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Sample records for sevier county tn

  1. 78 FR 60375 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Claiborne County, TN, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Claiborne County, TN, and Bell County, KY; CSX Transportation, Inc.--Discontinuance of Trackage Rights Exemption--in Claiborne County, TN, and Bell County, KY Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) and CSX...., and milepost 85.0, at Fonde in Bell County, Ky. (the Line). The Line traverses United States...

  2. Seepage study of the Sevier River and the central Utah, McIntyre, and Leamington canals, Juab and Millard counties, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbert, L.R.; Cruff, R.W.; Holmes, Walter F.

    1981-01-01

    (0.25 cubic meter per second) in the Sevier River and about 1.3 cubic feet per second (0.04 cubic meter per second) in the Leamington Canal. It also showed a net loss of about 7 cubic feet per second (0.20 cubic meter per second) in the Central Utah Canal and about 0.8 cubic foot per second (0.02 cubic meter per second) in the McIntyre Canal. The gains in the Sevier River and Leamington Canal probably come chiefly as return seepage of water lost from the Central Utah and McIntyre Canals.

  3. 77 FR 24200 - American Drum & Pallet, Memphis, Shelby County, TN; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... AGENCY American Drum & Pallet, Memphis, Shelby County, TN; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental... settlement for reimbursement of past response costs concerning the American Drum and Pallet Superfund Site...-04- 2012-3770 or Site name American Drum & Pallet Superfund Site by one of the following methods:...

  4. Extensional collapse along the Sevier Desert reflection, northern Sevier Desert basin, western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coogan, James C.; Decelles, Peter G.

    1996-10-01

    Newly released and previously published seismic reflection data from the northern Sevier Desert basin provide a complete seismic transect between the tilted western margin of the basin and the eastern breakaway zone. When tied to well and surface age data, the transect delineates a continuum of extensional fault and basin fill geometries that developed between late Oligocene and Pleistocene time across the basin. A minimum of 18 km of top-to-the-west normal displacement is estimated across the Sevier Desert from only the most conspicuous growth geometries and offsets across listric normal faults that sole downward into the Sevier Desert reflection (SDR). The SDR clearly marks a normal fault zone beneath the entire basin, where stratal truncations are imaged for 50% of the 39 km length of the reflection east of the Cricket Mountains block. Restoration of extensional displacement along this entire 39 km fault length is necessary to reconstruct the pre-Oligocene configuration and erosion level of Sevier thrust sheets across the Sevier Desert area. The SDR normal fault zone underlies the former topographic crest of the Sevier orogenic belt, where it accommodated extensional collapse after cessation of regional contractile tectonism.

  5. Anatomy of the middle ordovician sevier shale basin, eastern Tennessee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugam, Ganapathy; Walker, Kenneth R.

    1983-04-01

    The Sevier Shale basin in eastern Tennessee comprises one of the thickest clastic sequences (nearly 2500 m) of Middle Ordovician age in North America. The lower one-half of the sequence is composed of Lenoir, Whitesburg, Blockhouse and Sevier Formations, in ascending order. The sequence ranges in age from Whiterockian to lower Wilderness in North American stages. The Middle Ordovician sequence exhibits tidal flat (Mosheim Member of Lenoir Fm.), subtidal (main body of Lenoir Fm.), slope (Whitesburg Fm.), anoxic basin (Blockhouse Fm), turbidite and contourite (Sevier Fm.) facies. The Sevier basin evolved in five stages: First, a widespread marine transgression initiated carbonate-shelf deposition in the study area. Second, a major tectonic downwarping event caused the stable shelf to break and subside rapidly at a rate of 60-65 cm 1000 yrs -1, and areas of shelf facies became areas of slope and basin facies. Third, global transgressions maintained the deep anoxic conditions for nearly 10 Ma. Fourth, turbidites began to fill the basin from a westward-prograding submarine fan system. Fifth, contour currents reworked the turbidites and progressively ventilated the Sevier basin. The basin-filling process terminated with shallow-water/subaerial clastics at the end of Middle Ordovician.

  6. Superfund record of decision amendment (EPA Region 4): Wrigley Charcoal Superfund Site, Hickman County, Wrigley, TN, February 2, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This decision document presents the selected Interim Remedial Action (IRA) for the Wrigley Charcoal Site, in Wrigley, Hickman County, Tennessee. The U.S. EPA has modified a wide variety of items that require immediate response action for the first step of cleanup activities to be taken at the Wrigley Charcoal Site. The major goal of these cleanup activities is to address the most serious threats at the Wrigley Charcoal Site by removing contaminated media from the Primary Site flood plain, remediating wastes at the Storage Basin, and through limited access restrictions at the Primary Site and the Storage Basin. The cleanup activities as presented in this IRA Record of Decision (ROD) Amendment will achieve significant risk reduction and will prepare the Site for future remedial activities.

  7. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Wrigley Charcoal Site, Hickman County, Wrigley, TN. (First remedial action), September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The 81-acre Wrigley Charcoal site is a former multi-use industrial operations area in the town of Wrigley, Hickman County, Tennessee. Land use in the area is industrial and residential, improper disposal procedures have resulted in soil, sediment, and debris contamination by semi-volatile organic compounds in coal-tars (mainly PAHs and phenols), VOCs, metals, and asbestos. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses interim remediation of remaining contaminated soil, sediment, and debris. The selected remedial action for the site includes excavating, stabilizing, and disposing of offsite approximately 15 cubic yards of metallic wastes from the burn pit; consolidating and securing onsite approximately 120 drums of transformers; excavating, incinerating, stabilizing, and disposing of offsite 14 waste drums.

  8. 78 FR 28938 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00075

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00075 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Tennessee dated 05/10... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Stewart. Contiguous Counties: Tennessee: Benton,...

  9. 75 FR 55833 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00042

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00042 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Tennessee dated 09/07... determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Putnam. Contiguous Counties:...

  10. 78 FR 12806 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00074

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00074 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Tennessee dated 02/14... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Henderson. Contiguous Counties: Tennessee:...

  11. 76 FR 18288 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00048

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00048 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Tennessee dated 03/23... determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Knox. Contiguous Counties:...

  12. A Case Study of the Cocke County (TN) School System and Its Role as a Partner in the NSF-Supported Appalachian Rural Systemic Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Jerry G.; Oliver, Steve; Stufflebeam, Daniel

    This case study examines the history and current circumstances of education in Cocke County (Tennessee) in the context of its participation in the Appalachian Rural Systemic Initiative (ARSI), which aims to improve science and mathematics achievement through systemic reform. Sections of this report describe the county's history, demography, and

  13. 77 FR 60373 - Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and Piute...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Forest Service Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and... alternatives, within the Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project area. The purpose of the Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project is to implement land management activities that...

  14. 76 FR 28840 - Tennessee Disaster # TN-00053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Disaster Declaration 12572 and 12573 Tennessee Disaster TN-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... the State of Tennessee (FEMA--1979-DR), dated 05/09/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight... Loans): Dyer, Lake, Obion, Shelby, Stewart. Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only):...

  15. 75 FR 26815 - Tennessee Disaster # TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Tennessee (FEMA..., Davidson, Hickman, Williamson. Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): Tennessee:...

  16. 76 FR 27137 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Tennessee (FEMA..., Greene, Hamilton, Washington. ] Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only) Tennessee...

  17. Anatexis and metamorphism in tectonically thickened continental crust exemplified by the Sevier hinterland, western North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patino Douce, Alberto E.; Humphreys, Eugene D.; Johnston, A. Dana

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a thermal and petrologic model of anatexis and metamorphism in regions of crustal thickening exemplified by the Sevier hinterland in western North America, and uses the model to examine the geological and physical processes leading to crustally derived magmatism. The results of numerical experiments show that anatexis was an inevitable end-product of Barrovian metamorphism in the thickened crust of the late Mesozoic Sevier orogenic belt and that the advection of heat across the lithosphere, in the form of mantle-derived mafic magmas, was not required for melting of metasedimentary rocks. It is suggested that, in the Sevier belt, as in other intracontinental orogenic belts, anatexis occurred in the midcrust and not at the base of the crust.

  18. 36. View of southern terminus of the Blue Ridge Parkway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. View of southern terminus of the Blue Ridge Parkway looking SW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  19. 13. Upper portal of tunnel on Newfound Gap Road looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Upper portal of tunnel on Newfound Gap Road looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. 25. Newfound Gap Road, pullout after switchback, North Carolina side. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Newfound Gap Road, pullout after switchback, North Carolina side. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  1. 21. Newfound Gap Road, last pullout before gap, North Carolina ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Newfound Gap Road, last pullout before gap, North Carolina side. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  2. 14. Newfound Gap Road, view from atop tunnel, Tennessee side. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Newfound Gap Road, view from atop tunnel, Tennessee side. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. 19. Detail of stairs at Newfound Gap parking area looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Detail of stairs at Newfound Gap parking area looking NNE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  4. 28. Stream view of revetment wall on Newfound Gap Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Stream view of revetment wall on Newfound Gap Road looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  5. 23. Newfound Gap Road, Fancy Ridge, overlook with ugly railing. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Newfound Gap Road, Fancy Ridge, overlook with ugly railing. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. 27. Road view of revetment wall on Newfound Gap Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Road view of revetment wall on Newfound Gap Road looking NNW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. 26. Newfound Gap Road, North Carolina side, with Oconaluftee River. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Newfound Gap Road, North Carolina side, with Oconaluftee River. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. 20. Intersection of Newfound Gap Road and Clingman's Dome Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Intersection of Newfound Gap Road and Clingman's Dome Road looking NNE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. 15. Newfound Gap parking area with construction scar looking W. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Newfound Gap parking area with construction scar looking W. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. 33. Mountain farm museum from Newfound Gap Road looking ENE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Mountain farm museum from Newfound Gap Road looking ENE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  11. Inventory of wetlands and agricultural land cover in the upper Sevier River Basin, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaynes, R. A.; Clark, L. D., Jr.; Landgraf, K. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The use of color infrared aerial photography in the mapping of agricultural land use and wetlands in the Sevier River Basin of south central utah is described. The efficiency and cost effectiveness of utilizing LANDSAT multispectral scanner digital data to augment photographic interpretations are discussed. Transparent overlays for 27 quadrangles showing delineations of wetlands and agricultural land cover were produced. A table summarizing the acreage represented by each class on each quadrangle overlay is provided.

  12. Influence of preexisting tectonic trends on geometries of Sevier orogenic belt and its foreland in Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Picha, F.; Gibson, R.I.

    1985-05-01

    The tectonic style of the late Mesozoic Sevier orogenic belt in Utah was greatly affected by preexisting structural trends that date from the late Precambrian rifting and fragmentation of the North American continent. The late Precambrian cratonic margin (Cordilleran hinge line) was marked by a system of prominent faults including the north-south-trending ancestral Wasatch and ancient Ephraim faults and the southwest-northeast-trending Leamington, Scipio, Cove Fort, and Paragonah faults. During the Paleozoic and Mesozoic, renewed activity on these faults affected the geometries of the late Paleozoic Paradox and Oquirrh basins, the boundaries of the Jurassic Arapien Formation, and the sedimentary pattern of the Cretaceous foreland basin. Many of these fault zones were reactivated as tectonic ramps (e.g., the ancient Ephraim fault) and tear faults (e.g., the Leamington fault) during the compressional Sevier tectonism. The Fillmore arch and some other structural highs situated along the edge of the late Precambrian craton caused ramping of the inner Keystone-Pavant-Canyon thrust sheets and telescoping of the frontal thrust sheets. Post-thrust uplift of basement highs led to tectonic denudation and to the development of low-angle, extensional faults, such as the Sevier detachment. Northeast-trending lineaments, such as the Cove Fort and Paragonah lineaments, were reactivated as right-lateral strike-slip faults. They also affected the extent of the Marysvale volcanic field.

  13. Relations between hinterland and foreland shortening: Sevier orogeny, central North American Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Wanda J.; Bartley, John M.; Martin, Mark W.; Geissman, John W.; Walker, J. Douglas; Armstrong, Phillip A.; Fryxell, Joan E.

    2000-12-01

    The tectonic relations between foreland and hinterland deformation in noncollisional orogens are critical to understanding the overall development of orogens. The classic central Cordilleran foreland fold-and-thrust belt in the United States (Late Jurassic to early Tertiary Sevier belt) and the more internal zones to the west (central Nevada thrust belt) provide data critical to understanding the development of internal and external parts of orogens. The Garden Valley thrust system, part of the central Nevada thrust belt, crops out in south-central Nevada within a region generally considered to be the hinterland of the Jurassic to Eocene Sevier thrust belt. The thrust system consists of at least four principal thrust plates composed of strata as young as Pennsylvanian in age that are unconformably overlain by rocks as old as Oligocene, suggesting that contraction occurred between those times. New U/Pb dates on intrusions that postdate contraction, combined with new paleomagnetic data showing significant tilting of one area prior to intrusion, suggest that regionally these thrusts were active before 85-100 Ma. The thrust faults are characterized by long, relatively steeply dipping ramps and associated folds that are broad and open to close, upright and overturned. Although now fragmented by Cenozoic crustal extension, individual thrusts can be correlated from range to range for tens to hundreds of kilometers along strike. We correlate the structurally lowest thrust of the Garden Valley thrust system, the Golden Gate-Mount Irish thrust, southward with the Gass Peak thrust of southern Nevada. This correlation carries the following regional implications. At least some of the slip across Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous foreland thrusts in southern Nevada continues northward along the central Nevada thrust belt rather than northeastward into Utah. This continuation is consistent with age relations, which indicate that thrusts in the type Sevier belt in central Utah are synchronous with or younger than the youngest thrusts in southern Nevada. This in turn implies that geometrically similar Sevier belt thrusts in Utah must die out southward before they reach Nevada, that slip along the southern Nevada thrusts is partitioned between central Nevada and Utah thrusts, or that the Utah thrusts persist into southeastern Nevada but are located east of the longitude of the central Nevada thrust belt. As a result of overall cratonward migration of thrusting, the central Nevada thrust belt probably formed the Cordilleran foreland fold-thrust belt early in the shortening event but later lay in the hinterland of the Sevier fold-thrust belt of Idaho-Wyoming-Utah.

  14. Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential for TVA's John Sevier and Kingston Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ellen D; Saulsbury, Bo

    2008-03-01

    This is a preliminary assessment of the potential for geologic carbon sequestration for the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) John Sevier and Kingston power plants. The purpose of this assessment is to make a 'first cut' determination of whether there is sufficient potential for geologic carbon sequestration within 200 miles of the plants for TVA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to proceed with a joint proposal for a larger project with a strong carbon management element. This assessment does not consider alternative technologies for carbon capture, but assumes the existence of a segregated CO{sub 2} stream suitable for sequestration.

  15. Ground-water hydrology and projected effects of ground-water withdrawals in the Sevier Desert, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Walter F.

    1984-01-01

    The principal ground-water reservoir in the Sevier Desert is the unconsolidated basin fill. The fill has been divided generally into aquifers and confining beds, although there are no clearcut boundaries between these units--the primary aquifers are the shallow and deep artesian aquifers. Recharge to the ground-water reservoir is by infiltration of precipitation; seepage from streams, canals, reservoirs, and unconsumed irrigation water; and subsurface inflow from consolidated rocks in mountain areas and from adjoining areas. Discharge is by wells, springs, seepage to the Sevier River, evapotranspiration, and subsurface outflow to adjoining areas.

  16. Cretaceous crustal structure and metamorphism in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt, western US Cordillera

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.L.; Gans, P.B. )

    1989-01-01

    Combined structural and geochronologic studies to the west of the Sevier belt at lat 39{degree}-40{degree}N indicate that peak metamorphism of the upper 15 km of crust occurred during the Late Cretaceous (70-90 Ma), overlapping in time with the intrusion of muscovite-bearing granites and pegmatites. Metamorphism was accompanied by penetrative deformation (top-to-the-east layer-parallel shear); both were localized at the currently exposed structural levels, resulting in impressive vertical and lateral strain gradients and T{sub max} gradients of > 50 C/km. Inception of thrust faulting in the Sevier belt may have predated peak metamorphism and intrusion of granites in the hinterland by 10-15 m.y., but it continued during and ended simultaneously with the end of metamorphism at about 70 Ma. The rise of muscovite-bearing granites and hot fluids, generated by metamorphism and crustal anatexis at greater depth, provides and explanation for the observed localized metamorphism and deformation at relatively high structural levels.

  17. Late Cretaceous extension in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt, northwestern Utah and southern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, M.L.; Allmendinger, R.W. ); Dallmeyer, R.D. )

    1990-10-01

    Cover rocks of the Raft River metamorphic core complex, located in the Sevier belt hinterland, preserve a structural and metamorphic history that predates the middle Tertiary extension of the region. In the eastern Raft River Mountains, Cambrian( )-Permian rocks form two allochthons that occur in the hanging wall of the mid-Miocene Raft River detachment fault. Dramatically attenuated, metamorphosed Cambrian( )-Pennsylvanian strata of the lower allochthon yield Late Cretaceous muscovite {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar plateau ages (ca. 82-90 Ma) that are interpreted to date cooling during final stages of layer parallel extension. Devonian-Permian rocks exposed in the Black Pine Mountains underwent east-west extension ({approximately} 160%) associated with syntectonic growth of white mica along cleavage. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar whole-rock spectra of associated slates also indicate a Late Cretaceous metamorphism. Together, field and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results suggest that Late Cretaceous extension occurred in the Sevier belt hinterland at the same time as shortening in the eastern foreland and at depth in the hinterland. Sufficient topography must have been present to drive upper-crustal extension in the eastern hinterland.

  18. Stratigraphy and structure of the Sevier thrust belt and proximal foreland-basin system in central Utah: A transect from the Sevier Desert to the Wasatch Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawton, T.F.; Sprinkel, D.A.; Decelles, P.G.; Mitra, G.; Sussman, A.J.; Weiss, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    The Sevier orogenic belt in central Utah comprises four north-northwest trending thrust plates and two structural culminations that record crustal shortening and uplift in late Mesozoic and early Tertiary time. Synorogenic clastic rocks, mostly conglomerate and sandstone, exposed within the thrust belt were deposited in wedge-top and foredeep depozones within the proximal part of the foreland-basin system. The geologic relations preserved between thrust structures and synorogenic deposits demonstrate a foreland-breaking sequence of thrust deformation that was modified by minor out-of-sequence thrust displacement. Structural culminations in the interior part of the thrust belt deformed and uplifted some of the thrust sheets following their emplacement. Strata in the foreland basin indicate that the thrust sheets of central Utah were emplaced between latest Jurassic and Eocene time. The oldest strata of the foredeep depozone (Cedar Mountain Formation) are Neocomian and were derived from the hanging wall of the Canyon Range thrust. The foredeep depozone subsided most rapidly during Albian through Santonian or early Campanian time and accumulated about 2.5 km of conglomeratic strata (Indianola Group). The overlying North Horn Formation accumulated in a wedge-top basin from the Campanian to the Eocene and records propagation of the Gunnison thrust beneath the former foredeep. The Canyon Range Conglomerate of the Canyon Mountains, equivalent to the Indianola Group and the North Horn Formation, was deposited exclusively in a wedge-top setting on the Canyon Range and Pavant thrust sheets. This field trip, a three day, west-to-east traverse of the Sevier orogenic belt in central Utah, visits localities where timing of thrust structures is demonstrated by geometry of cross-cutting relations, growth strata associated with faults and folds, or deformation of foredeep deposits. Stops in the Canyon Mountains emphasize geometry of late structural culminations and relationships of the Canyon Range thrust to growth strata deposited in the wedge-top depozone. Stops in the San Pitch Mountains illustrate deposits of the foredeep depozone and younger, superjacent wedge-top depozone. Stops in the Sanpete Valley and western part of the Wasatch Plateau examine the evolution of the foreland-basin system from foredeep to wedge-top during growth of a triangle zone near the front of the Gunnison thrust.

  19. Ground-water conditions and geologic reconnaissance of the Upper Sevier River basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Carl H.; Robinson, Gerald B.; Bjorklund, Louis Jay

    1967-01-01

    The upper Sevier River basin is in south-central Utah and includes an area of about 2,400 .square miles of high plateaus and valleys. It comprises the entire Sevier River drainage basin above Kingston, including the East Fork Sevier River and its tributaries. The basin was investigated to determine general ground-water conditions, the interrelation of ground water and surface water, the effects of increasing the pumping of ground water, and the amount of ground water in storage. The basin includes four main valleys--Panguitch Valley, Circle Valley, East Fork Valley, and Grass Valley--which are drained by the Sevier River, the East Fork Sevier River, and Otter Creek. The plateaus surrounding the valleys consist of sedimentary and igneous rocks that range in age from Triassic to Quaternary. The valley fill, which is predominantly alluvial gravel, sand, silt, and clay, has a maximum thickness of more than 800 feet. The four main valleys constitute separate ground-water basins. East Fork Valley basin is divided into Emery Valley, Johns Valley, and Antimony subbasins, and Grass Valley basin is divided into Koosharem and Angle subbasins. Ground water occurs under both artesian and water-table conditions in all the basins and subbasins except Johns Valley, Emery Valley, and Angle subbasins, where water is only under water-table conditions. The. water is under artesian pressure in beds of gravel and sand confined by overlying beds of silt and clay in the downstream parts of Panguitch Valley basin, Circle Valley basin, and Antimony subbasin, and in most of Koosharem subbasin. Along the sides and upstream ends of these basins, water is usually under water-table conditions. About 1 million acre-feet of ground water that is readily available to wells is stored in the gravel and sand of the upper 200 feet of saturated valley fill. About 570,000 acre-feet is stored in Panguitch Valley basin, about 210,000 in Circle Valley basin, about 6,000 in Emery Valley subbasin, about 90,000 in Johns Valley subbasin, about 36,000 in Antimony subbasin, about 90,000 in Koosharem subbasin, and about 60,000 in Angle subbasin. Additional water, although it is not readily available to wells, is stored in beds of silt and clay. Some ground water also is available in the bedrock underlying and surrounding the basins, although the bedrock formations generally are poor aquifers. The principal source of recharge to the valley fill in the upper Sevier River basin is infiltration from streams, canals, and irrigated fields. Some ground water also miles into the valley till from the bedrock surrounding the basins. The basin contains about 300 wells, most of which are less than 4 inches in diameter, are less than 250 feet deep, and are used for domestic purposes and stock watering. More than half the wells are flowing wells in Koosharem subbasin. Approximately 82,000 acre-feet of ground water was discharged in 1962 from the valley till. Springs discharged about 33,000 acre-feet, wells about 3,000, and drains about 3,000; and evapotranspiration from phreatophyte areas about 43,000 acre-feet. Springs in bedrock discharged an additional 75,000 acre-feet. Most of the water discharged by springs, wells, and drains was used for irrigation. The ground water in the basin generally is of good chemical quality. The water is excellent for irrigation and stock but is not as desirable for most domestic and industrial uses because of its hardness. The dissolved-solids content of the ground water generally increases slightly from the upstream end of the individual ground-water basins to. the downstream end owing mostly to repeated use of the water for irrigation. Surface water and ground water in the upper Sevier River basin are interconnected, and the base flows of streams are affected by changes in groundwater levels. Increased pumping of ground water would result in (1) an increase in the recharge to the aquifers from surface-water sources or (2) a decrease

  20. Ages of Sevier thrusting from dating of metamorphic garnet using the Lu-Hf method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Uribe, A. M.; Hoisch, T. D.; Wells, M. L.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Combined thermodynamic modeling of garnet growth zoning and Lu-Hf dating of garnet yield well-constrained pressure-temperature-time (PTt) paths. Here we present PTt paths from amphibolite-facies pelitic garnet from the Raft River-Albion-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex that constrain the timing of thrusting in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt. Three general times of thrust burial are indicated: 150, 138, and 85 Ma. Lu-Hf garnet dating of burial-related garnet growth in the Raft River Mountains yielded a Late Jurassic age of 149.9 1.2 Ma (2?, MSWD = 1.1) based on three garnet fractions and a whole rock. A PT path from the schist of Mahogany Peaks in the Albion Range, Idaho, records an isothermal pressure increase indicating growth during thrusting. Lu-Hf dating of garnet from the same rock yielded an Early Cretaceous age of 138.7 0.7 Ma (2?, MSWD = 1.6) based on seven garnet fractions. An additional PT path from a nearby outcrop also records an isothermal pressure increase and a similar Lu-Hf garnet age of 132.1 5.1 Ma (2?, MSWD = 9.5) based on three garnet fractions and a whole rock. PT paths of multiple garnet grains from the schist of Stevens Spring in the Grouse Creek Mountains, Utah, exhibit isothermal pressure increases and yielded a Lu-Hf garnet age of 85.5 1.9 Ma (2?, MSWD = 3.9) based on five garnet fractions and a whole rock. The Late Jurassic burial event recorded in the Raft River Mountains is older than the ages of inception of thrusting of the western thrusts of the Sevier fold-thrust belt including the Canyon Range and Paris - Willard thrusts, but consistent with an eastward progression in initial shortening in the orogenic wedge and development of an inferred thrust load responsible for the retroarc Morrison Formation basin. Early Cretaceous hinterland burial recorded in the Albion Range is permissively coeval with activity on the Willard and Canyon Range thrusts. Finally, renewed hinterland thrust burial during the Late Cretaceous, as documented in the Grouse Creek Mountains, is consistent in timing with previous interpretations of major thrusting in frontal thrust systems of the Sevier belt, such as the development of the Absaroka thrust.

  1. Upper Oligocene evaporites in basin fill of Sevier Desert region, western Utah ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, D.A.; Glanzman, R.K.; Naeser, C.W.; Nicholas, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The basin fill beneath the Sevier Desert of western Utah contains evaporites that were deposited in a broad closed basin. All of the basin fill penetrated by the Gulf Oil 1 Gronning contains abundant volcanic detritus and its alteration products of Cenozoic age. Fission-track dating of tuffaceous sandstone yields ages of 26-28 m.y. Fossil pollen from mudstone in the evaporite-bearing strata includes forms no older than late Oligocene, in good agreement with the fission-track ages. Thus the age of evaporites is late Oligocene and younger. Anhydrite is present throughout approximately 900m of volcaniclastic rocks in the lower part of the section cut by the Gulf hole. Fossil pollen are indicative of an arid to semiarid flora.-from Authors

  2. 3. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, view between second and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, view between second and third stops - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. 7. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, rocks along edge of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, rocks along edge of road. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  4. 1. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, entrance sign. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, entrance sign. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  5. 9. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Reagan House. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Reagan House. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. 11. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, boulders along road after ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, boulders along road after stop 13. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. 6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop four. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. 8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, handbuilt rock pile. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, hand-built rock pile. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. 5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. 4. Overgrown overlook number 1 looking W. Great Smoky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Overgrown overlook number 1 looking W. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  11. 12. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, place of a thousand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, place of a thousand drips, view from road. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Title Sheet Great Smoky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Title Sheet - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. 10. Reagan's Tub Mill and Roadway looking NE. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Reagan's Tub Mill and Roadway looking NE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. 10. Area of landslide on eastern section of Foothills Parkway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Area of landslide on eastern section of Foothills Parkway looking NE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Foothills Parkway, From Chilowee to Walland & from Cosby to I-40, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. 2. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view before first ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view before first stop. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. 6. Horse camp looking W. Great Smoky Mountains National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Horse camp looking W. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  17. 1. Entrance to Heintooga Round Bottom Road and sign looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Entrance to Heintooga Round Bottom Road and sign looking N. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  18. 2. General Road view looking SW. Great Smoky Mountains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General Road view looking SW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  19. 4. General view of road with grey birch trees looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. General view of road with grey birch trees looking E. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. 5. Ford near western end of road looking NNW. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Ford near western end of road looking NNW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  1. 3. View of overlook and vista looking SW. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of overlook and vista looking SW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  2. 7. Placed boulder revetment wall, river and roadway looking SSW. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Placed boulder revetment wall, river and roadway looking SSW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  4. 1. View of Cades Cove Valley from first overlook on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of Cades Cove Valley from first overlook on Rich Mountain Road looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Rich Mountain Road, Between Cades Cove & park boundary at Rich Mountain Gap, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  5. 17. Photographer unknown, March 1928 PARK ROAD BOOSTERS ATTEND A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographer unknown, March 1928 PARK ROAD BOOSTERS ATTEND A MEETING IN MARCH OF 1928, WHEN A $5 MILLION GIFT FOR THE LAURA SPELLMAN ROCKEFELLER MEMORIAL WAS ANNOUNCED. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. 9. Bridge over State Route 321 on unopened section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Bridge over State Route 321 on unopened section of Foothills Parkway in wear cove looking ESE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Foothills Parkway, From Chilowee to Walland & from Cosby to I-40, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. 18. Bridge over state route 321 on unopened section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Bridge over state route 321 on unopened section of Foothills Parkway in wear cove looking ESE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Foothills Parkway, From Chilowee to Walland & from Cosby to I-40, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. 6. LITTLE GREENBRIER SCHOOL CEMETERY AND PARKING AREA LOOKING S, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. LITTLE GREENBRIER SCHOOL CEMETERY AND PARKING AREA LOOKING S, OFF SPUR FROM METCALF BOTTOMS TO WEAR COVE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Little River Road, Between Sugarlands Visitor Center & Townsend Wye, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. 15. Gatlinburg spur with little Pigeon River, looking toward Pigeon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Gatlinburg spur with little Pigeon River, looking toward Pigeon Forge. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Foothills Parkway, From Chilowee to Walland & from Cosby to I-40, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. 3. NEWFOUND GAP ROAD, VIEW OF LOOP OVER FROM CHIMNEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NEWFOUND GAP ROAD, VIEW OF LOOP OVER FROM CHIMNEY TOPS. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, The Loop Over Bridge, Newfound Gap Road 8.6 miles from park entrance, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  11. 2. NEWFOUND GAP ROAD, LOOP OVER, VIEW INSIDE OVERPASS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NEWFOUND GAP ROAD, LOOP OVER, VIEW INSIDE OVERPASS. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, The Loop Over Bridge, Newfound Gap Road 8.6 miles from park entrance, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. 5. Abandoned mule trail tunnel. 1 mile from intersection with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Abandoned mule trail tunnel. 1 mile from intersection with Newfound Gap Road looking SSE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Clingmans Dome Road, Between Newfound Gap Road & Clingmans Dome, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. 24. View of barn, fields and Cades Cove loop road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. View of barn, fields and Cades Cove loop road looking NNE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. 13. Cades Cove Road, with barbed wire fence and mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Cades Cove Road, with barbed wire fence and mountain view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. 21. View down Hyatt Lane in Cades Cove looking NNE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View down Hyatt Lane in Cades Cove looking NNE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. 17. Methodist Church in Cades Cove looking NW. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Methodist Church in Cades Cove looking NW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  17. 10. Concrete bridge on road to Tremont looking S. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Concrete bridge on road to Tremont looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  18. 16. First Baptist Church in Cades Cove looking SSW. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. First Baptist Church in Cades Cove looking SSW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  19. 6. 1930's revetment wall next to 1886 constructed revetment wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. 1930's revetment wall next to 1886 constructed revetment wall on Laurel Creek Road looking SSW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. 28. Ford near the end of Cades Cove Loop Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Ford near the end of Cades Cove Loop Road looking NNW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  1. 27. Abandoned treelined road in Cades Cove looking N. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Abandoned tree-lined road in Cades Cove looking N. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  2. 2. Switchback and General Road view looking S. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Switchback and General Road view looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Rich Mountain Road, Between Cades Cove & park boundary at Rich Mountain Gap, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. 14. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with single tree. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with single tree. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  4. 1. View of Laurel Creek Road, revetment wall and cliff ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of Laurel Creek Road, revetment wall and cliff looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  5. 8. Double arch culvert on Laurel Creek Road looking WSW. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Double arch culvert on Laurel Creek Road looking WSW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. 23. Henry Whitehead place in Cades Cove looking ESE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Henry Whitehead place in Cades Cove looking ESE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. 12. Cades Cove Road, view toward entrance with ruts in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Cades Cove Road, view toward entrance with ruts in road. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. 25. Dan Lawson place in Cades Cove looking S. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Dan Lawson place in Cades Cove looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. 4. Ford near the northern end of road looking NNE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Ford near the northern end of road looking NNE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Rich Mountain Road, Between Cades Cove & park boundary at Rich Mountain Gap, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. 5. Laurel Creek Road, revetment wall and creek. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Laurel Creek Road, revetment wall and creek. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  11. 15. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with horses. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with horses. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. 9. Double arch culvert on Laurel Creek Road looking ENE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Double arch culvert on Laurel Creek Road looking ENE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. 22. Cades Cove Valley from Hyatt Lane looking E. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Cades Cove Valley from Hyatt Lane looking E. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. 26. View of Cades Cove Loop Road with fields and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. View of Cades Cove Loop Road with fields and mountains looking NE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. 2. View of west tunnel portal and stream on Laurel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of west tunnel portal and stream on Laurel Creek Road looking ENE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. 18. View of fields, mountains and mist in Cades Cove ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of fields, mountains and mist in Cades Cove looking SW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  17. 7. Elevation of single arch stone bridge on Laurel Creek ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Elevation of single arch stone bridge on Laurel Creek Road looking N. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  18. 19. Cantilevered barn in Cades Cove looking SSW. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Cantilevered barn in Cades Cove looking SSW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  19. 1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion Great Smoky Mountains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. 2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  1. Role of crustal thickening and extensional collapse in the tectonic evolution of the Sevier-Laramide orogeny, western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Livaccari, R.F. )

    1991-11-01

    The effects of crustal thickening and extensional collapse of continental crust, combined with variations in plate-convergence forces, provide a coherent explanation for evolution of the Cretaceous-early Tertiary Sevier-Laramide orogeny. Crustal thickening of the Sevier-Laramide hinterland region was triggered by the combination of compressive plate-convergence forces and subduction-induced conductive heating of the crust. Eastward progradation of the locus of Sevier-Laramide deformation through time reflects the progressive widening of the region of crustal thickening. The region of maximum crustal thickening migrated outward until about 80 to 75 Ma, when it encountered excessively strong lithosphere of the Colorado Plateau. The locus of deformation was then transmitted laterally across both a hinterland that had attained maximum crustal thickness and the rigid Colorado Plateau, into the Laramide Rocky Mountain foreland. An episode of vigorous extensional collapse of orogenically thickened crust affected the southern Cordillera between about 75 and 35 Ma. Early Tertiary waning of plate-convergence rates and continued subduction-induced conductive heating of thickened crust allowed extensional collapse along the southern Cordillera region to drive the Colorado Plateau block northward. The result was the late Laramide phase of Rocky Mountain foreland deformation in the central and southern Laramide Rocky Mountain region continued through Eocene time, rather than ceasing at 56 Ma, as it did in the northern Cordillera.

  2. Upper Oligocene evaporites in basin fill of Sevier Desert region, western Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, D.A.; Glanzman, R.K.; Naeser, C.W.; Nichols, D.J.

    1981-02-01

    The basin fill beneath the Sevier Desert of western Utah contains evaporites of late Oligocene age that were deposited in a broad closed basin. All of the basin fill penetrated by the Gulf Oil 1 Gronning (2458 m TD), one of only three deep holes in the basin, contains abundant volcanic detritus and its alteration products of Cenozoic age, when volcanism was intense in western Utah. Fission-track dating of tuffaceous sandstone, interbedded with evaporite minerals and representative of sandstone in the lower formations penetrated, yields ages of 26 to 28 m.y.; concordance of ages indicates no thermal resetting. Fossil pollen from mudstone in the evaporite-bearing strata includes forms no older than late Oligocene, in good agreement with the fission-track ages. Thus the age of the evaporites, and of all the basin fill penetrated by drilling, is late Oligocene and younger; previous work had assigned them ages ranging from Triassic to Eocene. Evaporite-bearing rocks were deposited during late Oligocene time in a broad closed basin under arid or semiarid conditions much like those of the Great Basin today. Anhydrite is present throughout approximately 900 m of volcaniclastic rocks in the lower part of the section cut by the Gulf hole, and more than 1500 m of anhydrite and halite is present in possibly equivalent strata in the nearby Argonaut dry hole. Fossil pollen from anhydrite-bearing rocks in the Gulf hole are indicative of an arid to semiarid flora, including plants similar to Mormon tea and possibly saltbush or buffalo berry. Evaporite minerals formed in the basin during dry periods; tuff was erupted from nearby volcanic centers, reworked by water, and deposited in the basin.

  3. Three-dimensional digital-computer model of the principal ground-water reservoir of the Sevier Desert, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The principal ground-water reservoir in part of the Sevier Desert, Utah was modeled using a three-dimensional finite-difference model. The model was calibrated by comparing computed and observed water-level measurements in 1952, simulating results of aquifer tests, and simulating ground-water withdrawals during 1952-81 and comparing computed water-level changes during 1952-82 to observed changes. The results indicate the model is capable of predicting future water-level changes. The report includes a complete listing of the model data for the 1952-82 simulation. (USGS)

  4. 3. BIG HOUSE (left) AND CORN CRIB (right) IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BIG HOUSE (left) AND CORN CRIB (right) IN THE BACKGROUND. See also individual HABS documentation: Walker Family Farm, Big House (HABS No. TN-121 A), and Walker Family Farm, Corn Crib (HABS No. TN-121 C). - Walker Family Farm (General views), Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  5. Insertion site preference of Mu, Tn5, and Tn7 transposons

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transposons, segments of DNA that can mobilize to other locations in a genome, are often used for insertion mutagenesis or to generate priming sites for sequencing of large DNA molecules. For both of these uses, a transposon with minimal insertion bias is desired to allow complete coverage with minimal oversampling. Findings Three transposons, Mu, Tn5, and Tn7, were used to generate insertions in the same set of fosmids containing Candida glabrata genomic DNA. Tn7 demonstrates markedly less insertion bias than either Mu or Tn5, with both Mu and Tn5 biased toward sequences containing guanosine (G) and cytidine (C). This preference of Mu and Tn5 yields less uniform spacing of insertions than for Tn7, in the adenosine (A) and thymidine (T) rich genome of C. glabrata (39% GC). Conclusions In light of its more uniform distribution of insertions, Tn7 should be considered for applications in which insertion bias is deleterious. PMID:22313799

  6. Thrust controlled sedimentation patterns of the earliest Cretaceous nonmarine sequence of the Montana-Idaho-Wyoming Sevier foreland basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kvale, E.P.; Beck, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent research on the Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous nonmarine deposits of the central Rocky Mountain Foreland indicate that the sedimentary-tectonic model developed for Laramide intermontane basins is valid for the Sevier foreland basin as well. Episodes of thin-skinned thrusting and tectonic stacking caused asymmetric subsidence of the foreland and the localization of its structural axis adjacent to the fold-thrust belt. A regional thrust-ward-dipping paleoslope formed cratonward of the structural axis of the foreland basin during thrust events as a result of rapid subsidence of the foredeep. However, during periods of tectonic quiescence, rates of sedimentation within the foredeep exceeded rates of subsidence with the result being a reversal of the regional paleoslope. During thrusting, low gradient fluvial, paludal, and lacustrine depositional environments were localized adjacent to the thrust tips. Early Cretaceous movement of the Paris thrust is recorded by the occurrence of thick lacustrine deposits of the Peterson and younger Draney limestones within the foredeep in western Montana and along the Idaho-Wyoming border. Coeval with the lacustrine environments were two major west to northwest flowing fluvial systems now preserved within the Lower Cretaceous Cloverly Formation of north-central Wyoming. Those fluvial systems are represented by a major channel complex within the Little Sheep Mudstone and the Himes Member. Paleocurrent analysis and isopach data indicate the influence of incipient Laramide structures on sedimentation both within the Sevier foredeep (DeCelles, 1984) and the more distal margins of the foreland basin.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Strain in the Sevier Desert Region from a Decade of BARGEN Continuous GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, N. A.; Wernicke, B. P.

    2007-12-01

    A transect of four BARGEN GPS sites from 1997-2000 at latitude 39°N revealed a linear increase in velocity from 0 mm/yr on the Colorado Plateau to ~4 mm/yr in east-central Nevada. These geodetic data, when combined with paleoseismic and neotectonic observations, were used to argue for present-day strain accumulation on the Sevier Desert detachment, a seismically-imaged, low-angle (12°) normal fault that underlies a significant portion of west central Utah [Niemi et al., 2004]. A new GPS velocity solution [Davis et al., 2006], including 5 additional years of observations and a new GPS station in the eastern half of the transect, serves to both clarify and complicate our understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of strain in this region. Geodetic velocity gradients among the three original eastern sites (from east to west, CAST, SMEL, and FOOT), and including the new site, SPIC, located between CAST and SMEL, continue to suggest a linear strain gradient from the Colorado Plateau to westernmost Utah, on a transect spanning the Wasatch, Sevier Desert, and House Range normal faults. In contrast, the baseline between FOOT and EGAN, which underwent extension from 1997-2000, began to contract in 2000, as site EGAN slowed with respect to the Colorado Plateau. This deviation in velocity continued until 2003, when EGAN began moving westward, and has, as of 2006, returned to near its pre-2000 velocity with respect to the Colorado Plateau. The eastward excursion of GPS site EGAN is not unique, and similar excursions are observed in the time series of all BARGEN GPS sites that lie west of ~114.25°W over the time period 2000-2003 [Davis et al., 2006]. The origin of this velocity anomaly is uncertain, but the magnitude and spatial extent of the excursion, as well as the observation of a deep earthquake swarm (~30-40 km depth) coincident with dramatic motion of GPS site SLID, near Lake Tahoe, in 2003 [Smith et al., 2004] suggest a deep crustal or mantle influence on the observed GPS velocities. Bright, mid-crustal horizontal reflections observed in COCORP reflection seismic data west of 114°W have been postulated to represent a detachment that could accommodate shearing along the base of the crust in Nevada [Hauser et al., 1987], a hypothesis broadly consistent with the observed GPS velocities, with the crust shearing relatively east over the subcrustal lithosphere. A deep observatory in the Sevier Desert region, transecting the Sevier Desert detachment, would complement existing paleoseismic and neotectonic studies, and the decade of BARGEN continuous GPS observations, as well as new GPS data from 8 Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory sites installed along this transect in the past few years. Key questions that could be assessed with a deep observatory are how slip, and strain, at depth on an inclined fault are reflected in geodetic observations of strain at the surface; whether the state of stress and strain rate on the Sevier Desert detachment change through time, as suggested by long-term periodicity in strain release as recorded in the geologic record, and what effect long-lived velocity excursions, such as observed from 2000-2003, have on the regional stress state, perhaps leading to a clearer understanding of the source of these anomalies, and the aseismic tectonic behavior of the lithosphere.

  8. Hydrologic evaluation and water-supply considerations for five Paiute Indian land parcels, Millard, Sevier, and Iron counties, southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Don; Stephens, D.W.; Conroy, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrologic resources in and adjacent to five parcels of land held in trust for the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah were evaluated. The land, located in southwestern Utah, is generally arid and has had only limited use for grazing. The parcels are located near the towns of Cove Fort, Joseph, Koosharem, and Kanarraville. On the basis of available geohydrologic and hydrologic data, water of suitable quality is locally available in the areas of all parcels for domestic, stock, recreation, and limited irrigation use. Developing this water for use on the parcels would potentially involve obtaining water rights, drilling wells, and constructing diversion structures. Surface water apparently is the most favorable source of supply available for the Joseph parcel, and groundwater apparently is the most favorable source of supply available for the other parcels. (USGS)

  9. Botanical studies in the vicinity of John Sevier Steam Plant: results of surveys conducted in 1978 and a review of surveys conducted from 1973 through 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, J.R. Jr.; Cunningham, J.R.; Smith, F.R.

    1980-03-01

    No foliar effects attributable to sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) emissions from John Sevier Steam Plant were observed on vegetation during the 1978 growing season. However, SO/sub 2/ effects were observed on vegetation in the John Sevier area during the 1974, 1975, and 1977 growing seasons. Foliar injury was observed on nine species of vegetation in seven areas, about 2110 acres. Two of the affected species - loblolly and Virginia pine - were economically important. However, the effects observed on these species were not economically significant. The mean sulfur content of coal fired and the average daily SO/sub 2/ emissions during the 1978 growing season were lower than any growing season since 1973. The level of the National Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standard (3-h avg of 0.50 p/m) has never been exceeded at any SO/sub 2/ monitor in the vicinity of John Sevier Steam Plant during daylight hours of a growing season (time period when most vegetation is sensitive to SO/sub 2/ exposure). Also, the compliance emission rate (4.0 lbs SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu) was not exceeded during any of the growing seasons from 1973 through 1978. Botanical survey results and SO/sub 2/ emission data indicate that significant SO/sub 2/ injury to vegetation is unlikely as long as the emission rate at John Sevier Steam Plant does not exceed the compliance level. Consequently, it is recommended that routine botanical surveys be discontinued in the John Sevier area. However, partial surveys will be conducted as required in any area surrounding a monitor where the level of the National Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standard is exceeded during daylight hours of the growing season or in the area surrounding vegetation associated with a complaint.

  10. Cretaceous to early Tertiary paleogeography in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt, east-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Vandervoort, D.S.; Schmitt, J.G. )

    1990-06-01

    The Cretaceous to early Tertiary hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt in east-central Nevada underwent two periods of sedimentary basin development. The older (Early Cretaceous) episode is characterized by basins that formed coeval with deformation within a belt of contractional structures. Basins were characterized by periods of through-flowing fluvial drainage. The younger (Late Cretaceous to Eocene) episode of basin development was characterized by internally drained alluvial basins that subsequently expanded into more regional lacustrine basins. Basal alluvial detritus indicates that basin inception occurred as a result of rapid development of topographic relief. Synsedimentary tectonism was characterized by horizontal extension due to attainment of equilibrium topography in response to crustal thickening.

  11. Rapid Intradeformational Emplacement of the Big Hole Canyon Pluton Into the Sevier Fold-Thrust Belt, Southwest Montana.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hespenheide, M. A.

    2002-12-01

    The Big Hole Canyon pluton (BHCp) is a Late Cretaceous pluton emplaced within the Sevier fold-and-thrust belt of the western North American Cordillera. The pluton is exposed over 60km2 and a thickness of ~1400m. Combined anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), structural, and field studies document a clear pattern of magmatic flow radiating from at least three subvertical conduits <100m wide and ~300 to ~800m long. Interpreted flow plunges change rapidly to subhorizontal fabrics across the rest of the pluton, matching the expected pattern for laccolithic emplacement. Ascent conduits within the Big Hole Canyon pluton are coincident with the fold axis of an anticline above a thrust ramp, suggesting that the magma ascended up the fault of the fault-bend-fold. Geobarometry and stratigraphic reconstructions indicate an emplacement depth of approximately ~3km. Preliminary thermal modeling indicates that the BHCp was emplaced in 250,000 years, likely between periods of regional shortening deformation. Rapid magma ascent rates calculated by dike flow modeling and implied by entrained wall-rock xenoliths may indicate sequential magma injection into the pluton; an absence of chill margins between phases within the pluton indicates that sequential injections must have taken place quickly enough that the magmas did not have time to cool below the solidus temperature. The geometry and location of the BHCp suggest that magma used a pre-existing fault as a mechanical discontinuity for both ascent and emplacement. Continued intrusion of magma had a sufficient amount of driving pressure to stretch, shear, and lift the roof of the pluton. Detailed field mapping, structural studies, AMS, and thermobarometry indicate that the Late Cretaceous Big Hole Canyon pluton was emplaced as a laccolith at the top of a pre-existing fault-bend-fold in the frontal portion of the Sevier fold-thrust belt.

  12. The Mormon Peak and Tule Springs Detachments of Southern Nevada and Their Role in Interpreting the Subsurface Structure of the Sevier Desert Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernicke, B.; Axen, G. J.

    2007-12-01

    The eastern Sevier front is commonly overprinted by west-dipping normal faults that have been active through much of Cenozoic time. Although examples of disparate age and geometry abound, the Sevier Desert detachment stands out as being: (1) a very large, low-angle structure, (2) probably still active, and (3) at drillable depth, and hence is a prime target for scientific drilling. Among the closest surface-exposed analogs of the detachment are the Miocene Mormon Peak and Tule Springs detachments in southern Nevada, about 250 km SSW of the Sevier Desert. In both areas, the detachments developed within a few km of the basal Sevier thrust. The few traces of the southern Nevada detachments that were identified by reconnaissance mapping in the 1950s were first interpreted as underlying "rootless" gravity-slide masses. Detailed stratigraphic and structural mapping in the 1980s revealed the full extent of these detachments and their close relationship to the basal Sevier thrust. Construction and retrodeformation of cross sections through the two detachments demonstrated that neither fault could represent the base of a surficial slide mass. The key field relationship is the structural contiguity of the hanging walls of the detachments with large mountain range blocks in their down-dip directions. "Rootless" gravity-driven masses of equivalent or larger scale are widely documented, and in contrast to the southern Nevada detachments show clear evidence along their down-dip portions of either riding over the earth's surface (e.g. Heart Mountain, WY; Shadow Valley, CA) or having been internally shortened (e.g. Bearpaw Mountains, MT; Louisiana shelf). A rootless slide origin for the Mormon Peak detachment has been revived based on meso- and microstructural analysis of the fault surface (refs. 1, 2, and 3), but the hypothesis still fails the retrodeformation test at macroscopic scale. The retrodefomed sections indicate that the footwalls of the southern Nevada detachments expose a paleodepth range from near-surface conditions to more than 7 km, which will be useful for comparison with microstructures that are encountered along the Sevier Desert detachment where it is sampled at depth. 1: Carpenter et al., 1989, Geology 17, p. 774; 2: Anders et al., 2006, J. Geol 114, p. 645; 3: Walker et al., 2007, Geology 35, p. 259.

  13. 8. Photocopy of photograph (original print from ChattanoogaHamilton County Bicentennial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of photograph (original print from Chattanooga-Hamilton County Bicentennial Library). ca. 1933, photographer unknown VIEW OF STREETSCAPE LOOKING NORTH - Trigg, Dobbs & Company Warehouse, 1152 Market Street, Chattanooga, Hamilton County, TN

  14. AIDS control: TN may show the way.

    PubMed

    1999-04-19

    The successful experiences of Tamil Nadu (TN) in the control and prevention of HIV/AIDS provides vital clues for the second phase of the Rs. 1,150-crore World Bank-funded national AIDS control program which will begin in July. The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) is looking at TN for concrete answers in several areas before it composes its guidelines for the second phase. Key areas of focus in the second phase will be high-risk groups, control of STDs, people living with AIDS, communication structures and blood safety. NACO and the funding agency has been impressed by TNs method of mobilizing NGOs in the massive anti-HIV/AIDS campaign and its handling of the cost of the care. In addition to the Tamil Nadu State AIDS Control Society (TNSACS), the AIDS Prevention and Control Project of the Voluntary Health Services (supported by USAID) also contributed to the impressive performance of this State. PMID:12179548

  15. Laserprobe 40Ar/39Ar Dating Of Strain Fringes: An Example From The Interior Of The Sevier Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, M. L.; Spell, T. L.; Hoisch, T. D.; Arriola, T.; Zanetti, K. A.

    2008-12-01

    Determining the absolute ages of deformation fabrics in metamorphic rocks is critical to understanding the nature of orogenesis in deeply exhumed ancient mountain belts. In situ isotopic analysis of fibrous strain fringes is particularly advantageous because the relationships between the analyzed mineral, deformation fabric, and isotopic age can be established, and mineral growth can be linked to the progressive strain history. Furthermore, when isotopic closure temperatures (Tc) are higher than crystallization temperatures, isotopic ages reflect deformation ages. We have applied in situ 40Ar/39Ar UV and CO2 laser techniques to dating phlogopite in quartz-phlogopite-calcite and muscovite in quartz-muscovite fibrous strain fringes in greenschist-facies metamorphic rocks from the Grouse Creek Mountains (Utah) and Black Pine Mountains (Idaho). In both cases, syntectonic mica growth occurred below the minerals Tc. Phlogopite 40Ar/39Ar ages for individual strain fringes in the Grouse Creek Mountains range from 92 Ma to 110 Ma, with the most reliable ages ranging from 101 Ma to 110 Ma (mean age, 105.0 plus or minus 5.8 Ma). Muscovite 40Ar/39Ar ages for individual strain fringes in the Black Pine Mountains range from 97 Ma to 112 Ma (mean age, 104.7 plus or minus 5.8 Ma). Strain fringes are associated with a sub-horizontal foliation and a generally N-trending elongation lineation exhibiting components of top-to-the-north simple shear and coaxial strain accommodating N-S extension and sub-vertical shortening. The new dates confirm prior correlation of fabrics between these ranges and yield a mid-Cretaceous age for the earliest ductile fabric preserved in the Raft River-Albion-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex, in the interior (hinterland) of the retroarc Sevier orogenic belt. Mid-crustal northward flow at 105 (plus or minus 6) Ma within the interior of the Sevier orogen, coeval with east-directed shortening in the foreland and with plate convergence, records orogen-parallel synconvergent extension. Gravitational relaxation of structural culminations resulting from focused crustal shortening may be the driving mechanism for orogen-parallel flow.

  16. Tn5060 from the Siberian permafrost is most closely related to the ancestor of Tn21 prior to integron acquisition.

    PubMed

    Kholodii, Gennady; Mindlin, Sofia; Petrova, Mayya; Minakhina, Svetlana

    2003-09-26

    A Tn21-related mercury resistance transposon, Tn5060, has been isolated from Pseudomonas sp. strain A19-1 from a 8,000-10,000-year-old Siberian permafrost sample, and sequenced. Like Tn21, the element transposes to different plasmids at a frequency of 10(-2)-10(-3) per target plasmid transfer. Comparison of the complete Tn5060 DNA sequence (8,667 bp) with that of Tn21 (19,672 bp) shows that Tn5060 does not contain integron In2 and deviates from Tn21 in four nucleotide positions. These and other comparative data demonstrate that Tn5060 is the most closely related of the characterized mercury resistances to the as yet hypothetical immediate ancestor of Tn21, TnX. PMID:14553919

  17. 76 FR 29286 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00054

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00054 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite...

  18. 76 FR 20433 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00048

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00048 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is a an amendment of the Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Tennessee... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  19. 76 FR 19515 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00050

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite...

  20. 77 FR 51100 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00068

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00068 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of TENNESSEE dated. 08/16... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  1. 76 FR 29284 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00055

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00055 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street,...

  2. 78 FR 48762 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00076

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00076 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Application Deadline Date: 05/02/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small...

