crump, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background With apparent declines in malaria worldwide during the last decade and more widespread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests, healthcare workers in low-resource areas face a growing proportion of febrile patients without malaria. We sought to describe current knowledge and identify information gaps of the etiology severe febrile illness in low-and middle-income countries. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review of studies conducted in low-and-middle income countries 1980–2013 that prospectively assessed consecutive febrile patients admitted to hospital using rigorous laboratory-based case definitions. We found 45 eligible studies describing 54,578 patients; 9,771 (17.9%) had a positive result for ≥1 pathogen meeting diagnostic criteria. There were no eligible studies identified from Southern and Middle Africa, Eastern Asia, Oceania, Latin American and Caribbean regions, and the European region. The median (range) number of diagnostic tests meeting our confirmed laboratory case definitions was 2 (1 to 11) per study. Of diagnostic tests, 5,052 (10.3%) of 49,143 had confirmed bacterial or fungal bloodstream infection; 709 (3.8%) of 18,142 had bacterial zoonosis; 3,488 (28.5%) of 12,245 had malaria; and 1,804 (17.4%) of 10,389 had a viral infection. Conclusions We demonstrate a wide range of pathogens associated with severe febrile illness and highlight the substantial information gaps regarding the geographic distribution and role of common pathogens. High quality severe febrile illness etiology research that is comprehensive with respect to pathogens and geographically representative is needed. PMID:26126200

  1. [Severe orthostatic hypotension and intramedullary tumor: a case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Derrey, S; Maltête, D; Ahtoy, P; Fregey, P; Proust, F

    2009-12-01

    A 55-year-old woman presented with bilateral neuropathic pain of the upper limbs, motor palsy of the right arm, urinary dysfunction, and postural dizziness. MRI showed an intramedullary cervical tumor with a solid portion extended from C1 to C3 surrounded by a cystic portion. A macroscopic complete resection was performed and histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of ependymoma. Postoperatively, the patient's neuropathic pain and postural dizziness worsened, with syncopal attack while upright because of severe orthostatic hypotension (OH). On physical examination, her supine systolic blood pressure was 130 mmHg and fell to 80 mmHg while sitting with no change in heart rate. We found motor palsy of the left arm, bilateral ataxia, and urinary retention. Three months later, the patient was still bedridden, notably because of the OH. After 6 months, with the association of preventative measures of OH and high doses of a direct alpha1-adrenoreceptor agonist, a vasoconstricting agent, the patient recovered an independent gait permitting her to walk unassisted. The main causes of OH include medication, nonneurogenic causes such as cardiac insufficiency, and central or peripheral neurogenic causes such as diabetic insufficiency. Brainstem tumors are known to provide severe OH but this symptom has been seldom described in a purely spinal cord lesion. We report an interesting case of severe OH that had complicated the surgical treatment of a high cervical spinal cord ependymoma and we review the literature. PMID:19592056

  2. Balamuthia mandrillaris Encephalitis: Survival of a Child With Severe Meningoencephalitis and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Paul; Burke, Christopher; McCrossin, David; Campbell, Robert; Cherian, Sarah; Shahab, Mohammad Shekeeb; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Nourse, Clare

    2014-03-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris causes granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, which is frequently fatal. There are few reports of survival in children. A 4-year-old child developed severe meningoencephalitis with multiple intracranial ring-enhancing lesions. Empiric therapy was commenced after a biopsy was performed, and the patient had a good clinical response. Molecular testing and indirect immunofluorescence later confirmed the diagnosis of Balamuthia encephalitis. Diagnosis of Balamuthia encephalitis is often delayed. The literature is reviewed with particular reference to reported survival. Prompt tissue diagnosis and initiation of therapy are common features among survivors. In previous reports, miltefosine was not used to treat children, but it was well tolerated in this case and should be considered as a therapeutic option. PMID:26624913

  3. Non-invasive ventilation for severe TRALI and myocardial stunning: report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Piastra, M; Luca, E; Stival, E; Caliandro, F; De Rosa, G; Giona, F; De Luca, D; Conti, G; Pietrini, D

    2012-09-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a frequently under-diagnosed, although potentially fatal, condition that represents a leading cause of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality even in pediatric patients. Its main clinical features are characterized by rapidly evolving respiratory distress, hypoxia, pulmonary edema, and bilateral infiltrates on chest radiograph during or within 6 h of transfusion. We present a case of severe TRALI associated with myocardial stunning that occurred in a 14-year-old girl, and review the existing literature of pediatric TRALI. Our report suggests a potential role for NIV in the management of TRALI as the best profile both in terms of safety and effectiveness for hematologic patients. PMID:22869453

  4. Examining the Impact of Policy and Practice Interventions on High School Dropout and School Completion Rates: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer; Simonsen, Brandi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to systematically examine policy and practice intervention research and assess the impact of those interventions on high school dropout and school completion rates. This systematic review extends the literature by (a) describing both policy and practice interventions, (b) synthesizing findings from…

  5. Risk Factors for Severe Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in Low and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O.; Osibanjo, Folasade B.; Slusher, Tina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Available evidence suggests that low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) bear the greatest burden of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia characterized by disproportionately high rates of morbidity, mortality and neurodevelopmental disorders compared to high-income countries. We set out to identify the risk factors that contribute to the burden of severe hyperbilirubinemia in the most developmentally disadvantaged LMICs to highlight areas for action and further research. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, Ovid EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), WHO Library Database (WHOLIS), African Index Medicus (AIM), African Journals Online (AJOL), LILACS, and IndMed for reports published between January 1990 and June 2014. We included only studies that controlled for the effects of confounding variables in determining maternal and infant risk factors for severe hyperbilirubinemia. We conducted meta-analysis of the eligible studies and computed the summary risk estimates with random effects models. Results A total of 13 studies with 1,951 subjects and 32,208 controls from India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Nepal and Egypt were identified and analyzed. The pooled data showed that primiparity (OR, 1.59; 95% CI:1.26-2.00), delivery outside public hospitals (OR, 6.42; 95% CI:1.76-23.36), ABO incompatibility (OR, 4.01; 95% CI:2.44-6.61), Rhesus hemolytic disease (OR, 20.63; 95% CI:3.95-107.65), G6PD deficiency (OR, 8.01; 95% CI:2.09-30.69), UGT1A1 polymorphisms (OR, 4.92; 95% CI:1.30-18.62), low gestational age (OR, 1.71; 95% CI:1.40-2.11), underweight/weight loss (OR, 6.26; 95% CI:1.23-31.86), sepsis (OR, 9.15; 95% CI:2.78-30.10) and high transcutaneous/total serum bilirubin levels (OR, 1.46; 95% CI:1.10-1.92) placed infants at increased risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia or bilirubin induced neurologic dysfunctions. Low social class was not associated with an increased risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia. Conclusions Infants at

  6. Eye Movement in Unipolar and Bipolar Depression: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Nicolas; Laurent, Eric; Noiret, Nicolas; Chopard, Gilles; Haffen, Emmanuel; Bennabi, Djamila; Vandel, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background: The analysis of eye movements (EM) by eye-tracking has been carried out for several decades to investigate mood regulation, emotional information processing, and psychomotor disturbances in depressive disorders. Method: A systematic review of all English language PubMed articles using the terms “saccadic eye movements” OR “eye-tracking” AND “depression” OR “bipolar disorders” was conducted using PRISMA guidelines. The aim of this review was to characterize the specific alterations of EM in unipolar and bipolar depression. Results: Findings regarding psychomotor disturbance showed an increase in reaction time in prosaccade and antisaccade tasks in both unipolar and bipolar disorders. In both disorders, patients have been reported to have an attraction for negative emotions, especially for negative pictures in unipolar and threatening images in bipolar disorder. However, the pattern could change with aging, elderly unipolar patients disengaging key features of sad and neutral stimuli. Methodological limitations generally include small sample sizes with mixed unipolar and bipolar depressed patients. Conclusion: Eye movement analysis can be used to discriminate patients with depressive disorders from controls, as well as patients with bipolar disorder from patients with unipolar depression. General knowledge concerning psychomotor alterations and affective regulation strategies associated with each disorder can also be gained thanks to the analysis. Future directions for research on eye movement and depression are proposed in this review. PMID:26696915

  7. A Systematic Approach to Conducting a Non-statistical Meta-analysis of Research Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Carole J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A rigorous approach to conducting nonstatistical meta-analyses of research literature is presented and illustrated in a study of literature on primary care medical specialty choice. The approach described includes model development, literature retrieval and coding, quality rating, annotation of high-quality references, and synthesizing the subset…

  8. Validity of self-reported family history of cancer: A systematic literature review on selected cancers.

    PubMed

    Fiederling, Jonas; Shams, Ahmad Zia; Haug, Ulrike

    2016-10-01

    Evidence regarding validity of self-reported family history of cancer (FHC) has been reviewed only for breast, colorectal, prostate, ovarian, endometrial and uterine cancer. We aimed to systematically review studies assessing validity of self-reported family history for the remaining cancer sites. We searched the Medline database for relevant studies published by January 2016. We extracted information on the study design and the positive predictive value (PPV) of self-reported FHC, defined as the proportion of reported cancer diagnoses among relatives that was confirmed by a reference standard (as a measure of over-reporting). We also extracted information on sensitivity of self-reported FHC (as a measure of underreporting). Overall, 21 studies were included that provided information on the PPV of self-reported FHC for relevant cancers and four studies also provided information on sensitivity. The PPV was highest (mostly >70%) for pancreatic, lung, thyroid and urinary system cancers and for leukemia and lymphoma, while it was lowest for stomach and liver cancer. Sensitivity was highest (>70%) for pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, brain cancer, melanoma, leukemia and lymphoma. For several cancers, sample sizes were low and the number of studies limited, particularly regarding sensitivity of self-reported FHC. In conclusion, for some cancers (e.g., pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, leukemia, lymphoma) self-reported FHC can be considered sufficiently valid to be useful, for example, in preventive counseling. For several cancers, it is not sufficiently studied or the pattern is inconsistent. This needs to be taken into account when using self-reported information about FHC in clinical practice or epidemiological research. PMID:27222437

  9. Pain in elderly people with severe dementia: A systematic review of behavioural pain assessment tools

    PubMed Central

    Zwakhalen, Sandra MG; Hamers, Jan PH; Abu-Saad, Huda Huijer; Berger, Martijn PF

    2006-01-01

    Background Pain is a common and major problem among nursing home residents. The prevalence of pain in elderly nursing home people is 40–80%, showing that they are at great risk of experiencing pain. Since assessment of pain is an important step towards the treatment of pain, there is a need for manageable, valid and reliable tools to assess pain in elderly people with dementia. Methods This systematic review identifies pain assessment scales for elderly people with severe dementia and evaluates the psychometric properties and clinical utility of these instruments. Relevant publications in English, German, French or Dutch, from 1988 to 2005, were identified by means of an extensive search strategy in Medline, Psychinfo and CINAHL, supplemented by screening citations and references. Quality judgement criteria were formulated and used to evaluate the psychometric aspects of the scales. Results Twenty-nine publications reporting on behavioural pain assessment instruments were selected for this review. Twelve observational pain assessment scales (DOLOPLUS2; ECPA; ECS; Observational Pain Behavior Tool; CNPI; PACSLAC; PAINAD; PADE; RaPID; Abbey Pain Scale; NOPPAIN; Pain assessment scale for use with cognitively impaired adults) were identified. Findings indicate that most observational scales are under development and show moderate psychometric qualities. Conclusion Based on the psychometric qualities and criteria regarding sensitivity and clinical utility, we conclude that PACSLAC and DOLOPLUS2 are the most appropriate scales currently available. Further research should focus on improving these scales by further testing their validity, reliability and clinical utility. PMID:16441889

  10. The impact of social disadvantage in moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease: an equity-focused systematic review.

    PubMed

    Morton, Rachael Lisa; Schlackow, Iryna; Mihaylova, Borislava; Staplin, Natalie Dawn; Gray, Alastair; Cass, Alan

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether a social gradient in health outcomes exists for people with moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease (CKD). We critically review the literature for evidence of social gradients in health and investigate the 'suitability' of statistical analyses in the primary studies. In this equity-focused systematic review among adults with moderate-to-severe CKD, factors of disadvantage included gender, race/ethnicity, religion, education, socio-economic status or social capital, occupation and place of residence. Outcomes included access to healthcare, kidney disease progression, cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality and suitability of analyses. Twenty-four studies in the pre-dialysis population and 34 in the dialysis population representing 8.9 million people from 10 countries were included. In methodologically suitable studies among pre-dialysis patients, a significant social gradient was observed in access to healthcare for those with no health insurance and no home ownership. Low income and no home ownership were associated with higher cardiovascular event rates and higher mortality [HR 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-2.98; HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04-1.58], respectively. In methodologically suitable studies among dialysis patients, females, ethnic minorities, those with low education, no health insurance, low occupational level or no home ownership were significantly less likely to access cardiovascular healthcare than their more advantaged dialysis counterparts. Low education level and geographic remoteness were associated with higher cardiovascular event rates and higher mortality (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.01-2.35; HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.08-1.37), respectively. Socially disadvantaged pre-dialysis and dialysis patients experience poorer access to specialist cardiovascular health services, and higher rates of cardiovascular events and mortality than their more advantaged counterparts. PMID:25564537

  11. Infantile systemic hyalinosis: Report of two severe cases from Saudi Arabia and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hammoudah, Sahar Ahmed Fathi; El-Attar, Lama Mohammed

    2016-05-01

    Infantile systemic hyalinosis (ISH) (OMIM 228600) is a rare fatal autosomal recessive disorder characterized by extensive deposition of hyaline material in many tissues. Consanguinity has been recorded in many cases. Herein we present two new Saudi cases with review of the literature. Our first proband was a 9 month-old male who was the first baby for parents descended from a closed consanguineous pedigree. The second proband was a 13 month-old male who was the first baby for consanguineous parents (3(rd) C). Both cases presented with bilateral painful limited limb movement with joints contractures, low birth weight (< P5), severe generalized stiff skin, hyper-pigmented skin over bony prominences, fleshy perianal masses and gingival hypertrophy. The first child died at 18(th) month as a result of recurrent chest infections. The second proband showed a severe progressive course of joint contractures, and died at 19(th) month because of failure to thrive and recurrent infections. Although the clinical features of ISH are characteristic, the disease is under/miss diagnosed. The role of consanguinity needed to be highlighted to the community. Careful clinical examination and molecular diagnosis will be helpful for genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis and early treatment. PMID:27195198

  12. Infantile systemic hyalinosis: Report of two severe cases from Saudi Arabia and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Hammoudah, Sahar Ahmed Fathi; El-Attar, Lama Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Summary Infantile systemic hyalinosis (ISH) (OMIM 228600) is a rare fatal autosomal recessive disorder characterized by extensive deposition of hyaline material in many tissues. Consanguinity has been recorded in many cases. Herein we present two new Saudi cases with review of the literature. Our first proband was a 9 month-old male who was the first baby for parents descended from a closed consanguineous pedigree. The second proband was a 13 month-old male who was the first baby for consanguineous parents (3rd C). Both cases presented with bilateral painful limited limb movement with joints contractures, low birth weight (< P5), severe generalized stiff skin, hyper-pigmented skin over bony prominences, fleshy perianal masses and gingival hypertrophy. The first child died at 18th month as a result of recurrent chest infections. The second proband showed a severe progressive course of joint contractures, and died at 19th month because of failure to thrive and recurrent infections. Although the clinical features of ISH are characteristic, the disease is under/miss diagnosed. The role of consanguinity needed to be highlighted to the community. Careful clinical examination and molecular diagnosis will be helpful for genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis and early treatment. PMID:27195198

  13. Spinal Cystic Echinococcosis – A Systematic Analysis and Review of the Literature: Part 2. Treatment, Follow-up and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Neumayr, Andreas; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Goblirsch, Sam; Blum, Johannes; Brunetti, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Bone involvement in human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is rare, but affects the spine in approximately 50% of cases. Despite significant advances in diagnostic imaging techniques, surgical treatment and introduction of pharmacological therapy, spinal echinococcosis remains associated with a high degree of morbidity, disability and mortality. We systematically reviewed the published literature of the last five decades to update and summarize the currently existing data on treatment, follow-up and outcome of spinal CE. PMID:24069501

  14. Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verner, Zenobia, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue provides a selection of articles about literature and the teaching of literature. Titles include "Sin, Salvation, and Grace in 'The Scarlet Letter,'""'The Road Not Taken': A Study in Ambiguity,""In Search of Shakespeare: The Essential Years,""Right Deeds for Wrong Reasons: Teaching the Bible as Literature,""A Southern Author's Fight for…

  15. The natural course of low back pain: a systematic critical literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most patients in the secondary care sector consulting for low back pain (LBP) seem to have a more or less constant course of pain during the ensuing year. Fewer patients with LBP in the primary care sector report continual pain over a one-year period. However, not much is known about the long-term course of LBP in the general population. A systematic critical literature review was undertaken in order to study the natural course of LBP over time in the general population. Methods A search of articles was performed in Pubmed, Cinahl and Psychinfo using the search terms ‘epidemiology’; ‘low back pain’ or ‘back pain’; ‘prospective study’ or ‘longitudinal study’; ‘follow-up’, ‘natural course’, ‘course’ or ‘natural history’; ‘general population’ or ‘working population’. Inclusion criteria were that one of the objectives was to study the course of (L)BP in the adult population, that the period of follow-up was at least 3 months, and that there were three points of observation or more. The review was undertaken by two independent reviewers using three checklists relating to description of studies, quality and outcomes. The course of LBP was established in relation to those who, at baseline, were reported not to have LBP or to have LBP. Would this course be stable, fluctuating, worsening, or improving over time? A synthesis of results in relation to common patterns was presented in a table and interpreted in a narrative form. Results Eight articles were included. Articles were different on time span, the number of surveys, and the definition of LBP. In six of the seven relevant studies, for those with no LBP at baseline, relatively substantial stable subgroups of people who continued to be LBP free were identified. In six of the seven relevant studies, definite stable subgroups of continued LBP were noted and improvement (becoming pain free) was never reported to be a common finding. Conclusion The status of LBP in

