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Sample records for sevier county tn

  1. 77 FR 24200 - American Drum & Pallet, Memphis, Shelby County, TN; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... settlement for reimbursement of past response costs concerning the American Drum and Pallet Superfund Site... AGENCY American Drum & Pallet, Memphis, Shelby County, TN; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of settlement. SUMMARY: Under the Comprehensive Environmental...

  2. Geological and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Deliverable 2.5.4, Ferron Sandstone lithologic strip logs, Emergy & Sevier Counties, Utah: Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M.L.

    1995-12-08

    Strip logs for 491 wells were produced from a digital subsurface database of lithologic descriptions of the Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale. This subsurface database covers wells from the parts of Emery and Sevier Counties in central Utah that occur between Ferron Creek on the north and Last Chance Creek on the south. The lithologic descriptions were imported into a logging software application designed for the display of stratigraphic data. Strip logs were produced at a scale of one inch equals 20 feet. The strip logs were created as part of a study by the Utah Geological Survey to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and qualitative characterization of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir using the Ferron Sandstone as a surface analogue. The study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Geoscience/Engineering Reservoir Characterization Program.

  3. Superfund record of decision amendment (EPA Region 4): Wrigley Charcoal Superfund Site, Hickman County, Wrigley, TN, February 2, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This decision document presents the selected Interim Remedial Action (IRA) for the Wrigley Charcoal Site, in Wrigley, Hickman County, Tennessee. The U.S. EPA has modified a wide variety of items that require immediate response action for the first step of cleanup activities to be taken at the Wrigley Charcoal Site. The major goal of these cleanup activities is to address the most serious threats at the Wrigley Charcoal Site by removing contaminated media from the Primary Site flood plain, remediating wastes at the Storage Basin, and through limited access restrictions at the Primary Site and the Storage Basin. The cleanup activities as presented in this IRA Record of Decision (ROD) Amendment will achieve significant risk reduction and will prepare the Site for future remedial activities.

  4. 78 FR 28938 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00075

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00075 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Tennessee dated 05/10... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Stewart. Contiguous Counties: Tennessee: Benton,...

  5. 75 FR 55833 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00042

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00042 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Tennessee dated 09/07... determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Putnam. Contiguous Counties:...

  6. 78 FR 12806 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00074

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00074 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Tennessee dated 02/14... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Henderson. Contiguous Counties: Tennessee:...

  7. 76 FR 18288 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00048

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00048 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Tennessee dated 03/23... determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Knox. Contiguous Counties:...

  8. Assessment of fish passage technology applicable to John Sevier detention dam

    SciTech Connect

    Pasch, R.W.

    1986-12-01

    This report provides an assessment of existing technologies and developments in fish passage technology applicable to moving sauger and paddlefish upstream and downstream of the John Sevier detention dam. (ACR)

  9. 77 FR 60373 - Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and Piute...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Forest Service Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and... alternatives, within the Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project area. The purpose of the Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project is to implement land management activities that...

  10. Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Construction PeelAway Great Smoky Mountains National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Construction Peel-Away - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Little River at Elkmont Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  11. 76 FR 28840 - Tennessee Disaster # TN-00053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Disaster Declaration 12572 and 12573 Tennessee Disaster TN-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... the State of Tennessee (FEMA--1979-DR), dated 05/09/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight... Loans): Dyer, Lake, Obion, Shelby, Stewart. Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only):...

  12. 75 FR 26815 - Tennessee Disaster # TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Tennessee (FEMA..., Davidson, Hickman, Williamson. Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): Tennessee:...

  13. 76 FR 27137 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Tennessee (FEMA..., Greene, Hamilton, Washington. ] Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only) Tennessee...

  14. Anatexis and metamorphism in tectonically thickened continental crust exemplified by the Sevier hinterland, western North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patino Douce, Alberto E.; Humphreys, Eugene D.; Johnston, A. Dana

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a thermal and petrologic model of anatexis and metamorphism in regions of crustal thickening exemplified by the Sevier hinterland in western North America, and uses the model to examine the geological and physical processes leading to crustally derived magmatism. The results of numerical experiments show that anatexis was an inevitable end-product of Barrovian metamorphism in the thickened crust of the late Mesozoic Sevier orogenic belt and that the advection of heat across the lithosphere, in the form of mantle-derived mafic magmas, was not required for melting of metasedimentary rocks. It is suggested that, in the Sevier belt, as in other intracontinental orogenic belts, anatexis occurred in the midcrust and not at the base of the crust.

  15. Alternatives for physically modifying John Sevier detention dam to allow fish passage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    Studies conducted in the vicinity of John Sevier Steam-Electric Plant (JSF) indicated some modification of the fish assemblage from that expected. By blocking movements of fish between Cherokee Reservoir and the upper Holston River, John Sevier detention dam has affected the fisheries in both systems. Providing passage for river-spawning fish at John Sevier detention dam might improve fish communities and fisheries in Cherokee Reservoir as well as upstream habitats. This would include enhanced reproductive success of river-spawning species found in Cherokee Reservoir (e.g., white bass and possibly striped bass and paddlefish) and repopulation of John Sevier Reservoir and the upper Holston River by several species presently found only downstream of the detention dam. TVA has identified and studied several alternatives that alone or in combination might improve the fisheries. Cost estimates were developed for three alternatives. These three alternatives with cost estimates are discussed briefly along with two other alternatives for which cost estimates have not been made. Merits of the three alternatives which have at least some possibility to improve migratory fish stocks are discussed in detail. 5 references.

  16. Inventory of wetlands and agricultural land cover in the upper Sevier River Basin, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaynes, R. A.; Clark, L. D., Jr.; Landgraf, K. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The use of color infrared aerial photography in the mapping of agricultural land use and wetlands in the Sevier River Basin of south central utah is described. The efficiency and cost effectiveness of utilizing LANDSAT multispectral scanner digital data to augment photographic interpretations are discussed. Transparent overlays for 27 quadrangles showing delineations of wetlands and agricultural land cover were produced. A table summarizing the acreage represented by each class on each quadrangle overlay is provided.

  17. Paired, facing monoclines in the Sanpete-Sevier Valley area, central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkind, I.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several major monoclines that trend northward through the Sanpete-Sevier Valley area of central Utah are paired and face one another. This pairing of monoclines may have occurred when near-horizontal sedimentary and volcanic strata subsided into voids created as salt was removed from a salt diapir concealed beneath valley fill. Removal was mostly by dissolution or extrusion during Neogene time. The paired monoclines, thus, are viewed as collapse features rather than as normal synclinal folds. -from Author

  18. 13. Upper portal of tunnel on Newfound Gap Road looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Upper portal of tunnel on Newfound Gap Road looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  19. 25. Newfound Gap Road, pullout after switchback, North Carolina side. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Newfound Gap Road, pullout after switchback, North Carolina side. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. 21. Newfound Gap Road, last pullout before gap, North Carolina ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Newfound Gap Road, last pullout before gap, North Carolina side. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  1. 14. Newfound Gap Road, view from atop tunnel, Tennessee side. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Newfound Gap Road, view from atop tunnel, Tennessee side. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  2. 19. Detail of stairs at Newfound Gap parking area looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Detail of stairs at Newfound Gap parking area looking NNE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. 28. Stream view of revetment wall on Newfound Gap Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Stream view of revetment wall on Newfound Gap Road looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  4. 23. Newfound Gap Road, Fancy Ridge, overlook with ugly railing. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Newfound Gap Road, Fancy Ridge, overlook with ugly railing. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  5. 27. Road view of revetment wall on Newfound Gap Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Road view of revetment wall on Newfound Gap Road looking NNW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. 26. Newfound Gap Road, North Carolina side, with Oconaluftee River. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Newfound Gap Road, North Carolina side, with Oconaluftee River. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. 20. Intersection of Newfound Gap Road and Clingman's Dome Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Intersection of Newfound Gap Road and Clingman's Dome Road looking NNE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. 15. Newfound Gap parking area with construction scar looking W. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Newfound Gap parking area with construction scar looking W. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. 33. Mountain farm museum from Newfound Gap Road looking ENE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Mountain farm museum from Newfound Gap Road looking ENE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential for TVA's John Sevier and Kingston Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ellen D; Saulsbury, Bo

    2008-03-01

    This is a preliminary assessment of the potential for geologic carbon sequestration for the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) John Sevier and Kingston power plants. The purpose of this assessment is to make a 'first cut' determination of whether there is sufficient potential for geologic carbon sequestration within 200 miles of the plants for TVA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to proceed with a joint proposal for a larger project with a strong carbon management element. This assessment does not consider alternative technologies for carbon capture, but assumes the existence of a segregated CO{sub 2} stream suitable for sequestration.

  11. Increasing influence of exotic terranes as sources of shales from the Sevier and Taconic Foreland basins : Evidence from Nd isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, S.D.; Andersen, C.B. . Dept. of Earth Sciences)

    1994-03-01

    The influence of outboard tectonostratigraphic terranes as a source of sediment to Ordovician foreland basins is unknown. To determine if there were changes in provenance, or changes in the importance of a given source region, the authors have analyzed shales from two foreland basins, the Tactonic Foreland basin of central New York and the Sevier Foreland basin of Tennessee, for their Nd isotopic compositions. Shales from the Taconic basin include those from the lower portion of Utica shale, Corynoides americanus graptolite Zone, and the uppermost portion of the Utica shale, including the Geniculograptus pygmaeus graptolite Zone. Initial [epsilon][sub Nd] values for the oldest Taconic basin shales are [minus]12. Initial [epsilon][sub Nd] values for the younger Taconic basin shales range from [minus]9.7 to [minus]8.4. This increase in [epsilon][sub Nd] may reflect an increased influence of terranes outboard of the Laurentian margin. Samples from the Sevier basin include those from the Blockhouse and Tellico Formations. A sample of the lower Blockhouse Fm. has an initial [epsilon][sub Nd] of [minus]9.4, while mid-formation levels have [epsilon][sub Nd] = [minus]8.8. Initial [epsilon][sub Nd] ranges from [minus]8.0 to [minus]7.2 from Tellico Formation shales. Thus a trend towards increasing [epsilon][sub Nd] with decreasing age is also seen in the Sevier basin. This again suggests the possibility of an increasing influence from nearby terranes. The fact that the [epsilon][sub Nd] values are higher in the Sevier basin than in the Taconic basin indicates that the Sevier shales received detritus with a less evolved isotopic composition. This may reflect fundamentally different sources, such as a more juvenile terrane as an important source of Sevier basin shales.

  12. Ground-water hydrology and projected effects of ground-water withdrawals in the Sevier Desert, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Walter F.

    1984-01-01

    The principal ground-water reservoir in the Sevier Desert is the unconsolidated basin fill. The fill has been divided generally into aquifers and confining beds, although there are no clearcut boundaries between these units--the primary aquifers are the shallow and deep artesian aquifers. Recharge to the ground-water reservoir is by infiltration of precipitation; seepage from streams, canals, reservoirs, and unconsumed irrigation water; and subsurface inflow from consolidated rocks in mountain areas and from adjoining areas. Discharge is by wells, springs, seepage to the Sevier River, evapotranspiration, and subsurface outflow to adjoining areas.

  13. Cretaceous crustal structure and metamorphism in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt, western US Cordillera

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.L.; Gans, P.B. )

    1989-01-01

    Combined structural and geochronologic studies to the west of the Sevier belt at lat 39{degree}-40{degree}N indicate that peak metamorphism of the upper 15 km of crust occurred during the Late Cretaceous (70-90 Ma), overlapping in time with the intrusion of muscovite-bearing granites and pegmatites. Metamorphism was accompanied by penetrative deformation (top-to-the-east layer-parallel shear); both were localized at the currently exposed structural levels, resulting in impressive vertical and lateral strain gradients and T{sub max} gradients of > 50 C/km. Inception of thrust faulting in the Sevier belt may have predated peak metamorphism and intrusion of granites in the hinterland by 10-15 m.y., but it continued during and ended simultaneously with the end of metamorphism at about 70 Ma. The rise of muscovite-bearing granites and hot fluids, generated by metamorphism and crustal anatexis at greater depth, provides and explanation for the observed localized metamorphism and deformation at relatively high structural levels.

  14. Late Cretaceous extension in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt, northwestern Utah and southern Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Michael L.; Dallmeyer, R. David; Allmendinger, Richard W.

    1990-10-01

    Cover rocks of the Raft River metamorphic core complex, located in the Sevier belt hinterland, preserve a structural and metamorphic history that predates the middle Tertiary extension of the region. In the eastern Raft River Mountains, Cambrian(?)-Permian rocks form two allochthons that occur in the hanging wall of the mid-Miocene Raft River detachment fault. Dramatically attenuated, metamorphosed Cambrian(?)-Pennsylvanian strata of the lower allochthon yield Late Cretaceous muscovite 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages (ca. 82-90 Ma) that are interpreted to date cooling during final stages of layer-parallel extension. Devonian-Permian rocks exposed in the Black Pine Mountains underwent east-west extension (˜160%) associated with syntectonic growth of white mica along cleavage. 40Ar/39Ar whole-rock spectra of associated slates also indicate a Late Cretaceous metamorphism. Together, field and 40Ar/39Ar results suggest that Late Cretaceous extension occurred in the Sevier belt hinterland at the same time as shortening in the eastern foreland and at depth in the hinterland. Sufficient topography must have been present to drive upper-crustal extension in the eastern hinterland.

  15. Late Cretaceous extension in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt, northwestern Utah and southern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, M.L.; Allmendinger, R.W. ); Dallmeyer, R.D. )

    1990-10-01

    Cover rocks of the Raft River metamorphic core complex, located in the Sevier belt hinterland, preserve a structural and metamorphic history that predates the middle Tertiary extension of the region. In the eastern Raft River Mountains, Cambrian( )-Permian rocks form two allochthons that occur in the hanging wall of the mid-Miocene Raft River detachment fault. Dramatically attenuated, metamorphosed Cambrian( )-Pennsylvanian strata of the lower allochthon yield Late Cretaceous muscovite {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar plateau ages (ca. 82-90 Ma) that are interpreted to date cooling during final stages of layer parallel extension. Devonian-Permian rocks exposed in the Black Pine Mountains underwent east-west extension ({approximately} 160%) associated with syntectonic growth of white mica along cleavage. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar whole-rock spectra of associated slates also indicate a Late Cretaceous metamorphism. Together, field and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results suggest that Late Cretaceous extension occurred in the Sevier belt hinterland at the same time as shortening in the eastern foreland and at depth in the hinterland. Sufficient topography must have been present to drive upper-crustal extension in the eastern hinterland.

  16. Stratigraphy and structure of the Sevier thrust belt and proximal foreland-basin system in central Utah: A transect from the Sevier Desert to the Wasatch Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawton, T.F.; Sprinkel, D.A.; Decelles, P.G.; Mitra, G.; Sussman, A.J.; Weiss, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    The Sevier orogenic belt in central Utah comprises four north-northwest trending thrust plates and two structural culminations that record crustal shortening and uplift in late Mesozoic and early Tertiary time. Synorogenic clastic rocks, mostly conglomerate and sandstone, exposed within the thrust belt were deposited in wedge-top and foredeep depozones within the proximal part of the foreland-basin system. The geologic relations preserved between thrust structures and synorogenic deposits demonstrate a foreland-breaking sequence of thrust deformation that was modified by minor out-of-sequence thrust displacement. Structural culminations in the interior part of the thrust belt deformed and uplifted some of the thrust sheets following their emplacement. Strata in the foreland basin indicate that the thrust sheets of central Utah were emplaced between latest Jurassic and Eocene time. The oldest strata of the foredeep depozone (Cedar Mountain Formation) are Neocomian and were derived from the hanging wall of the Canyon Range thrust. The foredeep depozone subsided most rapidly during Albian through Santonian or early Campanian time and accumulated about 2.5 km of conglomeratic strata (Indianola Group). The overlying North Horn Formation accumulated in a wedge-top basin from the Campanian to the Eocene and records propagation of the Gunnison thrust beneath the former foredeep. The Canyon Range Conglomerate of the Canyon Mountains, equivalent to the Indianola Group and the North Horn Formation, was deposited exclusively in a wedge-top setting on the Canyon Range and Pavant thrust sheets. This field trip, a three day, west-to-east traverse of the Sevier orogenic belt in central Utah, visits localities where timing of thrust structures is demonstrated by geometry of cross-cutting relations, growth strata associated with faults and folds, or deformation of foredeep deposits. Stops in the Canyon Mountains emphasize geometry of late structural culminations and relationships of the Canyon Range thrust to growth strata deposited in the wedge-top depozone. Stops in the San Pitch Mountains illustrate deposits of the foredeep depozone and younger, superjacent wedge-top depozone. Stops in the Sanpete Valley and western part of the Wasatch Plateau examine the evolution of the foreland-basin system from foredeep to wedge-top during growth of a triangle zone near the front of the Gunnison thrust.

  17. 75 FR 20774 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mountain City, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... FR 63976), Docket No. FAA-2009-0061; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASO-10. The FAA uses the direct final... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mountain City, TN AGENCY... December 7, 2009 that establishes Class E airspace at Johnson County Airport, Mountain City, TN....

  18. Upper Oligocene evaporites in basin fill of Sevier Desert region, western Utah ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, D.A.; Glanzman, R.K.; Naeser, C.W.; Nicholas, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The basin fill beneath the Sevier Desert of western Utah contains evaporites that were deposited in a broad closed basin. All of the basin fill penetrated by the Gulf Oil 1 Gronning contains abundant volcanic detritus and its alteration products of Cenozoic age. Fission-track dating of tuffaceous sandstone yields ages of 26-28 m.y. Fossil pollen from mudstone in the evaporite-bearing strata includes forms no older than late Oligocene, in good agreement with the fission-track ages. Thus the age of evaporites is late Oligocene and younger. Anhydrite is present throughout approximately 900m of volcaniclastic rocks in the lower part of the section cut by the Gulf hole. Fossil pollen are indicative of an arid to semiarid flora.-from Authors

  19. Geodynamics of synconvergent extension and tectonic mode switching: Constraints from the Sevier-Laramide orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Michael L.; Hoisch, Thomas D.; Cruz-Uribe, Alicia M.; Vervoort, Jeffrey D.

    2012-02-01

    Many orogenic belts experience alternations in shortening and extension (tectonic mode switches) during continuous plate convergence. The geodynamics of such alternations are not well understood. We present a record of Late Cretaceous to Eocene alternations of shortening and extension from the interior of the retroarc Sevier-Laramide orogen of the western United States. We integrate new Lu-Hf garnet geochronometry with revised PT paths utilizing differential thermobarometry combined with isochemical G-minimization plots, and monazite Th-Pb inclusion geochronometry to produce a well-constrained "M" shaped PTt path. Two burial events (86 and 65 Ma) are separated by ˜3 kbar of decompression. The first burial episode is Late Cretaceous, records a 2 kbar pressure increase at ˜515-550 °C and is dated by a Lu-Hf garnet isochron age of 85.5 ± 1.9 Ma (2σ); the second burial episode records ˜1 kbar of pressure increase at ˜585-615 °C, and is dated by radially decreasing Th-Pb ages of monazite inclusions in garnet between ˜65 and 45 Ma. We propose a synconvergent lithospheric delamination cycle, superimposed on a dynamic orogenic wedge, as a viable mechanism. Wedge tapers may evolve from critical to subcritical (amplification), to supercritical (separation), and back to subcritical (re-equilibration) owing to elevation changes resulting from isostatic adjustments during the amplification and separation of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, and post-separation thermal and rheological re-equilibration. For the Sevier-Laramide hinterland, the sequence of Late Cretaceous delamination, low-angle subduction, and slab rollback/foundering during continued plate convergence explains the burial-exhumation-burial-exhumation record and the "M-shaped" PTt path.