  3. 75 FR 26814 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Tennessee (FEMA- 1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding,...

  4. 77 FR 17560 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00063

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00063 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-4060... (Economic Injury Loans Only): Tennessee: Bledsoe, Blount, Campbell, Cannon, Clay, Fentress,...

  5. 76 FR 27138 - Tennessee Disaster # TN-00052

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Tennessee (FEMA- 1974-DR), dated 05/01/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes,...

  6. 76 FR 52043 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00056

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00056 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Tennessee dated 08/12...: Tennessee: Campbell, Grainger, Hancock, Union. Kentucky: Bell, Whitley. Virginia: Lee. The Interest...

  7. 76 FR 45309 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00058

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00058 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Tennessee (FEMA- 4005-DR), dated 07/20/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Straight-line...

  8. 75 FR 57997 - Tennessee Disaster # TN-00043

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00043 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Tennessee (FEMA- 1937-DR), dated 09/15/2010. Incident: Severe Storms and Flooding....

  9. Neotectonics of the Sevier Desert basin, Utah as seen through the lens of multi-scale geophysical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, John H.; Nelson, Stephen T.; Heiner, Brandon D.; Tingey, David G.; Morris, Thomas H.; Rey, Kevin A.

    2015-07-01

    Geophysical surveys conducted in the Clear Lake fault zone (Utah) constrain the interpretation of neotectonics and volcanism along a portion of the Colorado Plateau-Basin-and-Range Transition Zone. The fault zone lies within the Sevier Desert, a region marked by numerous Quaternary fault scarps and bimodal volcanism. Lavas as young as 660 a B.P. are usually cut by faults, and many scarps have significant offsets implying the potential for M 7 + earthquakes. The range of scarp heights and uncertainty in scarp-magnitude regressions suggest variations on the order of 0.75 moment magnitude units. In order to characterize the range of deformation styles in the Clear Lake fault zone, three fault scarps were investigated for their patterns of shallow (< 1 km depth) deformation. A suite of methods, including seismic P- and SH-wave surveys, ground-penetrating radar, auger holes, and surface geological mapping produces a more complete view of near-surface Quaternary deformation. Sub-surface faults are expressed as scarps at the ground surface, but with differing tectonic styles: (1) growth strata in the hanging wall of a fault imply aseismic creep; (2) buried lavas draped over buried paleo-scarps indicate multiple slip events; and (3) a complex fault zone is expressed as ramps that step-over from one scarp to another. On a larger scale, the results bear directly on estimating seismic and volcanic hazards. In one locality, evidence of aseismic creep suggests hazard is lower than that inferred from the exposed scarp height or length. By contrast, multiple slip events at other locations indicate that hazards could be underestimated if scarps are assumed to represent single slip events. Finally, the intimate spatial association of Quaternary volcanic vents and faults implies that volcanic and seismic hazards are interrelated, both resulting from crustal extension where eruptive events exploited faults as conduits in the shallow crust.

  10. Paleogeographic and paleotectonic setting of sedimentary basins in the Sevier thrust belt and hinterland, eastern Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J.G. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Vandervoort, D.S. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Suydam, J.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The eastern Great Basin contains a sparse record of broadly distributed Cretaceous sedimentary rocks which record: evolution of intermontane basins during development of the Sevier (Sv)contractional orogen and incipient extensional collapse of the elevated Sv hinterland (east-central NV), and complex tectono-sedimentary interactions between frontal thrust belt structures and the western margin of the adjacent foreland basin. Palinspastic restoration of these strata and associated structures to pre-Tertiary extension positions reveals a clearer pictures of Cretaceous basin paleogeography and allows comparison with the Puna/Altiplano plateau and precordillera thrust belt of the Neogene Andean orogen. Two syntectonic stratal assemblages are present in east-central NV. Lower Cretaceous alluvial strata (Newark Canyon Fm) record basin development coeval with emergence of contractional structures in the Sv hinterland. Localized early Cretaceous basins were possibly piggyback immature; periods of open drainage to the to the east and south suggest connection with the nascent Sv foreland basin to the east (Cedar Mountain/Sanpete Fms) prior to major thrust loading in central Utah. Development of hinterland structures is almost recorded by Aptian-Albian foreland basin alluvial deposits in SW Utah (Dakota Fm) and southern Nevada (Willow Tank Fm). Upper Cretaceous to Eocene strata (Sheep Pass Fm) record inception of regionally abundant alluvial-lacustrine basins which developed in response to onset of latest Cretaceous extension and associated collapse of the Sv hinterland. Evolution of the structurally complex western margin of the Sv foreland basin is recorded in Cretaceous through Eocene strata deposited in: piggyback basins which were at times hydrologically connected to the adjacent foreland basins, and thrust-proximal portions of the foreland basin. These proximal areas are characterized by folding and faulting of basin fill and development of intrabasinal unconformities.

  11. ATP-dependent specific binding of Tn3 transposase to Tn3 inverted repeats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wishart, W. L.; Broach, J. R.; Ohtsubo, E.

    1985-04-01

    Transposons are discrete segments of DNA which are capable of moving from one site in a genome to many different sites1,2. Tn3 is a prokaryotic transposon which is 4,957 base pairs (bp) long and encodes a transposase protein which is essential for transposition3-7. We report here a simple method for purifying Tn3 transposase and demonstrate that the transposase protein binds specifically to the ends of the Tn3 transposon in an ATP-dependent manner. The transposase protein binds to linear double-stranded DNA both nonspecifically and specifically; the nonspecific DNA binding activity is sensitive to challenge with heparin. Site-specific DNA binding to the ends (inverted repeats) of Tn3 is observed only when binding is performed in the presence of ATP; this ATP-dependent site-specific DNA binding activity is resistant to heparin challenge. Our results indicate that ATP qualitatively alters the DNA binding activity of the transposase protein so that the protein is able to bind specifically to the ends of the Tn3 transposon.

  12. First intercomparison of Tn-Rn discriminative measurements in China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, S; Xiao, D; Liu, L

    2008-01-01

    The intercomparison measurements with Tn-Rn discriminative monitor were conducted at the Radon Laboratory of Nanhua University. The intercomparison results indicates that the Tn-Rn discrimination of most monitors (including the solid-state nuclear track detector of participant A and participant B, continuous monitors of RAD7 and RTM2100) keeps well in a wide range of the ratio of Tn to Rn. There are great differences of Tn measurement results among RAD7, RTM2100 and reference instrument. The discussion on the reason of these differences reveals the necessity of improvement on monitor calibration, Tn source make and the necessity of more international intercomparisons. PMID:17526483

  13. Licensing the TN-40 at Prairie Island

    SciTech Connect

    Kapitz, J.; McCarten, L. )

    1991-11-01

    Northern States Power Company (SNP) is currently in the process of licensing an independent spent-fuel storage installation (ISFSI) at its Prairie Island nuclear generating plant. The proposed facility would utilize the TN-40 dry-metal storage casks, each holding 40 Prairie Island spent-fuel assemblies. The ISFSI consists of two concrete pads with a combined capacity of 48 casks for a total capacity of 1,920 fuel assemblies. In addition to a 10CRF72 license from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), a certificate of need from the Minnesota Public Utilities Commission is required by state law.

  14. The Drinfeld double gl(n) ? tn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, A.; Celeghini, E.; del Olmo, M. A.

    2006-07-01

    We present a self-dual Drinfeld double structure underlying the An series of simple Lie algebras. Such double is constructed through a central extension tn of gl(n), and is obtained by pairing two disjoint solvable subalgebras coming from positive and negative roots. The Cartan-Weyl basis of gl(n) is shown to be completely determined by the compatibility conditions in the double. A natural Lie bialgebra structure on gl(n) is obtained that offers a new perspective for the construction of its quantum deformations.

  15. An Early Cretaceous garnet pressure-temperature path recording synconvergent burial and exhumation from the hinterland of the Sevier orogenic belt, Albion Mountains, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Eric D.; Hoisch, Thomas D.; Wells, Michael L.; Vervoort, Jeffrey D.; Beyene, Mengesha A.

    2015-08-01

    Rocks may undergo complex pressure-temperature ( P- T) histories during orogenesis in response to alternating episodes of synconvergent burial and exhumation. In this study, chemical zoning in garnets combined with textural and chemical evidence from the schist of Willow Creek in the Albion Mountains of south-central Idaho (USA), reveals a complex P- T path during the early stages of Sevier orogenesis. The distribution of quartz inclusions combined with internal resorption features establishes a hiatus in garnet growth. Chemical zoning was simulated using a G-minimization approach to yield a P- T path consisting of three distinct pressure changes during increasing temperature, defining an "N" shape. Lu-Hf isochron ages from multiple garnet fractions and whole-rock analyses in two samples are 132.1 2.4 and 138.7 3.5 Ma. The samples were collected from the hanging wall of the Basin-Elba thrust fault and yielded results similar to those previously obtained from the footwall. This leads to several conclusions: (1) Both the hanging wall and footwall experienced the same metamorphic event, (2) the paths document a previously unrecognized crustal thickening and synorogenic extension cycle that fills an important time gap in the shortening history of the Sevier retroarc, suggesting progressive eastward growth of the orogen rather than a two-stage history, and (3) episodes of extensional exhumation during protracted convergent orogenesis are increasingly well recognized and highlight the dynamic behavior of orogenic belts.

  16. Structural relationships and lithologic deformation partitioning of the Sevier, Laramide, Mid-Tertiary and Basin and Range deformations in the High Plateaus of southwestern Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelsen, R.P. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    A Mid-Tertiary horizontal compression, verging radially toward Az 120 to 215 and extending E-W for 90 km across the High Plateaus of SW Utah, was driven by intrusions and/or gravitational spreading of the Marysvale volcanic field, 40-60 km to the north. Structures of this deformation overprint a NNW trending Laramide monocline on the east, and are overprinted by NNE trending Basin and Range extensional structures. To the west at the Sevier deformation front, Mid-Tertiary compressional structures are directed Az 205, but no Sevier foreland deformation was found. Small scale structures of the Laramide, Mid-Tertiary, and Basin and Range deformations are partitioned lithologically in four rock types of different properties: (1) Friable Cretaceous sands contain Laramide and Mid-Tertiary conjugate compressional sand shear wedges or Laramide and Basin and Range conjugate, extensional sand shears; (2) Calcareous Cretaceous sandstones or Eocene Claron Fm limestones contain both conjugate compressional wedge faults and strike-slip faults; (3) spaced dissolution cleavage occurs only in Claron limestones; (4) cretaceous coals contain Mid-Tertiary joints (cleat) at distal locations. A Mid-Tertiary layer-parallel strain gradient toward the SE-S-SSW is marked by deformation fronts in the four rock types where conjugate faults, spaced cleavage, sand shears and joints in coal successively disappear.

  17. Challenges in Antibody Development against Tn and Sialyl-Tn Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Liliana R.; Carrascal, Mylène A.; Barbas, Ana; Ramalho, José S.; Novo, Carlos; Delannoy, Philippe; Videira, Paula A.

    2015-01-01

    The carbohydrate antigens Tn and sialyl-Tn (STn) are expressed in most carcinomas and usually absent in healthy tissues. These antigens have been correlated with cancer progression and poor prognosis, and associated with immunosuppressive microenvironment. Presently they are used in clinical trials as therapeutic vaccination, but with limited success due to their low immunogenicity. Alternatively, anti-Tn and/or STn antibodies may be used to harness the immune system against tumor cells. Whilst the development of antibodies against these antigens had a boost two decades ago for diagnostic use, so far no such antibody entered into clinical trials. Possible limitations are the low specificity and efficiency of existing antibodies and that novel antibodies are still necessary. The vast array of methodologies available today will allow rapid antibody development and novel formats. Following the advent of hybridoma technology, the immortalization of human B cells became a methodology to obtain human monoclonal antibodies with better specificity. Advances in molecular biology including phage display technology for high throughput screening, transgenic mice and more recently molecularly engineered antibodies enhanced the field of antibody production. The development of novel antibodies against Tn and STn taking advantage of innovative technologies and engineering techniques may result in innovative therapeutic antibodies for cancer treatment. PMID:26270678

  18. Reinterpretation of relationships among Keystone thrust, Red Springs thrust, contact thrust, and Cottonwood fault, Clark County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, V. III

    1985-05-01

    The basin-range and Sevier tectonic events are well-documented in Clark County, Nevada. Other tectonic events have been interpreted from structural relationships in the Spring Mountains. These include an early thrust-faulting event and a high-angle faulting event that occurred between emplacement of the early thrust and emplacement of the Keystone thrust. The results of this study indicate that there was not an early thrust event nor was there high-angle faulting prior to the Sevier deformational event. The Cottonwood fault and the Contact thrust in the Spring Mountains are interpreted here as a lateral ramp and floor thrust beneath a duplex fault zone. The Keystone thrust forms the roof thrust for the duplex fault zone that bows up the upper plate of the Keystone thrust. The Red Springs thrust is interpreted as the Keystone thrust, which was broken and differentially rotated during Neogene oroclinal bending associated with the Las Vegas shear zone. The structural relationships in the Spring Mountains do not require any Mesozoic or Cenozoic deformational episodes other than the well-known Sevier and basin-range events.

  19. Structural and microstructural evolution of the Rattlesnake Mountain Anticline (Wyoming, USA): New insights into the Sevier and Laramide orogenic stress build-up in the Bighorn Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Nicolas; Leprtre, Rmi; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Lacombe, Olivier; Amrouch, Khalid; Callot, Jean-Paul; Emmanuel, Laurent; Daniel, Jean-Marc

    2012-11-01

    The Rocky Mountains in western US provide among the best examples of thick-skinned tectonics: following a period of thin-skinned tectonics related to the Sevier orogeny, the compressional reactivation of basement faults gave birth to the so-called Laramide uplifts/arches. The Bighorn basin, located in Wyoming, is therefore a key place to study the transition from thin- to thick-skinned tectonics in orogenic forelands, especially in terms of microstructural and stress/strain evolution. Our study focuses on a classic Laramide structure: the Rattlesnake Mountain Anticline (RMA, Wyoming, USA), a basement-cored anticline located in the western part of the Bighorn basin. Stress and strain evolution analysis in folded sedimentary layers and underlying faulted basement rocks were performed on the basis of combined analyses of fractures, fault-slip data and calcite twinning paleopiezometry. Most of the fractures are related to three main tectonic events: the Sevier thin-skinned contraction, the Laramide thick-skinned contraction, and the Basin and Range extension. Serial balanced cross-sections of RMA and displacement profiles suggest that all thrust faults were coeval, evidencing strain distribution in the basement during faulting. The comparison of RMA with another structure located in the eastern edge of the Bighorn basin, i.e. the Sheep Mountain Anticline (SMA), allows to propose a conceptual model for the geometric and kinematic evolution of Laramide-related basement-cored anticlines. Finally, the stress evolution is reconstructed at both the fold scale and the basin scale. We show that the evolution of stress trends and magnitudes was quite similar in both structures (RMA and SMA) during Laramide times (thick-skinned tectonics), in spite of different stress regimes. During Sevier (thin-skinned tectonics) and post-Laramide times, stress trends and fracture patterns were different in these two structures. These results suggest that the distance to the orogenic front influenced the fracture patterns but not the foreland stress magnitudes, which were likely controlled by the structural style.

  20. 76 FR 55232 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Copperhill, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Airspace at Copperhill, TN, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... the controlled airspace required to ] accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning... Class E airspace at Copperhill, TN (76 FR 35370) Docket No. FAA-2011-0402. Interested parties...

  1. 48 CFR 1201.301-72 - TAC or TN numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TAC or TN numbering. 1201... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-72 TAC or TN numbering. TACs and TNs will be numbered consecutively on a fiscal year basis beginning with number 01...

  2. 48 CFR 1201.301-72 - TAC or TN numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false TAC or TN numbering. 1201... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-72 TAC or TN numbering. TACs and TNs will be numbered consecutively on a fiscal year basis beginning with number 01...

  3. [Spatial distribution pattern of soil nitrogen in croplands at county scale and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Pang, Su; Li, Ting-Xuan; Wang, Yong-Dong; Yu, Hai-Ying; Huang, Di

    2010-06-01

    By using geostatistics and GIS, this paper studied the spatial distribution of soil nitrogen in the croplands in Shuangliu County of Sichuan Province, China, and analyzed the related affecting factors. There was a moderate spatial correlation between the contents of total nitrogen (TN) and available nitrogen (AN) in the cropland soils, and the spatial correlation distance was 15480 m for TN and 26980 m for AN. The regions with higher soil TN content were mainly in the north of the County, i. e., Jiujiang and Xinxing towns, while those with lower soil TN content were mainly in the southeast of the County, i. e., Hejiang and Sanxing towns. The soil AN content decreased obviously from north to south. The TN and AN contents in the soils developed from grey alluvium were significantly higher than those developed from purplish rock saprolith and old alluvium. Paddy soil had significantly higher contents of TN and AN than yellow soil and purple soil. Terrain condition affected the soil TN and AN contents to different degree, and hilly region had the lowest contents of soil TN and AN. Paddy fields had significantly higher contents of soil TN and AN, compared with dryland and orchards; and the regions with higher soil nitrogen content were applied with obviously higher amount of N fertilizer, compared to the regions with lower soil nitrogen content. PMID:20873626

  4. The catalytic residues of Tn3 resolvase

    PubMed Central

    Olorunniji, Femi J.; Stark, W. Marshall

    2009-01-01

    To characterize the residues that participate in the catalysis of DNA cleavage and rejoining by the site-specific recombinase Tn3 resolvase, we mutated conserved polar or charged residues in the catalytic domain of an activated resolvase variant. We analysed the effects of mutations at 14 residues on proficiency in binding to the recombination site (‘site I’), formation of a synaptic complex between two site Is, DNA cleavage and recombination. Mutations of Y6, R8, S10, D36, R68 and R71 resulted in greatly reduced cleavage and recombination activity, suggesting crucial roles of these six residues in catalysis, whereas mutations of the other residues had less dramatic effects. No mutations strongly inhibited binding of resolvase to site I, but several caused conspicuous changes in the yield or stability of the synapse of two site Is observed by non-denaturing gel electrophoresis. The involvement of some residues in both synapsis and catalysis suggests that they contribute to a regulatory mechanism, in which engagement of catalytic residues with the substrate is coupled to correct assembly of the synapse. PMID:19789272

  5. 14. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Place of a thousand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Place of a thousand drips, view with three culvert pipes. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. Molecular Determinants of Cardiac Myocyte Performance as Conferred by Isoform-Specific TnI Residues

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, BrianR.; Houang, EvelyneM.; Sham, YukY.; Metzger, JosephM.

    2014-01-01

    Troponin I (TnI) is the molecular switch of the sarcomere. Cardiac myocytes express two isoforms of TnI during development. The fetal heart expresses the slow skeletal TnI (ssTnI) isoform and shortly after birth ssTnI is completely and irreversibly replaced by the adult cardiac TnI (cTnI) isoform. These two isoforms have important functional differences; broadly, ssTnI is a positive inotrope, especially under acidic/hypoxic conditions, whereas cTnI facilitates faster relaxation performance. Evolutionary directed changes in cTnI sequence suggest cTnI evolved to favor relaxation performance in the mammalian heart. To investigate the mechanism, we focused on several notable TnI isoform and trans-species-specific residues located in TnIs helix 4 using structure/function and molecular dynamics analyses. Gene transduction of adult cardiac myocytes by cTnIs with specific helix 4 ssTnI substitutions, Q157R/A164H/E166V/H173N (QAEH), and A164H/H173N (AH), were investigated. cTnI QAEH is similar in these four residues to ssTnI and nonmammalian chordate cTnIs, whereas cTnI AH is similar to fish cTnI in these four residues. In comparison to mammalian cTnI, cTnI QAEH and cTnI AH showed increased contractility and slowed relaxation, which functionally mimicked ssTnI expressing myocytes. cTnI QAEH molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated altered intermolecular interactions between TnI helix 4 and cTnC helix A, specifically revealing a new, to our knowledge, electrostatic interaction between R171of cTnI and E15 of cTnC, which structurally phenocopied the ssTnI conformation. Free energy perturbation calculation of cTnC Ca2+ binding for these conformations showed relative increased calcium binding for cTnI QAEH compared to cTnI. Taken together, to our knowledge, these new findings provide evidence that the evolutionary-directed coordinated acquisition of residues Q157, A164, E166, H173 facilitate enhanced relaxation performance in mammalian adult cardiac myocytes. PMID:24853739

  7. 76 FR 33656 - Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN AGENCY: Federal Communications... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video...

  8. 76 FR 14855 - Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Kevin R....

  9. Magnitude, Timing, and Geometry of Extension in the Southern Sevier Desert Basin From Piercing Points, Seismic-Stratigraphic Reconstruction, and Deep well Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coogan, J. C.; Decelles, P. G.

    2007-12-01

    Palinspastic reconstruction of Mesozoic thrust sheets provides the main constraint for an estimated 47 km of Cenozoic extensional displacement along the Sevier Desert detachment (SDD) in the central Sevier Desert Basin. Hanging wall and footwall piercing points indicate that the SDD accommodated a minimum of 35 km of extensional displacement in the narrower southern part of the basin. The piercing points for the SDD are defined by the intersection of the SDD, the Canyon Range thrust (CRT), and a regional early Cenozoic erosion surface (ES). The hanging wall piercing point lies immediately northeast of the Cricket Mountains, where the SDD-CRT- ES intersection is narrowly defined by intersecting structure maps derived from published seismic reflection data. The footwall piercing point lies in the southern foothills of the Canyon Range, where the SDD breakaway plane is well constrained by an industry seismic line that lies within 2 km of the exposed intersection of the CRT with the base of the Oligocene Oak City Formation. Timing of extension in the southern Sevier Desert basin is constrained by a kinematic reconstruction of detachment and imbricate fault displacement, footwall uplift, and supradetachment sedimentation for Oligocene, Miocene, and Plio-Pleistocene seismic sequences. The reconstruction is centered on a seismic reflection and gravity interpretation along the published Pan Canadian profiles 2 and 3 that is tied to dated intervals in six industry wells. Fault restoration indicates that Oligocene and Miocene phases of slip each accounted for about 40 percent of the total displacement. Simultaneous backstripping of the Oligocene, Miocene, and Plio-Pleistocene supradetachment sequences records hanging wall subsidence simultaneous with footwall uplift, with a footwall burial history that is consistent with published Miocene apatite and zircon fission-track ages of footwall samples. The geometric evolution of the southern SDD extensional system is consistent with its development above a broad westward-migrating "rolling hinge" zone associated with isostatic uplift of the detachment footwall. Hanging wall normal faults east of the footwall crest exhibit small post-Miocene displacement, with demonstrable Quaternary slip restricted to the crest and western limb of the uplift, most notably along the Black Rock and Clear Lake fault zones. Early abandonment of the eastern part of the detachment may explain the indistinct geomorphic and structural expression of the break-away zone at the surface. The deepest level of the southern SDD also presents a complex geometry and kinematic history. The 1996 Chevron 1-29 Black Rock Federal well through the western basin margin penetrated a normal fault that places Jurassic over lower Cambrian strata at 4650 m measured depth, well above the principal SDD seismic reflection. The fault is not correlated to any large- displacement high-angle fault at shallow levels, and may form the abandoned roof to an extensional duplex.

  10. 77 FR 61653 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Smyrna-Rutherford County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... Smyrna-Rutherford County Airport, Smyrna, TN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... the release of land at the Smyrna-Rutherford County Airport, Smyrna, Tennessee. This property... review at the Smyrna--Rutherford County Airport, 278 Doug Warpoole Road, Smyrna, Tennessee 37167 and...

  11. Structural and Kinetic Effects of PAK3 phosphorylation mimic of cTnI(S151E) on the cTnC-cTnI Interaction in the Cardiac Thin Filament

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Yexin; Mamidi, Ranganath; Jayasundar, Jayant James; Chandra, Murali; Dong, Wen-Ji

    2010-01-01

    Residue Ser151 of cTnI is known to be phosphorylated by p21-activated kinase 3 (PAK3). It has been found that PAK3-mediated phosphorylation of cTnI induces an increase in myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity, but the detailed mechanism is unknown. We investigated how the structural and kinetic effects mediated by pseudo-phosphorylation of cTnI (S151E) modulates Ca2+-induced activation of cardiac thin filaments. Using steady-state, time-resolved Frster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) and stopped-flow kinetic measurements, we monitored Ca2+-induced changes in cTnI-cTnC interactions. Measurements were done using reconstituted thin filaments, which contained the pseudo-phosphorylated cTnI(S151E). We hypothesized that the thin filament regulation is modulated by altered cTnC-cTnI interactions due to charge modification caused by the phosphorylation of Ser151 in cTnI. Our results showed that the pseudo-phosphorylation of cTnI (S151E) sensitizes structural changes to Ca2+ by shortening the intersite distances between cTnC and cTnI. Furthermore, kinetic rates of Ca2+ dissociation-induced structural change in the regulatory region of cTnI were significantly reduced by cTnI (S151E). The aforementioned effects of pseudo-phosphorylation of cTnI were similar to the effects of strong crossbridges on structural changes in cTnI. Our results provide novel information on how cardiac thin filament regulation is modulated by PAK3 phosphorylation of cTnI. PMID:20540949

  12. From Source to Sink: Exhumation of the North America Cordillera Revealed by Multi-dating of Detrital Minerals from Upper Jurassic-Upper Cretaceous Sevier Foreland Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, C. S.; Carrapa, B.; DeCelles, P. G.; Gehrels, G. E.; Thomson, S. N.

    2013-12-01

    We sampled twenty-two Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous syn-orogenic conglomerate clasts in proximal units in the Sevier fold-thrust belt and their distal sandstone equivalents up to 300 km east of the thrust front, in Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and South Dakota. To better constrain depositional ages, these samples were analyzed using detrital zircon U-Pb (DZ U-Pb) geochronology. To identify a thermochronometer that measures source exhumation in the North America Cordillera, both zircon (U-Th)/He and apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology was utilized, on both the conglomerate cobbles and sandstone (detrital) samples. Eleven samples were analyzed with zircon (U-Th)/He; however, discordant ages in the conglomerate cobble samples suggest that this system was not fully reset and never experienced T> ~180 C in the source stratigraphy during the Sevier orogeny. Eleven other samples are analyzed using apatite fission track thermochronology (AFT); AFT ages are generally similar or older than depositional ages indicating that the detrital ages record source exhumation signals, and that exhumation depth corresponds to T>~120 C. In order to test whether or not the youngest cooling AFT age population represents a source exhumation signal or a co-magmatic signal we here performed double dating of the detrital AFT samples using apatite U-Pb thermochronology. Maximum depositional ages using DZ U-Pb match existing age controls on basin stratigraphy. Our study shows that AFT is an effective thermochronometer to detect source exhumation for Cretaceous foreland stratigraphy in the western U.S.A. Lag-times (i.e. the difference between the source exhumation age and depositional age) are ~0 to 5 Myr with relatively steady-state to slightly increasing exhumation rates suggesting orogenic growth at this time. The very short lag times also indicate limited to no storage time between source and sink. The AFT lag time of the Early Cretaceous Kelvin Formation is ~5 Myr and represents a time when the Canyon Range Thrust was active to the southwest. Upper Cretaceous units have an approximate lag time of 0 Myr, during a time when the Willard, Crawford, Medicine Butte and Absaroka Thrust systems were active to the west. These lag-time measurements correspond to exhumation rates of ~0.8 mm/yr to >>1 mm/yr.

  13. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in southwestern Arkansas counties, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Offices in the following southwestern Arkansas counties: Bradley, Calhoun, Clark, Cleveland, Columbia, Dallas, Garland, Grant, Hempstead, Hot Spring, Howard, Little River, Montgomery, Nevada, Ouachita, Pike, Polk, Saline, Sevier, and Union. The number of withdrawal registrations for southwestern Arkansas counties was 132 (31 groundwater and 101 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 0.84 Mgal/d (none from groundwater and 0.84 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 14.22 Mgal/d (1.64 Mgal/d groundwater and 12.58 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 8,455 acres of land to irrigate rice, corn, sorghum, soybeans, cotton, cash grains, vegetables, sod, berries, fruit trees, timber, shrubs, and nuts as well as for the agricultural use of animal aquaculture.

  14. Deformation along a salient-transverse zone junction: An example from the Leamington transverse zone, Utah, Sevier fold-thrust belt (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismat, Zeshan; Toeneboehn, Kevin

    2015-06-01

    Within fold-thrust belts, the junctions between salients and recesses may hold critical clues to the overall kinematic history of fold-thrust belts. The deformation history within these junctions is best preserved in areas where thrust sheets extend from a salient through an adjacent recess. We examine one such junction within the Sevier fold-thrust belt (western United States) along the Leamington transverse zone, northern Utah. The Canyon Range thrust sheet can be traced continuously from the Leamington transverse zone to its adjacent salient to the south, the Central Utah segment. Deformation within the Canyon Range thrust sheet took place by faulting and cataclastic flow. Analyses of these fault networks preserved throughout the Canyon Range thrust sheet are used to develop a kinematic history of the Leamington transverse zone. Field data is supplemented by analog sandbox experiments. This study suggests that, in detail, deformation within the overlying thrust sheet may not directly reflect the underlying basement structure. Moreover, these junctions may contain several types of accommodating structures that helped to maintain critical-taper and that serve as potential targets for natural resource exploration.

  15. Transposon mutagenesis in Desulfovibrio desulfuricans: Development of a random mutagenesis tool from Tn7

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, J.D.; Murnan, T.; Argyle, J.

    1996-10-01

    The transposons Tn5, Tn7, Tn9, and Tn10 or their derivatives have been examined for transposition in the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20. Tn7 inserted with a frequency of 10{sup {minus}4} to 10{sup {minus}3} into a unique attachment site that shows strong homology with those sites identified in other gram-negative bacteria. Inactivation of the tnsD gene in Tn7, encoding the function directing insertion into the unique site, yielded a derivative that transposed essentially randomly with a frequency of ca. 10{sup {minus}6} per donor. Derivatives of Tn5, but not wild-type Tn5, were also found to undergo random transposition at a similar frequency. No evidence was obtained for transposition of Tn9 or Tn10. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Creation of Staphylococcal Mutant Libraries Using Transposon Tn917.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kelly C

    2016-01-01

    Non-directed mutagenesis of the staphylococcal genome is a global approach that can be used to identify the genetic basis for phenotypes of interest as well as for identifying regulators of gene expression. One such approach that has been widely used in the study of S. aureus and S. epidermidis is transposon Tn917 mutagenesis to generate random libraries of mutants. This chapter describes the use of plasmid pLTV1 (containing Tn917-lac) to generate Tn917 transposon mutants. Through the use of temperature manipulation and antibiotic selection, staphylococcal strains harboring this plasmid can be effectively mutagenized to create random libraries amenable to subsequent phenotypic screening and identification of transposon insertion sites. PMID:25646610

  17. Geologic Map of the Pahranagat Range 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Lincoln and Nye Counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Pahranagat Range 30' x 60' quadrangle lies within an arid, sparsely populated part of Lincoln and Nye Counties, southeastern Nevada. Much of the area is public land that includes the Desert National Wildlife Range, the Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and the Nellis Air Force Base. The topography, typical of much of the Basin and Range Province, consists of north-south-trending ranges and intervening broad alluvial valleys. Elevations range from about 1,000 to 2,900 m. At the regional scale, the Pahranagat Range quadrangle lies within the Mesozoic and early Tertiary Sevier Fold-and-Thrust Belt and the Cenozoic Basin and Range Province. The quadrangle is underlain by a Proterozoic to Permian miogeoclinal section, a nonmarine clastic and volcanic section of middle Oligocene or older to late Miocene age, and alluvial deposits of late Cenozoic age. The structural features that are exposed reflect relatively shallow crustal deformation. Mesozoic deformation is dominated by thrust faults and asymmetric or open folds. Cenozoic deformation is dominated by faults that dip more than 45i and dominostyle tilted blocks. At least three major tectonic events have affected the area: Mesozoic (Sevier) folding and thrust faulting, pre-middle Oligocene extensional deformation, and late Cenozoic (mainly late Miocene to Holocene) extensional deformation. Continued tectonic activity is expressed in the Pahranagat Range area by seismicity and faults having scarps that cut alluvial deposits.

  18. 76 FR 36166 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office U.S. SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and...

  19. Cytochrome Mutants of Bradyrhizobium Induced by Transposon Tn5 1

    PubMed Central

    Nautiyal, Chandra S.; van Berkum, Peter; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Keister, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Transposon Tn5 was used to mutate Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 61N. From over 5000 clones containing Tn5, 12 were selected and purified using a chemical reaction to identify oxidase-deficient clones. Four classes of mutants were identified based on the alterations in cytochromes. Most of the mutants had alterations in more than one cytochrome. Southern hybridization analysis of restricted genomic DNA of a representative strain of each class demonstrated that each mutant had a single Tn5 insert. Thus a single Tn5 insert produced pleiotropic effects on cytochromes. One class, which was totally deficient in cytochromes aa3 and c, produced ineffective nodules on soybeans. Most of the strains representing the other classes produced effective nodules but exceptions were observed in each class. Bacteroids of the wild-type strain contained cytochrome aa3. Bacteroids from one class of mutants were totally devoid of cytochrome aa3. Several of these strains produced effective symbioses indicating that cytochrome aa3 is not required for an effective symbiosis in this DNA homology group II strain which normally has this terminal oxidase in bacteroids. Images Figure 2 PMID:16666807

  20. 78 FR 72004 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tazewell, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Tazewell Municipal Airport, Tazewell, TN. (78 FR 48078). Interested parties were invited to participate in... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  1. 77 FR 40489 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Memphis, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... amend Class E airspace at Memphis, TN (77 FR 17360). Interested parties were invited to participate in... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  2. 78 FR 38555 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Selmer, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ..., TN. (78 FR 16202). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  3. 76 FR 1512 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Savannah, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... E airspace 700 feet above the surface, at Savannah, TN (75 FR 65584) Docket No. FAA-2010-1047... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  4. 77 FR 28246 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tullahoma, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... amend Class E airspace at Tullahoma, TN (77 FR 12759). Interested parties were invited to participate in... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963...

  5. 76 FR 35260 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00055

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00055 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1979-DR), dated 05/09/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes... major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated...

  6. 76 FR 33805 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00052

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration . ACTION: Amendment... Assistance Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1974-DR), dated 05/01/2011. Incident: Severe Storms... major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated...

  7. 76 FR 33805 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00055

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00055 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1979-DR), dated 05/09/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes... disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated 05/09/2011,...

  8. 76 FR 35260 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... Tennessee (FEMA-1979-DR), dated 05/09/ 2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line, Winds, and... the State of Tennessee, dated 05/09/2011 is hereby amended to establish the incident period for...

  9. 75 FR 30873 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 7... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010 . Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding... major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated...

  10. 75 FR 38155 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 8... Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/ 2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Straight-line Winds, and... State of Tennessee, dated 05/04/2010 is hereby amended to extend the deadline for filing...

  11. 75 FR 30874 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 6... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding... major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated...

  12. 75 FR 27010 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding... disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated 05/04/2010,...

  13. 75 FR 27008 - TENNESSEE Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION TENNESSEE Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... Only for the State of TENNESSEE (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010 . Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding... disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of TENNESSEE, dated 05/04/2010,...

  14. 76 FR 27739 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Tennessee (FEMA-1974-DR), dated 05/01/ 2011. Incident: Severe storms, tornadoes, straight-line winds, and... State of Tennessee, dated 05/01/2011 is hereby amended to include the following areas as...

  15. 76 FR 48939 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00058

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00058 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-4005-DR), dated 07/20/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Straight... major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated...

  16. 76 FR 35261 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00052

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1974-DR), dated 05/01/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes... major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated...

  17. 76 FR 36165 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4... Tennessee (FEMA-1979-DR), dated 05/09/ 2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line, Winds, and... of Tennessee, dated 05/09/2011 is hereby amended to extend the deadline for filing applications...

  18. 75 FR 29590 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 5... Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR, dated 05/04/ 2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Straight-line Winds, and... Tennessee, dated 05/04/2010 is hereby amended to include the following areas as adversely affected by...

  19. 75 FR 27846 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4... Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/ 2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Straight-line Winds, and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The notice of the Presidential disaster declaration for the State of Tennessee,...

  20. 75 FR 27008 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... TENNESSEE (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/ 2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Straight-line Winds, and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The notice of the Presidential disaster declaration for the State of TENNESSEE,...

  1. 75 FR 27009 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding... disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated 05/04/2010,...

  2. 75 FR 30870 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 6... Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/ 2010 . Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Straight-line Winds, and... the State of Tennessee, dated 05/04/2010 is hereby amended to establish the incident period for...

  3. 75 FR 29591 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 5... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding... disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of TENNESSEE, dated 05/04/2010,...

  4. 76 FR 33395 - Tennessee; Disaster Number TN-00052

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee; Disaster Number TN-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment... Assistance Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1974-DR), dated 05/01/2011. Incident: Severe Storms... major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated...

  5. 75 FR 27009 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... TENNESSEE (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/ 2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Straight-line Winds, and... TENNESSEE, dated 05/04/2010 is hereby amended to include the following areas as adversely affected by...

  6. 75 FR 27009 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/ 2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Straight-Line Winds, and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The notice of the Presidential disaster declaration for the State of Tennessee,...

  7. 76 FR 33395 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... Tennessee (FEMA-1974-DR), dated 05/01/ 2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line Winds, and... State of Tennessee, dated 05/01/2011 is hereby amended to include the following areas as...

  8. 75 FR 35103 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 8... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding... major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated...

  9. 75 FR 27845 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding... disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated 05/04/2010,...

  10. 75 FR 35103 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 7... Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/ 2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Straight-line Winds, and... Tennessee, dated 05/04/2010 is hereby amended to include the following areas as adversely affected by...

  11. 76 FR 33806 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... Tennessee (FEMA-1974-DR), dated 05/01/ 2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line Winds, and... Tennessee, dated 05/01/2011 is hereby amended to include the following areas as adversely affected by...

  12. 76 FR 32387 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Tennessee (FEMA-1979-DR), dated 05/09/ 2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line, Winds, and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The notice of the Presidential disaster declaration for the State of Tennessee,...

  13. Style and magnitude of Mesozoic thrust faulting in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt Pequop Mountains-Wood Hills-East Humboldt Range region, northeast Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Camilleri, P.A. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    The Pequop Mountains (PM), Wood Hills (WH) and East Humboldt Range (EHR), NE Nevada, provide evidence that the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt experienced large-magnitude Mesozoic shortening ([>=]55 km) and crustal thickening ([>=] 30 km). These ranges expose a structurally continuous crustal cross section of unmetamorphosed to high pressure upper amphibolite facies Triassic to Precambrian miogeoclinal strata. This sequence lies structurally beneath unmetamorphosed extensional klippen that omit metamorphic grade and crustal section, but also repeat stratigraphic units. Because they repeat stratigraphic units, the underlying miogeoclinal section, or footwall, must have once lain beneath a thrust fault (herein named the Windermere thrust). The footwall of the Windermere thrust was exhumed by two generations of top-to-the-W-NW low-angle normal faults that are distinguished by whether they are depositionally overlapped by Eocene volcanic rocks or if they cut the volcanic rocks in their hanging walls. The latter phase is associated with development of the mid-Tertiary extensional mylonitic shear zone in the EHR. An integration of geobarometric, metamorphic, and map data suggest (1) a NW dip of the footwall of the Windermere thrust with metamorphic facies belts trending perpendicular to dip direction and metamorphic grade increasing down dip, and (2) a top-to-the-SE sense-of-slip for the Windermere thrust. Assuming that the Windermere thrust comprised a flat on the youngest rocks exposed in the footwall (Triassic), the Mesozoic depth to the Windermere thrust in the northern PM is [>=] 7 km, in WH is [approximately]10--16 km, and in the EHR[>=]30 km. The Windermere thrust accommodated a minimum of 50 km of shortening associated with the Independence thrust is [>=] 5 km. These data indicate that the amount of hinterland shortening in NE Nevada greatly exceeds that to the south in the Eureka belt.

  14. Laser-probe 40Ar/39Ar dating of strain fringes: Mid-Cretaceous synconvergent orogen-parallel extension in the interior of the Sevier orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Michael L.; Spell, Terry L.; Hoisch, Thomas D.; Arriola, Tonia; Zanetti, Kathleen A.

    2008-06-01

    UV and CO2 laser-probe 40Ar/39Ar in situ analyses of phlogopite and muscovite in fibrous strain fringes from greenschist-facies metamorphic rocks document mica growth ages at temperatures lower than their closure temperatures, and therefore directly date deformation. The new dates resolve the age of the earliest ductile fabric recorded in the Raft River-Albion-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex of Utah and Idaho. Phlogopite was dated in quartz-calcite-phlogopite strain fringes around pyrite in Pennsylvanian-Permian rocks from the Grouse Creek Mountains (Utah) using both the UV and CO2 laser probe; muscovite was dated in quartz-muscovite strain fringes around pyrite in deformed Jurassic sills from the Black Pine Mountains (Idaho) using the CO2 laser probe. Phlogopite 40Ar/39Ar ages for individual strain fringes (Grouse Creek Mountains) range from 92 Ma to 110 Ma, with the most reliable ages ranging from 101 Ma to 110 Ma (mean age, 105.0 5.8 Ma). Muscovite 40Ar/39Ar ages for individual strain fringes (Black Pine Mountains) range from 97 Ma to 112 Ma (mean age, 104.7 5.8 Ma). Strain fringes are associated with a subhorizontal foliation and a generally N-trending elongation lineation exhibiting components of top-to-the-north simple shear and coaxial strain accommodating N-S extension and subvertical shortening. Midcrustal northward flow at 105 (6) Ma within the interior of the Sevier orogen, coeval with east-directed shortening in the foreland and with plate convergence, records orogen-parallel synconvergent extension. We favor gravitational relaxation of structural culminations resulting from focused crustal shortening as a driving mechanism for orogen-parallel flow.

  15. Strain variation in thrust sheets of the Sevier fold-and-thrust belt, Idaho-Utah-Wyoming: Implications for section restoration and wedge taper evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, G. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    The total displacement field for any thrust sheet is made up of two independent components: translation along the fault, and internal deformation of the sheet. The internal deformation can be quantified by measuring strain within the sheet. Although strain within external thrust sheets is typically inhomogeneous at the mesoscopic scale, strain does show regular patterns of variation at the scale of the sheet as a whole. The total internal deformation of a sheet can be represented by a deformation profile which has a simple geometric form at the largest scale, based on information available from well studied thrust sheets. Using such known profiles and compatibility constraints it is possible to minimize the data needed to define the deformation profiles of other sheets. The profiles can be then used to help in unstraining sheets during restoration in cross-section balancing. Based on field observations and the geometric patterns of deformation profiles, most external thrust sheets, including those in the Sevier fold-and-thrust belt (FTB) of ID-UT-WY, show early layer-parallel shortening (LPS) as the most important component of internal deformation. This strain can be removed in a straightforward manner during the last stage of restoration, and significantly affects the geometry of the restored section. In the northern ID-UT-WY FTB salient, the restored basin taper is reduced by 6[degree] to less than 4[degree] for most of the major thrust sheets. Since original basin taper may have important implications for thrust belt evolution, changes in basin taper resulting from strain removal for thrust sheets significantly affects the interpretation of FTB evolution in an area.

  16. 78 FR 52424 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dayton, TN, Establishment of Class E Airspace; Cleveland, TN, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Hospital, Cleveland, TN, (78 FR 25403). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  17. The Lower Sevier River Basin Crop Monitor and Forecast Decision Support System: Exploiting Landsat Imagery to Provide Continuous Information to Farmers and Water Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Rua, A. F.; Walker, W. R.; McKee, M.

    2013-12-01

    The last century has seen a large number of innovations in agriculture such as better policies for water control and management, upgraded water conveyance, irrigation, distribution, and monitoring systems, and better weather forecasting products. In spite of this, irrigation management and irrigation water deliveries by farmers/water managers is still based on factors like water share amounts, tradition, and past experience on irrigation. These factors are not necessarily related to the actual crop water use; they are followed because of the absence of related information provided in a timely manner at an affordable cost. Thus, it is necessary to develop means to deliver continuous and personalized information about crop water requirements to water users/managers at the field and irrigation system levels so managers at these levels can better quantify the required versus available water for irrigation during the irrigation season. This study presents a new decision support system (DSS) platform that addresses the absence of information on actual crop water requirements and crop performance by providing continuous updated farm-based crop water use along with other farm performance indicators such as crop yield and farm management to irrigators and water managers. This DSS exploits the periodicity of the Landsat Satellite Mission (8 to 16 days, depending on the period of interest) to provide remote monitoring at the individual field and irrigation system levels. The Landsat satellite images are converted into information about crop water use, yield performance and field management through application of state-of-the-art semi-physical and statistical algorithms that provide this information at a pixel basis that are ultimately aggregated to field and irrigation system levels. A version of the DSS has been implemented for the agricultural lands in the Lower Sevier River, Utah, and has been operational since the beginning of the 2013 irrigation season. The main goal of this DSS implementation is to provide continuous and personalized information to farmers and water managers regarding crops in fields and the irrigation delivery system throughout the irrigation season so that decisions related to agricultural water use can result in water savings while not diminishing crop yields.

  18. 75 FR 32201 - Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge, Henry, Benton, Decatur, and Humphreys Counties, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... started the process through a notice in the Federal Register on April 2, 2008 (73 FR 17994). On December... we would conduct population and habitat surveys to evaluate shorebird use and invertebrate densities... more baseline inventories for non-game mammals, reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates....

  19. 76 FR 5194 - Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge, Henry, Benton, Decatur, and Humphreys Counties, TN; Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... (73 FR 17994). On December 28, 1945, President Harry S. Truman signed Executive Order No. 9670... period via Federal Register notice on June 7, 2010 (75 FR 32201). We received 43 comments on the Draft... mammals, fish, reptiles, and amphibians. We announce our decision and the availability of the final...

  20. 75 FR 6257 - Watts Bar Reservoir Land Management Plan, Loudon, Meigs, Rhea, and Roane Counties, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... Project Operations (Zone 2), Sensitive Resource Management (Zone 3), Natural Resource Conservation (Zone 4... land on Watts Bar Reservoir to protect and enhance natural resources, foster economic development, and... natural resource conservation and informal recreation activities. The notice of availability (NOA) of...

  1. Characterization of Tn6238 with a New Allele of aac(6′)-Ib-cr

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, María P.; Orman, Betina; Errecalde, Laura; Kaufman, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report that the genetic structure of Tn1331 remained conserved in Argentina from 1989 to 2013 (72 of 73 isolates), with the exception being the plasmid-borne Tn1331-like transposon Tn6238 containing a new aac(6′)-Ib-cr allele recovered from a colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate. A bioinformatic analysis of aac(6′)-Ib-like gene cassettes suggests that this new aac(6′)-Ib-cr allele emerged through mutation or homologous recombination in the Tn1331 genetic platform. Tn6238 is a novel platform for the dissemination of aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone resistance determinants. PMID:25691640

  2. Characterization of Tn6238 with a new allele of aac(6')-Ib-cr.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Mara P; Orman, Betina; Errecalde, Laura; Kaufman, Sara; Centrn, Daniela

    2015-05-01

    Here, we report that the genetic structure of Tn1331 remained conserved in Argentina from 1989 to 2013 (72 of 73 isolates), with the exception being the plasmid-borne Tn1331-like transposon Tn6238 containing a new aac(6')-Ib-cr allele recovered from a colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate. A bioinformatic analysis of aac(6')-Ib-like gene cassettes suggests that this new aac(6')-Ib-cr allele emerged through mutation or homologous recombination in the Tn1331 genetic platform. Tn6238 is a novel platform for the dissemination of aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone resistance determinants. PMID:25691640

  3. Aberrant Cosmc genes result in Tn antigen expression in human colorectal carcinoma cell line HT-29.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaofeng; Du, Zhenzhen; Sun, Xuhong; Shi, Chuanqin; Zhang, Huaixiang; Hu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The Tn antigen, which arises from mutation in the Cosmc gene is one of the most common tumor associated carbohydrate antigens. Cosmc resides in X24 encoded by a single gene and functions as a specific molecular chaperone for T-synthase. While the Tn antigen cannot be detected in normal cells, Cosmc mutations inactivate T-synthase and consequently result in Tn antigen expression within certain cancers. In addition to this Cosmc mutation-induced expression, the Tn antigen is also expressed in such cell lines as Jurkat T, LSC and LS174T. Whether the Cosmc mutation is present in the colon cancer cell line HT-29 is still unclear. Here, we isolate HT-29-Tn+ cells from HT-29 cells derived from a female colon cancer patient. These HT-29-Tn+ cells show a loss of the Cosmc gene coding sequence (CDS) leading to an absence of T-synthase activity and Tn antigen expression. Additionally, almost no methylation of Cosmc CpG islands was detected in HT-29-Tn+ as well as in HT-29-Tn- and Tn- tumor cells from male patients. In contrast, the methylation frequency of CpG island of Cosmc in normal female cells was ~50%. Only one active allele of Cosmc existed in HT-29-Tn+ and HT-29-Tn- cells as based upon detection of SNP sites. These results indicate that Tn antigens expression and T-synthase inactivity in HT-29-Tn+ cells can be related to the absence of CDS in Cosmc active alleles, while an inactive allele deletion of Cosmc in HT-29 cells has no influence on Cosmc function. PMID:26045765

  4. The ends of Tn10 are not IS3.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, D G; Grisafi, P; Kleckner, N; Botstein, D

    1979-01-01

    By heteroduplex and hybridization analysis we showed that the inverted repetition (here called IS10) at the ends of the translocatable tetracycline resistance element Tn10 is not IS3, as had previously been reported by Ptashne and Cohen (J. Bacteriol. 122:776--781, 1975). Further analysis confirmed the homology between IS3 and the alpha beta sequence of F and demonstrated that IS10 was not present in the genomes of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 or Escherichia coli K-12. Images PMID:383689

  5. The Calcium-Saturated cTnI/cTnC Complex: Structure of the Inhibitory Region of cTnI

    PubMed Central

    Sheldahl, Christopher; Xing, Jun; Dong, Wen-Ji; Harvey, Stephen C.; Cheung, Herbert C.

    2003-01-01

    The contiguous inhibitory and regulatory regions of troponin I in the heterotrimeric troponin complex play a critical role in Ca2+ activation of striated muscle. Knowledge of the structure of this critical region within the complex will enhance efforts toward understanding regulatory mechanisms. Toward this goal, we have used simulated annealing to study the structure of the inhibitory and regulatory regions of cardiac muscle troponin I in the calcium-saturated complex formed between cardiac troponin C and cardiac troponin I. We have incorporated distances determined experimentally by Frster resonance energy transfer in the full-length complex, rather than using peptides derived from cTnI. For these models, we assume a helix-loop-helix conformation for the inhibitory region. We have found several structures that satisfy the experimental constraints fairly well. Although it is not possible to eliminate any of these models at this time, future studies with additional experimental restraints will yield insights on the mechanisms of calcium regulation in cardiac muscle. PMID:12547787

  6. BWR - Spent Fuel Transport and Storage with the TN{sup TM}9/4 and TN{sup TM}24BH Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Wattez, L.; Marguerat, Y.; Hoesli, C.

    2006-07-01

    The Swiss Nuclear Utilities have started in 2001 to store spent fuel in dry metallic dual-purpose casks at ZWILAG, the Swiss interim storage facility. BKW FMB Energy Ltd., the Muehleberg Nuclear Power Plant owner, is involved in this process and has elected to store its BWR spent fuel in a new high capacity dual-purpose cask, the TNeTeM24BH from the COGEMA Logistics/TRANSNUCLEAR TN{sup TM}24 family. The Muehleberg BWR spent fuels are transported by road in a medium size shuttle transport cask and then transferred to a heavy transport/storage cask (dry transfer) in the hot cell of ZWILAG site. For that purpose, COGEMA Logistics designed and supplied: - Two shuttle casks, TN{sup TM}9/4, mainly devoted to transport of spent fuel from Muehleberg NPP to ZWILAG. Licensed according to IAEA 1996, the TN{sup TM}9/4 is a 40 ton transport cask, for 7 BWR high bum-up spent fuel assemblies. - A series of new high capacity dual-purpose casks, TN{sup TM}24BH, holding 69 BWR spent fuels. Two transport campaigns took place in 2003 and 2004. For each campaign, ten TN{sup TM}9/4 round trips are performed, and one TN{sup TM}24BH is loaded. 5 additional TN{sup TM}24BH are being manufactured for BKW, and the next transport campaigns are scheduled from 2006. The TN{sup TM}24BH high capacity dual purpose cask and the TN{sup TM}9/4 transport cask characteristics and capabilities will then be detailed. (authors)

  7. Occurrence of Tn4371-Related Mobile Elements and Sequences in (Chloro)biphenyl-Degrading Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Springael, Dirk; Ryngaert, Annemie; Merlin, Christophe; Toussaint, Ariane; Mergeay, Max

    2001-01-01

    Tn4371, a 55-kb transposable element involved in the degradation and biphenyl or 4-chlorobiphenyl identified in Ralstonia eutropha A5, displays a modular structure including a phage-like integrase gene (int), a Pseudomonas-like (chloro)biphenyl catabolic gene cluster (bph), and RP4- and Ti-plasmid-like transfer genes (trb) (C. Merlin, D. Springael, and A. Toussaint, Plasmid 41:40–54, 1999). Southern blot hybridization was used to examine the presence of different regions of Tn4371 in a collection of (chloro)biphenyl-degrading bacteria originating from different habitats and belonging to different bacterial genera. Tn4371-related sequences were never detected on endogenous plasmids. Although the gene probes containing only bph sequences hybridized to genomic DNA from most strains tested, a limited selection of strains, all β-proteobacteria, displayed hybridization patterns similar to the Tn4371 bph cluster. Homology between Tn4371 and DNA of two of those strains, originating from the same area as strain A5, extended outside the catabolic genes and covered the putative transfer region of Tn4371. On the other hand, none of the (chloro)biphenyl degraders hybridized with the outer left part of Tn4371 containing the int gene. The bph catabolic determinant of the two strains displaying homology to the Tn4371 transfer genes and a third strain isolated from the A5 area could be mobilized to a R. eutropha recipient, after insertion into an endogenous or introduced IncP1 plasmid. The mobilized DNA of those strains included all Tn4371 homologous sequences previously identified in their genome. Our observations show that the bph genes present on Tn4371 are highly conserved between different (chloro)biphenyl-degrading hosts, isolated globally but belonging mainly to the β-proteobacteria. On the other hand, Tn4371-related mobile elements carrying bph genes are apparently only found in isolates from the environment that provided the Tn4371-bearing isolate A5. PMID:11133426

  8. Target Immunity of the Tn3-Family Transposon Tn4430 Requires Specific Interactions between the Transposase and the Terminal Inverted Repeats of the Transposon ?