  16. Similar herpes zoster incidence across Europe: results from a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and mainly affects individuals aged ≥50 years. The forthcoming European launch of a vaccine against HZ (Zostavax®) prompts the need for a better understanding of the epidemiology of HZ in Europe. Therefore the aim of this systematic review was to summarize the available data on HZ incidence in Europe and to describe age-specific incidence. Methods The Medline database of the National Library of Medicine was used to conduct a comprehensive literature search of population-based studies of HZ incidence published between 1960 and 2010 carried out in the 27 member countries of the European Union, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. The identified articles were reviewed and scored according to a reading grid including various quality criteria, and HZ incidence data were extracted and presented by country. Results The search identified 21 studies, and revealed a similar annual HZ incidence throughout Europe, varying by country from 2.0 to 4.6/1 000 person-years with no clearly observed geographic trend. Despite the fact that age groups differed from one study to another, age-specific HZ incidence rates seemed to hold steady during the review period, at around 1/1 000 children <10 years, around 2/1 000 adults aged <40 years, and around 1–4/1 000 adults aged 40–50 years. They then increased rapidly after age 50 years to around 7–8/1 000, up to 10/1 000 after 80 years of age. Our review confirms that in Europe HZ incidence increases with age, and quite drastically after 50 years of age. In all of the 21 studies included in the present review, incidence rates were higher among women than men, and this difference increased with age. This review also highlights the need to identify standardized surveillance methods to improve the comparability of data within European Union Member States and to monitor the impact of VZV immunization on the epidemiology of HZ. Conclusions

  17. Persuasive Features in Web-Based Alcohol and Smoking Interventions: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the past decade, the use of technologies to persuade, motivate, and activate individuals’ health behavior change has been a quickly expanding field of research. The use of the Web for delivering interventions has been especially relevant. Current research tends to reveal little about the persuasive features and mechanisms embedded in Web-based interventions targeting health behavior change. Objectives The purpose of this systematic review was to extract and analyze persuasive system features in Web-based interventions for substance use by applying the persuasive systems design (PSD) model. In more detail, the main objective was to provide an overview of the persuasive features within current Web-based interventions for substance use. Methods We conducted electronic literature searches in various databases to identify randomized controlled trials of Web-based interventions for substance use published January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2009, in English. We extracted and analyzed persuasive system features of the included Web-based interventions using interpretive categorization. Results The primary task support components were utilized and reported relatively widely in the reviewed studies. Reduction, self-monitoring, simulation, and personalization seem to be the most used features to support accomplishing user’s primary task. This is an encouraging finding since reduction and self-monitoring can be considered key elements for supporting users to carry out their primary tasks. The utilization of tailoring was at a surprisingly low level. The lack of tailoring may imply that the interventions are targeted for too broad an audience. Leveraging reminders was the most common way to enhance the user-system dialogue. Credibility issues are crucial in website engagement as users will bind with sites they perceive credible and navigate away from those they do not find credible. Based on the textual descriptions of the interventions, we cautiously

  18. Health effects of protein intake in healthy elderly populations: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Cederholm, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy elderly persons in order to evaluate the evidence for an optimal protein intake. The literature search covered year 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case–control, and intervention studies of a general healthy population in settings similar to the Nordic countries with protein intake from food-based sources were included. Out of a total of 301 abstracts, 152 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After careful scrutiny, 23 papers were quality graded as A (highest, n=1), B (n=18), or C (n=4). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement (EAR) of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW)/day based on nitrogen balance (N-balance) studies and the subsequent recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of 0.83 g good-quality protein/kg BW/day representing the minimum dietary protein needs of virtually all healthy elderly persons. Regarding the optimal level of protein related to functional outcomes like maintenance of bone mass, muscle mass, and strength, as well as for morbidity and mortality, the evidence is ranging from suggestive to inconclusive. Results from particularly prospective cohort studies suggest a safe intake of up to at least 1.2–1.5 g protein/kg BW/day or approximately 15–20 E%. Overall, many of the included prospective cohort studies were difficult to fully evaluate since results mainly were obtained by food frequency questionnaires that were flawed by underreported intakes, although some studies were ‘calibrated’ to correct for under- or over-reporting. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the EAR based on N-balance studies and suggestive to inconclusive regarding an optimal protein intake higher than the estimated

  19. Dickens for All: Inclusive Approaches to Literature and Communication with People with Severe and Profound Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the potential uses of literature with people with severe and profound learning disabilities and describes a series of multisensory interactive drama games re-telling the story of "A Christmas Carol" by Charles Dickens. (Author/DB)

  20. A systematic review of the literature on safety measures to prevent railway suicides and trespassing accidents.

    PubMed

    Havârneanu, Grigore M; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Paran, Françoise

    2015-08-01

    This review covers a central aspect in railway safety which is the prevention of suicides and trespassing accidents. The paper attempts to answer the following research question: 'What measures are available to reduce railway suicide and trespass, and what is the evidence for their effectiveness?' The review is based on 139 relevant publications, ranging from 1978 to 2014. The analysis aimed to identify the past and current trend in the prevention practice by looking both quantitatively and qualitatively at the recommended measures. According to the results, there has been a constant focus on suicide prevention, and only relatively recent interest in trespass countermeasures. The content analysis revealed 19 main preventative categories which include more than 100 specific measures. We identified 16 common categories against railway suicide and trespass, and 3 categories of specific measures to prevent suicide. There are only 22 studies which provide empirical support for the effectiveness of measures. Actual combinations of measures are barely evaluated, but several challenges emerge from the literature. The discussion focuses on the need for a unified approach to suicide and trespass prevention, and on the importance to consider the effect mechanism of the measures in order to design better interventions. PMID:25939134

  1. Positive and Negative Predictive Value of PET-CT in Skull Base Lesions: Case Series and Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hines, John Peyton; Howard, Brittany E.; Hoxworth, Joseph M.; Lal, Devyani

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To study positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET-CT) scans in determining malignancy in skull base lesions and perform a systematic literature review for optimal PET-CT interpretation. Design Retrospective case series and systematic literature review of the current English literature. Setting Tertiary referral academic medical center. Participants All patients with skull base lesions that underwent PET-CT and tissue biopsy from 2010 to 2013. Main Outcome Measures PPV and NPV of radiologist's report and standardized uptake value (SUV) cutoff of 2.5 and 3, biopsy with pathologic interpretation, clinical follow-up. Results A total of 31 PET-CT scans of 16 patients were studied; 10 PET-CT were performed upfront for diagnostic purposes and 21 were post-treatment surveillance scans. The PPV of radiologist's interpretation, SUV cutoff of 2.5, and SUV cutoff of 3.0 was 80%, 60%, and 68.4%, with a NPV of 100%, 83.3%, and 75%, respectively. Literature search yielded 500 abstracts; 7 studies met inclusion criteria for detailed review. No consensus or guidelines for optimal SUV cutoff value was found. Conclusions PET-CT based on SUV cutoff criteria alone has high NPV but low PPV in determining malignancy in skull base lesions. Interpretation by a radiologist experienced in nuclear medicine and neuroradiology, synthesizing clinical, SUV, and radiologic data are of superior value. PMID:26937333

  2. Health promotion interventions for increasing stroke awareness in ethnic minorities: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke places a significant burden to all affected individuals, but it is perhaps more significant amongst members of black, minority and ethnic communities, who may experience poorer awareness of stroke symptoms than the general population. Recently, several initiatives tried to improve public awareness that symptoms of stroke need to be treated as a medical emergency. However, ethnic communities present cultural barriers, requiring tailored health promotion interventions, whose effectiveness remains uncertain. Our systematic review aimed to identify relevant published evidence, synthesize the main study components and identify evidence of the effectiveness of the interventions. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycInfo were searched for journal articles on health promotion interventions for increasing stroke awareness in ethnic minorities, published in English between 1995 and 2012. Search results were collaboratively assessed by the authors; included studies were analysed to identify their main characteristics, and a thematic analysis of their content was conducted. No meta-analysis was performed, due to the heterogeneity of results. Results Eighteen studies were included, reporting 15 interventions conducted in the US, for African-Americans or Hispanics; populations sizes differed between interventions. Interventions were mostly carried out in community settings with different educational techniques, focussing on experiential methods. Health professionals usually organized the programs, delivered by nurses, other health professionals or volunteers. The few theory-based interventions focussed on individual-level behavioural change. Practical cultural adaptation strategies were not linked to specific theoretical frameworks. Interventions widely differed as for target populations, settings, delivery methods, contents and professional roles involved. All study designs were quantitative, and the emerging evidence of effectiveness was inconclusive

  3. Prophylaxis and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, N.; Barnes, E.; van Draanen, J.; Stacey, E.; Mitera, G.; Breen, D.; Giotis, A.; Czarnota, G.; Pang, J.; De Angelis, C.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a common treatment for cancer patients. One of the most common side effects of radiation is acute skin reaction (radiation dermatitis) that ranges from a mild rash to severe ulceration. Approximately 85% of patients treated with radiation therapy will experience a moderate-to-severe skin reaction. Acute radiation-induced skin reactions often lead to itching and pain, delays in treatment, and diminished aesthetic appearance—and subsequently to a decrease in quality of life. Surveys have demonstrated that a wide variety of topical, oral, and intravenous agents are used to prevent or to treat radiation-induced skin reactions. We conducted a literature review to identify trials that investigated products for the prophylaxis and management of acute radiation dermatitis. Thirty-nine studies met the pre-defined criteria, with thirty-three being categorized as prophylactic trials and six as management trials. For objective evaluation of skin reactions, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria and the U.S. National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria were the most commonly used tools (65% of the studies). Topical corticosteroid agents were found to significantly reduce the severity of skin reactions; however, the trials of corticosteroids evaluated various agents, and no clear indication about a preferred corticosteroid has emerged. Amifostine and oral enzymes were somewhat effective in preventing radiation-induced skin reactions in phase ii and phase iii trials respectively; further large randomized controlled trials should be undertaken to better investigate those products. Biafine cream (Ortho–McNeil Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ, U.S.A.) was found not to be superior to standard regimes in the prevention of radiation-induced skin reactions (n = 6). In conclusion, the evidence is insufficient to support the use of a particular agent for the prevention and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions. Future trials should focus

  4. Prophylaxis and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Salvo, N; Barnes, E; van Draanen, J; Stacey, E; Mitera, G; Breen, D; Giotis, A; Czarnota, G; Pang, J; De Angelis, C

    2010-08-01

    Radiation therapy is a common treatment for cancer patients. One of the most common side effects of radiation is acute skin reaction (radiation dermatitis) that ranges from a mild rash to severe ulceration. Approximately 85% of patients treated with radiation therapy will experience a moderate-to-severe skin reaction. Acute radiation-induced skin reactions often lead to itching and pain, delays in treatment, and diminished aesthetic appearance-and subsequently to a decrease in quality of life. Surveys have demonstrated that a wide variety of topical, oral, and intravenous agents are used to prevent or to treat radiation-induced skin reactions. We conducted a literature review to identify trials that investigated products for the prophylaxis and management of acute radiation dermatitis. Thirty-nine studies met the pre-defined criteria, with thirty-three being categorized as prophylactic trials and six as management trials.For objective evaluation of skin reactions, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria and the U.S. National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria were the most commonly used tools (65% of the studies). Topical corticosteroid agents were found to significantly reduce the severity of skin reactions; however, the trials of corticosteroids evaluated various agents, and no clear indication about a preferred corticosteroid has emerged. Amifostine and oral enzymes were somewhat effective in preventing radiation-induced skin reactions in phase II and phase III trials respectively; further large randomized controlled trials should be undertaken to better investigate those products. Biafine cream (Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ, U.S.A.) was found not to be superior to standard regimes in the prevention of radiation-induced skin reactions (n = 6).In conclusion, the evidence is insufficient to support the use of a particular agent for the prevention and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions. Future trials should focus on

  5. Recent Epidemiological Trends of Dengue in the French Territories of the Americas (2000–2012): A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    L'Azou, Maïna; Taurel, Anne-Frieda; Flamand, Claude; Quénel, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a public health concern across the globe, and an escalating problem in the Americas. As part of a wider programme (covering Latin America and South East Asia) to characterize the epidemiology of dengue in dengue endemic areas, we undertook a systematic literature review to assess epidemiological trends (incidence, timing and duration of outbreaks/epidemics, age and sex distribution, serotype distribution, seroprevalence and disease severity) for dengue across the French Territories of the Americas (FTA), in French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy between 2000 and 2012 (CRD42012002341: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42012002341). Of 413 relevant data sources identified, 45 were eligible for inclusion. A large proportion of the available data were from national surveillance reports, and 12 publications were from peer-reviewed journals. During the review period, 3–5 epidemics were identified in each of the island territories and French Guiana, and epidemics were often associated with a shift in the predominant circulating dengue virus serotype. Substantial gaps in epidemiological knowledge were identified. In particular, information regarding dengue virus genotype distribution, seroprevalence and age distribution of dengue were lacking. Additionally, much of the available data were from epidemic years; data from inter-epidemic periods were sparse. Nevertheless, the available epidemiological data showed that dengue is endemic across the FTA and suggest an evolution towards hyperendemicity, highlighting the need to continue the efforts with the existing surveillance programmes to assist in planning an effective vaccination programme once a dengue vaccine is deployed. Protocol registration PROSPERO CRD42012002341 PMID:25375627

  6. A Decade of Research on the Use of Three-Dimensional Virtual Worlds in Health Care: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghapanchi, Amir Hossein; Blumenstein, Michael; Talaei-Khoei, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Background A three-dimensional virtual world (3DVW) is a computer-simulated electronic 3D virtual environment that users can explore, inhabit, communicate, and interact with via avatars, which are graphical representations of the users. Since the early 2000s, 3DVWs have emerged as a technology that has much to offer the health care sector. Objective The purpose of this study was to characterize different application areas of various 3DVWs in health and medical context and categorize them into meaningful categories. Methods This study employs a systematic literature review on the application areas of 3DVWs in health care. Our search resulted in 62 papers from five top-ranking scientific databases published from 1990 to 2013 that describe the use of 3DVWs for health care specific purposes. We noted a growth in the number of academic studies on the topic since 2006. Results We found a wide range of application areas for 3DVWs in health care and classified them into the following six categories: academic education, professional education, treatment, evaluation, lifestyle, and modeling. The education category, including professional and academic education, contains the largest number of papers (n=34), of which 23 are related to the academic education category and 11 to the professional education category. Nine papers are allocated to treatment category, and 8 papers have contents related to evaluation. In 4 of the papers, the authors used 3DVWs for modeling, and 3 papers targeted lifestyle purposes. The results indicate that most of the research to date has focused on education in health care. We also found that most studies were undertaken in just two countries, the United States and the United Kingdom. Conclusions 3D virtual worlds present several innovative ways to carry out a wide variety of health-related activities. The big picture of application areas of 3DVWs presented in this review could be of value and offer insights to both the health care community and

  7. Publishing Not Perishing: How Research Students Transition from Novice to Knowledgeable Using Systematic Quantitative Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Catherine; Grignon, Julien; Steven, Rochelle; Guitart, Daniela; Byrne, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Current understandings suggest that three aspects of writing practice underpin the research student publication process: knowledge creation, text production and identity formation. Publishing a literature review is the first opportunity most students have to publish. This article compares the pedagogical benefits of different literature review…

  8. The Role of Physician Assistants in Rural Health Care: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Lisa R.; Hooker, Roderick S.; Yates, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A literature review was performed to assess the role of physician assistants (PAs) in rural health care. Four categories were examined: scope of practice, physician perceptions, community perceptions, and retention/recruitment. Methods: A search of the literature from 1974 to 2008 was undertaken by probing the electronic bibliographic…

  9. Coping with Male Mid-Life: A Systematic Analysis Using Literature as a Data Source.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan

    This paper uses twentieth century American fictional literature to examine middle-age male development. Two historical periods, post World War I and post World War II, were chosen to provide a wide data base which could be analyzed over time. With seven American literature professors' aid, works of literary merit with a middle-aged male…

  10. Utilisation of helicopter emergency medical services in the early medical response to major incidents: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Anne Siri; Fattah, Sabina; Sollid, Stephen J M; Rehn, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Objective This systematic review identifies, describes and appraises the literature describing the utilisation of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in the early medical response to major incidents. Setting Early prehospital phase of a major incident. Design Systematic literature review performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Web of Science, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cinahl, Bibsys Ask, Norart, Svemed and UpToDate were searched using phrases that combined HEMS and ‘major incidents’ to identify when and how HEMS was utilised. The identified studies were subjected to data extraction and appraisal. Results The database search identified 4948 articles. Based on the title and abstract, the full text of 96 articles was obtained; of these, 37 articles were included in the review, and an additional five were identified by searching the reference lists of the 37 articles. HEMS was used to transport medical and rescue personnel to the incident and to transport patients to the hospital, especially when the infrastructure was damaged. Insufficient air traffic control, weather conditions, inadequate landing sites and failing communication were described as challenging in some incidents. Conclusions HEMS was used mainly for patient treatment and to transport patients, personnel and equipment in the early medical management of major incidents, but the optimal utilisation of this specialised resource remains unclear. This review identified operational areas with improvement potential. A lack of systematic indexing, heterogeneous data reporting and weak methodological design, complicated the identification and comparison of incidents, and more systematic reporting is needed. Trial registration number CRD42013004473. PMID:26861938