  20. 10. Area of landslide on eastern section of Foothills Parkway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Area of landslide on eastern section of Foothills Parkway looking NE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Foothills Parkway, From Chilowee to Walland & from Cosby to I-40, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  1. 1. View of Cades Cove Valley from first overlook on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of Cades Cove Valley from first overlook on Rich Mountain Road looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Rich Mountain Road, Between Cades Cove & park boundary at Rich Mountain Gap, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  2. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. 15. Gatlinburg spur with little Pigeon River, looking toward Pigeon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Gatlinburg spur with little Pigeon River, looking toward Pigeon Forge. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Foothills Parkway, From Chilowee to Walland & from Cosby to I-40, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  4. 7. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, rocks along edge of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, rocks along edge of road. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  5. 16. Bridge at Old Road S looking ESE. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Bridge at Old Road S looking ESE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Title Sheet Great Smoky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Title Sheet - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. 6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop four. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. 12. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, place of a thousand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, place of a thousand drips, view from road. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. 17. Underside of bridge and abutment with large boulder looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Underside of bridge and abutment with large boulder looking ENE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. 3. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, view between second and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, view between second and third stops - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  11. 1. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, entrance sign. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, entrance sign. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. 15. Culvert and corrugated pipe with place of a thousand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Culvert and corrugated pipe with place of a thousand drips in background looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. 9. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Reagan House. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Reagan House. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. 11. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, boulders along road after ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, boulders along road after stop 13. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. 10. Reagan's Tub Mill and Roadway looking NE. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Reagan's Tub Mill and Roadway looking NE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. 2. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view before first ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view before first stop. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  17. 13. Roadway and place of a thousand drips looking ESE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Roadway and place of a thousand drips looking ESE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  18. 8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, handbuilt rock pile. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, hand-built rock pile. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  19. 4. Overgrown overlook number 1 looking W. Great Smoky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Overgrown overlook number 1 looking W. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. 5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  1. 9. Double arch culvert on Laurel Creek Road looking ENE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Double arch culvert on Laurel Creek Road looking ENE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  2. 1. View of Laurel Creek Road, revetment wall and cliff ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of Laurel Creek Road, revetment wall and cliff looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. 14. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with single tree. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with single tree. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  4. 8. Double arch culvert on Laurel Creek Road looking WSW. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Double arch culvert on Laurel Creek Road looking WSW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  5. 18. View of fields, mountains and mist in Cades Cove ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of fields, mountains and mist in Cades Cove looking SW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. 17. Methodist Church in Cades Cove looking NW. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Methodist Church in Cades Cove looking NW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. 2. View of west tunnel portal and stream on Laurel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of west tunnel portal and stream on Laurel Creek Road looking ENE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. 6. 1930's revetment wall next to 1886 constructed revetment wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. 1930's revetment wall next to 1886 constructed revetment wall on Laurel Creek Road looking SSW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. 25. Dan Lawson place in Cades Cove looking S. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Dan Lawson place in Cades Cove looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. 16. First Baptist Church in Cades Cove looking SSW. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. First Baptist Church in Cades Cove looking SSW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  11. 27. Abandoned treelined road in Cades Cove looking N. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Abandoned tree-lined road in Cades Cove looking N. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. 19. Cantilevered barn in Cades Cove looking SSW. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Cantilevered barn in Cades Cove looking SSW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. 15. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with horses. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with horses. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. 28. Ford near the end of Cades Cove Loop Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Ford near the end of Cades Cove Loop Road looking NNW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. 4. Ford near the northern end of road looking NNE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Ford near the northern end of road looking NNE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Rich Mountain Road, Between Cades Cove & park boundary at Rich Mountain Gap, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. 21. View down Hyatt Lane in Cades Cove looking NNE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View down Hyatt Lane in Cades Cove looking NNE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  17. 13. Cades Cove Road, with barbed wire fence and mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Cades Cove Road, with barbed wire fence and mountain view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  18. 24. View of barn, fields and Cades Cove loop road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. View of barn, fields and Cades Cove loop road looking NNE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  19. 5. Laurel Creek Road, revetment wall and creek. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Laurel Creek Road, revetment wall and creek. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. 22. Cades Cove Valley from Hyatt Lane looking E. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Cades Cove Valley from Hyatt Lane looking E. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  1. 10. Concrete bridge on road to Tremont looking S. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Concrete bridge on road to Tremont looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  2. 7. Elevation of single arch stone bridge on Laurel Creek ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Elevation of single arch stone bridge on Laurel Creek Road looking N. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. 26. View of Cades Cove Loop Road with fields and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. View of Cades Cove Loop Road with fields and mountains looking NE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  4. 2. Switchback and General Road view looking S. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Switchback and General Road view looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Rich Mountain Road, Between Cades Cove & park boundary at Rich Mountain Gap, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  5. 12. Cades Cove Road, view toward entrance with ruts in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Cades Cove Road, view toward entrance with ruts in road. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. 23. Henry Whitehead place in Cades Cove looking ESE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Henry Whitehead place in Cades Cove looking ESE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. 3. NEWFOUND GAP ROAD, VIEW OF LOOP OVER FROM CHIMNEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NEWFOUND GAP ROAD, VIEW OF LOOP OVER FROM CHIMNEY TOPS. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, The Loop Over Bridge, Newfound Gap Road 8.6 miles from park entrance, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. 2. NEWFOUND GAP ROAD, LOOP OVER, VIEW INSIDE OVERPASS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NEWFOUND GAP ROAD, LOOP OVER, VIEW INSIDE OVERPASS. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, The Loop Over Bridge, Newfound Gap Road 8.6 miles from park entrance, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. 5. Abandoned mule trail tunnel. 1 mile from intersection with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Abandoned mule trail tunnel. 1 mile from intersection with Newfound Gap Road looking SSE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Clingmans Dome Road, Between Newfound Gap Road & Clingmans Dome, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. 6. LITTLE GREENBRIER SCHOOL CEMETERY AND PARKING AREA LOOKING S, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. LITTLE GREENBRIER SCHOOL CEMETERY AND PARKING AREA LOOKING S, OFF SPUR FROM METCALF BOTTOMS TO WEAR COVE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Little River Road, Between Sugarlands Visitor Center & Townsend Wye, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  11. 9. Bridge over State Route 321 on unopened section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Bridge over State Route 321 on unopened section of Foothills Parkway in wear cove looking ESE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Foothills Parkway, From Chilowee to Walland & from Cosby to I-40, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. 18. Bridge over state route 321 on unopened section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Bridge over state route 321 on unopened section of Foothills Parkway in wear cove looking ESE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Foothills Parkway, From Chilowee to Walland & from Cosby to I-40, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. 1. Elkmont vehicle bridge at Elkmont Campground, galvanized corrugated arch. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Elkmont vehicle bridge at Elkmont Campground, galvanized corrugated arch. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Little River at Elkmont Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. 2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. 1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion Great Smoky Mountains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. 7. Bridge over Happy Hollow Road on unopened section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Bridge over Happy Hollow Road on unopened section of Foothills Parkway looking ENE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Foothills Parkway, From Chilowee to Walland & from Cosby to I-40, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  17. 8. Underside of bridge over Happy Hollow Road showing concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Underside of bridge over Happy Hollow Road showing concrete piers looking SSW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Foothills Parkway, From Chilowee to Walland & from Cosby to I-40, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  18. A 3-D Model of Stacked Thrusts in the Sevier Thrust Belt, Eastern Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, R. W.; Clayton, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Using published and new geologic map data and two exploratory wells for control, we constructed a three-dimensional geological model of the Pine Creek area in the Big Hole Mountains of eastern Idaho, where stacked Sevier thrust sheets are exposed at the surface. In this area, Cretaceous crustal shortening displaced and folded strata from Cambrian to Cretaceous in age. Using geologic map data as a primary input to a 3-D model presents a number of challenges, especially representing fault geometries at depth and maintaining strata thicknesses. The highly variable attitudes measured at the surface are also difficult to represent in a subsurface model because they require extensive extrapolation to depth. To overcome these challenges we EarthVision software, which has tools for model construction with minimal data inputs and uses a minimum tension algorithm to create geologically realistic surfaces. We also constructed two primary cross-sections to constrain strata and fault geometries according to structural principles, and used these to guide construction of fault and horizon surfaces. We then designated horizons with the best control as reference horizons to constrain strata geometries, and built the remaining horizons using isochores to add or subtract from those surfaces. The model shows classic flat-ramp thrust geometries as seen farther southeast in the Wyoming section of the thrust belt. The model also shows uniform southwestward tilting of faults and strata in the north end above younger thrusts, but strong effects from a duplex on a younger thrust fault encountered in the southern well, which rotated the strata and older faults above it.

  19. Upper Oligocene evaporites in basin fill of Sevier Desert region, western Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, D.A.; Glanzman, R.K.; Naeser, C.W.; Nichols, D.J.

    1981-02-01

    The basin fill beneath the Sevier Desert of western Utah contains evaporites of late Oligocene age that were deposited in a broad closed basin. All of the basin fill penetrated by the Gulf Oil 1 Gronning (2458 m TD), one of only three deep holes in the basin, contains abundant volcanic detritus and its alteration products of Cenozoic age, when volcanism was intense in western Utah. Fission-track dating of tuffaceous sandstone, interbedded with evaporite minerals and representative of sandstone in the lower formations penetrated, yields ages of 26 to 28 m.y.; concordance of ages indicates no thermal resetting. Fossil pollen from mudstone in the evaporite-bearing strata includes forms no older than late Oligocene, in good agreement with the fission-track ages. Thus the age of the evaporites, and of all the basin fill penetrated by drilling, is late Oligocene and younger; previous work had assigned them ages ranging from Triassic to Eocene. Evaporite-bearing rocks were deposited during late Oligocene time in a broad closed basin under arid or semiarid conditions much like those of the Great Basin today. Anhydrite is present throughout approximately 900 m of volcaniclastic rocks in the lower part of the section cut by the Gulf hole, and more than 1500 m of anhydrite and halite is present in possibly equivalent strata in the nearby Argonaut dry hole. Fossil pollen from anhydrite-bearing rocks in the Gulf hole are indicative of an arid to semiarid flora, including plants similar to Mormon tea and possibly saltbush or buffalo berry. Evaporite minerals formed in the basin during dry periods; tuff was erupted from nearby volcanic centers, reworked by water, and deposited in the basin.

  20. 3. BIG HOUSE (left) AND CORN CRIB (right) IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BIG HOUSE (left) AND CORN CRIB (right) IN THE BACKGROUND. See also individual HABS documentation: Walker Family Farm, Big House (HABS No. TN-121 A), and Walker Family Farm, Corn Crib (HABS No. TN-121 C). - Walker Family Farm (General views), Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  1. Thrust controlled sedimentation patterns of the earliest Cretaceous nonmarine sequence of the Montana-Idaho-Wyoming Sevier foreland basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kvale, E.P.; Beck, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent research on the Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous nonmarine deposits of the central Rocky Mountain Foreland indicate that the sedimentary-tectonic model developed for Laramide intermontane basins is valid for the Sevier foreland basin as well. Episodes of thin-skinned thrusting and tectonic stacking caused asymmetric subsidence of the foreland and the localization of its structural axis adjacent to the fold-thrust belt. A regional thrust-ward-dipping paleoslope formed cratonward of the structural axis of the foreland basin during thrust events as a result of rapid subsidence of the foredeep. However, during periods of tectonic quiescence, rates of sedimentation within the foredeep exceeded rates of subsidence with the result being a reversal of the regional paleoslope. During thrusting, low gradient fluvial, paludal, and lacustrine depositional environments were localized adjacent to the thrust tips. Early Cretaceous movement of the Paris thrust is recorded by the occurrence of thick lacustrine deposits of the Peterson and younger Draney limestones within the foredeep in western Montana and along the Idaho-Wyoming border. Coeval with the lacustrine environments were two major west to northwest flowing fluvial systems now preserved within the Lower Cretaceous Cloverly Formation of north-central Wyoming. Those fluvial systems are represented by a major channel complex within the Little Sheep Mudstone and the Himes Member. Paleocurrent analysis and isopach data indicate the influence of incipient Laramide structures on sedimentation both within the Sevier foredeep (DeCelles, 1984) and the more distal margins of the foreland basin.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Strain in the Sevier Desert Region from a Decade of BARGEN Continuous GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, N. A.; Wernicke, B. P.

    2007-12-01

    A transect of four BARGEN GPS sites from 1997-2000 at latitude 39°N revealed a linear increase in velocity from 0 mm/yr on the Colorado Plateau to ~4 mm/yr in east-central Nevada. These geodetic data, when combined with paleoseismic and neotectonic observations, were used to argue for present-day strain accumulation on the Sevier Desert detachment, a seismically-imaged, low-angle (12°) normal fault that underlies a significant portion of west central Utah [Niemi et al., 2004]. A new GPS velocity solution [Davis et al., 2006], including 5 additional years of observations and a new GPS station in the eastern half of the transect, serves to both clarify and complicate our understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of strain in this region. Geodetic velocity gradients among the three original eastern sites (from east to west, CAST, SMEL, and FOOT), and including the new site, SPIC, located between CAST and SMEL, continue to suggest a linear strain gradient from the Colorado Plateau to westernmost Utah, on a transect spanning the Wasatch, Sevier Desert, and House Range normal faults. In contrast, the baseline between FOOT and EGAN, which underwent extension from 1997-2000, began to contract in 2000, as site EGAN slowed with respect to the Colorado Plateau. This deviation in velocity continued until 2003, when EGAN began moving westward, and has, as of 2006, returned to near its pre-2000 velocity with respect to the Colorado Plateau. The eastward excursion of GPS site EGAN is not unique, and similar excursions are observed in the time series of all BARGEN GPS sites that lie west of ~114.25°W over the time period 2000-2003 [Davis et al., 2006]. The origin of this velocity anomaly is uncertain, but the magnitude and spatial extent of the excursion, as well as the observation of a deep earthquake swarm (~30-40 km depth) coincident with dramatic motion of GPS site SLID, near Lake Tahoe, in 2003 [Smith et al., 2004] suggest a deep crustal or mantle influence on the observed GPS velocities. Bright, mid-crustal horizontal reflections observed in COCORP reflection seismic data west of 114°W have been postulated to represent a detachment that could accommodate shearing along the base of the crust in Nevada [Hauser et al., 1987], a hypothesis broadly consistent with the observed GPS velocities, with the crust shearing relatively east over the subcrustal lithosphere. A deep observatory in the Sevier Desert region, transecting the Sevier Desert detachment, would complement existing paleoseismic and neotectonic studies, and the decade of BARGEN continuous GPS observations, as well as new GPS data from 8 Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory sites installed along this transect in the past few years. Key questions that could be assessed with a deep observatory are how slip, and strain, at depth on an inclined fault are reflected in geodetic observations of strain at the surface; whether the state of stress and strain rate on the Sevier Desert detachment change through time, as suggested by long-term periodicity in strain release as recorded in the geologic record, and what effect long-lived velocity excursions, such as observed from 2000-2003, have on the regional stress state, perhaps leading to a clearer understanding of the source of these anomalies, and the aseismic tectonic behavior of the lithosphere.

  3. Hydrologic evaluation and water-supply considerations for five Paiute Indian land parcels, Millard, Sevier, and Iron counties, southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Don; Stephens, D.W.; Conroy, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrologic resources in and adjacent to five parcels of land held in trust for the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah were evaluated. The land, located in southwestern Utah, is generally arid and has had only limited use for grazing. The parcels are located near the towns of Cove Fort, Joseph, Koosharem, and Kanarraville. On the basis of available geohydrologic and hydrologic data, water of suitable quality is locally available in the areas of all parcels for domestic, stock, recreation, and limited irrigation use. Developing this water for use on the parcels would potentially involve obtaining water rights, drilling wells, and constructing diversion structures. Surface water apparently is the most favorable source of supply available for the Joseph parcel, and groundwater apparently is the most favorable source of supply available for the other parcels. (USGS)

  4. A Fold Province in the Hinterland of the Sevier Orogenic Belt in Eastern Nevada: A Valley and Ridge in the Basin and Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    The overprinting effects of Cenozoic extensional tectonism hinder analysis of the style, geometry, and timing of Cordilleran contractional deformation in the hinterland of the Sevier fold-thrust belt in Nevada. To address this problem, a 1:250,000-scale paleogeologic map of eastern Nevada, showing spatial distributions of Paleozoic-Mesozoic rocks exposed beneath a Paleogene unconformity, divided out at the formation scale, is integrated with maps of dip magnitude for Paleozoic-Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks, published sedimentary thickness records, and a published reconstruction of Basin and Range extension, in order to define and regionally-correlate thrust faults and folds, and estimate the pre-extensional amplitude, wavelength, and limb dips of folds. A new structural province, the Eastern Nevada fold belt (ENFB) is defined, and consists of a 100-150 km-wide region containing as many as five 1st-order, N-trending folds that can be traced for map distances between 100-250 km, have amplitudes between 2-4 km, wavelengths between 20-40 km, pre-extensional limb dips typically between 10-30˚, and deform rocks as young as Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. No regional-scale thrust faults or decollemont horizons breach modern exposure levels in the ENFB. ENFB folds are interpreted to have formed above a deep (≥10 km below the Paleogene unconformity), blind decollemont or shear zone, perhaps the westward projection of the master decollemont of the Sevier fold-thrust belt. Two additional structural provinces of the Sevier hinterland, the Central Nevada thrust belt (CNTB) and Western Utah thrust belt (WUTB), represent zones of N-striking, E-vergent thrust faults and folds that each accommodated ca. 10 km of shortening. Both thrust belts branch northward off of the Sevier thrust belt, and are interpreted to represent contemporary, interior components of the Sevier thrust system. The CNTB, WUTB, and the intervening ENFB collectively record low-magnitude (a few 10's of km) upper-crustal shortening that accompanied Cretaceous detachment and translation of the Cordilleran passive margin basin 220 km eastward during Sevier orogenesis. Low deformation magnitudes in the Sevier hinterland are attributed to the high rheological competence of this thick basin.

  5. Insertion site preference of Mu, Tn5, and Tn7 transposons

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transposons, segments of DNA that can mobilize to other locations in a genome, are often used for insertion mutagenesis or to generate priming sites for sequencing of large DNA molecules. For both of these uses, a transposon with minimal insertion bias is desired to allow complete coverage with minimal oversampling. Findings Three transposons, Mu, Tn5, and Tn7, were used to generate insertions in the same set of fosmids containing Candida glabrata genomic DNA. Tn7 demonstrates markedly less insertion bias than either Mu or Tn5, with both Mu and Tn5 biased toward sequences containing guanosine (G) and cytidine (C). This preference of Mu and Tn5 yields less uniform spacing of insertions than for Tn7, in the adenosine (A) and thymidine (T) rich genome of C. glabrata (39% GC). Conclusions In light of its more uniform distribution of insertions, Tn7 should be considered for applications in which insertion bias is deleterious. PMID:22313799

  6. Cretaceous to early Tertiary paleogeography in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt, east-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Vandervoort, D.S.; Schmitt, J.G. )

    1990-06-01

    The Cretaceous to early Tertiary hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt in east-central Nevada underwent two periods of sedimentary basin development. The older (Early Cretaceous) episode is characterized by basins that formed coeval with deformation within a belt of contractional structures. Basins were characterized by periods of through-flowing fluvial drainage. The younger (Late Cretaceous to Eocene) episode of basin development was characterized by internally drained alluvial basins that subsequently expanded into more regional lacustrine basins. Basal alluvial detritus indicates that basin inception occurred as a result of rapid development of topographic relief. Synsedimentary tectonism was characterized by horizontal extension due to attainment of equilibrium topography in response to crustal thickening.

  7. The Mormon Peak and Tule Springs Detachments of Southern Nevada and Their Role in Interpreting the Subsurface Structure of the Sevier Desert Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernicke, B.; Axen, G. J.

    2007-12-01

    The eastern Sevier front is commonly overprinted by west-dipping normal faults that have been active through much of Cenozoic time. Although examples of disparate age and geometry abound, the Sevier Desert detachment stands out as being: (1) a very large, low-angle structure, (2) probably still active, and (3) at drillable depth, and hence is a prime target for scientific drilling. Among the closest surface-exposed analogs of the detachment are the Miocene Mormon Peak and Tule Springs detachments in southern Nevada, about 250 km SSW of the Sevier Desert. In both areas, the detachments developed within a few km of the basal Sevier thrust. The few traces of the southern Nevada detachments that were identified by reconnaissance mapping in the 1950s were first interpreted as underlying "rootless" gravity-slide masses. Detailed stratigraphic and structural mapping in the 1980s revealed the full extent of these detachments and their close relationship to the basal Sevier thrust. Construction and retrodeformation of cross sections through the two detachments demonstrated that neither fault could represent the base of a surficial slide mass. The key field relationship is the structural contiguity of the hanging walls of the detachments with large mountain range blocks in their down-dip directions. "Rootless" gravity-driven masses of equivalent or larger scale are widely documented, and in contrast to the southern Nevada detachments show clear evidence along their down-dip portions of either riding over the earth's surface (e.g. Heart Mountain, WY; Shadow Valley, CA) or having been internally shortened (e.g. Bearpaw Mountains, MT; Louisiana shelf). A rootless slide origin for the Mormon Peak detachment has been revived based on meso- and microstructural analysis of the fault surface (refs. 1, 2, and 3), but the hypothesis still fails the retrodeformation test at macroscopic scale. The retrodefomed sections indicate that the footwalls of the southern Nevada detachments expose a paleodepth range from near-surface conditions to more than 7 km, which will be useful for comparison with microstructures that are encountered along the Sevier Desert detachment where it is sampled at depth. 1: Carpenter et al., 1989, Geology 17, p. 774; 2: Anders et al., 2006, J. Geol 114, p. 645; 3: Walker et al., 2007, Geology 35, p. 259.

  8. Syntectonic Fluid-Rock Interactions Involving Surficial Waters in the Sevier Thrust Belt, Tendoy Mountains, Southwest Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. C.; Anastasio, D. J.; Bebout, G. E.

    2002-05-01

    Calcite veins and Mississippian carbonates from the Sevier thrust front record syntectonic meteoric fluid infiltration and hydrocarbon migration. The Tendoy and Four Eyes Canyon thrust sheets were emplaced onto the western margin of the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway \\{WIS\\}. Low salinity \\{Tice = -0.6° C to +3.6° C\\} and low temperature \\{110° C +/- 10\\} fluids interacted with hanging-wall carbonates at a depth of 5km. Most veins have single or multiple generations of varying apertures, composed predominately of large euhedral crystals with some finer grained layers and protolith inclusions. Orientation analysis of mutually cross-cutting, high-angle vein sets suggest development concurrent with Four Eyes Canyon thrusting but prior to Tendoy thrusting. These vein sets are generally cut by later synfolding bed-parallel shear veins. Reactivation of both the bed-parallel and bed-perpendicular vein sets \\{strike parallel and strike perpendicular\\} in the Four Eyes Canyon thrust sheet occurred subsequent to Sevier compression, creating wide, coarse crystalline veins that often transect Sevier structures. Oxygen and Carbon isotope analyses of veins allow for reconstruction of fluid-rock interactions during thrust sheet emplacement and later reactivation. All veins and variably deformed host-rocks were microsampled and analyzed for δ 18OV-SMOW and δ 13CV-PDB. Small Tendoy veins \\{1mm-1cm wide\\} have calcite δ 18O values of +8.9 to +28.8‰ and calculated fluid \\{as H2O\\} of -8.3 to +11.6‰ \\{100° C\\}, -7.3 to +12.6‰ \\{110° C\\}, and -6.3 to +13.6‰ \\{120° C\\}. Four Eyes Canyon veins \\{1cm-3m wide\\} have calcite δ 18O values of +5.9 to +17.0‰ and calculated fluid of -11.3 to -0.2‰ \\{100° C\\}, -10.3 to +0.8‰ \\{110° C\\}, and -9.3 to +1.8‰ \\{120° C\\}. While there is significant variation in δ 18O there is relatively little systematic variation seen in δ 13C. Protolith carbonate has δ 18O values of +22.2‰ +/- 3.2; and some multi-layered veins are more depleted in δ 18O in earlier-formed generations. For three sites in the Lost River Range \\{LRR\\}, Idaho, the calculated minimum fluid δ 18O is -7.5‰ \\{+150 to +250° C\\} \\{Bebout et al., 2001; GRL\\}. Although the uncertainty of the regional temperature is large, when assuming a temperature of 110° C +/- 10 the Tendoy has a minimum calculated δ 18O H2O value of -8.3 to -6.3‰ and the Four Eyes Canyon has a minimum calculated δ 18O H2O value of -11.3 to -9.3‰ . These fluid O-isotope compositions are similar to the minimum H2O δ 18O calculated for the LRR sites - all pointing to infiltration of the thrust sheets by meteoric waters, possibly relatively nearshore meteoric waters with isotopic compositions strongly influenced by the nearby WIS. Surficial fluids possibly infiltrated into the thrust sheets by topographic recharge and migrated updip towards the foreland, mixing to varying degrees with more deeply roused fluids. Smaller veins and longer travel times and distances favored more extensive fluid-rock interaction and thus more rock-controlled fluid compositions. Microfractures in veins healed by hydrocarbons indicate that hydrocarbons migrated with freshwater fluids. Calcite veins record a dynamic history of fluid pathways and fluid flow as permeability evolved during thrust emplacement.

  9. Layer-parallel shortening across the Sevier fold-thrust belt and Laramide foreland of Wyoming: spatial and temporal evolution of a complex geodynamic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Arlo Brandon; Yonkee, W. Adolph

    2012-12-01

    Varying patterns of layer-parallel shortening (LPS) and vertical-axis rotations from the thin-skin Sevier fold-thrust belt to the thick-skin Laramide foreland of Wyoming are quantified from integrated structural, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), and paleomagnetic analyses. Within the Sevier belt, widespread early LPS was accommodated by spaced cleavage, fracture sets, minor folds, and minor faults. LPS directions are subperpendicular to structural trends of systematically curved thrust sheets of the Wyoming salient, reflecting a combination of primary dispersion and secondary rotation during thrusting. Within the Laramide foreland, limited LPS was accommodated mostly by minor faults with conjugate wedge and strike-slip geometries. LPS directions in gentler fold limbs vary from perpendicular to acute with structural trends of variably oriented, anastomosing basement-cored arches. Steep forelimbs display more complex relations, including younger fault sets that developed during evolving stress states and localized vertical-axis rotations. Although internal strain is limited, weak AMS lineations defined by kinked and rotated phyllosilicates are widely developed and consistently oriented perpendicular to measured LPS directions. Palinspastically restored LPS directions, corrected for paleomagnetically determined vertical-axis rotations, vary on average from W-E in the Sevier belt to WSW-ENE in the Laramide foreland. In detail, LPS directions display deflections related to primary sedimentary wedge geometry and basement fabrics. LPS in the Sevier belt is interpreted to partly reflect stress transmitted from the hinterland through the growing orogenic wedge and topographic stress along the front of the wedge. LPS in the Laramide foreland is interpreted to partly reflect basal traction during flat-slab subduction beneath thick cratonic lithosphere, with spatial-temporal variations in stress trajectories related to basement heterogeneities and evolving fault systems. Evidence for significant late N-S Laramide shortening, as proposed by multi-stage shortening models, is not observed.