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Emilien; Lambin, Michal; Hallet, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Specificity of the Tn4430 target immunity signal was examined by fusing the transposase TnpA to the LacI repressor of Escherichia coli. The resulting chimeric proteins failed to impose immunity to DNA targets carrying copies of the lacO operator, though they were proficient in lacO binding in vivo and remained responsive to wild-type immunity conferred by the Tn4430 inverted repeat end. Intriguingly, the presence of lacO repeats within the target was found to strongly influence target site selection by Tn4430, but in a LacI-independent manner. PMID:20562304

  9. A bifunctional DNA binding region in Tn5 transposase

    PubMed Central

    Gradman, Richard J; Ptacin, Jerod L; Bhasin, Archna; Reznikoff, William S; Goryshin, Igor Y

    2008-01-01

    Tn5 transposition is a complicated process that requires the formation of a highly ordered proteinDNA structure, a synaptic complex, to catalyse the movement of a sequence of DNA (transposon) into a target DNA. Much is known about the structure of the synaptic complex and the positioning of proteinDNA contacts, although many proteinDNA contacts remain largely unstudied. In particular, there is little evidence for the positioning of donor DNA and target DNA. In this communication, we describe the isolation and analysis of mutant transposases that have, for the first time, provided genetic and biochemical evidence for the stage-specific positioning of both donor and target DNAs within the synaptic complex. Furthermore, we have provided evidence that some of the amino acids that contact donor DNA also contact target DNA, and therefore suggest that these amino acids help define a bifunctional DNA binding region responsible for these two transposaseDNA binding events. PMID:18086215

  10. Transposon mutagenesis in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae with a Tn10 derivative.

    PubMed Central

    Tascon, R I; Rodriguez-Ferri, E F; Gutierrez-Martin, C B; Rodriguez-Barbosa, I; Berche, P; Vazquez-Boland, J A

    1993-01-01

    A transposon mutagenesis procedure functional in the gram-negative swine pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was developed for the first time. The technique involved the use of a suicide conjugative plasmid, pLOF/Km, carrying a mini-Tn10 with an isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible transposase located outside the mobile element (M. Herrero, V. de Lorenzo, and K. N. Timmis, J. Bacteriol. 172:6557-6567, 1990). The plasmid was mobilized from Escherichia coli to A. pleuropneumoniae through the RP4-mediated broad-host-range conjugal transfer functions provided by the chromosome of the donor strain. When IPTG was present in the mating medium, A. pleuropneumoniae CM5 transposon mutants were obtained at a frequency of 10(-5), while no mutants were detected in the absence of IPTG. Since the frequency of conjugal transfer of the RP4 plasmid from E. coli to A. pleuropneumoniae CM5 was found to be as low as 10(-4), the above result indicated that the expression level of the transposase was a critical factor for obtaining a workable efficiency of transposon mutagenesis. The transposon insertions occurred at random, as determined by Southern blotting of chromosomal DNA of randomly selected mutants and by the ability to generate mutants defective for the selected phenotypes. Almost all the mutants analyzed resulted from a single insertion of the Tn10 element. About 1.2% of the mutants resulted from the cointegration of pLOF/Km into the A. pleuropneumoniae chromosome. The applicability of this transposon mutagenesis system was verified on other A. pleuropneumoniae strains of different serotypes. The usefulness of this transposon mutagenesis system in genetic studies of A. pleuropneumoniae is discussed. Images PMID:8396122

  11. 78 FR 55770 - [Tennessee Disaster greek-iTN-00077

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    .... SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of TENNESSEE dated... Counties: Tennessee: Cheatham; Robertson; Rutherford; Sumner; Williamson; Wilson. The Interest Rates are... 13738 0. The State which received an EIDL Declaration is Tennessee. (Catalog of Federal...

  12. 4. Photocopy of May 21, 1936 photograph showing the house ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of May 21, 1936 photograph showing the house (south front). The original photograph was taken by Edouard E. Exline and is one of five photographs in the album, 'A Sketch of Mountain Life: Great Smoky Mountains National Park', compiled by Edouard E. Exline and C.S. Grossman. The album is on file at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the photograph number is II-B-(7)-8083. - Walker Family Farm, Big House, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. 9. Photocopy of photograph showing myrtlecovered spring. The original photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of photograph showing myrtle-covered spring. The original photograph was taken on May 21, 1936 by Edouard E. Exline and is one of five photographs in the album, 'A Sketch of Mountain Life: Great Smoky Mountains National Park', compiled by Edouard E. Exline and C.S. Grossman. The album is on file at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the photograph number is II-B-(7)-8096. - Walker Family Farm (General views), Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. 8. DETAIL SHOT OF POST AND RAIL AND CUT AWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL SHOT OF POST AND RAIL AND CUT AWAY VIEW OF ABUTMENT SUPPORT INTO THE GROUND - Lost Creek Road Bridge, Spanning Sevier River at County Road 243, 2 miles east of Aurora, Aurora, Sevier County, UT

  15. 76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 36 CFR 51.24, public... National Park Service Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY... contract for the conduct of certain visitor services within Big South Fork National Recreation...

  16. Architecture of the Tn7 Post-Transposition Complex: an Elaborate Nucleoprotein Structure

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Jason W.; Craig, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Four transposition proteins encoded by the bacterial transposon Tn7, TnsA, TnsB, TnsC, and TnsD, mediate its site- and orientation-specific insertion into the chromosomal site attTn7. To establish which Tns proteins are actually present in the transpososome that executes DNA breakage and joining, we have determined the proteins present in the nucleoprotein product of transposition, the Post-Transposition Complex (PTC) using fluorescently labeled Tns proteins. All four required Tns proteins are present in the PTC in which we also find that the Tn7 ends are paired by protein-protein contacts between Tns proteins bound to the ends. Quantification of the relative amounts of the fluorescent Tns proteins in the PTC indicates that oligomers of TnsA, TnsB, and TnsC mediate Tn7 transposition. High-resolution DNA footprinting of the DNA product of transposition attTn7∷Tn7 revealed that about 350 bp of DNA on the transposon ends and on attTn7 contact the Tns proteins. All seven binding sites for TnsB, the component of the transposase that specifically binds the ends and mediates 3’ end breakage and joining, are occupied in the PTC. However, the protection pattern of the sites closest to the Tn7 ends in the PTC are different from that observed with TnsB alone, likely reflecting the pairing of the ends and their interaction with the target nucleoprotein complex necessary for activation of the breakage and joining steps. We also observe extensive protection of the attTn7 sequences in the PTC and that alternative DNA structures in substrate attTn7 that are imposed by TnsD are maintained in the PTC. PMID:20538004

  17. Tn6188 - a novel transposon in Listeria monocytogenes responsible for tolerance to benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Mller, Anneliese; Rychli, Kathrin; Muhterem-Uyar, Meryem; Zaiser, Andreas; Stessl, Beatrix; Guinane, Caitriona M; Cotter, Paul D; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the food-borne pathogen Listeria (L.) monocytogenes is of great importance from a food safety perspective, and thus for human health. The consequences of failures in this regard have been exemplified by recent large listeriosis outbreaks in the USA and Europe. It is thus particularly notable that tolerance to quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) has been observed in many L. monocytogenes strains. However, the molecular determinants and mechanisms of BC tolerance of L. monocytogenes are still largely unknown. Here we describe Tn6188, a novel transposon in L. monocytogenes conferring tolerance to BC. Tn6188 is related to Tn554 from Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and other Tn554-like transposons such as Tn558, Tn559 and Tn5406 found in various Firmicutes. Tn6188 comprises 5117 bp, is integrated chromosomally within the radC gene and consists of three transposase genes (tnpABC) as well as genes encoding a putative transcriptional regulator and QacH, a small multidrug resistance protein family (SMR) transporter putatively associated with export of BC that shows high amino acid identity to Smr/QacC from S. aureus and to EmrE from Escherichia coli. We screened 91 L. monocytogenes strains for the presence of Tn6188 by PCR and found Tn6188 in 10 of the analyzed strains. These isolates were from food and food processing environments and predominantly from serovar 1/2a. L. monocytogenes strains harboring Tn6188 had significantly higher BC minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (28.5 4.7 mg/l) than strains without Tn6188 (14 3.2 mg/l). Using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR we could show a significant increase in qacH expression in the presence of BC. QacH deletion mutants were generated in two L. monocytogenes strains and growth analysis revealed that ?qacH strains had lower BC MICs than wildtype strains. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that Tn6188 is responsible for BC tolerance in various L. monocytogenes strains. PMID:24098567

  18. Tn6188 - A Novel Transposon in Listeria monocytogenes Responsible for Tolerance to Benzalkonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Muhterem-Uyar, Meryem; Zaiser, Andreas; Stessl, Beatrix; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Cotter, Paul D.; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the food-borne pathogen Listeria (L.) monocytogenes is of great importance from a food safety perspective, and thus for human health. The consequences of failures in this regard have been exemplified by recent large listeriosis outbreaks in the USA and Europe. It is thus particularly notable that tolerance to quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) has been observed in many L. monocytogenes strains. However, the molecular determinants and mechanisms of BC tolerance of L. monocytogenes are still largely unknown. Here we describe Tn6188, a novel transposon in L. monocytogenes conferring tolerance to BC. Tn6188 is related to Tn554 from Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and other Tn554-like transposons such as Tn558, Tn559 and Tn5406 found in various Firmicutes. Tn6188 comprises 5117 bp, is integrated chromosomally within the radC gene and consists of three transposase genes (tnpABC) as well as genes encoding a putative transcriptional regulator and QacH, a small multidrug resistance protein family (SMR) transporter putatively associated with export of BC that shows high amino acid identity to Smr/QacC from S. aureus and to EmrE from Escherichia coli. We screened 91 L. monocytogenes strains for the presence of Tn6188 by PCR and found Tn6188 in 10 of the analyzed strains. These isolates were from food and food processing environments and predominantly from serovar 1/2a. L. monocytogenes strains harboring Tn6188 had significantly higher BC minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (28.5 ± 4.7 mg/l) than strains without Tn6188 (14 ± 3.2 mg/l). Using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR we could show a significant increase in qacH expression in the presence of BC. QacH deletion mutants were generated in two L. monocytogenes strains and growth analysis revealed that ΔqacH strains had lower BC MICs than wildtype strains. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that Tn6188 is responsible for BC tolerance in various L. monocytogenes strains. PMID:24098567

  19. International spread and persistence of TEM-24 is caused by the confluence of highly penetrating enterobacteriaceae clones and an IncA/C2 plasmid containing Tn1696::Tn1 and IS5075-Tn21.

    PubMed

    Novais, Angela; Baquero, Fernando; Machado, Elisabete; Cantón, Rafael; Peixe, Luísa; Coque, Teresa M

    2010-02-01

    TEM-24 remains one of the most widespread TEM-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) among Enterobacteriaceae. To analyze the reasons influencing its spread and persistence, a multilevel population genetics study was carried out on 28 representative TEM-24 producers from Belgium, France, Portugal, and Spain (13 Enterobacter aerogenes isolates, 6 Escherichia coli isolates, 6 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, 2 Proteus mirabilis isolates, and 1 Klebsiella oxytoca isolate, from 1998 to 2004). Clonal relatedness (XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] and E. coli phylogroups) and antibiotic susceptibility were determined by standard procedures. Plasmid analysis included determination of the incompatibility group (by PCR, hybridization, and/or sequencing) and comparison of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns. Characterization of genetic elements conferring antibiotic resistance included integrons (classes 1, 2, and 3) and transposons (Tn3, Tn21, and Tn402). Similar PFGE patterns were identified among E. aerogenes, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis isolates, while E. coli strains were diverse (phylogenetic groups A, B2, and D). Highly related 180-kb IncA/C2 plasmids conferring resistance to kanamycin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, and sulfonamides were identified. Each plasmid contained defective In0-Tn402 (dfrA1-aadA1, aacA4, or aacA4-aacC1-orfE-aadA2-cmlA1) and In4-Tn402 (aacA4 or dfrA1-aadA1) variants. These integrons were located within Tn21, Tn1696, or hybrids of these transposons, with IS5075 interrupting their IRtnp and IRmer. In all cases, blaTEM-24 was part of an IS5075-DeltaTn1 transposon within tnp1696, mimicking other genetic elements containing blaTEM-2 and blaTEM-3 variants. The international dissemination of TEM-24 is fuelled by an IncA/C2 plasmid acquired by different enterobacterial clones which seem to evolve by gaining diverse genetic elements. This work highlights the risks of a confluence between highly penetrating clones and highly promiscuous plasmids in the spread of antibiotic resistance, and it contributes to the elucidation of the origin and evolution of TEM-2 ESBL derivatives. PMID:19995930

  20. International Spread and Persistence of TEM-24 Is Caused by the Confluence of Highly Penetrating Enterobacteriaceae Clones and an IncA/C2 Plasmid Containing Tn1696::Tn1 and IS5075-Tn21?

    PubMed Central

    Novais, ngela; Baquero, Fernando; Machado, Elisabete; Cantn, Rafael; Peixe, Lusa; Coque, Teresa M.

    2010-01-01

    TEM-24 remains one of the most widespread TEM-type extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) among Enterobacteriaceae. To analyze the reasons influencing its spread and persistence, a multilevel population genetics study was carried out on 28 representative TEM-24 producers from Belgium, France, Portugal, and Spain (13 Enterobacter aerogenes isolates, 6 Escherichia coli isolates, 6 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, 2 Proteus mirabilis isolates, and 1 Klebsiella oxytoca isolate, from 1998 to 2004). Clonal relatedness (XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] and E. coli phylogroups) and antibiotic susceptibility were determined by standard procedures. Plasmid analysis included determination of the incompatibility group (by PCR, hybridization, and/or sequencing) and comparison of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns. Characterization of genetic elements conferring antibiotic resistance included integrons (classes 1, 2, and 3) and transposons (Tn3, Tn21, and Tn402). Similar PFGE patterns were identified among E. aerogenes, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis isolates, while E. coli strains were diverse (phylogenetic groups A, B2, and D). Highly related 180-kb IncA/C2 plasmids conferring resistance to kanamycin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, and sulfonamides were identified. Each plasmid contained defective In0-Tn402 (dfrA1-aadA1, aacA4, or aacA4-aacC1-orfE-aadA2-cmlA1) and In4-Tn402 (aacA4 or dfrA1-aadA1) variants. These integrons were located within Tn21, Tn1696, or hybrids of these transposons, with IS5075 interrupting their IRtnp and IRmer. In all cases, blaTEM-24 was part of an IS5075-?Tn1 transposon within tnp1696, mimicking other genetic elements containing blaTEM-2 and blaTEM-3 variants. The international dissemination of TEM-24 is fuelled by an IncA/C2 plasmid acquired by different enterobacterial clones which seem to evolve by gaining diverse genetic elements. This work highlights the risks of a confluence between highly penetrating clones and highly promiscuous plasmids in the spread of antibiotic resistance, and it contributes to the elucidation of the origin and evolution of TEM-2 ESBL derivatives. PMID:19995930

  1. Spectroscopic and ITC study of the conformational change upon Ca{sup 2+}-binding in TnC C-lobe and TnI peptide complex from Akazara scallop striated muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Yumoto, Fumiaki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Koji; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Ojima, Takao; Tanokura, Masaru

    2008-04-25

    Akazara scallop (Chlamys nipponensis akazara) troponin C (TnC) of striated adductor muscle binds only one Ca{sup 2+} ion at the C-terminal EF-hand motif (Site IV), but it works as the Ca{sup 2+}-dependent regulator in adductor muscle contraction. In addition, the scallop troponin (Tn) has been thought to regulate muscle contraction via activating mechanisms that involve the region spanning from the TnC C-lobe (C-lobe) binding site to the inhibitory region of the TnI, and no alternative binding of the TnI C-terminal region to TnC because of no similarity between second TnC-binding regions of vertebrate and the scallop TnIs. To clarify the Ca{sup 2+}-regulatory mechanism of muscle contraction by scallop Tn, we have analyzed the Ca{sup 2+}-binding properties of the complex of TnC C-lobe and TnI peptide, and their interaction using isothermal titration microcalorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism, and gel filtration chromatography. The results showed that single Ca{sup 2+}-binding to the Site IV leads to a structural transition not only in Site IV but also Site III through the structural network in the C-lobe of scallop TnC. We therefore assumed that the effect of Ca{sup 2+}-binding must lead to a change in the interaction mode between the C-lobe of TnC and the TnI peptide. The change should be the first event of the transmission of Ca{sup 2+} signal to TnI in Tn ternary complex.

  2. Brownfield to Brightfield Initiative in Oak Ridge, TN - 12346

    SciTech Connect

    Hough, Gil; Fairless, Chad

    2012-07-01

    Experience characterizing, permitting, and restoring 'Brownfield' sites-government or industrial sites with restricted future use due to the presence or potential presence of hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants-is being leveraged to identify opportunities for redevelopment into solar power generating facilities which, in this context, are called 'Brightfields'. Brownfield sites offer the expansive land necessary for large photovoltaic (PV) solar farms, but require an in-depth working knowledge of complicated regulatory restrictions and environmental constraints to develop them. As a part of the effort to identify opportunities for redevelopment of Brownfield sites for solar applications, a technical guide, was composed specifically for the development of solar generation on restricted use sites. The basis of the technical guide gives specific consideration to environmental requirements and installation methods breaking that into three areas for assessing: 1) levels of contamination, 2) ground penetration requirements, and 3) the requirements for aesthetics and maintenance. Brightfield projects are underway to support the technical guide and expand re-industrialization efforts for the former DOE Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Oak Ridge, TN. There are exciting opportunities to turn Brownfields into Brightfield solar energy solutions for meeting the future renewable energy needs of our country. Brownfields that offer the large surface area required for solar PV farms coupled with the technical guide for the installation of solar farms on restricted use sites supports efforts to develop the solar capacities and expertise to tap this future market. The initial projects designed following the technical guide will provide verification of the installation requirements and beneficial reuse of restricted use sites. (authors)

  3. A clinical isolate of transposon Tn5 expressing streptomycin resistance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Genilloud, O; Blzquez, J; Mazodier, P; Moreno, F

    1988-01-01

    The central region of transposon Tn5 carries three antibiotic resistance markers: neo, ble, and str. The str gene codes for a phosphotransferase that inactivates streptomycin. This activity is phenotypically expressed in several gram-negative bacteria but not in Escherichia coli. We identified a Tn5 variant in E. coli clinical isolates that express streptomycin resistance. This transposon carries a 6-base-pair deletion within the str gene, near the 3' end. The same kind of mutation had been previously obtained experimentally from Tn5. Images PMID:2830233

  4. Geological and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Deliverable 1.4.4: Ferron Sandstone lithofacies and case-study areas, Emery and Sevier Counties, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-01-04

    The types of dominantly sandstone lithofacies that characterize the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone reservoir types were tentatively identified before the project began. These reservoir types were defined and mapped at the regional scale and are the subject of the detailed, highly focused case studies. The purpose of conducting detailed case-study analysis is to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and quantitative characterization of fluvial-deltaic reservoirs which will allow realistic inter-well and reservoir-scale modeling to be used for improved oil-field development in actual reservoirs world-wide. The resulting benefits and value may: (1) increase recoverable reserves by identifying untapped compartments created by reservoir heterogeneity, (2) reduce development costs by more efficiently siting infill drilling locations, (3) increase deliverability by exploiting the reservoir along optimal fluid-flow paths, (4) enhance the application of new technologies, such as horizontal drilling, by identifying optimal drilling directions to maximize fluid-flow, and (5) identify reservoir trends for field extension drilling. Various geologic studies of the Ferron Sandstone were reviewed to compile a list of locations and types of lithofacies in the Ferron Sandstone to be examined in greater detail as part of the subsequent case studies. Preliminary regional interpretations were also used to help select the type and location of lithofacies for case studies. Potential case-study sites were delineated during several reconnaissance field trips by the geologic team. Two case-study sites were selected for the project: Ivie Creek and Willow Springs Wash, in the central and southern parts respectively of the project study area. Results are discussed.

  5. Geology of an Ordovician stratiform base-metal deposit in the Long Canyon Area, Blaine County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otto, B.R.; Zieg, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    In the Long Canyon area, Blaine County, Idaho, a strati-form base-metal-bearing gossan is exposed within a complexly folded and faulted sequence of Ordovician strata. The gossan horizon in graptolitic mudrock suggests preservation of bedded sulfides that were deposited by an Ordovician subaqueous hydrothermal system. Abrupt thickness changes and geochemi-cal zoning in the metal-bearing strata suggest that the gossan is near the source of the hydrothermal system. Ordovician sedimentary rocks at Long Canyon represent a coarsening-upward section that was deposited below wave base in a submarine depositional environment. The lowest exposed rocks represent deposition in a starved, euxinic basin and over-lying strata represent a prograding clastic wedge of terrigenous and calcareous detritus. The metalliferous strata are between these two types of strata. Strata at Long Canyon have been deformed by two periods of thrust faulting, at least three periods of normal faulting, and two periods of folding. Tertiary extensional faulting formed five subhorizontal structural plates. These low-angle fault-bounded plates truncate Sevier-age and possibly Antler-age thrust faults. The presence of gossan-bearing strata in the four upper plates suggests that there was only minor, although locally complex, stratigraphic displacement and rotation. The lack of correlative strata in the lowest plate suggests the displacement was greater than 2000 ft. The metalliferous strata were exposed to surface weathering, oxidation, and erosion prior to and during deposition of the Eocene Challis Volcanic Group. The orientations of erosional canyons formed during this early period of exposure were related to the orientations of Sevier-age thrust faults, and stream-channel gravel was deposited in the canyons. During this and subsequent intervals of exposure, sulfidic strata were oxi-dized to a minimum depth of 700 ft.

  6. Multicopy integration of mini-Tn7 transposons into selected chromosomal sites of a Salmonella vaccine strain

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Karen; Werner, Esther; Loessner, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal integration of expression modules for transgenes is an important aspect for the development of novel Salmonella vectors. Mini-Tn7 transposons have been used for the insertion of one such module into the chromosomal site attTn7, present only once in most Gram-negative bacteria. However, integration of multiple mini-Tn7 copies might be suitable for expression of appropriate amounts of antigen or combination of different modules. Here we demonstrate that integration of a 9.6 kb mini-Tn7 harbouring the luciferase luxCDABE (lux) occurs at the natural attTn7 site and simultaneously other locations of the Salmonella chromosome, which were engineered using λ-Red recombinase to contain one or two additional artificial attTn7 sites (a-attTn7). Multicopy integration even at closely spaced attTn7 sites was unexpected in light of the previously reported distance-dependent Tn7 target immunity. Integration of multiple copies of a mini-Tn7 containing a gfp cassette resulted in increasing green fluorescence of bacteria. Stable consecutive integration of two mini-Tn7 encoding lacZ and lux was achieved by initial transposition of lacZ-mini-Tn7, subsequent chromosomal insertion of a-attTn7 and a second round of transposition with lux-mini-Tn7. Mini-Tn7 thus constitutes a versatile method for multicopy integration of expression cassettes into the chromosome of Salmonella and possibly other bacteria. PMID:25488129

  7. Asiago classification of ASASSN-15tn as a Type Ia SN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasella, L.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Turatto, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of ASASSN-15tn discovered by All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) in CGCG 496-51 (Atel#8376).

  8. Tn4563 transposition in Streptomyces coelicolor and its application to isolation of new morphological mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, A T; Nelson, A D; Daniel, J B

    1991-01-01

    The Tn3-like transposon Tn4556 (and its derivatives Tn4560 and Tn4563) has been used for insertion mapping of genetic loci cloned on plasmids, but it has been difficult to obtain chromosomal insertions, largely because of the lack of a strong selection against transposon donor molecules. In this communication, we report two efficient selection techniques for transposition and their use in the isolation of chromosomal insertion mutations. A number of independent Streptomyces coelicolor morphological mutants (bld and whi) were obtained. Two of the bld mutations were mapped to locations on the chromosome by SCP1-mediated conjugation; at least one mutation, bld-5m1, appears to define a novel locus involved in control of S. coelicolor morphogenesis and antibiotic production. Images PMID:1650343

  9. The Levels and Distribution of TN, TP and TOC in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Han, D.

    2012-04-01

    The marine biogeochemistries of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous have come under increased scrutiny because of their close involvement in climate change and coastal eutrophication. The South China Sea is unique in that located in a subtropical zone, and therefore represents an important regime for biogeochemical studies. However, to our knowledge, few data are available for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP) and total organic carbon (TOC) in South Sea, China. The present study aims to contribute to the knowledge of their status through investigating the level and distribution of TN, TP and TOC in South China Sea. A total of 108 seawater samples of 11 sites in south sea, china were collected during August 29- September 4, 2006. An automated and simultaneous method for determination of TN and TOC was applied to all seawater samples. The combined system allowed simultaneous determination for TOC and TN in the same sample using a single injection and provided low detection limits and excellent linear ranges for both TOC and TN. The risk of contamination has been remarkably reduced due to the minimal sample manipulation and automated analyses. And quantitative analyses of TP in seawater were accomplished by a typical chemical method. Concentration ranges of TN and TP were 0.06-0.67, and 0.003-0.071 mg/L, respectively, as well as that of TOC were 0.23-2.51mg/L. The values of TN and TP showed that the status of nutrition is relatively better in south china sea than other marine areas. Moreover, the upright change trend of TN concentration level as well as TP and TOC according to the experimental results at the total 11 sites are simultaneity studied. The concentration of TN initial increases with the increasing of the depth, later the value becomes almost constant. In contrast, the concentration of TOC reduces with the increasing of the depth, later the value becomes almost unchangeable. Compared with the trend of TN and TOC, that of TP appears relatively stable. Thus, TP could be regarded as the key factor about eutrophication. This work should provide some useful information to better understand the environmental status of south china sea. Keywords: Concentration level, distribution, TN, TP, TOC, South China Sea. Acknowledgments The work was supported by The National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 40976050), and the National Public Benefit (Ocean) Research Foundation of China (201105013).

  10. DRAFT LANDSAT DATA MOSAIC: MONTGOMERY COUNTY, TEXAS; HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS; FORT BEND COUNTY, TEXAS; BRAZORIA COUNTY, TEXAS; GALVESTON COUNTY, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a draft Landsat Data Mosaic, which contains remote sensing information for Montgomery County, Texas Harris County, Texas Fort Bend County, Texas Brazoria County, Texas Galveston County, and Texas Imagery dates on the following dates: October 6, 1999 and September 29, 200...

  11. Single molecule study of heterotypic interactions between mucins possessing the Tn cancer antigen.

    PubMed

    Haugstad, Kristin E; Stokke, Bjrn T; Brewer, C Fred; Gerken, Thomas A; Sletmoen, Marit

    2015-05-01

    Mucins are linear, heavily O-glycosylated proteins with physiological roles that include cell signaling, cell adhesion, inflammation, immune response and tumorgenesis. Cancer-associated mucins often differ from normal mucins by presenting truncated carbohydrate chains. Characterization of the binding properties of mucins with truncated carbohydrate side chains could thus prove relevant for understanding their role in cancer mechanisms such as metastasis and recognition by the immune system. In this work, heterotypic interactions of model mucins that possess the Tn (GalNAc?Thr/Ser) and T (Gal?1-3GalNAc?Thr/Ser) cancer antigens derived from porcine submaxillary mucin (PSM) were studied using atomic force microscopy. PSM possessing only the Tn antigen (Tn-PSM) was found to bind to PSM analogs possessing a combination of T, Tn and STn antigens as well as biosynthetic analogs of the core 1 blood group A tetrasaccharide (GalNAc?1-3[Fuc?1-2] Gal?1-3GalNAc?Ser/Thr). The rupture forces for the heterotypic interactions ranged from 18- to 31 pN at a force-loading rate of ?0.5 nN/s. The thermally averaged distance from the bound complex to the transition state (x?) was estimated to be in the range 0.37-0.87 nm for the first barrier of the Bell Evans analysis and within 0.34-0.64 nm based on a lifetime analysis. These findings reveal that the binding strength and energy landscape for heterotypic interactions of Tn-PSM with the above mucins, resemble homotypic interactions of Tn-PSM. This suggests common carbohydrate epitope interactions for the Tn cancer antigen with the above mucin analogs, a finding that may be important to the role of the Tn antigen in cancer cells. PMID:25527429

  12. Transposition of Tn5096 from a temperature-sensitive transducible plasmid in Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed Central

    McHenney, M A; Baltz, R H

    1991-01-01

    Transposon Tn5096 was inserted into a derivative of the temperature-sensitive plasmid pMT660 containing the bacteriophage FP43 pac site. The resulting plasmid, pRHB126, was transduced by FP43 into several Streptomyces species. Tn5096 transposed from pRHB126 into different sites in the genomes of Streptomyces ambofaciens, Streptomyces cinnamonensis, Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), Streptomyces fradiae, Streptomyces griseofuscus, and Streptomyces thermotolerans. Images PMID:1653214

  13. Genetic and DNA sequence analysis of the kanamycin resistance transposon Tn903.

    PubMed Central

    Grindley, N D; Joyce, C M

    1980-01-01

    The kanamycin resistance transposon Tn903 consists of a unique region of about 1000 base pairs bounded by a pair of 1050-base-pair inverted repeat sequences. Each repeat contains two Pvu II endonuclease cleavage sites separated by 520 base pairs. We have constructed derivatives of Tn903 in which this 520-base-pair fragment is deleted from one or both repeats. Those derivatives that lack both 520-base-pair fragments cannot transpose, whereas those that lack just one remain transposition proficient. One such transposable derivative, Tn903 delta I, has been selected for further study. We have determined the sequence of the intact inverted repeat. The 18 base pairs at each end are identical and inverted relative to one another, a structure characteristic of insertion sequences. Additional experiments indicate that a single inverted repeat from Tn903 can, in fact, transpose; we propose that this element be called IS903. To correlate the DNA sequence with genetic activities, we have created mutations by inserting a 10-base-pair DNA fragment at several sites within the intact repeat of Tn903 delta 1, and we have examined the effect of such insertions on transposability. The results suggest that IS903 encodes a 307-amino-acid polypeptide (a "transposase") that is absolutely required for transposition of IS903 or Tn903. Images PMID:6261245

  14. Variation on a theme; an overview of the Tn916/Tn1545 family of mobile genetic elements in the oral and nasopharyngeal streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Francesco; Vianna, Morgana E.; Roberts, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    The oral and nasopharyngeal streptococci are a major part of the normal microbiota in humans. Most human associated streptococci are considered commensals, however, a small number of them are pathogenic, causing a wide range of diseases including oral infections such as dental caries and periodontitis and diseases at other body sites including sinusitis and endocarditis, and in the case of Streptococcus pneumoniae, meningitis. Both phenotypic and sequence based studies have shown that the human associated streptococci from the mouth and nasopharynx harbor a large number of antibiotic resistance genes and these are often located on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) known as conjugative transposons or integrative and conjugative elements of the Tn916/Tn1545 family. These MGEs are responsible for the spread of the resistance genes between streptococci and also between streptococci and other bacteria. In this review we describe the resistances conferred by, and the genetic variations between the many different Tn916-like elements found in recent studies of oral and nasopharyngeal streptococci and show that Tn916-like elements are important mediators of antibiotic resistance genes within this genus. We will also discuss the role of the oral environment and how this is conducive to the transfer of these elements and discuss the contribution of both transformation and conjugation on the transfer and evolution of these elements in different streptococci. PMID:25368607

  15. 78 FR 7993 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Tri-Cities, TN; Revocation of Class E Airspace; Tri-City, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... rulemaking (SNPRM) to amend Class D and Class E airspace in the Tri-Cities, TN, area (77 FR 59573). The SNPRM... originally proposed in the NPRM of April 28, 2012 (77 FR 21505). Interested parties were invited to... rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does...

  16. Tn6249, a new Tn6162 transposon derivative carrying a double-integron platform and involved with acquisition of the blaVIM-1 metallo-?-lactamase gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Pollini, Simona; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2015-03-01

    The In70.2 integron platform appears to be a conserved structure involved in the dissemination of the blaVIM-1 metallo-?-lactamase gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The genetic context of the In70.2 integron platform from P. aeruginosa VR-143/97, the VIM-1-producing index strain isolated in Italy in 1997, was fully characterized by a next-generation sequencing approach refined by conventional sequencing. The In70.2 integron platform from VR-143/97 was found to be associated with a defective Tn402-like transposon inserted into the urf2 gene of a Tn3 family transposon of an original structure, named Tn6249, which also carried a partially deleted mer operon and an In90 integron platform in a tail-to-tail orientation. Tn6249 was inserted into a PACS171b-like genomic island, which was in turn inserted into the endA gene of the Pseudomonas chromosomal backbone. Tn6249 showed a similar structure and a conserved location with respect to that of Tn6060, a Tn3 family transposon associated with In70.2 and carrying a double-integron platform, which was detected in a VIM-1-producing P. aeruginosa strain isolated in Australia in 2008. Both Tn6249 and Tn6060 are apparently derived from Tn6162, a mercury resistance transposon carrying an integron platform, which was found in P. aeruginosa isolates from different geographic locations. The conservation of the genetic context of Tn6249 and Tn6060 suggests an in situ evolution of these elements after the insertion of a Tn6162-like ancestor into the PACS171b-like genomic island (GI) present in the genome of a successful widespread P. aeruginosa clonal lineage. PMID:25547348

  17. Characterization of transposon Tn5086, carrying the site-specifically inserted gene dhfrVII mediating trimethoprim resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Sundstrm, L; Swedberg, G; Skld, O

    1993-01-01

    Two different enteric plasmids of widely separate origins were observed to carry a new 15.3-kb trimethoprim resistance transposon, Tn5086, also mediating resistance to mercuric ions and to a low level of sulfonamide. The trimethoprim resistance gene characterized from Tn5086 was found to be distinct from those found earlier and was designated type VII. Molecular analysis demonstrated that Tn5086 is closely related to Tn21. The internal part of Tn21 and Tn5086, the element referred to as the integron, was found to be different. First, the integron of Tn5086 contains a 0.62-kb cassette formed by the trimethoprim resistance gene dhfrVII and its immediate surroundings instead of the 0.86-kb aadA1 cassette of Tn21. Second, the integron of Tn5086 lacks a 4.2-kb segment 3' of sulI in Tn21. The dhfrVII gene commences with a UUG codon but was otherwise seen to be markedly related to the cassette genes dhfrI, dhfrV, and dhfrVI. The four related dihydrofolate reductases of 157 amino acids encoded by these genes contain a glutamate instead of the aspartic acid residue found at position 27 of the active center of the chromosomal enzyme from Escherichia coli. PMID:8383666

  18. Expression profile of mucin-associated sialyl-Tn antigen in Chinese patients with different colorectal lesions (adenomas, carcinomas)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Fan, Cuizhen; Fan, Shanshan; Liu, Fuquan; Wen, Tao; An, Guangyu; Feng, Guosheng

    2015-01-01

    Background: The sialyl-Tn (sTn) antigen is a mucin-associated carbohydrate antigen expressed by numerous human carcinomas, and is also claimed to be a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. But the associations between sTn and colorectal cancer remain elusive and controversial. Here, we investigated the expression profile of sTn antigen in a series of human colorectal tissue samples including normal colon, colorectal adenomas, and colorectal carcinomas (CRCs), with an aim to analyzing whether sTn plays a role in the progression and development of Chinese patients with CRCs. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining of sTn antigen was performed in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded colonic sections from 4 healthy controls, 44 patients with colorectal adenomas, and 186 patients with primary CRCs. Results: No sTn antigen was detected in normal colonic tissues. There were 41 of 44 patients with colorectal adenomas (93.2%), and 141 of 186 patients with CRCs (75.8%) found to express sTn antigen. The patterns of sTn localization were different in adenomas and carcinomas of colonic tissues. Colorectal adenomas showed predominant supranuclear distribution of sTn antigen, while carcinomas revealed apical membrane, mucin droplet and diffuse cytoplasmic localization. Notably, sTn was significantly associated with the degree of differentiation (P = 0.006) and perineural invasion (P = 0.041) of the tumors, but was independent of age, gender, tumor location, depth of penetration, status of lymph nodes, lymphovascular invasion and TNM stage. Conclusions: These results indicate that sTn may play a role in initiating colorectal carcinogenesis and promoting tumor progression. Determination of sTn expression and localization may assist in evaluating malignant status of colorectal lesions. PMID:26617889

  19. TRANSIT - A Software Tool for Himar1 TnSeq Analysis

    PubMed Central

    DeJesus, Michael A.; Ambadipudi, Chaitra; Baker, Richard; Sassetti, Christopher; Ioerger, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    TnSeq has become a popular technique for determining the essentiality of genomic regions in bacterial organisms. Several methods have been developed to analyze the wealth of data that has been obtained through TnSeq experiments. We developed a tool for analyzing Himar1 TnSeq data called TRANSIT. TRANSIT provides a graphical interface to three different statistical methods for analyzing TnSeq data. These methods cover a variety of approaches capable of identifying essential genes in individual datasets as well as comparative analysis between conditions. We demonstrate the utility of this software by analyzing TnSeq datasets of M. tuberculosis grown on glycerol and cholesterol. We show that TRANSIT can be used to discover genes which have been previously implicated for growth on these carbon sources. TRANSIT is written in Python, and thus can be run on Windows, OSX and Linux platforms. The source code is distributed under the GNU GPL v3 license and can be obtained from the following GitHub repository: https://github.com/mad-lab/transit PMID:26447887

  20. Nodulating Competitiveness of a Nonmotile Tn7 Mutant of Bradyrhizobium japonicum in Nonsterile Soil

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruilong; Tran, Van Mai; Schmidt, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    A nonmotile mutant of Bradyrhizobium japonicum serogroup 127 was generated by Tn7 mutagenesis and matched with the wild type against a common competitor in studies of soybean nodulation in nonsterile soil. The Tn7 mutant was very similar to the wild type in growth rate in culture, soybean lectin-binding ability, flagellar morphology, and nodulating capability, but it had a longer lag phase. Competing strains were distributed uniformly in soil in various ratios and at different population densities prior to planting. Mutant and wild type were equally prevalent in the seedling rhizosphere at about the time of nodule initiation, suggesting that motility conferred no advantage in rhizosphere colonization. Nodulation success of the Tn7 mutant was lower than that of the wild type under all test conditions. Differences were greatest at low soil populations of competitors and much less pronounced at initial populations of 107 g?1. The longer lag phase of the Tn7 mutant may have contributed to its decreased competitiveness, especially at the higher inoculation levels. The antibiotic and motility markers were stable, and the rifampin resistance derived from the parent did not affect adversely the competitiveness of the Tn7 mutant. We found motility to be of limited importance to the competitiveness of a strain in normal nonsterile soil, where the significance, if any, of this ability may be in migration at the immediate root surface in soils sparsely populated with rhizobial symbionts. PMID:16347986

  1. [Variations of annual load of TN and TP in the deep bay watershed, Shenzhen].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chen-Chen; Zhang, Shi-Yan; Mao, Xian-Zhong

    2014-11-01

    The empirical coefficient of sewage disposal, export coefficient model and mean concentration method were respectively used to estimate variations of annual load TN and TP from Shenzhen and Hong Kong areas in the Deep Bay Watershed from 1986 to 2011. The results showed that, the annual average loads of TN and TP were 10 388.2 t, 10 727.9 t, 10 937.3 t, and 2 694.5 t, 1 929.2 t, 1388.7 t, respectively in the whole watershed during three periods, 80s, 90s and years after 2000. With the rapid development of society, economy and the urbanization, annual pollution loading of TN and TP in Shenzhen area showed an obviously increase, 4373.6 t and 195.9 t, by 261.0% and 64.2% for point source, and 1067.2 t and 151.0 t, by 63.4% and 84.9% for non-point source, respectively. Non-point source with high pollution load was mainly caused by the expanding of land for construction and roads. The contribution ratios of TN and TP from Shenzhen area increased from 42.4% and 27.0% to 85.1% and 75.2%. Annual loads of TN and TP in Hong Kong area decreased 3 028.5 t and 1 031.5 t, by 66.3% and 79.0% reduced. PMID:25639083

  2. TRANSIT--A Software Tool for Himar1 TnSeq Analysis.

    PubMed

    DeJesus, Michael A; Ambadipudi, Chaitra; Baker, Richard; Sassetti, Christopher; Ioerger, Thomas R

    2015-10-01

    TnSeq has become a popular technique for determining the essentiality of genomic regions in bacterial organisms. Several methods have been developed to analyze the wealth of data that has been obtained through TnSeq experiments. We developed a tool for analyzing Himar1 TnSeq data called TRANSIT. TRANSIT provides a graphical interface to three different statistical methods for analyzing TnSeq data. These methods cover a variety of approaches capable of identifying essential genes in individual datasets as well as comparative analysis between conditions. We demonstrate the utility of this software by analyzing TnSeq datasets of M. tuberculosis grown on glycerol and cholesterol. We show that TRANSIT can be used to discover genes which have been previously implicated for growth on these carbon sources. TRANSIT is written in Python, and thus can be run on Windows, OSX and Linux platforms. The source code is distributed under the GNU GPL v3 license and can be obtained from the following GitHub repository: https://github.com/mad-lab/transit. PMID:26447887

  3. Tn5 transposase and tagmentation procedures for massively scaled sequencing projects

    PubMed Central

    Picelli, Simone; Björklund, Åsa K.; Reinius, Björn; Sagasser, Sven; Winberg, Gösta

    2014-01-01

    Massively parallel DNA sequencing of thousands of samples in a single machine-run is now possible, but the preparation of the individual sequencing libraries is expensive and time-consuming. Tagmentation-based library construction, using the Tn5 transposase, is efficient for generating sequencing libraries but currently relies on undisclosed reagents, which severely limits development of novel applications and the execution of large-scale projects. Here, we present simple and robust procedures for Tn5 transposase production and optimized reaction conditions for tagmentation-based sequencing library construction. We further show how molecular crowding agents both modulate library lengths and enable efficient tagmentation from subpicogram amounts of cDNA. The comparison of single-cell RNA-sequencing libraries generated using produced and commercial Tn5 demonstrated equal performances in terms of gene detection and library characteristics. Finally, because naked Tn5 can be annealed to any oligonucleotide of choice, for example, molecular barcodes in single-cell assays or methylated oligonucleotides for bisulfite sequencing, custom Tn5 production and tagmentation enable innovation in sequencing-based applications. PMID:25079858

  4. Synthesis and immunological evaluation of N-acyl modified Tn analogues as anticancer vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Song, Chengcheng; Sun, Shuang; Huo, Chang-Xin; Li, Qin; Zheng, Xiu-Jing; Tai, Guihua; Zhou, Yifa; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2016-02-15

    Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs), which are aberrantly expressed on the surface of tumor cells, are important targets for anticancer vaccine development. Herein, several N-acyl modified Tn analogues were synthesized and conjugated with carrier protein CRM197. The immunological results of these glycoconjugates indicated that 6-CRM197 elicited higher titers of antibodies which cross-reacted with native Tn antigen than the unmodified 2-CRM197 did. The IFN-?-producing frequency of lymphocytes in mice treated with 6-CRM197 was obviously increased, compared to that of mice vaccinated with 2-CRM197 (p=0.016), which was typically associated with the Th1 response. Moreover, the elicited antisera against antigen 6-CRM197 reacted strongly with the Tn-positive tumor cells, implying the potential of this glycoconjugate as an anticancer vaccine. PMID:26787275

  5. Tn5. 7 construction and physical mapping of pRPS404 containing photosynthetic genes from Rhodopseudomonas capsulata

    SciTech Connect

    Zsebo, K.M.; Wu, F.; Hearst J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A transposon, Tn5.7, has been constructed incorporating the transposition functions of Tn5 and the antibiotic-resistance factors from Tn7. It was used to mutagenize the plasmid pRPS404 which contains the photosynthetic genes of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata and is Kanamycin. In conjunction with the mutagenesis, physical mapping of the restriction endonuclease recognition sites for XhoI. Bg/II, KnpI, and SstI has been accomplished. 13 references, 2 figures.

  6. Novel Tn4371-ICE like element in Ralstonia pickettii and Genome mining for comparative elements

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Integrative Conjugative Elements (ICEs) are important factors in the plasticity of microbial genomes. An element related to the ICE Tn4371 was discovered during a bioinformatic search of the Ralstonia pickettii 12J genome. This element was analysed and further searches carried out for additional elements. A PCR method was designed to detect and characterise new elements of this type based on this scaffold and a culture collection of fifty-eight Ralstonia pickettii and Ralstonia insidiosa strains were analysed for the presence of the element. Results Comparative sequence analysis of bacterial genomes has revealed the presence of a number of uncharacterised Tn4371-like ICEs in the genomes of several β and γ- Proteobacteria. These elements vary in size, GC content, putative function and have a mosaic-like structure of plasmid- and phage-like sequences which is typical of Tn4371-like ICEs. These elements were found after a through search of the GenBank database. The elements, which are found in Ralstonia, Delftia, Acidovorax, Bordetella, Comamonas, Acidovorax, Congregibacter, Shewanella, Pseudomonas Stenotrophomonas, Thioalkalivibrio sp. HL-EbGR7, Polaromonas, Burkholderia and Diaphorobacter sp. share a common scaffold. A PCR method was designed (based on the Tn4371- like element detected in the Ralstonia pickettii 12J genome) to detect and characterise new elements of this type. Conclusion All elements found in this study possess a common scaffold of core genes but contain different accessory genes. A new uniform nomenclature is suggested for ICEs of the Tn4371 family. Two novel Tn4371-like ICE were discovered and characterised, using the novel PCR method described in two different isolates of Ralstonia pickettii from laboratory purified water. PMID:19941653

  7. Comparison of Friction Characteristics on TN and VA Mode Alignment Films with Friction Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Musun; Chung, Hanrok; Kwon, Hyukmin; Kim, Jehyun; Han, Daekyung; Yi, Yoonseon; Lee, Sangmun; Lee, Chulgu; Cha, Sooyoul

    Using frictional force microscopy (FFM), the friction surface characteristics were compared between twisted nematic (TN) mode and vertical alignment (VA) mode alignment films (AFs). The friction asymmetry was detected depending on temperature conditions on TN mode AF, but not on VA mode AF. The difference between two modes was explained by leaning intermolecular repulsion caused by the pre-tilt angle uniformity and the density of side chain. No level difference according to temperature conditions appeared when the pre-tilt angle were measured after liquid crystal (LC) injection.

  8. Quantitative assessment of Tn antigen in breast tissue micro-arrays using CdSe aqueous quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Au, Giang H T; Mejias, Linette; Swami, Vanlila K; Brooks, Ari D; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we examined the use of CdSe aqueous quantum dots (AQDs) each conjugated to three streptavidin as a fluorescent label to image Tn antigen expression in various breast tissues via a sandwich staining procedure where the primary monoclonal anti-Tn antibody was bound to the Tn antigen on the tissue, a biotin-labeled secondary antibody was bound to the primary anti-Tn antibody, and finally the streptavidin-conjugated AQDs were bound to the biotin on the secondary antibody. We evaluated the AQD staining of Tn antigen on tissue microarrays consisting of 395 cores from 115 cases including three tumor cores and one normal-tissue core from each breast cancer case and three tumor cores from each benign case. The results indicated AQD-Tn staining was positive in more than 90% of the cells in the cancer cores but not the cells in the normal-tissue cores and the benign tumor cores. As a result, AQD-Tn staining exhibited 95% sensitivity and 90% specificity in differentiating breast cancer against normal breast tissues and benign breast conditions. These results were better than the 90% sensitivity and 80% specificity exhibited by the corresponding horse radish peroxidase (HRP) staining using the same antibodies on the same tissues and those of previous studies that used different fluorescent labels to image Tn antigen. In addition to sensitivity and specificity, the current AQD-Tn staining with a definitive threshold was quantitative. PMID:24411673

  9. Tn4351 transposes in Bacteroides spp. and mediates the integration of plasmid R751 into the Bacteroides chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, N.B.; Getty, C.; Gardner, J.F.; Salyers, A.A.

    1986-03-01

    The gene for resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin, which is carried on the conjugative Bacteroides plasmid, pBF4, has been shown previously to be part of an element (Tn4351) that transposes in Escherichia coli. The authors have now introduced Tn4351 into Bacteroides uniformis 0061 on the following two suicide vectors: (i) the broad-host-range IncP plasmid R751 (R751::Tn4351) and (ii) pSS-2, a chimeric plasmid which contains 33 kilobases of pBF4 (including Tn4351) cloned into the IncQ plasmid RSF1010 and which is mobilized by R751. When E. coli HB101, carrying either R751::Tn4351 or R751 and pSS-2, was mated with B. uniformis under aerobic conditions, Em/sup r/ transconjugants were detected at a frequency of 10 /sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ (R751::Tn4351) or 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -6/ (R751 and pSS-2). In matings involving pSS-2, all Em/sup r/ transconjugants contained simple insertions of Tn4351 in the chromosome, whereas in matings involving R751::Tn4351, about half of the Em/sup r/ transconjugants had R751 cointegrated with Tn4351 in the chromosome. Of the Em/sup r/ transconjugants, 13% were auxotrophs. Bacteroides spp. which had R751 cointegrated with Tn4351 in the chromosome did not transfer R751 or Tn4351 to E. coli HB101 or to isogenic B. uniformis, nor did the integrated R751 mobilize pE5-2, an E. coli-Bacteroides shuttle vector that contains a transfer origin that is recognized by R751.

  10. 75 FR 28302 - American Food and Vending Spring Hill, TN; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration American Food and Vending Spring Hill, TN; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated April 6, 2010, the International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace...

  11. 78 FR 9988 - Noise Exposure Map Notice Nashville Interntional Airport, Nashville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice Nashville Interntional Airport, Nashville, TN... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by Metropolitan Nashville.... (Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act) and 14 CFR part 150 are in compliance with applicable...

  12. Insertion of Tn916 in Neisseria meningitidis resulting in loss of group B capsular polysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, D S; Swartley, J S; Kathariou, S; Morse, S A

    1991-01-01

    We recently found that the 16.4-kb conjugative transposon Tn916 could be introduced into Neisseria meningitidis by transformation and that it appeared to transpose to many different sites in the chromosome of recipient meningococci. In order to identify transposon-induced alterations of specific meningococcal virulence determinants, a library of meningococcal Tetr transformants containing Tn916 was made and screened for those altered in the production of group B capsular polysaccharide. A capsule-defective mutant, M7, was identified by using monoclonal and polyclonal antisera to group B polysaccharide in immunoblot and agar antiserum procedures. Growth of M7 was similar to that of the parent strain. M7 produced no group B capsular polysaccharide by rocket immunoelectrophoresis, and the mutation was stable during laboratory passage. The capsule-defective phenotype was linked to Tetr, as demonstrated by immunoblot and Southern blot analysis of progeny Tetr transformants (transformants of the parent strain obtained with DNA from M7). A capsule-deficient mutant, O8, was identified by using a similar approach. Analysis of the Tn916 insertions in M7 and O8 indicated that a significant portion of the transposon on either side of the tetM determinant had been lost. The ability of Tn916 to generate defined, stable mutations in meningococcal virulence determinants is demonstrated by our study. Images PMID:1657783

  13. IS10/Tn10 transposition efficiently accommodates diverse transposon end configurations.

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, R M; Kleckner, N

    1996-01-01

    Transposon Tn10 and its component insertion sequence IS10 move by non-replicative transposition. We have studied the array of reaction intermediates and products in a high efficiency in vitro IS10/Tn10 transposition reaction. Synapsis of two transposon ends, followed by cleavage and strand transfer, can occur very efficiently irrespective of the relative locations and orientations of the two ends. The two participating ends can occur in inverted or direct orientation on the same molecule or, most importantly, on two different molecules. This behavior contrasts sharply with that of Mu, in which transposition is strongly biased in favor of inverted repeat synapsis. Mechanistically, the absence of discrimination amongst various end configurations implies that the architecture within the IS10/Tn10 synaptic complex is relatively simple, i.e. lacking any significant intertwining of component DNA strands. Biologically these observations are important because they suggest that the IS10 insertion sequence module has considerable flexibility in the types of DNA rearrangements that it can promote. Most importantly, it now seems highly probable that a single non-replicative IS10 element can promote DNA rearrangements usually attributed to replicative transposition, i.e. adjacent deletions and cointegrates, by utilizing transposon ends on two sister chromosomes. Other events which probably also contribute to the diversity of IS10/Tn10-promoted rearrangements are discussed. Images PMID:8890185

  14. 78 FR 43971 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tri-Cities, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Class D and E airspace in the Tri-Cities, TN, area (78 FR 7993). The line defining the exclusion of...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  15. 75 FR 52367 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Memphis Pink Palace Museum, Memphis, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Memphis Pink Palace Museum, Memphis, TN AGENCY... American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory.... No associated funerary objects are present. Based on the skeletal and dental morphology, as well...

  16. 77 FR 17360 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Memphis, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... International Airport, TN (Lat. 35 02'33'' N., long. 89 58'36'' W.) ] Olive Branch, MS, Olive Branch...

  17. 76 FR 39379 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 78; Nashville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (75 FR 69398, 11/12/10) and the application... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 78; Nashville, TN Pursuant to its...

  18. Role of myofibril-inducing RNA in cardiac TnT expression in developing Mexican axolotl.

    PubMed

    Sferrazza, Gian Franco; Zhang, Chi; Jia, Pingping; Lemanski, Sharon L; Athauda, Gagani; Stassi, Alyssa; Halager, Kristine; Maier, Jennifer A; Rueda-de-Leon, Elena; Gupta, Amit; Dube, Syamalima; Huang, Xupei; Prentice, Howard M; Dube, Dipak K; Lemanski, Larry F

    2007-05-25

    The Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, has been a useful animal model to study heart development and cardiac myofibrillogenesis. A naturally-occurring recessive mutant, gene "c", for cardiac non-function in the Mexican axolotl causes a failure of myofibrillogenesis due to a lack of tropomyosin expression in homozygous mutant (c/c) embryonic hearts. Myofibril-inducing RNA (MIR) rescues mutant hearts in vitro by promoting tropomyosin expression and myofibril formation thereafter. We have studied the effect of MIR on the expression of various isoforms of cardiac troponin T (cTnT), a component of the thin filament that binds with tropomyosin. Four alternatively spliced cTnT isoforms have been characterized from developing axolotl heart. The expression of various cTnT isoforms in normal, mutant, and mutant hearts corrected with MIR, is evaluated by real-time RT-PCR using isoform specific primer pairs; MIR affects the total transcription as well as the splicing of the cTnT in axolotl heart. PMID:17408593

  19. [Transposon Tn5 and its derivatives used in genetic analysis of bacteria].