  11. Perspectives on care and communication involving incurably ill Turkish and Moroccan patients, relatives and professionals: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Our aim was to obtain a clearer picture of the relevant care experiences and care perceptions of incurably ill Turkish and Moroccan patients, their relatives and professional care providers, as well as of communication and decision-making patterns at the end of life. The ultimate objective is to improve palliative care for Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in the Netherlands, by taking account of socio-cultural factors in the guidelines for palliative care. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken. The data sources were seventeen national and international literature databases, four Dutch journals dedicated to palliative care and 37 websites of relevant national and international organizations. All the references found were checked to see whether they met the structured inclusion criteria. Inclusion was limited to publications dealing with primary empirical research on the relationship between socio-cultural factors and the health or care situation of Turkish or Moroccan patients with an oncological or incurable disease. The selection was made by first reading the titles and abstracts and subsequently the full texts. The process of deciding which studies to include was carried out by two reviewers independently. A generic appraisal instrument was applied to assess the methodological quality. Results Fifty-seven studies were found that reported findings for the countries of origin (mainly Turkey) and the immigrant host countries (mainly the Netherlands). The central themes were experiences and perceptions of family care, professional care, end-of-life care and communication. Family care is considered a duty, even when such care becomes a severe burden for the main female family caregiver in particular. Professional hospital care is preferred by many of the patients and relatives because they are looking for a cure and security. End-of-life care is strongly influenced by the continuing hope for recovery. Relatives are often quite influential in

  12. Total disc replacement surgery for symptomatic degenerative lumbar disc disease: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    van den Eerenbeemt, Karin D; Ostelo, Raymond W; van Royen, Barend J; Peul, Wilco C; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of total disc replacement surgery compared with spinal fusion in patients with symptomatic lumbar disc degeneration. Low back pain (LBP), a major health problem in Western countries, can be caused by a variety of pathologies, one of which is degenerative disc disease (DDD). When conservative treatment fails, surgery might be considered. For a long time, lumbar fusion has been the "gold standard" of surgical treatment for DDD. Total disc replacement (TDR) has increased in popularity as an alternative for lumbar fusion. A comprehensive systematic literature search was performed up to October 2008. Two reviewers independently checked all retrieved titles and abstracts, and relevant full text articles for inclusion. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted relevant data and outcomes. Three randomized controlled trials and 16 prospective cohort studies were identified. In all three trials, the total disc replacement was compared with lumbar fusion techniques. The Charité trial (designed as a non-inferiority trail) was considered to have a low risk of bias for the 2-year follow up, but a high risk of bias for the 5-year follow up. The Charité artificial disc was non-inferior to the BAK Interbody Fusion System on a composite outcome of "clinical success" (57.1 vs. 46.5%, for the 2-year follow up; 57.8 vs. 51.2% for the 5-year follow up). There were no statistically significant differences in mean pain and physical function scores. The Prodisc artificial disc (also designed as a non-inferiority trail) was found to be statistically significant more effective when compared with the lumbar circumferential fusion on the composite outcome of "clinical success" (53.4 vs. 40.8%), but the risk of bias of this study was high. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences in mean pain and physical function scores. The Flexicore trial, with a high

  13. Total disc replacement surgery for symptomatic degenerative lumbar disc disease: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    van den Eerenbeemt, Karin D.; van Royen, Barend J.; Peul, Wilco C.; van Tulder, Maurits W.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of total disc replacement surgery compared with spinal fusion in patients with symptomatic lumbar disc degeneration. Low back pain (LBP), a major health problem in Western countries, can be caused by a variety of pathologies, one of which is degenerative disc disease (DDD). When conservative treatment fails, surgery might be considered. For a long time, lumbar fusion has been the “gold standard” of surgical treatment for DDD. Total disc replacement (TDR) has increased in popularity as an alternative for lumbar fusion. A comprehensive systematic literature search was performed up to October 2008. Two reviewers independently checked all retrieved titles and abstracts, and relevant full text articles for inclusion. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted relevant data and outcomes. Three randomized controlled trials and 16 prospective cohort studies were identified. In all three trials, the total disc replacement was compared with lumbar fusion techniques. The Charité trial (designed as a non-inferiority trail) was considered to have a low risk of bias for the 2-year follow up, but a high risk of bias for the 5-year follow up. The Charité artificial disc was non-inferior to the BAK® Interbody Fusion System on a composite outcome of “clinical success” (57.1 vs. 46.5%, for the 2-year follow up; 57.8 vs. 51.2% for the 5-year follow up). There were no statistically significant differences in mean pain and physical function scores. The Prodisc artificial disc (also designed as a non-inferiority trail) was found to be statistically significant more effective when compared with the lumbar circumferential fusion on the composite outcome of “clinical success” (53.4 vs. 40.8%), but the risk of bias of this study was high. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences in mean pain and physical function scores. The Flexicore trial

  14. Management of sleep bruxism in adults: a qualitative systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, Daniele; Ahlberg, Jari; Winocur, Ephraim; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2015-11-01

    This paper updates the bruxism management review published by Lobbezoo et al. in 2008 (J Oral Rehabil 2008; 35: 509-23). The review focuses on the most recent literature on management of sleep bruxism (SB) in adults, as diagnosed with polysomnography (PSG) with audio-video (AV) recordings, or with any other approach measuring the sleep-time masticatory muscles' activity, viz., PSG without AV recordings or electromyography (EMG) recorded with portable devices. Fourteen (N = 14) papers were included in the review, of which 12 were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 2 were uncontrolled before-after studies. Structured reading of the included articles showed a high variability of topics, designs and findings. On average, the risk of bias for RCTs was low-to-unclear, whilst the before-after studies had several methodological limitations. The studies' results suggest that (i) almost every type of oral appliance (OA) (seven papers) is somehow effective to reduce SB activity, with a potentially higher decrease for devices providing large extent of mandibular advancement; (ii) all tested pharmacological approaches [i.e. botulinum toxin (two papers), clonazepam (one paper) and clonidine (one paper)] may reduce SB with respect to placebo; (iii) the potential benefit of biofeedback (BF) and cognitive-behavioural (CB) approaches to SB management is not fully supported (two papers); and (iv) the only investigation providing an electrical stimulus to the masseter muscle supports its effectiveness to reduce SB. It can be concluded that there is not enough evidence to define a standard of reference approach for SB treatment, except for the use of OA. Future studies on the indications for SB treatment are recommended. PMID:26095208

  15. Do Children with Uncomplicated Severe Acute Malnutrition Need Antibiotics? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alcoba, Gabriel; Kerac, Marko; Breysse, Serge; Salpeteur, Cécile; Galetto-Lacour, Annick; Briend, André; Gervaix, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Background Current (1999) World Health Organization guidelines recommend giving routine antibiotics (AB) for all children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), even if they have uncomplicated disease with no clinically obvious infections. We examined the evidence behind this recommendation. Methods and Findings OVID-MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE, GLOBAL-HEALTH, CINAHL, POPLINE, AFRICA-WIDE-NiPAD, and LILACS were searched for AB efficacy, bacterial resistance, and infection rates in SAM. Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. Three randomised controlled trials (RCT), five Cochrane reviews, and 37 observational studies were identified. One cohort-study showed no increase in nutritional-cure and mortality in uncomplicated SAM where no AB were used. (p>0.05). However, an unpublished RCT in this setting did show mortality benefits. Another RCT did not show superiority of ceftriaxone over amoxicilllin for these same outcomes, but adressed SAM children with and without complications (p = 0.27). Another RCT showed no difference between amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole efficacies for pneumonia in underweight, but not SAM. Our meta-analysis of 12 pooled susceptibility-studies for all types of bacterial isolates, including 2767 stricly SAM children, favoured amoxicillin over cotrimoxazole for susceptibility medians: 42% (IQR 27–55%) vs 22% (IQR 17–23%) and population-weighted-means 52.9% (range 23–57%) vs 35.4% (range 6.7–42%). Susceptibilities to second-line AB were better, above 80%. Prevalence of serious infections in SAM, pooled from 24 studies, ranged from 17% to 35.2%. No study infered any association of infection prevalence with AB regimens in SAM. Conclusions The evidence underlying current antibiotic recommendations for uncomplicated SAM is weak. Susceptibility-studies favour amoxicillin over cotrimoxazole. However, given that these antibiotics have side-effects, costs, and risks as well as benefits, their routine use

  16. Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity in the United Kingdom: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M; Scarborough, Peter; Galea, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health challenge worldwide. There is a growing literature documenting socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity risk. Here we draw inference from the literature about inequalities in childhood obesity risk in the UK. We summarize and appraise the extant peer-reviewed literature about socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity in the UK. Common area-level indices of socioeconomic position, including the Carstairs Deprivation Index, the Index of Multiple Deprivation and the Townsend Deprivation Index, as well as common household and individual-level metrics of childhood socioeconomic position, including head-of-household social class and maternal education, were generally inversely associated with childhood obesity in the UK. We summarize key methodological limitations to the extant literature and suggest avenues for future research. PMID:23108336

  17. Post-marketing surveillance in the published medical and grey literature for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty catheters: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-marketing surveillance (PMS) may identify rare serious incidents or adverse events due to the long-term use of a medical device, which was not captured in the pre-market process. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is a non-surgical procedure that uses a balloon-tipped catheter to enlarge a narrowed artery. In 2011, 1,942 adverse event reports related to the use of PTCA catheters were submitted to the FDA by the manufacturers, an increase from the 883 reported in 2008. The primary research objective is to conduct a systematic review of the published and grey literature published between 2007 and 2012 for the frequency of incidents, adverse events and malfunctions associated with the use of PTCA catheters in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Grey literature has not been commercially published. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PubMed for medical literature on PMS for PTCA catheters in patients with CAD published between January 2007 and July 2012. We also searched the grey literature. Results This review included 11 studies. The in-hospital adverse events reported were individual cases of myocardial infarction and hematoma. In studies of patients with coronary perforation, more patients with balloon angioplasty were identified compared with patients who required stenting. Conclusions Our systematic review illustrates that the volume and quality of PMS studies associated with the use of PTCA catheters in patients with CAD are low in the published and grey literature, and may not be useful sources of information for decisions on safety. In most studies, the objectives were not to monitor the long-term safety of the use of PTCA catheters in clinical practice. Future studies can explore the strengths and limitations of PMS databases administered by regulatory authorities. PMID:24112460

  18. Types and severity of medication errors in Iran; a review of the current literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Medication error (ME) is the most common single preventable cause of adverse drug events which negatively affects patient safety. ME prevalence is a valuable safety indicator in healthcare system. Inadequate studies on ME, shortage of high-quality studies and wide variations in estimations from developing countries including Iran, decreases the reliability of ME evaluations. In order to clarify the status of MEs, we aimed to review current available literature on this subject from Iran. We searched Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCOHOST and also Persian databases (IranMedex, and SID) up to October 2012 to find studies on adults and children about prescription, transcription, dispensing, and administration errors. Two authors independently selected and one of them reviewed and extracted data for types, definitions and severity of MEs. The results were classified based on different stages of drug delivery process. Eighteen articles (11 Persian and 7 English) were included in our review. All study designs were cross-sectional and conducted in hospital settings. Nursing staff and students were the most frequent populations under observation (12 studies; 66.7%). Most of studies did not report the overall frequency of MEs aside from ME types. Most of studies (15; 83.3%) reported prevalence of administration errors between 14.3%-70.0%. Prescribing error prevalence ranged from 29.8%-47.8%. The prevalence of dispensing and transcribing errors were from 11.3%-33.6% and 10.0%-51.8% respectively. We did not find any follow up or repeated studies. Only three studies reported findings on severity of MEs. The most reported types of and the highest percentages for any type of ME in Iran were administration errors. Studying ME in Iran is a new area considering the duration and number of publications. Wide ranges of estimations for MEs in different stages may be because of the poor quality of studies with diversity in definitions, methods, and populations. For gaining

  19. Pragmatic Language of African American Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Synthesis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyter, Yvette D.; Rivers, Kenyatta O.; DeJarnette, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A systematic review and synthesis was performed on published articles and dissertations produced between 1970 and 2013 that focused on selected pragmatic language behaviors of African American children and adolescents. Methods: Electronic databases and hand searches of articles located in the databases were used to identify the published…

  20. Prevalence of Chronic Health Conditions in Children with Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, Barth; Dijkstra, Geke J.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review of the prevalence rates of chronic health conditions in populations of children with intellectual disability was provided. We identified 2,994 relevant studies by searching Medline, Cinahl, and PsycINFO databases from 1996 to 2008. We included the 31 studies that had sufficient methodological quality. The 6 most prevalent…

  1. Smoking and Membership in a Fraternity or Sorority: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Harris, LaNita W.; Gowin, Mary J.; Huber, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Fraternity and sorority members have higher rates of smoking than other college students. This systematic review examines studies that included fraternity/sorority membership in their investigation of smoking behaviors. Participants/Methods: Studies identified in MEDLINE, PsychInfo, JSTOR, CINAHL, ERIC, and Google Scholar published…

  2. Intellectual Giftedness and Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Rosanna; Hawes, David J.; Abbott, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Using a systematic search strategy in which intellectual giftedness was operationalized in terms of IQ score, the authors examined evidence from studies reporting on associations between this aspect of giftedness and psychopathology. A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria: compared gifted (IQ = 125) and nongifted (IQ = 90-110) peers or…

  3. Motivational Correlates of Physical Activity in Persons with an Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Y.; Korsensky, O.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to systematically retrieve, examine and discuss scientific studies focusing on motivational correlates that both contribute to, and can be assumed to be effects of, participation in sport, recreation, or health-related physical activities in persons with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: A systematic…

  4. Animal-Assisted Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Haire, Marguerite E.

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of animals in therapeutic activities, known as animal-assisted intervention (AAI), has been suggested as a treatment practice for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This paper presents a systematic review of the empirical research on AAI for ASD. Fourteen studies published in peer-reviewed journals qualified for inclusion. The…

  5. How Will DSM-5 Affect Autism Diagnosis? A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulage, Kristine M.; Smaldone, Arlene M.; Cohn, Elizabeth G.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explore policy implications. We identified 418 studies; 14 met inclusion criteria. Studies consistently reported decreases in ASD diagnosis (range 7.3-68.4%) using DSM-5…

  6. Factors Associated with Social Interactions between Deaf Children and Their Hearing Peers: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batten, Georgina; Oakes, Peter M.; Alexander, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that deaf children can have marked social difficulties compared with their hearing peers. Factors that influence these social interactions need to be reviewed to inform interventions. A systematic search of 5 key databases and 3 specialized journals identified 14 papers that met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of…

  7. A Systematic Review of Literature on Culturally Adapted Obesity Prevention Interventions for African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofton, Saria; Julion, Wrenetha A.; McNaughton, Diane B.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Keim, Kathryn S.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and overweight prevalence in African American (AA) youth continues to be one of the highest of all major ethnic groups, which has led researchers to pursue culturally based approaches as a means to improve obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate culturally adapted obesity prevention…

  8. Definitions and drivers of relapse in patients with schizophrenia: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Relapse in patients with schizophrenia has devastating repercussions, including worsening symptoms, impaired functioning, cognitive deterioration and reduced quality of life. This progressive decline exacerbates the burden of illness on patients and their families. Relapse prevention is identified as a key therapeutic aim; however, the absence of widely accepted relapse definition criteria considerably hampers achieving this goal. We conducted a literature review in order to investigate the reporting of relapses and the validity of hospitalization as a proxy for relapse in patients with schizophrenia. The primary aim was to assess the range and validity of methods used to define relapse in observational or naturalistic settings. The secondary aim was to capture information on factors that predicted or influenced the risk of relapse. A structured search of the PubMed database identified articles that discussed relapse, and hospitalization as a proxy of relapse, in patients with schizophrenia. National and international guidelines were also reviewed. Of the 150 publications and guidelines identified, 87 defined relapse and 62% of these discussed hospitalization. Where hospitalization was discussed, this was as a proxy for, or a component of, relapse in the majority of cases. However, hospitalization duration and type varied and were not always well defined. Scales were used to define relapse in 53 instances; 10 different scales were used and multiple scales often appeared within the same definition. There were 95 references to factors that may drive relapse, including non-adherence to antipsychotic medication (21/95), stress/depression (11/95) and substance abuse (9/95). Twenty-five publications discussed the potential of antipsychotic therapy to reduce relapse rates—continuous antipsychotic therapy was associated with reduced frequency and duration of hospitalization. Non-pharmacological interventions, such as psychoeducation and cognitive behavioural therapy

  9. Definitions and drivers of relapse in patients with schizophrenia: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Olivares, José M; Sermon, Jan; Hemels, Michiel; Schreiner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Relapse in patients with schizophrenia has devastating repercussions, including worsening symptoms, impaired functioning, cognitive deterioration and reduced quality of life. This progressive decline exacerbates the burden of illness on patients and their families. Relapse prevention is identified as a key therapeutic aim; however, the absence of widely accepted relapse definition criteria considerably hampers achieving this goal. We conducted a literature review in order to investigate the reporting of relapses and the validity of hospitalization as a proxy for relapse in patients with schizophrenia. The primary aim was to assess the range and validity of methods used to define relapse in observational or naturalistic settings. The secondary aim was to capture information on factors that predicted or influenced the risk of relapse. A structured search of the PubMed database identified articles that discussed relapse, and hospitalization as a proxy of relapse, in patients with schizophrenia. National and international guidelines were also reviewed. Of the 150 publications and guidelines identified, 87 defined relapse and 62% of these discussed hospitalization. Where hospitalization was discussed, this was as a proxy for, or a component of, relapse in the majority of cases. However, hospitalization duration and type varied and were not always well defined. Scales were used to define relapse in 53 instances; 10 different scales were used and multiple scales often appeared within the same definition. There were 95 references to factors that may drive relapse, including non-adherence to antipsychotic medication (21/95), stress/depression (11/95) and substance abuse (9/95). Twenty-five publications discussed the potential of antipsychotic therapy to reduce relapse rates-continuous antipsychotic therapy was associated with reduced frequency and duration of hospitalization. Non-pharmacological interventions, such as psychoeducation and cognitive behavioural therapy, were

  10. Transient Global Amnesia and Brain Tumour: Chance Concurrence or Aetiological Association? Case Report and Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Milburn-McNulty, Phil; Larner, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient presenting with episodes of transient amnesia, some with features suggestive of transient global amnesia (TGA), and some more reminiscent of transient epileptic amnesia. Investigation with neuroimaging revealed an intrinsic lesion in the right amygdala, with features suggestive of low-grade neoplasia. We undertook a systematic review of the literature on TGA and brain tumour. Fewer than 20 cases were identified, some of which did not conform to the clinical diagnostic criteria for TGA. Hence, the concurrence of brain tumour and TGA is very rare and of doubtful aetiological relevance. In some brain tumour-associated cases, epilepsy may be masquerading as TGA. PMID:25802501

  11. Early insights into the neurobiology of pain in sickle cell disease: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Brandow, Amanda M; Farley, Rebecca A; Panepinto, Julie A

    2015-09-01

    Novel insights into the neurobiology of sickle cell disease (SCD) pain have recently been discovered. We systematically reviewed the literature focusing on original research that examined the biology of pain in SCD and/or addressed assessment or treatment of neuropathic pain in SCD. This review of 15 articles that met inclusion criteria provides epidemiological, basic, and clinical data that support central and/or peripheral nervous system abnormalities likely contribute to sickle cell pain. Continued basic and clinical investigation into pain neurobiology is imperative to translate these discoveries into novel ways to assess and treat neuropathic pain and decrease patient suffering. PMID:25976161

  12. Dealing With Major Life Events and Transitions: A Systematic Literature Review on and Occupational Analysis of Spirituality.