  10. Transposon Tn916 mutagenesis in Clostridium botulinum.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, W J; Johnson, E A

    1991-01-01

    The study of toxinogenesis and other properties in Clostridium botulinum is limited by the absence of genetic methods that enable construction of defined mutants. In this study, tetracycline-resistant transposon Tn916 in Enterococcus faecalis was conjugatively transferred in filter matings to group I Clostridium botulinum strains Hall A and 113B. The Tn916 transfer frequencies to C. botulinum ranged from 10(-8) to 10(-5) Tcr transconjugant per recipient depending on the donor strain. Southern blot analyses of EcoRI or HindIII chromosomal digests extracted from randomly selected Tcr transconjugants showed that the transposon inserted at different sites in the recipient chromosome, and the copy number of Tn916 varied from one to three. Tn916 insertion gave several different auxotrophic mutants. This approach should be useful for the study of genes important in growth, survival, and toxinogenesis in C. botulinum. Images PMID:1660696

  11. 8. Photocopy of photograph (original print from ChattanoogaHamilton County Bicentennial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of photograph (original print from Chattanooga-Hamilton County Bicentennial Library). ca. 1933, photographer unknown VIEW OF STREETSCAPE LOOKING NORTH - Trigg, Dobbs & Company Warehouse, 1152 Market Street, Chattanooga, Hamilton County, TN

  12. Deformation characteristics of the Sheeprock and Canyon Range thrust sheets (Sevier orogenic belt) based on microstructural and strain studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, A.J.; Mitra, G. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    The condition of emplacement of internal thrust sheets in the Sevier fold-and-thrust belt can be characterized by detailed studies on deformation of quartzites within these sheets. The Sheeprock and Canyon Range thrust sheets in north-central Utah both carry Proterozoic Caddy Canyon and Mutual quartzites in their hanging walls. The Caddy Canyon is a medium to coarse-grained quartzite with subrounded grains and some grain-overgrowth. The Mutual is typically coarse-grained to pebbly, has subrounded to well rounded grains with overgrowths, and is characterized by clasts showing an older metamorphic (in some cases, mylonitic) fabric. In the Sheeprock sheet both quartzites show evidence for considerable crystal-plastic deformation, including deformation lamellae, undulose extinction, and development of subgrains; the Caddy Canyon also shows considerable pressure solution. Late stage cataclasis, characterized by the development of cemented cataclasites, is also evident. In the Canyon Range, both quartzites show less plastic deformation, although the Caddy Canyon shows large amounts of pressure solution. The late stage cataclasites are coherent but not cemented, and there is locally strong plastic deformation adjacent to the cataclasite zones. The microstructures suggest an overall shallower level of deformation for the Canyon Range sheet. Strains in the quartzites are quantified using the Fry technique, and the strains are partitioned into plastic and diffusional components using deformed rutile needles within quartz grains and pressure-solved grain shapes.

  13. Paleogeographic and paleotectonic setting of sedimentary basins in the Sevier thrust belt and hinterland, eastern Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J.G. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Vandervoort, D.S. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Suydam, J.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The eastern Great Basin contains a sparse record of broadly distributed Cretaceous sedimentary rocks which record: evolution of intermontane basins during development of the Sevier (Sv)contractional orogen and incipient extensional collapse of the elevated Sv hinterland (east-central NV), and complex tectono-sedimentary interactions between frontal thrust belt structures and the western margin of the adjacent foreland basin. Palinspastic restoration of these strata and associated structures to pre-Tertiary extension positions reveals a clearer pictures of Cretaceous basin paleogeography and allows comparison with the Puna/Altiplano plateau and precordillera thrust belt of the Neogene Andean orogen. Two syntectonic stratal assemblages are present in east-central NV. Lower Cretaceous alluvial strata (Newark Canyon Fm) record basin development coeval with emergence of contractional structures in the Sv hinterland. Localized early Cretaceous basins were possibly piggyback immature; periods of open drainage to the to the east and south suggest connection with the nascent Sv foreland basin to the east (Cedar Mountain/Sanpete Fms) prior to major thrust loading in central Utah. Development of hinterland structures is almost recorded by Aptian-Albian foreland basin alluvial deposits in SW Utah (Dakota Fm) and southern Nevada (Willow Tank Fm). Upper Cretaceous to Eocene strata (Sheep Pass Fm) record inception of regionally abundant alluvial-lacustrine basins which developed in response to onset of latest Cretaceous extension and associated collapse of the Sv hinterland. Evolution of the structurally complex western margin of the Sv foreland basin is recorded in Cretaceous through Eocene strata deposited in: piggyback basins which were at times hydrologically connected to the adjacent foreland basins, and thrust-proximal portions of the foreland basin. These proximal areas are characterized by folding and faulting of basin fill and development of intrabasinal unconformities.

  14. 76 FR 20433 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00048

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00048 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is a an amendment of the Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Tennessee... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  15. 78 FR 48762 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00076

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00076 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Tennessee dated 08/02... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  16. 77 FR 51100 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00068

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00068 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of TENNESSEE dated. 08/16... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  17. 76 FR 29284 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00055

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00055 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street,...

  18. 76 FR 29286 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00054

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00054 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite...

  19. 76 FR 19515 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00050

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite...

  20. 75 FR 26814 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Tennessee (FEMA- 1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding,...

  1. 77 FR 17560 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00063

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00063 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-4060... (Economic Injury Loans Only): Tennessee: Bledsoe, Blount, Campbell, Cannon, Clay, Fentress,...

  2. 76 FR 27138 - Tennessee Disaster # TN-00052

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Tennessee (FEMA- 1974-DR), dated 05/01/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes,...

  3. 76 FR 52043 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00056

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00056 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Tennessee dated 08/12...: Tennessee: Campbell, Grainger, Hancock, Union. Kentucky: Bell, Whitley. Virginia: Lee. The Interest...

  4. 76 FR 45309 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00058

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00058 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Tennessee (FEMA- 4005-DR), dated 07/20/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Straight-line...

  5. 75 FR 57997 - Tennessee Disaster # TN-00043

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00043 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Tennessee (FEMA- 1937-DR), dated 09/15/2010. Incident: Severe Storms and Flooding....

  6. [Construction of cTnC-linker-TnI (P) Genes, Expression of Fusion Protein and Preparation of Lyophilized Protein].

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiaoyun; Cai, Lei; Wu, Jianwei; Wang, Jihua

    2015-12-01

    In order to construct and express human cardiac troponin C-linker-troponin I(P) [ cTnC-linker-TnI(P)] fusion protein, detect its activity and prepare lyophilized protein, we searched the CDs of human cTnC and cTnI from GenBank, synthesized cTnC and cTnI(30-110aa) into cloning vector by a short DNA sequence coding for 15 neutral amino acid residues. pCold I-cTnC-linker-TnI(P) was constructed and transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3). Then, cTnC-linker-TnI(P) fusion protein was induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Soluable expression of cTnC-linker-TnI(P) in prokaryotic system was successfully obtained. The fusion protein was purified by Ni²⁺ Sepharose 6 Fast Flow affinity chromatography with over 95% purity and prepared into lyophilized protein. The activity of purified cTnC-linker-TnI(P) and its lyophilized protein were detected by Wondfo Finecare™ cTnI Test. Lyophilized protein of cTnC-linker-TnI(P) was stable for 10 or more days at 37 °C and 4 or more months at 25 °C and 4 °C. The expression system established in this research is feasible and efficient. Lyophilized protein is stable enough to be provided as biological raw materials for further research. PMID:27079099

  7. Structural relationships and lithologic deformation partitioning of the Sevier, Laramide, Mid-Tertiary and Basin and Range deformations in the High Plateaus of southwestern Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelsen, R.P. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    A Mid-Tertiary horizontal compression, verging radially toward Az 120 to 215 and extending E-W for 90 km across the High Plateaus of SW Utah, was driven by intrusions and/or gravitational spreading of the Marysvale volcanic field, 40-60 km to the north. Structures of this deformation overprint a NNW trending Laramide monocline on the east, and are overprinted by NNE trending Basin and Range extensional structures. To the west at the Sevier deformation front, Mid-Tertiary compressional structures are directed Az 205, but no Sevier foreland deformation was found. Small scale structures of the Laramide, Mid-Tertiary, and Basin and Range deformations are partitioned lithologically in four rock types of different properties: (1) Friable Cretaceous sands contain Laramide and Mid-Tertiary conjugate compressional sand shear wedges or Laramide and Basin and Range conjugate, extensional sand shears; (2) Calcareous Cretaceous sandstones or Eocene Claron Fm limestones contain both conjugate compressional wedge faults and strike-slip faults; (3) spaced dissolution cleavage occurs only in Claron limestones; (4) cretaceous coals contain Mid-Tertiary joints (cleat) at distal locations. A Mid-Tertiary layer-parallel strain gradient toward the SE-S-SSW is marked by deformation fronts in the four rock types where conjugate faults, spaced cleavage, sand shears and joints in coal successively disappear.

  8. An Early Cretaceous garnet pressure-temperature path recording synconvergent burial and exhumation from the hinterland of the Sevier orogenic belt, Albion Mountains, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Eric D.; Hoisch, Thomas D.; Wells, Michael L.; Vervoort, Jeffrey D.; Beyene, Mengesha A.

    2015-08-01

    Rocks may undergo complex pressure-temperature ( P- T) histories during orogenesis in response to alternating episodes of synconvergent burial and exhumation. In this study, chemical zoning in garnets combined with textural and chemical evidence from the schist of Willow Creek in the Albion Mountains of south-central Idaho (USA), reveals a complex P- T path during the early stages of Sevier orogenesis. The distribution of quartz inclusions combined with internal resorption features establishes a hiatus in garnet growth. Chemical zoning was simulated using a G-minimization approach to yield a P- T path consisting of three distinct pressure changes during increasing temperature, defining an "N" shape. Lu-Hf isochron ages from multiple garnet fractions and whole-rock analyses in two samples are 132.1 ± 2.4 and 138.7 ± 3.5 Ma. The samples were collected from the hanging wall of the Basin-Elba thrust fault and yielded results similar to those previously obtained from the footwall. This leads to several conclusions: (1) Both the hanging wall and footwall experienced the same metamorphic event, (2) the paths document a previously unrecognized crustal thickening and synorogenic extension cycle that fills an important time gap in the shortening history of the Sevier retroarc, suggesting progressive eastward growth of the orogen rather than a two-stage history, and (3) episodes of extensional exhumation during protracted convergent orogenesis are increasingly well recognized and highlight the dynamic behavior of orogenic belts.

  9. Functional Divergence in Teleost Cardiac Troponin Paralogs Guides Variation in the Interaction of TnI Switch Region with TnC.

    PubMed

    Genge, Christine E; Stevens, Charles M; Davidson, William S; Singh, Gurpreet; Peter Tieleman, D; Tibbits, Glen F

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication results in extra copies of genes that must coevolve with their interacting partners in multimeric protein complexes. The cardiac troponin (Tn) complex, containing TnC, TnI, and TnT, forms a distinct functional unit critical for the regulation of cardiac muscle contraction. In teleost fish, the function of the Tn complex is modified by the consequences of differential expression of paralogs in response to environmental thermal challenges. In this article, we focus on the interaction between TnI and TnC, coded for by genes that have independent evolutionary origins, but the co-operation of their protein products has necessitated coevolution. In this study, we characterize functional divergence of TnC and TnI paralogs, specifically the interrelated roles of regulatory subfunctionalization and structural subfunctionalization. We determined that differential paralog transcript expression in response to temperature acclimation results in three combinations of TnC and TnI in the zebrafish heart: TnC1a/TnI1.1, TnC1b/TnI1.1, and TnC1a/TnI1.5. Phylogenetic analysis of these highly conserved proteins identified functionally divergent residues in TnI and TnC. The structural and functional effect of these Tn combinations was modeled with molecular dynamics simulation to link divergent sites to changes in interaction strength. Functional divergence in TnI and TnC were not limited to the residues involved with TnC/TnI switch interaction, which emphasizes the complex nature of Tn function. Patterns in domain-specific divergent selection and interaction energies suggest that substitutions in the TnI switch region are crucial to modifying TnI/TnC function to maintain cardiac contraction with temperature changes. This integrative approach introduces Tn as a model of functional divergence that guides the coevolution of interacting proteins. PMID:26979795

  10. Functional Divergence in Teleost Cardiac Troponin Paralogs Guides Variation in the Interaction of TnI Switch Region with TnC

    PubMed Central

    Genge, Christine E.; Stevens, Charles M.; Davidson, William S.; Singh, Gurpreet; Peter Tieleman, D.; Tibbits, Glen F.

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication results in extra copies of genes that must coevolve with their interacting partners in multimeric protein complexes. The cardiac troponin (Tn) complex, containing TnC, TnI, and TnT, forms a distinct functional unit critical for the regulation of cardiac muscle contraction. In teleost fish, the function of the Tn complex is modified by the consequences of differential expression of paralogs in response to environmental thermal challenges. In this article, we focus on the interaction between TnI and TnC, coded for by genes that have independent evolutionary origins, but the co-operation of their protein products has necessitated coevolution. In this study, we characterize functional divergence of TnC and TnI paralogs, specifically the interrelated roles of regulatory subfunctionalization and structural subfunctionalization. We determined that differential paralog transcript expression in response to temperature acclimation results in three combinations of TnC and TnI in the zebrafish heart: TnC1a/TnI1.1, TnC1b/TnI1.1, and TnC1a/TnI1.5. Phylogenetic analysis of these highly conserved proteins identified functionally divergent residues in TnI and TnC. The structural and functional effect of these Tn combinations was modeled with molecular dynamics simulation to link divergent sites to changes in interaction strength. Functional divergence in TnI and TnC were not limited to the residues involved with TnC/TnI switch interaction, which emphasizes the complex nature of Tn function. Patterns in domain-specific divergent selection and interaction energies suggest that substitutions in the TnI switch region are crucial to modifying TnI/TnC function to maintain cardiac contraction with temperature changes. This integrative approach introduces Tn as a model of functional divergence that guides the coevolution of interacting proteins. PMID:26979795

  11. Licensing the TN-40 at Prairie Island

    SciTech Connect

    Kapitz, J.; McCarten, L. )

    1991-11-01

    Northern States Power Company (SNP) is currently in the process of licensing an independent spent-fuel storage installation (ISFSI) at its Prairie Island nuclear generating plant. The proposed facility would utilize the TN-40 dry-metal storage casks, each holding 40 Prairie Island spent-fuel assemblies. The ISFSI consists of two concrete pads with a combined capacity of 48 casks for a total capacity of 1,920 fuel assemblies. In addition to a 10CRF72 license from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), a certificate of need from the Minnesota Public Utilities Commission is required by state law.

  12. Challenges in Antibody Development against Tn and Sialyl-Tn Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Liliana R.; Carrascal, Mylène A.; Barbas, Ana; Ramalho, José S.; Novo, Carlos; Delannoy, Philippe; Videira, Paula A.

    2015-01-01

    The carbohydrate antigens Tn and sialyl-Tn (STn) are expressed in most carcinomas and usually absent in healthy tissues. These antigens have been correlated with cancer progression and poor prognosis, and associated with immunosuppressive microenvironment. Presently they are used in clinical trials as therapeutic vaccination, but with limited success due to their low immunogenicity. Alternatively, anti-Tn and/or STn antibodies may be used to harness the immune system against tumor cells. Whilst the development of antibodies against these antigens had a boost two decades ago for diagnostic use, so far no such antibody entered into clinical trials. Possible limitations are the low specificity and efficiency of existing antibodies and that novel antibodies are still necessary. The vast array of methodologies available today will allow rapid antibody development and novel formats. Following the advent of hybridoma technology, the immortalization of human B cells became a methodology to obtain human monoclonal antibodies with better specificity. Advances in molecular biology including phage display technology for high throughput screening, transgenic mice and more recently molecularly engineered antibodies enhanced the field of antibody production. The development of novel antibodies against Tn and STn taking advantage of innovative technologies and engineering techniques may result in innovative therapeutic antibodies for cancer treatment. PMID:26270678

  13. Challenges in Antibody Development against Tn and Sialyl-Tn Antigens.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Liliana R; Carrascal, Mylène A; Barbas, Ana; Ramalho, José S; Novo, Carlos; Delannoy, Philippe; Videira, Paula A

    2015-01-01

    The carbohydrate antigens Tn and sialyl-Tn (STn) are expressed in most carcinomas and usually absent in healthy tissues. These antigens have been correlated with cancer progression and poor prognosis, and associated with immunosuppressive microenvironment. Presently they are used in clinical trials as therapeutic vaccination, but with limited success due to their low immunogenicity. Alternatively, anti-Tn and/or STn antibodies may be used to harness the immune system against tumor cells. Whilst the development of antibodies against these antigens had a boost two decades ago for diagnostic use, so far no such antibody entered into clinical trials. Possible limitations are the low specificity and efficiency of existing antibodies and that novel antibodies are still necessary. The vast array of methodologies available today will allow rapid antibody development and novel formats. Following the advent of hybridoma technology, the immortalization of human B cells became a methodology to obtain human monoclonal antibodies with better specificity. Advances in molecular biology including phage display technology for high throughput screening, transgenic mice and more recently molecularly engineered antibodies enhanced the field of antibody production. The development of novel antibodies against Tn and STn taking advantage of innovative technologies and engineering techniques may result in innovative therapeutic antibodies for cancer treatment. PMID:26270678

  14. 48 CFR 1201.301-72 - TAC or TN numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TAC or TN numbering. 1201... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-72 TAC or TN numbering. TACs and TNs will be numbered consecutively on a fiscal year basis beginning with number 01...

  15. 76 FR 55232 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Copperhill, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Airspace at Copperhill, TN, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... the controlled airspace required to ] accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning... Class E airspace at Copperhill, TN (76 FR 35370) Docket No. FAA-2011-0402. Interested parties...

  16. 48 CFR 1201.301-72 - TAC or TN numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false TAC or TN numbering. 1201... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-72 TAC or TN numbering. TACs and TNs will be numbered consecutively on a fiscal year basis beginning with number 01...

  17. The Role of Sialyl-Tn in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Munkley, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Activation of an aberrant glycosylation pathway in cancer cells can lead to expression of the onco-foetal sialyl-Tn (sTn) antigen. STn is a truncated O-glycan containing a sialic acid α-2,6 linked to GalNAc α-O-Ser/Thr and is associated with an adverse outcome and poor prognosis in cancer patients. The biosynthesis of the sTn antigen has been linked to the expression of the sialytransferase ST6GalNAc1, and also to mutations in and loss of heterozygosity of the COSMC gene. sTn neo- or over-expression occurs in many types of epithelial cancer including gastric, colon, breast, lung, oesophageal, prostate and endometrial cancer. sTn is believed to be carried by a variety of glycoproteins and may influence protein function and be involved in tumour development. This review discusses how the role of sTn in cancer development and tumour cell invasiveness might be organ specific and occur through different mechanisms depending on each cancer type or subtype. As the sTn-antigen is expressed early in carcinogenesis targeting sTn in cancer may enable the targeting of tumours from the earliest stage. PMID:26927062

  18. 14. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Place of a thousand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Place of a thousand drips, view with three culvert pipes. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  19. Tn2001, a transposon encoding chloramphenicol resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Iyobe, S; Sagai, H; Mitsuhashi, S

    1981-01-01

    We isolated a new transposon, Tn2001, from the group P-2 plasmid Rms159-1 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Tn2001-encoded chloramphenicol resistance did not result from the formation of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. Tn2001 was transposable between temperate phages and conjugative and nonconjugative plasmids belonging to various incompatibility groups, including P-1, P-3, P-4, P-5, P-7, and P-8 in P. aeruginosa. Transposition occurred independently of the general recombination ability of the Pseudomonas host, and its frequency varied between 10(-1) and 10(-8), depending upon the donor and recipient replicons. Tn2001 transposition also occurred in a recombination-deficient strain of Escherichia coli. Agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopic observations revealed that Tn2001 could transpose to different sites in the RP4 replicon and that the transposed deoxyribonucleic acid fragment was 2.1 kilobases long. Images PMID:6260739

  20. Combining paleomagnetism and structural geology to better understand complex orogenic systems: development of a robust kinematic model for Sevier fold-thrust belt and Laramide foreland of Wyoming, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Arlo; Yonkee, Adolph

    2013-04-01

    Varying patterns of layer-parallel shortening (LPS) and vertical-axis rotations from the thin-skin Sevier fold-thrust belt to the thick-skin Laramide foreland of Wyoming are quantified from integrated structural, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), and paleomagnetic analyses. Within the Sevier belt, widespread early LPS was accommodated by spaced cleavage, fracture sets, minor folds, and minor faults. LPS directions are subperpendicular to structural trends of systematically curved thrust sheets of the Wyoming salient, reflecting a combination of primary dispersion and secondary rotation during thrusting. Within the Laramide foreland, limited LPS was accommodated mostly by minor faults with conjugate wedge and strike-slip geometries. LPS directions in gentler fold limbs vary from perpendicular to acute with structural trends of variably oriented, anastomosing basement-cored arches. Steep forelimbs display more complex relations, including younger fault sets that developed during evolving stress states and localized vertical-axis rotations. Although internal strain is limited, weak AMS lineations defined by kinked and rotated phyllosilicates are widely developed and consistently oriented perpendicular to measured LPS directions. Palinspastically restored LPS directions, corrected for paleomagnetically determined vertical-axis rotations, vary on average from W-E in the Sevier belt to WSW-ENE in the Laramide foreland. In detail, LPS directions display deflections related to primary sedimentary wedge geometry and basement fabrics. LPS in the Sevier belt is interpreted to partly reflect stress transmitted from the hinterland through the growing orogenic wedge and topographic stress along the front of the wedge. LPS in the Laramide foreland is interpreted to partly reflect basal traction during flat-slab subduction beneath thick cratonic lithosphere, with spatial-temporal variations in stress trajectories related to basement heterogeneities and evolving fault systems. Evidence for significant late N-S Laramide shortening, as proposed by multi-stage shortening models, is not observed.

  1. From Source to Sink: Exhumation of the North America Cordillera Revealed by Multi-dating of Detrital Minerals from Upper Jurassic-Upper Cretaceous Sevier Foreland Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, C. S.; Carrapa, B.; DeCelles, P. G.; Gehrels, G. E.; Thomson, S. N.