    PubMed

    Katsy, E I

    1993-01-01

    The review deals with the derivatives of transposon Tn5 carrying new genes of antibiotic resistance. The derivatives were constructed for mobilization of genetically labeled replicons, for direct selection of mutants having lost the marked plasmids, for obtaining the genes with the strong constitutive or regulated expression, for isolation of conditional mutations, for faster physical mapping of megaplasmids. PMID:8394506

  20. 77 FR 59994 - Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., Erwin, TN; Issuance of License Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMISSION Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., Erwin, TN; Issuance of License Renewal AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear... the issuance of License Renewal to Material License No. SNM-124, to Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (the... was previously noticed in the Federal Register on October 6, 2009 (74 FR 51323), with a notice of...

  1. 75 FR 20774 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mountain City, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... FR 63976), Docket No. FAA-2009-0061; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASO-10. The FAA uses the direct final... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mountain City, TN...

  2. 75 FR 8414 - Tennessee Disaster # TN-00036 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00036 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration...'s EIDL declaration, applications for economic injury disaster loans may be filed at the...

  3. Transposon mutagenesis of the anaerobic commensal, Bacteroides fragilis, using the EZ?TN5 transposome

    PubMed Central

    Veeranagouda, Yaligara; Husain, Fasahath; Wexler, Hannah M.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic analysis of Bacteroides fragilis (BF) is hindered due to the lack of efficient transposon mutagenesis methods. Here we describe a simple method for transposon mutagenesis using EZ?TN5, a commercially available system that we optimized for use in BF638R. The modified EZ?TN5 transposon contains an E. coli conditional origin of replication, a kanamycin resistance gene for E. coli, an erythromycin resistance gene for BF and 19 basepair transposase recognition sequences on either ends. Electroporation of the transposome (transposon-transposase complex) into BF638R yielded 3.2 0.35103 CFU/?g of transposon DNA. Modification of the transposon by the BF638R restriction/modification system increased transposition efficiency 6-fold. Electroporation of the EZ?TN5 transposome results in a single copy insertion of the transposon evenly distributed across the genome of BF638R and can be used to construct a BF638R transposon library. The transposon was also effective in mutating a BF clinical isolate and a strain of the related species, B. thetaiotaomicron. The EZ?TN5 based mutagenesis described here is more efficient than other transposon mutagenesis approaches previously reported for BF. PMID:22639975

  4. 75 FR 28303 - Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, TN; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... automotive clutch products produced by the workers' firm was directly incorporated into. The Department's Notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (FR 75 21358). The... Employment and Training Administration Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, TN; Notice of Revised Determination...

  5. A gene and its product required for transposition of resistance transposon Tn2603.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, M; Harafuji, H; Yamamoto, T

    1982-01-01

    Tn2603 is a multiple-resistance transposon encoding resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and mercury and having a molecular size of 20 kilobase pairs, with 200-base-pair inverted repeats at both ends. The essential sites and functions of Tn2603 which are required for its transposition were determined through construction and characterization of various deletion mutants affecting the efficiency of transposition. Deletions were introduced in plasmid pMK1::Tn2603 by partial digestion with restriction endonuclease EcoRI in vitro. Analysis of deletion mutants showed that the inverted repeat segments at both ends of the trans-acting diffusible product(s) encoded in the right-hand side of the central portion were required for the transposition of Tn2603. An essential gene product was revealed as a protein having a molecular weight of 110,000 by analysis of polypeptides synthesized in Escherichia coli minicells. This protein was assumed to be the so-called transposase. Images PMID:6284710

  6. 78 FR 27029 - Modification of Class C Airspace; Nashville International Airport; TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... International Airport, TN, Class C airspace area (78 FR 6257). Interested parties were invited to participate in... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory evaluation... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  7. Long-Term Variations of TN and TP in Four Typical Chinese Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Xu, Q.; Xi, B.; Wang, X.; Li, W.

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have examined long-term variations in the nutrients that cause lake eutrophication, namely total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP). As a result, little is known about the peaks/troughs and trends in TN and TP in lakes known to be vulnerable to eutrophication such as Lake Dongting, Lake Poyang, Lake Chao, and Lake Tai, all of which are located in the Yangtze River basin of China. The objectives of this study were therefore to: 1) detect possible step changes in nutrient time series data; and 2) elucidate TN and TP temporal trends at multiple (annual, seasonal, and monthly) time scales, as influenced by factors such as river-lake connectivity and lake hydrologic conditions (water depth and inflow source). The distribution-free cumulative sum technique and modified Mann-Kendall approach were applied to the long-term nutrient data measured for these four typical lakes and revealed that both TN and TP in Lake Dongting and Lake Poyang exhibited an upward trend at annual, seasonal, and monthly time scales, although they are oligotrophic lakes. The nutrient concentrations in Lake Dongting underwent a step change around 2003, which can be attributed to point and non-point source pollution, overexploitation, and dam construction. The TN values for Lake Chao and Lake Tai experienced step changes in 1999 and 2002, respectively. Before the step-change years, a significant (p-value < 0.05) upward trend in both TN and TP was detected for Lake Chao at the annual scale as well as in summer and May, but for Lake Tai this was manifested at the annual scale only. In contrast, after the step-change years, a significant downward trend was detected for both lakes at the corresponding time scales. As expected, the TN and TP concentrations in Lake Chao and Lake Tai, which are located in the lower basin of the Yangtze River, were noticeably higher than those in Lake Dongting and Lake Poyang, which are located in the middle basin.

  8. Dynamic and Static Water Molecules Complement the TN16 Conformational Heterogeneity inside the Tubulin Cavity.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sarmistha; Maiti, Satyabrata; Ghosh Dastidar, Shubhra

    2016-01-19

    TN16 is one of the most promising inhibitors of ?, ? dimer of tubulin that occupies the cavity in the ?-subunit located at the dimeric interface, known as the colchicine binding site. The experimentally determined structure of the complex (Protein Data Bank entry 3HKD) presents the conformation and position of the ligand based on the "best fit", keeping the controversy of other significant binding modes open for further investigation. Computation has already revealed that TN16 experiences fluctuations within the binding pocket, but the insight from that previous report was limited by the shorter windows of sampling and by the approximations on the surrounding environment by implicit solvation. This article reports that in most of the cases straightforward MMGBSA calculations of binding energy revealed a gradual loss of stabilization that was inconsistent with the structural observations, and thus, it indicated the lack of consideration of stabilizing factors with appropriate weightage. Consideration of the structurally packed water molecules in the space between the ligand and receptor successfully eliminated such discrepancies between the structure and stability, serving as the "litmus test" of the importance of explicit consideration of such structurally packed water in the calculations. Such consideration has further evidenced a quasi-degenerate character of the different binding modes of TN16 that has rationalized the observed intrinsic fluctuations of TN16 within the pocket, which is likely to be the most critical insight into its entropy-dominated binding. Quantum mechanical calculations have revealed a relay of electron density from TN16 to the protein via a water molecule in a concerted manner. PMID:26666704

  9. 77 FR 21505 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Blountville, TN, and Revocation of Class E Airspace...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR..., TN, and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Tri-City, TN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  10. 77 FR 13073 - Designation for the Jamestown, ND; Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... hours (7 CFR 1.27(c)). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the September 20, 2011 Federal Register (76 FR...; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration... October 20, 2011. In the Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA areas, Lincoln, Midsouth, and...

  11. FATE OF TN5 MUTANTS OF ROOT GROWTH-INHIBITING PSEUDOMONAS SP. IN INTACT SOIL-CORE MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transposon Tn5 mutants of a wheat root growth-inhibiting nonfluorescent Pseudomonas sp. were inoculated into intact soil-core microcosms to determine the utility of intact soil cores for evaluating the fate and transport of microorganisms in agricultural ecosystems. ransposon Tn5...

  12. 78 FR 25403 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dayton, TN, Establishment of Class E Airspace; Cleveland...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959..., TN, airspace description and removed from both the Dayton, TN, regulatory text as well as its...

  13. Chromosomal integration of plasmid DNA by homologous recombination in Enterococcus faecalis and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis hosts harboring Tn919.

    PubMed Central

    Casey, J; Daly, C; Fitzgerald, G F

    1991-01-01

    Integration of pCI192, a pBR322-derived vector plasmid containing homology to the chromosomally located conjugative transposon Tn919 was observed in two strains that harbor Tn919, namely, Enterococcus faecalis GF590 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CH919. Hybridization analysis indicated that single-copy integration of the plasmid had occurred at low frequency. The Tn919::plasmid structure was conjugated from an E. faecalis donor to a L. lactis recipient, although at lower frequencies than was Tn919. Segregation of the tetracycline and chloramphenicol resistance markers during conjugation was observed. The integration strategy described allows for DNA manipulations to be performed in an easily manipulated model host strain with the subsequent transfer of integrated structures by conjugation to any strain capable of receiving Tn919. The results indicate that homologous recombination events may be used to introduce plasmid-encoded genes to the lactococcal chromosome. Images PMID:1662938

  14. High-resolution structure of a new Tn antigen-binding lectin from Vatairea macrocarpa and a comparative analysis of Tn-binding legume lectins.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Bruno Lopes; Silva Filho, Jos Caetano; Kumar, Prashant; Pereira, Ronniery Ilrio; ?yskowski, Andrzej; Rocha, Bruno Anderson Matias; Delatorre, Plnio; Bezerra, Gustavo Arruda; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Gruber, Karl; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    2015-02-01

    Plant lectins have been studied as histological markers and promising antineoplastic molecules for a long time, and structural characterization of different lectins bound to specific cancer epitopes has been carried out successfully. The crystal structures of Vatairea macrocarpa (VML) seed lectin in complex with GalNAc-?-O-Ser (Tn antigen) and GalNAc have been determined at the resolution of 1.4? and 1.7?, respectively. Molecular docking analysis of this new structure and other Tn-binding legume lectins to O-mucin fragments differently decorated with this antigen provides a comparative binding profile among these proteins, stressing that subtle alterations that may not influence monosaccharide binding can, nonetheless, directly impact the ability of these lectins to recognize naturally occurring antigens. In addition to the specific biological effects of VML, the structural and binding similarities between it and other lectins commonly used as histological markers (e.g., VVLB4 and SBA) strongly suggest VML as a candidate tool for cancer research. PMID:25499445

  15. dnaA, an essential host gene, and Tn5 transposition.

    PubMed Central

    Yin, J C; Reznikoff, W S

    1987-01-01

    Mutations in dnaA, an essential gene in Escherichia coli, decrease the frequency of transposition of Tn5. An insertion mutation in the dnaA gene does not affect Tn5 gene expression. Therefore, the DnaA protein plays a role either in the transposition reaction itself or in some type of cellular regulation of transposition. Analysis of a mutation in the DnaA box, found at the outside end of IS50, is consistent with a direct interaction of the protein through these bases. IS50 transposition, which utilizes only one end containing a DnaA box, is not affected by dnaA mutations. Overproduction of the DnaA protein does not increase transposition frequencies in wild-type cells, even when the transposase is also overproduced. Images PMID:2820938

  16. A multifunctional gene (tetR) controls Tn10-encoded tetracycline resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Beck, C F; Mutzel, R; Barb, J; Mller, W

    1982-01-01

    The tetracycline resistance regulatory gene (tetR) of transposon Tn10 was analyzed by a combination of methods involving gene fusion and cloning. This gene is located on a 695-base pair HincII DNA fragment near the center of Tn10. The direction of transcription is opposite to that of neighboring gene tetA, which encodes the TetA protein. The gene product of the tetR gene (the TetR protein) has a molecular weight of 23,000. tet-R-lacZ gene fusions encode fusion beta-galactosidases that are membrane bound, indicating that the TetR protein itself is membrane associated. Mutants defective in tetR result in constitutive tetracycline resistance, but the level of resistance is reduced. Expression of the tetR gene is induced by tetracycline; in the absence of tetracycline, the TetR protein turns off its own synthesis. Images PMID:6279565

  17. Tn-Seq Explorer: A Tool for Analysis of High-Throughput Sequencing Data of Transposon Mutant Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Solaimanpour, Sina; Sarmiento, Felipe; Mrázek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Tn-seq is a high throughput technique for analysis of transposon mutant libraries. Tn-seq Explorer was developed as a convenient and easy-to-use package of tools for exploration of the Tn-seq data. In a typical application, the user will have obtained a collection of sequence reads adjacent to transposon insertions in a reference genome. The reads are first aligned to the reference genome using one of the tools available for this task. Tn-seq Explorer reads the alignment and the gene annotation, and provides the user with a set of tools to investigate the data and identify possibly essential or advantageous genes as those that contain significantly low counts of transposon insertions. Emphasis is placed on providing flexibility in selecting parameters and methodology most appropriate for each particular dataset. Tn-seq Explorer is written in Java as a menu-driven, stand-alone application. It was tested on Windows, Mac OS, and Linux operating systems. The source code is distributed under the terms of GNU General Public License. The program and the source code are available for download at http://www.cmbl.uga.edu/downloads/programs/Tn_seq_Explorer/ and https://github.com/sina-cb/Tn-seqExplorer. PMID:25938432

  18. Tn-seq explorer: a tool for analysis of high-throughput sequencing data of transposon mutant libraries.

    PubMed

    Solaimanpour, Sina; Sarmiento, Felipe; Mrzek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Tn-seq is a high throughput technique for analysis of transposon mutant libraries. Tn-seq Explorer was developed as a convenient and easy-to-use package of tools for exploration of the Tn-seq data. In a typical application, the user will have obtained a collection of sequence reads adjacent to transposon insertions in a reference genome. The reads are first aligned to the reference genome using one of the tools available for this task. Tn-seq Explorer reads the alignment and the gene annotation, and provides the user with a set of tools to investigate the data and identify possibly essential or advantageous genes as those that contain significantly low counts of transposon insertions. Emphasis is placed on providing flexibility in selecting parameters and methodology most appropriate for each particular dataset. Tn-seq Explorer is written in Java as a menu-driven, stand-alone application. It was tested on Windows, Mac OS, and Linux operating systems. The source code is distributed under the terms of GNU General Public License. The program and the source code are available for download at http://www.cmbl.uga.edu/downloads/programs/Tn_seq_Explorer/ and https://github.com/sina-cb/Tn-seqExplorer. PMID:25938432

  19. Genechip-detecting mutations in exon 8 in cTnI gene associated with FHCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanying; He, Nongyue; Guo, Huishi; Yang, Di; Wan, Wenhui; Bian, Zhiping; Zhang, Jinan

    2005-01-01

    As the rate of gene discovery accelerates, more efficient methods are needed to analyze genes in human tissues. Genechip, a kind of new device, is composed of DNA probes immobilized on a solid substrate. With the advantage of the high throughput information, genechip has become one of the best solutions to detect and analyse the mutations in genes. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common cause of the sudden death in the young, is one of the diseases damaging people health most badly. It is an autosomal dominant disease. More than 55% of the HCM patients are genetic. The mutations of exon 8 in the Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) gene are closely associated with Family Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (FHCM). Our purpose is to perform the assay of the mutations in exon 8 in cTnI gene based on the genechip theory and technology. Special probes were designed to fabricate the genechip to detect the mutations in cTnI gene simultaneously. We designed two oligonucleotide sequences 5"-end labeled with fluorescein, one simulating wild-type and the other simulating mutant. We mixed oligonucleotide I and II together to simulate heterozygote. After optimizing the hybridization protocols, the fabricated genechip can detect the mutations in exon 8 in cTnI gene with relative high sensitivity and specificity. When applying the fabricated genechip to detect the target DNA sequence, we found that the fully complementary probe gave a fluorescent signal almost 50% stronger than that of the one base mismatched one, which is in accordance with the result from theoretic estimate. It is believed that an applicable special genechip can be developed for investigating and diagnosing FHCM after further improvement.

  20. ROLE OF NA+ IN TRANSPORT OF HG2+ AND INDUCTION OF THE TN21 "MER" OPERON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of sodium ions on the uptake of Hg 2 + and induction of the TN21 mer operon were studied using E. coli HMS174 harboring the reporter plasmids pRB28 and pOS14. lasmid pRB28 carries merRT' and pOS14 carries merRTPC of the mer operon, both cloned upstream of a promoterle...

  1. Design analysis report for the TN-WHC cask and transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Brisbin, S.A., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    This document presents the evaluation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Cask and Transportation System. The system design was developed by Transnuclear, Inc. and its team members NAC International, Nelson Manufacturing, Precision Components Corporation, and Numatec, Inc. The cask is designated the TN-WHC cask. This report describes the design features and presents preliminary analyses performed to size critical dimensions of the system while meeting the requirements of the performance specification.

  2. Diversity and Evolution of the Tn5801-tet(M)-Like Integrative and Conjugative Elements among Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus.

    PubMed

    León-Sampedro, Ricardo; Novais, Carla; Peixe, Luísa; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the diversity and evolution of Tn5801 among enterococci, staphylococci, and streptococci based on analysis of the 5,073 genomes of these bacterial groups available in gene databases. We also examined 610 isolates of Enterococcus (from 10 countries, 1987 to 2010) for the presence of this and other known CTn-tet(M) elements due to the scarcity of data about Tn5801 among enterococci. Genome location (by ICeu-I-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] hybridization/integration site identification), conjugation and fitness (by standard methods), Tn5801 characterization (by long-PCR mapping/sequencing), and clonality (by PFGE/multilocus sequence typing [MLST]) were studied. Twenty-three Tn5801 variants (17 unpublished) clustered in two groups, designated "A" (25 kb; n = 14; predominant in Staphylococcus aureus) and "B" (20 kb; n = 9; predominant in Streptococcus agalactiae). The percent GC content of the common backbone suggests a streptococcal origin of Tn5801 group B, with further acquisition of a 5-kb fragment that resulted in group A. Deep sequence analysis allowed identification of variants associated with clonal lineages of S. aureus (clonal complex 8 [CC8], sequence type 239 [ST239]), S. agalactiae (CC17), Enterococcus faecium (ST17/ST18), or Enterococcus faecalis (ST8), local variants, or variants located in different species and geographical areas. All Tn5801 elements were chromosomally located upstream of the guaA gene, which serves as an integration hot spot. Transferability was demonstrated only for Tn5801 type B among E. faecalis clonal backgrounds, which eventually harbored another Tn5801 copy. The study documents early acquisition of Tn5801 by Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus. Clonal waves of these pathogens seem to have contributed to the geographical spread and local evolution of the transposon. Horizontal transfer, also demonstrated, could explain the variability observed, with the isolates often containing sequences of different origins. PMID:26729505

  3. Silicon nanowire biosensors for detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) with high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kihyun; Park, Chanoh; Kwon, Donghoon; Kim, Donghoon; Meyyappan, M; Jeon, Sangmin; Lee, Jeong-Soo

    2016-03-15

    We have demonstrated highly sensitive and label-free detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), a biomarker for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, using silicon nanowire field-effect transistors. A honeycomb-like structure is utilized for nanowire configuration to offer improved electrical performance and increased sensing area. The fabricated devices show n-type behavior with a relatively high ON-OFF current ratio, small sub-threshold swing and low gate leakage current. Monoclonal antibodies for cTnI were covalently immobilized on the nanowire surface and the attachment of antibodies is clearly visualized by atomic force microscope. The sensitivity with various concentrations of buffer solution was also investigated in order to determine the optimal buffer condition. The devices exhibit highest sensitivity under buffer solutions with low ion concentration. In addition, the detection limit of the sensor is as low as ~5 pg/mL, the lowest reported in the literature to date and nearly an order of magnitude smaller than the suggested threshold limit. The fabricated devices demonstrate a good selectivity for detecting cTnI. PMID:26496224

  4. Alteration of surface properties in a Tn5 mutant strain of Rhizobium trifolii 0403.

    PubMed

    Gardiol, A E; Hollingsworth, R I; Dazzo, F B

    1987-03-01

    A symbiotically defective mutant strain of Rhizobium trifolii, UR251, was obtained by transposon Tn5 mutagenesis of R. trifolii 0403 rif and recognized by its partially ineffective (Fix +/-) phenotype on white clover plants. UR251 had a single Tn5 insertion in plasmid DNA, a wild-type plasmid pattern, and no detectable Mu DNA sequences originally present in the vector used for Tn5 mutagenesis. Agglutination by the clover lectin trifoliin A and attachment to clover root hairs was higher with UR251 than with the wild-type strain. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of UR251 was altered, as shown by a slower rate of CPS depolymerization with a CPS beta-lyase, PD-I; more pyruvate and less acetate and 3-hydroxybutanoate noncarbohydrate substitutions as quantitated by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance; and a higher pyruvyl transferase activity (enzymatic pyruvylation of lipid-bound saccharides). The site of increased pyruvylation in the CPS of UR251 was on the terminal galactose of the branch of the repeating oligosaccharide unit. These results show that the level of noncarbohydrate substitutions of the CPS as well as pyruvyl transferase activity are altered in R. trifolii UR251 and that trifoliin A-binding ability and clover root hair attachment are improved in this mutant strain of R. trifolii 0403 rif. PMID:3029022

  5. Alteration of surface properties in a Tn5 mutant strain of Rhizobium trifolii 0403.

    PubMed Central

    Gardiol, A E; Hollingsworth, R I; Dazzo, F B

    1987-01-01

    A symbiotically defective mutant strain of Rhizobium trifolii, UR251, was obtained by transposon Tn5 mutagenesis of R. trifolii 0403 rif and recognized by its partially ineffective (Fix +/-) phenotype on white clover plants. UR251 had a single Tn5 insertion in plasmid DNA, a wild-type plasmid pattern, and no detectable Mu DNA sequences originally present in the vector used for Tn5 mutagenesis. Agglutination by the clover lectin trifoliin A and attachment to clover root hairs was higher with UR251 than with the wild-type strain. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of UR251 was altered, as shown by a slower rate of CPS depolymerization with a CPS beta-lyase, PD-I; more pyruvate and less acetate and 3-hydroxybutanoate noncarbohydrate substitutions as quantitated by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance; and a higher pyruvyl transferase activity (enzymatic pyruvylation of lipid-bound saccharides). The site of increased pyruvylation in the CPS of UR251 was on the terminal galactose of the branch of the repeating oligosaccharide unit. These results show that the level of noncarbohydrate substitutions of the CPS as well as pyruvyl transferase activity are altered in R. trifolii UR251 and that trifoliin A-binding ability and clover root hair attachment are improved in this mutant strain of R. trifolii 0403 rif. Images PMID:3029022

  6. IHF-independent assembly of the Tn10 strand transfer transpososome: implications for inhibition of disintegration

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Barry J.; Wardle, Simon J.; Haniford, David B.

    2002-01-01

    The frequency of DNA transposition in transposition systems that employ a strand transfer step may be significantly affected by the occurrence of a disintegration reaction, a reaction that reverses the strand transfer event. We have asked whether disintegration occurs in the Tn10 transposition system. We show that disintegration substrates (substrates constituting one half of the strand transfer product) are assembled into a transpososome that mimics the strand transfer intermediate. This strand transfer transpososome (STT) does appear to support an intermolecular disintegration reaction, but only at a very low level. Strikingly, assembly of the STT is not dependent on IHF, a host protein that is required for de novo assembly of all previously characterized Tn10 transpososomes. We suggest that disintegration substrates are able to form both transposon end and target type contacts with transposase because of their enhanced conformational flexibility. This probably allows the conformation of DNA within the complex that prevents the destructive disintegration reaction, and is responsible for relaxing the DNA sequence requirements for STT formation relative to other Tn10 transpososomes. PMID:12169640

  7. Tetracycline resistance transposon Tn1721: recA-dependent gene amplification and expression of tetracycline resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Wiebauer, K; Schraml, S; Shales, S W; Schmitt, R

    1981-01-01

    The 7.1-megadalton transposon Tn1721 codes for inducible tetracycline resistance (Tcr). The transposable element consists of a "minor transposon" (3.6 megadaltons) encoding functions required for transposition and a "tet region" (3.5 megadaltons) encoding resistance. Multiple tandem repeats of the tet region can be generated by recA-dependent gene amplification. This feature of Tn1721 has been used to analyze the relationship between gene dosage and Tcr. Derivatives of plasmid R388:Tn1721 containing from one to nine copies of the tet region were isolated and separately transformed into recA host cells, where they are stably maintained. The results of the study of Tcr in these strains were as follows: (i) the uninduced, "basal" level of Tcr was linearly related to gene dosage between 4 and 36 copies of tet per chromosome equivalent; (ii) the underlying mechanism could not be attributed to reduced accumulation of the drug; and (iii) induction with tetracycline elicited a four- to fivefold reduction in drug accumulation, independent of the gene dosage. Images PMID:6268611

  8. Tn-seq; high-throughput parallel sequencing for fitness and genetic interaction studies in microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    van Opijnen, Tim; Bodi, Kip L.; Camilli, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Biological pathways are structured in complex networks of interacting genes. Solving the architecture of such networks may provide valuable information, such as how microorganisms cause disease. Here we present a method (Tn-seq) for accurately determining quantitative genetic interactions on a genome-wide scale in microorganisms. Tn-seq is based on the assembly of a saturated Mariner transposon insertion library. After library selection, changes in frequency of each insertion mutant are determined by sequencing of the flanking regions en masse. These changes are used to calculate each mutant’s fitness. Fitness was determined for each gene of the gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, a causative agent of pneumonia and meningitis. A genome-wide screen for genetic interactions identified both alleviating and aggravating interactions that could be further divided into seven distinct categories. Due to the wide activity of the Mariner transposon, Tn-seq has the potential to contribute to the exploration of complex pathways across many different species. PMID:19767758

  9. Exchange bias in a ferromagnet/antiferromagnet system with TC<<TN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sossmeier, K. D.; Pereira, L. G.; Schmidt, J. E.; Geshev, J.

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports experimental results obtained on an unconventional exchange bias (EB) system where the ferromagnetic layer, Ni0.75Cu0.25, has lower ordering temperature (TC) than that (TN) of the antiferromagnetic one, NiO, with emphasis on modifying EB through either magnetic annealing or light-ion irradiation. Samples were cooled from temperatures higher than TN or in between TC and TN to room temperature with magnetic field applied in different in-plane directions. Upon ion irradiation, magnetic fields, parallel or antiparallel to the orientation of the field present during the films deposition, were applied to explore different effects on EB. We found that the EB direction can be completely reversed by means of either annealing or ion bombardment; however, both postdeposition treatments provide very little variation of the EB field value over that produced during the film's growth. The importance of the annealing field strength was also discussed. The results were interpreted based on a mechanism which assumes that the interfacial moments adjacent to the antiferromagnetic layer are responsible for establishing the exchange biasing in the paramagnetic state.

  10. Incised valley fill interpretation for Mississippian Black Hand Sandstone, Appalachian Basin, USA: Implications for glacial eustasy at Kinderhookian-Osagean (Tn2-Tn3) boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matchen, D.L.; Kammer, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Lower Mississippian strata of east-central Ohio are predominantly fine-grained marine deposits of the Cuyahoga and Logan formations. Within these sediments is the Black Hand Sandstone of the Cuyahoga Formation. The Black Hand Sandstone is a multistory, crossbedded, coarse-grained conglomeratic sandstone. The contact between the Black Hand Sandstone and the subjacent Cuyahoga Formation is sharp and scoured, with intraclasts of the Cuyahoga Formation incorporated into the basal Black Hand Sandstone. The Black Hand Sandstone was previously thought to represent a distributary channel deposit; however, the combination of lithofacies and architectural elements indicates deposition in a braided stream setting. The Cuyahoga Formation was deposited in a shallow marine setting. The erosional basal contact of the Black Hand Sandstone and the juxtaposition of fluvial and marine sediments suggests a sequence boundary. The geographic distribution of the Black Hand Sandstone combined with the evidence for a sequence boundary suggests deposition in an incised valley. The age of the Black Hand Sandstone is key to inferring the causes of valley incision. The Black Hand Sandstone is nearly devoid of body fossils, necessitating a biostratigraphic analysis of the surrounding Cuyahoga and Logan formations. Analysis indicates the Logan Formation is early Osagean age. Data from the Cuyahoga Formation suggest a Kinderhookian age with a possible transition to the Osagean in the uppermost Cuyahoga Formation. This constrains the age of the Black Hand Sandstone to the transition at the Kinderhookian-Osagean boundary. Recent reports indicate late Kinderhookian (Tournaisian, Tn2) Gondwanan glaciation based upon tillites and sharp excursions in stable-isotope curves. A glacio-eustatic fall in sea level is inferred to have caused incision of the Cuyahoga Formation, followed by deposition of the Black Hand Sandstone and Logan Formation during the subsequent sea level rise. The associated unconformity correlates to the sequence boundary at the Kinderhookian-Osagean boundary in the stratotype area of North America, and the correlative Tn2-Tn3 boundary worldwide, supporting the hypothesis of a global eustatic event at this time. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Effects of Total Nitrogen and BOD5/TN on Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation-Denitrification Synergistic Interaction of Mature Landfill Leachate in Aged Refuse Bioreactor].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying-ying; Chen, Yi; Lj, Ming-jie; Xie, Bing

    2015-04-01

    Mature landfill leachate, featured with high ammonium (NH4+) content and low biodegrade ability (low BOD5/COD ratio), is hard to be treated. This study mainly focused on the effects of influent TN (total nitrogen) loading and BOD5/TN ratios on the nitrogen removal efficiency of landfill leachate by landfill bioreactors. The results showed that when the influent total nitrogen loading was in the range of 15 g x (m3 x d)(-1) to 25 g x (m3 x d)(-1), the TN removal loading could remain stable between 10 g x (m3 x d)(-1) and 12 g x (m3 x d)(-1), while the TN removal efficiency decreased from 67.7% to 60.2% with the increasing loading. Therefore, TN loading shocks would lower the bioreactor's TN removal rate, but would not affect its TN removal loading. When the influent BOD5/TN ratio was increased from 0.3 to 0.4 and the TN loading was controlled at 9 g x (m3 x d)(-1), the TN removal rates were increased from 79.9% to 89.9% and 86.2% in anaerobic and aerobic, respectively. This implied that properly enhancing BOD5/TN ratio could significantly increase the TN removal efficiency of the bioreactor, and the effect was more significant under anaerobic condition. Analysis of nitrogen removal pathways showed that denitrification and anammox could take place synergistically in landfill bioreactor. PMID:26164920

  12. County Staff or Area Staff?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, William J.

    1970-01-01

    McIntryre explores the questions of county-based extention and increased specialization in Indiana. He compares the multi-county with individual county systems using variables including clientele's reactions to the two systems. (NL)

  13. Comprehensive identification of virulence factors required for respiratory melioidosis using Tn-seq mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Maria G; Yoder-Himes, Deborah R; Warawa, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory melioidosis is a disease presentation of the biodefense pathogen, Burkholderia pseudomallei, which is frequently associated with a lethal septicemic spread of the bacteria. We have recently developed an improved respiratory melioidosis model to study the pathogenesis of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the lung (intubation-mediated intratracheal [IMIT] inoculation), which more closely models descriptions of human melioidosis, including prominent septicemic spread from the lung and reduced involvement of the upper respiratory tract. We previously demonstrated that the Type 3 Secretion System cluster 3 (T3SS3) is a critical virulence determinant for B. pseudomallei when delivered directly into the lung. We decided to comprehensively identify all virulence determinants required for respiratory melioidosis using the Tn-seq phenotypic screen, as well as to investigate which virulence determinants are required for dissemination to the liver and spleen. While previous studies have used Tn-seq to identify essential genes for in vitro cultured B. pseudomallei, this represents the first study to use Tn-seq to identify genes required for in vivo fitness. Consistent with our previous findings, we identified T3SS3 as the largest genetic cluster required for fitness in the lung. Furthermore, we identified capsular polysaccharide and Type 6 Secretion System cluster 5 (T6SS5) as the two additional major genetic clusters facilitating respiratory melioidosis. Importantly, Tn-seq did not identify additional, novel large genetic systems supporting respiratory melioidosis, although these studies identified additional small gene clusters that may also play crucial roles in lung fitness. Interestingly, other previously identified virulence determinants do not appear to be required for lung fitness, such as lipopolysaccharide. The role of T3SS3, capsule, and T6SS5 in lung fitness was validated by competition studies, but only T3SS3 was found to be important for respiratory melioidosis when delivered as a single strain challenge, suggesting that competition studies may provide a higher resolution analysis of fitness factors in the lung. The use of Tn-seq phenotypic screening also provided key insights into the selective pressure encountered in the liver. PMID:26583079

  14. Comprehensive identification of virulence factors required for respiratory melioidosis using Tn-seq mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Maria G.; Yoder-Himes, Deborah R.; Warawa, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory melioidosis is a disease presentation of the biodefense pathogen, Burkholderia pseudomallei, which is frequently associated with a lethal septicemic spread of the bacteria. We have recently developed an improved respiratory melioidosis model to study the pathogenesis of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the lung (intubation-mediated intratracheal [IMIT] inoculation), which more closely models descriptions of human melioidosis, including prominent septicemic spread from the lung and reduced involvement of the upper respiratory tract. We previously demonstrated that the Type 3 Secretion System cluster 3 (T3SS3) is a critical virulence determinant for B. pseudomallei when delivered directly into the lung. We decided to comprehensively identify all virulence determinants required for respiratory melioidosis using the Tn-seq phenotypic screen, as well as to investigate which virulence determinants are required for dissemination to the liver and spleen. While previous studies have used Tn-seq to identify essential genes for in vitro cultured B. pseudomallei, this represents the first study to use Tn-seq to identify genes required for in vivo fitness. Consistent with our previous findings, we identified T3SS3 as the largest genetic cluster required for fitness in the lung. Furthermore, we identified capsular polysaccharide and Type 6 Secretion System cluster 5 (T6SS5) as the two additional major genetic clusters facilitating respiratory melioidosis. Importantly, Tn-seq did not identify additional, novel large genetic systems supporting respiratory melioidosis, although these studies identified additional small gene clusters that may also play crucial roles in lung fitness. Interestingly, other previously identified virulence determinants do not appear to be required for lung fitness, such as lipopolysaccharide. The role of T3SS3, capsule, and T6SS5 in lung fitness was validated by competition studies, but only T3SS3 was found to be important for respiratory melioidosis when delivered as a single strain challenge, suggesting that competition studies may provide a higher resolution analysis of fitness factors in the lung. The use of Tn-seq phenotypic screening also provided key insights into the selective pressure encountered in the liver. PMID:26583079

  15. Hancock County Awards Gala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Gene Goldman (left), deputy director of NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, accepts an Award of Excellence from Jack Zink, executive director of the Hancock County Port and Harbor Commission, during the 2008 Annual Hancock County Awards Gala. The Award of Excellence was presented to recognize Stennis Space Center's contribution to NASA's 50 years of excellence in space exploration.

  16. 75 FR 61696 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, TN; Application for Subzone; Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... America, Inc. (Carbon Fiber and Oxidized Polyacrylonitrile Fiber Manufacturing); Rockwood, TN An... carbon fiber and oxidized polyacrylonitrile fiber (OPF) manufacturing and warehousing facilities of Toho... manufacturing, warehousing and distribution of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)--based carbon fiber and OPF (up to...

  17. Transfer of Vancomycin Resistance Transposon Tn1549 from Clostridium symbiosum to Enterococcus spp. in the Gut of Gnotobiotic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Launay, Aline; Ballard, Susan A.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Grayson, M. Lindsay; Lambert, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    The vancomycin resistance vanB2 gene cluster is disseminated worldwide and has been found in phylogenetically remote bacterial genera. The vanB2 operon is part of conjugative transposons Tn1549/Tn5382, but conjugative transposition of these elements has not been demonstrated. We have obtained transfer of a Tn1549-like element (referred to herein as “Tn1549-like”) from Clostridium symbiosum MLG101 to Enterococcus faecium 64/3 and Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice and to E. faecium 64/3 in vitro. Retransfer of Tn1549-like from an E. faecium transconjugant also containing Tn916 to E. faecium BM77 was obtained in vitro, albeit at a very low frequency. Transfer efficiency was found to be both donor and recipient dependent. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of total SmaI-digested DNA of 48 transconjugants indicated in 27 instances the acquisition of ca. 34 kb of DNA. Two transconjugants harbored two copies of the transposon. Sequencing of the flanking regions of Tn1549-like in 48 transconjugants revealed 29 integration events in 26 loci in the E. faecium genome, and two hot spots for insertion were identified. Integration of the transposon was associated with the acquisition of 5 (n = 18) or 6 (n = 7) bp of donor DNA or with 5-bp duplications of target DNA in the remaining transconjugants. These data demonstrate functionality of the Tn1549-like element and attest that the transfer of the vanB operon between enterococci and human commensal anaerobes occurs in the intestinal environment. PMID:16495268

  18. The Listeria monocytogenes transposon Tn6188 provides increased tolerance to various quaternary ammonium compounds and ethidium bromide.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anneliese; Rychli, Kathrin; Zaiser, Andreas; Wieser, Cornelia; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2014-12-01

    Tolerance of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to sublethal concentrations of disinfectants has been frequently reported. Particularly, quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) are often used in disinfectants and also as antiseptics in food industry and hospitals. Recently, we described Tn6188, a novel transposon in L. monocytogenes harbouring the transporter QacH, a molecular mechanism leading to increased tolerance to BC. In this study, we investigated the presence of Tn6188 within the genus Listeria spp. Our screening indicates that the distribution of Tn6188 may be limited to L. monocytogenes. We confirm that QacH is responsible for the observed increase in tolerance by complementation of a qacH deletion mutant and introducing qacH in a Tn6188 negative strain. We investigated the transporter's substrate spectrum by determining minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and showed that QacH also confers higher tolerance towards other QACs and ethidium bromide (EtBr). This result was supported by increased expression of qacH in the presence of the various substrates as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). In addition, we detected expression of a Tn6188 transposase gene and circular forms of Tn6188, suggesting activity and possible transfer of this transposon. PMID:25312720

  19. Nitrogen removal from low COD/TN ratio manure-free piggery wastewater within an upflow microaerobic sludge reactor.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jia; Li, Jiuling; Li, Jianzheng; Antwi, Philip; Deng, Kaiwen; Wang, Cheng; Buelna, Gerardo

    2015-12-01

    An upflow microaerobic sludge reactor (UMSR) was constructed in treating manure-free piggery wastewater with high ammonium concentration and a COD/TN ratio as low as 0.84. The UMSR offered an outstanding removal of NH4(+)-N and TN at 35C and hydraulic retention time 8h subsequent to inoculated sludge acclimation. A short NO2(-)-N accumulation phase was observed whenever there was a considerable increase in TN loading rate (NLR), but decreased rapidly along with an evident increase in TN removal. Fed with raw wastewater at a NLR of 1.10kg/(m(3)d), the average COD, NH4(+)-N and TN removal reached 0.72, 0.76 and 0.94kg/(m(3)d), respectively. Inference drawn from stoichiometry based on the potential nitrogen removal pathways and the C/N ratio required by denitrification indicated that anammox was the main mechanism for NH4(+)-N and TN removal in the UMSR. PMID:26409858

  20. County by County in Ohio Genealogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khouw, Petta; And Others

    This comprehensive sourcebook and bibliography lists Ohio genealogical materials available at the State Library of Ohio for each county in the state. It serves as a guide to Ohio genealogical resources, including 14,000 volumes and 15,000 microforms in the non-circulating genealogy collection. The library's genealogy collection consists of a broad…

  1. 10. Photocopy of photograph showing the three Walker sisters ginning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph showing the three Walker sisters ginning cotton. Misses Hettie, Martha and Louisa are from left to right. The original photograph was taken on May 21, 1936 by Edouard E. Exline and is one of five photographs in the album, 'A Sketch of Mountain Life: Great Smoky Mountains National Park', compiled by Edouard E. Exline and C.S. Grossman. The album is on file at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the photograph number is III-A-HSE-9642. - Walker Family Farm (General views), Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  2. 4. Photocopy of photograph showing the corn crib as it ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph showing the corn crib as it looked on May 21, 1936. This structure was also used as a gear shed. Immediately to the right of the shed is Hettie Walker and an unidentified family member or friend. The original photograph was taken by Edouard E. Exline and is one of five photographs in the album, 'A Sketch of Mountain Life: Great Smoky Mountains National Park', compiled by Edouard E. Exline and C.S. Grossman. The album is on file at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the photograph number is II-B-(7)-8091. - Walker Family Farm, Corn Crib, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. 5. Photocopy of May 21, 1936 photograph showing the interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of May 21, 1936 photograph showing the interior of the Big House (main portion, living-bedroom). The woman is Hettie Walker. The fireplace is on the house's front side. The original photograph was taken by Edouard E. Exline and is one of five photographs in the album, 'A Sketch of Mountain Life: Great Smoky Mountains National Park', compiled by Edouard E. Exline and C.S. Grossman. The album is on file at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the photograph number is II-B-(7)-8086. - Walker Family Farm, Big House, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  4. Tn916-generated, lipooligosaccharide mutants of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, D S; McAllister, C F; Zhou, D; Lee, F K; Apicella, M A

    1994-01-01

    A library of Tn916-generated, tetracycline-resistant (Tc) mutants of the group B Neisseri meningitidis strain NMB was screened by using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognize structural differences in neisserial lipooligosaccharide (LOS). The LOS of parental strain NMB had a relative molecular mass of 4.5 kDa, reacted with MAbs 3F11 and 6B4 but not with MAb 4C4 or 6E4, and contained a lacto-N-neotetrose unit. Two phenotypically stable mutants, SS3 and R6, altered in LOS, were identified by colony immunoblots, electrophoresis, and Western immunoblots. The LOS of mutant SS3 was 3.4 kDa and reacted with MAbs 4C4 and 6E4 but not MAb 3E11 or 6B4. The LOS of mutant R6 was 3.1 to 3.2 kDa and reacted with MAb 6E4 but not MAb 3F11, 6B4, or 4C4. Thus, the LOSs of the R6 and SS3 mutants were predicted to contain different truncations of the core oligosaccharide. The LOS phenotype of each mutant was linked to Tc(r), as determined by transformation of the parent strain with DNA from the mutant. Southern hybridizations and single-specific-primer PCR revealed in each mutant a single truncated tn916 insertion which had lost genes required for mobilization. Tn916 mutagenesis was used to identify two distinct genetic sites in the meningococcal chromosome involved in biosynthesis of the oligosaccharide chain of LOS and to create genetically defined LOS mutants of N. meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Images PMID:7516313

  5. The 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Rebecca; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2015-04-01

    The 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland, was much more explosive than previous eruptions, specifically its 2004 eruption. This research examines the degassing processes of the 2011 eruption, through density and vesicule analyses, to help uncover the reasons for the more vigorous eruption. Over 1200 collected tephra samples from the 2011 sequences are measured for density and vesicularity. Several samples are chosen to be representative of eruptive phases; samples from the beginning of the eruption, the mid-eruption and the end phases are chosen. These pumice samples are impregnated with epoxy and made into plugs for use in a Scanning Electron Microscope with which, a nested image approach is taken to image the vesicules of the samples at different magnifications. Each backscatter image is converted to binary and corrected using GIMP. Using ImageJ software, quantitative vesicularity analysis of the images is performed and results are converted to volume. The density, quantitative vesicularity, and volume results are assessed for patterns and the processes of the magma during the ascent in the conduit and eruptive phases are inferred. The objective of this research is to use the microscopic vesicularity analyses of the eruptive products to theorize the larger scale magmatic and degassing processes and to understand why the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption was uncharacteristically explosive. Currently, the results are being examined and have not been included in this abstract, however the research will be finalized in time for presentation at the EGU 2015 conference. Keywords: Grímsvötn volcano, quantitative vesicularity analysis, bubble size distribution, volcanic degassing, conduit processes

  6. Metabolite Profiling Reveals Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Tn5 Mutant of Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Vasvi; Bhatia, Anil; Bharti, Santosh Kumar; Mishra, Shashank Kumar; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Mishra, Aradhana; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas is an efficient plant growthpromoting rhizobacteria (PGPR); however, intolerance to drought and high temperature limit its application in agriculture as a bioinoculant. Transposon 5 (Tn5) mutagenesis was used to generate a stress tolerant mutant from a PGPR Pseudomonas putida NBRI1108 isolated from chickpea rhizosphere. A mutant NBRI1108T, selected after screening of nearly 10,000 transconjugants, exhibited significant tolerance towards high temperature and drought. Southern hybridization analysis of EcoRI and XhoI restricted genomic DNA of NBRI1108T confirmed that it had a single Tn5 insertion. The metabolic changes in the polar and non-polar extracts of NBRI1108 and NBRI1108T were examined using 1H, 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thirty six chemically diverse metabolites consisting of amino acids, fatty acids and phospholipids were identified and quantified. Insertion of Tn5 influenced amino acid and phospholipid metabolism and resulted in significantly higher concentration of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycinebetaine, glycerophosphatidylcholine (GPC) and putrescine in NBRI1108T as compared to that in NBRI1108. The concentration of glutamic acid, glycinebetaine and GPC increased by 34%, 95% and 100%, respectively in the NBRI1108T as compared to that in NBRI1108. High concentration of glycerophosphatidylethanolamine (GPE) and undetected GPC in NBRI1108 indicates that biosynthesis of GPE may have taken place via the methylation pathway of phospholipid biosynthesis. However, high GPC and low GPE concentration in NBRI1108T suggest that methylation pathway and phosphatidylcholine synthase (PCS) pathway of phospholipid biosynthesis are being followed in the NBRI1108T. Application of multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) on the quantified metabolites revealed clear variations in NBRI1108 and NBRI1108T in polar and non-polar metabolites. Identification of abiotic stress tolerant metabolites from the NBRI1108T suggest that Tn5 mutagenesis enhanced tolerance towards high temperature and drought. Tolerance to drought was further confirmed in greenhouse experiments with maize as host plant, where NBRI1108T showed relatively high biomass under drought conditions. PMID:25629312

  7. Mutagenesis of dimeric plasmids by the transposon. gamma. delta. (Tn1000)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Berg, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The Escherichia coli F factor mediates conjugal transfer of a plasmid such as pBR322 primarily by replicative transposition of transposon {gamma}{delta} (Tn1000) from F to that plasmid to form a cointegrate intermediate. Although resolution of this cointegrate always yields a plasmid containing a single {gamma}{delta} insertion, the occasional recovery of transposon-free plasmids after connuugal transfer has led to alternative hypotheses for F mobilization. The authors show here that {gamma}{delta}-free plasmids are found after F-mediated conjugal transfer only when the donor plasmid is a dimer and the recipient is Rec{sup +}.

  8. Regulatory roles of spnT, a novel gene located within transposon TnTIR.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jun-Rong; Soo, Po-Chi; Horng, Yu-Tze; Hsieh, Shang-Chen; Tsai, Yu-Huan; Swift, Simon; Withers, Helen; Williams, Paul; Lai, Hsin-Chih

    2006-09-29

    The transposon TnTIR contains spnIR quorum-sensing system regulating sliding motility and the production of nuclease, biosurfactant, and prodigiosin in Serratia marcescens. Within TnTIR, a gene named spnT is upstream of and co-transcribed with spnI. SpnT is a cytoplasmic protein and its level peaks during early stationary phase. spnT over-expression resulted in inhibition of sliding motility and synthesis of prodigiosin, and biosurfactant similar to spnR. spnT but not spnR over-expression induced cell elongation and aberrant DNA replication in S. marcescens and Escherichia coli strains. In comparison with wild-type E. coli strain, over-expression of spnT in an E. coli priA and dnaC double-mutant strain did not lead to the aberrant cell morphology phenotypes, suggesting SpnT may act through the recombination-dependent DNA replication system. As spnT over-expression inhibited swarming but not swimming motility, SpnT may indirectly function as a negative regulator of surface-dependent migration and secondary metabolite production. PMID:16899219

  9. Avoiding the ends: internal epitope tagging of proteins using transposon Tn7.

    PubMed

    Zordan, Rebecca E; Beliveau, Brian J; Trow, Jonathan A; Craig, Nancy L; Cormack, Brendan P

    2015-05-01

    Peptide tags fused to proteins are used in a variety of applications, including as affinity tags for purification, epitope tags for immunodetection, or fluorescent protein tags for visualization. However, the peptide tags can disrupt the target protein function. When function is disrupted by fusing a peptide to either the N or C terminus of the protein of interest, identifying alternative ways to create functional tagged fusion proteins can be difficult. Here, we describe a method to introduce protein tags internal to the coding sequence of a target protein. The method employs in vitro Tn7-transposon mutagenesis of plasmids for random introduction of the tag, followed by subsequent Gateway cloning steps to isolate alleles with mutations in the coding sequence of the target gene. The Tn7-epitope cassette is designed such that essentially all of the transposon is removed through restriction enzyme digestion, leaving only the protein tag at diverse sites internal to the ORF. We describe the use of this system to generate a panel of internally epitope-tagged versions of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPI-linked membrane protein Dcw1 and the Candida glabrata transcriptional regulator Sir3. This internal protein tagging system is, in principle, adaptable to tag proteins in any organism for which Gateway-adapted expression vectors exist. PMID:25745023

  10. Tn5-induced mutations affecting sulfur-oxidizing ability (Sox) of Thiosphaera pantotropha

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, T.S.; Friedrich, C.G.

    1986-05-01

    Mutants of Thiosphaera pantotropha defective in chemolithoautotrophic growth were obtained by transpositional mutagenesis with Tn5 coding for kanamycin resistance. The suicide vehicle for introducing Tn5 to T. pantotropha was pSUP5011 harbored by Escherichia coli. Kanamycin-resistant isolates were screened for the inability to grow with reduced sulfur compounds (Sox/sup -/). Four classes of Sox/sup -/ mutants were obtained. Three were of different pleiotropic phenotypes: (i) unable to grow with formate, nitrate, and xanthine; (this class strongly suggested the involvement of a molybdenum cofactor in inorganic sulfur-oxidizing ability); (ii) no growth with hydrogen; (iii) slight growth with hydrogen and formate. Two plasmids, pHG41 (about 450 kilobase pairs) and pHG42 (110 kilobases), were identified in lysates of T. pantotropha. In one Sox/sup -/ mutant pHG41 could not be detected. Revertant analysis suggested that pHG41 and pHG42 were not involved in the Sox character.

  11. Excision and Transposition of Tn5 as an Sos Activity in Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, C. T.; Liu, S. K.; Tessman, I.

    1991-01-01

    Excision and transposition of the Tn5 element in Escherichia coli ordinarily appear to occur by recA-independent mechanisms. However, recA(Prt(c)) genes, which encode RecA proteins that are constitutively activated to the protease state, greatly enhanced excision and transposition; both events appeared to occur concomitantly and without destruction of the donor DNA. The recombinase function of the RecA protein was not required. Transposition was accompanied by partial, and occasionally full, restoration of the functional integrity of the gene vacated by the excised Tn5. The stimulation of transposition was inhibited by an uncleavable LexA protein and was strongly enhanced by an additional role of the RecA(Prt(c)) protein besides its mediation of LexA cleavage. To account for the enhanced transposition, we suggest that (i) there may be a LexA binding site within the promoter for the IS50 transposase, (ii) activated RecA may cleave the IS50 transposition inhibitor, and (iii) the transposase may be formed by RecA cleavage of a precursor molecule. PMID:1648004

  12. Target DNA bending is an important specificity determinant in target site selection in Tn10 transposition.

    PubMed

    Pribil, Patrick A; Haniford, David B

    2003-07-01

    The bacterial transposon Tn10 inserts preferentially into specific DNA sequences. DNA footprinting and interference studies have revealed that the Tn10-encoded transposase protein contacts a large stretch of target DNA ( approximately 24 bp) and that the target DNA structure is deformed upon incorporation into the transpososome. Target DNA deformation might contribute significantly to target site selection and thus it is of interest to further define the nature of this deformation. Circular permutation analysis was used to demonstrate that the target DNA is bent upon its incorporation into the transpososome. Two lines of evidence are presented that target DNA bending is an important event in target site selection. First, we demonstrate a correlation between increased target site usage and an increased level of target DNA bending. Second, transposase mutants with relaxed target specificity are shown to cause increased target DNA bending relative to wild-type transposase. This latter observation provides new insight into how relaxed specificity may be achieved. We also show that Ca(2+) facilitates target capture by stabilizing transposase interactions with sequences immediately flanking the insertion site. Ca(2+) could, in theory, exert this effect by stabilizing bends in the target DNA. PMID:12823965

  13. Triboelectric charging of volcanic ash from Grímsvötn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, Isobel; Aplin, Karen; Nicoll, Keri

    2013-04-01

    Volcanic ash is known to charge electrically, producing some of the most spectacular displays of lightning in nature. Triboelectric charging is one mechanism associated with volcanic plume electrification. Previous theoretical work on triboelectric charging of single-material particle systems has shown that the charging is likely to be determined by the number size distribution (Lacks and Levandovsky, 2007). Here we investigate triboelectric charging of a sample of ash from the Grímsvötn eruption in 2011 using a specially designed apparatus. Ash is released to fall under gravity through a screened metal cylinder and into an isolated Faraday cup. A sensitive electrometer is used to measure the voltage change associated with the charge on the ash. The release mechanism has been designed to facilitate only self-charging of the ash, as is expected in the atmospheric plume. Using geological sieves to separate the sample into different size fractions, we were able to create artificial size distributions to investigate the effects of changing the number size distribution. We find that for a sample with a narrow range of particle sizes, the Faraday cup voltage change is much smaller than for a sample with a wide range of particle sizes, in agreement with theory. These results demonstrate that self-charging of ash through triboelectrification is likely, supporting both a frictional origin for the sustained lightning observed during the Grímsvötn eruption, and other observations of self-charging in a plume distant from the source.