    PubMed

    Maley, Christine M; Pagana, Nicole K; Velenger, Christa A; Humbert, Tamera Keiter

    2016-01-01

    This systematic literature review analyzed the construct of spirituality as perceived by people who have experienced or are experiencing a major life event or transition. The researchers investigated studies that used narrative analysis or a phenomenological methodology related to the topic. Thematic analysis resulted in three major themes: (1) avenues to and through spirituality, (2) the experience of spirituality, and (3) the meaning of spirituality. The results provide insights into the intersection of spirituality, meaning, and occupational engagement as understood by people experiencing a major life event or transition and suggest further research that addresses spirituality in occupational therapy and interdisciplinary intervention. PMID:27294990

  13. Asynchronous and Synchronous Teleconsultation for Diabetes Care: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Verhoeven, Fenne; Tanja-Dijkstra, Karin; Nijland, Nicol; Eysenbach, Gunther; van Gemert-Pijnen, Lisette

    2010-01-01

    Aim A systematic literature review, covering publications from 1994 to 2009, was carried out to determine the effects of teleconsultation regarding clinical, behavioral, and care coordination outcomes of diabetes care compared to usual care. Two types of teleconsultation were distinguished: (1) asynchronous teleconsultation for monitoring and delivering feedback via email and cell phone, automated messaging systems, or other equipment without face-to-face contact; and (2) synchronous teleconsultation that involves real-time, face-to-face contact (image and voice) via videoconferencing equipment (television, digital camera, webcam, videophone, etc.) to connect caregivers and one or more patients simultaneously, e.g., for the purpose of education. Methods Electronic databases were searched for relevant publications about asynchronous and synchronous tele-consultation [Medline, Picarta, Psychinfo, ScienceDirect, Telemedicine Information Exchange, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science, Google Scholar]. Reference lists of identified publications were hand searched. The contribution to diabetes care was examined for clinical outcomes [e.g., hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), dietary values, blood pressure, quality of life], for behavioral outcomes (patient-caregiver interaction, self-care), and for care coordination outcomes (usability of technology, cost-effectiveness, transparency of guidelines, equity of access to care). Randomized controlled trials with HbA1c as an outcome were pooled using standard meta-analytical methods. Results Of 2060 publications identified, 90 met inclusion criteria for electronic communication between (groups of) caregivers and patients with type 1 and 2 or gestational diabetes. Studies that evaluated teleconsultation not particularly aimed at diabetes were excluded, as were those that described interventions aimed solely at clinical improvements (e.g., HbA1c or lipid profiles). In 63 of 90 interventions, the interaction had an

  14. Curative Treatment of Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Patients With Severe COPD: Stereotactic Radiotherapy Outcomes and Systematic Review

    SciTech Connect

    Palma, David; Lagerwaard, Frank; Rodrigues, George; Haasbeek, Cornelis; Senan, Suresh

    2012-03-01

    Objectives: Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a high risk of lung cancer and of postsurgical complications. We studied outcomes after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in patients with severe COPD, as defined by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria, and performed a systematic review of the literature on outcomes after SBRT or surgery in these patients. Methods: A single-institution cohort of 176 patients with COPD GOLD III-IV and Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with SBRT was evaluated. A systematic review identified studies reporting outcomes after SBRT or surgery for Stage I NSCLC in patients with GOLD III-IV or a predicted postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) of {<=}40%. Results: In the single-institution cohort, median follow-up was 21 months and median overall survival (OS) was 32 months. Actuarial 3-year local control was 89%, and 1- and 3-year OS were 79% and 47%, respectively. COPD severity correlated with OS (p = 0.01). The systematic review identified four other studies (two surgical, two SBRT, n = 196 patients). SBRT studies were published more recently and included older patients than surgical studies. Mean 30-day mortality was 0% post-SBRT and 10% after surgery. Local or locoregional control was high ({>=}89%) after both treatments. Post-SBRT, actuarial OS was 79-95% at 1 year and 43-70% at 3 years. Postsurgical actuarial OS was 45-86% at 1 year and 31-66% at 3 years. Conclusions: SBRT and surgery differ in risk of 30-day mortality in patients with severe COPD. Despite the negative selection of SBRT patients, survival at 1 and 3 years is comparable between the two treatments.

  15. Delusion of Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of 84 Cases in the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Sagar Chandra; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Case reports of delusion of pregnancy have emanated from all over the world, yet the rarity of this phenomenology has precluded systematic large scale descriptive or cohort studies. This systematic review was conducted to assess the demographic characteristics, clinical profile, treatment outcome and aetiological factors from the published case reports of delusion of pregnancy. Electronic databases including PubMed, PsychInfo and Google Scholar were used to identify case reports relating to delusion of pregnancy published in peer-reviewed English language journals. All such cases were systematically evaluated by investigators, and information was extracted using a structured proforma. A total 40 articles were reviewed which included 84 cases. Demographic characteristics revealed that about half of the patients were aged 20-40 years. The most common diagnoses were schizophrenia (35.7%), bipolar disorders (16.7%) and depression (9.5%). Single foetus was reported by 79.8% of the patients, and 45.2% perceived foetal movements. Good treatment response was noted in 64.3 % of the cases. The prominent aetiological factors that were implicated included psychosocial factors, coenaesthopathological processes, socio-cultural factors and hyperprolactinaemia. Delusion of pregnancy is a heterogeneous symptom which emerges during the course of various neuropsychiatric disorders. A range of aetiopathological mechanisms have been implicated in the causation of this disorder. PMID:25969595

  16. A Systematic Analysis and Synthesis of the Empirical MOOC Literature Published in 2013-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Shepherdson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A deluge of empirical research became available on MOOCs in 2013-2015 and this research is available in disparate sources. This paper addresses a number of gaps in the scholarly understanding of MOOCs and presents a comprehensive picture of the literature by examining the geographic distribution, publication outlets, citations, data collection and…

  17. Mexican American Mothers' Perceptions of Childhood Obesity: A Theory-Guided Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Erica T.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity continues to increase, disproportionately affecting Mexican American children. The aims of this review are to (a) assess the literature regarding Mexican American mothers' knowledge and perceptions of childhood obesity, prevention, and their role in prevention; (b) critically evaluate the methodological quality of the research…

  18. Commitment and Trust in Librarian-Faculty Relationships: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Sue F.; Campbell, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to examine the methodologies used to study librarian-faculty relationships and to use the Key Mediating Variable model (KMV) of The Trust and Commitment Theory of Relationship Marketing to assess the quality of the librarian-faculty relationship as it has been portrayed in the literature. Relationship…

  19. The Study of Literature as a Systematic Disciplinary Practice. Elementary Subjects Center Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnsen, William A.

    The study of literature can be a discipline only insofar as it is capable of the systemization typical of other human sciences. The possibility of system poses two directions of research: (1) exploring what conditions make system possible; and (2) discovering what follows from the fact of system's possibility. Northrop Frye followed the second…

  20. A Systematic Literature Review of Empirical Evidence on Computer Games and Serious Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Thomas M.; Boyle, Elizabeth A.; MacArthur, Ewan; Hainey, Thomas; Boyle, James M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the literature on computer games and serious games in regard to the potential positive impacts of gaming on users aged 14 years or above, especially with respect to learning, skill enhancement and engagement. Search terms identified 129 papers reporting empirical evidence about the impacts and outcomes of computer games and…

  1. Relational Reasoning and Its Manifestations in the Educational Context: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Denis; Alexander, Patricia A.; Grossnickle, Emily M.

    2013-01-01

    Relational reasoning, the ability to discern meaningful patterns within otherwise unconnected information, is regarded as central to human learning and cognition and as particularly critical for those functioning in today's information age. However, the literature on this foundational ability is currently housed within a range of domains of…

  2. Parent-Child Interactions and Obesity Prevention: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Aksan, Nazan; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity research has generally not examined multiple layers of parent-child relationships during weight-related activities such as feeding, eating and play. A literature review was conducted to locate empirical studies that measured parent-child interactions and child eating and child weight variables; five papers met the inclusion criteria…

  3. Teaching a Systematic Search Strategy Improves Literature Retrieval Skills of Pharmacy Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kathryn L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of combined lecture and computer demonstration to train third-year pharmacy students (n=48) in computerized information retrieval. Results show the method to be effective in helping students translate Boolean logic into search strategies. The importance of improving pharmacy students' literature retrieval…

  4. A Systematic Review on Using Literature for the Young Learners in an EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-hajji, Badria A.; Shuqair, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    This study has objectives that are exploratory and analytical in nature. It focuses on the use of relevant information with regard to the use of literature in EFL classrooms that is available for an analysis in order to draw conclusions and make useful recommendations. The study is, therefore, conducted as library research using the method of…

  5. How do people of South Asian origin understand and experience depression? A protocol for a systematic review of qualitative literature

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Roisin; Trivedi, Daksha; Sharma, Shivani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Individuals from Black and Asian Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups are less likely to receive a diagnosis and to engage with treatment for depression. This review aims to draw on international literature to summarise what is known about how people specifically of South Asian origin, migrants and non-migrants, understand and experience depressive symptoms. The resulting evidence base will further inform practices aimed at encouraging help-seeking behaviour and treatment uptake. Methods and analysis A systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative literature conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, electronic searches will be conducted across 16 databases. Study quality will be assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Data will be extracted independently by 2 reviewers. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required. A comprehensive evidence base of how people from South Asian backgrounds conceptualise and experience depression will better inform the design and delivery of mental health initiatives and advance directions for future research. Findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal, and disseminated through existing networks for professionals, researchers, patients and the public. Trial registration number CRD42015026120. PMID:27577586

  6. Do Political and Economic Choices Rely on Common Neural Substrates? A Systematic Review of the Emerging Neuropolitics Literature.

    PubMed

    Krastev, Sekoul; McGuire, Joseph T; McNeney, Denver; Kable, Joseph W; Stolle, Dietlind; Gidengil, Elisabeth; Fellows, Lesley K

    2016-01-01

    The methods of cognitive neuroscience are beginning to be applied to the study of political behavior. The neural substrates of value-based decision-making have been extensively examined in economic contexts; this might provide a powerful starting point for understanding political decision-making. Here, we asked to what extent the neuropolitics literature to date has used conceptual frameworks and experimental designs that make contact with the reward-related approaches that have dominated decision neuroscience. We then asked whether the studies of political behavior that can be considered in this light implicate the brain regions that have been associated with subjective value related to "economic" reward. We performed a systematic literature review to identify papers addressing the neural substrates of political behavior and extracted the fMRI studies reporting behavioral measures of subjective value as defined in decision neuroscience studies of reward. A minority of neuropolitics studies met these criteria and relatively few brain activation foci from these studies overlapped with regions where activity has been related to subjective value. These findings show modest influence of reward-focused decision neuroscience on neuropolitics research to date. Whether the neural substrates of subjective value identified in economic choice paradigms generalize to political choice thus remains an open question. We argue that systematically addressing the commonalities and differences in these two classes of value-based choice will be important in developing a more comprehensive model of the brain basis of human decision-making. PMID:26941703

  7. The Human Impact of Tsunamis: a Historical Review of Events 1900-2009 and Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Dick, Anna; Kirsch, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Although rare, tsunamis have the potential to cause considerable loss of life and injury as well as widespread damage to the natural and built environments. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of tsunamis on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of tsunamis were compiled using two methods, a historical review from 1900 to mid 2009 of tsunami events from multiple databases and a systematic literature review to October 2012 of publications. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between tsunami mortality and characteristics using STATA 11. Findings. There were 255,195 deaths (range 252,619-275,784) and 48,462 injuries (range 45,466-51,457) as a result of tsunamis from 1900 to 2009. The majority of deaths (89%) and injuries reported during this time period were attributed to a single event –the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Findings from the systematic literature review indicate that the primary cause of tsunami-related mortality is drowning, and that females, children and the elderly are at increased mortality risk. The few studies that reported on tsunami-related injury suggest that males and young adults are at increased injury-risk. Conclusions. Early warning systems may help mitigate tsunami-related loss of life. PMID:23857277

  8. Does argumentation matter? A systematic literature review on the role of argumentation in doctor-patient communication.

    PubMed

    Labrie, Nanon; Schulz, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    In view of a growing interest in argumentative discourse in the context of patient-centered consultation and shared decision making, this article explores the role that argumentation has been attributed in the literature on doctor-patient consultation so far. It studies to what extent theories and concepts of argumentation have been applied by scholars from various fields in order to analyze, understand, facilitate, and improve the argumentative nature of medical consultation. It reports on an extensive and systematic literature search-using eight online databases, expert suggestions, and a manual search-and the subsequent evaluation of 1,330 abstracts on the basis of strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Forty relevant scientific contributions are grouped into four main categories and discussed accordingly: (a) argumentation theory, (b) discourse analysis, (c) medical informatics, and (d) medical ethics. Because of its systematic approach, this study forms a solid starting point for further integration of argumentation theoretical insights into contemporary views of patient-centered medicine and evidence-based medicine. It provides suggestions for further interdisciplinary and theory-driven research with a strong focus on empirical reality. Doing so, a preliminary model is proposed that outlines the potential effects of the quality of doctors' communication on proximal, intermediate, and long-term consultation outcomes. PMID:24359318

  9. Do Political and Economic Choices Rely on Common Neural Substrates? A Systematic Review of the Emerging Neuropolitics Literature

    PubMed Central

    Krastev, Sekoul; McGuire, Joseph T.; McNeney, Denver; Kable, Joseph W.; Stolle, Dietlind; Gidengil, Elisabeth; Fellows, Lesley K.

    2016-01-01

    The methods of cognitive neuroscience are beginning to be applied to the study of political behavior. The neural substrates of value-based decision-making have been extensively examined in economic contexts; this might provide a powerful starting point for understanding political decision-making. Here, we asked to what extent the neuropolitics literature to date has used conceptual frameworks and experimental designs that make contact with the reward-related approaches that have dominated decision neuroscience. We then asked whether the studies of political behavior that can be considered in this light implicate the brain regions that have been associated with subjective value related to “economic” reward. We performed a systematic literature review to identify papers addressing the neural substrates of political behavior and extracted the fMRI studies reporting behavioral measures of subjective value as defined in decision neuroscience studies of reward. A minority of neuropolitics studies met these criteria and relatively few brain activation foci from these studies overlapped with regions where activity has been related to subjective value. These findings show modest influence of reward-focused decision neuroscience on neuropolitics research to date. Whether the neural substrates of subjective value identified in economic choice paradigms generalize to political choice thus remains an open question. We argue that systematically addressing the commonalities and differences in these two classes of value-based choice will be important in developing a more comprehensive model of the brain basis of human decision-making. PMID:26941703

  10. Feto-maternal outcomes of pregnancy complicated by ovarian sex-cord stromal tumor: a systematic review of literature.