    2013-12-01

    We sampled twenty-two Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous syn-orogenic conglomerate clasts in proximal units in the Sevier fold-thrust belt and their distal sandstone equivalents up to 300 km east of the thrust front, in Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and South Dakota. To better constrain depositional ages, these samples were analyzed using detrital zircon U-Pb (DZ U-Pb) geochronology. To identify a thermochronometer that measures source exhumation in the North America Cordillera, both zircon (U-Th)/He and apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology was utilized, on both the conglomerate cobbles and sandstone (detrital) samples. Eleven samples were analyzed with zircon (U-Th)/He; however, discordant ages in the conglomerate cobble samples suggest that this system was not fully reset and never experienced T> ~180 °C in the source stratigraphy during the Sevier orogeny. Eleven other samples are analyzed using apatite fission track thermochronology (AFT); AFT ages are generally similar or older than depositional ages indicating that the detrital ages record source exhumation signals, and that exhumation depth corresponds to T>~120 °C. In order to test whether or not the youngest cooling AFT age population represents a source exhumation signal or a co-magmatic signal we here performed double dating of the detrital AFT samples using apatite U-Pb thermochronology. Maximum depositional ages using DZ U-Pb match existing age controls on basin stratigraphy. Our study shows that AFT is an effective thermochronometer to detect source exhumation for Cretaceous foreland stratigraphy in the western U.S.A. Lag-times (i.e. the difference between the source exhumation age and depositional age) are ~0 to 5 Myr with relatively steady-state to slightly increasing exhumation rates suggesting orogenic growth at this time. The very short lag times also indicate limited to no storage time between source and sink. The AFT lag time of the Early Cretaceous Kelvin Formation is ~5 Myr and represents a time when the Canyon Range Thrust was active to the southwest. Upper Cretaceous units have an approximate lag time of 0 Myr, during a time when the Willard, Crawford, Medicine Butte and Absaroka Thrust systems were active to the west. These lag-time measurements correspond to exhumation rates of ~0.8 mm/yr to >>1 mm/yr.

  2. The catalytic residues of Tn3 resolvase

    PubMed Central

    Olorunniji, Femi J.; Stark, W. Marshall

    2009-01-01

    To characterize the residues that participate in the catalysis of DNA cleavage and rejoining by the site-specific recombinase Tn3 resolvase, we mutated conserved polar or charged residues in the catalytic domain of an activated resolvase variant. We analysed the effects of mutations at 14 residues on proficiency in binding to the recombination site (‘site I’), formation of a synaptic complex between two site Is, DNA cleavage and recombination. Mutations of Y6, R8, S10, D36, R68 and R71 resulted in greatly reduced cleavage and recombination activity, suggesting crucial roles of these six residues in catalysis, whereas mutations of the other residues had less dramatic effects. No mutations strongly inhibited binding of resolvase to site I, but several caused conspicuous changes in the yield or stability of the synapse of two site Is observed by non-denaturing gel electrophoresis. The involvement of some residues in both synapsis and catalysis suggests that they contribute to a regulatory mechanism, in which engagement of catalytic residues with the substrate is coupled to correct assembly of the synapse. PMID:19789272

  3. 77 FR 61653 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Smyrna-Rutherford County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... Smyrna-Rutherford County Airport, Smyrna, TN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... the release of land at the Smyrna-Rutherford County Airport, Smyrna, Tennessee. This property... review at the Smyrna--Rutherford County Airport, 278 Doug Warpoole Road, Smyrna, Tennessee 37167 and...

  4. Tn7 elements: Engendering diversity from chromosomes to episomes

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Adam R.; Peters, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial transposon Tn7 maintains two distinct lifestyles, one in horizontally transferred DNA and the other in bacterial chromosomes. Access to these two DNA pools is mediated by two separate target selection pathways. The proteins involved in these pathways have evolved to specifically activate transposition into their cognate target-sites using entirely different recognition mechanisms, but the same core transposition machinery. In this review we discuss how the molecular mechanisms of Tn7-like elements contribute to their diversification and how they affect the evolution of their host genomes. The analysis of over 50 Tn7-like elements provides insight into the evolution of Tn7 and Tn7 relatives. In addition to the genes required for transposition, Tn7-like elements transport a wide variety of genes that contribute to the success of diverse organisms. We propose that by decisively moving between mobile and stationary DNA pools, Tn7-like elements accumulate a broad range of genetic material, providing a selective advantage for diverse host bacteria. PMID:18951916

  5. Deformation along a salient-transverse zone junction: An example from the Leamington transverse zone, Utah, Sevier fold-thrust belt (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismat, Zeshan; Toeneboehn, Kevin

    2015-06-01

    Within fold-thrust belts, the junctions between salients and recesses may hold critical clues to the overall kinematic history of fold-thrust belts. The deformation history within these junctions is best preserved in areas where thrust sheets extend from a salient through an adjacent recess. We examine one such junction within the Sevier fold-thrust belt (western United States) along the Leamington transverse zone, northern Utah. The Canyon Range thrust sheet can be traced continuously from the Leamington transverse zone to its adjacent salient to the south, the Central Utah segment. Deformation within the Canyon Range thrust sheet took place by faulting and cataclastic flow. Analyses of these fault networks preserved throughout the Canyon Range thrust sheet are used to develop a kinematic history of the Leamington transverse zone. Field data is supplemented by analog sandbox experiments. This study suggests that, in detail, deformation within the overlying thrust sheet may not directly reflect the underlying basement structure. Moreover, these junctions may contain several types of accommodating structures that helped to maintain critical-taper and that serve as potential targets for natural resource exploration.

  6. Molecular Determinants of Cardiac Myocyte Performance as Conferred by Isoform-Specific TnI Residues

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, BrianR.; Houang, EvelyneM.; Sham, YukY.; Metzger, JosephM.

    2014-01-01

    Troponin I (TnI) is the molecular switch of the sarcomere. Cardiac myocytes express two isoforms of TnI during development. The fetal heart expresses the slow skeletal TnI (ssTnI) isoform and shortly after birth ssTnI is completely and irreversibly replaced by the adult cardiac TnI (cTnI) isoform. These two isoforms have important functional differences; broadly, ssTnI is a positive inotrope, especially under acidic/hypoxic conditions, whereas cTnI facilitates faster relaxation performance. Evolutionary directed changes in cTnI sequence suggest cTnI evolved to favor relaxation performance in the mammalian heart. To investigate the mechanism, we focused on several notable TnI isoform and trans-species-specific residues located in TnIs helix 4 using structure/function and molecular dynamics analyses. Gene transduction of adult cardiac myocytes by cTnIs with specific helix 4 ssTnI substitutions, Q157R/A164H/E166V/H173N (QAEH), and A164H/H173N (AH), were investigated. cTnI QAEH is similar in these four residues to ssTnI and nonmammalian chordate cTnIs, whereas cTnI AH is similar to fish cTnI in these four residues. In comparison to mammalian cTnI, cTnI QAEH and cTnI AH showed increased contractility and slowed relaxation, which functionally mimicked ssTnI expressing myocytes. cTnI QAEH molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated altered intermolecular interactions between TnI helix 4 and cTnC helix A, specifically revealing a new, to our knowledge, electrostatic interaction between R171of cTnI and E15 of cTnC, which structurally phenocopied the ssTnI conformation. Free energy perturbation calculation of cTnC Ca2+ binding for these conformations showed relative increased calcium binding for cTnI QAEH compared to cTnI. Taken together, to our knowledge, these new findings provide evidence that the evolutionary-directed coordinated acquisition of residues Q157, A164, E166, H173 facilitate enhanced relaxation performance in mammalian adult cardiac myocytes. PMID:24853739

  7. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in southwestern Arkansas counties, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Offices in the following southwestern Arkansas counties: Bradley, Calhoun, Clark, Cleveland, Columbia, Dallas, Garland, Grant, Hempstead, Hot Spring, Howard, Little River, Montgomery, Nevada, Ouachita, Pike, Polk, Saline, Sevier, and Union. The number of withdrawal registrations for southwestern Arkansas counties was 132 (31 groundwater and 101 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 0.84 Mgal/d (none from groundwater and 0.84 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 14.22 Mgal/d (1.64 Mgal/d groundwater and 12.58 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 8,455 acres of land to irrigate rice, corn, sorghum, soybeans, cotton, cash grains, vegetables, sod, berries, fruit trees, timber, shrubs, and nuts as well as for the agricultural use of animal aquaculture.

  8. 76 FR 14855 - Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Kevin R....

  9. Polarity of mutations induced by insertion of transposons Tn5, Tn7 and Tn10 into the nif gene cluster of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Merrick, M; Filser, M; Kennedy, C; Dixon, R

    1978-09-20

    Three new genes nifM, nifI and nifN have been mapped in the nif gene cluster of Klebsiella pneumoniae and a fourth gene nifJ has been confirmed as being a separate cistron. Polar nif mutations were obtained by transposition of Tn7 to plasmid pRD1, and of Tn5 and Tn10 to plasmid pMF100, a derivative of pRD1. Complementation analysis of the nif::Tn mutants led to the identification of at least six transcriptional units: nifB; nifA; nifJ; nifH, nifD and nifK; nifE and nifI; nifN, nifM and nifF. Biochemical and genetic evidence suggest that the three genes nifH, nifD and nifK, which are probably the structural genes for nitrogenase, belong to the same operon and are transcribed from nifH to nifK. A polypeptide with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 is presumed to be the nifJ product. PMID:362160

  10. Geologic Map of the Pahranagat Range 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Lincoln and Nye Counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Pahranagat Range 30' x 60' quadrangle lies within an arid, sparsely populated part of Lincoln and Nye Counties, southeastern Nevada. Much of the area is public land that includes the Desert National Wildlife Range, the Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and the Nellis Air Force Base. The topography, typical of much of the Basin and Range Province, consists of north-south-trending ranges and intervening broad alluvial valleys. Elevations range from about 1,000 to 2,900 m. At the regional scale, the Pahranagat Range quadrangle lies within the Mesozoic and early Tertiary Sevier Fold-and-Thrust Belt and the Cenozoic Basin and Range Province. The quadrangle is underlain by a Proterozoic to Permian miogeoclinal section, a nonmarine clastic and volcanic section of middle Oligocene or older to late Miocene age, and alluvial deposits of late Cenozoic age. The structural features that are exposed reflect relatively shallow crustal deformation. Mesozoic deformation is dominated by thrust faults and asymmetric or open folds. Cenozoic deformation is dominated by faults that dip more than 45i and dominostyle tilted blocks. At least three major tectonic events have affected the area: Mesozoic (Sevier) folding and thrust faulting, pre-middle Oligocene extensional deformation, and late Cenozoic (mainly late Miocene to Holocene) extensional deformation. Continued tectonic activity is expressed in the Pahranagat Range area by seismicity and faults having scarps that cut alluvial deposits.

  11. Transposon mutagenesis in Desulfovibrio desulfuricans: Development of a random mutagenesis tool from Tn7

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, J.D.; Murnan, T.; Argyle, J.

    1996-10-01

    The transposons Tn5, Tn7, Tn9, and Tn10 or their derivatives have been examined for transposition in the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20. Tn7 inserted with a frequency of 10{sup {minus}4} to 10{sup {minus}3} into a unique attachment site that shows strong homology with those sites identified in other gram-negative bacteria. Inactivation of the tnsD gene in Tn7, encoding the function directing insertion into the unique site, yielded a derivative that transposed essentially randomly with a frequency of ca. 10{sup {minus}6} per donor. Derivatives of Tn5, but not wild-type Tn5, were also found to undergo random transposition at a similar frequency. No evidence was obtained for transposition of Tn9 or Tn10. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Creation of Staphylococcal Mutant Libraries Using Transposon Tn917.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kelly C

    2016-01-01

    Non-directed mutagenesis of the staphylococcal genome is a global approach that can be used to identify the genetic basis for phenotypes of interest as well as for identifying regulators of gene expression. One such approach that has been widely used in the study of S. aureus and S. epidermidis is transposon Tn917 mutagenesis to generate random libraries of mutants. This chapter describes the use of plasmid pLTV1 (containing Tn917-lac) to generate Tn917 transposon mutants. Through the use of temperature manipulation and antibiotic selection, staphylococcal strains harboring this plasmid can be effectively mutagenized to create random libraries amenable to subsequent phenotypic screening and identification of transposon insertion sites. PMID:25646610

  13. The Lower Sevier River Basin Crop Monitor and Forecast Decision Support System: Exploiting Landsat Imagery to Provide Continuous Information to Farmers and Water Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Rua, A. F.; Walker, W. R.; McKee, M.

    2013-12-01

    The last century has seen a large number of innovations in agriculture such as better policies for water control and management, upgraded water conveyance, irrigation, distribution, and monitoring systems, and better weather forecasting products. In spite of this, irrigation management and irrigation water deliveries by farmers/water managers is still based on factors like water share amounts, tradition, and past experience on irrigation. These factors are not necessarily related to the actual crop water use; they are followed because of the absence of related information provided in a timely manner at an affordable cost. Thus, it is necessary to develop means to deliver continuous and personalized information about crop water requirements to water users/managers at the field and irrigation system levels so managers at these levels can better quantify the required versus available water for irrigation during the irrigation season. This study presents a new decision support system (DSS) platform that addresses the absence of information on actual crop water requirements and crop performance by providing continuous updated farm-based crop water use along with other farm performance indicators such as crop yield and farm management to irrigators and water managers. This DSS exploits the periodicity of the Landsat Satellite Mission (8 to 16 days, depending on the period of interest) to provide remote monitoring at the individual field and irrigation system levels. The Landsat satellite images are converted into information about crop water use, yield performance and field management through application of state-of-the-art semi-physical and statistical algorithms that provide this information at a pixel basis that are ultimately aggregated to field and irrigation system levels. A version of the DSS has been implemented for the agricultural lands in the Lower Sevier River, Utah, and has been operational since the beginning of the 2013 irrigation season. The main goal of this DSS implementation is to provide continuous and personalized information to farmers and water managers regarding crops in fields and the irrigation delivery system throughout the irrigation season so that decisions related to agricultural water use can result in water savings while not diminishing crop yields.

  14. Demonstration of criticality safety for the modified TN-REG and TN-BRP transport/storage casks

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; Fox, P.B. )

    1989-01-01

    An inability to model the structural performance of borated steel baskets under accident conditions forced the specially designed TN-BRP and TN-REG casks to be modified for half-loaded shipments. This paper discusses the approach used to demonstrate that the half-loaded casks would remain safely subcritical even if no credit were taken for the borated basket. Normal and accident configurations were analyzed with the KENO V.a code. The strategy conceived and the analyses performed to demonstrate an acceptable margin of safety are discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. 77 FR 28246 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tullahoma, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... amend Class E airspace at Tullahoma, TN (77 FR 12759). Interested parties were invited to participate in... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  16. 76 FR 1512 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Savannah, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... E airspace 700 feet above the surface, at Savannah, TN (75 FR 65584) Docket No. FAA-2010-1047... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  17. 76 FR 36166 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office U.S. SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and...

  18. 77 FR 40489 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Memphis, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... amend Class E airspace at Memphis, TN (77 FR 17360). Interested parties were invited to participate in... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  19. 78 FR 72004 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tazewell, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Tazewell Municipal Airport, Tazewell, TN. (78 FR 48078). Interested parties were invited to participate in... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  20. 76 FR 35260 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00055

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00055 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1979-DR), dated 05/09/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes... major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated...

  1. 76 FR 33805 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00052

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration . ACTION: Amendment... Assistance Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1974-DR), dated 05/01/2011. Incident: Severe Storms... major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated...

  2. 76 FR 33805 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00055

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00055 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1979-DR), dated 05/09/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes... disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated 05/09/2011,...

  3. 76 FR 35260 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... Tennessee (FEMA-1979-DR), dated 05/09/ 2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line, Winds, and... the State of Tennessee, dated 05/09/2011 is hereby amended to establish the incident period for...

  4. 75 FR 30873 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 7... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010 . Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding... major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated...

  5. 75 FR 38155 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 8... Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/ 2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Straight-line Winds, and... State of Tennessee, dated 05/04/2010 is hereby amended to extend the deadline for filing...

  6. 75 FR 30874 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 6... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding... major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated...

  7. 75 FR 27010 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding... disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated 05/04/2010,...

  8. 75 FR 27008 - TENNESSEE Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION TENNESSEE Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... Only for the State of TENNESSEE (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010 . Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding... disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of TENNESSEE, dated 05/04/2010,...

  9. 76 FR 27739 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Tennessee (FEMA-1974-DR), dated 05/01/ 2011. Incident: Severe storms, tornadoes, straight-line winds, and... State of Tennessee, dated 05/01/2011 is hereby amended to include the following areas as...

  10. 76 FR 48939 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00058

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00058 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-4005-DR), dated 07/20/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Straight... major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated...

  11. 76 FR 35261 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00052

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1974-DR), dated 05/01/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes... major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated...

  12. 76 FR 36165 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4... Tennessee (FEMA-1979-DR), dated 05/09/ 2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line, Winds, and... of Tennessee, dated 05/09/2011 is hereby amended to extend the deadline for filing applications...

  13. 75 FR 29590 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 5... Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR, dated 05/04/ 2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Straight-line Winds, and... Tennessee, dated 05/04/2010 is hereby amended to include the following areas as adversely affected by...

  14. 75 FR 27846 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4... Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/ 2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Straight-line Winds, and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The notice of the Presidential disaster declaration for the State of Tennessee,...

  15. 75 FR 27008 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... TENNESSEE (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/ 2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Straight-line Winds, and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The notice of the Presidential disaster declaration for the State of TENNESSEE,...

  16. 75 FR 27009 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding... disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated 05/04/2010,...

  17. 75 FR 30870 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 6... Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/ 2010 . Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Straight-line Winds, and... the State of Tennessee, dated 05/04/2010 is hereby amended to establish the incident period for...

  18. 75 FR 29591 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 5... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding... disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of TENNESSEE, dated 05/04/2010,...

  19. 76 FR 33395 - Tennessee; Disaster Number TN-00052

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee; Disaster Number TN-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment... Assistance Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1974-DR), dated 05/01/2011. Incident: Severe Storms... major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated...

  20. 75 FR 27009 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... TENNESSEE (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/ 2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Straight-line Winds, and... TENNESSEE, dated 05/04/2010 is hereby amended to include the following areas as adversely affected by...

  1. 75 FR 27009 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/ 2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Straight-Line Winds, and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The notice of the Presidential disaster declaration for the State of Tennessee,...

  2. 76 FR 33395 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... Tennessee (FEMA-1974-DR), dated 05/01/ 2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line Winds, and... State of Tennessee, dated 05/01/2011 is hereby amended to include the following areas as...

  3. 75 FR 35103 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 8... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding... major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated...

  4. 75 FR 27845 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4... Only for the State of Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding... disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Tennessee, dated 05/04/2010,...

  5. 75 FR 35103 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 7... Tennessee (FEMA-1909-DR), dated 05/04/ 2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Straight-line Winds, and... Tennessee, dated 05/04/2010 is hereby amended to include the following areas as adversely affected by...

  6. 76 FR 33806 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... Tennessee (FEMA-1974-DR), dated 05/01/ 2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line Winds, and... Tennessee, dated 05/01/2011 is hereby amended to include the following areas as adversely affected by...

  7. 76 FR 32387 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Tennessee (FEMA-1979-DR), dated 05/09/ 2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line, Winds, and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The notice of the Presidential disaster declaration for the State of Tennessee,...

  8. 78 FR 38555 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Selmer, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ..., TN. (78 FR 16202). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  9. 78 FR 31840 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Cumberland River, Nashville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Cumberland River, Nashville, TN... Nashville Railroad Drawbridge across the Cumberland River, mile 190.4, at Nashville, Tennessee. The... the Cumberland River, mile 190.4, at Nashville, Tennessee to remain in the...

  10. 78 FR 52424 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dayton, TN, Establishment of Class E Airspace; Cleveland, TN, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Hospital, Cleveland, TN, (78 FR 25403). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  11. 75 FR 6257 - Watts Bar Reservoir Land Management Plan, Loudon, Meigs, Rhea, and Roane Counties, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... a program and maintenance plan for WBRLMP within two years of its adoption. ETDD found no conflicts... will be considered after the recovery planning process now in progress is completed. TVA manages public... quality considerations in its land use and Section 26a decision- making processes for facilities on...

  12. 75 FR 32201 - Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge, Henry, Benton, Decatur, and Humphreys Counties, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... started the process through a notice in the Federal Register on April 2, 2008 (73 FR 17994). On December... we would conduct population and habitat surveys to evaluate shorebird use and invertebrate densities... more baseline inventories for non-game mammals, reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates....

  13. 76 FR 5194 - Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge, Henry, Benton, Decatur, and Humphreys Counties, TN; Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... (73 FR 17994). On December 28, 1945, President Harry S. Truman signed Executive Order No. 9670... period via Federal Register notice on June 7, 2010 (75 FR 32201). We received 43 comments on the Draft... National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). In the final CCP, we describe how we will manage this refuge for the...

  14. Transposition of Tn7 Occurs at a Single Site on the Caulobacter crescentus Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Ely, Bert

    1982-01-01

    Insertion of Tn7 in nine independently derived isolates occurred in a single small region of the Caulobacter crescentus chromosome, suggesting that Tn7 insertion occurs at or near a single site. The order of markers in this region of the Caulobacter chromosome was shown to be flaA-argG-Tn7. Images PMID:6284700

  15. 78 FR 43971 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tri-Cities, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Class D and E airspace in the Tri-Cities, TN, area (78 FR 7993). The line defining the exclusion of... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tri-Cities, TN AGENCY... airspace for the Tri-Cities, TN area, by correcting the regulatory text of the Class E surface airspace...

  16. Characterization of Tn6238 with a New Allele of aac(6′)-Ib-cr

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, María P.; Orman, Betina; Errecalde, Laura; Kaufman, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report that the genetic structure of Tn1331 remained conserved in Argentina from 1989 to 2013 (72 of 73 isolates), with the exception being the plasmid-borne Tn1331-like transposon Tn6238 containing a new aac(6′)-Ib-cr allele recovered from a colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate. A bioinformatic analysis of aac(6′)-Ib-like gene cassettes suggests that this new aac(6′)-Ib-cr allele emerged through mutation or homologous recombination in the Tn1331 genetic platform. Tn6238 is a novel platform for the dissemination of aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone resistance determinants. PMID:25691640

  17. Structural and functional analyses of the fosfomycin resistance transposon Tn2921.

    PubMed Central

    Navas, J; García-Lobo, J M; León, J; Ortíz, J M

    1985-01-01

    The fosfomycin resistance transposon Tn2921 is flanked by directly repeated sequences homologous to the Tn10-related insertion sequence IS10. The nonrepeated DNA sequences of Tn2921 can be deleted without affecting the transposition ability of the element, showing that at least one of the direct repeats is an active insertion sequence. Transposition of Tn2921 seems to occur through direct transposition, since cointegrates have not been observed. The evolutionary relatedness of Tn2921 and IS10 is discussed. Images PMID:2987181

  18. Aberrant Cosmc genes result in Tn antigen expression in human colorectal carcinoma cell line HT-29

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaofeng; Du, Zhenzhen; Sun, Xuhong; Shi, Chuanqin; Zhang, Huaixiang; Hu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The Tn antigen, which arises from mutation in the Cosmc gene is one of the most common tumor associated carbohydrate antigens. Cosmc resides in X24 encoded by a single gene and functions as a specific molecular chaperone for T-synthase. While the Tn antigen cannot be detected in normal cells, Cosmc mutations inactivate T-synthase and consequently result in Tn antigen expression within certain cancers. In addition to this Cosmc mutation-induced expression, the Tn antigen is also expressed in such cell lines as Jurkat T, LSC and LS174T. Whether the Cosmc mutation is present in the colon cancer cell line HT-29 is still unclear. Here, we isolate HT-29-Tn+ cells from HT-29 cells derived from a female colon cancer patient. These HT-29-Tn+ cells show a loss of the Cosmc gene coding sequence (CDS) leading to an absence of T-synthase activity and Tn antigen expression. Additionally, almost no methylation of Cosmc CpG islands was detected in HT-29-Tn+ as well as in HT-29-Tn- and Tn- tumor cells from male patients. In contrast, the methylation frequency of CpG island of Cosmc in normal female cells was ~50%. Only one active allele of Cosmc existed in HT-29-Tn+ and HT-29-Tn- cells as based upon detection of SNP sites. These results indicate that Tn antigens expression and T-synthase inactivity in HT-29-Tn+ cells can be related to the absence of CDS in Cosmc active alleles, while an inactive allele deletion of Cosmc in HT-29 cells has no influence on Cosmc function. PMID:26045765

  19. Structure and function of Tn5467, a Tn21-like transposon located on the Thiobacillus ferrooxidans broad-host-range plasmid pTF-FC2.