  14. Isolation and characterization of transposon Tn5-induced symbiotic mutants of Rhizobium loti.

    PubMed

    Chua, K Y; Pankhurst, C E; Macdonald, P E; Hopcroft, D H; Jarvis, B D; Scott, D B

    1985-04-01

    Rhizobium loti NZP2037 and NZP2213, each cured of its single large indigenous plasmid, formed effective nodules on Lotus spp., suggesting that the symbiotic genes are carried on the chromosome of these strains. By using pSUP1011 as a vector for introducing transposon Tn5 into R. loti NZP2037, symbiotic mutants blocked in hair curling (Hac), nodule initiation (Noi), bacterial release (Bar), and nitrogen fixation (Nif/Cof) on Lotus pedunculatus were isolated. Cosmids complementing the Hac, Noi, and Bar mutants were isolated from a pLAFR1 gene library of NZP2037 DNA by in planta complementation and found to contain EcoRI fragments of identical sizes to those into which Tn5 had inserted in the mutants. The cosmids that complemented the mutants of these phenotypic classes did not share common fragments, nor did cosmids that complemented four mutants within the Noi class, suggesting that these symbiotically important regions are not tightly linked on the R. loti chromosome. PMID:2984178

  15. The Sugar Creek zinc deposit, Jackson Co. TN -- Exploration history, geology and mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Reinbold, G.; Moran, A.V.; Stevens, D.L. )

    1993-03-01

    During the 60's and 70's zinc exploration of central TN and KY was active. The Sugar Creek Project was one of several investigated by Exxon. The discovery hole, Cu 15, was drilled in early 1973. The Sugar Creek Zinc Deposit was acquired by Independence Mining Co. in 1986 and I.M.C. has subsequently completed additional drilling, both stepout and confirmation holes. A total of 137 holes for 300,833 ft have been drilled. The Sugar Creek deposit is a typical Tennessee zinc deposit (Mississippi Valley Type) which occurs in solution collapse breccias in the Lower Ordovician, Knox Dolomite. The Knox consists of fine grained dolomite with interlayered limestones and crystalline dolomite. Only scattered residual limestone is found in the Sugar Creek area. Collapse breccias have formed which control zinc deposition and are similar to other TN Zn. deposits. At Sugar Creek the types of breccias include: a vertically exaggerated glory hole breakthrough breccia which extends to within 137 ft. of the Knox unconformity, has 500 ft. of zinc mineralization with 8 significant zinc intervals; holes with stacked zinc intervals interpreted to be sides of breakthrough breccia; and single zinc intervals in laterally positioned bedded mineral zones. A total of 99 holes were drilled in the more intense mineralized areas. The ratio of ore to non ore holes is nearly 1 to 1. The mineralization is typical M.V.T. with predominantly sphalerite and only minor occurrences of galena, fluorite, pyrite, etc.

  16. The Tn7 transposition regulator TnsC interacts with the transposase subunit TnsB and target selector TnsD

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ki Young; Spencer, Jeanelle M.; Craig, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    The excision of transposon Tn7 from a donor site and its insertion into its preferred target site, attachment site attTn7, is mediated by four Tn7-encoded transposition proteins: TnsA, TnsB, TnsC, and TnsD. Transposition requires the assembly of a nucleoprotein complex containing all four Tns proteins and the DNA substrates, the donor site containing Tn7, and the preferred target site attTn7. TnsA and TnsB together form the heteromeric Tn7 transposase, and TnsD is a target-selecting protein that binds specifically to attTn7. TnsC is the key regulator of transposition, interacting with both the TnsAB transposase and TnsD-attTn7. We show here that TnsC interacts directly with TnsB, and identify the specific region of TnsC involved in the TnsBTnsC interaction during transposition. We also show that a TnsC mutant defective in interaction with TnsB is defective for Tn7 transposition both in vitro and in vivo. Tn7 displays cis-acting target immunity, which blocks Tn7 insertion into a target DNA that already contains Tn7. We provide evidence that the direct TnsBTnsC interaction that we have identified also mediates cis-acting Tn7 target immunity. We also show that TnsC interacts directly with the target selector protein TnsD. PMID:24982178

  17. Diversity of Tn1546 and its role in the dissemination of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Novais, Carla; Freitas, Ana R; Sousa, João C; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M; Peixe, Luísa V

    2008-03-01

    We characterized the molecular diversity of vanA vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE; 176 isolates/87 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types) from different sources and cities in Portugal (1996 to 2004): (i) food animals (FA; n = 38 isolates out of 31 samples), hospitalized humans (HH; n = 101/101), healthy human volunteers (HV; n = 7/4), and environmental sources (n = 30/10). Some strains were isolated from different hosts and persistently recovered for years. Twenty-four Tn1546 variants were identified, all located on plasmids (30 to 250 kb). Some Tn1546 variants were associated with specific sources such as FA (3 types), HH (11 types), or HV (1 type), while others were recovered from isolates of different origins (8 types). Polymorphisms in the central vanRSHA region of Tn1546 were scarcely detected, while alterations upstream of vanR and downstream of vanA were frequently identified involving mutations (vanS and vanX), deletions (vanY), insertions (IS1216V, ISEf1, and IS19; sequences with or without homology with others available in GenBank databases), and different genetic rearrangements. Most Tn1546 variants contained IS1216V (14 types) or ISEf1 (6 types). IS1216V was found alone or associated with an IS3-like element at different orientations and positions in Tn1546 from human, animal, and environmental samples. ISEf1 was located within vanX-vanY region at nucleotide 9044 of Tn1546 variants mostly associated with clinical isolates, suggesting a common genetic platform. IS19 was observed within the vanX-vanY region in one Tn1546 variant from poultry. Recent spread of VRE in Portugal reflects a complex epidemiology involving both clonal spread and plasmid dissemination containing a variety of Tn1546 types. Apparent Tn1546 heterogeneity among enterococci from human, animal, and environmental sources might reflect frequent genetic exchange events and evolution of particular widely disseminated genetic elements. PMID:18180362

  18. TnI-Ultra assay measurements in cancer patients: comparison with the conventional assay and clinical implication.

    PubMed

    Salvatici, Michela; Cardinale, Daniela; Botteri, Edoardo; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Mauro, Cristian; Cassatella, Maria C; Lentati, Paola; Bottari, Fabio; Zorzino, Laura; Passerini, Rita; Cipolla, Carlo M; Sandri, Maria T

    2014-08-01

    The serial monitoring of cardiac troponin represents an effective approach for the early identification, assessment, and monitoring of chemotherapy-induced cardiac injury. Over the last few years new generations of troponin assays, referred to as sensitive and high sensitivity assays, able to detect very low concentrations of troponin, have been progressively released on different platforms. Some studies have assessed the comparability of the cTnI measurements with the new assays versus the conventional ones, but none of these in the oncological population. We compared the cTnI results determined on Stratus CS and ADVIA Centaur CP System in 70 breast cancer patients, for a total of 327 samples collected during different cycles of treatment. Correlation (Spearman = 0.732) and agreement (91.4%) between the assays were good (244 concordant negatives and 55 concordant positives), with a frequency of 8.6% discordant results among the cTnI measurements. Despite the well-known lack in the harmonization and standardization of the currently commercially available cTnI methods, we found a good clinical concordance of cTnI determination on both systems. PMID:24693994

  19. Fast electro-optic switching of frequency modulation TN-LCDs fabricated by doping nanoparticles and their mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyama, Tomohiro; Kundu, Sudarshan; Shiraki, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Yoshio; Shiraishi, Yukihide; Toshima, Naoki; Kobayashi, Shunsuke

    2004-05-01

    Electro-optic characteristics of a twisted nematic (TN) liquid crystal display (LCD) fabricated by doping Ag nanoparticles protected with NLC, 5CB (K-15, Merck) molecules has been investigated and it is shown that the device exhibits a unique electrooptic response characteristics that is sensitive to the high frequency component of the operating voltage together with the conventional root-mean-square response to the operating voltage. We call this device frequency modulation (FM) TN-LCD. The FM TN-LCD is switched by switching the frequency of the operating voltage while its amplitude is kept unchanged. As an example, by switching the frequency from 20Hz to 500Hz or 50Hz to 2kHz, and the switching is done with the time constant of several ms. This device shows a peculiar response to a burst AC square voltage waveforms, where the device exhibits bipolar response with the time constant of 500 ms and the envelope with the time constants shorter than those of an undoped TN-LCD by from 30% to 80%. The mechanism of the FM-TN-LCD is investigated through the study of its dielectric properties.

  20. Characterization of the novel nisin-sucrose conjugative transposon Tn5276 and its insertion in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, P J; De Vos, W M

    1992-01-01

    A novel, chromosomally located conjugative transposon in Lactococcus lactis, Tn5276, was identified and characterized. It encodes the production of and immunity to nisin, a lanthionine-containing peptide with antimicrobial activity, and the capacity to utilize sucrose via a phosphotransferase system. Conjugal transfer of Tn5276 was demonstrated from L. lactis NIZO R5 to different L. lactis strains and a recombination-deficient mutant. The integration of Tn5276 into the plasmid-free strain MG1614 was analyzed by using probes based on the gene for the nisin precursor (nisA) and the gene for sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolase (sacA). The transposon inserted at various locations in the MG1614 chromosome and showed a preference for orientation-specific insertion into a single target site (designated site 1). By using restriction mapping in combination with field inversion gel electrophoresis and DNA cloning of various parts of the element including its left and right ends, a physical map of the 70-kb Tn5276 was constructed, and the nisA and sacA genes were located. The nucleotide sequences of Tn5276 junctions in donor strain NIZO R5 and in site 1 of an MG1614-derived transconjugant were determined and compared with that of site 1 in recipient strain MG1614. The results show that the A + T-rich ends of Tn5276 are flanked by a direct hexanucleotide repeat in both the donor and the transconjugant but that the element does not contain a clear inverted repeat. Images PMID:1310502

  1. TN-68 Spent Fuel Transport Cask Analytical Evaluation for Drop Events

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M. J.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Koeppel, Brian J.

    2007-03-30

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for licensing commercial spent nuclear fuel transported in casks certified by NRC under the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR), Title 10, Part 71 [1]. Both the International Atomic Energy Agency regulations for transporting radioactive materials [2, paragraph 727], and 10 CFR 71.73 require casks to be evaluated for hypothetical accident conditions, which includes a 9-meter (m) (30-ft) drop-impact event onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, in the most damaging orientation. This paper examines the behavior of one of the NRC certified transportation casks, the TN-68 [3], for drop-impact events. The specific area examined is the behavior of the bolted connections in the cask body and the closure lid, which are significantly loaded during the hypothetical drop-impact event. Analytical work to evaluate the NRC-certified TN-68 spent fuel transport cask [3] for a 9-m (30-ft) drop-impact event on a flat, unyielding, horizontal surface, was performed using the ANSYS® [4] and LS DYNA™ [5] finite-element analysis codes. The models were sufficiently detailed, in the areas of bolt closure interfaces and containment boundaries, to evaluate the structural integrity of the bolted connections under 9-m (30-ft) free-drop hypothetical accident conditions, as specified in 10 CFR 71.73. Evaluation of the cask for puncture, caused by a free drop through a distance of 1-m (40-in.) onto a mild steel bar mounted on a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, required by 10 CFR 71.73, was not included in the current work, and will have to be addressed in the future. Based on the analyses performed to date, it is concluded that, even though brief separation of the flange and the lid surfaces may occur under some conditions, the seals would close at the end of the drop events, because the materials remain elastic during the duration of the event.

  2. Tn5-Induced and Spontaneous Switching of Sinorhizobium meliloti to Faster-Swarming Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xueming; Bauer, Wolfgang D.

    1999-01-01

    Tn5 mutants of Sinorhizobium meliloti RMB7201 which swarmed 1.5 to 2.5 times faster than the parental strain in semisolid agar, moist sand, and viscous liquid were identified. These faster-swarming (FS) mutants outgrew the wild type 30- to 40-fold within 2 days in mixed swarm colonies. The FS mutants survived and grew as well as or better than the wild type under all of the circumstances tested, except in a soil matrix subjected to air drying. Exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis was reduced in each of the FS mutants when they were grown on defined succinate-nitrate medium, but the extent of reduction was different for each. It appears that FS behavior likely results from a modest, general derepression of motility involving an increased proportion of motile and flagellated cells and an increased average number of flagella per cell and increased average flagellar length. Spontaneous FS variants of RMB7201 were obtained at a frequency of about 1 per 10,000 to 20,000 cells by either enrichment from the periphery of swarm colonies or screening of colonies for reduced EPS synthesis on succinate-nitrate plates. The spontaneous FS variants and Tn5 FS mutants were symbiotically effective and competitive in alfalfa nodulation. Reversion of FS variants to wild-type behavior was sporadic, indicating that reversion is affected by unidentified environmental factors. Based on phenotypic and molecular differences between individual FS variants and mutants, it appears that there may be multiple genetic configurations that result in FS behavior in RMB7201. The facile isolation of spontaneous FS variants of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa indicates that switching to FS behavior may be fairly common among bacterial species. The substantial growth advantage of FS mutants and variants wherever nutrient gradients exist suggests that switching to FS forms may be an important behavioral adaptation in natural environments. PMID:10049888

  3. 76 FR 58241 - Opportunity for Designation in the Jamestown, ND; Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... & Grain, McPaul, Fremont County, Iowa; and Haveman Grain, Murray, Cass County, Nebraska. Midsouth Pursuant..., Pipestone, Murray, Cottonwood, Rock, Nobles, Jackson, and Martin Counties. In Nebraska: Cedar, Dakota, Dixon... areas, in the States of Minnesota and North Dakota, are assigned to this official agency. In...

  4. The Travis County, Texas, meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, T. J.; Ehlmann, A. J.; Keil, K.

    1995-05-01

    Studies of 52 specimens recovered from the find site of the original Travis County meteorite reveal the presence of two distinct meteorites. Travis County (a), which includes the original Travis County meteorite, is the more abundant meteorite and is classified as an H5(S4) shock-blackened chondrite. Travis County (b) is classified as an H4(S2) chondrite with rare chondritic clasts of H group parentage, indicating that the meteorite is a breccia.

  5. Modular evolution of TnGBSs, a new family of integrative and conjugative elements associating insertion sequence transposition, plasmid replication, and conjugation for their spreading.

    PubMed

    Gurillot, Romain; Da Cunha, Violette; Sauvage, Elisabeth; Bouchier, Christiane; Glaser, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) have a major impact on gene flow and genome dynamics in bacteria. The ICEs TnGBS1 and TnGBS2, first identified in Streptococcus agalactiae, use a DDE transposase, unlike most characterized ICEs, which depend on a phage-like integrase for their mobility. Here we identified 56 additional TnGBS-related ICEs by systematic genome analysis. Interestingly, all except one are inserted in streptococcal genomes. Sequence comparison of the proteins conserved among these ICEs defined two subtypes related to TnGBS1 or TnGBS2. We showed that both types encode different conjugation modules: a type IV secretion system, a VirD4 coupling protein, and a relaxase and its cognate oriT site, shared with distinct lineages of conjugative elements of Firmicutes. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that TnGBSs evolved from two conjugative elements of different origins by the successive recruitment of a transposition module derived from insertion sequences (ISs). Furthermore, TnGBSs share replication modules with different plasmids. Mutational analyses and conjugation experiments showed that TnGBS1 and TnGBS2 combine replication and transposition upstream promoters for their transfer and stabilization. Despite an evolutionarily successful horizontal dissemination within the genus Streptococcus, these ICEs have a restricted host range. However, we reveal that for TnGBS1 and TnGBS2, this host restriction is not due to a transfer incompatibility linked to the conjugation machineries but most likely to their ability for transient maintenance through replication after their transfer. PMID:23435978

  6. Humboldt County Employer Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Dave

    A project was undertaken in Humboldt County to collect information from large and small businesses in the areas of agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation, wholesale and retail, finance, services, and public information with respect to their employee requirements and needs. In all, 451 firms were surveyed to determine the size of the

  7. Westchester County Employers Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Marcia M.

    The Westchester County Employers Survey was done in May 2003 in order learn more about employee training needs, how they accomplished these needs, and how it would be possible for the Westchester Community College to fulfill these needs. Out of the 639 surveys sent, 145 were returned in a satisfactory format, which produces a 22.6% return rate.

  8. 77 FR 68818 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office, Oak Ridge, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office, Oak Ridge, TN AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Energy... National Park Service's administrative responsibilities under NAGPRA, 25 U.S.C. 3003(d)(3)....

  9. 76 FR 53115 - Foreign-Trade Zone 77-Memphis, TN; Application for Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Manufacturing Authority; Flextronics Logistics USA, Inc. (Cell Phone/Mobile Handset Kitting); Memphis, TN An..., Memphis (Site 4). Under T/IM procedures, Flextronics has requested authority to produce cell phones/mobile... duty rates during customs entry procedures that apply to cell phone/mobile handset kits (duty free)...

  10. Identification of a catabolic transposon, Tn4371, carrying biphenyl and 4-chlorobiphenyl degradation genes in Alcaligenes eutrophus A5.

    PubMed Central

    Springael, D; Kreps, S; Mergeay, M

    1993-01-01

    Alcaligenes eutrophus A5 catabolizes biphenyl to CO2 via benzoate and 4-chlorobiphenyl to 4-chlorobenzoate. In curing and conjugation experiments, the A5 endogenous 51-kb IncP1 plasmid pSS50 was found to be dispensable for biphenyl and 4-chlorobiphenyl catabolism. Transfer of the biphenyl- and 4-chlorobiphenyl-degrading phenotype by means of pSS50 was observed at a frequency of 10(-5) per transferred plasmid in matings of A5 with other A. eutrophus strains. Transconjugants harbor enlarged pSS50 derivatives which contain additional genetic information governing the oxidation of biphenyl and 4-chlorobiphenyl to benzoate and 4-chlorobenzoate and originating from the chromosome of strain A5. The following observations indicate that the catabolic genes reside on a 59-kb large transposon (Tn4371) for which a restriction map is presented. (i) Tn4371 transposes between different replicons and at different locations of the same replicon. (ii) Transposition was observed in a Rec- strain of A. eutrophus. (iii) Tn4371 transposes as a single, contiguous piece of DNA. Although an RP4::Tn4371 plasmid was stably maintained in different hosts, the plasmid conferred growth on biphenyl only when present in strains of A. eutrophus and in an Acinetobacter sp. strain. Images PMID:8383664

  11. 75 FR 74099 - In the Matter of Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., Erwin, TN; Confirmatory Order Modifying License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., Erwin, TN; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective Immediately) I Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (NFS or Licensee) is the holder of Special Nuclear... NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to...

  12. Arbitrary PCR for Rapid Mapping of Tn5 Insertions in Pyoverdine Genes of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of 13 transposon mutants deficient in pyoverdine production was analyzed using an arbitrary polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach to map the sites of Tn5 insertions in the genome of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. The arbitrary PCR method involved two rounds of reactions, with the fi...

  13. Distribution of the streptomycin-resistance transposon Tn5393 among phylloplane and soil bacteria from managed agricultural habitats.

    PubMed

    Sundin, G W; Monks, D E; Bender, C L

    1995-09-01

    The distribution of the strA-strB streptomycin-resistance (Smr) genes associated with Tn5393 was examined in bacteria isolated from the phylloplane and soil of ornamental pear and tomato. Two ornamental pear nurseries received previous foliar applications of streptomycin, whereas the tomato fields had no prior exposure to streptomycin bactericides. Although the recovery of culturable Smr bacteria was generally higher from soil, the highest occurrence of Smr was observed in phylloplane bacteria of an ornamental pear nursery that received 15 annual applications of streptomycin during the previous 2 years. Twenty-two and 12% of 143 Gram-negative phylloplane and 163 Gram-negative soil isolates, respectively, contained sequences that hybridized to probes specific for the strA-strB Smr genes and for the transposase and resolvase genes of Tn5393. These sequences were located on large plasmids (> 60 kb) in 74% of the isolates. The 77 Smr Gram-positive bacteria isolated in the present study showed no homology to the Tn5393-derived probes. Although the repeated use of a single antibiotic in clinical situations is known to favor the development of strains with resistance to other antibiotics, we found no evidence that intensive streptomycin usage in agricultural habitats favors the development of resistance to tetracycline, an antibiotic also registered for disease control on plants. The detection of Tn5393 in bacteria with no prior exposure to streptomycin suggests that this transposon is indigenous to both phylloplane and soil microbial communities. PMID:7585356

  14. 76 FR 34799 - Permanent Dam Safety Modification at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY Permanent Dam Safety Modification at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams, TN AGENCY... or river operation guidelines. TVA assumes the most extreme weather event reasonably possible...

  15. Further evidence that transposition of Tn5 in Escherichia coli is strongly enhanced by constitutively activated RecA proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, C T; Tessman, I

    1992-01-01

    We have shown that excision and transposition of Tn5 in Escherichia coli are greatly increased by recA(Prtc) genes, which encode constitutively activated RecA proteins (C.-T. Kuan, S.-K. Liu, and I. Tessman, Genetics 128:45-57, 1991). Contrary results, showing a significant decrease in Tn5 transposition under SOS conditions, were subsequently reported (M. D. Weinreich, J. C. Makris, and W. S. Reznikoff, J. Bacteriol. 173:6910-6918, 1991). We have extended our studies to examine the following: (i) transposition of Tn5 from sites in the phoA, phoB, proC, trpD, and ilvD genes; (ii) the effect of gene transcription; (iii) the comparative effect of dinD+ and dinD(Def) alleles; (iv) the use of a mating-out assay of transposition; (v) the effect of a recA(Prtc) allele located at the normal chromosomal site; and (vi) the effect at 41.5 degrees C of the recA441(Prtc) allele. The new results fully confirm our previous conclusions, including the fact that the frequency of Tn5 transposition under constitutive SOS conditions is site dependent. PMID:1328165

  16. 77 FR 73978 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, TN, Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 148--Knoxville, TN, Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon Fiber...), located in Rockwood, Tennessee, with authority to manufacture carbon fiber for export and oxidized... manufacture carbon fiber for the U.S. market; the request for such authority will continue to be reviewed...

  17. RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENT OF THE BIOGENIC CONTRIBUTION TO SUMMERTIME PM 2.5 AMBIENT AEROSOL IN NASHVILLE, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurements performed on PM-2.5 samples collected near Nashville, TN from June 21 to July 13, 1999, showed high levels of modern carbon, ranging from 56 to 80% of the total carbon in the samples. Radiocarbon measurements performed on dichloromethane extracts of...

  18. Mobility and generation of mosaic non-autonomous transposons by Tn3-derived inverted-repeat miniature elements (TIMEs).

    PubMed

    Szuplewska, Magdalena; Ludwiczak, Marta; Lyzwa, Katarzyna; Czarnecki, Jakub; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Functional transposable elements (TEs) of several Pseudomonas spp. strains isolated from black shale ore of Lubin mine and from post-flotation tailings of Zelazny Most in Poland, were identified using a positive selection trap plasmid strategy. This approach led to the capture and characterization of (i) 13 insertion sequences from 5 IS families (IS3, IS5, ISL3, IS30 and IS1380), (ii) isoforms of two Tn3-family transposons--Tn5563a and Tn4662a (the latter contains a toxin-antitoxin system), as well as (iii) non-autonomous TEs of diverse structure, ranging in size from 262 to 3892 bp. The non-autonomous elements transposed into AT-rich DNA regions and generated 5- or 6-bp sequence duplications at the target site of transposition. Although these TEs lack a transposase gene, they contain homologous 38-bp-long terminal inverted repeat sequences (IRs), highly conserved in Tn5563a and many other Tn3-family transposons. The simplest elements of this type, designated TIMEs (Tn3 family-derived Inverted-repeat Miniature Elements) (262 bp), were identified within two natural plasmids (pZM1P1 and pLM8P2) of Pseudomonas spp. It was demonstrated that TIMEs are able to mobilize segments of plasmid DNA for transposition, which results in the generation of more complex non-autonomous elements, resembling IS-driven composite transposons in structure. Such transposon-like elements may contain different functional genetic modules in their core regions, including plasmid replication systems. Another non-autonomous element "captured" with a trap plasmid was a TIME derivative containing a predicted resolvase gene and a res site typical for many Tn3-family transposons. The identification of a portable site-specific recombination system is another intriguing example confirming the important role of non-autonomous TEs of the TIME family in shuffling genetic information in bacterial genomes. Transposition of such mosaic elements may have a significant impact on diversity and evolution, not only of transposons and plasmids, but also of other types of mobile genetic elements. PMID:25121765

  19. Electrical Properties Of Volcanic Ash Samples From Grímsvötn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, I. M.; Aplin, K. L.; Nicoll, K. A.; Green, O.; Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent Icelandic eruptions in 2012 and 2011 were associated with sustained charging of the ash plume (Harrison et al., 2010) and significant volcanic lightning (Bennett et al., 2010; Arason et al., 2012). The sustained charging suggests that some charging of the plume is independent of the eruption process, in addition to other electrification mechanisms such as triboelectric or fractoemission processes at the vent, the 'dirty thunderstorm' mechanism if ice forms in the plume, and the internal radioactivity of the plume (Mather and Harrison, 2006; James et al., 2008). We investigate the triboelectric charging of volcanic material using a charged particle apparatus, which allows the charged particles to fall under gravity in a screened metallic cylinder. This apparatus comprises two induction rings connected to sensitive electrometers, which detect charge induced by the falling ash, and a Faraday cup to measure the total ash charge. The release mechanism has been designed to facilitate only self charging of the ash, as is expected in the atmospheric plume. Previous work on triboelectric charging of single-material particle systems has shown that the charging is likely to be determined by the number size distribution (Lacks and Levandovsky, 2007). We present a mass distribution measurement for a sample of volcanic ash provided by the Icelandic Meteorological Office collected 70 km from the crater of the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption. This shows a high proportion of fine particles compared with the volumetric size distribution reported in Piper et al. (2012). Optical microscopy of the different size fractions of the Grímsvötn sample indicates that the composition varies with size. In addition to charge transfer as a function of size, the different substances will triboelectrically interact with each other, which complicates the nature of the charge interactions. To separate the dependence of particle charging on size from composition, particle charging experiments were performed with pumice (a much more homogeneous material than ash) and compared to the results obtained with the volcanic ash samples. Arason P, Bennett A J and Burgin L E 2011 Charge mechanism of volcanic lightning revealed during the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, J. Geophys. Res. 116 B00C03 Bennett A J, Odams P, Edwards D and Arason P 2010 Monitoring of lightning from the April-May 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption using a very low frequency lightning location network, Environ. Res. Lett. 5 044013 Harrison R G, Nicoll K A, Ulanowksi Z and Mather T A 2010 Self-charging of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash plume Environ. Res. Lett. 5 024004 James M R, Wilson L, Lane S J , Gilbert J S, Mather T A, Harrison R G and Martin R S 2008 Electrical charging of volcanic plumes, Space Science Reviews 137 399-418 Lacks D J and Levandovsky A, 2007, Effect of particle size distribution on the polarity of triboelectric charging in granular insulator systems, J. Electrostatics, 65, 107-112 Mather T A and Harrison R G 2006 Electrification of volcanic plumes, Surveys in Geophysics 27 4 387-432 Piper I M, Aplin K L and Nicoll K A 2012 Electrical properties of volcanic ash samples from Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn, Proceedings of Annual Aerosol Society Conference 2012, arXiv 1207.6733

  20. Geodetic constraints on volcanic plume height at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Roberts, Matthew; Björnsson, Halldór; Grapenthin, Ronni; Arason, Pórdur; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Hólmjárn, Jósef; Geirsson, Halldór; Bennett, Richard; Gudmundsson, Magnús; Oddsson, Björn; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Villemin, Thierry; Jónsson, Torsteinn; Sturkell, Erik; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Larsen, Gudrún; Thordarson, Thor; Óladóttir, Bergrún

    2014-05-01

    In 2011 a VEI 4 explosive eruption took place at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland. Grímsvötn is a subglacial basaltic volcano beneath the Vatnajökull ice cap. It is Iceland's most frequently erupting volcano, with recent eruptions in 1983, 1998, 2004, and 2011. The volcano has a low seismic velocity anomaly down to about 3 km depth, interpreted as a magma chamber. A continuous GPS station and a tiltmeter are located on a nunatak, Mount Grímsfjall, which protrudes from the ice at the southern rim of the caldera. The 21-28 May 2011 eruption was Grímsvötn's largest since 1873, resulting in airspace closure in northern Europe and the cancellation of about 900 passenger flights. The eruption was preceded by gradual inflation following the 2004 eruption and progressive increase in seismicity. Kinematic 1 Hz solutions were derived for the position of the GPS station in the hours immediately before and during the 2011 eruption. The onset of deformation preceded the eruption by one hour and reached maximum of 0.57 m within 48 hours. Throughout the eruption the GPS station moved consistently in direction N38.4+/-0.5W, opposite to the direction of movements during the 2004-2011 inter eruptive phase. The deformation characteristics suggest that the signal was mostly due to pressure change in a source at 1.7 +/- 0.2 km depth. We use the geodetic measurements to infer co-eruptive pressure change in the magma chamber using the Mogi model. The rate of pressure drop is then used to estimate the magma flow rate from the chamber. Numerous studies have shown that plume height in explosive eruptions can be related to magma discharge. Using an empirical relationship between the volcanic plume height and magma flow rate (Mastin et al., 2009) we estimate the evolution of the plume height from the geodetic data. Two weather radars monitored the height of the volcanic plume during the eruption. A strong initial plume with peaks at 20-25 km was followed by a declining, pulsating activity. The observed plume height and the geodetically inferred plume height correlate closely in the first 24 h, showing pulsating behavior with peaks exceeding 15 km height in the first 12 h. After 24 h the measured plume height drops to 10 km or lower. The time from the initiation of the pressure drop to the onset of the eruption was about 60 min, with about 25% of the total pressure change preceding the eruption. During the eruption we find constant scaling between the geodetic station velocity and eruptive flux evaluated from plume height data. If interpreted in near-real time, these observations could greatly improve forecasting of the onset and evolution of explosive eruptions and volcanic plume height.

  1. Robust rat pulmonary radioprotection by a lipophilic Mn N-alkylpyridylporphyrin, MnTnHex-2-PyP5+?

    PubMed Central

    Gauter-Fleckenstein, Benjamin; Reboucas, Julio S.; Fleckenstein, Katharina; Tovmasyan, Artak; Owzar, Kouros; Jiang, Chen; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    With the goal to enhance the distribution of cationic Mn porphyrins within mitochondria, the lipophilic Mn(III)meso-tetrakis(N-n-hexylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin, MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ has been synthesized and tested in several different model of diseases, where it shows remarkable efficacy at as low as 50g/kg single or multiple doses. Yet, in a rat lung radioprotection study, at higher 0.61mg/kg doses, due to its high accumulation and micellar character, it became toxic. To avoid the toxicity, herein the pulmonary radioprotection of MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ was assessed at 50g/kg. Fischer rats were irradiated to their right hemithorax (28Gy) and treated with 0.05mg/kg/day of MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ for 2 weeks by subcutaneously-implanted osmotic pumps, starting at 2h post-radiation. The body weights and breathing frequencies were followed for 10 weeks post-radiation, when the histopathology and immunohistochemistry were assessed. Impact of MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ on macrophage recruitment (ED-1), DNA oxidative damage (8-OHdG), TGF-?1, VEGF(A) and HIF-1? were measured. MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ significantly decreased radiation-induced lung histopathological (H&E staining) and functional damage (breathing frequencies), suppressed oxidative stress directly (8-OHdG), or indirectly, affecting TGF-?1, VEGF (A) and HIF-1? pathways. The magnitude of the therapeutic effects is similar to the effects demonstrated under same experimental conditions with 120-fold higher dose of ~5000-fold less lipophilic Mn(III)meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin, MnTE-2-PyP5+. PMID:24624330

  2. Skeletal Muscle Troponin I (TnI) in Animal Fat Tissues to Be Used as Biomarker for the Identification of Fat Adulteration

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bong-Sup; Oh, Young-Kyoung; Kim, Min-Jin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the existence of skeletal muscle troponin I (smTnI), well-known as a muscle protein in fat tissues, and the utilization of smTnI as a biomarker for the identification of fat adulteration were investigated. A commercial antibody (ab97427) specific to all of animals smTnI was used in this study. Fat and meat samples (cooked and non-cooked) of pork and beef, and chicken considered as representative meats were well minced and extracted by heating and non-heating methods, and the extracts from fat and meat tissues were probed by the antibody used in both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot. The antibody exhibited a strong reaction to all meat and fat extracts in ELISA test. On the other hand, the results of immunoblot analsis revealed a 23 kDa high intensity band corresponding to the molecular weight of smTnI (23786 Da). These results demonstrate that the existence of smTnI in all animal fat tissues. Since there are monoclonal antibodies specific to each species smTnI, smTnI in fat tissues could be used as a biomarker to identify or determine animal species adulterated in meat products. Therefore, an analytical method to identify fraudulent fat adulteration can be developed with an antibody specific to each species smTnI. PMID:26761680

  3. The effect and biological mechanism of COD/TN ratio on nitrogen removal in a novel upflow microaerobic sludge reactor treating manure-free piggery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianzheng; Meng, Jia; Li, Jiuling; Wang, Cheng; Deng, Kaiwen; Sun, Kai; Buelna, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    A novel upflow microaerobic sludge reactor (UMSR) was constructed to treat manure-free piggery wastewater with high NH4(+)-N concentration and low COD/TN ratio, and the effect and biological mechanism of COD/TN ratio on nitrogen removal were investigated at a constant hydraulic retention time of 8h and 35°C. The results showed that the UMSR could treat the wastewater with a better synchronous removal of COD, NH4(+)-N and TN. The microaerobic UMSR allowed nitrifiers, and heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifiers to thrive in the flocs, revealing a multiple nitrogen removal mechanism in the reactor. Both the nitrifiers and denitrifiers would be restricted by an influent COD/TN ratio more than 0.82, resulting in a decrease of TN removal in the UMSR. To get a TN removal over 80% with a TN load removal above 0.86kg/(m(3)·d) in the UMSR, the influent COD/TN ratio should be less than 0.70. PMID:26972024

  4. A rapid and simple method for the isolation of mutant variants regulating tissue-specific expression of the TnI gene through drug selection

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Youngwon; Kim, Myoung Hee; Emerson, C.P. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    TnINEO fusion gene was constructed by fusing 3.4-kbp of quail TnI genomic DNA sequences spanning the promoter to exon 5 and a neo gene in frame. A myoblast cell line was established after transfection of pTnINEO. Since this cell line was passaged several times, a high frequency of neomycin (G418) sensitivity conversion was detected. Two drug-resistant variants were analyzed through genomic Southern blot and S1 nuclease protection assay. One variant has a mutation(s) in the regulatory element that activated the dormant TnI promoter-enhancer in myoblast, and the other has shown the geonomic rearrangement. This result presented the possibility of isolating factor(s) that activate the muscle-specific TnI promoter simply by screening drug-resistant cells having appropriate mutations. 12 refs., 4 fig.

  5. KPC-4 Is Encoded within a Truncated Tn4401 in an IncL/M Plasmid, pNE1280, Isolated from Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Kendall A.; Van Schooneveld, Trevor C.; Thapa, Ishwor; Bastola, Dhundy; Williams, Laurina O.; Safranek, Thomas J.; Hinrichs, Steven H.; Rupp, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the transfer of blaKPC-4 from Enterobacter cloacae to Serratia marcescens in a single patient. DNA sequencing revealed that KPC-4 was encoded on an IncL/M plasmid, pNE1280, closely related to pCTX-M360. Further analysis found that KPC-4 was encoded within a novel Tn4401 element (Tn4401f) containing a truncated tnpA and lacking tnpR, ISKpn7 left, and Tn4401 IRL-1, which are conserved in other Tn4401 transposons. This study highlights the continued evolution of Tn4401 transposons and movement to multiple plasmid backbones that results in acquisition by multiple species of Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:23070154

  6. The fully synthetic MAG-Tn3 therapeutic vaccine containing the tetanus toxoid-derived TT830-844 universal epitope provides anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Laubreton, Daphné; Bay, Sylvie; Sedlik, Christine; Artaud, Cécile; Ganneau, Christelle; Dériaud, Edith; Viel, Sophie; Puaux, Anne-Laure; Amigorena, Sebastian; Gérard, Catherine; Lo-Man, Richard; Leclerc, Claude

    2016-03-01

    Malignant transformations are often associated with aberrant glycosylation processes that lead to the expression of new carbohydrate antigens at the surface of tumor cells. Of these carbohydrate antigens, the Tn antigen is particularly highly expressed in many carcinomas, especially in breast carcinoma. We designed MAG-Tn3, a fully synthetic vaccine based on three consecutive Tn moieties that are O-linked to a CD4(+) T cell epitope, to induce anti-Tn antibody responses that could be helpful for therapeutic vaccination against cancer. To ensure broad coverage within the human population, the tetanus toxoid-derived peptide TT830-844 was selected as a T-helper epitope because it can bind to various HLA-DRB molecules. We showed that the MAG-Tn3 vaccine, which was formulated with the GSK proprietary immunostimulant AS15 and designed for human cancer therapy, is able to induce an anti-Tn antibody response in mice of various H-2 haplotypes, and this response correlates with the ability to induce a specific T cell response against the TT830-844 peptide. The universality of the TT830-844 peptide was extended to new H-2 and HLA-DRB molecules that were capable of binding this T cell epitope. Finally, the MAG-Tn3 vaccine was able to induce anti-Tn antibody responses in cynomolgus monkeys, which targeted Tn-expressing tumor cells and mediated tumor cell death both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MAG-Tn3 is a highly promising anticancer vaccine that is currently under evaluation in a phase I clinical trial. PMID:26847142

  7. Peptidoglycan composition in heterogeneous Tn551 mutants of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, B L; Chang, Y S; Gage, D; Tomasz, A

    1992-06-01

    It was shown that Tn551 inactivation of two chromosomal (so-called auxiliary) loci other than the mec gene result in a dramatic reduction of methicillin resistance and decreased cell wall turnover and autolytic capacity in a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain (de Jonge, B. L. M., de Lencastre, H., and Tomasz, A. (1990) J. Bacteriol. 173, 1105-1110). To understand the mechanistic basis of these phenomena we have examined the status of the autolytic enzymes and the muropeptide composition of peptidoglycan using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectral analyses. While no differences could be detected in the number of autolytic hydrolases, the mutants showed major changes in peptidoglycan composition. Nine prominent muropeptides of the parental strain each carrying a pentaglycyl substituent were missing from the cell wall of one group of mutants. The second mutant lacked four parental muropeptides which were composed of the unsubstituted disaccharide pentapeptide and its alanyl-tetraglycine derivative. The auxiliary genes are genetic determinants involved with the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan precursors, the presence of which in the cell wall may be needed for optimal cell wall turnover. PMID:1317861

  8. Triboelectric Charging of Volcanic Ash from the 2011 Grímsvötn Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, Isobel M. P.; Aplin, Karen L.; Nicoll, Keri A.

    2013-09-01

    The plume from the 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn was highly electrically charged, as shown by the considerable lightning activity measured by the United Kingdom Met Office’s low-frequency lightning detection network. Previous measurements of volcanic plumes have shown that ash particles are electrically charged up to hundreds of kilometers away from the vent, which indicates that the ash continues to charge in the plume [R. G. Harrison, K. A. Nicoll, Z. Ulanowski, and T. A. Mather, Environ. Res. Lett. 5, 024004 (2010)1748-932610.1088/1748-9326/5/2/024004; H. Hatakeyama J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 27, 372 (1949)JMSJAU0026-1165]. In this Letter, we study triboelectric charging of different size fractions of a sample of volcanic ash experimentally. Consistently with previous work, we find that the particle size distribution is a determining factor in the charging. Specifically, our laboratory experiments demonstrate that the normalized span of the particle size distribution plays an important role in the magnitude of charging generated. The influence of the normalized span on plume charging suggests that all ash plumes are likely to be charged, with implications for remote sensing and plume lifetime through scavenging effects.

  9. Conformational toggling controls target site choice for the heteromeric transposase element Tn7.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiaojuan; Straus, Marco R; Caron, Jeremy J; Wang, Huasheng; Chung, Yu Seon; Guarn, Alba; Peters, Joseph E

    2015-12-15

    The bacterial transposon Tn7 facilitates horizontal transfer by directing transposition into actively replicating DNA with the element-encoded protein TnsE. Structural analysis of the C-terminal domain of wild-type TnsE identified a novel protein fold including a central V-shaped loop that toggles between two distinct conformations. The structure of a robust TnsE gain-of-activity variant has this loop locked in a single conformation, suggesting that conformational flexibility regulates TnsE activity. Structure-based analysis of a series of TnsE mutants relates transposition activity to DNA binding stability. Wild-type TnsE appears to naturally form an unstable complex with a target DNA, whereas mutant combinations required for large changes in transposition frequency and targeting stabilized this interaction. Collectively, our work unveils a unique structural proofreading mechanism where toggling between two conformations regulates target commitment by limiting the stability of target DNA engagement until an appropriate insertion site is identified. PMID:26384427

  10. Conformational toggling controls target site choice for the heteromeric transposase element Tn7

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qiaojuan; Straus, Marco R.; Caron, Jeremy J.; Wang, Huasheng; Chung, Yu Seon; Guarn, Alba; Peters, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial transposon Tn7 facilitates horizontal transfer by directing transposition into actively replicating DNA with the element-encoded protein TnsE. Structural analysis of the C-terminal domain of wild-type TnsE identified a novel protein fold including a central V-shaped loop that toggles between two distinct conformations. The structure of a robust TnsE gain-of-activity variant has this loop locked in a single conformation, suggesting that conformational flexibility regulates TnsE activity. Structure-based analysis of a series of TnsE mutants relates transposition activity to DNA binding stability. Wild-type TnsE appears to naturally form an unstable complex with a target DNA, whereas mutant combinations required for large changes in transposition frequency and targeting stabilized this interaction. Collectively, our work unveils a unique structural proofreading mechanism where toggling between two conformations regulates target commitment by limiting the stability of target DNA engagement until an appropriate insertion site is identified. PMID:26384427

  11. Correlation of thermodynamic and genetic properties in the Tn10 encoded TET gene control region.

    PubMed Central

    Hillen, W; Unger, B

    1982-01-01

    The thermal stability of the Tn10 encoded tetracycline resistance (TET) gene control region is investigated by melting studies using purified DNA restriction fragments containing various amounts of flanking sequences. In order to study the thermodynamic properties of this control region under conditions, where enough flanking DNA is present to mimic the situation in the chromosome, the five step melting process of a 1450-bp DNA fragment is analyzed. Because most of the sequence of this DNA is not known, the assignment of the melting transitions to segments of the DNA is done by an experimental method. This employs the preparation of subfragments from the 1450-bp DNA and comparison of their denaturation profiles with the one of the intact sequence. This approach results in the complete assignment of the five denaturation steps. Rather than from the ends, the unwinding starts from the TET gene control region in the middle of the 1450-bp sequence. A clear correlation between the thermodynamic and genetic properties of this DNA is observed. The regulatory sequence forms a small cooperative unit with the lowest stability in the entire fragment. The thermal denaturation of the TET repressor. TET operator complex reveals, that the TET repressor specifically recognizes the double stranded TET operator DNA and stabilizes this structure by 2.4 degrees C. This results is also discussed as an example of the possible action of denaturing or stabilizing proteins on this genetic control region. PMID:6281740

  12. Insertions of mini-Tn10 transposon T-POP in Salmonella enterica sv. typhi.

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Alejandro A; Trombert, A Nicole; Castro-Alonso, J C; Santiviago, Carlos A; Tesser, Bruno R; Youderian, Philip; Mora, Guido C

    2004-01-01

    We have mutagenized a clinical strain of Salmonella enterica sv. typhi with mini-transposon Tn10dTet (T-POP) to obtain conditional lethal (tetracycline-dependent) mutants with T-POP insertions upstream of essential genes. Generalized transducing phage P22 was used to introduce T-POP from a S. typhimurium donor into a S. typhi recipient. Chromosomal DNA was purified from the mutagenized donor strains, fragmented, and then electroporated into S. typhi to backcross the original T-POP insertions. Four tetracycline-dependent mutants with two distinct terminal phenotypes were found among 1700 mutants with T-POP insertions. When grown in the absence of tetracycline, two of the four tetracycline-dependent mutants arrest at a late stage in the cell cycle, can be rescued by outgrowth in media with tetracycline, and define a reversible checkpoint late in the cell cycle. One of these insertions creates an operon fusion with a gene, yqgF, that is conserved among gram-negative bacteria and likely encodes an essential Holliday junction resolvase. T-POP insertions can be used not only to identify essential S. typhi genes but also to reveal novel phenotypes resulting from the depletion of their products. PMID:15280224

  13. Sialyl-Tn in Cancer: (How) Did We Miss the Target?

    PubMed Central

    Julien, Sylvain; Videira, Paula A.; Delannoy, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Sialyl-Tn antigen (STn) is a short O-glycan containing a sialic acid residue α2,6-linked to GalNAcα-O-Ser/Thr. The biosynthesis of STn is mediated by a specific sialyltransferase termed ST6GalNAc I, which competes with O-glycans elongating glycosyltransferases and prevents cancer cells from exhibiting longer O-glycans. While weakly expressed by fetal and normal adult tissues, STn is expressed by more than 80% of human carcinomas and in all cases, STn detection is associated with adverse outcome and decreased overall survival for the patients. Because of its pan-carcinoma expression associated with an adverse outcome, an anti-cancer vaccine, named Theratope, has been designed towards the STn epitope. In spite of the great enthusiasm around this immunotherapy, Theratope failed on Phase III clinical trial. However, in lieu of missing this target, one should consider to revise the Theratope design and the actual facts. In this review, we highlight the many lessons that can be learned from this failure from the immunological standpoint, as well as from the drug design and formulation and patient selection. Moreover, an irrefutable knowledge is arising from novel immunotherapies targeting other carbohydrate antigens and STn carrier proteins, such as MUC1, that will warrantee the future development of more successful anti-STn immunotherapy strategies. PMID:24970145

  14. Identification of multiple mercury sources to stream sediments near Oak Ridge, TN, USA.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Patrick M; Blum, Joel D; Demers, Jason D; Gu, Baohua; Brooks, Scott C; Peryam, John

    2014-04-01

    Sediments were analyzed for total Hg concentration (THg) and isotopic composition from streams and rivers in the vicinity of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y12) in Oak Ridge, TN (USA). In the stream directly draining Y12, where industrial releases of mercury (Hg) have been documented, high THg (3.26 to 60.1 ?g/g) sediments had a distinct Hg isotopic composition (?(202)Hg of 0.02 0.15 and ?(199)Hg of -0.07 0.03; mean 1SD, n = 12) compared to sediments from relatively uncontaminated streams in the region (?(202)Hg = -1.40 0.06 and ?(199)Hg of -0.26 0.03; mean 1SD, n = 6). Additionally, several streams that are nearby but do not drain Y12 had sediments with intermediate THg (0.06 to 0.21 ?g/g) and anomalous ?(202)Hg (as low as -5.07). We suggest that the low ?(202)Hg values in these sediments provide evidence for the contribution of an additional Hg source to sediments, possibly derived from atmospheric deposition. In sediments directly downstream of Y12 this third Hg source is not discernible, and the Hg isotopic composition can be largely explained by the mixing of low THg sediments with high THg sediments contaminated by Y12 discharges. PMID:24588770

  15. Tn7-Based Device for Calibrated Heterologous Gene Expression in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Zobel, Sebastian; Benedetti, Ilaria; Eisenbach, Lara; de Lorenzo, Victor; Wierckx, Nick; Blank, Lars M

    2015-12-18

    The soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida is increasingly attracting considerable interest as a platform for advanced metabolic engineering through synthetic biology approaches. However, genomic context, gene copy number, and transcription/translation interplay often introduce considerable uncertainty to the design of reliable genetic constructs. In this work, we have established a standardized heterologous expression device in which the promoter strength is the only variable; the remaining parameters of the flow have stable default values. To this end, we tailored a mini-Tn7 delivery transposon vector that inserts the constructs in a single genomic locus of P. putida's chromosome. This was then merged with a promoter insertion site, an unvarying translational coupler, and a downstream location for placing the gene(s) of interest under fixed assembly rules. This arrangement was exploited to benchmark a collection of synthetic promoters with low transcriptional noise in this bacterial host. Growth experiments and flow cytometry with single-copy promoter-GFP constructs revealed a robust, constitutive behavior of these promoters, whose strengths and properties could be faithfully compared. This standardized expression device significantly extends the repertoire of tools available for reliable metabolic engineering and other genetic enhancements of P. putida. PMID:26133359

  16. Mono County update

    SciTech Connect

    Lyster, D. )

    1988-12-01

    The Mono County Board of Supervisors approved the issuance of a use-permit for the Mammoth-Pacific II geothermal power plant. The power plant will be a binary, air-cooled, 10-megawatt, net, project. An appeal was filed by the California Department of Fish and Game, and the permit will not take effect until this appeal is resolved. Mono County also issued a project use-permit to proposers of Bonneville Pacific Corporations Mammoth Chance Geothermal Project, also a 10-megawatt, net, binary and air-cooled project. The permit was appealed by the Sierra Club, Cal-Trout, and the California Department of Fish and Game. Now, a subsequent EIR must be prepared for public review and comment. The subsequent EIR will address the issue of cumulative impacts and will include a discussion of new information.

  17. Mono County update

    SciTech Connect

    Lyster, D.L.

    1987-07-01

    In May 1987, the Mono County Energy Management Department recommended that a two-year moratorium be placed on geothermal power production projects on private lands within the Mono-Long Valley KGRA. The intent of the proposed moratorium was to allow for the collection and evaluation of hydrologic monitoring data in the Long Valley Caldera. Now, to still achieve this end, the Energy Management Department will suggest that mitigation measures and project-specific monitoring requirements be implemented via the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) documentation and the county use permit process. The monitoring data will provide important information to Mono County decision-makers regarding potential adverse impacts from geothermal production on such local resources as Hot Creek Gorge, the Hot Creek Fish Hatchery, and Hot Creek, itself. The Mammoth/Chance Geothermal Project is the proposed construction and operation of a 10 megawatt, net, geothermal binary-cycle power plant and production- and injection-well field by Bonneville Pacific Corporation. The project is currently under environmental review, pursuant to CEQA requirements. The Mono County Energy Management Director is providing assistance to the Town of Mammoth Lakes on its California Energy Commission (CEC) grant-funded resource assessment project. The grant of $220,000 provides for the drilling of at least two temperature-gradient wells (exploratory wells) within the town limits. If a geothermal resource is detected and found to provide adequate flows at a suitable temperature, the Town of Mammoth Lakes will proceed in the development of a geothermal space-heating system to provide heat to such users as the Centinela Mammoth Hospital, Mammoth elementary and high schools, the Gateway Industrial Park, and future residential development projects.

  18. Mono County update

    SciTech Connect

    Lyster, D.L.

    1987-06-01

    On February 9, 1988, the Mono County Board of Supervisors voted to approve Bonneville Pacific Corporation's Mammoth Chance Geothermal Project. The project is an air-cooled, binary, geothermal power plant, 10 megawatts, net. The Mono County Board of Supervisors issued a project use-permit with vigorous and stringent conditions. Specific emphasis was placed on the establishment of a monitoring program designed to detect the effects of geothermal development on the springs at the Hot Creek Fish Hatchery and Hot Creek Gorge. On October 5, 1987, the Mono County Planning Commission granted a use-permit to Mammoth Pacific for its Mammoth Pacific II Project, a binary, air-cooled, geothermal power plant, 10 megawatts, net. The issuance of the use-permit instigated an appeal by the Sierra Club. That appeal was heard on February 22, 1988, At the end of the testimony, the Board of Supervisors voted to uphold the appeal of the Sierra Club, thereby denying the project by a vote of 3 to 2. The main areas of concern voiced by the majority of the Board included potential hydrologic impacts to Hot Creek Gorge and Hot Creek Fish Hatchery, visual impacts, and impacts to mule deer migration and survival. One of the options now available to Mammoth Pacific is to request that the project be denied without prejudice. This would allow Mammoth Pacific to return to the Board immediately with additional material regarding its concerns.

  19. Snohomish County Biodiesel Project

    SciTech Connect

    Terrill Chang; Deanna Carveth

    2010-02-01

    Snohomish County in western Washington State began converting its vehicle fleet to use a blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel in 2005. As prices for biodiesel rose due to increased demand for this cleaner-burning fuel, Snohomish County looked to its farmers to “grow” this fuel locally. Suitable seed crops that can be crushed to extract oil for use as biodiesel feedstock include canola, mustard, and camelina. The residue, or mash, has high value as an animal feed. County farmers began with 52 acres of canola and mustard crops in 2006, increasing to 250 acres and 356 tons in 2008. In 2009, this number decreased to about 150 acres and 300 tons due to increased price for mustard seed.