    PubMed

    Blake, Erin A; Carter, Charelle M; Kashani, Banafsheh N; Kodama, Michiko; Mabuchi, Seiji; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Matsuo, Koji

    2014-04-01

    Sex-cord stromal tumors (SCSTs) are rare ovarian cancers and their behavior during pregnancy is not well understood. To evaluate the maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnancy complicated by ovarian SCST, a systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE using entry key words "pregnancy" and each type of ovarian SCST ("sex cord stromal tumor," "granulosa cell tumor," "thecoma," "Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor," or "gynandroblastoma") between 1955 and 2012 that identified 46 cases eligible for the analysis. Clinical characteristics, pregnancy outcome, tumor characteristics, and survival outcomes were evaluated. Serious adverse events were defined as complications related to the SCST that resulted in severe morbidity or mortality for mother, fetus, or both. The most common histology was granulosa cell tumor (22.0%), followed by thecoma (18.6%) and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (8.5%). Abdomino-pelvic pain (45.7%), palpable mass (30.4%), and virilization (26.1%) were the three most common symptoms. The majority were stage I (76.1%), tumor size <15cm (64.9%), and underwent unilateral adnexectomy (80.4%). Fetal conservation surgery was seen in 54.3%. Most cases had live births (78.3%) at full term (60.9%). Among cases proceeded expectant delay of delivery (45.7%), most cases resulted in live birth (95.2%) with median expectant interval of 20.7 weeks. Maternal and/or fetal serious adverse events (SAEs) were observed in 41.3% with maternal shock/hemoperitoneum being the most common complication (13.0%). Logistic regression test identified younger age (<30 versus ≥30, 73.3% versus 26.7%, odds ratio [OR] 11.7, 95%CI 1.35-101, p=0.026), large tumor (size ≥15cm versus <15cm, 64.9% versus 35.1%, OR 10.0, 95%CI 1.29-26.2, p=0.004), and advanced-stage (stages II-IV versus I, 76.1% versus 23.9%, OR 5.82, 95%CI 2.05-48.9, p=0.022) as risk factors of increased SAE. Overall survival of patients diagnosed with ovarian SCST during pregnancy was comparable to ovarian SCST not

  11. A knowledge-based taxonomy of critical factors for adopting electronic health record systems by physicians: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The health care sector is an area of social and economic interest in several countries; therefore, there have been lots of efforts in the use of electronic health records. Nevertheless, there is evidence suggesting that these systems have not been adopted as it was expected, and although there are some proposals to support their adoption, the proposed support is not by means of information and communication technology which can provide automatic tools of support. The aim of this study is to identify the critical adoption factors for electronic health records by physicians and to use them as a guide to support their adoption process automatically. Methods This paper presents, based on the PRISMA statement, a systematic literature review in electronic databases with adoption studies of electronic health records published in English. Software applications that manage and process the data in the electronic health record have been considered, i.e.: computerized physician prescription, electronic medical records, and electronic capture of clinical data. Our review was conducted with the purpose of obtaining a taxonomy of the physicians main barriers for adopting electronic health records, that can be addressed by means of information and communication technology; in particular with the information technology roles of the knowledge management processes. Which take us to the question that we want to address in this work: "What are the critical adoption factors of electronic health records that can be supported by information and communication technology?". Reports from eight databases covering electronic health records adoption studies in the medical domain, in particular those focused on physicians, were analyzed. Results The review identifies two main issues: 1) a knowledge-based classification of critical factors for adopting electronic health records by physicians; and 2) the definition of a base for the design of a conceptual framework for supporting the

  12. Community-academic partnerships in HIV-related research: a systematic literature review of theory and practice

    PubMed Central

    Brizay, Ulrike; Golob, Lina; Globerman, Jason; Gogolishvili, David; Bird, Mara; Rios-Ellis, Britt; Rourke, Sean B; Heidari, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Community involvement in HIV research has increased over recent years, enhancing community-academic partnerships. Several terms have been used to describe community participation in research. Clarification is needed to determine whether these terms are synonymous or actually describe different research processes. In addition, it remains unclear if the role that communities play in the actual research process follows the recommendations given in theoretical frameworks of community-academia research. Objectives The objective of this study is to review the existing terms and definitions regarding community-academic partnerships and assess how studies are implementing these in relation to conceptual definitions. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed. Two reviewers independently assessed each article, applying the following inclusion criteria: the article must be published in English before 2013; it must provide an explicit definition and/or defining methodology for a term describing research with a community component; and it has to refer to HIV or AIDS, reproductive health and/or STDs. When disagreements about the relevance of an article emerged, a third reviewer was involved until concordance was reached. Data were extracted by one reviewer and independently verified by a second. Qualitative data were analyzed using MaxQDA for content and thematic analyses while quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Community feedback on data analysis and presentation of results was also incorporated. Results In total, 246 articles were retrieved, 159 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The number of studies that included community participation in the field of HIV research increased between 1991 and 2012, and the terms used to describe these activities have changed, moving away from action research (AR) to participatory action research (PAR), community-based research (CBR) and community-based participatory research

  13. HIV transmission from husbands to wives in Cambodia: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Youngran; Lewis, Frances Marcus; Kraushaar, Daniel L

    2013-01-01

    HIV transmission in Cambodia has declined considerably in recent years, yet new incidents of HIV transmission within marital relationships have increased. Evidence suggests that the cause of this is transmission from HIV-positive men to their HIV-negative spouses. The objective of this paper is to develop an evidence-based model of HIV transmission from husbands to wives in Cambodia in a context of culture and society, drawing from the published literature. A critical analysis of peer reviewed literature, professional papers, policy reports and reference books identified four plausible factors influencing inter-spousal HIV transmission: (1) a hierarchical male-dominated society, (2) husbands' involvement with sex workers, (3) cultural values concerning the ideal Khmer woman and (4) unprotected sex between an HIV-infected husband and his uninfected wife. This evidence-based explanatory model can be used to inform future culturally appropriate HIV-education and prevention programmes. PMID:23701215

  14. Health Economics of Dengue: A Systematic Literature Review and Expert Panel's Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Mark E.; Beutels, Philippe; Meltzer, Martin I.; Shepard, Donald S.; Hombach, Joachim; Hutubessy, Raymond; Dessis, Damien; Coudeville, Laurent; Dervaux, Benoit; Wichmann, Ole; Margolis, Harold S.; Kuritsky, Joel N.

    2011-01-01

    Dengue vaccines are currently in development and policymakers need appropriate economic studies to determine their potential financial and public health impact. We searched five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILAC, EconLit, and WHOLIS) to identify health economics studies of dengue. Forty-three manuscripts were identified that provided primary data: 32 report economic burden of dengue and nine are comparative economic analyses assessing various interventions. The remaining two were a willingness-to-pay study and a policymaker survey. An expert panel reviewed the existing dengue economic literature and recommended future research to fill information gaps. Although dengue is an important vector-borne disease, the economic literature is relatively sparse and results have often been conflicting because of use of inconsistent assumptions. Health economic research specific to dengue is urgently needed to ensure informed decision making on the various options for controlling and preventing this disease. PMID:21363989

  15. Ethical Issues in Patient Safety Research: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Whicher, Danielle M; Kass, Nancy E; Audera-Lopez, Carmen; Butt, Mobasher; Jauregui, Iciar Larizgoitia; Harris, Kendra; Knoche, Jonathan; Saxena, Abha

    2015-09-01

    As many as 1 in 10 patients is harmed while receiving hospital care in wealthy countries. The risk of health care-associated infection in some developing countries is as much as 20 times higher. In response, in many global regions, increased attention has turned to the implementation of a broad program of safety research, encompassing a variety of methods. Although important international ethical guidelines for research exist, literature has been emerging in the last 20 years that begins to apply such guidelines to patient safety research specifically. This paper provides a review of the literature related to ethics, oversight, and patient safety research; identifies issues highlighted in articles as being of ethical relevance; describes areas of consensus regarding how to respond to these ethical issues; and highlights areas where additional ethical analysis and discussion are needed to provide guidance to those in the field. PMID:24618642

  16. Health economics of dengue: a systematic literature review and expert panel's assessment.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Mark E; Beutels, Philippe; Meltzer, Martin I; Shepard, Donald S; Hombach, Joachim; Hutubessy, Raymond; Dessis, Damien; Coudeville, Laurent; Dervaux, Benoit; Wichmann, Ole; Margolis, Harold S; Kuritsky, Joel N

    2011-03-01

    Dengue vaccines are currently in development and policymakers need appropriate economic studies to determine their potential financial and public health impact. We searched five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILAC, EconLit, and WHOLIS) to identify health economics studies of dengue. Forty-three manuscripts were identified that provided primary data: 32 report economic burden of dengue and nine are comparative economic analyses assessing various interventions. The remaining two were a willingness-to-pay study and a policymaker survey. An expert panel reviewed the existing dengue economic literature and recommended future research to fill information gaps. Although dengue is an important vector-borne disease, the economic literature is relatively sparse and results have often been conflicting because of use of inconsistent assumptions. Health economic research specific to dengue is urgently needed to ensure informed decision making on the various options for controlling and preventing this disease. PMID:21363989

  17. Inflammatory fibroid polyps in children: A new case report and a systematic review of the pediatric literature

    PubMed Central

    Righetti, Laura; Parolini, Filippo; Cengia, Paolo; Boroni, Giovanni; Cheli, Maurizio; Sonzogni, Aurelio; Alberti, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study that inflammatory fibroid polyps (IFPs) in children are extremely uncommon tumors that may occur throughout the gastrointestinal tract. METHODS: A systematic review of the pediatric literature and a report of a new case of IFP is also presented. The PubMed database was searched for original studies on pediatric IFPs since 1960, according to “Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses” guidelines for systematic reviews. RESULTS: Five studies were finally enclosed, encompassing 6 children with IFPs (mean age 64 mo). Tumors were located in the stomach (2 patients), in the small bowel (2 patients), in the rectum (1 patient) and in the colon (1 patient). Open surgery was performed in all patients and complete excision of the mass was achieved in all cases. All patients are alive and free of symptom. Authors described a further case of a 3-year-old boy with a large duodenal IFP, in whom the tumor was removed by “en block resection”. The presence of IFP throughout the gastrointestinal tract and its variable clinical appearances make it difficult to diagnose. An accurate pre-operative assessment is fundamental in order to differentiate IFP from other more aggressive gastrointestinal tumor, enabling unnecessary demolitive surgery. CONCLUSION: When complete resection of the IFP is achieved, the prognosis is excellent. PMID:26566490

  18. Robotic surgery in oral and maxillofacial, craniofacial and head and neck surgery: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    De Ceulaer, J; De Clercq, C; Swennen, G R J

    2012-11-01

    A systematic review of the literature concerning robotic surgery in oral and maxillofacial (OMF), craniofacial and head and neck surgery was performed. The objective was to give a clear overview of the different anatomical areas of research in the field of OMF, craniofacial and head and neck surgery, in all its fields (pre-clinical and clinical). The present indications are outlined and the critical reader is invited to assess the value of this new technology by highlighting different relevant parameters. A PubMed and Cochrane library search yielded 838 papers published between 1994 and 2011. After screening the abstracts, 202 articles were considered clinically or technically relevant and were included. These full papers were screened in detail and classified as articles on synopsis (n=41), educational aspects (n=3), technical/practical aspects (n=11) and clinical papers (n=147). Regarding clinical feasibility this systematic review revealed the following main indications: transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for upper digestive and respiratory tract lesions; TORS for skull base surgery; and TORS for trans-axillary thyroid and endocrine surgery. Regarding functional outcome, this systematic review revealed a promising reduction of morbidity in patients with cancer of the upper digastric and respiratory tract. PMID:22910368

  19. The Effects of Obesity on Spine Surgery: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Keith L; Devine, John G

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective The aim of this literature review is to examine the effects of obesity on postoperative complications and functional outcomes after spine surgery. Methods A review of the relevant literature examining the effects of obesity and spine surgery was conducted using PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases. Results Obesity contributes to disk degeneration and low back pain and potentially increases the risk of developing operative pathology. Obese patients undergoing spine surgery have a higher risk of developing postoperative complications, particularly surgical site infection and venous thromboembolism. Though functional outcomes in this population may not mirror the general population, the treatment effect associated with surgery is at least equivalent if not better in obese individuals. This reduction is primarily due to worse outcomes associated with nonoperative treatment in the obese population. Conclusion Obese individuals represent a unique patient population with respect to nonoperative treatment, postoperative complication rates, and functional outcomes. However, given the equivalent or greater treatment effect of surgery, this comorbidity should not prohibit obese patients from undergoing operative intervention. Future investigations in this area should attempt to develop strategies to minimize complications and improve outcomes in obese individuals and also examine the role of controlled weight loss preoperatively to mitigate these risks. PMID:27190743

  20. Alternative treatments for menopausal symptoms. Systematic review of scientific and lay literature.

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, M. M.; Stewart, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the scientific literature on common alternative remedies for treatment of symptoms attributed to menopause and to contrast this with available lay literature. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Scientific articles were identified by searching MEDLINE, CINAHL, and HEALTH databases from 1966 to mid-1997 for English-language articles. More than 200 references were reviewed; 85 were selected for citation based on specific reference to alternative medicine for symptoms commonly attributed to menopause (e.g., hot flashes), to the effects of changing estrogen levels (e.g., irregular menses, vaginal dryness), and to reported side effects of the treatments. MAIN FINDINGS: The scientific literature was categorized under the headings nutritional supplements, herbal remedies, homeopathic remedies, and physical approaches. Some scientific evidence of the safety and efficacy of alternative treatments during menopause was uncovered, with the strongest evidence emerging in favour of phytoestrogens, which occur in high concentrations as isoflavones in soy products. CONCLUSIONS: In available controlled studies, the strongest data support phytoestrogens for their role in diminishing menopausal symptoms related to estrogen deficiency and for possible protective effects on bones and the cardiovascular system. Randomized controlled trials, standardization of dosage, and accurate safety and efficacy labeling are required to ensure proper use of alternative remedies. PMID:9640524

  1. The Effects of Obesity on Spine Surgery: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Keith L.; Devine, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective The aim of this literature review is to examine the effects of obesity on postoperative complications and functional outcomes after spine surgery. Methods A review of the relevant literature examining the effects of obesity and spine surgery was conducted using PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases. Results Obesity contributes to disk degeneration and low back pain and potentially increases the risk of developing operative pathology. Obese patients undergoing spine surgery have a higher risk of developing postoperative complications, particularly surgical site infection and venous thromboembolism. Though functional outcomes in this population may not mirror the general population, the treatment effect associated with surgery is at least equivalent if not better in obese individuals. This reduction is primarily due to worse outcomes associated with nonoperative treatment in the obese population. Conclusion Obese individuals represent a unique patient population with respect to nonoperative treatment, postoperative complication rates, and functional outcomes. However, given the equivalent or greater treatment effect of surgery, this comorbidity should not prohibit obese patients from undergoing operative intervention. Future investigations in this area should attempt to develop strategies to minimize complications and improve outcomes in obese individuals and also examine the role of controlled weight loss preoperatively to mitigate these risks. PMID:27190743

  2. Imperfect placebos are common in low back pain trials: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kamper, S. J.; Herbert, R. D.; Maher, C. G.; McAuley, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    The placebo is an important tool to blind patients to treatment allocation and therefore minimise some sources of bias in clinical trials. However, placebos that are improperly designed or implemented may introduce bias into trials. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the adequacy of placebo interventions used in low back pain trials. Electronic databases were searched systematically for randomised placebo-controlled trials of conservative interventions for low back pain. Trial selection and data extraction were performed by two reviewers independently. A total of 126 trials using over 25 different placebo interventions were included. The strategy most commonly used to enhance blinding was the provision of structurally equivalent placebos. Adequacy of blinding was assessed in only 13% of trials. In 20% of trials the placebo intervention was a potentially genuine treatment. Most trials that assessed patients’ expectations showed that the placebo generated lower expectations than the experimental intervention. Taken together, these results demonstrate that imperfect placebos are common in low back pain trials; a result suggesting that many trials provide potentially biased estimates of treatment efficacy. This finding has implications for the interpretation of published trials and the design of future trials. Implementation of strategies to facilitate blinding and balance expectations in randomised groups need a higher priority in low back pain research. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00586-008-0664-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18421484

  3. Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth. PMID:25411128

  4. Empirical studies of clinical supervision in psychiatric nursing: A systematic literature review and methodological critique.

    PubMed

    Buus, Niels; Gonge, Henrik

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this paper was to systematically review and critically evaluate all English language research papers reporting empirical studies of clinical supervision in psychiatric nursing. The first part of the search strategy was a combination of brief and building block strategies in the PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases. The second part was a citation pearl growing strategy with reviews of 179 reference lists. In total, the search strategy demonstrated a low level of precision and a high level of recall. Thirty four articles met the criteria of the review and were systematically evaluated using three checklists. The findings were summarized by using a new checklist with nine overall questions regarding the studies' design, methods, findings, and limitations. The studies were categorized as: (i) effect studies; (ii) survey studies; (iii) interview studies; and (iv) case studies. In general, the studies were relatively small scale; they used relatively new and basic methods for data collection and analysis, and rarely included sufficient strategies for identifying confounding factors or how the researchers' preconceptions influenced the analyses. Empirical research of clinical supervision in psychiatric nursing was characterized by a basic lack of agreement about which models and instruments to use. Challenges and recommendations for future research are discussed. Clinical supervision in psychiatric nursing was commonly perceived as a good thing, but there was limited empirical evidence supporting this claim. PMID:19594645

  5. Coronectomy of impacted mandibular third molars: A meta-analysis and systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Cervera-Espert*, Juan; Pérez-Martínez*, Sara; Cervera-Ballester, Juan; Penarrocha-Oltra, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronectomy is an alternative to complete removal of an impacted mandibular third molar. Most authors have recommended coronectomy to prevent damage to the inferior alveolar nerve during surgical extraction of lower third molars. The present study offers a systematic review and metaanalysis of the coronectomy technique. Material and Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed based on a PubMed and Cochrane databases search for articles published from 2014 and involving coronectomy of mandibular third molars located near the inferior alveolar nerve canal, with a minimum of 10 cases and a minimum follow-up period of 6 months. After application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 12 articles were included in the study. Results and Discussion Coronectomy results in significantly lesser loss of sensitivity of the inferior alveolar nerve and prevents the occurrence of dry socket. No statistically significant differences were observed in the incidence of pain and infection between coronectomy and complete surgical extraction. After coronectomy, the remaining tooth fragment migrates an average of 2 mm within two years. Conclusions Coronectomy is indicated when the mandibular third molar is in contact with the inferior alveolar nerve and complete removal of the tooth may cause nerve damage. Key words:Coronectomy, included third molar, inferior alveolar nerve injury. PMID:27031064

  6. Is keratinized mucosa indispensable to maintain peri-implant health? A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Brito, Carlos; Tenenbaum, Howard C; Wong, Benjamin K C; Schmitt, Christian; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio

    2014-04-01

    The significance of keratinized mucosa (KM) around dental implants is still not well explained and has been controversial. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the importance of KM around dental implants. The electronic databases Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Virtual Health Library (VHL) databases were utilized to search original articles from 2006 to March 2013. The inclusion and exclusion criteria used to select the articles were: (1) Human studies published in the English language; (2) Study published in international peer-viewed journals; (3) Studies evaluated the association between KM width and the peri-implant tissue health; (4) Studies that have follow up of greater than 12 months; (5) Publication of studies not older than 10 years. The searches retrieved 285 citations. Seven articles fulfilled all of the inclusion criteria. Out of these, three studies were ranked as presenting high methodological quality, and four were judged to be of moderate quality. This systematic review concludes that the presence of an adequate zone of keratinized tissue may be necessary because it was shown to be related to better peri-implant tissue health. Further randomized controlled trials are necessary to support this statement. PMID:24124021