    PubMed Central

    Clennel, A M; Johnston, B; Rawlings, D E

    1995-01-01

    A 3.5-kb region of plasmid pTF-FC2, which contains a transposon-like element designated Tn5467, has been sequenced, and its biological activity has been investigated. The transposon is bordered by two 38-bp inverted repeat sequences which have sequence identity in 37 of 38 and in 38 of 39 bp to the tnpA distal and tnpA proximal inverted repeats of Tn21, respectively. Within these borders, open reading frames with amino acid similarity to a glutaredoxin-like protein, a MerR regulatory protein, and a multidrug-resistant-membrane transport-like protein were found. The gene for the glutaredoxin-like protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and enabled growth of a glutathione-requiring E. coli trxA gshA mutant on minimal medium and the reduction of methionine sulfoxide to methionine. In addition, there were two regions which, when translated, had homology to 85% of the N-terminal region of the Tn21 resolvase (tnpR) and to 15% of the C terminus of the Tn21 transposase (tnpA). A region containing res-like sites was located immediately upstream of the partial tnpR gene. Neither the partial transposase nor the resolvase genes of Tn5467 were biologically active, but Tn5467 was transposed and resolved when the Tn21 transposase and resolvase were provided in trans. Tn5467 appears to be a defective transposon which belongs to the Tn21 subgroup of the Tn3 family. PMID:8534089

  20. 4. Photocopy of May 21, 1936 photograph showing the house ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of May 21, 1936 photograph showing the house (south front). The original photograph was taken by Edouard E. Exline and is one of five photographs in the album, 'A Sketch of Mountain Life: Great Smoky Mountains National Park', compiled by Edouard E. Exline and C.S. Grossman. The album is on file at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the photograph number is II-B-(7)-8083. - Walker Family Farm, Big House, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  1. 9. Photocopy of photograph showing myrtlecovered spring. The original photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of photograph showing myrtle-covered spring. The original photograph was taken on May 21, 1936 by Edouard E. Exline and is one of five photographs in the album, 'A Sketch of Mountain Life: Great Smoky Mountains National Park', compiled by Edouard E. Exline and C.S. Grossman. The album is on file at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the photograph number is II-B-(7)-8096. - Walker Family Farm (General views), Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  2. The Calcium-Saturated cTnI/cTnC Complex: Structure of the Inhibitory Region of cTnI

    PubMed Central

    Sheldahl, Christopher; Xing, Jun; Dong, Wen-Ji; Harvey, Stephen C.; Cheung, Herbert C.

    2003-01-01

    The contiguous inhibitory and regulatory regions of troponin I in the heterotrimeric troponin complex play a critical role in Ca2+ activation of striated muscle. Knowledge of the structure of this critical region within the complex will enhance efforts toward understanding regulatory mechanisms. Toward this goal, we have used simulated annealing to study the structure of the inhibitory and regulatory regions of cardiac muscle troponin I in the calcium-saturated complex formed between cardiac troponin C and cardiac troponin I. We have incorporated distances determined experimentally by Frster resonance energy transfer in the full-length complex, rather than using peptides derived from cTnI. For these models, we assume a helix-loop-helix conformation for the inhibitory region. We have found several structures that satisfy the experimental constraints fairly well. Although it is not possible to eliminate any of these models at this time, future studies with additional experimental restraints will yield insights on the mechanisms of calcium regulation in cardiac muscle. PMID:12547787

  3. 8. DETAIL SHOT OF POST AND RAIL AND CUT AWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL SHOT OF POST AND RAIL AND CUT AWAY VIEW OF ABUTMENT SUPPORT INTO THE GROUND - Lost Creek Road Bridge, Spanning Sevier River at County Road 243, 2 miles east of Aurora, Aurora, Sevier County, UT

  4. BWR - Spent Fuel Transport and Storage with the TN{sup TM}9/4 and TN{sup TM}24BH Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Wattez, L.; Marguerat, Y.; Hoesli, C.

    2006-07-01

    The Swiss Nuclear Utilities have started in 2001 to store spent fuel in dry metallic dual-purpose casks at ZWILAG, the Swiss interim storage facility. BKW FMB Energy Ltd., the Muehleberg Nuclear Power Plant owner, is involved in this process and has elected to store its BWR spent fuel in a new high capacity dual-purpose cask, the TNeTeM24BH from the COGEMA Logistics/TRANSNUCLEAR TN{sup TM}24 family. The Muehleberg BWR spent fuels are transported by road in a medium size shuttle transport cask and then transferred to a heavy transport/storage cask (dry transfer) in the hot cell of ZWILAG site. For that purpose, COGEMA Logistics designed and supplied: - Two shuttle casks, TN{sup TM}9/4, mainly devoted to transport of spent fuel from Muehleberg NPP to ZWILAG. Licensed according to IAEA 1996, the TN{sup TM}9/4 is a 40 ton transport cask, for 7 BWR high bum-up spent fuel assemblies. - A series of new high capacity dual-purpose casks, TN{sup TM}24BH, holding 69 BWR spent fuels. Two transport campaigns took place in 2003 and 2004. For each campaign, ten TN{sup TM}9/4 round trips are performed, and one TN{sup TM}24BH is loaded. 5 additional TN{sup TM}24BH are being manufactured for BKW, and the next transport campaigns are scheduled from 2006. The TN{sup TM}24BH high capacity dual purpose cask and the TN{sup TM}9/4 transport cask characteristics and capabilities will then be detailed. (authors)

  5. Occurrence of Tn4371-Related Mobile Elements and Sequences in (Chloro)biphenyl-Degrading Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Springael, Dirk; Ryngaert, Annemie; Merlin, Christophe; Toussaint, Ariane; Mergeay, Max

    2001-01-01

    Tn4371, a 55-kb transposable element involved in the degradation and biphenyl or 4-chlorobiphenyl identified in Ralstonia eutropha A5, displays a modular structure including a phage-like integrase gene (int), a Pseudomonas-like (chloro)biphenyl catabolic gene cluster (bph), and RP4- and Ti-plasmid-like transfer genes (trb) (C. Merlin, D. Springael, and A. Toussaint, Plasmid 41:40–54, 1999). Southern blot hybridization was used to examine the presence of different regions of Tn4371 in a collection of (chloro)biphenyl-degrading bacteria originating from different habitats and belonging to different bacterial genera. Tn4371-related sequences were never detected on endogenous plasmids. Although the gene probes containing only bph sequences hybridized to genomic DNA from most strains tested, a limited selection of strains, all β-proteobacteria, displayed hybridization patterns similar to the Tn4371 bph cluster. Homology between Tn4371 and DNA of two of those strains, originating from the same area as strain A5, extended outside the catabolic genes and covered the putative transfer region of Tn4371. On the other hand, none of the (chloro)biphenyl degraders hybridized with the outer left part of Tn4371 containing the int gene. The bph catabolic determinant of the two strains displaying homology to the Tn4371 transfer genes and a third strain isolated from the A5 area could be mobilized to a R. eutropha recipient, after insertion into an endogenous or introduced IncP1 plasmid. The mobilized DNA of those strains included all Tn4371 homologous sequences previously identified in their genome. Our observations show that the bph genes present on Tn4371 are highly conserved between different (chloro)biphenyl-degrading hosts, isolated globally but belonging mainly to the β-proteobacteria. On the other hand, Tn4371-related mobile elements carrying bph genes are apparently only found in isolates from the environment that provided the Tn4371-bearing isolate A5. PMID:11133426

  6. Evolution of transposons: natural selection for Tn5 in Escherichia coli K12.

    PubMed

    Biel, S W; Hartl, D L

    1983-04-01

    A novel in vivo effect of the transposable element Tn5 has been observed in chemostats when certain isogenic Tn5 and non-Tn5 strains of Escherichia coli compete for a limiting carbon source in the absence of kanamycin. The Tn5-bearing strain has a more rapid growth rate and increases in frequency from 50% to 90% within the first 15 to 20 generations. The effect occurs when Tn5 is inserted at a variety of chromosomal locations or when the element is carried by an episome, but it is strain specific, having been observed in two out of three strains examined. (For reasons unknown, the effect has not been observed with derivatives of strain CSH12.) Although the growth-rate advantage of Tn5 is independent of nutrient concentration and generation time, it can be reduced by prior adaptation of the strains to limiting conditions, and the amount of reduction is proportional to the length of prior adaptation. The growth-rate effect is evidently not caused by beneficial mutations induced by Tn5 transposition, as Tn5-bearing strains selected in chemostats retain their initial Tn5 position and copy number. However, the effect does not occur in Tn5-112, a transpositionless deletion mutation missing the transposase-coding region of the right-hand IS sequence flanking the element. Since Tn5-112 retains a functional kanamycin-phosphotransferase gene, this gene is not responsible for the growth-rate effect. Thus, the effect evidently requires transposase function, but it does not involve actual transposition of the intact element. Altogether, these data provide a mechanism for the maintenance of Tn5 in bacterial populations in the absence of kanamycin, and they suggest a model for the proliferation and the maintenance of IS sequences and transposable elements in the absence of other identifiable selection pressures. PMID:6303898

  7. Tn5381, a conjugative transposon identifiable as a circular form in Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, L B; Marshall, S H; Carias, L L

    1992-01-01

    We have identified two 19-kb conjugative transposons (Tn5381 and Tn5383) in separate strains of multiply resistant Enterococcus faecalis. These transposons confer resistance to tetracycline and minocycline via a tetM gene, are capable of both chromosomal and plasmid integration in a Rec- environment, and transfer between strains in the absence of detectable plasmid DNA at frequencies ranging from < 1 x 10(-9) to 2 x 10(-5) per donor CFU, depending on the donor strain and the growth conditions. Hybridization studies indicate that these transposons are closely related to Tn916. We have identified bands of ca. 19 kb on agarose gel separations of alkaline lysis preparations from E. faecalis strains containing chromosomal copies of Tn5381, which we have confirmed to be a circularized form of this transposon. This phenomenon has previously been observed only when Tn916 has been cloned in Escherichia coli. Overnight growth of donor strains in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of tetracycline results in an approximately 10-fold increase in transfer frequency of Tn5381 into enterococcal recipients and an increase in the amount of the circular form of Tn5381 as detectable by hybridization. These results suggest that Tn5381 is a Tn916-related conjugative transposon for which the appearance of a circular form and the conjugative-transfer frequency are regulated by a mechanism(s) affected by the presence of tetracycline in the growth medium. Images PMID:1331026

  8. Molecular characterization of the class II multiresistance transposable element Tn1403 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Vézina, G; Levesque, R C

    1991-01-01

    Transposon Tn1403 is a 19.9-kb multiresistance class II transposable element originally found on the RPL11 plasmid from a clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It encodes resistance to ampicillin (PSE-1 beta-lactamase), streptomycin and spectinomycin (aadA and aphC), and chloramphenicol (cat). It has structural homology with the tnpM and tnpI sequences of Tn21 and inverted repeats and res and tnpR sequences of Tn501, but it has no structural homology nor functional complementation with the resolvase gene of Tn21 or Tn3. Sequence analysis revealed long inverted repeats at each extremity of Tn1403 containing 38-bp inverted repeats that were 97.4% similar to those of Tn1721 and 5-bp direct repeats. Transposition assays showed a low frequency of transposition (3.5 x 10(-6)) compared with that of Tn3 (3.3 x 10(-3)) and no resolution of cointegrates. Images PMID:1850969

  9. 76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 36 CFR 51.24, public... National Park Service Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY... contract for the conduct of certain visitor services within Big South Fork National Recreation...

  10. Geological and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Deliverable 1.4.4: Ferron Sandstone lithofacies and case-study areas, Emery and Sevier Counties, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-01-04

    The types of dominantly sandstone lithofacies that characterize the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone reservoir types were tentatively identified before the project began. These reservoir types were defined and mapped at the regional scale and are the subject of the detailed, highly focused case studies. The purpose of conducting detailed case-study analysis is to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and quantitative characterization of fluvial-deltaic reservoirs which will allow realistic inter-well and reservoir-scale modeling to be used for improved oil-field development in actual reservoirs world-wide. The resulting benefits and value may: (1) increase recoverable reserves by identifying untapped compartments created by reservoir heterogeneity, (2) reduce development costs by more efficiently siting infill drilling locations, (3) increase deliverability by exploiting the reservoir along optimal fluid-flow paths, (4) enhance the application of new technologies, such as horizontal drilling, by identifying optimal drilling directions to maximize fluid-flow, and (5) identify reservoir trends for field extension drilling. Various geologic studies of the Ferron Sandstone were reviewed to compile a list of locations and types of lithofacies in the Ferron Sandstone to be examined in greater detail as part of the subsequent case studies. Preliminary regional interpretations were also used to help select the type and location of lithofacies for case studies. Potential case-study sites were delineated during several reconnaissance field trips by the geologic team. Two case-study sites were selected for the project: Ivie Creek and Willow Springs Wash, in the central and southern parts respectively of the project study area. Results are discussed.

  11. Architecture of the Tn7 Post-Transposition Complex: an Elaborate Nucleoprotein Structure

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Jason W.; Craig, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Four transposition proteins encoded by the bacterial transposon Tn7, TnsA, TnsB, TnsC, and TnsD, mediate its site- and orientation-specific insertion into the chromosomal site attTn7. To establish which Tns proteins are actually present in the transpososome that executes DNA breakage and joining, we have determined the proteins present in the nucleoprotein product of transposition, the Post-Transposition Complex (PTC) using fluorescently labeled Tns proteins. All four required Tns proteins are present in the PTC in which we also find that the Tn7 ends are paired by protein-protein contacts between Tns proteins bound to the ends. Quantification of the relative amounts of the fluorescent Tns proteins in the PTC indicates that oligomers of TnsA, TnsB, and TnsC mediate Tn7 transposition. High-resolution DNA footprinting of the DNA product of transposition attTn7∷Tn7 revealed that about 350 bp of DNA on the transposon ends and on attTn7 contact the Tns proteins. All seven binding sites for TnsB, the component of the transposase that specifically binds the ends and mediates 3’ end breakage and joining, are occupied in the PTC. However, the protection pattern of the sites closest to the Tn7 ends in the PTC are different from that observed with TnsB alone, likely reflecting the pairing of the ends and their interaction with the target nucleoprotein complex necessary for activation of the breakage and joining steps. We also observe extensive protection of the attTn7 sequences in the PTC and that alternative DNA structures in substrate attTn7 that are imposed by TnsD are maintained in the PTC. PMID:20538004

  12. Alpha Heating and TN Burn in NIF Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Baolian; Kwan, Thomas; Wang, Yi-Ming; Merrill, Frank; Cerjan, Charlie; Batha, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Sustainable TN burn requires alpha-particle energy deposition in the hot fuel. Recently, we developed an analytic model to estimate the neutron yield generated by the alpha-particle energy deposited in the hot spot, in terms of the measured total neutron yield, the adiabat of the cold fuel and the peak implosion kinetic energy of the pusher. Our alpha heating model has been applied to a number of inertial confinement fusion capsule experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Our model predictions are consistent with the post-shot calibrated code simulations and experimental data. We have also studied the uncertainty and sensitivities of alpha heating on various physics parameters, such as the adiabat of cold fuel, total neutron yield and peak implosion velocity. Our analysis demonstrates that the alpha particle heating was appreciable in only high-foot experiments. Based on our work, we will discuss paths and parameters to reach ignition at NIF (LA-UR-15-25507). This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.

  13. The organization of the outside end of transposon Tn5.

    PubMed Central

    Jilk, R A; York, D; Reznikoff, W S

    1996-01-01

    The end sequences of the IS50 insertion sequence are known as the outside end (OE) and inside end. These complex ends are related but nonidentical 19-bp sequences that serve as substrates for the activity of the Tn5 transposase. Besides providing the binding site of the transposase, the end sequences of a transposon contain additional types of information necessary for transposition. These additional properties include but are not limited to host protein interaction sites and sites that program synapsis and cleavage events. In order to delineate the properties of the IS50 ends,the base pairs involved in the transposase binding site have been defined. This has been approached through performing a variety of in vitro analyses: a ++hydroxyl radical missing-nucleoside interference experiment, a dimethyl sulfate interference experiment, and an examination of the relative binding affinities of single-site end substitutions. These approaches have led to the conclusion that the transposase binds to two nonsymmetrical regions of the OE, including positions 6 to 9 and 13 to 19. Proper binding occurs along one face of the helix, over two major and minor grooves, and appears to result in a significant bending of the DNA centered approximately 3 bp from the donor DNA-OE junction. PMID:8626296

  14. Tn5401, a new class II transposable element from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed Central

    Baum, J A

    1994-01-01

    A new class II (Tn3-like) transposable element, designated Tn5401, was recovered from a sporulation-deficient variant of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni EG2158 following its insertion into a recombinant plasmid. Sequence analysis of the insert revealed a 4,837-bp transposon with two large open reading frames, in the same orientation, encoding proteins of 36 kDa (306 residues) and 116 kDa (1,005 residues) and 53-bp terminal inverted repeats. The deduced amino acid sequence for the 36-kDa protein shows 24% sequence identity with the TnpI recombinase of the B. thuringiensis transposon Tn4430, a member of the phage integrase family of site-specific recombinases. The deduced amino acid sequence for the 116-kDa protein shows 42% sequence identity with the transposase of Tn3 but only 28% identity with the TnpA transposase of Tn4430. Two small open reading frames of unknown function, designated orf1 (85 residues) and orf2 (74 residues), were also identified. Southern blot analysis indicated that Tn5401, in contrast to Tn4430, is not commonly found among different subspecies of B. thuringiensis and is not typically associated with known insecticidal crystal protein genes. Transposition was studied with B. thuringiensis by using plasmid pEG922, a temperature-sensitive shuttle vector containing Tn5401. Tn5401 transposed to both chromosomal and plasmid target sites but displayed an apparent preference for plasmid sites. Transposition was replicative and resulted in the generation of a 5-bp duplication at the target site. Transcriptional start sites within Tn5401 were mapped by primer extension analysis. Two promoters, designated PL and PR, direct the transcription of orf1-orf2 and tnpI-tnpA, respectively, and are negatively regulated by TnpI. Sequence comparison of the promoter regions of Tn5401 and Tn4430 suggests that the conserved sequence element ATGTCCRCTAAY mediates TnpI binding and cointegrate resolution. The same element is contained within the 53-bp terminal inverted repeats, thus accounting for their unusual lengths and suggesting an additional role for TnpI in regulating Tn5401 transposition. Images PMID:7514590

  15. Tn6188 - A Novel Transposon in Listeria monocytogenes Responsible for Tolerance to Benzalkonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Muhterem-Uyar, Meryem; Zaiser, Andreas; Stessl, Beatrix; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Cotter, Paul D.; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the food-borne pathogen Listeria (L.) monocytogenes is of great importance from a food safety perspective, and thus for human health. The consequences of failures in this regard have been exemplified by recent large listeriosis outbreaks in the USA and Europe. It is thus particularly notable that tolerance to quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) has been observed in many L. monocytogenes strains. However, the molecular determinants and mechanisms of BC tolerance of L. monocytogenes are still largely unknown. Here we describe Tn6188, a novel transposon in L. monocytogenes conferring tolerance to BC. Tn6188 is related to Tn554 from Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and other Tn554-like transposons such as Tn558, Tn559 and Tn5406 found in various Firmicutes. Tn6188 comprises 5117 bp, is integrated chromosomally within the radC gene and consists of three transposase genes (tnpABC) as well as genes encoding a putative transcriptional regulator and QacH, a small multidrug resistance protein family (SMR) transporter putatively associated with export of BC that shows high amino acid identity to Smr/QacC from S. aureus and to EmrE from Escherichia coli. We screened 91 L. monocytogenes strains for the presence of Tn6188 by PCR and found Tn6188 in 10 of the analyzed strains. These isolates were from food and food processing environments and predominantly from serovar 1/2a. L. monocytogenes strains harboring Tn6188 had significantly higher BC minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (28.5 ± 4.7 mg/l) than strains without Tn6188 (14 ± 3.2 mg/l). Using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR we could show a significant increase in qacH expression in the presence of BC. QacH deletion mutants were generated in two L. monocytogenes strains and growth analysis revealed that ΔqacH strains had lower BC MICs than wildtype strains. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that Tn6188 is responsible for BC tolerance in various L. monocytogenes strains. PMID:24098567

  16. Spectroscopic and ITC study of the conformational change upon Ca{sup 2+}-binding in TnC C-lobe and TnI peptide complex from Akazara scallop striated muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Yumoto, Fumiaki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Koji; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Ojima, Takao; Tanokura, Masaru

    2008-04-25

    Akazara scallop (Chlamys nipponensis akazara) troponin C (TnC) of striated adductor muscle binds only one Ca{sup 2+} ion at the C-terminal EF-hand motif (Site IV), but it works as the Ca{sup 2+}-dependent regulator in adductor muscle contraction. In addition, the scallop troponin (Tn) has been thought to regulate muscle contraction via activating mechanisms that involve the region spanning from the TnC C-lobe (C-lobe) binding site to the inhibitory region of the TnI, and no alternative binding of the TnI C-terminal region to TnC because of no similarity between second TnC-binding regions of vertebrate and the scallop TnIs. To clarify the Ca{sup 2+}-regulatory mechanism of muscle contraction by scallop Tn, we have analyzed the Ca{sup 2+}-binding properties of the complex of TnC C-lobe and TnI peptide, and their interaction using isothermal titration microcalorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism, and gel filtration chromatography. The results showed that single Ca{sup 2+}-binding to the Site IV leads to a structural transition not only in Site IV but also Site III through the structural network in the C-lobe of scallop TnC. We therefore assumed that the effect of Ca{sup 2+}-binding must lead to a change in the interaction mode between the C-lobe of TnC and the TnI peptide. The change should be the first event of the transmission of Ca{sup 2+} signal to TnI in Tn ternary complex.