  20. Analysis of a Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078 100 kilobase island reveals the presence of a novel transposon, Tn6164

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile is the main cause of antibiotic associated diarrhea. In the past decade, the number of C. difficile patients has increased dramatically, coinciding with the emergence of two PCR ribotypes 027 and 078. PCR ribotype 078 is also frequently found during C. difficile outbreaks in pigfarms. Previously, the genome of the PCR ribotype 078 strain M120, a human isolate, was described to contain a unique insert of 100 kilobases. Results Analysis of this insert revealed over 90 open reading frames, encoding proteins originating from transposons, phages and plasmids. The insert was shown to be a transposon (Tn6164), as evidenced by the presence of an excised and circularised molecule, containing the ligated 5and 3ends of the insert. Transfer of the element could not be shown through filter-mating experiments. Whole genome sequencing of PCR ribotype 078 strain 31618, isolated from a diarrheic piglet, showed that Tn6164 was not present in this strain. To test the prevalence of Tn6164, a collection of 231 Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078 isolates from human (n = 173) and porcine (n = 58) origin was tested for the presence of this element by PCR. The transposon was present in 9 human, tetracycline resistant isolates, originating from various countries in Europe, and none of the pig strains. Nine other strains, also tetracycline resistant human isolates, contained half of the transposon, suggesting multiple insertion steps yielding the full Tn6164. Other PCR ribotypes (n = 66) were all negative for the presence of the transposon. Multi locus variable tandem repeat analysis revealed genetic relatedness among transposon containing isolates. Although the element contained several potential antibiotic resistance genes, it did not yield a readily distinguishable phenotype. Conclusions Tn6164 is a newly described transposon, occurring sporadically in C. difficile PCR ribotype 078 strains. Although no transfer of the element could be shown, we hypothesize that the element could serve as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes for other bacteria. Further research is needed to investigate the transfer capabilities of the element and to substantiate the possible role of Tn6164 as a source of antibiotic resistance genes for other gut pathogens. PMID:22747711

  1. pp-GalNAc-T13 induces high metastatic potential of murine Lewis lung cancer by generating trimeric Tn antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Yasuyuki; Zhang, Qing; Akita, Kaoru; Nakada, Hiroshi; Hamamura, Kazunori; Tokuda, Noriyo; Tsuchida, Akiko; Noguchi Institute, 1-8-1 Kaga, Itabashi, Tokyo 173-0003 ; Matsubara, Takeshi; Hori, Tomoko; Okajima, Tetsuya; Furukawa, Keiko; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chubu University College of Life and Health Sciences, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai 487-8501 ; Urano, Takeshi; Furukawa, Koichi

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ppGalNAc-T13 was up-regulated in high metastatic sublines of Lewis lung cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ppGalNAc-T13 expression enhanced cell invasion activity in low metastatic sublines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trimeric Tn antigen was induced in the transfectant cells of ppGalNAc-T13 cDNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A major protein carrying trimeric Tn structure was identified as Syndecan-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing of ppGalNAc-T13 resulted in the reduction of invasion and of metastasis.. -- Abstract: In order to analyze the mechanisms for cancer metastasis, high metastatic sublines (H7-A, H7-Lu, H7-O, C4-sc, and C4-ly) were obtained by repeated injection of mouse Lewis lung cancer sublines H7 and C4 into C57BL/6 mice. These sublines exhibited increased proliferation and invasion activity in vitro. Ganglioside profiles exhibited lower expression of GM1 in high metastatic sublines than the parent lines. Then, we established GM1-Si-1 and GM1-Si-2 by stable silencing of GM1 synthase in H7 cells. These GM1-knockdown clones exhibited increased proliferation and invasion. Then, we explored genes that markedly altered in the expression levels by DNA microarray in the combination of C4 vs. C4-ly or H7 vs. H7 (GM1-Si). Consequently, pp-GalNAc-T13 gene was identified as up-regulated genes in the high metastatic sublines. Stable transfection of pp-GalNAc-T13 cDNA into C4 (T13-TF) resulted in increased invasion and motility. Then, immunoblotting and flow cytometry using various antibodies and lectins were performed. Only anti-trimeric Tn antibody (mAb MLS128), showed increased expression levels of trimeric Tn antigen in T13-TF clones. Moreover, immunoprecipitation/immunoblotting was performed by mAb MLS128, leading to the identification of an 80 kDa band carrying trimeric Tn antigen, i.e. Syndecan-1. Stable silencing of endogenous pp-GalNAc-T13 in C4-sc (T13-KD) revealed that primary tumors generated by subcutaneous injection of T13-KD clones showed lower coalescence to fascia and peritoneum, and significantly reduced lung metastasis than control clones. These data suggested that high expression of pp-GalNAc-T13 gene generated trimeric Tn antigen on Syndecan-1, leading to the enhanced metastasis.

  2. The Breast Cancer-Associated Glycoforms of MUC1, MUC1-Tn and sialyl-Tn, Are Expressed in COSMC Wild-Type Cells and Bind the C-Type Lectin MGL

    PubMed Central

    Arulappu, Appitha; Coleman, Julia; Wandell, Hans H.; Clausen, Henrik; Mandel, Ulla; Taylor-Papadimitriou, Joyce; Sletmoen, Marit; Burchell, Joy M.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation occurs in the majority of human cancers and changes in mucin-type O-glycosylation are key events that play a role in the induction of invasion and metastases. These changes generate novel cancer-specific glyco-antigens that can interact with cells of the immune system through carbohydrate binding lectins. Two glyco-epitopes that are found expressed by many carcinomas are Tn (GalNAc-Ser/Thr) and STn (NeuAc?2,6GalNAc-Ser/Thr). These glycans can be carried on many mucin-type glycoproteins including MUC1. We show that the majority of breast cancers carry Tn within the same cell and in close proximity to extended glycan T (Gal?1,3GalNAc) the addition of Gal to the GalNAc being catalysed by the T synthase. The presence of active T synthase suggests that loss of the private chaperone for T synthase, COSMC, does not explain the expression of Tn and STn in breast cancer cells. We show that MUC1 carrying both Tn or STn can bind to the C-type lectin MGL and using atomic force microscopy show that they bind to MGL with a similar deadadhesion force. Tumour associated STn is associated with poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy in breast carcinomas, inhibition of DC maturation, DC apoptosis and inhibition of NK activity. As engagement of MGL in the absence of TLR triggering may lead to anergy, the binding of MUC1-STn to MGL may be in part responsible for some of the characteristics of STn expressing tumours. PMID:25951175

  3. Identification of seven novel virulence genes from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri by Tn5-based random mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Song, Xue; Guo, Jing; Ma, Wen-xiu; Ji, Zhi-yuan; Zou, Li-fang; Chen, Gong-you; Zou, Hua-song

    2015-05-01

    To identify novel virulence genes, a mutant library of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri 29-1 was produced using EZ-Tn5 transposon and the mutants were inoculated into susceptible grapefruit. Forty mutants with altered virulence phenotypes were identified. Nine of the mutants showed a complete loss of citrus canker induction, and the other 31 mutants resulted in attenuated canker symptoms. Southern blot analysis revealed that each of the mutants carried a single copy of Tn5. The flanking sequence was identified by plasmid rescue and 18 different ORFs were identified in the genome sequence. Of these 18 ORFs, seven had not been previously associated with the virulence of X. citri subsp. citri and were therefore confirmed by complementation analysis. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the seven genes were upregulated when the bacteria were grown in citrus plants, suggesting that the expression of these genes was essential for canker development. PMID:25935304

  4. Scalable synthesis of Fmoc-protected GalNAc-threonine amino acid and T(N) antigen via nickel catalysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; McConnell, Matthew S; Nguyen, Hien M

    2015-04-17

    The highly ?-selective and scalable synthesis of the Fmoc-protected GalNAc-threonine amino acid and TN antigen in gram scale (0.5-1 g) is described. The challenging 1,2-cis-2-amino glycosidic bond is addressed through a coupling of threonine residues with C(2)-N-ortho-(trifluoromethyl)benzylidenamino trihaloacetimidate donors mediated by Ni(4-F-PhCN)4(OTf)2. The desired 1,2-cis-2-amino glycoside was obtained in 66% yield (3.77 g) with ?-only selectivity and subsequently transformed into the Fmoc-protected GalNAc-threonine and TN antigen. This operationally simple procedure no longer requires utilization of the commonly used C(2)-azido donors and overcomes many of the limitations associated with the synthesis of 1,2-cis linkage. PMID:25853273

  5. Analysis of tetracycline resistance encoded by transposon Tn10: deletion mapping of tetracycline-sensitive point mutations and identification of two structural genes.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, D C; Chopra, I; Shales, S W; Howe, T G; Foster, T J

    1983-01-01

    Deletions in the tet genes derived from Tn10 were formed from different tet::Tn5 insertion mutations by removing DNA sequences located between a HindIII site in Tn5 and a HindIII site adjacent to the tet genes. Tetracycline-sensitive point mutations were mapped in recombination tests with the deletions and were thus aligned with the genetic and physical map of the tet region. Plasmids carrying point mutations were tested for complementation with derivatives of pDU938, a plasmid carrying cloned tet genes derived from Tn10 which had been inactivated by Tn5 insertions. Complementation occurred between promoter-proximal tet point mutations and distal tet::Tn5 insertions, suggesting the existence of two structural genes, tetA and tetB. These results, together with the analysis of polypeptides in minicells harboring pDU938tet::Tn5 mutants, suggested that tetA and tetB are expressed coordinately in an operon. The tetB gene encodes the previously characterized 36,000-dalton cytoplasmic membrane TET protein, but the product of tetA was not identified. Point mutations in either tetA or tetB led to the defective expression of the resistance mechanism involving tetracycline efflux. It is suggested that the tetA and tetB products interact cooperatively in the membrane to express resistance. Images PMID:6296060

  6. Bacteroides fragilis Transfer Factor Tn5520: the Smallest Bacterial Mobilizable Transposon Containing Single Integrase and Mobilization Genes That Function in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Vedantam, Gayatri; Novicki, Thomas J.; Hecht, David W.

    1999-01-01

    Many bacterial genera, including Bacteroides spp., harbor mobilizable transposons, a class of transfer factors that carry genes for conjugal DNA transfer and, in some cases, antibiotic resistance. Mobilizable transposons are capable of inserting into and mobilizing other, nontransferable plasmids and are implicated in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. This paper presents the isolation and characterization of Tn5520, a new mobilizable transposon from Bacteroides fragilis LV23. At 4,692 bp, it is the smallest mobilizable transposon reported from any bacterial genus. Tn5520 was captured from B. fragilis LV23 by using the transfer-deficient shuttle vector pGAT400ΔBglII. The termini of Tn5520 contain a 22-bp imperfect inverted repeat, and transposition does not result in a target site repeat. Tn5520 also demonstrates insertion site sequence preferences characterized by A-T-rich nucleotide sequences. Tn5520 has been sequenced in its entirety, and two large open reading frames whose predicted protein products exhibit strong sequence similarity to recombinase-integrase enzymes and mobilization proteins, respectively, have been identified. The transfer, mobilization, and transposition properties of Tn5520 have been studied, revealing that Tn5520 mobilizes plasmids in both B. fragilis and Escherichia coli at high frequency and also transposes in E. coli. PMID:10198023

  7. Identification of multiple mercury sources to stream sediments near Oak Ridge, TN, USA

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Donovan, Patrick M.; Blum, Joel D.; Demers, Jason D.; Gu, Baohua; Brooks, Scott C.; Peryam, John

    2014-03-03

    In this paper, sediments were analyzed for total Hg concentration (THg) and isotopic composition from streams and rivers in the vicinity of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y12) in Oak Ridge, TN (USA). In the stream directly draining Y12, where industrial releases of mercury (Hg) have been documented, high THg (3.26 to 60.1 μg/g) sediments had a distinct Hg isotopic composition (δ202Hg of 0.02 ± 0.15‰ and Δ199Hg of -0.07 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD, n=12) compared to sediments from relatively uncontaminated streams in the region (δ202Hg = -1.40 ± 0.06‰ and Δ199Hg of –0.26 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD,more » n=6). Additionally, several streams that are nearby but do not drain Y12 had sediments with intermediate THg (0.06 to 0.21 μg/g) and anomalous δ202Hg (as low as -5.07‰). We suggest that the low δ202Hg values in these sediments provide evidence for the contribution of an additional Hg source to sediments, possibly derived from atmospheric deposition. In sediments directly downstream of Y12 this third Hg source is not discernible and the Hg isotopic composition can be largely explained by the mixing of low THg sediments with high THg sediments contaminated by Y12 discharges.« less

  8. Identification of multiple mercury sources to stream sediments near Oak Ridge, TN, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, Patrick M.; Blum, Joel D.; Demers, Jason D.; Gu, Baohua; Brooks, Scott C.; Peryam, John

    2014-03-03

    In this paper, sediments were analyzed for total Hg concentration (THg) and isotopic composition from streams and rivers in the vicinity of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y12) in Oak Ridge, TN (USA). In the stream directly draining Y12, where industrial releases of mercury (Hg) have been documented, high THg (3.26 to 60.1 μg/g) sediments had a distinct Hg isotopic composition (δ202Hg of 0.02 ± 0.15‰ and Δ199Hg of -0.07 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD, n=12) compared to sediments from relatively uncontaminated streams in the region (δ202Hg = -1.40 ± 0.06‰ and Δ199Hg of –0.26 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD, n=6). Additionally, several streams that are nearby but do not drain Y12 had sediments with intermediate THg (0.06 to 0.21 μg/g) and anomalous δ202Hg (as low as -5.07‰). We suggest that the low δ202Hg values in these sediments provide evidence for the contribution of an additional Hg source to sediments, possibly derived from atmospheric deposition. In sediments directly downstream of Y12 this third Hg source is not discernible and the Hg isotopic composition can be largely explained by the mixing of low THg sediments with high THg sediments contaminated by Y12 discharges.

  9. Terrestrial and Aquatic Controls on Watershed Biogeochemistry Respond Differently to Climate Change: Walker Branch, TN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, B. D.; Bernhardt, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Most long-term watershed monitoring sites focus on catchments with shallow soils, consolidated bedrock, and small groundwater volumes such that hydrologic budgets can be accurately quantified. These characteristics make it difficult to disentangle the terrestrial and aquatic processes that govern biogeochemical cycles by limiting the pathways that water can be routed through watersheds. We analyzed 20 years of weekly streamwater chemistry data for the Walker Branch watershed (TN, USA), a site with exceptionally deep soils, complex soil flowpath structure, and large groundwater volumes that feed perennial springs. We show that long-term trends in climate patterns have altered catchment flowpath structure, such that vegetation and surface soils are becoming increasingly hydrologically isolated from the stream channel and that deep groundwater comprises a greater proportion of streamflow. Groundwater is chemically distinct from water that passes through shallow soils and, thus, changing flowpath contributions have resulted in long-term trends in streamwater solute concentrations and fluxes. Groundwater also exhibits little variation in solute concentrations across seasons and years, providing an ideal backdrop against which aquatic processes can be assessed. Aquatic processes in Walker Branch can have important effects on streamwater biogeochemistry during baseflow, but are sensitive to hydrologic disturbance and storm frequency. In addition to the long-term restructuring of soil flowpaths affecting terrestrial controls on biogeochemical patterns, changes in the frequency and intensity of storms have had distinct effects on aquatic controls governing solute concentrations and fluxes. The characteristics of Walker Branch that are generally considered undesirable for constructing water budgets and which set it apart from most other long-term watershed monitoring sitesdeep soils with complex flowpath structuring and large groundwater volumesallow us to disentangle the effects of upland vs. in-stream processes.

  10. Mn-oxidizing Bacteria in Oak Ridge, TN and the Potential for Mercury Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, K. L.; McNeal, K. S.; Han, F. X.

    2012-12-01

    East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, TN was highly contaminated with elemental mercury in the 1950 and 1960. The area is still experiencing the effects of mercury contamination, and researchers are searching for ways to remediate the EFPC. One possible mechanism for bioremediation is the use of biogenic Mn oxides to remove heavy metals from water systems. Six native Pseudomonas bacteria species were isolated from the EFPC in order to examine biogenic Mn oxides production and bioremediation of Oak Ridge slurries. To investigate the biochemical interactions of Pseudomonas and the native microbial communities with Hg, Mn, Fe, S, six different slurry treatment groups were compared using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Oak Ridge slurries were autoclaved to inhibit microbial growth (group 1), autoclaved and amended with HgS (group 2), autoclaved and amended with Pseudomonas isolates and additional HgS (group 3), untreated slurry (group 4), normal slurry amended with HgS (group 5), and normal slurry amended with Pseudomonas isolates and additional HgS (group 6). The comparison of the autoclaved groups with the counterpart untreated and normal Oak Ridge slurries highlighted important microbial interactions. Also, the Pseudomonas isolates were grown separately in a MnSO4 media, and the individual bacteria were monitored for Mn-oxidization using ICP-AES and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the slurry sediments, the Pseudomonas isolates did produce Mn oxides which bound to mercury, and mercury bound to organic matter significantly decreased. However, after a significant decrease of dissolved mercury in the water, dissolved mercury was cycled back into the water system on day 10 of the study. Additionally, two individual native Oak Ridge Pseudomonas isolates demonstrated Mn-oxidization. Biogenic Mn oxides have the potential to decrease mercury cycling, however there is need for more in depth and long-term studies to confirm their sustained use as Hg bioremediators.

  11. Development of an immuno-lectin-enzymatic assay for the detection of serum cancer-associated glycoproteins bearing Tn determinant.

    PubMed

    Osinaga, E; Babino, A; Grosclaude, J; Cairoli, E; Batthyany, C; Bianchi, S; Signorelli, S; Varangot, M; Muse, I; Roseto, A

    1996-02-01

    We report the development of an immuno-lectin-enzymatic assay (CA83.4) with the purpose of quantifying serum glycoproteins bearing Tn determinant (GalNAc alpha-O-Ser/Thr). An anti-Tn monoclonal antibody (83D4) is bound to the solid phase in order to capture glycoproteins. After the addition of a test sample, we used biotinylated isolectin B4 from Vicia villosa and avidin-peroxydase to act as a detection system. The linear relationship between CA83.4 determinations and the serum dilutions, the reproducibility of the dosage in intra- and inter-assay, and the specificity of the test for the N-acetylgalactosamine residue in a-glycosidic O-linkages, demonstrated the reliability of this trial. Self-recognition of Vicia villosa B4 molecules (K-D: 0.73x10(-6) M determined using biosensor technology) could determine an additional step of signal amplification in this assay. Using 0.25 units/ml of CA83.4 antigen as the cut-off level, higher values were found in 25/49 patients with breast cancer, 8/13 with colorectal carcinoma, 3/11 with lung cancer, but in none of the 49 patients with non-malignant diseases nor in 97 healthy controls. This first report on soluble Tn-glycoprotein detection assays suggests that Tn-glycoproteins are specific serological tumor markers and we believe that they could represent a valuable tool in the diagnosis of cancer. PMID:21544376

  12. Targeting of T/Tn antigens with a plant lectin to kill human leukemia cells by photochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Poiroux, Guillaume; Pitié, Marguerite; Culerrier, Raphaël; Lafont, Elodie; Ségui, Bruno; Van Damme, Els J M; Peumans, Willy J; Bernadou, Jean; Levade, Thierry; Rougé, Pierre; Barre, Annick; Benoist, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Photochemotherapy is used both for solid tumors and in extracorporeal treatment of various hematologic disorders. Nevertheless, its development in oncology remains limited, because of the low selectivity of photosensitizers (PS) towards human tumor cells. To enhance PS efficiency, we recently covalently linked a porphyrin (TrMPyP) to a plant lectin (Morniga G), known to recognize with high affinity tumor-associated T and Tn antigens. The conjugation allowed a quick uptake of PS by Tn-positive Jurkat leukemia cells and efficient PS-induced phototoxicity. The present study was performed: (i) to evaluate the targeting potential of the conjugate towards tumor and normal cells and its phototoxicity on various leukemia cells, (ii) to investigate the mechanism of conjugate-mediated cell death. The conjugate: (i) strongly increased (×1000) the PS phototoxicity towards leukemic Jurkat T cells through an O-glycan-dependent process; (ii) specifically purged tumor cells from a 1∶1 mixture of Jurkat leukemia (Tn-positive) and healthy (Tn-negative) lymphocytes, preserving the activation potential of healthy lymphocytes; (iii) was effective against various leukemic cell lines with distinct phenotypes, as well as fresh human primary acute and chronic lymphoid leukemia cells; (iv) induced mostly a caspase-independent cell death, which might be an advantage as tumor cells often resist caspase-dependent cell death. Altogether, the present observations suggest that conjugation with plant lectins can allow targeting of photosensitizers towards aberrant glycosylation of tumor cells, e.g. to purge leukemia cells from blood and to preserve the normal leukocytes in extracorporeal photochemotherapy. PMID:21858067

  13. The novel tetramethylpyrazine bis-nitrone (TN-2) protects against MPTP/MPP+-induced neurotoxicity via inhibition of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Daping; Duan, Hongwei; Zhang, Zaijun; Cui, Wei; Wang, Liang; Sun, Yewei; Lang, Ming; Hoi, Pui Man; Han, Yifan; Wang, Yuqiang; Lee, Simon MingYuen

    2014-03-01

    Mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis plays an important role in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra- hydropyridine (MPTP), the most widely used neurotoxin to simulate PD, is converted to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) in vivo. MPP(+) induces excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis via sequentially opening mitochondria permeability transition pore (mPTP) to release cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytoplasm and activate pro-apoptotic caspase proteins. We have previously synthesized 2,5-[[(1,1-dimethylethyl)oxidoimino]methyl]-3,6-trimethylpyrazine (TN-2), a novel derivative of the Chinese herb medicine tetramethylpyrazine (TMP). TN-2 is armed with two powerful free radical-scavenging nitrone moieties. TN-2 significantly reversed the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the decrease in dopamine level in the striatum induced by MPTP in mice. TN-2 ameliorated the MPTP-induced decrease of brain superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentration and increase of brain malondialdehyde. In addition, TN-2 inhibited MPP(+)-induced neuronal damage/apoptosis in primary cerebellum granular neurons (CGNs) and SH-SY5Y cells. TN-2 decreased excessive intracellular ROS, prevented the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, blocked the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and inhibited the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, TN-2 treatment increased the mRNA expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? coactivator-1 (PGC- 1? and ?) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in SH-SY5Y cells and CGNs. These results suggest that TN-2 protects dopaminergic neurons against MPTP/MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity via the inhibition of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis and possibly via the activation of mitochondrial biogenesis, indicating that TN-2 is a potential new treatment for PD. PMID:24233519

  14. Locating essential Escherichia coli genes by using mini-Tn10 transposons: the pdxJ operon.

    PubMed Central

    Takiff, H E; Baker, T; Copeland, T; Chen, S M; Court, D L

    1992-01-01

    The mini-Tn10 transposon (delta 16 delta 17Tn10) confers tetracycline resistance. When inserted between a gene and its promoter, it blocks transcription and prevents expression of that gene. Tetracycline in the medium induces divergent transcription of the tetA and tetR genes within the transposon, and this transcription extends beyond the transposon in both directions into the bacterial genes. If the mini-Tn10 inserts between an essential bacterial gene and its promoter, the insertion mutation can cause conditional growth which is dependent on the presence of tetracycline. Two essential genes in adjacent operons of Escherichia coli have been detected by screening for tetracycline dependence among tetracycline-resistant insertion mutants. These essential genes are the era gene in the rnc operon and the dpj gene in the adjacent pdxJ operon. The pdxJ operon has not been described previously. It consists of two genes, pdxJ and dpj. Whereas the dpj gene is essential for E. coli growth in all media tested, pdxJ is not essential. The pdxJ gene encodes a protein required in the biosynthesis of pyridoxine (vitamin B6). Images PMID:1537799

  15. [Estimation of the TN and SOM contents in soil from GAN NAN navel orange plant area by NIR diffuse spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-De; Xiong, Song-Sheng; Chen, Dong-Bin

    2013-10-01

    The soil sampled from GAN NAN navel orange plant area was selected as research object, and the feasibility of analyzing the total nitrogen (TN) and soil organic matter (SOM) of soil was investigated by near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) techniques in the wavelength range of 4 000 - 7 500 cm(-1). Different pretreatment methods including multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), first derivative(1st D), second derivative (2nd D), Savitzkv-Golay (SG), standard normalized variate (SNV) and baseline were used. The partial least square regress (PLS) was built for the calibration models. The best TN model using SG pretreatment features the prediction correlation coefficients (r(c)) of 0.802, the root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 2.754, the calibration correlation coefficients (r(p)) of 0.715, and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 3.077 in the wave-length range of 4 000 - 7 500 cm(-1). The best SOM model using SNV pretreatment has r(c) of 0.848, RMSEC of 0.128, r(p) of 0.790, and RMSEP of 0.152. The results showed that the NIR diffuse reflectance can be used for quick estimate of the TN and SOM contents in soil with the wavelength range of 4 000 - 7 500 cm(-1). PMID:24409716

  16. Determining reference conditions for TN, TP, SD and Chl-a in eastern plain ecoregion lakes, China.

    PubMed

    Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Su, Jing; Zan, Fengyu; Chen, Qi; Ji, Danfeng; Ma, Chunzi

    2013-05-01

    Establishing the nutrient reference condition (baseline environmental condition) of lakes in an ecoregion is a critical consideration in the development of scientifically defensible aquatic nutrient criteria. Three methods were applied to determine reference conditions in the Eastern plain ecoregion lakes with respect to total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), planktonic chlorophyll a (Chl-a) and Secchi depth (SD). The reference condition value for the lakes in the Eastern plain ecoregion by the trisection method is TP of 0.029 mg/L, TN of 0.67 mg/L, Chl-a of 3.92 mg/m3, SD of 0.85 m, and the reference condition range by the lake population distribution approach is TP of 0.014-0.043 mg/L, TN of 0.360-0.785 mg/L, Chl-a of 1.78-4.73 mg/m3, SD of 0.68-1.21 m. Additionally, empirical models were developed for estimating the reference Chl-a concentration and SD successfully for lakes in the Eastern plain ecoregion. Overall, the data suggest that multiple methods can be used to determine reference conditions and that in Eastern plain ecoregion lakes the reference condition corresponds to a mesotrophic status. PMID:24218831

  17. Testing and analyses of the TN-24P PWR spent-fuel dry storage cask loaded with consolidated fuel

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, M A; Michener, T E; Jensen, M F; Rodman, G R

    1989-02-01

    A performance test of a Transnuclear, Inc. TN-24P storage cask configured for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel was performed. The work was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and the Electric Power Research Institute. The performance test consisted of loading the TN-24P cask with 24 canisters of consolidated PWR spent fuel from Virginia Power's Surry and Florida Power and Light's Turkey Point reactors. Cask surface and fuel canister guide tube temperatures were measured, as were cask surface gamma and neutron dose rates. Testing was performed with vacuum, nitrogen, and helium backfill environments in both vertical and horizontal cask orientations. Transnuclear, Inc., arranged to have a partially insulated run added to the end of the test to simulate impact limiters. Limited spent fuel integrity data were also obtained. From both heat transfer and shielding perspectives, the TN-24P cask with minor refinements can be effectively implemented at reactor sites and central storage facilities for safe storage of unconsolidated and consolidated spent fuel. 35 refs., 93 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of a Native Composite Transposon, Tn14751, Carrying 17.4 Kilobases of Corynebacterium glutamicum Chromosomal DNA

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Masayuki; Tsuge, Yota; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Verts, Alain A.; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2005-01-01

    A native composite transposon was isolated from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 14751. This transposon comprises two functional copies of a corynebacterial IS31831-like insertion sequence organized as converging terminal inverted repeats. This novel 20.3-kb element, Tn14751, carries 17.4 kb of C. glutamicum chromosomal DNA containing various genes, including genes involved in purine biosynthesis but not genes related to bacterial warfare, such as genes encoding mediators of antibiotic resistance or extracellular toxins. A derivative of this element carrying a kanamycin resistance cassette, minicomposite Tn14751, transposed into the genome of C. glutamicum at an efficiency of 1.8 102 transformants per ?g of DNA. Random insertion of the Tn14751 derivative carrying the kanamycin resistance cassette into the chromosome was verified by Southern hybridization. This work paves the way for realization of the concept of minimum genome factories in the search for metabolic engineering via genome-scale directed evolution through a combination of random and directed approaches. PMID:15640215

  19. Immunization of colorectal cancer patients with modified ovine submaxillary gland mucin and adjuvants induces IgM and IgG antibodies to sialylated Tn.

    PubMed

    O'Boyle, K P; Zamore, R; Adluri, S; Cohen, A; Kemeny, N; Welt, S; Lloyd, K O; Oettgen, H F; Old, L J; Livingston, P O

    1992-10-15

    Tn and sialylated Tn (sTn) are blood group-related epitopes expressed on mucins of colon carcinoma and other epithelial tumors and are, therefore, potential targets for immunological control. We have immunized 20 colorectal cancer patients at high risk for recurrence with a vaccine consisting of partially desialylated ovine submaxillary gland mucin (modified OSM) which contains both Tn and sTn determinants. Six patients were treated with modified OSM alone (group 1), eight patients were treated with modified OSM and the immunological adjuvant DETOX (group 2), and six patients were treated with modified OSM and Bacillus Calmette-Gurin (group 3). Pre- and postvaccination sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and dot blot immune stains for antibodies reactive with modified OSM. Antibody titers increased in 4 of 8 patients immunized with modified OSM and DETOX, in 5 of 6 patients immunized with modified OSM and B. Calmette-Gurin, and in 0 of 6 patients receiving modified OSM without adjuvant. The specificity of induced IgM and IgG antibodies was confirmed by demonstrating reactivity with OSM, bovine submaxillary mucin, and synthetic glycoconjugates sTn-human serum albumin (HSA) and Tn-HSA in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immune stains. Median IgM pre-postvaccination reciprocal titers were 20/80 for Tn-HSA and 10/320 for sTn-HSA. Low level IgG antibody titers against sTn-HSA were detected after vaccination in 7 patients. Toxicity was limited to inflammatory skin reactions at the site of vaccination resulting from the adjuvants. No inflammatory infiltrates were seen in the skin when the modified OSM vaccine was administered in the absence of an immunological adjuvant. These results demonstrate that sTn and Tn can be recognized by the human immune system and that vaccines containing these structures can be administered safely with immunological adjuvants. Attempts to augment the immunogenicity of these carbohydrate antigens by covalent attachment to immunogenic carrier proteins and the use of more potent immunological adjuvants are now being pursued. PMID:1394190

  20. Mono County geothermal activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lyster, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Three geothermal projects have been proposed or are underway in Mono County, California. The Mammoth/Chance geothermal development project plans to construct a 10-MW geothermal binary power plant which will include 8 production and 3 injection wells. Pacific Lighting Energy Systems is also planning a 10-MW binary power plant consisting of 5 geothermal wells and up to 4 injection wells. A geothermal research project near Mammoth Lakes has spudded a well to provide a way to periodically measure temperature gradient, pressure, and chemistry of the thermal waters and to investigate the space-heating potential of the area in the vicinity of Mammoth Lakes. All three projects are briefly described.

  1. Iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles conjugated with a conformationally blocked α-Tn antigen mimetic for macrophage activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuelli, Massimo; Fallarini, Silvia; Lombardi, Grazia; Sangregorio, Claudio; Nativi, Cristina; Richichi, Barbara

    2014-06-01

    Among new therapies to fight tumors, immunotherapy is still one of the most promising and intriguing. Thanks to the ongoing structural elucidation of several tumor antigens and the development of innovative antigen carriers, immunotherapy is in constant evolution and it is largely used either alone or in synergy with chemotherapy/radiotherapy. With the aim to develop fully synthetic immunostimulants we have recently developed a mimetic of the α-Tn mucin antigen, a relevant tumor antigen. The 4C1 blocked mimetic 1, unique example of an α-Tn mimetic antigen, was functionalized with an ω-phosphonate linker and used to decorate iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), employed as multivalent carriers. MNPs, largely exploited for supporting and carrying biomolecules, like antibodies, drugs or antigens, consent to combine in the same nanometric system the main features of an inorganic magnetic core with a bioactive organic coating. The superparamagnetic glyconanoparticles obtained, named GMNPs, are indeed biocompatible and immunoactive, and they preserve suitable characteristics for use as heat mediators in the magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) treatment of tumors. All together these properties make GMNPs attracting devices for innovative tumor treatment.Among new therapies to fight tumors, immunotherapy is still one of the most promising and intriguing. Thanks to the ongoing structural elucidation of several tumor antigens and the development of innovative antigen carriers, immunotherapy is in constant evolution and it is largely used either alone or in synergy with chemotherapy/radiotherapy. With the aim to develop fully synthetic immunostimulants we have recently developed a mimetic of the α-Tn mucin antigen, a relevant tumor antigen. The 4C1 blocked mimetic 1, unique example of an α-Tn mimetic antigen, was functionalized with an ω-phosphonate linker and used to decorate iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), employed as multivalent carriers. MNPs, largely exploited for supporting and carrying biomolecules, like antibodies, drugs or antigens, consent to combine in the same nanometric system the main features of an inorganic magnetic core with a bioactive organic coating. The superparamagnetic glyconanoparticles obtained, named GMNPs, are indeed biocompatible and immunoactive, and they preserve suitable characteristics for use as heat mediators in the magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) treatment of tumors. All together these properties make GMNPs attracting devices for innovative tumor treatment. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Optical rotation and spectroscopic data for all compounds; selected TEM images of MNPs, CMNPs and GMNPs; XRD patterns and FTIR spectra of MNPs coated with surfactants and with the α-Tn mimetic; MNP magnetic properties. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00070f

  2. Electrical and radioactive properties of ash samples from Eyafjallajökull and Grimsvötn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, K.; Mather, T.; Pyle, D.; Piper, I.; Shrimpton, P.

    2012-04-01

    We have investigated the physical properties of ash samples from the recent Icelandic volcanic eruptions, motivated by two sets of unexplained electrical measurements. Firstly, in situ observations of sustained electrical charging of the Eyafjallajökull plume at 1200 km from the volcano (Harrison et al, 2010), and secondly, the rate of volcanic lightning from Grimsvötn was two orders of magnitude greater than at Eyafjallajökull (Bennett et al, 2010). Electrification of volcanic plumes is likely to be generated by multiple mechanisms which may include: triboelectric or fractoemission processes at the vent, the 'dirty thunderstorm' mechanism if ice forms in the plume, and the internal radioactivity of the plume (Mather and Harrison, 2006; James et al., 2008). Here we investigate the charging properties of the ash from the two eruptions, determined by a combination of the material (including natural radioactivity), particle size distribution and shape. Volcanic ash samples were provided by the Iceland Meteorological Office. Ash from the 2010 Ejyafjallajökull eruption was collected 22 km from the crater, and ash from the 2011 Grimsvötn eruption was collected 70 km from the crater. Approximately 50 g of ash from each volcano was analysed in an Ortec 7229N gamma ray spectrometer, with the energy response calibrated before use. Both samples indicated natural radioactivity above the background level, with the Eyafjallajökull ash showing significantly more gamma activity than Grimsvotn. Gamma ray peaks associated with the decay products of uranium-238 and thorium-232 were consistently about twice as high in the Eyafjallajökull sample relative to Grimsvötn, after correction for the mass of the samples and the test duration. The 1.46 MeV peak from potassium-40 was about 10% higher in the Eyafjallajökull ash. These measurements are qualitatively consistent with what is known about Grimsvötn and Eyafjallajökull ash which are thought to have about 0.5 wt% and 1.8 - 2 wt% K2O respectively. Data on uranium concentrations of the ash are not available, but it is likely to behave as incompatibly as potassium in these rocks, so should be enriched in the Eyafjallajökull ash compared to the Grimsvötn ash. Measurements of the ash size distribution and shape have also been taken using a particle sizer and a scanning electron microscope. We intend to use this information with the radioactivity data, and laboratory measurements of the triboelectric charging properties of the ash, to help understand the observations.

  3. First results from TN273 studies of the SE Mariana Forearc rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J. M.; Stern, R. J.; Kelley, K. A.; Shaw, A. M.; Shimizu, N.; Martinez, F.; Ishii, T.; Ishizuka, O.; Manton, W. I.

    2012-12-01

    TN 273 aboard R/V Thomas Thompson (Dec. 22 2011- Jan. 22 2012) studied an unusual region of rifting affecting the southern Mariana forearc S.W. of Guam. The S.E. Mariana Forearc Rift (SEMFR) formed by diffuse tectonic and volcanic deformation (Martinez and Sleeper, this meeting) ~2.7-3.7 Ma ago to accommodate opening of the southernmost Mariana Trough backarc basin. A total of 730 km linear-track of SEMFR seafloor was surveyed with deep-towed side-scan sonar IMI-30. 14 dredges provided samples of SEMFR igneous rocks, analyzed for whole rock (WR) and glass compositions. These new results coupled with results of earlier investigations confirm that SEMFR is dominated by Miocene lavas along with minor gabbro and diabase. SEMFR lavas range in major element composition from primitive basalt to fractionated andesite (Mg# = 0.36-0.73; SiO2 = 50-57 wt%), mainly controlled by crystal fractionation. Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns range from LREE-depleted, N-MORB-like to flat patterns, reflecting different mantle processes (i.e. different sources, degree of melting ). Glassy rinds and olivine-hosted melt inclusions in these lavas contain variable volatile compositions (F = 75-358 ppm, S = 35-1126 ppm, Cl= 74-1400 ppm, CO2 = 15-520 ppm, 0.36-2.36 wt% H2O). SEMFR lavas show spider diagrams with positive anomalies in LILE and negative anomalies in HSFE. SEMFR lavas have backarc basin-like (BAB-like) chemical composition (H2O < 2.5wt%, Ba/Yb~20, Nb/Yb~1 and ?Nd~9) along with stronger enrichment in Rb and Cs than arc and BAB lavas, as demonstrated by their higher Rb/Th and Cs/Ba ratios in WR and glasses, which may reflect the role of the ultra-shallow fluids. Ultra-shallow fluids are derived from the top of the subducting slab, beneath the forearc, where most of the water and the fluid-mobile elements (Rb, Cs, Ba,) are thought to be released (Schmidt and Poli, 1998, EPSL, Savov et al., 2005, G-3). Our results suggest that i) SEMFR lavas formed by metasomatism of a BAB mantle source by ultra-shallow fluids, likely released from subducted sediments and the altered oceanic crust; and ii) the ultra-shallow fluid is aqueous and is characterized by enrichment in Cs and Rb, suggesting that Cs and Rb are decoupled from Ba in ultra-shallow subduction processes.

  4. Groundwater Transport of Organic Compounds in Old Salvage Yard, Oak Ridge, TN - 12089

    SciTech Connect

    Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak; Tachiev, Georgio; Roelant, David; Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary

    2012-07-01

    In 1950's and early 1960's during production of nuclear weapons at the US Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge TN, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well as heavy metals, nitrates, and radionuclides were released to the environment. Field investigations revealed that much of this contamination is still present in soil, bedrock, and groundwater. Operational buildings and old disposal facilities at the site have been identified as major sources of contamination. The Old Salvage Yard (OSY) on the western side of the site has long been characterized as the major source of VOC contamination in soil and groundwater. In order to analyze the fate and transport of VOC contamination- including tetrachloroethene (PCE), 1,2- dichloroethene (1,2-DCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) - in groundwater and soil at the vicinity of OSY, an integrated surface and subsurface flow and transport model has been developed for the Y-12 NSC using the hydrodynamic and transport numerical package, MIKE-SHE. Hydrogeological characteristics of the site such as hydraulic conductivity, and transport parameters such as partitioning coefficients were varied in an effort to delineate subsurface flow and transport pathways, potential downstream impacts on Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, and the potential risk to industrial workers involved in related Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) activities. The simulation results were compared with the analytical modeling results previously performed by McLane Environmental Inc. using SESOIL-AT123D. Specific simulations have been performed to investigate the effect of possible remedial action (removing the contaminated surface soil layers) on the fate and transport of VOCs. The results of the MIKE-SHE reported here can be considered as an upper limit for the predicted concentrations. Based on MIKE-SHE results, PCE, 1,2 DCE, cis-1,2-DCE, and VC are sources in soil with potential to equal or exceed industrial groundwater hazard and risk levels at the vicinity of OSY. VOC contaminants in soil and groundwater will decay below industrial groundwater risk and hazard levels within approximately 20 years. Excavation of surface soil layers at the site will considerably reduce the concentration of VOCs in groundwater and the possibility of migration of VOCs to surface waters. (authors)

  5. Hydrology of Polk County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spechler, Rick M.; Kroening, Sharon E.

    2007-01-01

    Local water managers usually rely on information produced at the State and regional scale to make water-resource management decisions. Current assessments of hydrologic and water-quality conditions in Polk County, Florida, commonly end at the boundaries of two water management districts (South Florida Water Management District and the Southwest Florida Water Management District), which makes it difficult for managers to determine conditions throughout the county. The last comprehensive water-resources assessment of Polk County was published almost 40 years ago. To address the need for current countywide information, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 3?-year study in 2002 to update information about hydrologic and water-quality conditions in Polk County and identify changes that have occurred. Ground-water use in Polk County has decreased substantially since 1965. In 1965, total ground-water withdrawals in the county were about 350 million gallons per day. In 2002, withdrawals totaled about 285 million gallons per day, of which nearly 95 percent was from the Floridan aquifer system. Water-conservation practices mainly related to the phosphate-mining industry as well as the decrease in the number of mines in operation in Polk County have reduced total water use by about 65 million gallons per day since 1965. Polk County is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units. The uppermost water-bearing unit is the surficial aquifer system, which is unconfined and composed primarily of clastic deposits. The surficial aquifer system is underlain by the intermediate confining unit, which grades into the intermediate aquifer system and consists of up to two water-bearing zones composed of interbedded clastic and carbonate rocks. The lowermost hydrogeologic unit is the Floridan aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer system, a thick sequence of permeable limestone and dolostone, consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, a middle semiconfining unit, a middle confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer provides most of the water required to meet demand in Polk County. Data from about 300 geophysical and geologic logs were used to construct hydrogeologic maps showing the tops and thicknesses of the aquifers and confining units within Polk County. Thickness of the surficial aquifer system ranges from several feet thick or less in the extreme northwestern part of the county and along parts of the Peace River south of Bartow to more than 200 feet along the southern part of the Lake Wales Ridge in eastern Polk County. Thickness of the intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit is highly variable throughout the county because of past erosional processes and sinkhole formation. Thickness of the unit ranges from less than 25 feet in the extreme northwestern part of the county to more than 300 feet in southwestern Polk County. The altitude of the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the county ranges from about 50 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD 29) in the northwestern part to more than 250 feet below NGVD 29 in the southern part. Water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer fluctuate seasonally, increasing during the wet season (June through September) and decreasing during the rest of the year. Water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer also can change from year to year, depending on such factors as pumpage and climatic variations. In the southwestern part of the county, fluctuations in water use related to phosphate mining have had a major impact on ground-water levels. Hydrographs of selected wells in southwestern Polk County show a general decline in water levels that ended in the mid-1970s. This water-level decline coincides with an increase in water use associated with phosphate mining. A substantial increase in water levels that began in the mid-1970s coincides with a period of decreasing water use in the county. Despite reductions in water use since 1970, howev

  6. Rapid and efficient introduction of a foreign gene into bacterial artificial chromosome-cloned varicella vaccine by Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition

    SciTech Connect

    Somboonthum, Pranee; Koshizuka, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Shigefumi; Matsuura, Masaaki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Michiaki; Yamanishi, Koichi; Mori, Yasuko

    2010-06-20

    Using a rapid and reliable system based on Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition, we have successfully constructed a recombinant Oka varicella vaccine (vOka) expressing the mumps virus (MuV) fusion protein (F). The backbone of the vector was our previously reported vOka-BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) genome. We inserted the transposon Tn7 attachment sequence, LacZ{alpha}-mini-attTn7, into the region between ORF12 and ORF13 to generate a vOka-BAC-Tn genome. The MuV-F expressing cassette was transposed into the vOka-BAC genome at the mini-attTn7 transposition site. MuV-F protein was expressed in recombinant virus, rvOka-F infected cells. In addition, the MuV-F protein was cleaved in the rvOka-F infected cells as in MuV-infected cells. The growth of rvOka-F was similar to that of the original recombinant vOka without the F gene. Thus, we show that Tn7-mediated transposition is an efficient method for introducing a foreign gene expression cassette into the vOka-BAC genome as a live virus vector.

  7. Transposon Tn5281 is the main distributor of the aminoglycoside modifying enzyme gene among isolates of Enterococcus faecalis in Tehran hospitals.

    PubMed

    Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Shokrzadeh, Leila; Sayady, Sara; Asadi, Soroor

    2008-10-01

    Infections with high levels of gentamicin-resistant (HLGR) isolates of Enterococcus faecalis are common in Tehran hospitals. Genes encoding such resistance are transmissible by conjugation at high frequency. The purpose of this study was to determine the existence of Tn5281 and its flanking aminoglycoside modifying enzyme gene aac(6')-aph(2") among 102 HLGR isolates of E. faecalis cultured from patients at three hospitals in Tehran, Iran. These isolates were detected by disks containing 120 microg of gentamicin and made 65% of all E. faecalis during the study period. DNA was extracted from HLGR isolates and subjected to PCR assays targeting aac(6')-aph(2") and conjugative transposon Tn5281. The amplified aac(6')-aph(2") gene was labeled with digoxigenin and probed with Tn5281 amplicons in dot blot hybridization assays. The aac(6')-aph(2") gene was detected in 91%-92% (n = 93) of the HLGR isolates. All isolates containing aac(6')-aph(2") were positive in long-PCR targeting Tn5281 and the probe hybridized with Tn5281 amplicons. The number of HLGR isolates of E. faecalis has increased considerably in Tehran hospitals. Tn5281 is the main cause of transmission of aac(6')-aph(2") to different isolates of E. faecalis in the hospitals studied. PMID:18923558

  8. Genome-wide investigation of the genes involved in nicotine metabolism in Pseudomonas putida J5 by Tn5 transposon mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhenyuan; Zhang, Wei; Lei, Liping; Liu, Xingzhong; Wei, Hai-Lei

    2015-08-01

    Pseudomonas putida J5 is an efficient nicotine-degrading bacterial strain isolated from the tobacco rhizosphere. We successfully performed a comprehensive whole-genome analysis of nicotine metabolism-associated genes by Tn5 transposon mutagenesis in P. putida J5. A total of 18 mutants with unique insertions screened from 16,324 Tn5-transformants failed to use nicotine as the sole carbon source. Flanking sequences of the Tn5 transposon were cloned with a shotgun method from all of the nicotine-growth-deficient mutants. The potentially essential products of mutated gene were classified as follows: oxidoreductases, protein and metal transport systems, proteases and peptidases, transcriptional and translational regulators, and unknown proteins. Bioinformatic analysis of the Tn5 insertion sites indicated that the nicotine metabolic genes were separated and widely distributed in the genome. One of the mutants, M2022, was a Tn5 insert into a gene encoding a homolog of 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine oxidase, the second enzyme of nicotine metabolism in Arthrobacter nicotinovorans. Genetic and biochemical analysis confirmed that three open reading frames (ORFs) from an approximately 13-kb fragment recovered from the mutant M2022 were responsible for the transformation of nicotine to 3-succinoyl-pyridine via pseudooxynicotine and 3-succinoyl semialdehyde-pyridine, the first three steps of nicotine degradation. Further research on these mutants and the Tn5-inserted genes will help us characterize nicotine metabolic processes in P. putida J5. PMID:25808517

  9. Rapid Transposon Liquid Enrichment Sequencing (TnLE-seq) for Gene Fitness Evaluation in Underdeveloped Bacterial Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fels, Samuel R.; Zane, Grant M.; Blake, Sean M.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-genome fitness analysis in microbes that uses saturating transposon mutagenesis combined with massively parallel sequencing (Tn-seq) is providing a measure of the contribution of each gene to a given growth condition. With this technique, gene fitness profiles and essential genes are discovered by simultaneous analyses of whether the absence of each gene product alters the growth kinetics of the bacterium. Here we modify the standard Tn-seq procedure to simplify and shorten the process by including delivery of the transposon through conjugation and liquid culture enrichment of the mutant pool, creating transposon liquid enrichment sequencing (TnLE-seq). To illustrate the success of these modifications and the robustness of the procedure, analyses of gene fitness of two cultures of the strictly anaerobic bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough were performed, with growth on lactate as the electron donor and sulfate as the electron acceptor. These data demonstrate reproducibility and provide a base condition for analysis of fitness changes in deletion mutants and in various growth conditions. The procedural modifications will facilitate the application of this powerful genetic analysis to microbes lacking a facile genetic system. Pilot studies produced 2.5 × 105 and 3.4 × 105 unique insertion mutants in the anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough grown under typical laboratory conditions in rich medium. These analyses provided two similar high-resolution maps of gene fitness across the genome, and the method was also applied to growth in minimal medium. These results were also compared to the coverage obtained with a ca. 13,000-member cataloged transposon library constructed by sequencing transposon insertion sites in individual mutants. PMID:24077707

  10. Analysis of the Zinc Finger Domain of TnpA, a DNA Targeting Protein Encoded by Mobilizable Transposon Tn4555

    PubMed Central

    Bacic, Melissa K.; Jain, Jinesh C.; Parker, Anita C.; Smith, C. Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    The mobilizable transposon Tn4555, found in Bacteroides spp., is an important antibiotic resistance element encoding a broad spectrum β-lactamase. Tn4555 is mobilized by conjugative transposons such as CTn341 which can transfer the transposon to a wide range of bacterial species where it integrates into preferred sites on the host chromosome. Selection of the preferred target sites is mediated by a DNA-binding protein TnpA which has a prominent zinc finger motif at the N-terminus of the protein. In this report the zinc finger motif was disrupted by site directed mutagenesis in which two cysteine residues were changed to serine residues. Elemental analysis indicated that the wild-type protein but not the mutated protein was able to coordinate zinc at a molar ration of 1/1. DNA binding electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the ability to bind the target site DNA was not significantly affected by the mutation but there was about a 50% decrease in the ability to bind single stranded DNA. Consistent with these results, electrophoretic mobility shift assays incorporating zinc chelators did not have a significant affect the binding of DNA target. In vivo, the zinc finger mutation completely prevented transposition/integration as measured in a conjugation assay. This was in contrast to results in which a TnpA knockout was still able to insert into host genomes but there was no preferred target site selection. The phenotype of the zinc finger mutation was not effectively rescued by providing wild-type TnpA in trans. Taken together these results indicated that the zinc finger is not required for DNA binding activity of TnpA but that it does have an important role in transposition and it may mediate protein/protein interactions with integrase or other Tn4555 proteins to facilitate insertion into the preferred sites. PMID:17204325

  11. Phage ϕC2 Mediates Transduction of Tn6215, Encoding Erythromycin Resistance, between Clostridium difficile Strains

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Shan; Hussain, Haitham; Chang, Barbara J.; Emmett, Warren; Riley, Thomas V.; Mullany, Peter

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this work, we show that Clostridium difficile phage ϕC2 transduces erm(B), which confers erythromycin resistance, from a donor to a recipient strain at a frequency of 10−6 per PFU. The transductants were lysogenic for ϕC2 and contained the erm(B) gene in a novel transposon, Tn6215. This element is 13,008 bp in length and contains 17 putative open reading frames (ORFs). It could also be transferred at a lower frequency by filter mating. PMID:24255122

  12. Tennessee Higher Education County Profiles, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a localized perspective on Tennessee higher education, including: (1) county demographic and economic data; (2) information on public and private colleges and universities located in the county; (3) number of county residents enrolled in Tennessee public institutions; and (4) number of county residents participating in the…

  13. 75 FR 22100 - Nevada County and Placer County, CA, Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... Forest Service Nevada County and Placer County, CA, Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Nevada County and Placer County Resource Advisory... National Forests in Nevada and Placer Counties. DATES: The meeting will be held Tuesday, May 4, 2010 at...

  14. VERMONT COUNTY HEALTH DATA2

    EPA Science Inventory

    This datalayer contains Vermont Population and Health data describing public health (1986-2000), by county, extracted from various sources, such as; the Vermont Department of Health, the Vermont Center for Justice Research, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholis...

  15. Energy Improvements in Barnstable County

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-01

    A fact sheet that describes Barnstable County, Massachusetts, effort to improve energy efficiency through a public appliance trade-in program, installation of compact fluorescent light bulbs in public buildings, and public energy education.

  16. Visible-near infrared reflectance spectroscopy for estimating soil total nitrogen contents in the Sanjiang Yuan Regions, China: a case study of Yushu County and Maduo County, Qinghai province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaohong; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Jia, Wei; Li, Jianshan; Tian, Chengming; Zhang, Yanjiao; He, Linhua

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the prediction ability of visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy(VNIRP) to estimate soil total nitrogen concentration (TN) in the Sanjiang Yuan regions, Qinghai province, China by using partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. A total of 149 soil samples (0-30cm) were collected respectively from Yushu county and Maduo county in August 2012. The soil total nitrogen concentrations were measured using Vario EL III elemental analyzer (Germany Elementar Inc), and the soil spectral reflectance of with spectral range 350-2500nm was measured using ASD FieldSpec 4 in the laboratory. PLSR model was used to relate the reflectance spectra and its five different pre-processing transformations including the first order derivative reflectance (FDR), the second order derivative reflectance(SDR), the logarithm of the inverse of the reflectance (Log (1/R)), the depth of the band (Band depth) and the first order derivative of the logarithm of reflectance (( Log R)') to the soil total nitrogen contents measured. The results showed that the combination of visible-near infrared reflectance spectroscopy and PLSR to estimate TN produced a good prediction ability with R2 < 0.76 and RPD < 2.01 in the Sanjiang Yuan regions. The best prediction ability was obtained by (Log R) ' with R2CV = 0.87, R2V =0.88 and RPD <2.67, followed by Log (1/R), Band Depth, SDR, FDR and Reflectance. Visible and near infrared spectroscopy provided a rapid and effective method for estimating soil TN from five different soil types in the Sanjiang Yuan Regions, Qinghai province.

  17. Characterization of the repeat-tract instability and mutator phenotypes conferred by a Tn3 insertion in RFC1, the large subunit of the yeast clamp loader.

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Y; Counter, C; Alani, E

    1999-01-01

    The RFC1 gene encodes the large subunit of the yeast clamp loader (RFC) that is a component of eukaryotic DNA polymerase holoenzymes. We identified a mutant allele of RFC1 (rfc1::Tn3) from a large collection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants that were inviable when present in a rad52 null mutation background. Analysis of rfc1::Tn3 strains indicated that they displayed both a mutator and repeat-tract instability phenotype. Strains bearing this allele were characterized in combination with mismatch repair (msh2Delta, pms1Delta), double-strand break repair (rad52), and DNA replication (pol3-01, pol30-52, rth1Delta/rad27Delta) mutations in both forward mutation and repeat-tract instability assays. This analysis indicated that the rfc1::Tn3 allele displays synthetic lethality with pol30, pol3, and rad27 mutations. Measurement of forward mutation frequencies in msh2Delta rfc1:Tn3 and pms1Delta rfc1:Tn3 strains indicated that the rfc1::Tn3 mutant displayed a mutation frequency that appeared nearly multiplicative with the mutation frequency exhibited by mismatch-repair mutants. In repeat-tract instability assays, however, the rfc1::Tn3 mutant displayed a tract instability phenotype that appeared epistatic to the phenotype displayed by mismatch-repair mutants. From these data we propose that defects in clamp loader function result in DNA replication errors, a subset of which are acted upon by the mismatch-repair system. PMID:9927446

  18. Geothermal development plan: Yuma county

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    One hot spring and 33 wells drilled in the county discharge water at temperatures sufficient for direct-use geothermal applications such as process heat and space heating and cooling. Currently, one industry within the county has been identified which may be able to use geothermal energy for its process heat requirements. Also, a computer simulation model was used to predict geothermal energy on line as a function of time under both private and city-owned utility development of the resource.