  7. A Systematic Review of Pediatric Obesity and Family Communication Through the Lens of Addiction Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mogul, Ashley; Irby, Megan B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Both treatment of addiction and treatment of pediatric obesity often integrate the family unit. Thus, addiction therapies may provide a model to guide treatment of pediatric obesity, particularly issues of family communication, weight, and weight-related behaviors. The aim of this systematic review is to assess what knowledge in the field of addiction treatment can be translated to pediatric weight management, particularly in relation to family-based approaches and communication. Methods: A systematic review of family communication and food addiction in obese children was conducted using MEDLINE and other databases, including all English-language studies published after 1990 meeting search criteria and related to family factors or family communication, and addiction treatment strategies used in obesity interventions. Results: Three reviews, two survey studies, and two observational studies were included. Most focused on family communication; less-healthy communication patterns and parental restriction were related to maladaptive eating behaviors in children and attrition from weight management programs. A few studies suggested family communication interventions to improve unhealthy eating patterns in children, using therapies common in family treatment of addiction (e.g., motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy). No studies presented concrete suggestions to aid family communication around issues of food and weight management. Potential contributions of addiction therapies are discussed. Conclusions: Though the addictive properties of food have not been fully delineated and obesity is not classified as a disease of addiction, the field of addiction offers many approaches that may prove useful in the treatment of obesity. PMID:24809221

  8. Ontology-based Brucella vaccine literature indexing and systematic analysis of gene-vaccine association network

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vaccine literature indexing is poorly performed in PubMed due to limited hierarchy of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) annotation in the vaccine field. Vaccine Ontology (VO) is a community-based biomedical ontology that represents various vaccines and their relations. SciMiner is an in-house literature mining system that supports literature indexing and gene name tagging. We hypothesize that application of VO in SciMiner will aid vaccine literature indexing and mining of vaccine-gene interaction networks. As a test case, we have examined vaccines for Brucella, the causative agent of brucellosis in humans and animals. Results The VO-based SciMiner (VO-SciMiner) was developed to incorporate a total of 67 Brucella vaccine terms. A set of rules for term expansion of VO terms were learned from training data, consisting of 90 biomedical articles related to Brucella vaccine terms. VO-SciMiner demonstrated high recall (91%) and precision (99%) from testing a separate set of 100 manually selected biomedical articles. VO-SciMiner indexing exhibited superior performance in retrieving Brucella vaccine-related papers over that obtained with MeSH-based PubMed literature search. For example, a VO-SciMiner search of "live attenuated Brucella vaccine" returned 922 hits as of April 20, 2011, while a PubMed search of the same query resulted in only 74 hits. Using the abstracts of 14,947 Brucella-related papers, VO-SciMiner identified 140 Brucella genes associated with Brucella vaccines. These genes included known protective antigens, virulence factors, and genes closely related to Brucella vaccines. These VO-interacting Brucella genes were significantly over-represented in biological functional categories, including metabolite transport and metabolism, replication and repair, cell wall biogenesis, intracellular trafficking and secretion, posttranslational modification, and chaperones. Furthermore, a comprehensive interaction network of Brucella vaccines and genes were

  9. Treatment of Hand Mouthing in Individuals with Severe to Profound Developmental Disabilities: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannella, Helen I.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews studies investigating the assessment and treatment of hand mouthing in individuals with severe to profound developmental disabilities. A literature search identified 101 studies carried out between 1969 and 2004. The trend in the studies indicated a shift away from aversive interventions in the last 10 years, so this review…

  10. Indwelling catheters for the management of refractory malignant ascites: a systematic literature overview and retrospective chart review.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Nicole D; Alvarez-Secord, Angeles; Von Gruenigen, Vivian; Miller, Michael J; Abernethy, Amy P

    2009-09-01

    The safety and efficacy of indwelling intraperitoneal (IP) catheters for the management of refractory malignant ascites is unclear. A systematic literature overview and retrospective chart review of patients with malignant refractory ascites who underwent indwelling IP catheter placement was performed. Standardized literature abstraction and chart review templates were used to ensure that consistent information was collected. Fifteen publications met literature search criteria, representing 221 patients. Tenckhoff (Quinton Instrument Company, Seattle, WA, USA), Pleurex (Denver Biomedical Inc., Golden, CO, USA), and peritoneal catheters were used, along with IP ports. A median 5.9% of cases (range: 2.5%-34%) had documented peritonitis. In the literature, untunneled catheters were most commonly associated with infections. Our chart review added 19 cases from two academic institutions to this literature (median age: 60 years [range: 31-85]; females: 17 [89%]; gynecological malignancies: 14 [73%]). Palliative management before catheter placement included diuretics (n=4 [21%]) and multiple paracenteses (n=11 [58%] had two or more taps [range: 2-8]). Median time from diagnosis to catheter placement was 25 months (range: 1-77). Interventions were: French pigtail catheters (n=16 [84%]), Tenckhoff catheter (n=1 [5%]), and Port-A-Caths (Smith Medical MD, St. Paul, MN, USA) (n=2; 11%). Four (21%) catheters were tunneled. Prophylactic antibiotics were prescribed in six cases (32%). Two cases (11%) had documented infections, seven catheters (37%) became occluded, and two leaked (11%). The median time from catheter until death was 36 days (range: 4-660). Nine patients (47%) were admitted to hospice. In these retrospective studies, indwelling IP catheters appear to be a safe and effective palliative strategy to manage refractory malignant ascites, without overwhelming infection rates. PMID:19328648

  11. Patient Preferences and Shared Decision Making in the Treatment of Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Friedrichs, Anke; Spies, Maren; Härter, Martin; Buchholz, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Background Shared Decision Making (SDM) as means to the involvement of patients in medical decision making is increasingly demanded by treatment guidelines and legislation. Also, matching of patients’ preferences to treatments has been shown to be effective regarding symptom reduction. Despite promising results for patients with substance use disorders (SUD) no systematic evaluation of the literature has been provided. The aim is therefore to give a systematic overview of the literature of patient preferences and SDM in the treatment of patients with SUD. Methods An electronic literature search of the databases Medline, Embase, Psyndex and Clinical Trials Register was performed. Variations of the search terms substance use disorders, patient preferences and SDM were used. For data synthesis the populations, interventions and outcomes were summarized and described according to the PRISMA statement. Methodological quality of the included articles was assessed with the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Results N = 25 trials were included in this review. These were conducted between 1986 and 2014 with altogether n = 8.729 patients. Two studies found that patients with SUD preferred to be actively involved in treatment decisions. Treatment preferences were assessed in n = 18 studies, where the majority of patients preferred outpatient compared with inpatient treatment. Matching patients to preferences resulted in a reduction on substance use (n = 3 studies), but the majority of studies found no significant effect. Interventions for SDM differed across patient populations and optional therapeutic techniques. Discussion Patients with substance use disorders should be involved in medical treatment decisions, as patients with other health conditions. A suitable approach is Shared Decision Making, emphasizing the patients’ preferences. However, due to the heterogeneity of the included studies, results should be interpreted with caution. Further research is needed regarding

  12. Tensions and Paradoxes in Electronic Patient Record Research: A Systematic Literature Review Using the Meta-narrative Method

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Potts, Henry W W; Wong, Geoff; Bark, Pippa; Swinglehurst, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Context: The extensive research literature on electronic patient records (EPRs) presents challenges to systematic reviewers because it covers multiple research traditions with different underlying philosophical assumptions and methodological approaches. Methods: Using the meta-narrative method and searching beyond the Medline-indexed literature, this review used “conflicting” findings to address higher-order questions about how researchers had differently conceptualized and studied the EPR and its implementation. Findings: Twenty-four previous systematic reviews and ninety-four further primary studies were considered. Key tensions in the literature centered on (1) the EPR (“container” or “itinerary”); (2) the EPR user (“information-processer” or “member of socio-technical network”); (3) organizational context (“the setting within which the EPR is implemented” or “the EPR-in-use”); (4) clinical work (“decision making” or “situated practice”); (5) the process of change (“the logic of determinism” or “the logic of opposition”); (6) implementation success (“objectively defined” or “socially negotiated”); and (7) complexity and scale (“the bigger the better” or “small is beautiful”). Conclusions: The findings suggest that EPR use will always require human input to recontextualize knowledge; that even though secondary work (audit, research, billing) may be made more efficient by the EPR, primary clinical work may be made less efficient; that paper may offer a unique degree of ecological flexibility; and that smaller EPR systems may sometimes be more efficient and effective than larger ones. We suggest an agenda for further research. PMID:20021585

  13. Vasculitis in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: A study of 32 patients and systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Sy, Alice; Khalidi, Nader; Dehghan, Natasha; Barra, Lillian; Carette, Simon; Cuthbertson, David; Hoffman, Gary S.; Koening, Curry L.; Langford, Carol A.; McAlear, Carol; Moreland, Larry; Monach, Paul A.; Seo, Philip; Specks, Ulrich; Sreih, Antoine; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Van Assche, Gert; Merkel, Peter A.; Pagnoux, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background Published small case series suggest that inflammatory bowel disease [IBD; Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC)] and vasculitis co-occur more frequently than would be expected by chance. Objectives To describe this association by an analysis of a large cohort of carefully studied patients and through a systematic literature review. Methods Patients with both IBD and vasculitis enrolled in the Vasculitis Clinical Research Consortium (VCRC) Longitudinal Studies, followed in Canadian Vasculitis research network (CanVasc) centers and/or in the University of Toronto’s IBD clinic were included in this case series. A systematic literature review of patients with IBD and vasculitis involved a PubMed search through February 2014. The main characteristics of patients with Takayasu arteritis (TAK) and IBD were compared to those in patients with TAK without IBD followed in the VCRC. Results The study identified 32 patients with IBD and vasculitis: 13 with large-vessel vasculitis [LVV; 12 with TAK, 1 with giant cell arteritis (GCA); 8 with CD, 5 with UC]; 8 with ANCA-associated vasculitis [AAV; 6 granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), 2 with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA)]; 5 with isolated cutaneous vasculitis; and 6 with other vasculitides. Patients with LVV and AAV were mostly female (18/21). The diagnosis of IBD preceded that of vasculitis in 12/13 patients with LVV and 8/8 patients with AAV. The review of the literature identified 306 patients with IBD and vasculitis: 144 with LVV (133 TAK; 87 with IBD preceding LVV), 19 with AAV [14 GPA, 1 EGPA, 4 microscopic polyangiitis (MPA)], 66 with isolated cutaneous vasculitis, and 77 with other vasculitides. Patients with IBD and TAK were younger and had more frequent headaches, constitutional symptoms, or gastrointestinal symptoms compared to those patients in the VCRC who had TAK without IBD. Conclusions These findings highlight the risk of vasculitis, especially TAK, in patients

  14. Why do patients with ‘primary care sensitive’ problems access ambulance services? A systematic mapping review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Booker, Matthew J; Shaw, Ali R G; Purdy, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objective Emergency ambulance use for problems that could be managed in primary care continues to rise owing to complex reasons that are poorly understood. The objective of this systematic review is to draw together published evidence across a variety of study methodologies and settings to gain a better understanding of why patients seek help from ambulance services for these problems. Design Systematic searches were undertaken across the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, Health Management Information Consortium and Health Management Information Service publication databases. Google Scholar, Web of Science, OpenSigle, EThOS and DART databases were also systematically searched for reports, proceedings, book chapters and theses, along with hand-searching of grey literature sources. Studies were included if they reported on findings examining patient, carer, health professional or service management interactions with ambulance services for primary care problems. All study methodologies and perspectives were of interest. Data were extracted, quality assessed and systematically mapped according to key findings through generation of an iterative framework. Results A total of 31 studies met inclusion criteria. Findings were summarised across 5 broad categories: factors associated with individual patients; actions of care-givers and bystanders; population-level factors; health infrastructure factors; challenges faced by health professionals. A number of subcategories were developed to explore these factors in more detail. Conclusions This review reports important factors that may impact on ambulance use for primary care problems across a global setting, including demographic measures associated with deprivation, minority status and individual social circumstances. Categorising ambulance calls for primary care problems as ‘inappropriate’ is context dependant and may be unhelpful. Potential implications for triage and risk management strategies are discussed. PMID

  15. XRCC1 and OGG1 Gene Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sanjari Moghaddam, Ali; Nazarzadeh, Milad; Noroozi, Rezvan; Darvish, Hossein; Mosavi Jarrahi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Context: Known polymorphisms of DNA repair genes can be associated with the risk of many types of cancer. There is no consensus regarding association between XRCC1 and OGG1 with breast cancer (BC). Objectives: The aim of this study is to collect relevant published studies systematically. Data Sources: Sixty-two publications were identified through searching PubMed, PubMed Central, ISI web of knowledge, and reference list of related articles. Study Selection: We performed a systematic review according MOOSE guideline criteria. All longitudinal cohort and case-control studies investigating association of any type and grade of breast cancer with XRCC1 and OGG1 gene and their polymorphisms were eligible for initial inclusion. Data Extraction: Two authors screened titles and abstracts and extracted all needed information from eligible studies. Four research methodological components causing bias for the association between gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk, including source of controls sampling, population ethnicity, sample size of studies and menopausal status of cases and controls was used for assessment of quality of studies Results: A total of 14,793 breast cancer cases and 15,409 controls were included in assessment of XRCC1 Arg194Trp. Four studies showed significant association and one study showed protective effect of XRCC1 Arg194Trp and BC. A total of 7,716 cases and 7,370 controls were included for XRCC1 Arg280His. Only one study showed significant association of XRCC1 Arg280His and breast cancer (OR = 1.82 (1.06 - 3.15). A total of 27,167 cases and 31,998 controls were included to estimate association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism and breast cancer. Seven studies showed significant association and one showed protective effect of XRCC1 Arg399Gln and BC. A total of 9,417 cases and 11,087 controls were included for OGG1 Ser326Cys. Among studies focused on OGG1 Ser326Cys, none showed significant association with breast cancer. Conclusions

  16. The Gender Analysis Tools Applied in Natural Disasters Management: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Tourani, Sogand; Khankeh, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although natural disasters have caused considerable damages around the world, and gender analysis can improve community disaster preparedness or mitigation, there is little research about the gendered analytical tools and methods in communities exposed to natural disasters and hazards. These tools evaluate gender vulnerability and capacity in pre-disaster and post-disaster phases of the disaster management cycle. Objectives: Identifying the analytical gender tools and the strengths and limitations of them as well as determining gender analysis studies which had emphasized on the importance of using gender analysis in disasters. Methods: The literature search was conducted in June 2013 using PubMed, Web of Sciences, ProQuest Research Library, World Health Organization Library, Gender and Disaster Network (GDN) archive. All articles, guidelines, fact sheets and other materials that provided an analytical framework for a gender analysis approach in disasters were included and the non-English documents as well as gender studies of non-disasters area were excluded. Analysis of the included studies was done separately by descriptive and thematic analyses. Results: A total of 207 documents were retrieved, of which only nine references were included. Of these, 45% were in form of checklist, 33% case study report, and the remaining 22% were article. All selected papers were published within the period 1994-2012. Conclusions: A focus on women’s vulnerability in the related research and the lack of valid and reliable gender analysis tools were considerable issues identified by the literature review. Although non-English literatures with English abstract were included in the study, the possible exclusion of non-English ones was found as the limitation of this study. PMID:24678441

  17. A Systematic Literature Review of Three Modalities in Technologically Assisted TKA

    PubMed Central

    Leone, William A.; Elson, Leah C.; Anderson, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    In effort to reduce the revision burden of total knee arthroplasty (TKA), industry emphasis has focused on replacing manual techniques—which are subject to variability—with technological implements. Unfortunately, technological innovation often continues before adequate time for critical evaluation has passed. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive literature review was to collect a large sample of international data and report on the clinical and economic efficacy of three major types of technologically assisted TKA: navigation, patient-specific instrumentation, and sensorized trials. PMID:26664755

  18. Hearing Instruments for Unilateral Severe-to-Profound Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sandra Nelson; Lucas, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the nature and quality of the evidence for the use of hearing instruments in adults with a unilateral severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. Design: The PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane, CINAHL, and DARE databases were searched with no restrictions on language. The search included articles from the start of each database until February 11, 2015. Studies were included that (a) assessed the impact of any form of hearing instrument, including devices that reroute signals between the ears or restore aspects of hearing to a deaf ear, in adults with a sensorineural severe to profound loss in one ear and normal or near-normal hearing in the other ear; (b) compared different devices or compared a device with placebo or the unaided condition; (c) measured outcomes in terms of speech perception, spatial listening, or quality of life; (d) were prospective controlled or observational studies. Studies that met prospectively defined criteria were subjected to random effects meta-analyses. Results: Twenty-seven studies reported in 30 articles were included. The evidence was graded as low-to-moderate quality having been obtained primarily from observational before-after comparisons. The meta-analysis identified statistically significant benefits to speech perception in noise for devices that rerouted the speech signals of interest from the worse ear to the better ear using either air or bone conduction (mean benefit, 2.5 dB). However, these devices also degraded speech understanding significantly and to a similar extent (mean deficit, 3.1 dB) when noise was rerouted to the better ear. Data on the effects of cochlear implantation on speech perception could not be pooled as the prospectively defined criteria for meta-analysis were not met. Inconsistency in the assessment of outcomes relating to sound localization also precluded the synthesis of evidence across studies. Evidence for

  19. Race, class, and environmental health: a review and systematization of the literature.

    PubMed

    Brown, P

    1995-04-01

    This paper analyzes and systematizes the race and class differentials in exposure to toxic hazards and actual health outcomes. Research is categorized into the following: Proximity to known hazards includes (1) presence of hazardous waste sites and facilities (landfills, incinerators, Superfund sites), (2) exposure to air pollution, (3) exposure to various environmental hazards, e.g., toxic releases and hazards in pesticides and foods; Regulation, amelioration and cleanup includes (4) record of decisions (RODs) and cleanups at NPL sites, (5) regulatory action, as measured by assessed fines for environmental pollution; Health effects includes (6) specific health outcomes which are related to environmental burden (e.g., blood lead levels). Proximity to prospective hazards includes (7) sitting decisions for incinerators, hazardous waste sites, and nuclear storage sites. The overwhelming bulk of evidence supports the "environmental justice" belief that environmental hazards are inequitably distributed by class, and especially race. PMID:7588491

  20. How will DSM-5 affect autism diagnosis? A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kulage, Kristine M; Smaldone, Arlene M; Cohn, Elizabeth G