  17. International Spread and Persistence of TEM-24 Is Caused by the Confluence of Highly Penetrating Enterobacteriaceae Clones and an IncA/C2 Plasmid Containing Tn1696::Tn1 and IS5075-Tn21▿

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Ângela; Baquero, Fernando; Machado, Elisabete; Cantón, Rafael; Peixe, Luísa; Coque, Teresa M.

    2010-01-01

    TEM-24 remains one of the most widespread TEM-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) among Enterobacteriaceae. To analyze the reasons influencing its spread and persistence, a multilevel population genetics study was carried out on 28 representative TEM-24 producers from Belgium, France, Portugal, and Spain (13 Enterobacter aerogenes isolates, 6 Escherichia coli isolates, 6 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, 2 Proteus mirabilis isolates, and 1 Klebsiella oxytoca isolate, from 1998 to 2004). Clonal relatedness (XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] and E. coli phylogroups) and antibiotic susceptibility were determined by standard procedures. Plasmid analysis included determination of the incompatibility group (by PCR, hybridization, and/or sequencing) and comparison of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns. Characterization of genetic elements conferring antibiotic resistance included integrons (classes 1, 2, and 3) and transposons (Tn3, Tn21, and Tn402). Similar PFGE patterns were identified among E. aerogenes, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis isolates, while E. coli strains were diverse (phylogenetic groups A, B2, and D). Highly related 180-kb IncA/C2 plasmids conferring resistance to kanamycin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, and sulfonamides were identified. Each plasmid contained defective In0-Tn402 (dfrA1-aadA1, aacA4, or aacA4-aacC1-orfE-aadA2-cmlA1) and In4-Tn402 (aacA4 or dfrA1-aadA1) variants. These integrons were located within Tn21, Tn1696, or hybrids of these transposons, with IS5075 interrupting their IRtnp and IRmer. In all cases, blaTEM-24 was part of an IS5075-ΔTn1 transposon within tnp1696, mimicking other genetic elements containing blaTEM-2 and blaTEM-3 variants. The international dissemination of TEM-24 is fuelled by an IncA/C2 plasmid acquired by different enterobacterial clones which seem to evolve by gaining diverse genetic elements. This work highlights the risks of a confluence between highly penetrating clones and highly promiscuous plasmids in the spread of antibiotic resistance, and it contributes to the elucidation of the origin and evolution of TEM-2 ESBL derivatives. PMID:19995930

  18. International spread and persistence of TEM-24 is caused by the confluence of highly penetrating enterobacteriaceae clones and an IncA/C2 plasmid containing Tn1696::Tn1 and IS5075-Tn21.

    PubMed

    Novais, Angela; Baquero, Fernando; Machado, Elisabete; Cantón, Rafael; Peixe, Luísa; Coque, Teresa M

    2010-02-01

    TEM-24 remains one of the most widespread TEM-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) among Enterobacteriaceae. To analyze the reasons influencing its spread and persistence, a multilevel population genetics study was carried out on 28 representative TEM-24 producers from Belgium, France, Portugal, and Spain (13 Enterobacter aerogenes isolates, 6 Escherichia coli isolates, 6 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, 2 Proteus mirabilis isolates, and 1 Klebsiella oxytoca isolate, from 1998 to 2004). Clonal relatedness (XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] and E. coli phylogroups) and antibiotic susceptibility were determined by standard procedures. Plasmid analysis included determination of the incompatibility group (by PCR, hybridization, and/or sequencing) and comparison of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns. Characterization of genetic elements conferring antibiotic resistance included integrons (classes 1, 2, and 3) and transposons (Tn3, Tn21, and Tn402). Similar PFGE patterns were identified among E. aerogenes, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis isolates, while E. coli strains were diverse (phylogenetic groups A, B2, and D). Highly related 180-kb IncA/C2 plasmids conferring resistance to kanamycin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, and sulfonamides were identified. Each plasmid contained defective In0-Tn402 (dfrA1-aadA1, aacA4, or aacA4-aacC1-orfE-aadA2-cmlA1) and In4-Tn402 (aacA4 or dfrA1-aadA1) variants. These integrons were located within Tn21, Tn1696, or hybrids of these transposons, with IS5075 interrupting their IRtnp and IRmer. In all cases, blaTEM-24 was part of an IS5075-DeltaTn1 transposon within tnp1696, mimicking other genetic elements containing blaTEM-2 and blaTEM-3 variants. The international dissemination of TEM-24 is fuelled by an IncA/C2 plasmid acquired by different enterobacterial clones which seem to evolve by gaining diverse genetic elements. This work highlights the risks of a confluence between highly penetrating clones and highly promiscuous plasmids in the spread of antibiotic resistance, and it contributes to the elucidation of the origin and evolution of TEM-2 ESBL derivatives. PMID:19995930

  19. DRAFT LANDSAT DATA MOSAIC: MONTGOMERY COUNTY, TEXAS; HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS; FORT BEND COUNTY, TEXAS; BRAZORIA COUNTY, TEXAS; GALVESTON COUNTY, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a draft Landsat Data Mosaic, which contains remote sensing information for Montgomery County, Texas Harris County, Texas Fort Bend County, Texas Brazoria County, Texas Galveston County, and Texas Imagery dates on the following dates: October 6, 1999 and September 29, 200...

  20. Geology of an Ordovician stratiform base-metal deposit in the Long Canyon Area, Blaine County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otto, B.R.; Zieg, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    In the Long Canyon area, Blaine County, Idaho, a strati-form base-metal-bearing gossan is exposed within a complexly folded and faulted sequence of Ordovician strata. The gossan horizon in graptolitic mudrock suggests preservation of bedded sulfides that were deposited by an Ordovician subaqueous hydrothermal system. Abrupt thickness changes and geochemi-cal zoning in the metal-bearing strata suggest that the gossan is near the source of the hydrothermal system. Ordovician sedimentary rocks at Long Canyon represent a coarsening-upward section that was deposited below wave base in a submarine depositional environment. The lowest exposed rocks represent deposition in a starved, euxinic basin and over-lying strata represent a prograding clastic wedge of terrigenous and calcareous detritus. The metalliferous strata are between these two types of strata. Strata at Long Canyon have been deformed by two periods of thrust faulting, at least three periods of normal faulting, and two periods of folding. Tertiary extensional faulting formed five subhorizontal structural plates. These low-angle fault-bounded plates truncate Sevier-age and possibly Antler-age thrust faults. The presence of gossan-bearing strata in the four upper plates suggests that there was only minor, although locally complex, stratigraphic displacement and rotation. The lack of correlative strata in the lowest plate suggests the displacement was greater than 2000 ft. The metalliferous strata were exposed to surface weathering, oxidation, and erosion prior to and during deposition of the Eocene Challis Volcanic Group. The orientations of erosional canyons formed during this early period of exposure were related to the orientations of Sevier-age thrust faults, and stream-channel gravel was deposited in the canyons. During this and subsequent intervals of exposure, sulfidic strata were oxi-dized to a minimum depth of 700 ft.

  1. Molecular Diversity and Evolutionary Relationships of Tn1546-Like Elements in Enterococci from Humans and Animals

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Rob J. L.; Top, Janetta; van den Braak, Nicole; van Belkum, Alex; Mevius, Dik J.; Hendriks, Giel; van Santen-Verheuvel, Marga; van Embden, Jan D. A.

    1999-01-01

    We report on a detailed study on the molecular diversity and evolutionary relationships of Tn1546-like elements in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from humans and animals. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the VanA transposon of 97 VRE revealed seven different Tn1546 types. Subsequent sequencing of the complete VanA transposons of 13 VRE isolates representing the seven RFLP types followed by sequencing of the identified polymorphic regions in 84 other VanA transposons resulted in the identification of 22 different Tn1546 derivatives. Differences between the Tn1546 types included point mutations in orf1, vanS, vanA, vanX, and vanY. Moreover, insertions of an IS1216V-IS3-like element in orf1, of IS1251 in the vanS-vanH intergenic region, and of IS1216V in the vanX-vanY intergenic region were found. The presence of insertion sequence elements was often associated with deletions in Tn1546. Identical Tn1546 types were found among isolates from humans and farm animals in The Netherlands, suggesting the sharing of a common vancomycin resistance gene pool. Application of the genetic analysis of Tn1546 to VRE isolates causing infections in hospitals in Oxford, United Kingdom, and Chicago, Ill., suggested the possibility of the horizontal transmission of the vancomycin resistance transposon. The genetic diversity in Tn1546 combined with epidemiological data suggest that the DNA polymorphism among Tn1546 variants can successfully be exploited for the tracing of the routes of transmission of vancomycin resistance genes. PMID:10049255

  2. County by County in Ohio Genealogy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khouw, Petta; And Others

    The State Library of Ohio's genealogy collection of over 8,000 items is listed by county. Within each county listing the sources are designated as atlases, cemetery and death records, census records (the majority from the 1800's), family-church-Bible records, marriage records, or county and township histories. Vital records consist of material…

  3. Rural County Report. County Level Data Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, J. Dennis

    This report represents a county-level Pennsylvania data base focused on variables of significance to rural communities. The data includes computations of per capita rates for counties in rural, urban influence, and urban clusters. This report is intended for comparing rural counties to other areas of the state. Three categories are used to present…

  4. Brownfield to Brightfield Initiative in Oak Ridge, TN - 12346

    SciTech Connect

    Hough, Gil; Fairless, Chad

    2012-07-01

    Experience characterizing, permitting, and restoring 'Brownfield' sites-government or industrial sites with restricted future use due to the presence or potential presence of hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants-is being leveraged to identify opportunities for redevelopment into solar power generating facilities which, in this context, are called 'Brightfields'. Brownfield sites offer the expansive land necessary for large photovoltaic (PV) solar farms, but require an in-depth working knowledge of complicated regulatory restrictions and environmental constraints to develop them. As a part of the effort to identify opportunities for redevelopment of Brownfield sites for solar applications, a technical guide, was composed specifically for the development of solar generation on restricted use sites. The basis of the technical guide gives specific consideration to environmental requirements and installation methods breaking that into three areas for assessing: 1) levels of contamination, 2) ground penetration requirements, and 3) the requirements for aesthetics and maintenance. Brightfield projects are underway to support the technical guide and expand re-industrialization efforts for the former DOE Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Oak Ridge, TN. There are exciting opportunities to turn Brownfields into Brightfield solar energy solutions for meeting the future renewable energy needs of our country. Brownfields that offer the large surface area required for solar PV farms coupled with the technical guide for the installation of solar farms on restricted use sites supports efforts to develop the solar capacities and expertise to tap this future market. The initial projects designed following the technical guide will provide verification of the installation requirements and beneficial reuse of restricted use sites. (authors)

  5. A clinical isolate of transposon Tn5 expressing streptomycin resistance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Genilloud, O; Blzquez, J; Mazodier, P; Moreno, F

    1988-01-01

    The central region of transposon Tn5 carries three antibiotic resistance markers: neo, ble, and str. The str gene codes for a phosphotransferase that inactivates streptomycin. This activity is phenotypically expressed in several gram-negative bacteria but not in Escherichia coli. We identified a Tn5 variant in E. coli clinical isolates that express streptomycin resistance. This transposon carries a 6-base-pair deletion within the str gene, near the 3' end. The same kind of mutation had been previously obtained experimentally from Tn5. Images PMID:2830233

  6. Multicopy integration of mini-Tn7 transposons into selected chromosomal sites of a Salmonella vaccine strain

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Karen; Werner, Esther; Loessner, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal integration of expression modules for transgenes is an important aspect for the development of novel Salmonella vectors. Mini-Tn7 transposons have been used for the insertion of one such module into the chromosomal site attTn7, present only once in most Gram-negative bacteria. However, integration of multiple mini-Tn7 copies might be suitable for expression of appropriate amounts of antigen or combination of different modules. Here we demonstrate that integration of a 9.6 kb mini-Tn7 harbouring the luciferase luxCDABE (lux) occurs at the natural attTn7 site and simultaneously other locations of the Salmonella chromosome, which were engineered using λ-Red recombinase to contain one or two additional artificial attTn7 sites (a-attTn7). Multicopy integration even at closely spaced attTn7 sites was unexpected in light of the previously reported distance-dependent Tn7 target immunity. Integration of multiple copies of a mini-Tn7 containing a gfp cassette resulted in increasing green fluorescence of bacteria. Stable consecutive integration of two mini-Tn7 encoding lacZ and lux was achieved by initial transposition of lacZ-mini-Tn7, subsequent chromosomal insertion of a-attTn7 and a second round of transposition with lux-mini-Tn7. Mini-Tn7 thus constitutes a versatile method for multicopy integration of expression cassettes into the chromosome of Salmonella and possibly other bacteria. PMID:25488129

  7. Tn4563 transposition in Streptomyces coelicolor and its application to isolation of new morphological mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, A T; Nelson, A D; Daniel, J B

    1991-01-01

    The Tn3-like transposon Tn4556 (and its derivatives Tn4560 and Tn4563) has been used for insertion mapping of genetic loci cloned on plasmids, but it has been difficult to obtain chromosomal insertions, largely because of the lack of a strong selection against transposon donor molecules. In this communication, we report two efficient selection techniques for transposition and their use in the isolation of chromosomal insertion mutations. A number of independent Streptomyces coelicolor morphological mutants (bld and whi) were obtained. Two of the bld mutations were mapped to locations on the chromosome by SCP1-mediated conjugation; at least one mutation, bld-5m1, appears to define a novel locus involved in control of S. coelicolor morphogenesis and antibiotic production. Images PMID:1650343

  8. 75 FR 15741 - Jastev Casework Company, Columbia, TN; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Jastev Casework Company, Columbia, TN; Notice of Termination of... Casework Company, Columbia, Tennessee. The petitioner has requested that the petition be...

  9. Asiago classification of ASASSN-15tn as a Type Ia SN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasella, L.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Turatto, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of ASASSN-15tn discovered by All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) in CGCG 496-51 (Atel#8376).

  10. In vitro mutagenesis of Bacillus subtilis by using a modified Tn7 transposon with an outward-facing inducible promoter.

    PubMed

    Bordi, Christophe; Butcher, Bronwyn G; Shi, Qiaojuan; Hachmann, Anna-Barbara; Peters, Joseph E; Helmann, John D

    2008-06-01

    A Tn7 donor plasmid, pTn7SX, was constructed for use with the model gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. This new mini-Tn7, mTn7SX, contains a spectinomycin resistance cassette and an outward-facing, xylose-inducible promoter, thereby allowing for the regulated expression of genes downstream of the transposon. We demonstrate that mTn7SX inserts are obtained at a high frequency and occur randomly throughout the B. subtilis genome. The utility of this system was demonstrated by the selection of mutants with increased resistance to the antibiotic fosfomycin or duramycin. PMID:18408063

  11. The Levels and Distribution of TN, TP and TOC in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Han, D.

    2012-04-01

    The marine biogeochemistries of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous have come under increased scrutiny because of their close involvement in climate change and coastal eutrophication. The South China Sea is unique in that located in a subtropical zone, and therefore represents an important regime for biogeochemical studies. However, to our knowledge, few data are available for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP) and total organic carbon (TOC) in South Sea, China. The present study aims to contribute to the knowledge of their status through investigating the level and distribution of TN, TP and TOC in South China Sea. A total of 108 seawater samples of 11 sites in south sea, china were collected during August 29- September 4, 2006. An automated and simultaneous method for determination of TN and TOC was applied to all seawater samples. The combined system allowed simultaneous determination for TOC and TN in the same sample using a single injection and provided low detection limits and excellent linear ranges for both TOC and TN. The risk of contamination has been remarkably reduced due to the minimal sample manipulation and automated analyses. And quantitative analyses of TP in seawater were accomplished by a typical chemical method. Concentration ranges of TN and TP were 0.06-0.67, and 0.003-0.071 mg/L, respectively, as well as that of TOC were 0.23-2.51mg/L. The values of TN and TP showed that the status of nutrition is relatively better in south china sea than other marine areas. Moreover, the upright change trend of TN concentration level as well as TP and TOC according to the experimental results at the total 11 sites are simultaneity studied. The concentration of TN initial increases with the increasing of the depth, later the value becomes almost constant. In contrast, the concentration of TOC reduces with the increasing of the depth, later the value becomes almost unchangeable. Compared with the trend of TN and TOC, that of TP appears relatively stable. Thus, TP could be regarded as the key factor about eutrophication. This work should provide some useful information to better understand the environmental status of south china sea. Keywords: Concentration level, distribution, TN, TP, TOC, South China Sea. Acknowledgments The work was supported by The National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 40976050), and the National Public Benefit (Ocean) Research Foundation of China (201105013).

  12. A highly divergent archaeo-eukaryotic primase from the Thermococcus nautilus plasmid, pTN2

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Sukhvinder; Krupovic, Mart; Desnoues, Nicole; Béguin, Pierre; Sezonov, Guennadi; Forterre, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We report the characterization of a DNA primase/polymerase protein (PolpTN2) encoded by the pTN2 plasmid from Thermococcus nautilus. Sequence analysis revealed that this protein corresponds to a fusion between an N-terminal domain homologous to the small catalytic subunit PriS of heterodimeric archaeal and eukaryotic primases (AEP) and a C-terminal domain related to their large regulatory subunit PriL. This unique domain configuration is not found in other virus- and plasmid-encoded primases in which PriS-like domains are typically fused to different types of helicases. PolpTN2 exhibited primase, polymerase and nucleotidyl transferase activities and specifically incorporates dNTPs, to the exclusion of rNTPs. PolpTN2 could efficiently prime DNA synthesis by the T. nautilus PolB DNA polymerase, suggesting that it is used in vivo as a primase for pTN2 plasmid replication. The N-terminal PriS-like domain of PolpTN2 exhibited all activities of the full-length enzyme but was much less efficient in priming cellular DNA polymerases. Surprisingly, the N-terminal domain possesses reverse transcriptase activity. We speculate that this activity could reflect an ancestral function of AEP proteins in the transition from the RNA to the DNA world. PMID:24445805

  13. Chromosomal gentamicin resistance transposon Tn3706 in Streptococcus agalactiae B128.

    PubMed Central

    Horaud, T; de Céspèdes, G; Trieu-Cuot, P

    1996-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae B128 is the only highly gentamicin-resistant group B streptococcal (GBS) strain described so far. This strain carries a chromosomal gentamicin resistance transposon, designated Tn3706, which is similar, if not identical, to the Tn4001 and Tn5281 transpons detected in Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, respectively. Transposition of Tn3706 occurred onto the GBS plasmid pIP501 in two different loci of its 7.5-kb AvaII fragment carrying the genes for chloramphenicol and erythromycin resistance. Molecular analysis of pIP501 derivatives showed that Tn3706 is composed of a central fragment containing the aac6'-aph2" gene; this fragment is flanked by two tandemly repeated copies of IS256 at the 5' extremity of the resistance gene and a single inverted copy of IS256 at its 3' extremity. The two tandemly repeated copies of IS256 were separated by a 6-bp segment identical to that found, in the same orientation, in the IS256-aac6'-aph2" junction. The hybrid replicons pIP501::Tn3706 were found to be structurally unstable following conjugative transfer between GBS strains. Numerous individual copies of IS256 were detected in B128, but this insertion sequence was not found in the 11 wild-type, gentamicin-susceptible GBS strains studied. PMID:8723445

  14. A highly divergent archaeo-eukaryotic primase from the Thermococcus nautilus plasmid, pTN2.

    PubMed

    Gill, Sukhvinder; Krupovic, Mart; Desnoues, Nicole; Béguin, Pierre; Sezonov, Guennadi; Forterre, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    We report the characterization of a DNA primase/polymerase protein (PolpTN2) encoded by the pTN2 plasmid from Thermococcus nautilus. Sequence analysis revealed that this protein corresponds to a fusion between an N-terminal domain homologous to the small catalytic subunit PriS of heterodimeric archaeal and eukaryotic primases (AEP) and a C-terminal domain related to their large regulatory subunit PriL. This unique domain configuration is not found in other virus- and plasmid-encoded primases in which PriS-like domains are typically fused to different types of helicases. PolpTN2 exhibited primase, polymerase and nucleotidyl transferase activities and specifically incorporates dNTPs, to the exclusion of rNTPs. PolpTN2 could efficiently prime DNA synthesis by the T. nautilus PolB DNA polymerase, suggesting that it is used in vivo as a primase for pTN2 plasmid replication. The N-terminal PriS-like domain of PolpTN2 exhibited all activities of the full-length enzyme but was much less efficient in priming cellular DNA polymerases. Surprisingly, the N-terminal domain possesses reverse transcriptase activity. We speculate that this activity could reflect an ancestral function of AEP proteins in the transition from the RNA to the DNA world. PMID:24445805

  15. The role of TF- and Tn-antigens in breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kölbl, Alexandra C; Jeschke, Udo; Friese, Klaus; Andergassen, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    Almost 40 years ago, researchers found out that the Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) and the Thomsen nouvelle (Tn) antigens could be detected in carcinoma, but not in healthy tissue. A short time after that it became clear that TF and Tn are precursor molecules of the MN-blood group antigens. In normal tissue TF and Tn are coated by glycosyl structures, thereby forming the glycoproteins which are known to account for the MN-blood group, but in malignant tissue these molecules are uncovered.TF, which has an additional Galectin-residue compared to Tn, is correlated with a more favourable prognosis for patients. On the contrary, patients with Tn-bearing tissues have a worse prognosis for overall and progression-free survival. It is known that TF and Tn are involved in the adhesion of tumour cells to the endothelium via a mechanism recruiting Galectin-3 and MUC-1, which is the first step in metastasis formation. Furthermore, it became clear that this pathway can be blocked by a growing number of molecules, thereby creating ways of therapeutical intervention. PMID:26758176

  16. 78 FR 7993 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Tri-Cities, TN; Revocation of Class E Airspace; Tri-City, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... rulemaking (SNPRM) to amend Class D and Class E airspace in the Tri-Cities, TN, area (77 FR 59573). The SNPRM... read as follows: ] Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR... originally proposed in the NPRM of April 28, 2012 (77 FR 21505). Interested parties were invited...

  17. Variation on a theme; an overview of the Tn916/Tn1545 family of mobile genetic elements in the oral and nasopharyngeal streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Francesco; Vianna, Morgana E.; Roberts, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    The oral and nasopharyngeal streptococci are a major part of the normal microbiota in humans. Most human associated streptococci are considered commensals, however, a small number of them are pathogenic, causing a wide range of diseases including oral infections such as dental caries and periodontitis and diseases at other body sites including sinusitis and endocarditis, and in the case of Streptococcus pneumoniae, meningitis. Both phenotypic and sequence based studies have shown that the human associated streptococci from the mouth and nasopharynx harbor a large number of antibiotic resistance genes and these are often located on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) known as conjugative transposons or integrative and conjugative elements of the Tn916/Tn1545 family. These MGEs are responsible for the spread of the resistance genes between streptococci and also between streptococci and other bacteria. In this review we describe the resistances conferred by, and the genetic variations between the many different Tn916-like elements found in recent studies of oral and nasopharyngeal streptococci and show that Tn916-like elements are important mediators of antibiotic resistance genes within this genus. We will also discuss the role of the oral environment and how this is conducive to the transfer of these elements and discuss the contribution of both transformation and conjugation on the transfer and evolution of these elements in different streptococci. PMID:25368607

  18. The Bacteroides mobilizable transposon Tn4555 integrates by a site-specific recombination mechanism similar to that of the gram-positive bacterial element Tn916.