  19. Barriers to breastfeeding in the African American population of Shelby County, Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Ware, Julie L; Webb, Larita; Levy, Marian

    2014-10-01

    Breastfeeding is recommended exclusively for the first 6 months of life, with continuation after the addition of complementary foods for at least 1 year of life. Breastfeeding rates are low in the Southeastern United States, especially among African Americans. Disparities in breastfeeding rates between African Americans and whites are especially pronounced in Memphis (Shelby County), TN. Our research objectives were to explore this disparity using focus groups, specifically to identify perceived barriers, and also to seek possible solutions from the target population. Focus groups were conducted in nine community settings within the county. Groups primarily consisted of women of childbearing years, but groups with men, grandmothers, and teens were also conducted. Common barriers for breastfeeding that were identified included pain, embarrassment with public nursing, going back to work, concern about "partying" and breastfeeding, and "just not wanting to" breastfeed. A notable finding was a substantial concern about sexuality and breastfeeding. As a possible solution, participants recommended putting breastfeeding educational materials widely across the county in many venues. Barriers to breastfeeding in Memphis are similar to those in other areas, with key concerns about sexuality and partying. Involving the target population yielded specific recommendations to improve breastfeeding promotion efforts. PMID:24972117

  20. Utilization of a thermosensitive episome bearing transposon TN10 to isolate Hfr donor strains of Erwinia carotovora subsp. chrysanthemi.

    PubMed Central

    Kotoujansky, A; Lemattre, M; Boistard, P

    1982-01-01

    A thermosensitive episome bearing the transposon Tn10, F(Ts)::Tn10 Lac+, has been successfully transferred from Escherichia coli to several wild strains of the enterobacteria Erwinia carotovora subsp. chrysanthemi, which are pathogenic on Saintpaulia ionantha. In one of these strains, all of the characters controlled by this episome (Lac+, Tetr, Tra+) were expressed, and its replication was stopped at 40 degrees C and above. At 30 degrees C, the episome was easily transferred between strains derived from E. carotovora subsp. chrysanthemi 3937j and to E coli. Hfr donor strains were obtained from a F' strain of 3937j by selecting clones which grew at 40 degrees C on plates containing tetracycline. One of these strains, Hfrq, was examined in more detail: the characters Lac+ and Tetr were stabilized and did not segregate higher than its parental F' strain. The mating was most efficient at 37 degrees C on a membrane. Hfrq transferred its chromosome to recipient strains at high frequency and in a polarized fashion, as evidenced by the gradient of transfer frequencies, the kinetics of marker entry (in interrupted mating experiments), and the analysis of linkage between different markers. The chromosome of Hfrq was most probably transferred in the following sequence: origin...met...xyl...arg...ile...leu...thr...cys...pan...ura...gal...trp...his. ..pur... Moreover, this genetic transfer system proved to be efficient in strain construction. PMID:6277860

  1. The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Grímsvötn eruptions: Insights from GPS geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hreinsdottir, S.; Sigmundsson, F.; Roberts, M.; Árnadóttir, P.; Ófeigsson, B.; Grapenthin, R.; Sturkell, E.; Villemin, T.; Bennett, R.; Geirsson, H.

    2012-04-01

    Both the Eyjafjallajökull summit eruption in 2010 and Grímsvötn eruption in 2011 resulted in significant disruption of aviation. Three historic (last 1100 years) eruptions are known in Eyjafjallajökull volcano prior to 2010 (in 920, 1612, and 1821-23). In contrast Grímsvötn volcano is Icelands most active volcano with the last three eruptions in 1983, 1998, and 2004. Both volcanoes have been monitored with continuous GPS measurements in the last few years, revealing different style of deformation leading up to and during the eruption. On March 20 2010 a 300 m long fissure opened up on the east flank of Eyjafjallajökull volcano. The eruption was preceded by three months of unrest with increased seismic activity and surface deformation. The deformation pattern leading up to the eruption was both spatially and temporally variable. In January and February 2010 inflation was observed at GPS sites on the flanks of the volcano indicating formations of sills. From February 20 more distant GPS stations showed a small but distinct change in horizontal velocity. Sites started moving in toward the volcano, suggesting deep pressure changes. In early March seismic activity intensified and rapid deformation leading up to the eruption suggested the upward migration of magma. During the flank eruption deformation almost ceased and the volcano remained at an inflated state. On April 14 2010, a more explosive eruption began at the ice-caped summit of the volcano. Rapid deformation toward the summit and subsidence was observed at GPS sites around the volcano during this eruption. In early May a small but significant inflation signal was observed at the GPS sites closest to the summit suggesting a renewed flux of magma from depth but was followed by a continued deformation toward the summit for a few weeks. Around 19 UTC on May 21, 2011 a phreatomagmatic eruption started at Grímsvötn volcano lasting until the May 28. The Grímsvötn volcano lies beneath the Vatnajökul icecap, limiting the near field monitoring efforts to a single nunatak, Mt. Grímsvötn. A high rate GPS station and electronic tilt meter are collocated at the nunatak. The GPS station had registered inflation of the volcano since the 2004 when it last erupted. Rapid deformation, starting about an hour prior to the onset of the eruption, suggested a pressure drop in a magma chamber located at a shallow depth (~1.8 km). The GPS station recorded a total displacement of 57 cm with over 20% of the deformation taking place prior to the eruption and majority of the displacement (95%) taking place within the first 24 hours of the eruption. Rapid inflation signal was observed following the eruption suggesting refilling of the magma chamber.

  2. Radioprotection of the Brain White Matter by Mn(III) N-Butoxyethylpyridylporphyrin-Based Superoxide Dismutase Mimic MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+

    PubMed Central

    Weitzel, Douglas H.; Tovmasyan, Artak; Ashcraft, Kathleen A.; Rajic, Zrinka; Weitner, Tin; Liu, Chunlei; Li, Wei; Buckley, Anne F.; Prasad, Mark R.; Young, Kenneth H.; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Wetsel, William C.; Peters, Katherine B.; Spasojevic, Ivan; Herndon, James E.; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Cranial irradiation is a standard therapy for primary and metastatic brain tumors. A major drawback of radiotherapy (RT), however, is long-term cognitive loss that affects quality of life. Radiation-induced oxidative stress in normal brain tissue is thought to contribute to cognitive decline. We evaluated the effectiveness of a novel mimic of superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD), MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ (Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(N-n-butoxyethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin), to provide long-term neuroprotection following 8 Gy of whole brain irradiation. Long-term RT damage can only be assessed by brain imaging and neurocognitive studies. C57BL/6J mice were treated with MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ before and after RT and evaluated three months later. At this time point, drug concentration in the brain was 25 nmol/L. Mice treated with MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+/RT exhibited MRI evidence for myelin preservation in the corpus callosum compared with saline/RT treatment. Corpus callosum histology demonstrated a significant loss of axons in the saline/RT group that was rescued in the MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+/RT group. In addition, the saline/RT groups exhibited deficits in motor proficiency as assessed by the rotorod test and running wheel tests. These deficits were ameliorated in groups treated with MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+/RT. Our data demonstrate that MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ is neuroprotective for oxidative stress damage caused by radiation exposure. In addition, glioblastoma cells were not protected by MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ combination with radiation in vitro. Likewise, the combination of MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ with radiation inhibited tumor growth more than RT alone in flank tumors. In summary, MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ has dual activity as a neuroprotector and a tumor radiosensitizer. Thus, it is an attractive candidate for adjuvant therapy with RT in future studies with patients with brain cancer. PMID:25319393

  3. The Biphenyl- and 4-Chlorobiphenyl-Catabolic Transposon Tn4371, a Member of a New Family of Genomic Islands Related to IncP and Ti Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Toussaint, Ariane; Merlin , Christophe; Monchy, Sébastien; Benotmane, M. Abderrafi; Leplae, Raphaël; Mergeay, Max; Springael, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the biphenyl catabolic transposon Tn4371 has been completed and analyzed. It confirmed that the element has a mosaic structure made of several building blocks. In addition to previously identified genes coding for a tyrosine recombinase related to phage integrases and for biphenyl degradation enzymes very similar to those of Achromobacter georgiopolitanum KKS102, Tn4371 carries many plasmid-related genes involved in replication, partition, and other, as-yet-unknown, plasmid functions. One gene cluster contains most of the genes required to express a type IV secretion-mating pair formation apparatus coupled with a TraG ATPase, all of which are related to those found on IncP and Ti plasmids. Orthologues of all Tn4371 plasmid-related genes and of the tyrosine recombinase gene were found, with a very similar organization, in the chromosome of Ralstonia solanacearum and on the yet-to-be-determined genomic sequences of Erwinia chrysanthemi and Azotobacter vinelandii. In each of these chromosomal segments, conserved segments were separated by different groups of genes, which also differed from the Tn4371 bph genes. The conserved blocks of genes were also identified, in at least two copies, in the chromosome of Ralstonia metallidurans CH34. Tn4371 thus appears to represent a new family of potentially mobile genomic islands with a broad host range since they reside in a wide range of soil proteobacteria, including plant pathogens. PMID:12902278

  4. TnpI recombinase: identification of sites within Tn5401 required for TnpI binding and site-specific recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Baum, J A

    1995-01-01

    The Bacillus thuringiensis class II transposon Tn5401 encodes a recombinase protein, TnpI, that mediates the resolution of cointegrate molecules generated as intermediates during Tn5401 transposition by the TnpA transposase. This recombination event requires a specific target site, or internal resolution site, at which TnpI binds and catalyzes the exchange of DNA strands. Gel mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting analyses were used to localize the TnpI binding region to the sequence extending from nucleotides 637 to 747 of Tn5401. Deletions within this region blocked TnpI-mediated recombination in vivo. The 12-bp sequence ATGTCC RCTAAY, present in four copies within the TnpI binding region, is proposed to be the recognition sequence for TnpI binding. TnpI also binds to a single copy of this sequence located within the 53-bp terminal inverted repeats of Tn5401. The unique juxtaposition of recombinase and transposase binding sites at the terminal inverted repeats of Tn5401 suggests that TnpI regulates the binding and/or catalytic activity of TnpA transposase. PMID:7608077

  5. Structural basis for the specificity of basic winged bean lectin for the Tn-antigen: a crystallographic, thermodynamic and modelling study.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Kiran A; Sinha, Sharmistha; Katiyar, Samiksha; Surolia, Avadhesha; Vijayan, Mamannamana; Suguna, Kaza

    2005-12-19

    The crystal structure of winged bean basic agglutinin in complex with GalNAc-alpha-O-Ser (Tn-antigen) has been elucidated at 2.35 angstroms resolution in order to characterize the mode of binding of Tn-antigen with the lectin. The Gal moiety occupies the primary binding site and makes interactions similar to those found in other Gal/GalNAc specific legume lectins. The nitrogen and oxygen atoms of the acetamido group of the sugar make two hydrogen bonds with the protein atoms whereas its methyl group is stabilized by hydrophobic interactions. A water bridge formed between the terminal oxygen atoms of the serine residue of the Tn-antigen and the side chain oxygen atom of Asn128 of the lectin increase the affinity of the lectin for Tn-antigen compared to that for GalNAc. A comparison with the available structures reveals that while the interactions of the glyconic part of the antigen are conserved, the mode of stabilization of the serine residue differs and depends on the nature of the protein residues in its vicinity. The structure provides a qualitative explanation for the thermodynamic parameters of the complexation of the lectin with Tn-antigen. Modeling studies indicate the possibility of an additional hydrogen bond with the lectin when the antigen is part of a glycoprotein. PMID:16310781

  6. Population substructure in Cache County, Utah: the Cache County study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Population stratification is a key concern for genetic association analyses. In addition, extreme homogeneity of ethnic origins of a population can make it difficult to interpret how genetic associations in that population may translate into other populations. Here we have evaluated the genetic substructure of samples from the Cache County study relative to the HapMap Reference populations and data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Results Our findings show that the Cache County study is similar in ethnic diversity to the self-reported "Whites" in the ADNI sample and less homogenous than the HapMap CEU population. Conclusions We conclude that the Cache County study is genetically representative of the general European American population in the USA and is an appropriate population for conducting broadly applicable genetic studies. PMID:25078123

  7. Geothermal development plan: Yuma County

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Yuma County Area Development Plan evaluated the county-wide market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 90/sup 0/C (194/sup 0/F), and in addition, two areas are inferred to contain geothermal resources with intermediate (90/sup 0/C to 150/sup 0/C, 194/sup 0/F to 300/sup 0/F) temperature potential. The resource areas are isolated, although one resource area is located near Yuma, Arizona. One resource site is inferred to contain a hot dry rock resource. Anticipated population growth in the county is expected to be 2 percent per year over the next 40 years. The primary employment sector is agriculture, though some light industry is located in the county. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support future growth without advese affect on agriculture. Six firms were found in Yuma County which may be able to utilize geothermal energy for process heat needs. In addition, several agricultural processors were found, concentrated in citrus processing and livestock raising. Geothermal energy utilization projections suggest that by the year 2000, geothermal energy may economically provide the energy equivalent of 53,000 barrels of oil per year to the industrial sector if developed privately. Geothermal utilization projections increase to 132,000 barrels of oil per year by 2000 if a municipal utility developed the resource.

  8. Excision of Tn10 from the donor site during transposition occurs by flush double-strand cleavages at the transposon termini.

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, H W; Kleckner, N

    1992-01-01

    Tn10 transposition is accomplished without extensive replication of the transposon sequences. Replicative cointegrate formation is precluded by efficient separation of transposon sequences from flanking donor DNA at an early stage in the transposition reaction. We report here that excision of Tn10 from its donor site occurs by a pair of flush double-strand breaks. Breaks occur at each end of the element precisely between the terminal base pair of the element and the first base pair of flanking DNA. This observation provides definitive evidence that cleavage of both strands of the element occurs under the direct control of Tn10 transposase protein. It is highly likely that transposase itself is directly responsible for these cleavages. The implications of this possibility are discussed. Images PMID:1316613

  9. A TALE of Transposition: Tn3-Like Transposons Play a Major Role in the Spread of Pathogenicity Determinants of Xanthomonas citri and Other Xanthomonads

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rafael Marini; de Oliveira, Amanda Carolina P.; Moreira, Leandro M.; Belasque, Jos; Gourbeyre, Edith; Siguier, Patricia; Ferro, Maria Ins T.; Ferro, Jesus A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the genus Xanthomonas are among the most important phytopathogens. A key feature of Xanthomonas pathogenesis is the translocation of type III secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins (T3SEs) into the plant target cells via a T3SS. Several T3SEs and a murein lytic transglycosylase gene (mlt, required for citrus canker symptoms) are found associated with three transposition-related genes in Xanthomonas citri plasmid pXAC64. These are flanked by short inverted repeats (IRs). The region was identified as a transposon, TnXax1, with typical Tn3 family features, including a transposase and two recombination genes. Two 14-bp palindromic sequences within a 193-bp potential resolution site occur between the recombination genes. Additional derivatives carrying different T3SEs and other passenger genes occur in different Xanthomonas species. The T3SEs include transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs). Certain TALEs are flanked by the same IRs as found in TnXax1 to form mobile insertion cassettes (MICs), suggesting that they may be transmitted horizontally. A significant number of MICs carrying other passenger genes (including a number of TALE genes) were also identified, flanked by the same TnXax1 IRs and delimited by 5-bp target site duplications. We conclude that a large fraction of T3SEs, including individual TALEs and potential pathogenicity determinants, have spread by transposition and that TnXax1, which exhibits all of the essential characteristics of a functional transposon, may be involved in driving MIC transposition. We also propose that TALE genes may diversify by fork slippage during the replicative Tn3 family transposition. These mechanisms may play a crucial role in the emergence of Xanthomonas pathogenicity. PMID:25691597

  10. A Role for Tn6029 in the Evolution of the Complex Antibiotic Resistance Gene Loci in Genomic Island 3 in Enteroaggregative Hemorrhagic Escherichia coli O104:H4

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Piklu Roy; Charles, Ian G.; Djordjevic, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    In enteroaggregative hemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EAHEC) O104 the complex antibiotic resistance gene loci (CRL) found in the region of divergence 1 (RD1) within E. coli genomic island 3 (GI3) contains blaTEM-1, strAB, sul2, tet(A)A, and dfrA7 genes encoding resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and trimethoprim respectively. The precise arrangement of antibiotic resistance genes and the role of mobile elements that drove the evolutionary events and created the CRL have not been investigated. We used a combination of bioinformatics and iterative BLASTn searches to determine the micro-evolutionary events that likely led to the formation of the CRL in GI3 using the closed genome sequences of EAHEC O104:H4 strains 2011C-3493 and 2009EL-2050 and high quality draft genomes of EAHEC E. coli O104:H4 isolates from sporadic cases not associated with the initial outbreak. Our analyses indicate that the CRL in GI3 evolved from a progenitor structure that contained an In2-derived class 1 integron in a Tn21/Tn1721 hybrid backbone. Within the hybrid backbone, a Tn6029-family transposon, identified here as Tn6029C abuts the sul1 gene in the 3-Conserved Segment (-CS) of a class 1 integron generating a unique molecular signature that has only previously been observed in pASL01a, a small plasmid found in commensal E. coli in West Africa. From this common progenitor, independent IS26-mediated events created two novel transposons identified here as Tn6029D and Tn6222 in 2011C-3493 and 2009EL-2050 respectively. Analysis of RD1 within GI3 reveals IS26 has played a crucial role in the assembly of regions within the CRL. PMID:25675217

  11. A role for Tn6029 in the evolution of the complex antibiotic resistance gene loci in genomic island 3 in enteroaggregative hemorrhagic Escherichia coli O104:H4.

    PubMed

    Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; Charles, Ian G; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    In enteroaggregative hemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EAHEC) O104 the complex antibiotic resistance gene loci (CRL) found in the region of divergence 1 (RD1) within E. coli genomic island 3 (GI3) contains blaTEM-1, strAB, sul2, tet(A)A, and dfrA7 genes encoding resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and trimethoprim respectively. The precise arrangement of antibiotic resistance genes and the role of mobile elements that drove the evolutionary events and created the CRL have not been investigated. We used a combination of bioinformatics and iterative BLASTn searches to determine the micro-evolutionary events that likely led to the formation of the CRL in GI3 using the closed genome sequences of EAHEC O104:H4 strains 2011C-3493 and 2009EL-2050 and high quality draft genomes of EAHEC E. coli O104:H4 isolates from sporadic cases not associated with the initial outbreak. Our analyses indicate that the CRL in GI3 evolved from a progenitor structure that contained an In2-derived class 1 integron in a Tn21/Tn1721 hybrid backbone. Within the hybrid backbone, a Tn6029-family transposon, identified here as Tn6029C abuts the sul1 gene in the 3'-Conserved Segment (-CS) of a class 1 integron generating a unique molecular signature that has only previously been observed in pASL01a, a small plasmid found in commensal E. coli in West Africa. From this common progenitor, independent IS26-mediated events created two novel transposons identified here as Tn6029D and Tn6222 in 2011C-3493 and 2009EL-2050 respectively. Analysis of RD1 within GI3 reveals IS26 has played a crucial role in the assembly of regions within the CRL. PMID:25675217

  12. Archuleta County CO Lineaments

    SciTech Connect

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Publication Date: 2012 Title: Archuleta Lineaments Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Reno Nevada Publisher: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Description: This layer traces apparent topographic and air-photo lineaments in the area around Pagosa springs in Archuleta County, Colorado. It was made in order to identify possible fault and fracture systems that might be conduits for geothermal fluids. Geothermal fluids commonly utilize fault and fractures in competent rocks as conduits for fluid flow. Geothermal exploration involves finding areas of high near-surface temperature gradients, along with a suitable “plumbing system” that can provide the necessary permeability. Geothermal power plants can sometimes be built where temperature and flow rates are high. To do this, georeferenced topographic maps and aerial photographs were utilized in an existing GIS, using ESRI ArcMap 10.0 software. The USA_Topo_Maps and World_Imagery map layers were chosen from the GIS Server at server.arcgisonline.com, using a UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection. This line shapefile was then constructed over that which appeared to be through-going structural lineaments in both the aerial photographs and topographic layers, taking care to avoid manmade features such as roads, fence lines, and right-of-ways. These lineaments may be displaced somewhat from their actual location, due to such factors as shadow effects with low sun angles in the aerial photographs. Note: This shape file was constructed as an aid to geothermal exploration in preparation for a site visit for field checking. We make no claims as to the existence of the lineaments, their location, orientation, and nature. Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4132831.990103 m Left: 311979.997741 m Right: 331678.289280 m Bottom: 4116067.165795 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Contact Person: Richard “Rick” Zehner Address: 3740 Barron Way City: Reno State: NV Postal Code: 89511 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 775-737-7806 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  13. IMP-1 encoded by a novel Tn402-like class 1 integron in clinical Achromobacter xylosoxidans, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenhong; Fang, Haihong; Wang, Li; Sun, Fengjun; Wang, Yong; Yin, Zhe; Yang, Huiying; Yang, Wenhui; Wang, Jie; Xia, Peiyuan; Zhou, Dongsheng; Liu, Changting

    2014-01-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain A22732 is isolated from a pneumonia patient in China and produces carbapenemases OXA-114e and IMP-1, which are encoded by chromosome and plasmid, respectively, and confer resistance to multiple -lactam antibiotics including carbapenems. The blaIMP-1 gene together with aacA7 and orfE is captured by a novel Tn402-like class 1 integron in a conjugative IncP-1 plasmid. In addition to the intrinsic integron promoter PcW, there is still a blaIMP-1 gene cassette-specific promoter. This is the first report of carbapenemase-encoding IncP-1 plasmid in clinical bacterial isolate. PMID:25428613

  14. IMP-1 encoded by a novel Tn402-like class 1 integron in clinical Achromobacter xylosoxidans, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhenhong; Fang, Haihong; Wang, Li; Sun, Fengjun; Wang, Yong; Yin, Zhe; Yang, Huiying; Yang, Wenhui; Wang, Jie; Xia, Peiyuan; Zhou, Dongsheng; Liu, Changting

    2014-01-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain A22732 is isolated from a pneumonia patient in China and produces carbapenemases OXA-114e and IMP-1, which are encoded by chromosome and plasmid, respectively, and confer resistance to multiple -lactam antibiotics including carbapenems. The blaIMP-1 gene together with aacA7 and orfE is captured by a novel Tn402-like class 1 integron in a conjugative IncP-1 plasmid. In addition to the intrinsic integron promoter PcW, there is still a blaIMP-1 gene cassette-specific promoter. This is the first report of carbapenemase-encoding IncP-1 plasmid in clinical bacterial isolate. PMID:25428613

  15. Amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure of the Tn-specific isolectin B4 from Vicia villosa.

    PubMed

    Osinaga, E; Tello, D; Batthyany, C; Bianchet, M; Tavares, G; Durn, R; Cerveansky, C; Camoin, L; Roseto, A; Alzari, P M

    1997-07-21

    The partial amino acid sequence of the tetrameric isolectin B4 from Vicia villosa seeds has been determined by peptide analysis, and its three-dimensional structure solved by molecular replacement techniques and refined at 2.9 A resolution to a crystallographic R-factor of 21%. Each subunit displays the thirteen-stranded beta-barrel topology characteristic of legume lectins. The amino acid residues involved in metal- and sugar-binding are similar to those of other GalNAc-specific lectins, indicating that residues outside the carbohydrate-binding pocket modulate the affinity for the Tn glycopeptide. Isolectin B4 displays an unusual quaternary structure, probably due to protein glycosylation. PMID:9257718

  16. Capability Description for NASA's F/A-18 TN 853 as a Testbed for the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt

    2009-01-01

    The NASA F/A-18 tail number (TN) 853 full-scale Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) testbed has been designed with a full array of capabilities in support of the Aviation Safety Program. Highlights of the system's capabilities include: 1) a quad-redundant research flight control system for safely interfacing controls experiments to the aircraft's control surfaces; 2) a dual-redundant airborne research test system for hosting multi-disciplinary state-of-the-art adaptive control experiments; 3) a robust reversionary configuration for recovery from unusual attitudes and configurations; 4) significant research instrumentation, particularly in the area of static loads; 5) extensive facilities for experiment simulation, data logging, real-time monitoring and post-flight analysis capabilities; and 6) significant growth capability in terms of interfaces and processing power.

  17. Rapid release of metal salts and nutrients from the 2011 Grímsvötn, Iceland volcanic ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, J.; Stipp, S. L. S.; Dalby, K. N.; Gislason, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    On May 21st, 2011, one of Iceland’s most active volcano, Grímsvötn, started its strongest eruption in a century. Grímsvötn produced hundreds of megatonnes of fine basaltic ash, which spread over Iceland, the North Atlantic and Europe. Such fine grained ash can impact human activity and health both with fertilization and with toxicity potential for aquatic environments. The purpose of this study was: (1) to investigate the basic physical and chemical properties of the ash from the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption, (2) to identify surface salts deposited on the ash during the eruption, (3) to identify which elements are released during ash-water interactions and their release rates, (4) to characterize the secondary phases formed during water exposure, and (5) to assess impact of the ash on humans and the environment. During the eruption, we collected a unique set of pristine ash samples over a range of 50-115 km from the source and examined them with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), surface area analysis (BET), laser absorption, electron microprobe (EMPA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ash could be classified as glassy tholeiitic basalt with <10 mass% crystalline plagioclase (Al1.6Ca0.6Na0.4Si2.4O8) and pyroxene. The particles were small (<125 μm) and elongated with sharp edges. About 50% of the particle mass was fine ash (<63 μm), which could travel long distances, and ∼8% was very fine ash (<10 μm), which is harmful if inhaled. The specific surface area of the pristine ash ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 m2/g. Material taken up on particle surfaces contributed the equivalent of <0.5 nm thick layer, consisting of salts such as CaSO4, Na2SO4, NaCl, CaF2, CaCl2, MgSO4 and MgCl2. We exposed the pristine ash to ultrapure deionised (MilliQ) water in a single pass, plug, flow through reactor and the effluent was analyzed for 73 elements using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectroscopy (ICP-SFMS) and ion chromatography (IC). High release rates of mainly S, Na, Ca, Mg, F and Cl were observed during the first 10 min but after 12 h, the most abundant element released was Si. The effluent was alkaline. Secondary phases of mainly Al and Fe precipitated on the ash surfaces and these were suspected of scavenging As, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, Ga, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Te, V and Zn. The maximum total of surface salts containing F, Cl and S, carried by the erupted ash, was 11, 13 and 117 kilotonne. The flux of nutrient and toxic elements from the Grímsvötn ash was low compared with that from other eruptions and would not have been expected to cause poisoning of mammals or aquatic life. The elements most likely to affect sensitive biota were F, Se, Cu and Zn.

  18. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa county

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Maricopa county is the area of Arizona receiving top priority since it contains over half of the state's population. The county is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic region in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Several approaches were taken to match potential users to geothermal resources. One approach involved matching some of the largest facilities in the county to nearby geothermal resources. Other approaches involved identifying industrial processes whose heat requirements are less than the average assessed geothermal reservoir temperature of 110/sup 0/C (230/sup 0/F). Since many of the industries are located on or near geothermal resources, geothermal energy potentially could be adapted to many industrial processes.

  19. Annual Performance Evaluation of a Pair of Energy Efficient Houses (WC3 and WC4) in Oak Ridge, TN

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Christian, Jeffrey E; Gehl, Anthony C; Jackson, Roderick K; Boudreaux, Philip R

    2012-04-01

    Beginning in 2008, two pairs of energy-saver houses were built at Wolf Creek in Oak Ridge, TN. These houses were designed to maximize energy efficiency using new ultra-high-efficiency components emerging from ORNL s Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partners and others. The first two houses contained 3713 square feet of conditioned area and were designated as WC1 and WC2; the second pair consisted of 2721 square feet conditioned area with crawlspace foundation and they re called WC3 and WC4. This report is focused on the annual energy performance of WC3 and WC4, and how they compare against a previously benchmarked maximum energy efficient house of a similar footprint. WC3 and WC4 are both about 55-60% more efficient than traditional new construction. Each house showcases a different envelope system: WC3 is built with advanced framing featured cellulose insulation partially mixed with phase change materials (PCM); and WC4 house has cladding composed of an exterior insulation and finish system (EIFS). The previously benchmarked house was one of three built at the Campbell Creek subdivision in Knoxville, TN. This house (CC3) was designed as a transformation of a builder house (CC1) with the most advanced energy-efficiency features, including solar electricity and hot water, which market conditions are likely to permit within the 2012 2015 period. The builder house itself was representative of a standard, IECC 2006 code-certified, all-electric house built by the builder to sell around 2005 2008.

  20. Tn-seq of Caulobacter crescentus under uranium stress reveals genes essential for detoxification and stress tolerance

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yung, Mimi C.; Park, Dan M.; Overton, K. Wesley; Blow, Matthew J.; Hoover, Cindi A.; Smit, John R.; Murray, Sean R.; Ricci, Dante P.; Christen, Beat; Bowman, Grant R.; et al

    2015-07-20

    Ubiquitous aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus is highly resistant to uranium (U) and facilitates U biomineralization and thus holds promise as an agent of U bioremediation. In order to gain an understanding of how C. crescentus tolerates U, we employed transposon (Tn) mutagenesis paired with deep sequencing (Tn-seq) in a global screen for genomic elements required for U resistance. Of the 3,879 annotated genes in the C. crescentus genome, 37 were found to be specifically associated with fitness under U stress, 15 of which were subsequently tested through mutational analysis. Systematic deletion analysis revealed that mutants lacking outer membrane transporters (rsaFamore » and rsaFb), a stress-responsive transcription factor (cztR), or a ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase (spoT) exhibited a significantly lower survival rate under U stress. RsaFa and RsaFb, which are homologues of TolC in Escherichia coli, have previously been shown to mediate S-layer export. Transcriptional analysis revealed upregulation of rsaFa and rsaFb by 4- and 10-fold, respectively, in the presence of U. We additionally show that rsaFa mutants accumulated higher levels of U than the wild type, with no significant increase in oxidative stress levels. These results suggest a function for RsaFa and RsaFb in U efflux and/or maintenance of membrane integrity during U stress. In addition, we present data implicating CztR and SpoT in resistance to U stress. Together, our findings reveal novel gene targets that are key to understanding the molecular mechanisms of U resistance in C. crescentus.« less

  1. Tn-seq of Caulobacter crescentus under uranium stress reveals genes essential for detoxification and stress tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, Mimi C.; Park, Dan M.; Overton, K. Wesley; Blow, Matthew J.; Hoover, Cindi A.; Smit, John R.; Murray, Sean R.; Ricci, Dante P.; Christen, Beat; Bowman, Grant R.; Jiao, Yongqin

    2015-07-20

    Ubiquitous aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus is highly resistant to uranium (U) and facilitates U biomineralization and thus holds promise as an agent of U bioremediation. In order to gain an understanding of how C. crescentus tolerates U, we employed transposon (Tn) mutagenesis paired with deep sequencing (Tn-seq) in a global screen for genomic elements required for U resistance. Of the 3,879 annotated genes in the C. crescentus genome, 37 were found to be specifically associated with fitness under U stress, 15 of which were subsequently tested through mutational analysis. Systematic deletion analysis revealed that mutants lacking outer membrane transporters (rsaFa and rsaFb), a stress-responsive transcription factor (cztR), or a ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase (spoT) exhibited a significantly lower survival rate under U stress. RsaFa and RsaFb, which are homologues of TolC in Escherichia coli, have previously been shown to mediate S-layer export. Transcriptional analysis revealed upregulation of rsaFa and rsaFb by 4- and 10-fold, respectively, in the presence of U. We additionally show that rsaFa mutants accumulated higher levels of U than the wild type, with no significant increase in oxidative stress levels. These results suggest a function for RsaFa and RsaFb in U efflux and/or maintenance of membrane integrity during U stress. In addition, we present data implicating CztR and SpoT in resistance to U stress. Together, our findings reveal novel gene targets that are key to understanding the molecular mechanisms of U resistance in C. crescentus.

  2. Identification of Pathogenicity-Related Genes in Biofilm-Defective Acidovorax citrulli by Transposon Tn5 Mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinyan; Qiu, Wen; Chen, Lei; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Yu, Menghao; Shan, Changlin; Ilyas, Mehmoona; Li, Bin; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Guochang

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm formation is important for virulence of a large number of plant pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, some virulence genes have been found to be involved in the formation of biofilm in bacterial fruit blotch pathogen Acidovorax citrulli. However, some virulent strains of A. citrulli were unable to format biofilm, indicating the complexity between biofilm formation and virulence. In this study, virulence-related genes were identified in the biofilm-defective strain A1 of A. citrulli by using Tn5 insertion, pathogenicity test, and high-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (hiTAIL-PCR). Results from this study indicated that 22 out of the obtained 301 mutants significantly decreased the virulence of strain A1 compared to the wild-type. Furthermore, sequence analysis indicated that the obtained 22 mutants were due to the insertion of Tn5 into eight genes, including Aave 4244 (cation diffusion facilitator family transporter), Aave 4286 (hypothetical protein), Aave 4189 (alpha/beta hydrolase fold), Aave 1911 (IMP dehydrogenase/GMP reductase domain), Aave 4383 (bacterial export proteins, family 1), Aave 4256 (Hsp70 protein), Aave 0003 (histidine kinase, DNA gyrase B, and HSP90-like ATPase), and Aave 2428 (pyridoxal-phosphate dependent enzyme). Furthermore, the growth of mutant Aave 2428 was unaffected and even increased by the change in incubation temperature, NaCl concentration and the pH of the LB broth, indicating that this gene may be directly involved in the bacterial virulence. Overall, the determination of the eight pathogenicity-related genes in strain A1 will be helpful to elucidate the pathogenesis of biofilm-defective A. citrulli. PMID:26602922

  3. Identification of Pathogenicity-Related Genes in Biofilm-Defective Acidovorax citrulli by Transposon Tn5 Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jinyan; Qiu, Wen; Chen, Lei; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Yu, Menghao; Shan, Changlin; Ilyas, Mehmoona; Li, Bin; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Guochang

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm formation is important for virulence of a large number of plant pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, some virulence genes have been found to be involved in the formation of biofilm in bacterial fruit blotch pathogen Acidovorax citrulli. However, some virulent strains of A. citrulli were unable to format biofilm, indicating the complexity between biofilm formation and virulence. In this study, virulence-related genes were identified in the biofilm-defective strain A1 of A. citrulli by using Tn5 insertion, pathogenicity test, and high-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (hiTAIL-PCR). Results from this study indicated that 22 out of the obtained 301 mutants significantly decreased the virulence of strain A1 compared to the wild-type. Furthermore, sequence analysis indicated that the obtained 22 mutants were due to the insertion of Tn5 into eight genes, including Aave 4244 (cation diffusion facilitator family transporter), Aave 4286 (hypothetical protein), Aave 4189 (alpha/beta hydrolase fold), Aave 1911 (IMP dehydrogenase/GMP reductase domain), Aave 4383 (bacterial export proteins, family 1), Aave 4256 (Hsp70 protein), Aave 0003 (histidine kinase, DNA gyrase B, and HSP90-like ATPase), and Aave 2428 (pyridoxal-phosphate dependent enzyme). Furthermore, the growth of mutant Aave 2428 was unaffected and even increased by the change in incubation temperature, NaCl concentration and the pH of the LB broth, indicating that this gene may be directly involved in the bacterial virulence. Overall, the determination of the eight pathogenicity-related genes in strain A1 will be helpful to elucidate the pathogenesis of biofilm-defective A. citrulli. PMID:26602922

  4. 7 CFR 1280.606 - Farm Service Agency County Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Service Agency County Committee. 1280.606....606 Farm Service Agency County Committee. Farm Service Agency County Committee, also referred to as... Farm Service Agency County Committee....

  5. 7 CFR 1280.606 - Farm Service Agency County Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Service Agency County Committee. 1280.606....606 Farm Service Agency County Committee. Farm Service Agency County Committee, also referred to as... Farm Service Agency County Committee....

  6. 7 CFR 1280.606 - Farm Service Agency County Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Service Agency County Committee. 1280.606....606 Farm Service Agency County Committee. Farm Service Agency County Committee, also referred to as... Farm Service Agency County Committee....

  7. 7 CFR 1280.606 - Farm Service Agency County Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Service Agency County Committee. 1280.606....606 Farm Service Agency County Committee. Farm Service Agency County Committee, also referred to as... Farm Service Agency County Committee....

  8. 7 CFR 1280.606 - Farm Service Agency County Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Service Agency County Committee. 1280.606....606 Farm Service Agency County Committee. Farm Service Agency County Committee, also referred to as... Farm Service Agency County Committee....

  9. Trouble Brewing in Orange County. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Orange County will soon face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that Orange County faces a total $41.2 billion liability for retiree benefits that are underfunded--including $9.4 billion for the county pension system and an estimated…

  10. Once Distressed, Jackson County Moves On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1998-01-01

    In 1981, Jackson County, North Carolina, appeared on the first list of "distressed counties" in Appalachia. Since then, the rural county has made significant improvements by investing in its physical infrastructure (which also promotes tourism); fostering economic-development partnerships among governments, small businesses, and local colleges;

  11. Once Distressed, Jackson County Moves On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1998-01-01

    In 1981, Jackson County, North Carolina, appeared on the first list of "distressed counties" in Appalachia. Since then, the rural county has made significant improvements by investing in its physical infrastructure (which also promotes tourism); fostering economic-development partnerships among governments, small businesses, and local colleges;…

  12. Tennessee Higher Education County Profiles, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a localized perspective on Tennessee higher education for the year 2009, including: (1) county demographic and economic data; (2) information on public and private colleges and universities located in the county; and (4) number of county residents participating in the state's primary need-based and merit-based financial aid…

  13. Community Types and Mortality in Georgia Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Using an "ecological regional analysis" methodology for defining types of communities and their associated mortality rates, this study of Georgia's 159 counties finds that the suburban and town centered counties have low mortality while the city-centered type predicts low mortality for the whites. The military-centered counties do not predict. The…

  14. Community Types and Mortality in Georgia Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Using an "ecological regional analysis" methodology for defining types of communities and their associated mortality rates, this study of Georgia's 159 counties finds that the suburban and town centered counties have low mortality while the city-centered type predicts low mortality for the whites. The military-centered counties do not predict. The

  15. 76 FR 13172 - Placer County Water Agency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Placer County Water Agency Notice of Application Tendered for Filing with... Filed: February 23, 2011 d. Applicant: Placer County Water Agency e. Name of Project: Middle Fork... Manager, Placer County Water Agency, 144 Ferguson Road, Auburn, CA 95603; Telephone: (530) 823-4490....

  16. Kinship Care in Walton County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charon, Sara L.; Nackerud, Larry

    1996-01-01

    The quality of life of maltreated children placed with relatives was examined through interviews with nine families in Walton County (Georgia) who had taken in related children. Over half of the children had experienced some improvement in home life, school performance, and their physical and mental status. Kinship care families indicated needs…

  17. Community Analysis, Stafford County, Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central Rappahannock Regional Library, Fredericksburg, VA.

    This study of the present and future library needs of residents of Stafford County, Virginia, with emphasis on the North Stafford areas, includes a review of demographic statistics and recommendations for library services. The currently increasing population is highly dependent on the automobile for transportation, and recommendations for library

  18. Composting in Prince William County

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, K.

    1995-10-01

    Hidden in a small industrial corner of Prince Williams County, in Northern Virginia, a composting facility, after its first flourishing year in business, has found itself part of a symbiotic triangle. Along with a landfill and a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant, the composting facility is one of three programs that make up a joint public-private venture and form a interjurisdictional solid waste/refuse exchange agreement. Faced with the prospects of having to close a landfill at the end of the year, a mandate on yard waste collection that was increasing collection tonnage, and no room for further landfill development, Fairfax County, with approximately 900,000 residents, needed help. In a turn-around situation, Prince William County--with approximately 240,000 residents, a low budget, and much space available for development--responded. Together the counties created a solid waste exchange. The basis for the program is a unity between the local governments on some solid waste issues and a composting facility. Composting, specifically yard waste composting, has been among the fastest-growing aspects of waste management. In 1990, the nation was composting 2% of its solid waste. By the end of 1995, according to the US EPA, between 4% and 7% of solid waste will be recovered through composting. The number of yard waste composting facilities operating has increased from 651 in 1988 to more than 3,000 in 1994.

  19. Kinship Care in Walton County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charon, Sara L.; Nackerud, Larry

    1996-01-01

    The quality of life of maltreated children placed with relatives was examined through interviews with nine families in Walton County (Georgia) who had taken in related children. Over half of the children had experienced some improvement in home life, school performance, and their physical and mental status. Kinship care families indicated needs

  20. Partnership Program, Essex County College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David A.

    The Partnership Program at Essex County College (ECC), in Newark, New Jersey, was a 3-year, intensive, college-high school faculty development project designed to coordinate curriculum and learning strategies in area feeder high schools with content and instructional methods used in introductory college courses. Weekly workshops were conducted…

  1. Natural Decrease in Texas Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koebernick, Thomas E.; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    In replication of other studies, the natural decrease of Texas population was examined in terms of the effect of migration and fertility. Utilizing Texas and U.S. vital statistics and the 1970 U.S. Census of Population, Texas population trends were analyzed for the 1968-72 period by dividing the 254 Texas counties into: (1) 65 natural decrease

  2. Truancy in Yolo County, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Barbara; Tyburczy, Jason

    The problem of truancy in the elementary and junior high schools of California's Yolo County was investigated during the 1980-81 academic year by means of questionnaires completed by 16 school principals and interviews with 30 people representing schools, school district offices, law enforcement agencies, the Department of Social Services, and the

  3. The Licking County Writing Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James E., Ed.; Davis, Hazel K., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    The 24 articles in this special journal resulted from the Licking County (Ohio) Writing Project. The articles provide information about the following: (1) how to motivate students and teachers, (2) prewriting activities, (3) lightening the teacher's grading load, (4) the uses of conferences, (5) sustained silent reading, (6) traditional techniques

  4. Community Analysis, Stafford County, Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central Rappahannock Regional Library, Fredericksburg, VA.

    This study of the present and future library needs of residents of Stafford County, Virginia, with emphasis on the North Stafford areas, includes a review of demographic statistics and recommendations for library services. The currently increasing population is highly dependent on the automobile for transportation, and recommendations for library…

  5. Hydrogeology of Webb County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, Rebecca B.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Webb County, in semiarid South Texas on the U.S.-Mexico border, is a region confronted by increasing stresses on natural resources. Laredo (fig. 1), the largest city in Webb County (population 193,000 in 2000), was one of the 10 fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the country during 1990-2000 (Perry and Mackun, 2001). Commercial and industrial activities have expanded throughout the region to support the maquiladora industry (manufacturing plants in Mexico) along the border and other growth as a result of the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement. The Rio Grande currently (2002) is the primary source of public water supply for Laredo and other cities along the border in Webb County (fig. 1). Other cities, such as Bruni and Mirando City in the southeastern part of the county, rely on ground-water supplies to meet municipal demands. Increased water demand associated with development and population growth in the region has increased the need for the City of Laredo and Webb County to evaluate alternative water sources to meet future demand. Possible options include (1) supplementing the surface-water supply with ground water, and (2) applying artificial storage and recovery (ASR) technology to recharge local aquifers. These options raise issues regarding the hydraulic capability of the aquifers to store economically substantial quantities of water, current or potential uses of the resource, and possible effects on the quality of water resulting from mixing ground water with alternative source waters. To address some of these issues, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Laredo, began a study in 1996 to assess the ground-water resources of Webb County. A hydrogeologic study was conducted to review and analyze available information on the hydrogeologic units (aquifers and confining units) in Webb County, to locate available wells in the region with water-level and water-quality information from the aquifers, and to analyze the hydraulic properties of the aquifers. The purpose of this report is to document the findings of the study. The information is organized by hydrogeologic unit and presented on this and six other sheets.

  6. Geologic map of the Fish Creek Reservoir 7.5' quadrangle, Blaine County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skipp, Betty; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2012-01-01

    The Fish Creek Reservoir quadrangle in south-central Idaho lies on the north-central margin of the Cenozoic Snake River Plain at the southern end of the Pioneer Mountains. Rocks exposed in the quadrangle range in age from Paleozoic through Cenozoic. Mesozoic rocks are absent. Though Triassic and Jurassic sedimentary rocks may have been deposited in this area, they have been removed by erosion following uplift and thrusting of the Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary Sevier orogeny. The Late Devonian to Early Mississippian Antler orogeny preceded the Sevier. Ordovician through Devonian rocks of western-derived shale and sandstone facies and eastern carbonate shelf facies are unconformably overlain respectively by Pennsylvanian-Permian Wood River and Mississippian Copper Basin Formations. These two sequences are exposed in structural windows juxtaposed by the Sevier-age Pioneer thrust fault. Interpretive cross-sections accompany the map. Volcanic rocks of the Eocene Challis Volcanic Group, Miocene Idavada Volcanics, and Pleistocene Snake River Group cover parts of the area that remains tectonically active.

  7. Origin and structural implications of upper Miocene rhyolites in Kingston Canyon, Piute County, Utah.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowley, P.D.; Steven, T.A.; Mehnert, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    Kingston Canyon is one of the deepest antecedent canyons in the High Plateaus subprovince of the Colorado Plateaus. Here the E Fork of the Sevier River flows westward transversely across the gently E tilted Sevier Plateau, which is developed on a basin-range fault block uplifted more than 1500m along the Sevier fault zone on the W. Upper Tertiary rhyolites, uncommon in SW Utah, occur both on the northern rim and in the bottom of Kingston Canyon. Those on the northern rim consist of lava flows and volcanic domes of the rhyolite of Forshea Mountain, dated by K/Ar methods at 7.6Ma old. Those in the bottom of Kingston Canyon, the rhyolite of Phonolite Hill, are especially well exposed and provide spectacular examples of a pyroclastic cone whose base is about at river level and a steep-sided volcanic dome emplaced into and through these deposits. The pyroclastic deposits, formerly 500 or more metres thick, consist of airfall, mudflow, and ash-flow(?) material of rhyolite and foreign lithic fragments especially olivine basalt. The dome consists of flow-banded, mostly devitrified rhyolite as much as 500m thick; it has been dated by K/Ar methods at 5.4Ma. In addition to the rhyolites, a dome and lava-flow complex, the rhyodacite of Dry Lake, occurs near the northern rim and is considered to postdate the rhyolite of Forshea Mountain and predate the rhyolite of Phonolite Hill. -from Authors

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma litorale TN-1T (DSM 21781), a Bacterium Isolated from a Green-Eyed Horsefly (Tabanus nigrovittatus)

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wen-Sui; Lai, Yi-Ching; Lien, Yun-Wei; Wang, Tzu-Haw

    2015-01-01

    Spiroplasma litorale TN-1T (DSM 21781) was isolated from the gut of a green-eyed horsefly (Tabanus nigrovittatus), collected at Ocracoke Island in North Carolina in 1983. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its biology. PMID:26430038

  9. Directing enhancer-traps and iTol2 end-sequences to deleted BAC ends with loxP- and lox511-Tn10 transposons.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Pradeep K

    2015-01-01

    A step-by-step detailed procedure is presented to progressively truncate genomic DNA inserts from either end in BACs. The bacterial transposon Tn10 carrying a loxP or a lox511 site is inserted at random into BAC DNA inside the bacterial cell. The cells are then infected with bacteriophage P1. The Cre protein expressed by phage P1 generates end-deletions by specifically recombining the inserted loxP (or lox511) with the loxP (or lox511) endogenous to and flanking insert DNA in BACs from the respective end. The Cre protein also helps phage P1 transduce the BAC DNA by packaging it in P1 heads. This packaging by P1 not only recovers the rare BAC clones containing Tn10 insertions efficiently but also selects end-truncated BACs from those containing inversions of portions of their DNA caused by transposition of Tn10 in the opposite orientation. The libraries of end-deleted BACs generated by this procedure are suitable for numerous mapping studies. Because DNA in front of the loxP (or lox511) arrowheads in the Tn10 transposon is retained at the newly created BAC end, exogenous DNA cassettes such as enhancer-traps and iTol2 ends can be efficiently introduced into BAC ends for germline expression in zebrafish or mice. The methodology should facilitate functional mapping studies of long-range cis-acting gene regulatory sequences in these organisms. PMID:25239743

  10. Different IncI1 plasmids from Escherichia coli carry ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-15 associated with different Tn2-derived elements.

    PubMed

    Zong, Zhiyong; Ginn, Andrew N; Dobiasova, Hana; Iredell, Jonathan R; Partridge, Sally R

    2015-07-01

    The bla(CTX-M-15) gene, encoding the globally dominant CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum ?-lactamase, has generally been found in a 2.971-kb ISEcp1-bla(CTX-M-15)-orf477? transposition unit, with ISEcp1 providing a promoter. In available IncF plasmid sequences from Escherichia coli, this transposition unit interrupts a truncated copy of transposon Tn2 that lies within larger multiresistance regions. In E. coli, bla(CTX-M-15) is also commonly associated with IncI1 plasmids and here three such plasmids from E. coli clinical isolates from western Sydney 2006-2007 have been sequenced. The plasmid backbones are organised similarly to those of other IncI1 plasmids, but have insertions and/or deletions and sequence differences. Each plasmid also has a different insertion carrying bla(CTX-M-15). pJIE113 (IncI1 sequence type ST31) is almost identical to plasmids isolated from the 2011 E. coli O104:H4 outbreak in Europe, where the typical bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit interrupts a complete Tn2 inserted directly in the plasmid backbone. In the novel plasmid pJIE139 (ST88), ISEcp1-blaC(TX-M-15)-orf477? lies within a Tn2/3 hybrid transposon. Homologous recombination could explain movement of ISEcp1-bla(CTX-M-15)-orf477? between copies of Tn2 on IncF and IncI1 plasmids and generation of the Tn2/3 hybrid. pJIE174 (ST37) is almost identical to pESBL-12 from the Netherlands and in these plasmids bla(CTX-M-15) is flanked by two copies of IS26 that truncate the transposition unit within a larger region bounded by the ends of Tn2. bla(CTX-M-15) and the associated ISEcp1-derived promoter may be able to move from this structure by the actions of IS26, independently of both ISEcp1 and Tn2. PMID:25929173

  11. Tn5253 family integrative and conjugative elements carrying mef(I) and catQ determinants in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Mingoia, Marina; Morici, Eleonora; Morroni, Gianluca; Giovanetti, Eleonora; Del Grosso, Maria; Pantosti, Annalisa; Varaldo, Pietro E

    2014-10-01

    The linkage between the macrolide efflux gene mef(I) and the chloramphenicol inactivation gene catQ was first described in Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain Spn529), where the two genes are located in a module designated IQ element. Subsequently, two different defective IQ elements were detected in Streptococcus pyogenes (strains Spy029 and Spy005). The genetic elements carrying the three IQ elements were characterized, and all were found to be Tn5253 family integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs). The ICE from S. pneumoniae (ICESpn529IQ) was sequenced, whereas the ICEs from S. pyogenes (ICESpy029IQ and ICESpy005IQ, the first Tn5253-like ICEs reported in this species) were characterized by PCR mapping, partial sequencing, and restriction analysis. ICESpn529IQ and ICESpy029IQ were found to share the intSp 23FST81 integrase gene and an identical Tn916 fragment, whereas ICESpy005IQ has int5252 and lacks Tn916. All three ICEs were found to lack the linearized pC194 plasmid that is usually associated with Tn5253-like ICEs, and all displayed a single copy of a toxin-antitoxin operon that is typically contained in the direct repeats flanking the excisable pC194 region when this region is present. Two different insertion sites of the IQ elements were detected, one in ICESpn529IQ and ICESpy029IQ, and another in ICESpy005IQ. The chromosomal integration of the three ICEs was site specific, depending on the integrase (intSp 23FST81 or int5252). Only ICESpy005IQ was excised in circular form and transferred by conjugation. By transformation, mef(I) and catQ were cotransferred at a high frequency from S. pyogenes Spy005 and at very low frequencies from S. pneumoniae Spn529 and S. pyogenes Spy029. PMID:25070090

  12. Mercuric ion-resistance operons of plasmid R100 and transposon Tn501: the beginning of the operon including the regulatory region and the first two structural genes.

    PubMed Central

    Misra, T K; Brown, N L; Fritzinger, D C; Pridmore, R D; Barnes, W M; Haberstroh, L; Silver, S

    1984-01-01

    The mercuric ion-resistance operons of plasmid R100 (originally from Shigella) and transposon Tn501 (originally from a plasmid isolated in Pseudomonas) have been compared by DNA sequence analysis. The sequences for the first 1340 base pairs of Tn501 are given with the best alignment with the comparable 1319 base pairs of R100. The homology between the two sequences starts at base 58 after the end of the insertion sequence IS-1 of R100. The sequences include the transcriptional regulatory region, and the homology is particularly strong in regions just upstream from potential transcriptional initiation sites. The trans-acting regulatory gene merR consists of 180 base pairs in both cases and codes for a highly basic polypeptide of 60 amino acids, which is also rich in serine. The Tn501 and R100 merR genes differ in 25 of the 180 base positions, and the resulting polypeptides differ in seven amino acids. The regulatory region before the major transcription initiation site contains potential -35 and -10 sequences and dyad symmetrical sequences, which may be the merR binding sites for transcriptional regulation. The first structural gene, merT, encodes a highly hydrophobic polypeptide of 116 amino acids. The R100 and Tn501 merT genes differ in 17% of their positions, leading to 14 (12%) amino acid changes. This region had previously been shown to encode a protein governing membrane transport of mercuric ions. The second structural gene, merC, would give a 91 amino acid polypeptide with a hydrophobic amino-terminal segment. The Tn501 and R100 merC genes differ at 37 base positions, leading to 10 amino acid changes. PMID:6091128

  13. Spatial variability assessment of soil nutrients in an intense agricultural area, a case study of Rugao County in Yangtze River Delta Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongcun; Xu, Xianghua; Darilek, Jeremy Landon; Huang, Biao; Sun, Weixia; Shi, Xuezheng

    2009-05-01

    Topsoil samples (0-20 cm) ( n = 237) were collected from Rugao County, China. Geostatistical variogram analysis, sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and principal component (PC) analysis were applied to assess spatial variability of soil nutrients, identify the possible areas of nutrient deficiency, and explore spatial scale of variability of soil nutrients in the county. High variability of soil nutrient such as soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), available P, K, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B concentrations were observed. Soil nutrient properties displayed significant differences in their spatial structures, with available Cu having strong spatial dependence, SOM and available P having weak spatial dependence, and other nutrient properties having moderate spatial dependence. The soil nutrient deficiency, defined here as measured nutrient concentrations which do not meet the advisory threshold values specific to the county for dominant crops, namely rice, wheat, and rape seeds, was observed in available K and Zn, and the deficient areas covered 38 and 11%, respectively. The first three PCs of the nine soil nutrient properties explained 62.40% of the total variance. TN and SOM with higher loadings on PC1 are closely related to soil texture derived from different parent materials. The PC2 combined intermediate response variables such as available Zn and P that are likely to be controlled by land use and soil pH. Available B has the highest loading on PC3 and its variability of concentrations may be primarily ascribed to localized anthropogenic influence. The amelioration of soil physical properties (i.e. soil texture) and soil pH may improve the availability of soil nutrients and the sustainability of the agricultural system of Rugao County.