    2014-08-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explore policy implications. We identified 418 studies; 14 met inclusion criteria. Studies consistently reported decreases in ASD diagnosis (range 7.3-68.4%) using DSM-5 criteria. There were statistically significant pooled decreases in ASD [31% (20-44), p = 0.006] and DSM-IV-TR subgroups of Autistic disorder [22% (16-29), p < 0.001] and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) [70% (55-82), p = 0.01]; however, Asperger's disorder pooled decrease was not significant [70% (26-94), p = 0.38]. DSM-5 will likely decrease the number of individuals diagnosed with ASD, particularly the PDD-NOS subgroup. Research is needed on policies regarding services for individuals lacking diagnosis but requiring assistance. PMID:24531932

  1. Cochlear Implantation and Single-sided Deafness: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Cabral Junior, Francisco; Pinna, Mariana Hausen; Alves, Ricardo Dourado; Malerbi, Andrea Felice dos Santos; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current data show that binaural hearing is superior to unilateral hearing, specifically in the understanding of speech in noisy environments. Furthermore, unilateral hearing reduce onés ability to localize sound. Objectives This study provides a systematic review of recent studies to evaluate the outcomes of cochlear implantation in patients with single-sided deafness (SSD) with regards to speech discrimination, sound localization and tinnitus suppression. Data Synthesis We performed a search in the PubMed, Cochrane Library and Lilacs databases to assess studies related to cochlear implantation in patients with unilateral deafness. After critical appraisal, eleven studies were selected for data extraction and analysis of demographic, study design and outcome data. Conclusion Although some studies have shown encouraging results on cochlear implantation and SSD, all fail to provide a high level of evidence. Larger studies are necessary to define the tangible benefits of cochlear implantation in patients with SSD. PMID:26722349

  2. Evolution of Management of Intracranial Aneurysms in Children: A Systematic Review of the Modern Literature.

    PubMed

    Beez, Thomas; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are rare. Management of their more common adult counterparts was profoundly influenced by recent high-quality clinical studies. The aim of this review was to aggregate the modern pediatric data published in the wake of these studies and to analyze their impact on management of aneurysms in children. A systematic PubMed search identified 135 publications published between 2000 and 2015, accounting for 573 children and 656 aneurysms. Descriptive statistical analyses revealed differences between children and adults concerning demographics and aneurysm characteristics. A significant proportion of patients were treated endovascularly, suggesting endovascular treatment has been established in the therapeutic armamentarium for pediatric aneurysms. However, these data highlight the unique nature of pediatric aneurysms, and neither this review nor generalization from adult data can replace high-quality clinical research. Multicenter registries and controlled trials are required to establish the natural history and evidence-based treatment of pediatric aneurysms. PMID:26516106

  3. Cochlear Implantation and Single-sided Deafness: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Cabral Junior, Francisco; Pinna, Mariana Hausen; Alves, Ricardo Dourado; Malerbi, Andrea Felice Dos Santos; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Current data show that binaural hearing is superior to unilateral hearing, specifically in the understanding of speech in noisy environments. Furthermore, unilateral hearing reduce onés ability to localize sound. Objectives This study provides a systematic review of recent studies to evaluate the outcomes of cochlear implantation in patients with single-sided deafness (SSD) with regards to speech discrimination, sound localization and tinnitus suppression. Data Synthesis We performed a search in the PubMed, Cochrane Library and Lilacs databases to assess studies related to cochlear implantation in patients with unilateral deafness. After critical appraisal, eleven studies were selected for data extraction and analysis of demographic, study design and outcome data. Conclusion Although some studies have shown encouraging results on cochlear implantation and SSD, all fail to provide a high level of evidence. Larger studies are necessary to define the tangible benefits of cochlear implantation in patients with SSD. PMID:26722349

  4. Metronomic Chemotherapy for Metastatic Breast Cancer – a Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Banys-Paluchowski, M.; Schütz, F.; Ruckhäberle, E.; Krawczyk, N.; Fehm, T.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional chemotherapy is generally administered in high doses followed by a treatment-free period to give the body needful time to recover. This “maximum tolerated dose” approach results in high response rates. However, long periods between therapy cycles can lead to development of resistance mechanisms and consequently disease progression. One of the most interesting alternative strategies is metronomic chemotherapy. This concept relies on the continuous administration of chemotherapy at low doses and aims at targeting endothelial cells in the tumor bed as well. Recently, metronomic chemotherapy has been incorporated into the recommendations issued by the German AGO expert panel (www.ago-online.de). A systematic review of PubMed/Medline, ClinicalTrials.gov, the European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT) and the Cochrane Database was conducted. In the present review, we discuss the current evidence on metronomic chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer. PMID:27239061

  5. Freezing temperatures in the vaccine cold chain: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Matthias, Dipika M; Robertson, Joanie; Garrison, Michelle M; Newland, Sophie; Nelson, Carib

    2007-05-16

    The dangers of accidental freezing of vaccines in the cold chain have prompted studies throughout the globe to better characterize the risk. To date, there has been no systematic review of these studies. This analysis highlights that accidental freezing is pervasive and occurs across all segments of the cold chain. Between 14% and 35% of refrigerators or transport shipments were found to have exposed vaccine to freezing temperatures, while in studies that examined all segments of distribution, between 75% and 100% of the vaccine shipments were exposed. More rigorous study designs were associated with higher levels of freeze exposure. As more expensive, freeze-sensitive vaccines are introduced into immunization schedules, freeze prevention will become increasingly critical for ensuring that the world's children are receiving fully potent vaccine. PMID:17382434

  6. Potential Risk Factors for the Onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Shipton, Edward A.; Mulder, Roger T.

    2015-01-01

    Anaesthetists in the acute and chronic pain teams are often involved in treating Complex Regional Pain Syndromes. Current literature about the risk factors for the onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 (CRPS 1) remains sparse. This syndrome has a low prevalence, a highly variable presentation, and no gold standard for diagnosis. In the research setting, the pathogenesis of the syndrome continues to be elusive. There is a growing body of literature that addresses efficacy of a wide range of interventions as well as the likely mechanisms that contribute to the onset of CRPS 1. The objective for this systematic search of the literature focuses on determining the potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1. Eligible articles were analysed, dated 1996 to April 2014, and potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1 were identified from 10 prospective and 6 retrospective studies. Potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1 were found to include being female, particularly postmenopausal female, ankle dislocation or intra-articular fracture, immobilisation, and a report of higher than usual levels of pain in the early phases of trauma. It is not possible to draw definite conclusions as this evidence is heterogeneous and of mixed quality, relevance, and weighting strength against bias and has not been confirmed across multiple trials or in homogenous studies. PMID:25688265

  7. Unevenly distributed: a systematic review of the health literature about socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a growing literature documenting socioeconomic inequalities in obesity risk among adults in the UK, with poorer groups suffering higher risk. Methods In this systematic review, we summarize and appraise the extant peer-reviewed literature about socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity risk in the UK published between 1980 and 2010. Only studies featuring empirical assessments of relations between socioeconomic indicators and measures of obesity among adults in the UK were included. Results A total of 35 articles met inclusion criteria, and were reviewed here. Conclusion Socioeconomic indicators of low socioeconomic position (SEP), including occupational social class of the head-of-household at birth and during childhood, earlier adulthood occupational social class, contemporaneous occupational social class, educational attainment, and area-level deprivation were generally inversely associated with adult obesity risk in the UK. Measures of SEP were more predictive of obesity among women than among men. We outline important methodological limitations to the literature and recommend avenues for future research. PMID:22230643

  8. Epigenetic alterations induced by genotoxic occupational and environmental human chemical carcinogens: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Grace; Pogribny, Igor P; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations play an important role in chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Although the epigenome and genome may be equally important in carcinogenicity, the genotoxicity of chemical agents and exposure-related transcriptomic responses have been more thoroughly studied and characterized. To better understand the evidence for epigenetic alterations of human carcinogens, and the potential association with genotoxic endpoints, we conducted a systematic review of published studies of genotoxic carcinogens that reported epigenetic endpoints. Specifically, we searched for publications reporting epigenetic effects for the 28 agents and occupations included in Monograph Volume 100F of the International Agency for the Research on Cancer (IARC) that were classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1) with strong evidence of genotoxic mechanisms of carcinogenesis. We identified a total of 158 studies that evaluated epigenetic alterations for 12 of these 28 carcinogenic agents and occupations (1,3-butadiene, 4-aminobiphenyl, aflatoxins, benzene, benzidine, benzo[a]pyrene, coke production, formaldehyde, occupational exposure as a painter, sulfur mustard, and vinyl chloride). Aberrant DNA methylation was most commonly studied, followed by altered expression of non-coding RNAs and histone changes (totaling 85, 59 and 25 studies, respectively). For 3 carcinogens (aflatoxins, benzene and benzo[a]pyrene), 10 or more studies reported epigenetic effects. However, epigenetic studies were sparse for the remaining 9 carcinogens; for 4 agents, only 1 or 2 published reports were identified. While further research is needed to better identify carcinogenesis-associated epigenetic perturbations for many potential carcinogens, published reports on specific epigenetic endpoints can be systematically identified and increasingly incorporated in cancer hazard assessments. PMID:27234561

  9. Isolated nocturnal hypertension and subclinical target organ damage: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn, Anne Marie; Madden, Jamie M; Russell, Audrey J; Curtin, Ronan J; Kearney, Patricia M

    2015-08-01

    Isolated nocturnal hypertension (INH) is associated with greater mortality and cardiovascular events. Subclinical target organ damage (TOD) is a prognostic marker for cardiovascular events. Our objective is to systematically summarize evidence on the association between INH and subclinical TOD. Observational population studies were considered. INH was defined as nighttime blood pressure (BP) ⩾120 and/or 70 mm Hg with daytime BP <135/85 mm Hg. We systematically searched Pubmed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Abstracts were reviewed by two assessors. Potentially eligible articles were compared with inclusion criteria. The search yielded 954 titles, 13 abstracts were selected for review and four articles fulfilled inclusion criteria. INH was associated with higher ambulatory arterial stiffness index (0.4 unit vs. 0.35 unit, P<0.05), pulse wave velocity (16.2 m s(-1) vs. 14.7 m s(-1), P<0.05), central (140.4% vs. 134.0%, P<0.05) and peripheral (82.6% vs. 76.5%, P<0.01) augmentation index in a Chinese study. In the same population there was no association with left ventricular hypertrophy documented by electrocardiogram. INH was not associated with increased arterial stiffness or left venticular mass index in a Swedish study. An American study demonstrated higher left ventricular mass (152.46 g vs. 136.16 g, P=0.01) and greater odds of left ventricular hypertrophy (odds ratio 3.03, 95% confidence interval 1.02-9.05) in unadjusted analysis. There was no association with proteinuria. Evidence is inconclusive regarding the association between INH and subclinical TOD. Future research should focus on trying to elucidate the mechanisms that generate INH and contribute to the higher mortality associated with this BP pattern. PMID:25832917

  10. Methodology used in studies reporting chronic kidney disease prevalence: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Brück, Katharina; Jager, Kitty J.; Dounousi, Evangelia; Kainz, Alexander; Nitsch, Dorothea; Ärnlöv, Johan; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Browne, Gemma; Capuano, Vincenzo; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Ferrieres, Jean; Gambaro, Giovanni; Guessous, Idris; Hallan, Stein; Kastarinen, Mika; Navis, Gerjan; Gonzalez, Alfonso Otero; Palmieri, Luigi; Romundstad, Solfrid; Spoto, Belinda; Stengel, Benedicte; Tomson, Charles; Tripepi, Giovanni; Völzke, Henry; Wiȩcek, Andrzej; Gansevoort, Ron; Schöttker, Ben; Wanner, Christoph; Vinhas, Jose; Zoccali, Carmine; Van Biesen, Wim; Stel, Vianda S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many publications report the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population. Comparisons across studies are hampered as CKD prevalence estimations are influenced by study population characteristics and laboratory methods. Methods For this systematic review, two researchers independently searched PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify all original research articles that were published between 1 January 2003 and 1 November 2014 reporting the prevalence of CKD in the European adult general population. Data on study methodology and reporting of CKD prevalence results were independently extracted by two researchers. Results We identified 82 eligible publications and included 48 publications of individual studies for the data extraction. There was considerable variation in population sample selection. The majority of studies did not report the sampling frame used, and the response ranged from 10 to 87%. With regard to the assessment of kidney function, 67% used a Jaffe assay, whereas 13% used the enzymatic assay for creatinine determination. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry calibration was used in 29%. The CKD-EPI (52%) and MDRD (75%) equations were most often used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). CKD was defined as estimated GFR (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in 92% of studies. Urinary markers of CKD were assessed in 60% of the studies. CKD prevalence was reported by sex and age strata in 54 and 50% of the studies, respectively. In publications with a primary objective of reporting CKD prevalence, 39% reported a 95% confidence interval. Conclusions The findings from this systematic review showed considerable variation in methods for sampling the general population and assessment of kidney function across studies reporting CKD prevalence. These results are utilized to provide recommendations to help optimize both the design and the reporting of future CKD prevalence studies, which will enhance comparability of study results

  11. Misspecifications of Stimulus Presentation Durations in Experimental Psychology: A Systematic Review of the Psychophysics Literature

    PubMed Central

    Elze, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Background In visual psychophysics, precise display timing, particularly for brief stimulus presentations, is often required. The aim of this study was to systematically review the commonly applied methods for the computation of stimulus durations in psychophysical experiments and to contrast them with the true luminance signals of stimuli on computer displays. Methodology/Principal Findings In a first step, we systematically scanned the citation index Web of Science for studies with experiments with stimulus presentations for brief durations. Articles which appeared between 2003 and 2009 in three different journals were taken into account if they contained experiments with stimuli presented for less than 50 milliseconds. The 79 articles that matched these criteria were reviewed for their method of calculating stimulus durations. For those 75 studies where the method was either given or could be inferred, stimulus durations were calculated by the sum of frames (SOF) method. In a second step, we describe the luminance signal properties of the two monitor technologies which were used in the reviewed studies, namely cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors. We show that SOF is inappropriate for brief stimulus presentations on both of these technologies. In extreme cases, SOF specifications and true stimulus durations are even unrelated. Furthermore, the luminance signals of the two monitor technologies are so fundamentally different that the duration of briefly presented stimuli cannot be calculated by a single method for both technologies. Statistics over stimulus durations given in the reviewed studies are discussed with respect to different duration calculation methods. Conclusions/Significance The SOF method for duration specification which was clearly dominating in the reviewed studies leads to serious misspecifications particularly for brief stimulus presentations. We strongly discourage its use for brief stimulus presentations on CRT and

  12. [Severe sickle cell disease and pregnancy. Systematic prophylactic transfusions in 16 cases].

    PubMed

    Moussaoui, D R; Chouhou, L; Guelzim, K; Kouach, J; Dehayni, M; Fehri, H S

    2002-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is a major cause of maternal and neonatal mortality in tropical regions. Treatment consists of regular blood transfusion during pregnancy and delivery. Transfusion may be performed selectively (in function of the clinical status of the mother, fetus, and pregnancy) or prophylactically. Both management strategies result in a significant improvement in the obstetric outcome. However systematic prophylactic transfusion has been shunned due to the risk of transmitting infections and allo-immunization. The16-case series reported here demonstrates a real benefit for prophylactic blood transfusion during pregnancy complicated by sickle cell disease in tropical zones. Improvements in our transfusion curves resulting from better donor selection, follow-up, and phenotyping support arguments previously made over one decade ago in favor of the prophylactic approach especially in countries with high transfusional risks. In our experience the risks associated with more transfusions was offset by the greater safety margin and better efficacy of the prophylactic approach. PMID:12731306

  13. Rare Etiology of Bow Hunter’s Syndrome and Systematic Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Vaibhav; Rawls, Ashley; Moore, Omar; Victorica, Benjamin; Khan, Sheema; Saravanapavan, Pradeepan; Midivelli, Sunitha; Raviraj, Prathap; Khanna, Anna; Bidari, Sharathchandra; Hedna, Vishnumurthy S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bow Hunter’s Syndrome is a mechanical occlusion of the vertebral artery which leads to a reduction in blood flow in posterior cerebral circulation resulting in transient reversible symptomatic vertebrobasilar insufficiency. CASE DESCRIPTION We present a case of Bow Hunter’s syndrome in a 53-year-old male that occurred after the patient underwent surgical correction of a proximal left subclavian artery aneurysm. Shortly after the surgery, the patient began to complain of transient visual changes, presyncopal spells, and dizziness upon turning his head to the left. A transcranial doppler ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of Bow Hunter’s syndrome. SYSTEMIC REVIEW We analyzed the data on 153 patients with Bow Hunter’s syndrome from the literature. An osteophyte was the most common cause of vertebral artery occlusion, and left vertebral artery was more commonly involved in patients with Bow Hunter’s syndrome. Dynamic angiography was the definitive imaging modality to confirm the diagnosis, and surgery was most successful in alleviating symptoms. CONCLUSION We believe that this is the first case of iatrogenic Bow Hunter’s syndrome after surgical intervention for an aneurysm repair, and the largest review of literature of Bow Hunter’s syndrome. Dynamic angiography is the gold standard for the diagnosis of Bow Hunter’s syndrome. Surgery should be considered as the primary treatment approach in these patients, especially those who have bony compression as the etiology. PMID:26301025

  14. Views of healthcare professionals to linkage of routinely collected healthcare data: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hopf, Y M; Bond, C; Francis, J; Haughney, J; Helms, P J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the literature on the views of healthcare professionals to the linkage of healthcare data and to identify any potential barriers and/or facilitators to participation in a data linkage system. Methods Published papers describing the views of healthcare professionals (HCPs) to data sharing and linkage were identified by searches of Medline, EMBASE, SCOPUS, CINAHL, and PsychINFO. The searches were limited to papers published in the English language from 2001 to 2011. Results A total of 2917 titles were screened. From these, 18 papers describing the views of HCPs about data linkage or data sharing of routinely collected healthcare data at an individual patient level were included. Views were generally positive, and potential benefits were reported. Facilitators included having trust in the system including data governance, reliability, and feedback. Some negative views, identified as barriers were also expressed including costs, data governance, technical issues, and privacy concerns. Effects on the physician–patient relationship, and workload were also identified as deterrent. Discussion From the published literature included in this review, the views of HCPs were in general positive towards data sharing for public health purposes. The identification of barriers to contributing to a data linkage system allows these to be addressed in a planned data linkage project for pharmacovigilance. The main barriers identified were concerns about costs, governance and interference with the prescriber–patient relationship. These would have to be addressed if healthcare professionals are to support a data linkage system to improve patient safety. PMID:23715802