    PubMed Central

    Tribble, G D; Parker, A C; Smith, C J

    1997-01-01

    The Bacteroides mobilizable transposon Tn4555 is a 12.2-kb molecule that encodes resistance to cefoxitin. Conjugal transposition is hypothesized to occur via a circular intermediate and is stimulated by coresident tetracycline resistance elements and low levels of tetracycline. In this work, the ends of the transposon were identified and found to consist of 12-bp imperfect inverted repeats, with an extra base at one end. In the circular form, the ends were separated by a 6-bp "coupling sequence" which was associated with either the left or the right transposon terminus when the transposon was inserted into the chromosome. Tn4555 does not duplicate its target site upon insertion. Using a conjugation-based transposition assay, we showed that the coupling sequence originated from 6 bases of genomic DNA flanking either side of the transposon prior to excision. Tn4555 preferentially transposed into a 589-bp genomic locus containing a 207-bp direct repeat. Integration occurred before or after the repeated sequence, with one integration site between the two repeats. These observations are consistent with a transposition model based on site-specific recombination. In the bacteriophage lambda model for site-specific recombination, the bacteriophage recombines with the Escherichia coli chromosome via a 7-bp "crossover" region. We propose that the coupling sequence of Tn4555 is analogous in function to the crossover region of lambda but that unlike the situation in lambda, recombination occurs between regions of nonhomologous DNA. This ability to recombine into divergent target sites is also a feature of the gram-positive bacterial transposon Tn916. PMID:9098073

  19. Characterization of transposon Tn5086, carrying the site-specifically inserted gene dhfrVII mediating trimethoprim resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Sundström, L; Swedberg, G; Sköld, O

    1993-01-01

    Two different enteric plasmids of widely separate origins were observed to carry a new 15.3-kb trimethoprim resistance transposon, Tn5086, also mediating resistance to mercuric ions and to a low level of sulfonamide. The trimethoprim resistance gene characterized from Tn5086 was found to be distinct from those found earlier and was designated type VII. Molecular analysis demonstrated that Tn5086 is closely related to Tn21. The internal part of Tn21 and Tn5086, the element referred to as the integron, was found to be different. First, the integron of Tn5086 contains a 0.62-kb cassette formed by the trimethoprim resistance gene dhfrVII and its immediate surroundings instead of the 0.86-kb aadA1 cassette of Tn21. Second, the integron of Tn5086 lacks a 4.2-kb segment 3' of sulI in Tn21. The dhfrVII gene commences with a UUG codon but was otherwise seen to be markedly related to the cassette genes dhfrI, dhfrV, and dhfrVI. The four related dihydrofolate reductases of 157 amino acids encoded by these genes contain a glutamate instead of the aspartic acid residue found at position 27 of the active center of the chromosomal enzyme from Escherichia coli. PMID:8383666

  20. A newly generated functional antibody identifies Tn antigen as a novel determinant in the cancer cell–lymphatic endothelium interaction

    PubMed Central

    Danussi, Carla; Coslovi, Anna; Campa, Cristiana; Mucignat, Maria T; Spessotto, Paola; Uggeri, Fulvio; Paoletti, Sergio; Colombatti, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Malignant transformation of epithelial cells is frequently associated with the alteration of glycosylation pathways. Tn is a common tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen present in 90% of human carcinomas and its expression correlates with metastatic potential and poor prognosis. Despite its relevance, the functional role of Tn in tumor biology has not been firmly established probably for the lack of appropriate experimental tools. Our aims were to produce highly reactive monoclonal antibodies against Tn making use of synthetically produced Tn and to test their usefulness for in vivo imaging as well as to define their potential functional activity in tumor cell spread. We immunized mice with Tn clustered on cationized BSA and screened the positive hybridomas with Tn-biotinylated alginate. Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay and immunofluorescence assays revealed that the most reactive anti-Tn IgM mAb (2154F12A4) selectively recognized Tn on the MCF7 breast cancer cell line since its binding to the cell membrane was completely abolished by preincubation with purified Tn. Importantly, QDot 800-conjugated mAb injected in MCF7-tumor bearing mice specifically bound to primary tumor lesions as well as to metastases in lymph nodes. In addition, this mAb was able to inhibit cancer cell adhesion to lymphatic endothelium suggesting a novel involvement of Tn in the lymphatic dissemination of cancer cells and hypothesizing future applications in inhibiting lymphatic metastases. PMID:19528665

  1. Expression profile of mucin-associated sialyl-Tn antigen in Chinese patients with different colorectal lesions (adenomas, carcinomas)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Fan, Cuizhen; Fan, Shanshan; Liu, Fuquan; Wen, Tao; An, Guangyu; Feng, Guosheng

    2015-01-01

    Background: The sialyl-Tn (sTn) antigen is a mucin-associated carbohydrate antigen expressed by numerous human carcinomas, and is also claimed to be a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. But the associations between sTn and colorectal cancer remain elusive and controversial. Here, we investigated the expression profile of sTn antigen in a series of human colorectal tissue samples including normal colon, colorectal adenomas, and colorectal carcinomas (CRCs), with an aim to analyzing whether sTn plays a role in the progression and development of Chinese patients with CRCs. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining of sTn antigen was performed in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded colonic sections from 4 healthy controls, 44 patients with colorectal adenomas, and 186 patients with primary CRCs. Results: No sTn antigen was detected in normal colonic tissues. There were 41 of 44 patients with colorectal adenomas (93.2%), and 141 of 186 patients with CRCs (75.8%) found to express sTn antigen. The patterns of sTn localization were different in adenomas and carcinomas of colonic tissues. Colorectal adenomas showed predominant supranuclear distribution of sTn antigen, while carcinomas revealed apical membrane, mucin droplet and diffuse cytoplasmic localization. Notably, sTn was significantly associated with the degree of differentiation (P = 0.006) and perineural invasion (P = 0.041) of the tumors, but was independent of age, gender, tumor location, depth of penetration, status of lymph nodes, lymphovascular invasion and TNM stage. Conclusions: These results indicate that sTn may play a role in initiating colorectal carcinogenesis and promoting tumor progression. Determination of sTn expression and localization may assist in evaluating malignant status of colorectal lesions. PMID:26617889

  2. Genetic analysis of Tn916-like elements conferring tetracycline resistance in clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Dong, Danfeng; Chen, Xu; Jiang, Cen; Zhang, Lihua; Cai, Gang; Han, Lizhong; Wang, Xuefeng; Mao, Enqiang; Peng, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    As an important clinically relevant pathogen, Clostridium difficile has a high multidrug resistance rate. Conjugative transposons play a vital role in its resistance phenotype. In the present study, 34 tetracycline-resistant clinical isolates of C. difficile were studied to detect tetracycline resistance genes and the presence of transposons. Thirty-two isolates were found to harbour Tn916-like elements carrying the tet(M) resistance gene, of which only one copy existed in the genome by Southern blot analysis. To characterise the genetic organisation of the Tn916-like elements, overlap PCR assays were performed with nine primer pairs, revealing three types of elements designated T1 to T3. The prevalent element T1 lacking PCRA (ORF23 to ORF21) and PCRB (ORF21 to ORF20) products, present in the epidemic ST37 clone, was further analysed by genome walking PCR in the left and right end sequences of the novel Tn916-like element. A gene coding for an FtsK/SpoIIIE family protein was found to replace the ORF24 to ORF21 region in Tn916. Moreover, the element could hardly conjugate between cells by filter mating experiments. These findings suggest that the dissemination of Tn916-like elements in epidemic ST37 strains in China was likely to have been conferred by clonal spread, signifying the importance of future surveillance and characterisation of conjugative transposons. PMID:24176599

  3. TRANSIT--A Software Tool for Himar1 TnSeq Analysis.

    PubMed

    DeJesus, Michael A; Ambadipudi, Chaitra; Baker, Richard; Sassetti, Christopher; Ioerger, Thomas R

    2015-10-01

    TnSeq has become a popular technique for determining the essentiality of genomic regions in bacterial organisms. Several methods have been developed to analyze the wealth of data that has been obtained through TnSeq experiments. We developed a tool for analyzing Himar1 TnSeq data called TRANSIT. TRANSIT provides a graphical interface to three different statistical methods for analyzing TnSeq data. These methods cover a variety of approaches capable of identifying essential genes in individual datasets as well as comparative analysis between conditions. We demonstrate the utility of this software by analyzing TnSeq datasets of M. tuberculosis grown on glycerol and cholesterol. We show that TRANSIT can be used to discover genes which have been previously implicated for growth on these carbon sources. TRANSIT is written in Python, and thus can be run on Windows, OSX and Linux platforms. The source code is distributed under the GNU GPL v3 license and can be obtained from the following GitHub repository: https://github.com/mad-lab/transit. PMID:26447887

  4. Tn5 transposase and tagmentation procedures for massively scaled sequencing projects

    PubMed Central

    Picelli, Simone; Björklund, Åsa K.; Reinius, Björn; Sagasser, Sven; Winberg, Gösta

    2014-01-01

    Massively parallel DNA sequencing of thousands of samples in a single machine-run is now possible, but the preparation of the individual sequencing libraries is expensive and time-consuming. Tagmentation-based library construction, using the Tn5 transposase, is efficient for generating sequencing libraries but currently relies on undisclosed reagents, which severely limits development of novel applications and the execution of large-scale projects. Here, we present simple and robust procedures for Tn5 transposase production and optimized reaction conditions for tagmentation-based sequencing library construction. We further show how molecular crowding agents both modulate library lengths and enable efficient tagmentation from subpicogram amounts of cDNA. The comparison of single-cell RNA-sequencing libraries generated using produced and commercial Tn5 demonstrated equal performances in terms of gene detection and library characteristics. Finally, because naked Tn5 can be annealed to any oligonucleotide of choice, for example, molecular barcodes in single-cell assays or methylated oligonucleotides for bisulfite sequencing, custom Tn5 production and tagmentation enable innovation in sequencing-based applications. PMID:25079858

  5. Insertions of the Transposon Tn1 into the PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Krishnapillai, V.; Royle, Pamela; Lehrer, Joanna

    1981-01-01

    The transposon Tn1 has been translocated to the chromosome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from plasmid R18, following hydroxylamine mutagenesis of the plasmid. Twelve insertions were mapped to six distinct sites distal to 55 min of the origin of chromosome transfer by the plasmid FP2. These map locations were confirmed by host chromosome mobilization tests mediated by plasmids R18 or R91–5, due to Tn1 homology between plasmid and host chromosome. All the Tn1 chromosomal inserts were retransposable to other plasmids (Sa, R931 and R38). The behavior of Tn1 in P. aeruginosa was very similar to its behavior in Escherichia coli with respect to regional specificity, orientation of insertion and in serving as regions of homology for host chromosome mobilization by plasmids. This last property has permitted the demonstration that Tn1 on R18 and R91–5 is in opposite orientation with respect to the origin of transfer (oriT) of the two plasmids. PMID:6271621

  6. 78 FR 60375 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Claiborne County, TN, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ..., unless stayed pending reconsideration. Petitions to stay that do not involve environmental issues and... conditions are not appropriate. Likewise, no environmental or historical documentation is required here under... verified notice contains false or misleading information, the exemptions are void ab initio....

  7. Tn5. 7 construction and physical mapping of pRPS404 containing photosynthetic genes from Rhodopseudomonas capsulata

    SciTech Connect

    Zsebo, K.M.; Wu, F.; Hearst J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A transposon, Tn5.7, has been constructed incorporating the transposition functions of Tn5 and the antibiotic-resistance factors from Tn7. It was used to mutagenize the plasmid pRPS404 which contains the photosynthetic genes of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata and is Kanamycin. In conjunction with the mutagenesis, physical mapping of the restriction endonuclease recognition sites for XhoI. Bg/II, KnpI, and SstI has been accomplished. 13 references, 2 figures.

  8. Synthesis and immunological evaluation of N-acyl modified Tn analogues as anticancer vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Song, Chengcheng; Sun, Shuang; Huo, Chang-Xin; Li, Qin; Zheng, Xiu-Jing; Tai, Guihua; Zhou, Yifa; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2016-02-15

    Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs), which are aberrantly expressed on the surface of tumor cells, are important targets for anticancer vaccine development. Herein, several N-acyl modified Tn analogues were synthesized and conjugated with carrier protein CRM197. The immunological results of these glycoconjugates indicated that 6-CRM197 elicited higher titers of antibodies which cross-reacted with native Tn antigen than the unmodified 2-CRM197 did. The IFN-γ-producing frequency of lymphocytes in mice treated with 6-CRM197 was obviously increased, compared to that of mice vaccinated with 2-CRM197 (p=0.016), which was typically associated with the Th1 response. Moreover, the elicited antisera against antigen 6-CRM197 reacted strongly with the Tn-positive tumor cells, implying the potential of this glycoconjugate as an anticancer vaccine. PMID:26787275

  9. Novel Tn4371-ICE like element in Ralstonia pickettii and Genome mining for comparative elements

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Integrative Conjugative Elements (ICEs) are important factors in the plasticity of microbial genomes. An element related to the ICE Tn4371 was discovered during a bioinformatic search of the Ralstonia pickettii 12J genome. This element was analysed and further searches carried out for additional elements. A PCR method was designed to detect and characterise new elements of this type based on this scaffold and a culture collection of fifty-eight Ralstonia pickettii and Ralstonia insidiosa strains were analysed for the presence of the element. Results Comparative sequence analysis of bacterial genomes has revealed the presence of a number of uncharacterised Tn4371-like ICEs in the genomes of several β and γ- Proteobacteria. These elements vary in size, GC content, putative function and have a mosaic-like structure of plasmid- and phage-like sequences which is typical of Tn4371-like ICEs. These elements were found after a through search of the GenBank database. The elements, which are found in Ralstonia, Delftia, Acidovorax, Bordetella, Comamonas, Acidovorax, Congregibacter, Shewanella, Pseudomonas Stenotrophomonas, Thioalkalivibrio sp. HL-EbGR7, Polaromonas, Burkholderia and Diaphorobacter sp. share a common scaffold. A PCR method was designed (based on the Tn4371- like element detected in the Ralstonia pickettii 12J genome) to detect and characterise new elements of this type. Conclusion All elements found in this study possess a common scaffold of core genes but contain different accessory genes. A new uniform nomenclature is suggested for ICEs of the Tn4371 family. Two novel Tn4371-like ICE were discovered and characterised, using the novel PCR method described in two different isolates of Ralstonia pickettii from laboratory purified water. PMID:19941653

  10. Quantitative assessment of Tn antigen in breast tissue micro-arrays using CdSe aqueous quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Au, Giang H T; Mejias, Linette; Swami, Vanlila K; Brooks, Ari D; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we examined the use of CdSe aqueous quantum dots (AQDs) each conjugated to three streptavidin as a fluorescent label to image Tn antigen expression in various breast tissues via a sandwich staining procedure where the primary monoclonal anti-Tn antibody was bound to the Tn antigen on the tissue, a biotin-labeled secondary antibody was bound to the primary anti-Tn antibody, and finally the streptavidin-conjugated AQDs were bound to the biotin on the secondary antibody. We evaluated the AQD staining of Tn antigen on tissue microarrays consisting of 395 cores from 115 cases including three tumor cores and one normal-tissue core from each breast cancer case and three tumor cores from each benign case. The results indicated AQD-Tn staining was positive in more than 90% of the cells in the cancer cores but not the cells in the normal-tissue cores and the benign tumor cores. As a result, AQD-Tn staining exhibited 95% sensitivity and 90% specificity in differentiating breast cancer against normal breast tissues and benign breast conditions. These results were better than the 90% sensitivity and 80% specificity exhibited by the corresponding horse radish peroxidase (HRP) staining using the same antibodies on the same tissues and those of previous studies that used different fluorescent labels to image Tn antigen. In addition to sensitivity and specificity, the current AQD-Tn staining with a definitive threshold was quantitative. PMID:24411673

  11. Transposition of Tn5096 and other IS493 derivatives in Streptomyces griseofuscus.

    PubMed Central

    Solenberg, P J; Baltz, R H

    1991-01-01

    Tn5096 was constructed by inserting an apramycin resistance gene, aac(3)IV, into IS493 from Streptomyces lividans. By using conventional and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, Tn5096 and related transposons were shown to insert into many different locations in the Streptomyces griseofuscus chromosome and in two linear plasmids. On insertion into the target site CANTg, 3 bp appeared to be duplicated. Independent transpositions were obtained by delivery of the transposon from a temperature-sensitive plasmid. The frequency of auxotrophy among cultures containing transpositions was about 0.2%. Images PMID:1846854

  12. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 1068 - High-Altitude Counties

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Deer Lodge Gallatin Jefferson Judith Basin Powell Madison Meagher Park Silver Bow Wheatland State of... Salt Lake San Juan Sanpete Sevier Summit Tooele Uintah Utah Wasatch Wayne Weber State of Wyoming Albany... Sublette Sweetwater Teton Uinta Washakie Weston...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 1068 - High-Altitude Counties

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Deer Lodge Gallatin Jefferson Judith Basin Powell Madison Meagher Park Silver Bow Wheatland State of... Salt Lake San Juan Sanpete Sevier Summit Tooele Uintah Utah Wasatch Wayne Weber State of Wyoming Albany... Sublette Sweetwater Teton Uinta Washakie Weston...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 1068 - High-Altitude Counties

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Deer Lodge Gallatin Jefferson Judith Basin Powell Madison Meagher Park Silver Bow Wheatland STATE OF... Salt Lake San Juan Sanpete Sevier Summit Tooele Uintah Utah Wasatch Wayne Weber STATE OF WYOMING Albany... Sublette Sweetwater Teton Uinta Washakie Weston...

  15. Tn4351 transposes in Bacteroides spp. and mediates the integration of plasmid R751 into the Bacteroides chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, N.B.; Getty, C.; Gardner, J.F.; Salyers, A.A.

    1986-03-01

    The gene for resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin, which is carried on the conjugative Bacteroides plasmid, pBF4, has been shown previously to be part of an element (Tn4351) that transposes in Escherichia coli. The authors have now introduced Tn4351 into Bacteroides uniformis 0061 on the following two suicide vectors: (i) the broad-host-range IncP plasmid R751 (R751::Tn4351) and (ii) pSS-2, a chimeric plasmid which contains 33 kilobases of pBF4 (including Tn4351) cloned into the IncQ plasmid RSF1010 and which is mobilized by R751. When E. coli HB101, carrying either R751::Tn4351 or R751 and pSS-2, was mated with B. uniformis under aerobic conditions, Em/sup r/ transconjugants were detected at a frequency of 10 /sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ (R751::Tn4351) or 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -6/ (R751 and pSS-2). In matings involving pSS-2, all Em/sup r/ transconjugants contained simple insertions of Tn4351 in the chromosome, whereas in matings involving R751::Tn4351, about half of the Em/sup r/ transconjugants had R751 cointegrated with Tn4351 in the chromosome. Of the Em/sup r/ transconjugants, 13% were auxotrophs. Bacteroides spp. which had R751 cointegrated with Tn4351 in the chromosome did not transfer R751 or Tn4351 to E. coli HB101 or to isogenic B. uniformis, nor did the integrated R751 mobilize pE5-2, an E. coli-Bacteroides shuttle vector that contains a transfer origin that is recognized by R751.

  16. 75 FR 28302 - American Food and Vending Spring Hill, TN; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration American Food and Vending Spring Hill, TN; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated April 6, 2010, the International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace...

  17. 76 FR 70321 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Northern Mississippi and Memphis, TN, Appropriated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... INFORMATION: On June 2, 2011, the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) issued a proposed rule (76 FR... Memphis, TN, Appropriated Fund Federal Wage System Wage Areas AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management... as Southwestern Colorado in a final rule issued on July 22, 2011 (76 FR 43803)....

  18. 76 FR 31885 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Northern Mississippi and Memphis, TN, Appropriated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM37 Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Northern Mississippi and Memphis, TN, Appropriated Fund Federal Wage System Wage Areas AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Proposed rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management...

  19. Role of myofibril-inducing RNA in cardiac TnT expression in developing Mexican axolotl.

    PubMed

    Sferrazza, Gian Franco; Zhang, Chi; Jia, Pingping; Lemanski, Sharon L; Athauda, Gagani; Stassi, Alyssa; Halager, Kristine; Maier, Jennifer A; Rueda-de-Leon, Elena; Gupta, Amit; Dube, Syamalima; Huang, Xupei; Prentice, Howard M; Dube, Dipak K; Lemanski, Larry F

    2007-05-25

    The Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, has been a useful animal model to study heart development and cardiac myofibrillogenesis. A naturally-occurring recessive mutant, gene "c", for cardiac non-function in the Mexican axolotl causes a failure of myofibrillogenesis due to a lack of tropomyosin expression in homozygous mutant (c/c) embryonic hearts. Myofibril-inducing RNA (MIR) rescues mutant hearts in vitro by promoting tropomyosin expression and myofibril formation thereafter. We have studied the effect of MIR on the expression of various isoforms of cardiac troponin T (cTnT), a component of the thin filament that binds with tropomyosin. Four alternatively spliced cTnT isoforms have been characterized from developing axolotl heart. The expression of various cTnT isoforms in normal, mutant, and mutant hearts corrected with MIR, is evaluated by real-time RT-PCR using isoform specific primer pairs; MIR affects the total transcription as well as the splicing of the cTnT in axolotl heart. PMID:17408593

  20. 78 FR 27029 - Modification of Class C Airspace; Nashville International Airport; TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... International Airport, TN, Class C airspace area (78 FR 6257). Interested parties were invited to participate in... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory evaluation... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  1. A gene and its product required for transposition of resistance transposon Tn2603.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, M; Harafuji, H; Yamamoto, T

    1982-01-01

    Tn2603 is a multiple-resistance transposon encoding resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and mercury and having a molecular size of 20 kilobase pairs, with 200-base-pair inverted repeats at both ends. The essential sites and functions of Tn2603 which are required for its transposition were determined through construction and characterization of various deletion mutants affecting the efficiency of transposition. Deletions were introduced in plasmid pMK1::Tn2603 by partial digestion with restriction endonuclease EcoRI in vitro. Analysis of deletion mutants showed that the inverted repeat segments at both ends of the trans-acting diffusible product(s) encoded in the right-hand side of the central portion were required for the transposition of Tn2603. An essential gene product was revealed as a protein having a molecular weight of 110,000 by analysis of polypeptides synthesized in Escherichia coli minicells. This protein was assumed to be the so-called transposase. Images PMID:6284710

  2. 75 FR 65584 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Savannah, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The incorporation by... action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Savannah, TN, as the Pinhook Non-Directional Beacon...

  3. 78 FR 9988 - Noise Exposure Map Notice Nashville Interntional Airport, Nashville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice Nashville Interntional Airport, Nashville, TN... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by Metropolitan Nashville.... (Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act) and 14 CFR part 150 are in compliance with applicable...