  14. 40 CFR 81.274 - Mountain Counties Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Calaveras County, Mariposa County, Nevada Country, Plumas County, Sierra County, Tuolumne County. El Dorado County—all of El Dorado County except that portion within the drainage area naturally tributary to...

  15. Association of Elevated High Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T(hs-cTnT) Levels with Hemorrhagic Transformation and 3-Month Mortality in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients with Rheumatic Heart Disease in China

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yao; Liu, Bian; Hao, Zilong; Tao, Wendan; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Elevated levels of high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) occur in a substantial proportion of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and can predict poor outcome and mortality after stroke. Whether elevated hs-cTnT levels can also predict hemorrhagic transformation (HT) or prognosis in AIS patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains unclear. Methods Data from the Chengdu Stroke Registry on consecutive AIS patients with RHD admitted to West China Hospital within1 month of stroke onset from October 2011 to February 2014 were examined. Clinico-demographic characteristics, HT, functional outcomes and stroke recurrence were compared between patients with elevated hs-cTnT levels(≥14ng/L) and patients with normal hs-cTnT levels (<14ng/L). Results The final analysis involved 84 patients (31 males; mean age, 61.6±12.2years), of whom serum hs-cTnT levels were elevated in 58.3%. Renal impairment was independently associated with elevated hs-cTnT levels (OR 4.184, 95%CI 1.17 to 15.01, P = 0.028), and patients with elevated hs-cTnT levels were at significantly higher risk of HT, 3-month mortality and 3-month disability/mortality (all P≤0.029). After controlling for age, sex, hypertension, renal impairment and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on admission, the risk of HT and 3-month mortality was, respectively, 4.0- and 5.5-fold higher in patients with elevated hs-cTnT levels than in patients with normal hs-cTnT levels. Conclusion Elevated hs-cTnT levels are independently associated with HT and 3-month mortality in AIS patients with RHD. These results with a small cohort should be verified and extended in large studies. PMID:26849554

  16. Coherence and Variability of Ground Motion Over 600 m of the Nonvolcanic Tremor Array Site at Mooring, TN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, M. M.; Langston, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    This study examines wave coherency for high frequency P and S waves in the New Madrid Seismic Zone at a site near Mooring, TN. An L-shaped array consisting of 19-seismometers and having arm lengths of 600m located on Holocene fluvial sediments of the Mississippi River was used to examine wave coherency appropriate for many sites throughout the Mississippi embayment and other sediment sites associate with large rivers. Data from local and regional earthquakes within a distance range of 300km show that coherency within the frequency band of 0.5 to 16 Hz degrades with interstation distance across the array according to an empirical exponential model. Vertical component P-waves are coherent over nearly 2 horizontal wavelengths. However, the coherency for horizontal component S-waves degrades more rapidly than the vertical component P waves. S-waves become significantly incoherent at distances of only 0.2 horizontal wavelength and become completely incoherent after 0.5 wavelength. The results of this study show clear and quick decay of wave coherence likely to occur in strong ground motions from nearby earthquakes. The observed incoherence can be a significant factor for the response of structures having foundation lengths of even 100m for a nearby large magnitude earthquake in New Madrid Seismic Zone.

  17. Tn5AraOut Mutagenesis for the Identification of Yersinia pestis Genes Involved in Resistance towards Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jitao; Nair, Manoj K. M.; Galván, Estela M.; Liu, Shu-Lin; Schifferli, Dieter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens display a variety of protection mechanisms against the inhibitory and lethal effects of host cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs). To identify Yersinia pestis genes involved in CAMP-resistance, libraries of DSY101 (KIM6 caf1 pla psa) minitransposon Tn5AraOut mutants were selected at 37°C for resistance to the model CAMPs polymyxin B or protamine. This approach targeted genes that needed to be repressed (null mutations) or induced (upstream PBAD insertions) for the detection of CAMP resistance, and predictably for improved pathogen fitness in mammalian hosts. Ten mutants demonstrated increased resistance to polymyxin B or protamine, with the mapped mutations pointing towards genes suspected to participate in modifying membrane components, genes encoding transport proteins or enzymes, or the regulator of a ferrous iron uptake system (feoC). Not all the mutants were resistant to both CAMPs used for selection. None of the polymyxin B- and only some protamine-resistant mutants, including the feoC mutant, showed increased resistance to rat bonchoalveolar lavage fluid (rBALF) known to contain cathelicidin and β-defensin 1. Thus, findings on bacterial resistance to polymyxin B or protamine don’t always apply to CAMPs of the mammalian innate immune system, such as the ones in rBALF. PMID:21575704

  18. Exploring the molecular basis for selective binding of homoserine dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium leprae TN toward inhibitors: a virtual screening study.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Dongling; Wang, Dongmei; Min, Weihong; Han, Weiwei

    2014-01-01

    Homoserine dehydrogenase (HSD) from Mycobacterium leprae TN is an antifungal target for antifungal properties including efficacy against the human pathogen. The 3D structure of HSD has been firmly established by homology modeling methods. Using the template, homoserine dehydrogenase from Thiobacillus denitrificans (PDB Id 3MTJ), a sequence identity of 40% was found and molecular dynamics simulation was used to optimize a reliable structure. The substrate and co-factor-binding regions in HSD were identified. In order to determine the important residues of the substrate (L-aspartate semialdehyde (L-ASA)) binding, the ASA was docked to the protein; Thr163, Asp198, and Glu192 may be important because they form a hydrogen bond with HSD through AutoDock 4.2 software. neuraminidaseAfter use of a virtual screening technique of HSD, the four top-scoring docking hits all seemed to cation-π ion pair with the key recognition residue Lys107, and Lys207. These ligands therefore seemed to be new chemotypes for HSD. Our results may be helpful for further experimental investigations. PMID:24469317

  19. Transposon Mutagenesis in Bifidobacterium breve: Construction and Characterization of a Tn5 Transposon Mutant Library for Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Lorena; Motherway, Mary OConnell; Lanigan, Noreen; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are claimed to contribute positively to human health through a range of beneficial or probiotic activities, including amelioration of gastrointestinal and metabolic disorders, and therefore this particular group of gastrointestinal commensals has enjoyed increasing industrial and scientific attention in recent years. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these probiotic mechanisms are still largely unknown, mainly due to the fact that molecular tools for bifidobacteria are rather poorly developed, with many strains lacking genetic accessibility. In this work, we describe the generation of transposon insertion mutants in two bifidobacterial strains, B. breve UCC2003 and B. breve NCFB2258. We also report the creation of the first transposon mutant library in a bifidobacterial strain, employing B. breve UCC2003 and a Tn5-based transposome strategy. The library was found to be composed of clones containing single transposon insertions which appear to be randomly distributed along the genome. The usefulness of the library to perform phenotypic screenings was confirmed through identification and analysis of mutants defective in D-galactose, D-lactose or pullulan utilization abilities. PMID:23737995

  20. Identification of T6SS-dependent effector and immunity proteins by Tn-seq in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Tao G.; Ho, Brian T.; Yoder-Himes, Deborah R.; Mekalanos, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Type VI protein secretion system (T6SS) is important for bacterial competition through contact-dependent killing of competitors. T6SS delivers effectors to neighboring cells and corresponding antagonistic proteins confer immunity against effectors that are delivered by sister cells. Although T6SS has been found in more than 100 gram-negative bacteria including many important human pathogens, few T6SS-dependent effector and immunity proteins have been experimentally determined. Here we report a high-throughput approach using transposon mutagenesis and deep sequencing (Tn-seq) to identify T6SS immunity proteins in Vibrio cholerae. Saturating transposon mutagenesis was performed in wild type and a T6SS null mutant. Genes encoding immunity proteins were predicted to be essential in the wild type but dispensable in the T6SS mutant. By comparing the relative abundance of each transposon mutant in the mutant library using deep sequencing, we identified three immunity proteins that render protection against killing by T6SS predatory cells. We also identified their three cognate T6SS-secreted effectors and show these are important for not only antibacterial and antieukaryotic activities but also assembly of T6SS apparatus. The lipase and muramidase T6SS effectors identified in this study underscore the diversity of T6SS-secreted substrates and the distinctly different mechanisms that target these for secretion by the dynamic T6SS organelle. PMID:23362380

  1. Structural basis for recognition of breast and colon cancer epitopes Tn antigen and Forssman disaccharide by Helix pomatia lectin.

    PubMed

    Lescar, Julien; Sanchez, Jean-Frederic; Audfray, Aymeric; Coll, Jean-Luc; Breton, Christelle; Mitchell, Edward P; Imberty, Anne

    2007-10-01

    Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) is a lectin that has been used extensively in histopathology, since its binding to tissue sections from breast and colon cancers is correlated with the worst prognosis for the patients. The lectin recognizes alpha-d-N-acetylgalactosamine (alphaGalNAc) containing epitopes which are only present in cancer cell lines having a high likelihood to undergo metastasis, such as the HT29 cancer colon cell line. Several breast cancer cell lines have also been shown to be labeled, although IGROV1, an ovarian cancer cell line, is not. Inhibition studies, using GalNAc monosaccharides, are reported here, showing that the labeling is dependent upon the presence of carbohydrate epitopes. The crystal structures of the lectin complexed with two GalNAc containing epitopes associated with cancer, the Tn (alphaGalNAc-Ser) and Forssman (alphaGalNAc1-3GalNAc) antigens, show the lectin's specificity for GalNAc is due to a particular network of hydrogen bonds. A histidine residue makes hydrophobic contact with the aglycon, rationalizing the preference for GalNAc bearing an additional sugar or amino acid in the alpha position. These structures provide the molecular basis for the use of HPA in metastasis research. PMID:17652409

  2. Phosphate coordination and movement of DNA in the Tn5 synaptic complex: role of the (R)YREK motif

    SciTech Connect

    Klenchin, Vadim A.; Czyz, Agata; Goryshin, Igor Y.; Gradman, Richard; Lovell, Scott; Rayment, Ivan; Reznikoff, William S.

    2009-01-15

    Bacterial DNA transposition is an important model system for studying DNA recombination events such as HIV-1 DNA integration and RAG-1-mediated V(D)J recombination. This communication focuses on the role of protein-phosphate contacts in manipulating DNA structure as a requirement for transposition catalysis. In particular, the participation of the nontransferred strand (NTS) 5' phosphate in Tn5 transposition strand transfer is analyzed. The 5' phosphate plays no direct catalytic role, nonetheless its presence stimulates strand transfer {approx}30-fold. X-ray crystallography indicates that transposase-DNA complexes formed with NTS 5' phosphorylated DNA have two properties that contrast with structures formed with complexes lacking the 5' phosphate or complexes generated from in-crystal hairpin cleavage. Transposase residues R210, Y319 and R322 of the (R)YREK motif coordinate the 5' phosphate rather than the subterminal NTS phosphate, and the 5' NTS end is moved away from the 3' transferred strand end. Mutation R210A impairs the 5' phosphate stimulation. It is posited that DNA phosphate coordination by R210, Y319 and R322 results in movement of the 5' NTS DNA away from the 3'-end thus allowing efficient target DNA binding. It is likely that this role for the newly identified RYR triad is utilized by other transposase-related proteins.

  3. Population Dynamics of Rhizobium leguminosarum Tn5 Mutants with Altered Cell Surface Properties Introduced into Sterile and Nonsterile Soils

    PubMed Central

    Postma, J.; Hok-A-Hin, C. H.; Schotman, J. M. T.; Wijffelman, C. A.; van Veen, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of cell surface properties on attachment to soil particles and on population dynamics of introduced bacteria was studied in sterilized and nonsterilized loamy sand and silt loam. Rhizobium leguminosarum RBL5523 and three Tn5 mutants (RBL5762, RBL5810, and RBL5811) with altered cell surface properties were used. Cellulose fibrils were not produced by RBL5762. Both RBL5810 and RBL5811 produced 80 to 90% less soluble exopolysaccharides and RBL5811 had, in addition, an altered lipopolysaccharide composition. In sterilized soil the total number of cells as well as the number of particle-associated cells of RBL5523 and RBL5810 were, in general, higher as compared with cell numbers of RBL5762 and RBL5811. Differences between strains in percentage of particle-associated cells in sterilized soil were only found at high inoculum densities, when populations increased little. In the nonsterilized silt loam, final population sizes, as well as numbers of particle-associated cells, of the parental strain (RBL5523) were higher than those of strains with altered cell surface properties after 56 and 112 days of incubation. But in general, differences in survival among the strains were not very marked. The importance of association with soil particles or aggregates for the survival of introduced cells was affirmed by the pronounced increase of the percentage of particle-associated cells during incubation in nonsterilized as well as sterilized soil. However, no clear relation among altered cell surface properties, particle association, and survival was found. PMID:16348432

  4. The Tn10-encoded tetracycline resistance mRNA contains a translational silencer in the 5' nontranslated region.

    PubMed Central

    Flache, P; Baumeister, R; Hillen, W

    1992-01-01

    We performed a mutational analysis of the left half of Tn10-encoded tet operator O2, located in the 5' nontranslated region of the mRNA for the resistance protein TetA, and determined the importance of that region for translation efficiency and mRNA stability. Transcriptional fusions of 17 mutants to lacZ expressed the same amounts of beta-galactosidase, while translational fusions varied 35-fold in expression efficiency. The mRNA half-lives varied 24-fold, with 9.6 min for the most highly expressed mRNA and 0.4 min for the least efficiently expressed mRNA. Toeprint experiments were performed to distinguish whether these mutations define a determinant of mRNA stability or influence translation initiation. The highly expressed mRNA was 24-fold more efficient in forming the initiation complex in vitro than the low-expression mutant. It was concluded that this sequence, albeit located upstream of the ribosome-binding sequence, is an important determinant for efficient initiation of translation. Secondary-structure calculations of the mRNAs revealed no correlation of the potential to form double strands masking the ribosome-binding sequence with expression efficiency. Images PMID:1372890

  5. Identification of New Genes Contributing to the Extreme Radioresistance of Deinococcus radiodurans Using a Tn5-Based Transposon Mutant Library

    PubMed Central

    Passot, Fanny; Dutertre, Murielle; Porteron, Martine; Confalonieri, Fabrice; Sommer, Suzanne; Pasternak, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Here, we have developed an extremely efficient in vivo Tn5-based mutagenesis procedure to construct a Deinococcus radiodurans insertion mutant library subsequently screened for sensitivity to genotoxic agents such as γ and UV radiations or mitomycin C. The genes inactivated in radiosensitive mutants belong to various functional categories, including DNA repair functions, stress responses, signal transduction, membrane transport, several metabolic pathways, and genes of unknown function. Interestingly, preliminary characterization of previously undescribed radiosensitive mutants suggests the contribution of cyclic di-AMP signaling in the recovery of D. radiodurans cells from genotoxic stresses, probably by modulating several pathways involved in the overall cell response. Our analyses also point out a new transcriptional regulator belonging to the GntR family, encoded by DR0265, and a predicted RNase belonging to the newly described Y family, both contributing to the extreme radioresistance of D. radiodurans. Altogether, this work has revealed new cell responses involved either directly or indirectly in repair of various cell damage and confirmed that D. radiodurans extreme radiation resistance is determined by a multiplicity of pathways acting as a complex network. PMID:25884619

  6. Identification of new genes contributing to the extreme radioresistance of Deinococcus radiodurans using a Tn5-based transposon mutant library.

    PubMed

    Dulermo, Rmi; Onodera, Takefumi; Coste, Genevive; Passot, Fanny; Dutertre, Murielle; Porteron, Martine; Confalonieri, Fabrice; Sommer, Suzanne; Pasternak, Ccile

    2015-01-01

    Here, we have developed an extremely efficient in vivo Tn5-based mutagenesis procedure to construct a Deinococcus radiodurans insertion mutant library subsequently screened for sensitivity to genotoxic agents such as ? and UV radiations or mitomycin C. The genes inactivated in radiosensitive mutants belong to various functional categories, including DNA repair functions, stress responses, signal transduction, membrane transport, several metabolic pathways, and genes of unknown function. Interestingly, preliminary characterization of previously undescribed radiosensitive mutants suggests the contribution of cyclic di-AMP signaling in the recovery of D. radiodurans cells from genotoxic stresses, probably by modulating several pathways involved in the overall cell response. Our analyses also point out a new transcriptional regulator belonging to the GntR family, encoded by DR0265, and a predicted RNase belonging to the newly described Y family, both contributing to the extreme radioresistance of D. radiodurans. Altogether, this work has revealed new cell responses involved either directly or indirectly in repair of various cell damage and confirmed that D. radiodurans extreme radiation resistance is determined by a multiplicity of pathways acting as a complex network. PMID:25884619

  7. Anal Carcinoma: Impact of TN Category of Disease on Survival, Disease Relapse, and Colostomy Failure in US Gastrointestinal Intergroup RTOG 98-11 Phase 3 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, Leonard L.; Moughan, Jennifer; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Pedersen, John E.; Winter, Kathryn A.; Benson, Al B.; Thomas, Charles R.; Haddock, Michael G.; Rich, Tyvin A.; Willett, Christopher G.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The long-term update of US GI Intergroup RTOG 98-11 anal cancer trial found that concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) with fluorouracil (5-FU) plus mitomycin had a significant impact on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with induction plus concurrent 5-FU plus cisplatin. The intent of the current analysis was to determine the impact of tumor node (TN) category of disease on survival (DFS and OS), colostomy failure (CF), and relapse (local-regional failure [LRF] and distant metastases [DM]) in this patient group. Methods and Materials: DFS and OS were estimated univariately by using the Kaplan-Meier method, and 6 TN categories were compared by the log–rank test (T2N0, T3N0, T4N0, T2N1-3, T3N1-3, and T4N1-3). Time to relapse and colostomy were estimated by the cumulative incidence method, and TN categories were compared using Gray's test. Results: Of 682 patients, 620 were analyzable for outcomes by TN category. All endpoints showed statistically significant differences among the TN categories of disease (OS, P<.0001; DFS, P<.0001; LRF, P<.0001; DM, P=.0011; CF, P=.01). Patients with the poorest OS, DFS, and LRF outcomes were those with T3-4N-positive (+) disease. CF was lowest for T2N0 and T2N+ (11%, 11%, respectively) and worst for the T4N0, T3N+, and T4N+ categories (26%, 27%, 24%, respectively). Conclusions: TN category of disease has a statistically significant impact on OS, DFS, LRF, DM, and CF in patients treated with CCRT and provides excellent prognostic information for outcomes in patients with anal carcinoma. Significant challenges remain for patients with T4N0 and T3-4N+ categories of disease with regard to survival, relapse, and CF and lesser challenges for T2-3N0/T2N+ categories.

  8. Dispersal of carbapenemase blaVIM-1 gene associated with different Tn402 variants, mercury transposons, and conjugative plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Tato, Marta; Coque, Teresa M; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of bla(VIM-1) within four different genetic platforms from distinct Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in an area with a low prevalence of metallo-beta-lactamase producers is reported. Forty-three VIM-1-producing isolates (including 19 Enterobacter cloacae, 2 Escherichia coli, and 2 P. aeruginosa isolates, 18 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate, and 2 Klebsiella oxytoca isolate) recovered from 2005 to 2007 and corresponding to 15 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types were studied. The Enterobacteriaceae isolates corresponded to a hospital outbreak, and the P. aeruginosa isolates were sporadically recovered. The genetic context of the integrons carrying bla(VIM-1) (arbitrarily designated types A, B, C, and D) was characterized by PCR mapping based on known Tn402 and mercury transposons and further sequencing. Among Enterobacteriaceae isolates, bla(VIM-1) was part of integrons located either in an In2-Tn402 element linked to Tn21 (type A; In110-bla(VIM-1)-aacA4-aadA1) or in a Tn402 transposon lacking the whole tni module [type B; In113-bla(VIM-1)-aacA4-dhfrII (also called dfrB1)-aadA1-catB2] and the transposon was associated with an IncHI2 or IncI1 plasmid, respectively. Among P. aeruginosa isolates, bla(VIM-1) was part of a new gene cassette array located in a defective Tn402 transposon carrying either tniBDelta3 and tniA (type C; bla(VIM-1)-aadA1) or tniC and DeltatniQ (type D; bla(VIM-1)-aadB), and both Tn402 variants were associated with conjugative plasmids of 30 kb. The dissemination of bla(VIM-1) was associated with different genetic structures and bacterial hosts, depicting a complex emergence and evolutionary network scenario in our facility, Ramón y Cajal University Hospital, Madrid, Spain. Knowledge of the complex epidemiology of bla(VIM-1) is necessary to control this emerging threat. PMID:19901094

  9. 76 FR 8808 - Supplemental Final Environmental Impact Statement: Clark County, Indiana, and Jefferson County, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Federal Highway Administration Supplemental Final Environmental Impact Statement: Clark County, Indiana, and Jefferson County, KY AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent..., Project Manager, Federal Highway Administration, John C. Watts Federal Building 330 West...

  10. Hudson County Community College Periodic Review Report. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson County Community Coll., Jersey City, NJ.

    Hudson County Community College (HCCC) serves Hudson County, New Jersey. Although the county is the smallest in the state, its 610,000 residents make up one of the most diverse counties in New Jersey. Approximately 40% of residents are Hispanic, 12% are African-American, 10% are Asian, and 35% are White. The county is also home to a growing Middle…

  11. Digital computer processing of LANDSAT data for North Alabama. [Linestone County, Madison County, Jackson County, Marshall County, and DeKalb County

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. D.; Atkinson, R. J.; Lybanon, M.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1977-01-01

    Computer processing procedures and programs applied to Multispectral Scanner data from LANDSAT are described. The output product produced is a level 1 land use map in conformance with a Universal Transverse Mercator projection. The region studied was a five-county area in north Alabama.

  12. Characterization of Tn3000, a Transposon Responsible for blaNDM-1 Dissemination among Enterobacteriaceae in Brazil, Nepal, Morocco, and India.

    PubMed

    Campos, Juliana Coutinho; da Silva, Maria José Félix; dos Santos, Paulo Roberto Nascimento; Barros, Elaine Menezes; Pereira, Mayne de Oliveira; Seco, Bruna Mara Silva; Magagnin, Cibele Massotti; Leiroz, Leonardo Kalab; de Oliveira, Théo Gremen Mimary; de Faria-Júnior, Célio; Cerdeira, Louise Teixeira; Barth, Afonso Luís; Sampaio, Suely Carlos Ferreira; Zavascki, Alexandre Prehn; Poirel, Laurent; Sampaio, Jorge Luiz Mello

    2015-12-01

    In Enterobacteriaceae, the blaNDM genes have been found in many different genetic contexts, and a wide diversity of plasmid scaffolds bearing those genes has been found. In August 2013, we identified NDM-1-producing Escherichia coli and Enterobacter hormaechei strains from a single rectal swab sample from a patient hospitalized in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who had no history of travel abroad. Complete DNA sequencing using the Illumina platform and annotation of the two plasmids harboring the blaNDM-1 gene, one from each strain, showed that they belonged to incompatibility groups IncFIIK and IncX3 and harbored a novel transposon named Tn3000. Similar genetic structures have been identified among other isolates in Brazil but also on plasmids from other continents. Our findings suggest that the blaNDM-1 gene may be transmitted by Tn3000 in different parts of the world. PMID:26392506

  13. Neutron Scattering Measurements of Anisotropic Magnetic Exchange Interactions in Semiconducting K0.85Fe1.54Se2 (TN=280K)

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, Douglas L; Birgeneau, R. J.; Gao, Miao; Lu, Zhong-Yi; Zhao, Jun; Zhao, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We use neutron scattering to study the spin excitations associated with the stripe antiferromagnetic (AFM) order in semiconducting K0.85Fe1.54Se2 (TN=280 K). We show that the spin wave spectra can be accurately described by an effective Heisenberg Hamiltonian with highly anisotropic in-plane couplings at T= 5 K. At high temperature (T= 300 K) above TN, short range magnetic correlation with anisotropic correlation lengths are observed. Our results suggest that, despite the dramatic difference in the Fermi surface topology, the in-plane anisotropic magnetic coupings are a fundamental property of the iron based compounds; this implies that their antiferromagnetism may originate from local strong correlation effects rather than weak coupling Fermi surface nesting.

  14. Neutron diffraction study of the nuclear and magnetic structure of the quasi-one-dimensional compound CuSiO3 around TN=8 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfram, H.; Otto, H. H.; Cwik, M.; Braden, M.; Andr, G.; Boure, F.; Baenitz, M.; Steglich, F.

    2004-04-01

    We investigated the nuclear and magnetic structure of CuSiO3 by neutron powder diffraction methods at room temperature and around TN=8 K. With decreasing temperature the lattice parameters showed, similar to CuGeO3, decreasing a and b parameters and a slightly increasing c parameter down the chain direction. Below the second order phase transition at TN we observed for CuSiO3 the appearance of a small set of magnetic superstructure reflections; the determined antiferromagnetic order can be described by a commensurate propagation vector of q=(1/2, 0, 1/8) with respect to the chemical Pbmm unit cell. From the long modulation along the chain a ferromagnetic next neighbor magnetic exchange is deduced, whereas next nearest neighbor coupling is expected to be antiferromagnetic.

  15. Waste source reduction county government case study

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-31

    Itasca County is located in north-central Minnesota, has a population of 42,000 and is known for its forests and scenic waterways. With Beltrami County, it contains the upper watershed of the Mississippi River. Its major industries are timber and tourism. Itasca County government made a commitment to source reduce its waste as much as possible. Secondarily, what they could not reduce they committed themselves to recycle. The project demonstrates functional reduction in practice. It shows that reduction is a realistic goal for county governments and that reduction can be measured on a waste stream by waste stream basis.

  16. Alcohol dehydrogenase gene from Alcaligenes eutrophus: subcloning, heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, sequencing, and location of Tn5 insertions.

    PubMed Central

    Jendrossek, D; Steinbchel, A; Schlegel, H G

    1988-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the gene that encodes the fermentative, multifunctional alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in Alcaligenes eutrophus, and of adjacent regions on a 1.8-kilobase-pair PstI fragment was determined. From the deduced amino acid sequence, a molecular weight of 38,549 was calculated for the ADH subunit. The amino acid sequence reveals homologies from 22.3 to 26.3% with zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenases from eucaryotic organisms (Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Zea mays, mouse, horse liver, and human liver). Most of the 22 amino acid residues, which are strictly conserved in this group of ADHs (H. Jrnvall, B. Persson, and J. Jeffery, Eur. J. Biochem. 167:195-201, 1987), either were present in the A. eutrophus enzyme or had been substituted by related amino acids. The A. eutrophus adh gene was transcribed in Escherichia coli only under the control of the lac promoter, but was not expressed by its own promoter. A sequence resembling the E. coli consensus promoter DNA sequence did not contain the invariant T, but a G, in the potential -10 region. In the transposon-induced mutants HC1409 and HC1421, which form ADH constitutively, the insertions of Tn5::mob were localized 56 and 66 base pairs, respectively, upstream of the presumptive translation initiation codon. In contrast to the promoter, the A. eutrophus ribosome-binding site with a GGAG Shine-Dalgarno sequence 6 base pairs upstream of the translation initiation codon was accepted by the E. coli translation apparatus. A stable hairpin structure, which may provide a transcription termination signal, is predicted to occur in the mRNA, with its starting point 21 base pairs downstream from the translation termination codon. PMID:2846513

  17. Impacts of cool cities on air quality: A preliminary modeling assessment for Nashville TN, Dallas TX and Atlanta GA

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, Haider

    1998-06-15

    Previous atmospheric modeling efforts that concentrated on the Los Angeles Basin suggested beneficial and significant air quality impacts from cool cities strategies. This paper discusses an extension of similar modeling efforts to three regions, Atlanta GA, Dallas - Ft. Worth TX, and Nashville TN, that experience smog and air quality problems. According to the older ozone air quality standard (120 ppb), these regions were classified as serious, moderate, and marginal, respectively, but may be out of compliance with respect to the newer, 80-ppb/8-hours standard. Results from this exploratory modeling work suggest a range of possible impacts on meteorological and air quality conditions. For example, peak ozone concentrations during each region's respective episode could be decreased by 1-6 ppb (conservative and optimistic scenarios, respectively) in Nashville, 5-15 ppb in Dallas - Fort Worth, and 5-12 ppb in Atlanta following implementation of cool cities. The reductions are generally smaller than those obtained from simulating the Los Angeles Basin but are still significant. In all regions, the simulations suggest, the net, domain-wide effects of cool cities are reductions in ozone mass and improvements in air quality. In Atlanta, Nashville, and Dallas, urban areas benefiting from reduced smog reach up to 8460, 7350, and 12870 km{sup 2} in area, respectively. Results presented in this paper should be taken as exploratory and preliminary. These will most likely change during a more comprehensive modeling study to be started soon with the support of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The main purpose of the present project was to obtain the initial data (emission inventories) for these regions, simulate meteorological conditions, and perform preliminary sensitivity analysis. In the future, additional regions will be simulated to assess the potential of cool cities in improving urban air quality.

  18. Dissemination of blaOXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. in China: main roles of conjugative plasmid pAZJ221 and transposon Tn2009.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Lin; Ji, Shu-Juan; Ruan, Zhi; Fu, Ying; Fu, Yi-Qi; Wang, Yan-Fei; Yu, Yun-Song

    2015-04-01

    Production of the OXA-23 carbapenemase is the most common reason for the increasing carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp. This study was conducted to reveal the genetic basis of blaOXA-23 dissemination in Acinetobacter spp. in China. A total of 63 carbapenem-resistant OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter sp. isolates, representing different backgrounds, were selected from 28 hospitals in 18 provinces for this study. Generally, two patterns of plasmids carrying blaOXA-23 were detected according to S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern blot hybridization. A ca. 78-kb plasmid, designated pAZJ221, was found in 23 Acinetobacter baumannii and three Acinetobacter nosocomialis isolates, while a novel ca. 50-kb plasmid was carried by only two other A. baumannii isolates. Three of these isolates had an additional copy of blaOXA-23 on the chromosome. Transformation of the two plasmids succeeded, but only pAZJ221 was conjugative. Plasmid pAZJ221 was sequenced completely and found to carry no previously known resistance genes except blaOXA-23. The blaOXA-23 gene of the remaining 35 isolates was chromosome borne. The blaOXA-23 genetic environments were correlated with Tn2009 in 57 isolates, Tn2008 in 5 isolates, and Tn2006 in 1 isolate. The MIC values for the carbapenems with these isolates were not significantly associated with the genomic locations or the copy numbers of blaOXA-23. Overall, these observations suggest that the plasmid pAZJ221 and Tn2009 have effectively contributed to the wide dissemination of blaOXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. in China and that horizontal gene transfer may play an important role in dissemination of the blaOXA-23 gene. PMID:25605357

  19. Dissemination of blaOXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. in China: Main Roles of Conjugative Plasmid pAZJ221 and Transposon Tn2009

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Lin; Ji, Shu-Juan; Ruan, Zhi; Fu, Ying; Fu, Yi-Qi; Wang, Yan-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Production of the OXA-23 carbapenemase is the most common reason for the increasing carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp. This study was conducted to reveal the genetic basis of blaOXA-23 dissemination in Acinetobacter spp. in China. A total of 63 carbapenem-resistant OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter sp. isolates, representing different backgrounds, were selected from 28 hospitals in 18 provinces for this study. Generally, two patterns of plasmids carrying blaOXA-23 were detected according to S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern blot hybridization. A ca. 78-kb plasmid, designated pAZJ221, was found in 23 Acinetobacter baumannii and three Acinetobacter nosocomialis isolates, while a novel ca. 50-kb plasmid was carried by only two other A. baumannii isolates. Three of these isolates had an additional copy of blaOXA-23 on the chromosome. Transformation of the two plasmids succeeded, but only pAZJ221 was conjugative. Plasmid pAZJ221 was sequenced completely and found to carry no previously known resistance genes except blaOXA-23. The blaOXA-23 gene of the remaining 35 isolates was chromosome borne. The blaOXA-23 genetic environments were correlated with Tn2009 in 57 isolates, Tn2008 in 5 isolates, and Tn2006 in 1 isolate. The MIC values for the carbapenems with these isolates were not significantly associated with the genomic locations or the copy numbers of blaOXA-23. Overall, these observations suggest that the plasmid pAZJ221 and Tn2009 have effectively contributed to the wide dissemination of blaOXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. in China and that horizontal gene transfer may play an important role in dissemination of the blaOXA-23 gene. PMID:25605357

  20. Genetic Characterization of a Tn5-Disrupted Glycosyltransferase Gene Homolog in Brucella abortus and Its Effect on Lipopolysaccharide Composition and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    McQuiston, J. R.; Vemulapalli, R.; Inzana, T. J.; Schurig, G. G.; Sriranganathan, N.; Fritzinger, D.; Hadfield, T. L.; Warren, R. A.; Snellings, N.; Hoover, D.; Halling, S. M.; Boyle, S. M.

    1999-01-01

    We constructed a rough mutant of Brucella abortus 2308 by transposon (Tn5) mutagenesis. Neither whole cells nor extracted lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from this mutant, designated RA1, reacted with a Brucella O-side-chain-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb), Bru-38, indicating the absence of O-side-chain synthesis. Compositional analyses of LPS from strain RA1 showed reduced levels of quinovosamine and mannose relative to the levels in the parental, wild-type strain, 2308. We isolated DNA flanking the Tn5 insertion in strain RA1 by cloning a 25-kb XbaI genomic fragment into pGEM-3Z to create plasmid pJM6. Allelic exchange of genomic DNA in B. abortus 2308 mediated by electroporation of pJM6 produced kanamycin-resistant clones that were not reactive with MAb Bru-38. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA from these rough clones revealed Tn5 in a 25-kb XbaI genomic fragment. A homology search with the deduced amino acid sequence of the open reading frame disrupted by Tn5 revealed limited homology with various glycosyltransferases. This B. abortus gene has been named wboA. Transformation of strain RA1 with a broad-host-range plasmid bearing the wild-type B. abortus wboA gene resulted in the restoration of O-side-chain synthesis and the smooth phenotype. B. abortus RA1 was attenuated for survival in mice. However, strain RA1 persisted in mice spleens for a longer time than the B. abortus vaccine strain RB51, but as expected, neither strain induced antibodies specific for the O side chain. PMID:10417145

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Multidrug-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Clinical Isolate VRE3, with a Sequence Type 16 Pattern and Novel Structural Arrangement of Tn1546.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saeed; Sung, Kidon; Marasa, Bernard; Min, Seonggi; Kweon, Ohgew; Nawaz, Mohamed; Cerniglia, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen that may infect the body at various sites, including the gastrointestinal tract, and has serious implications in human health and disease. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of clinical strain VRE3, which exhibited a sequence type 16 (ST16) pattern and carried truncated Tn1546, a mobile genetic element encoding a high level of vancomycin resistance. PMID:26272564

  2. Mutagenesis of Burkholderia pseudomallei with Tn5-OT182: isolation of motility mutants and molecular characterization of the flagellin structural gene.

    PubMed Central

    DeShazer, D; Brett, P J; Carlyon, R; Woods, D E

    1997-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a human and animal pathogen in tropical regions, especially Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Currently little is known about the genetics and molecular biology of this organism. In this report, we describe the mutagenesis of B. pseudomallei with the transposon Tn5-OT182. B. pseudomallei 1026b transposon mutants were obtained at a frequency of 4.6 x 10(-4) per initial donor cell, and the transposon inserted randomly into the chromosome. We used Tn5-OT182 to identify the flagellin structural gene, fliC. We screened 3,500 transposon mutants and identified 28 motility mutants. Tn5-OT182 integrated into 19 unique genetic loci encoding proteins with homology to Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium flagellar and chemotaxis proteins. Two mutants, MM35 and MM36, contained Tn5-OT182 integrations in fliC. We cloned and sequenced fliC and used it to complement MM35 and MM36 in trans. The fliC transcriptional start site and a sigmaF-like promoter were identified by primer extension analysis. We observed a significant difference in the expression of two distinct fliC-lacZ transcriptional fusions during bacterial growth, suggesting the presence of a latent intragenic transcriptional terminator in fliC. There was no significant difference in the virulence of 1026b compared to that of MM36 in diabetic rats or Syrian hamsters, suggesting that flagella and/or motility are probably not virulence determinants in these animal models of B. pseudomallei infection. A phylogenetic analysis based on the flagellins from a variety of bacterial species supported the recent transfer of B. pseudomallei from the genus Pseudomonas to Burkholderia. PMID:9079894

  3. Deformation of Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland, 1992-2014: Constraints on magma flow in relation to eruptions in 1998, 2004 and 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hreinsdottir, Sigrun; Sturkell, Erik; Ofeigsson, Benedikt; Einarsson, Pall; Roberts, Matthew; Grapenthin, Ronni; Villemin, Thierry; Arnadottir, Thora; Geirsson, Halldor

    2014-05-01

    A time series of ground deformation at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland from 1992 to 2014 reveals deformation due to plate movements, glacial-isostatic uplift in response to the melting of the Vatnajökull ice cap, annual changes due to snow loading and magma movements. GPS measurements have been made at one nunatak, conducted intermittently since 1992 and continuously since 2004. During this period eruptions have occurred at Grímsvötn in 1998, 2004 and 2011. The component of displacement related to magma movements is obtained after the time series are corrected for signals due to other processes. Uplift and displacement away from the caldera occurs between eruptions at a rate of few cm/yr, interrupted by sudden co-eruptive subsidence and displacement towards the caldera (up to half a meter). This inflation/deflation pattern suggests deformation driven by pressure change in an upper crustal magma chamber, similar to other highly active calderas in Iceland such as Askja and Krafla. A simple model of pressure change variation in a magma chamber at shallow depth, with variable inflow between eruptions and outflow during eruptions can explain the observed deformation pattern. The erupted volume of magma in the 2011 eruption is about 10 times larger than the inferred co-eruptive volume change, attributed to compressibility of magma in the chamber. The magma compressibility is inferred to have remained constant during the 2011 eruption, as about constant scale factor is found during that eruption between eruption rate and displacement rate. This scale factor is, however, about five times lower for the 2004 eruption. This difference implies higher compressibility of magma in the shallow Grímsvötn magma chamber during the 2011 eruption compared to 2004, assuming the active part of the Grimsvötn magma plumbing system remained the same in both eruptions.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Multidrug-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Clinical Isolate VRE3, with a Sequence Type 16 Pattern and Novel Structural Arrangement of Tn1546

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Kidon; Marasa, Bernard; Min, Seonggi; Kweon, Ohgew; Nawaz, Mohamed; Cerniglia, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen that may infect the body at various sites, including the gastrointestinal tract, and has serious implications in human health and disease. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of clinical strain VRE3, which exhibited a sequence type 16 (ST16) pattern and carried truncated Tn1546, a mobile genetic element encoding a high level of vancomycin resistance. PMID:26272564

  5. 33 CFR 100.905 - Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Door County Triathlon; Door... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS 100.905 Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all waters of Green...

  6. 33 CFR 100.905 - Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Door County Triathlon; Door... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS 100.905 Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all waters of Green...

  7. The Economic Impact of Schenectady County Community College on Schenectady County, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chestnut, Erma Ruth

    This report on the economic impact of Schenectady County Community College (SCCC) uses a modification of the Caffrey and Isaacs model to assess SCCC-related local business volume, SCCC costs and benefits to the Schenectady County government, and the likely impact on the county if SCCC did not exist. Part I provides background to the study,

  8. 75 FR 25308 - Environmental Impact Statement: Winnebago County, IL and Rock County, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Winnebago County, IL and Rock County, WI... Beloit, Rock County, Wisconsin to the interchange of Rockton Road and I-90 southeast of South...

  9. 75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA AGENCY... Water Supply Project, Clarke County, Iowa. ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Sims, State... comments by NRCS information related to water supply demand requirements for permitting by the State...

  10. Genome-Wide Fitness and Genetic Interactions Determined by Tn-seq, a High-Throughput Massively Parallel Sequencing Method for Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    van Opijnen, Tim; Camilli, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The lagging annotation of bacterial genomes and the inherent genetic complexity of many phenotypes is hindering the discovery of new drug targets and the development of new antimicrobials and vaccines. Here we present the method Tn-seq, with which it has become possible to quantitatively determine fitness for most genes in a microorganism and to screen for quantitative genetic interactions on a genome-wide scale and in a high-throughput fashion. Tn-seq can thus direct studies in the annotation of genes and untangle complex phenotypes. The method is based on the construction of a saturated Mariner transposon insertion library. After library selection, changes in frequency of each insertion mutant are determined by sequencing of the flanking regions en masse. These changes are used to calculate each mutant’s fitness. The method has been developed for the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, a causative agent of pneumonia and meningitis; however, due to the wide activity of the Mariner transposon, Tn-seq can be applied to many different microbial species. PMID:21053251

  11. Environmental significance of the potential for mer(Tn21)-mediated reduction of Hg2+ to Hg0 in natural waters.

    PubMed Central

    Barkay, T; Liebert, C; Gillman, M

    1989-01-01

    The role of mer(Tn21) in the adaptation of aquatic microbial communities to Hg2+ was investigated. Elemental mercury was the sole product of Hg2+ volatilization by freshwater and saline water microbial communities. Bacterial activity was responsible for biotransformation because most microeucaryotes did not survive the exposure conditions, and removal of larger microbes (greater than 1 micromole) from adapted communities did not significantly (P greater than 0.01) reduce Hg2+ volatilization rates. DNA sequences homologous to mer(Tn21) were found in 50% of Hg2+-resistant bacterial strains representing two freshwater communities, but in only 12% of strains representing two saline communities (the difference was highly significant; P less than 0.001). Thus, mer(Tn21) played a significant role in Hg2+ resistance among strains isolated from fresh waters, in which microbial activity had a limited role in Hg2+ volatilization. In saline water environments in which microbially mediated volatilization was the major mechanism of Hg2+ loss, other bacterial genes coded for this biotransformation. PMID:2547336

  12. Efficiency and bacterial populations related to pollutant removal in an upflow microaerobic sludge reactor treating manure-free piggery wastewater with low COD/TN ratio.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jia; Li, Jiuling; Li, Jianzheng; Sun, Kai; Antwi, Philip; Deng, Kaiwen; Wang, Cheng; Buelna, Gerardo

    2016-02-01

    A novel upflow microaerobic sludge reactor (UMSR) had proved excellent in nitrogen removal from manure-free piggery wastewater characterized by high concentration of ammonium (NH4(+)-N) and low chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total nitrogen (TN) ratio, but the biological mechanism in the UMSR was still indeterminate. With a constant nitrogen loading rate of 1.10kg/(m(3)d) at hydraulic retention time 8h, the UMSR was kept performing for 67days in the present research and the average load removal of COD, NH4(+)-N and TN was as high as 0.72, 0.76 and 0.94kg/(m(3)d), respectively. Compared with the inoculated sludge, the acclimated sludge was richer in genera responsible for the biological removal of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Ammonium oxidation bacteria, heterotrophic denitrifiers, autotrophic denitrifiers and phosphate accumulating organisms coexisted perfectly in the microaerobic system, and their synergistic action made the UMSR perform well in COD, NH4(+)-N, TN and phosphate removal. PMID:26649897

  13. Evaluation of analytical performance and comparison of clinical results of the new generation method AccuTnI+3 for the measurement of cardiac troponin I using both patients and quality control plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Storti, Simona; Masotti, Silvia; Prontera, Concetta; Franzini, Maria; Buzzi, Paola; Casagranda, Ivo; Ciofini, Enrica; Zucchelli, Gian Carlo; Ndreu, Rudina; Passino, Claudio; Clerico, Aldo

    2015-12-01

    The study aims are to evaluate the analytical performance and the clinical results of the chemiluminescent Access AccuTnI+3 immunoassay for the determination of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) with DxI 800 and Access2 platforms and to compare the clinical results obtained with this method with those of three cTnI immunoassays, recently introduced in the European market. The limits of blank (LoB), detection (LoD), and quantitation (LoQ) at 20% CV and 10% CV were 4.5ng/L and 10.9ng/L, 17.1 and 30.4ng/L, respectively. The results of STAT Architect high Sensitive TnI (Abbott Diagnostics), ADVIA Centaur Troponin I Ultra (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics), ST AIA-Pack cTnI third generation (Tosoh Bioscience), and Access AccuTnI+3 (Beckman Coulter Diagnostics) showed very close correlations (R ranging from 0.901 to 0.994) in 122 samples of patients admitted to the emergency department. However, on average there was a difference up to 2.4-fold between the method measuring the highest (ADVIA method) and lowest cTnI values (AccuTnI+3 method). The consensus mean values between methods ranged from 6.2% to 29.6% in 18 quality control samples distributed in an external quality control study (cTnI concentrations ranging from 29.3ng/L to 1557.5ng/L). In conclusion, the results of our analytical evaluation concerning the AccuTnI+3 method, using the DxI platform, are well in agreement with those suggested by the manufacturer as well as those reported by some recent studies using the Access2 platform. Our results confirm that the AccuTnI+3 method for the Access2 and DxI 800 platforms is a clinically usable method for cTnI measurement. PMID:26391123

  14. Analysis of the Shallow Groundwater Flow System at Fire Island National Seashore, Suffolk County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schubert, Christopher E.

    2010-01-01

    Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS) occupies 42 kilometers of the barrier island for which it is named that lies off the southern shore of Suffolk County, N.Y. Freshwater in the highly permeable, sandy aquifer underlying Fire Island is bounded laterally by marine surface waters and at depth by saline groundwater. Interspersed throughout FIIS are 17 pre-existing residential communities that in summer months greatly increase in population through the arrival of summer residents and vacationers; in addition, the National Park Service (NPS) has established several facilities on the island to accommodate visitors to FIIS. The 2.2 million people estimated by the NPS to visit Fire Island annually impact groundwater quality through the release of waste-derived contaminants, such as nutrients, pathogens, and organic compounds, into the environment. Waste-contaminated groundwater can move through the aquifer and threaten the ecological health of the adjacent back-barrier estuaries to which much of the groundwater ultimately discharges. In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the NPS, began a 3-year investigation to (1) collect groundwater levels and water-quality (nutrient) samples, (2) develop a three-dimensional model of the shallow (water-table) aquifer system and adjacent marine surface waters, and (3) calculate nitrogen loads in simulated groundwater discharges from the aquifer to back-barrier estuaries and the ocean. The hydrogeology of the shallow aquifer system was characterized from the results of exploratory drilling, geophysical surveying, water-level monitoring, and water-quality sampling. The investigation focused on four areas-the communities of Kismet and Robbins Rest, the NPS Visitor Center at Watch Hill, and the undeveloped Otis Pike Fire Island High Dune Wilderness. Thirty-five observation wells were installed within FIIS to characterize subsurface hydrogeology and establish a water-table monitoring network in the four study areas. A variable-density model of the shallow aquifer system and adjacent marine surface waters was developed to simulate groundwater flow patterns and rates. Nitrogen loads from the shallow aquifer system were calculated from representative total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and simulated groundwater discharges to back-barrier estuaries and the ocean. The model simulates groundwater directions, velocities, and discharge rates under 2005 mean annual conditions. Groundwater budgets were developed for recharge areas of similar land use that contribute freshwater to back-barrier estuaries, the ocean, and subsea-discharge zones. Total freshwater discharge from the shallow aquifer system is about 43,500 cubic meters per day (m3/d) (79.8 percent) to back-barrier estuaries and about 10,200 m3/d (18.7 percent) to the ocean; about 836 m3/d (1.5 percent) may exit the system as subsea underflow. The total contribution of fresh groundwater to shoreline discharge zones amounts to about 53,700 m3/d (98.5 percent). The median age of freshwater discharged to back-barrier estuaries and the ocean was 3.4 years, and the 95th-percentile age was 20 years. The TN concentrations and loads under 2005 mean annual conditions for areas that contribute fresh groundwater to back-barrier estuaries and the ocean were calculated for the principal land uses on Fire Island. The overall TN load from the shallow aquifer system to shoreline discharge zones is about 16,200 kilograms per year (kg/yr) (82.2 percent) to back-barrier estuaries and about 3,500 kg/yr (17.8 percent) to the ocean. The overall TN load to marine surface waters amounts to about 19,700 kg/yr-roughly 6 percent of the annual TN load from shallow groundwater entering the South Shore Estuary Reserve (SSER) from the Suffolk County mainland, which is about 345,000 kg/yr. In contrast to the TN load from shallow groundwater for the SSER watershed, which annually yields about 353 kilograms per square kilometer (kg/km2), the overall TN loa

  15. TN International and ITS operational feedback regarding the decommissioning of obsolete casks dedicated to the transport and/or storage of nuclear raw materials, fuel and used fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Blachet, L.; Bimet, F.; Rennesson, N.

    2008-07-01

    Within the AREVA group, TN International is a major actor regarding the design of casks and transportation for the nuclear cycle. In the early 2005, TN International has started the project of decommissioning some of its own equipment and was hence the first company ever in the AREVA Group to implement this new approach. In order to do so, TN International has based this project by taking into account the AREVA Sustainable Development Charter, the French regulatory framework, the ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs - National Agency for the radioactive waste management) requirements and has deployed a step by step methodology such as radiological characterization following a logical route. The aim was to define a standardized process with optimized solutions regarding the diversity of the cask's fleet. As a general matter, decommissioning of nuclear casks is a brand new field as the nuclear field is more familiar with the dismantling of nuclear facilities and/or nuclear power plant. Nevertheless existing workshops, maintenance facilities, measurements equipments and techniques have been exploited and adapted by TN International in order to turn an ambitious project into a permanent and cost-effective activity. The decommissioning of the nuclear casks implemented by TN International regarding its own needs and the French regulatory framework is formalized by several processes and is materialized for instance by the final disposal of casks as they are or in ISO container packed with cut-off casks and big bags filled with crushed internal cask equipments, etc. The first part of this paper aims to describe the history of the project that started with a specific environmental analysis which took into account the values of AREVA as regards the Sustainable Development principles that were at the time and are still a topic of current concern in the world. The second part will deal with the definition, the design and the implementation of the decommissioning processes and the applied techniques. The third part will present a two years operational feedback. The last part will introduce new processes which are currently under investigation and will put into light that decommissioning of nuclear casks is a continuous activity that is in perpetual mutation. (authors)

  16. Prediction of Perioperative Cardiac Events through Preoperative NT-pro-BNP and cTnI after Emergent Non-Cardiac Surgery in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiujie; Gao, Meng; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Clinical risk stratification has an important function in preoperative evaluation of patients at risk for cardiac events prior to non-cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to determine whether the combined measurement of pre-operative N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) could provide useful prognostic information about postoperative major adverse cardiac events (MACE) within 30 days in patients aged over 60 years undergoing emergent non-cardiac surgery. Methods The study group comprised 2519 patients aged over 60 years that were undergoing emergent non-cardiac surgery between December 2007 and December 2013. NT-pro-BNP and cTnI were measured during hospital admission. The patients were monitored for MACE (cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or cardiac arrest) during the 30-day postoperative follow-up period. Results MACE occurred in 251 patients (10.0%). Preoperative NT-pro-BNP and cTNI level were significantly higher in the individuals that experienced MACE than in those who did not (P < 0.001). The confounding factors of age, sex, co-morbidities and preoperative medications were adjusted in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. This analysis showed that preoperative NT-proBNP level > 917 pg/mL (OR 4.81, 95% CI 3.4466.722, P < 0.001) and cTnI ? 0.07 ng/mL (OR 8.74, 95% CI 5.88112.987, P < 0.001) remained significantly and independently associated with MACE after the adjustment of the confounding factors. Kaplan-Meier event-free survival curves demonstrated that patients with preoperative simultaneous NT-proBNP level > 917 pg/mL and cTnT ?0.07 ng/mL had worse event-free survival than individual assessments of either biomarker. Conclusion Preoperative plasma NT-proBNP and cTnI are both independently associated with an increased risk of MACE in elderly patients after emergent non-cardiac surgery. The combination of these biomarkers provides better prognostic information than using either biomarker separately. PMID:25799524

  17. Geothermal development plan: Yuma County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. H.; Goldstone, L. A.

    1982-08-01

    The potential for utilizing geothermal energy was evaluated. Four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 900C (1940F) were identified, and in addition, two areas are inferred to contain geothermal resources with intermediate temperature potential. The resource areas are isolated. One resource site contains a hot dry rock resource. Anticipated population growth in the county is expected to be 2% per year over the next 40 years. The primary employment sector is agriculture, though some light industry is located in the county. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support future growth without adverse affect on agriculture. In addition, several agricultural processors were found, concentrated in citrus processing and livestock raising. It is suggested that by the year 2000, geothermal energy may economically provide the energy equivalent of 53,000 barrels of oil per year to the industrial sector if developed privately. Geothermal utilization projections increase to 132,000 barrels of oil per year by 2000 if a municipal utility developed the resource.

  18. A Profile of Hardee County, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Anderson, Deborah S.

    In 1977 leaders of Hardee County, Florida, listed relationships and attitudes of residents, rural atmosphere, environmental conditions, and economic potential among the county's strong points, and public service and facility improvements, developing economic potential, recreational and entertainment development, and planning and zoning as its most…

  19. The Farm Crisis and Decatur County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Jan L.; And Others

    This case study assesses the impact of the farm sector on the economy and social organization of Decatur County (Kansas), a county which has historically depended on agriculture for its livelihood. Data were obtained from analysis of time series statistical indicators for the period between 1966 and 1984, questionnaire responses of local

  20. COUNTIES OF CALIFORNIA - WITH FARM STATISTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    County farming statistics polygon coverage of California. The statistics were taken from the 1997 Census of Agriculture and added to a coverage extracted from TIGER county boundaries. A farm is any place from which $1,000 or more of agricultural products were sold, or normally w...