  15. Barriers and facilitators to evidence-use in program management: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of evidence in decision-making at the program management level is a priority in health care organizations. The objective of this study was to identify potential barriers and facilitators experienced by managers to the use of evidence in program management within health care organizations. Methods The authors conducted a comprehensive search for published, peer-reviewed and grey literature that explores the use of evidence in program management. Two reviewers selected relevant studies from which data was extracted using a standard data abstraction form and tabulated for qualitative analysis. The results were summarized through narrative review. The quality of the included studies was assessed using published criteria for the critical appraisal of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods research. Results Fourteen papers were included in the review. Barriers and facilitators were categorized into five main thematic areas: (1) Information, (2) Organization – Structure and Process, (3) Organization – Culture, (4) Individual, and (5) Interaction. Conclusion This paper reviews the literature on barriers and facilitators to evidence-informed decision-making experienced by program management decision-makers within health care organizations. The multidimensional solutions required to promote evidence-informed program management can be developed through an understanding of the existing barriers and facilitators of evidence-use. PMID:24731719

  16. Obstacles to participation in randomised cancer clinical trials: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Grand, Melissa M; O'Brien, Peter C

    2012-02-01

    Accrual to clinical trials continues to be a problem in many countries including Australia despite its fundamental importance to the progress of evidence-based medicine. This paper reviews the current literature addressing the obstacles to accrual excluding those related to protocol design. An electronic search of the literature identified publications in oncology specifically addressing the obstacles to participation in clinical trials. This search was supplemented by searches of key oncology journals. Obstacles fall into three main categories - clinician, patient and system; however, there are overlaps between categories. Clinician behaviour is the most important of these. Exclusion of patients for reasons other than defined eligibility criteria, concerns about increased time requirements, and suboptimal communication with patients all affect accrual. Risk management strategies for clinical trials need to be individualised to address the obstacles most likely to negatively impact on accrual. Communication between clinician and patient appears to be a greater issue than previously recognised. Time concerns need to be addressed as generational change affects the expectations of the medical workforce. PMID:22339743

  17. Yoga as a treatment for chronic low back pain: A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Douglas G.; Holt, Jacquelyn A.; Sklar, Marisa; Groessl, Erik J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Chronic low back pain (CLBP) affects millions of people worldwide, and appears to be increasing in prevalence. It is associated not only with pain, but also with increased disability, psychological symptoms, and reduced quality of life. There are various treatment options for CLBP, but no single therapy stands out as being the most effective. In the past 10 years, yoga interventions have been studied as a CLBP treatment approach. The objective of this paper is to review the current literature supporting the efficacy of yoga for CLBP. Methods A literature search through the beginning of 2015 was conducted in Pub Med for randomized control trials addressing treatment of CLBP with yoga. Results In this review we evaluate the use of yoga as a treatment for CLBP. Specifically we evaluate how yoga impacts physical functioning and disability, pain, and associated psychological symptoms. We also evaluate possible mediators of the effect of yoga and the safety of yoga. Discussion With few exceptions, previous studies and the recent randomized control trials (RCTs) indicate that yoga can reduce pain and disability, can be practiced safely, and is well received by participants. Some studies also indicate that yoga may improve psychological symptoms, but these effects are currently not as well established. PMID:27231715

  18. Grounding a new information technology implementation framework in behavioral science: a systematic analysis of the literature on IT use.

    PubMed

    Kukafka, Rita; Johnson, Stephen B; Linfante, Allison; Allegrante, John P

    2003-06-01

    Many interventions to improve the success of information technology (IT) implementations are grounded in behavioral science, using theories, and models to identify conditions and determinants of successful use. However, each model in the IT literature has evolved to address specific theoretical problems of particular disciplinary concerns, and each model has been tested and has evolved using, in most cases, a more or less restricted set of IT implementation procedures. Functionally, this limits the perspective for taking into account the multiple factors at the individual, group, and organizational levels that influence use behavior. While a rich body of literature has emerged, employing prominent models such as the Technology Adoption Model, Social-Cognitive Theory, and Diffusion of Innovation Theory, the complexity of defining a suitable multi-level intervention has largely been overlooked. A gap exists between the implementation of IT and the integration of theories and models that can be utilized to develop multi-level approaches to identify factors that impede usage behavior. We present a novel framework that is intended to guide synthesis of more than one theoretical perspective for the purpose of planning multi-level interventions to enhance IT use. This integrative framework is adapted from PRECEDE/PROCEDE, a conceptual framework used by health planners in hundreds of published studies to direct interventions that account for the multiple determinants of behavior. Since we claim that the literature on IT use behavior does not now include a multi-level approach, we undertook a systematic literature analysis to confirm this assertion. Our framework facilitated organizing this literature synthesis and our analysis was aimed at determining if the IT implementation approaches in the published literature were characterized by an approach that considered at least two levels of IT usage determinants. We found that while 61% of studies mentioned or referred to

  19. A Systematic Review of the Literature on Health and Wellness Coaching: Defining a Key Behavioral intervention in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Leigh Ann; Sforzo, Gary A.; Dill, Diana; Kaye, Miranda; Bechard, Elizabeth M.; Southard, Mary Elaine; Kennedy, Mary; Vosloo, Justine; Yang, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Primary Objective: Review the operational definitions of health and wellness coaching as published in the peer-reviewed medical literature. Background: As global rates of preventable chronic diseases have reached epidemic proportions, there has been an increased focus on strategies to improve health behaviors and associated outcomes. One such strategy, health and wellness coaching, has been inconsistently defined and shown mixed results. Methods: A Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)—guided systematic review of the medical literature on health and wellness coaching allowed for compilation of data on specific features of the coaching interventions and background and training of coaches. Results: Eight hundred abstracts were initially identified through PubMed, with 284 full-text articles ultimately included. The majority (76%) were empirical articles. The literature operationalized health and wellness coaching as a process that is fully or partially patient-centered (86% of articles), included patient-determined goals (71%), incorporated self-discovery and active learning processes (63%) (vs more passive receipt of advice), encouraged accountability for behaviors (86%), and provided some type of education to patients along with using coaching processes (91%). Additionally, 78% of articles indicated that the coaching occurs in the context of a consistent, ongoing relationship with a human coach who is trained in specific behavior change, communication, and motivational skills. Conclusions: Despite disparities in how health and wellness coaching have been operationalized previously, this systematic review observes an emerging consensus in what is referred to as health and wellness coaching; namely, a patient-centered process that is based upon behavior change theory and is delivered by health professionals with diverse backgrounds. The actual coaching process entails goal-setting determined by the patient, encourages self

  20. Cavernous angioma of the cauda equina: a case report and systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nie, Q-B; Chen, Z; Jian, F-Z; Wu, H; Ling, F

    2012-01-01

    Cavernous angioma is an uncommon vascular malformation of the central nervous system with a tumoural aspect. Spinal cavernous angioma mainly occurs within vertebral bodies; only 3-5% of tumours are located entirely in the vertebral canal. This case report describes a case of cavernous angioma, originating from the nerve roots of the cauda equina at the L1 level, in a 57-year-old woman presenting with acute lower back pain. The lesion was surgically resected 6 months after symptom onset and the structural integrity of the nerve root was maintained. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous angioma. The patient experienced no postoperative neurological deficit or recurrence. The diagnosis, histopathological features and surgical treatment of this case are presented, together with a literature review of clinical details and surgical procedures undertaken in cases of cavernous angioma of the cauda equina. PMID:23206484

  1. A Systematic Review of Perennial Staple Crops Literature Using Topic Modeling and Bibliometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Research on perennial staple crops has increased in the past ten years due to their potential to improve ecosystem services in agricultural systems. However, multiple past breeding efforts as well as research on traditional ratoon systems mean there is already a broad body of literature on perennial crops. In this review, we compare the development of research on perennial staple crops, including wheat, rice, rye, sorghum, and pigeon pea. We utilized the advanced search capabilities of Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Agricola to gather a library of 914 articles published from 1930 to the present. We analyzed the metadata in the entire library and in collections of literature on each crop to understand trends in research and publishing. In addition, we applied topic modeling to the article abstracts, a type of text analysis that identifies frequently co-occurring terms and latent topics. We found: 1.) Research on perennials is increasing overall, but individual crops have each seen periods of heightened interest and research activity; 2.) Specialist journals play an important role in supporting early research efforts. Research often begins within communities of specialists or breeders for the individual crop before transitioning to a more general scientific audience; 3.) Existing perennial agricultural systems and their domesticated crop material, such as ratoon rice systems, can provide a useful foundation for breeding efforts, accelerating the development of truly perennial crops and farming systems; 4.) Primary research is lacking for crops that are produced on a smaller scale globally, such as pigeon pea and sorghum, and on the ecosystem service benefits of perennial agricultural systems. PMID:27213283

  2. Serum calcitonin negative medullary thyroid carcinoma: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Giovanella, Luca

    2015-09-01

    Generally, calcitonin (CT) values below the upper reference limit rule-out medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) with very high accuracy. However, sparse cases of serum-calcitonin-negative MTC (CT-NEG-MTC) have been reported. Here we reviewed CT-NEG-MTC reported in literature, discussed the potential causes and proposed a practical laboratory and clinical approach. A comprehensive literature search was conducted by using the terms "medullary thyroid carcinoma" AND "non-secreting calcitonin" OR "undetectable calcitonin". The search was updated until December 2014. Original articles that described CT-NEG-MTC were eligible for inclusion. Only MTC cases with preoperative CT below the upper reference limit were included in the present review. Eleven papers with 18 CT-NEG-MTC cases (age 50 years, size 26 mm) were retrieved. Four patients with poorly differentiated MTC died within 3 years. Different CT assays were employed and different reference values were adopted. Preoperative serum CT values were below the institution cut-off levels in all cases, and undetectable in four patients. In some papers negative CT results were confirmed by additional tests. Further laboratory investigations were performed in some of the included studies. In patients with well founded suspicious of MTC and within the reference limits/undetectable CT other laboratory investigations [carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), procalcitonin, CT stimulation, CT in washout of nodule's aspiration] have to be performed. Surgical approach to CT-NEG-MTC does not differ from those secreting CT. Postoperative follow-up of these rare cases should include periodical imaging and measurement of all potential markers. Patients with poorly differentiated MTC are at higher risk of disease-related death, and require more aggressive follow-up strategy. PMID:25781697

  3. Risky Behavior in Gambling Tasks in Individuals with ADHD – A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lewis-Evans, Ben; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this review was to gain insight into the relationship between Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and risky performance in gambling tasks and to identify any potential alternate explanatory factors. Methods PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing individuals with ADHD to normal controls (NCs) in relation to their risky performance on a gambling task. In total, fourteen studies in children/adolescents and eleven studies in adults were included in the review. Results Half of the studies looking at children/adolescents with ADHD found evidence that they run more risks on gambling tasks when compared to NCs. Only a minority of the studies on adults with ADHD reported aberrant risky behavior. The effect sizes ranged from small to large for both age groups and the outcome pattern did not differ between studies that applied an implicit or explicit gambling task. Two studies demonstrated that comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) increased risky behavior in ADHD. Limited and/or inconsistent evidence was found that comorbid internalizing disorders (IDs), ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and different forms of reward influenced the outcomes. Conclusion The evidence for increased risky performance of individuals with ADHD on gambling tasks is mixed, but is stronger for children/adolescents with ADHD than for adults with ADHD, which may point to developmental changes in reward and/or penalty sensitivity or a publication bias for positive findings in children/adolescents. The literature suggests that comorbid ODD/CD is a risk factor in ADHD for increased risky behavior. Comorbid IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and the form of reward received may affect risky performance in gambling tasks; however, these factors need further examination. Finally, the implications of the findings for ADHD models and the ecological validity of gambling tasks are discussed

  4. A Systematic Review of Perennial Staple Crops Literature Using Topic Modeling and Bibliometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kane, Daniel A; Rogé, Paul; Snapp, Sieglinde S

    2016-01-01

    Research on perennial staple crops has increased in the past ten years due to their potential to improve ecosystem services in agricultural systems. However, multiple past breeding efforts as well as research on traditional ratoon systems mean there is already a broad body of literature on perennial crops. In this review, we compare the development of research on perennial staple crops, including wheat, rice, rye, sorghum, and pigeon pea. We utilized the advanced search capabilities of Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Agricola to gather a library of 914 articles published from 1930 to the present. We analyzed the metadata in the entire library and in collections of literature on each crop to understand trends in research and publishing. In addition, we applied topic modeling to the article abstracts, a type of text analysis that identifies frequently co-occurring terms and latent topics. We found: 1.) Research on perennials is increasing overall, but individual crops have each seen periods of heightened interest and research activity; 2.) Specialist journals play an important role in supporting early research efforts. Research often begins within communities of specialists or breeders for the individual crop before transitioning to a more general scientific audience; 3.) Existing perennial agricultural systems and their domesticated crop material, such as ratoon rice systems, can provide a useful foundation for breeding efforts, accelerating the development of truly perennial crops and farming systems; 4.) Primary research is lacking for crops that are produced on a smaller scale globally, such as pigeon pea and sorghum, and on the ecosystem service benefits of perennial agricultural systems. PMID:27213283

  5. Measuring cough severity: Perspectives from the literature and from patients with chronic cough

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Margaret; Leidy, Nancy Kline; Nacson, Alise; Nelsen, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Background In order to assess severity of cough from patients' perspectives and capture the effects of treatment in clinical trials, a measurement tool must show evidence of validity and reliability. The purpose of this study was to characterize cough severity from patients' perspectives as the initial step in the development of a new patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure for use in clinical trials. Methods This focus groups study included patients with clinician confirmed chronic cough recruited from a large internal medicine clinic in the US. A semi-structured focus group guide was designed to elicit information about patients' experiences with cough severity and their characterization of symptoms. The focus group data were coded to identify concepts and terminology of cough severity. Results Three focus groups were conducted [n = 22; 6 male; mean age 66.1 (± 12.9)]. Etiology included GERD, asthma, bronchitis, post-nasal drip, and other. Three domains of cough severity were identified: frequency, intensity, and disruption. In addition to a single cough, participants in all focus groups described coughing in uncontrollable paroxysms they called "fits," "bouts," "spells," or "episodes." The urge to cough, described as an important sign of impending cough, was considered a component of cough frequency. Participants also described daytime activity and nighttime sleep disruption as an indication of cough severity. Finally, participants described variability in cough severity. Conclusion Results suggest that patients describe cough severity in terms of frequency, intensity, and disruptiveness, indicating these 3 domains should be addressed when evaluating cough severity and outcomes of treatment. PMID:19298650

  6. New Onset of Dermatomyositis/Polymyositis during Anti-TNF-α Therapies: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Aberer, Werner; Massone, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    We performed a systematic search of databases from 1990 to 2013 to identify articles concerning the new onset of dermatomyositis/polymyositis (DM/PM) in patients treated with anti-TNF-α therapy. We retrieved 13 publications describing 20 patients where the new onset of DM/PM after anti-TNF-α therapy was recorded. 17 patients were affected by rheumatoid arthritis (RA), one by Crohn's disease, one by ankylosing spondilytis, and one by seronegative arthritis. In 91% of the cases antinuclear autoantibodies were detected after the introduction of anti-TNF-α therapy. In 6 patients antisynthetase antibodies were detected and other clinical findings as interstitial lung disease (ILD) were recorded. Improvement of DM/PM after anti-TNF suspension (with the concomitant use of other immunosuppressors) was recorded in 94% of cases. The emergence of DM/PM and antisynthetase syndrome seem to be associated with the use of anti-TNF-α agents, especially in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases (mainly RA) with positive autoantibodies before therapy initiation. In particular, physicians should pay attention to patients affected by RA with positive antisynthetase antibodies and/or history of ILD. In those cases, the use of the TNF-α blocking agents may trigger the onset of PM/DM or antisynthetase syndrome or may aggravate/trigger the lung disease. PMID:24600322

  7. Systematic prevention of overweight and obesity in adults: a qualitative and quantitative literature analysis.

    PubMed

    Kremers, S; Reubsaet, A; Martens, M; Gerards, S; Jonkers, R; Candel, M; de Weerdt, I; de Vries, N

    2010-05-01

    To date, most interventions aimed at preventing obesity have underemphasized the application of systematic intervention development, implementation and evaluation. The present review provides a thorough insight in factors promoting implementation and/or effectiveness in interventions aimed at preventing overweight/obesity among adults. A total of 46 studies evaluating interventions aimed at preventing obesity were reviewed, followed by both qualitative and quantitative analyses. The Intervention Mapping protocol and the Environmental Research framework for weight Gain prevention (EnRG) were applied to analyse and classify the included studies. The interventions were categorized by setting (workplace, community, health care) and target group (ethnic minorities, pregnant women, [pre]menopausal women, smokers, people with intellectual disabilities). Generally, interventions were found to have potential in changing energy balance-related behaviours and anthropometric outcomes. Effect sizes for changes in body mass index ranged between -0.09 and 0.45. When the programme goal specifically aimed at weight management, the intervention was found to be more successful than interventions with programme goals that were aimed at preventing cardiovascular disease or improving general health status. Although a considerable part of studies included motivational interventions, only some actually assessed the effects on potential cognitive mediators. A general lack of reporting underlying theoretical models for behaviour change was observed as well as the inclusion of linkage groups and strategies to promote empowerment. PMID:19538441

  8. Decision analysis in the clinical neurosciences: a systematic review of the literature.

    Pu