  4. 77 FR 17360 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Memphis, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... International Airport, TN (Lat. 35 02'33'' N., long. 89 58'36'' W.) ] Olive Branch, MS, Olive Branch...

  5. 75 FR 8414 - Tennessee Disaster # TN-00036 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00036 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration...'s EIDL declaration, applications for economic injury disaster loans may be filed at the...

  6. 75 FR 28303 - Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, TN; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... automotive clutch products produced by the workers' firm was directly incorporated into. The Department's Notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (FR 75 21358). The... Employment and Training Administration Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, TN; Notice of Revised Determination...

  7. Ordering of the flagellar genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by insertions of mercury transposon Tn501.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, M; Iino, T

    1983-01-01

    The flagellar genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO cluster on the chromosome at two distinct regions, region I and region II. The order of the flagellar cistrons in this organism was established by using transducing phage G101 and plasmids FP5 and R68.45. A method to insert transposon Tn501 near the fla genes was devised. We obtained two strains in which Tn501 was inserted at sites close to the flagellar cistrons in region II. We isolated Fla mutants in which the chromosomal segment between the two Tn501 insertion sites was deleted. Using Tn501-encoded mercury resistance as an outside marker, we determined the order of 9 of the 11 flagellar cistrons in region II as follows: puuF-region I-flaG-flaC-flaI-flaH-flaD-flaB-flaA-flaF-flaE-pur-67. By using phage G101-mediated transduction, the mutation converting monoflagellated bacteria into the multiflagellated (mfl) form was closely linked to the five fla cistrons in region I. Using mfl as an outside marker, we determined the order of the five cistrons as follows: puuF-flaV-flaZ-flaW-flaX-flaY-region II. The mfl mutation was shown to be either located within the flaV cistron or linked very closely to this cistron. No linkage was observed in transductions between any of the fla cistrons in region I and any of the fla cistrons in region II. PMID:6296037

  8. FATE OF TN5 MUTANTS OF ROOT GROWTH-INHIBITING PSEUDOMONAS SP. IN INTACT SOIL-CORE MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transposon Tn5 mutants of a wheat root growth-inhibiting nonfluorescent Pseudomonas sp. were inoculated into intact soil-core microcosms to determine the utility of intact soil cores for evaluating the fate and transport of microorganisms in agricultural ecosystems. ransposon Tn5...

  9. Chromosomal integration of plasmid DNA by homologous recombination in Enterococcus faecalis and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis hosts harboring Tn919.

    PubMed Central

    Casey, J; Daly, C; Fitzgerald, G F

    1991-01-01

    Integration of pCI192, a pBR322-derived vector plasmid containing homology to the chromosomally located conjugative transposon Tn919 was observed in two strains that harbor Tn919, namely, Enterococcus faecalis GF590 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CH919. Hybridization analysis indicated that single-copy integration of the plasmid had occurred at low frequency. The Tn919::plasmid structure was conjugated from an E. faecalis donor to a L. lactis recipient, although at lower frequencies than was Tn919. Segregation of the tetracycline and chloramphenicol resistance markers during conjugation was observed. The integration strategy described allows for DNA manipulations to be performed in an easily manipulated model host strain with the subsequent transfer of integrated structures by conjugation to any strain capable of receiving Tn919. The results indicate that homologous recombination events may be used to introduce plasmid-encoded genes to the lactococcal chromosome. Images PMID:1662938

  10. County Staff or Area Staff?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, William J.

    1970-01-01

    McIntryre explores the questions of county-based extention and increased specialization in Indiana. He compares the multi-county with individual county systems using variables including clientele's reactions to the two systems. (NL)

  11. Further characterization of the binding properties of two monoclonal antibodies recognizing human Tn red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Wua, Albert M; Wub, June H; Kuoa, Hsiang-Wei; Herpa, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    The terminal alpha anomeric Ga1NAc residue is an essential sugar for the Tn glycotope, human blood group A determinant, and Forssman antigen. In a previous study [King M.J., Parson S.F., Wu A,M., Jones N., Transfusion 31: 142-149, 1991] we defined two monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs, BRIC66 and BRIC111) reacting with human Tn red blood cells. However, more advanced studies of these two MoAbs were hampered by the lack of availability of Gal/GalNAc related glycotopes. In order to use these antibodies as powerful probes to elucidate structural changes during life processes, we have characterized in detail the combining sites of these two MoAbs using enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and inhibition assays with an extended glycan/ligand collection. From the results, it has been established that BRIC66 demonstrated multiple specificities and its reactivity towards glycotopes was defined as: Ga1NAc alpha1-->Ser/Thr (Tn) > or = Ga1NAc alpha1-->3(LFuc alpha1-->2)Gal (Ah) > Ga1NAcalpha1-->3Galbeta1-->4Glc (AL) > Ga1NAalpha1-->3Gal (A) GalNAc alpha1-->3GalNAc > Gal or Glc. Another MoAb, BRIC111, mainly bound Tn-glycophorin. The best ligand for this MoAb was Tn-containing glycopeptides (M.W. < 3.0 x 10(3) Da) from asialo ovine salivary mucin (OSM), which was approximately 70 and 58 times more active than Ga1NAc and monomeric Ga1NAc alpha1-->Ser/Thr (Tn), respectively, suggesting that the active glycotopes present in glycophorin for BRIC111 binding also exist in OSM. The N-acetyl group at carbon-2 and configuration at carbon-2 and carbon-4 of the alpha anomeric Ga1NAc are required for the binding of either MoAb. Identification of these binding properties should aid in the selection of these MoAbs and the conditions required for biological studies and clinical applications. PMID:15864747

  12. Dissection of the Salmonella typhimurium genome by use of a Tn5 derivative carrying rare restriction sites.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, K K; McClelland, M

    1992-01-01

    A polylinker with rare restriction sites was introduced into a mini-Tn5 derivative. These sites include M.XbaI-DpnI (TCTAGATCTAGA), which is rare in most bacterial genomes, SwaI (ATTTAAAT) and PacI (TTAATTAA), which are rare in G+C-rich genomes, NotI (GCGGCCGC) and SfiI (GGCCN5GGCC), which are rare in A+T-rich genomes, and BlnI (CCTAGG), SpeI (ACTAGT), and XbaI (TCTAGA), which are rare in the genomes of many gram-negative bacteria. This Tn5(pfm) (pulsed-field mapping) transposon carries resistance to chloramphenicol and kanamycin to allow selection in a wide variety of background genomes. This Tn5(pfm) was integrated randomly into the Salmonella typhimurium and Serratia marcescens genomes. Integration of the new rare SwaI, PacI, BlnI, SpeI, and XbaI sites was assayed by restriction digestion and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Tn5(pfm) constructs could be valuable tools for pulsed-field mapping of gram-negative bacterial genomes by assisting in the production of physical maps and restriction fragment catalogs. For the first applications of a Tn5(pfm), we bisected five of the six largest BlnI fragments in the S. typhimurium genome, bisected the linearized 90-kb pSLT plasmid, and used Tn5(pfm) and Tn10 to trisect the largest BlnI fragment. Images PMID:1317382

  13. Tn-Seq Explorer: A Tool for Analysis of High-Throughput Sequencing Data of Transposon Mutant Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Solaimanpour, Sina; Sarmiento, Felipe; Mrázek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Tn-seq is a high throughput technique for analysis of transposon mutant libraries. Tn-seq Explorer was developed as a convenient and easy-to-use package of tools for exploration of the Tn-seq data. In a typical application, the user will have obtained a collection of sequence reads adjacent to transposon insertions in a reference genome. The reads are first aligned to the reference genome using one of the tools available for this task. Tn-seq Explorer reads the alignment and the gene annotation, and provides the user with a set of tools to investigate the data and identify possibly essential or advantageous genes as those that contain significantly low counts of transposon insertions. Emphasis is placed on providing flexibility in selecting parameters and methodology most appropriate for each particular dataset. Tn-seq Explorer is written in Java as a menu-driven, stand-alone application. It was tested on Windows, Mac OS, and Linux operating systems. The source code is distributed under the terms of GNU General Public License. The program and the source code are available for download at http://www.cmbl.uga.edu/downloads/programs/Tn_seq_Explorer/ and https://github.com/sina-cb/Tn-seqExplorer. PMID:25938432

  14. Tn-seq explorer: a tool for analysis of high-throughput sequencing data of transposon mutant libraries.

    PubMed

    Solaimanpour, Sina; Sarmiento, Felipe; Mrázek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Tn-seq is a high throughput technique for analysis of transposon mutant libraries. Tn-seq Explorer was developed as a convenient and easy-to-use package of tools for exploration of the Tn-seq data. In a typical application, the user will have obtained a collection of sequence reads adjacent to transposon insertions in a reference genome. The reads are first aligned to the reference genome using one of the tools available for this task. Tn-seq Explorer reads the alignment and the gene annotation, and provides the user with a set of tools to investigate the data and identify possibly essential or advantageous genes as those that contain significantly low counts of transposon insertions. Emphasis is placed on providing flexibility in selecting parameters and methodology most appropriate for each particular dataset. Tn-seq Explorer is written in Java as a menu-driven, stand-alone application. It was tested on Windows, Mac OS, and Linux operating systems. The source code is distributed under the terms of GNU General Public License. The program and the source code are available for download at http://www.cmbl.uga.edu/downloads/programs/Tn_seq_Explorer/ and https://github.com/sina-cb/Tn-seqExplorer. PMID:25938432

  15. Bacteriophage Lambda as a Delivery Vector for Tn10-Derived Transposons in Xenorhabdus bovienii

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Matthew S.; Parker, Angela F.; Morona, Renato; Thomas, Connor J.

    1993-01-01

    Xenorhabdus bovienii wild-type strains lack a functional receptor protein (LamB) in the outer membrane and as a result are unable to adsorb coliphage lambda (λ). Introduction of plasmids encoding lamB into X. bovienii T228 results in constitutive expression of LamB in the outer membrane of this organism. LamB-expressing strains of X. bovienii adsorb lambda bacteriophage particles and can be used as hosts for lambda::Tn constructs. A Tn10-derived transposon, element 9 (J. C. Way, D. Davis, D. Morisato, D. E. Roberts, and N. Kleckner, Gene 32:369-379, 1984) was used to construct a variety of insertion mutants of X. bovienii. Mutants that had altered expression of protease, lipase, DNase, dye-binding capability, and hemolytic activity, in addition to a series of auxotrophic mutants, were isolated. Images PMID:16349047

  16. Nuclear-spin lattice relaxation and magnetic-ion spin fluctuations in Heisenberg antiferromagnets below TN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelsberg, M.; Albino O. de Aguiar, J.

    1985-04-01

    The results of measurements on the magnetic field and temperature dependences of the 19F nuclear-spin lattice relaxation time T1 in KNiF3 for T<~0.04TN are reported. It is concluded that a relaxation mechanism that had been previously proposed to interpret the low-temperature field dependence of T1 in RbMnF3 does not explain our experimental results in KNiF3. Some similarities in the behavior of both systems suggest that a common mechanism may be responsible for spin-lattice relaxation in either case. We discuss the possibility that this mechanism may involve a diffusive mode below TN with a central peak in the relevant magnetic-ion spin correlation function.

  17. Diversity and Evolution of the Tn5801-tet(M)-Like Integrative and Conjugative Elements among Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus.

    PubMed

    León-Sampedro, Ricardo; Novais, Carla; Peixe, Luísa; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the diversity and evolution of Tn5801 among enterococci, staphylococci, and streptococci based on analysis of the 5,073 genomes of these bacterial groups available in gene databases. We also examined 610 isolates of Enterococcus (from 10 countries, 1987 to 2010) for the presence of this and other known CTn-tet(M) elements due to the scarcity of data about Tn5801 among enterococci. Genome location (by ICeu-I-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] hybridization/integration site identification), conjugation and fitness (by standard methods), Tn5801 characterization (by long-PCR mapping/sequencing), and clonality (by PFGE/multilocus sequence typing [MLST]) were studied. Twenty-three Tn5801 variants (17 unpublished) clustered in two groups, designated "A" (25 kb; n = 14; predominant in Staphylococcus aureus) and "B" (20 kb; n = 9; predominant in Streptococcus agalactiae). The percent GC content of the common backbone suggests a streptococcal origin of Tn5801 group B, with further acquisition of a 5-kb fragment that resulted in group A. Deep sequence analysis allowed identification of variants associated with clonal lineages of S. aureus (clonal complex 8 [CC8], sequence type 239 [ST239]), S. agalactiae (CC17), Enterococcus faecium (ST17/ST18), or Enterococcus faecalis (ST8), local variants, or variants located in different species and geographical areas. All Tn5801 elements were chromosomally located upstream of the guaA gene, which serves as an integration hot spot. Transferability was demonstrated only for Tn5801 type B among E. faecalis clonal backgrounds, which eventually harbored another Tn5801 copy. The study documents early acquisition of Tn5801 by Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus. Clonal waves of these pathogens seem to have contributed to the geographical spread and local evolution of the transposon. Horizontal transfer, also demonstrated, could explain the variability observed, with the isolates often containing sequences of different origins. PMID:26729505

  18. ROLE OF NA+ IN TRANSPORT OF HG2+ AND INDUCTION OF THE TN21 "MER" OPERON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of sodium ions on the uptake of Hg 2 + and induction of the TN21 mer operon were studied using E. coli HMS174 harboring the reporter plasmids pRB28 and pOS14. lasmid pRB28 carries merRT' and pOS14 carries merRTPC of the mer operon, both cloned upstream of a promoterle...

  19. Design analysis report for the TN-WHC cask and transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Brisbin, S.A., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    This document presents the evaluation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Cask and Transportation System. The system design was developed by Transnuclear, Inc. and its team members NAC International, Nelson Manufacturing, Precision Components Corporation, and Numatec, Inc. The cask is designated the TN-WHC cask. This report describes the design features and presents preliminary analyses performed to size critical dimensions of the system while meeting the requirements of the performance specification.

  20. An efficient (t,n) threshold quantum secret sharing without entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei

    2016-04-01

    An efficient (t,n) threshold quantum secret sharing (QSS) scheme is proposed. In our scheme, the Hash function is used to check the eavesdropping, and no particles need to be published. So the utilization efficiency of the particles is real 100%. No entanglement is used in our scheme. The dealer uses the single particles to encode the secret information, and the participants get the secret through measuring the single particles. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is simpler and more efficient.

  1. Tn924, a chromosome-borne transposon encoding high-level gentamicin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed Central

    Thal, L A; Chow, J W; Clewell, D B; Zervos, M J

    1994-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis SF350 is a clinical isolate from Winnipeg, Canada, with high-level (MIC > 2,000 micrograms/ml) gentamicin resistance. The genetic determinant for gentamicin resistance was located on the chromosome of SF350 and could be mobilized by a coresident conjugative plasmid, pYN120. Genetic and physical analyses showed that the gentamicin resistance determinant was located on a 27-kb transposable element which was designated Tn924. Images PMID:8067754

  2. Tn-seq; high-throughput parallel sequencing for fitness and genetic interaction studies in microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    van Opijnen, Tim; Bodi, Kip L.; Camilli, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Biological pathways are structured in complex networks of interacting genes. Solving the architecture of such networks may provide valuable information, such as how microorganisms cause disease. Here we present a method (Tn-seq) for accurately determining quantitative genetic interactions on a genome-wide scale in microorganisms. Tn-seq is based on the assembly of a saturated Mariner transposon insertion library. After library selection, changes in frequency of each insertion mutant are determined by sequencing of the flanking regions en masse. These changes are used to calculate each mutant’s fitness. Fitness was determined for each gene of the gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, a causative agent of pneumonia and meningitis. A genome-wide screen for genetic interactions identified both alleviating and aggravating interactions that could be further divided into seven distinct categories. Due to the wide activity of the Mariner transposon, Tn-seq has the potential to contribute to the exploration of complex pathways across many different species. PMID:19767758

  3. Silicon nanowire biosensors for detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) with high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kihyun; Park, Chanoh; Kwon, Donghoon; Kim, Donghoon; Meyyappan, M; Jeon, Sangmin; Lee, Jeong-Soo

    2016-03-15

    We have demonstrated highly sensitive and label-free detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), a biomarker for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, using silicon nanowire field-effect transistors. A honeycomb-like structure is utilized for nanowire configuration to offer improved electrical performance and increased sensing area. The fabricated devices show n-type behavior with a relatively high ON-OFF current ratio, small sub-threshold swing and low gate leakage current. Monoclonal antibodies for cTnI were covalently immobilized on the nanowire surface and the attachment of antibodies is clearly visualized by atomic force microscope. The sensitivity with various concentrations of buffer solution was also investigated in order to determine the optimal buffer condition. The devices exhibit highest sensitivity under buffer solutions with low ion concentration. In addition, the detection limit of the sensor is as low as ~5 pg/mL, the lowest reported in the literature to date and nearly an order of magnitude smaller than the suggested threshold limit. The fabricated devices demonstrate a good selectivity for detecting cTnI. PMID:26496224

  4. Simultaneous cycle sequencing assessment of (TG)m and Tn tract length in CFTR gene.

    PubMed

    Lucarelli, M; Grandoni, F; Rossi, T; Mazzilli, F; Antonelli, M; Strom, R

    2002-03-01

    The lengths of the dinucleotide (TG)m and mononucleotide Tn repeats, both located at the intron 8/exon 9 splice acceptor site of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene whose mutations cause cysticfibrosis (CF), have been shown to influence the skipping of exon 9 in CFTR mRNA. This exon 9-skipped mRNA encodes a nonfunctional protein and is associated with various clinical manifestations in CF As a result of growing interest in these repeats, several assessment methods have been developed, most of which are, however, cumbersome, multi-step, and time consuming. Here, we describe a rapid methodfor the simultaneous assessment of the lengths of both (TG)m and Tn repeats, based on a nonradioactive cycle sequencing procedure that can be performed even without DNA extraction. This method determines the lengths of the (TG)m and Tn tracts of both alleles, which in our samples ranged from TG8 to TG12 in the presence of T5, T7, and T9 alleles, and also fully assesses the aplotypes. In addition, the repeats in the majority of these samples can be assessed by single-strand sequencing, with no need to sequence the other strand, thereby saving a considerable amount of time and effort. PMID:11911657

  5. Retrieving TN and TP Concentration of Urban River From High Resolution IKONOS Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, J.; Zhang, L.; Song, X.

    2014-12-01

    Total nitrogen (TN) and Total phosphorus (TP) are widely known as two important indexes to measure China urban rivers, and the technique of remote sensing plays an important role in quantitatively monitoring the dynamic change and timely grasping the status of urban rivers. Taking Wen-rui Tang River as examples, this paper develops both multiple regressions (MR) model and artificial neural networks (ANN) model to estimate TN and TP concentration from high resolution IKONOS image data and in situ water samples collected concurrently with satellite overpass. By analyzing determination coefficients (R2) and relative root mean square error (RMSE), it is found that the measured and estimated values of both MR and ANN models are in good agreement (R2>0.85 and RMSE<2.50), and the estimated accuracy using ANN model is better (R2>0.86 and RMSE<0.89). The results also present the potential of high resolution IKONOS multispectral imagery to apply to urban rivers. The spatial distribution maps of TP and TN concentration generated by ANN model present apparent spatial variations and inform the decision makers of water quality variations in Wen-rui Tang River. The approach developed in this study proves to be effective and has the potential to be applied over urban rivers for water quality monitoring.

  6. Anomalies of the anaerobic tricarboxylic acid cycle in Shewanella oneidensis revealed by Tn-seq.

    PubMed

    Brutinel, Evan D; Gralnick, Jeffrey A

    2012-10-01

    The availability of increasingly inexpensive sequencing combined with an ever-expanding molecular biology toolbox has transported classical bacterial genetics into the 21st century. Whole genome genetic fitness analysis using transposon mutagenesis combined with next-generation high-throughput sequencing (Tn-seq) promises to revolutionize systems level analysis of microbial metabolism. Tn-seq measures the frequency of actual members of a heterogeneous mutant pool undergoing purifying selection to determine the contribution of every non-essential gene in the genome to the fitness of an organism under a given condition. Here we use Tn-seq to assess gene function in the Gram negative γ-proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1. In addition to being a model environmental organism, there is considerable interest in using S. oneidensis as a platform organism for bioremediation and biotechnology, necessitating a complete understanding of the metabolic pathways that may be utilized. Our analysis reveals unique aspects of S. oneidensis metabolism overlooked by over 30 years of classical genetic and systems level analysis. We report the utilization of an alternative citrate synthase and describe a dynamic branching of the S. oneidensis anaerobic tricarboxylic acid cycle, unreported in any other organism, which may be a widespread strategy for microbes adept at dissipating reducing equivalents via anaerobic respiration. PMID:22925268

  7. Incised valley fill interpretation for Mississippian Black Hand Sandstone, Appalachian Basin, USA: Implications for glacial eustasy at Kinderhookian-Osagean (Tn2-Tn3) boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matchen, D.L.; Kammer, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Lower Mississippian strata of east-central Ohio are predominantly fine-grained marine deposits of the Cuyahoga and Logan formations. Within these sediments is the Black Hand Sandstone of the Cuyahoga Formation. The Black Hand Sandstone is a multistory, crossbedded, coarse-grained conglomeratic sandstone. The contact between the Black Hand Sandstone and the subjacent Cuyahoga Formation is sharp and scoured, with intraclasts of the Cuyahoga Formation incorporated into the basal Black Hand Sandstone. The Black Hand Sandstone was previously thought to represent a distributary channel deposit; however, the combination of lithofacies and architectural elements indicates deposition in a braided stream setting. The Cuyahoga Formation was deposited in a shallow marine setting. The erosional basal contact of the Black Hand Sandstone and the juxtaposition of fluvial and marine sediments suggests a sequence boundary. The geographic distribution of the Black Hand Sandstone combined with the evidence for a sequence boundary suggests deposition in an incised valley. The age of the Black Hand Sandstone is key to inferring the causes of valley incision. The Black Hand Sandstone is nearly devoid of body fossils, necessitating a biostratigraphic analysis of the surrounding Cuyahoga and Logan formations. Analysis indicates the Logan Formation is early Osagean age. Data from the Cuyahoga Formation suggest a Kinderhookian age with a possible transition to the Osagean in the uppermost Cuyahoga Formation. This constrains the age of the Black Hand Sandstone to the transition at the Kinderhookian-Osagean boundary. Recent reports indicate late Kinderhookian (Tournaisian, Tn2) Gondwanan glaciation based upon tillites and sharp excursions in stable-isotope curves. A glacio-eustatic fall in sea level is inferred to have caused incision of the Cuyahoga Formation, followed by deposition of the Black Hand Sandstone and Logan Formation during the subsequent sea level rise. The associated unconformity correlates to the sequence boundary at the Kinderhookian-Osagean boundary in the stratotype area of North America, and the correlative Tn2-Tn3 boundary worldwide, supporting the hypothesis of a global eustatic event at this time. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. County by County in Ohio Genealogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khouw, Petta; And Others

    This comprehensive sourcebook and bibliography lists Ohio genealogical materials available at the State Library of Ohio for each county in the state. It serves as a guide to Ohio genealogical resources, including 14,000 volumes and 15,000 microforms in the non-circulating genealogy collection. The library's genealogy collection consists of a broad…

  9. 10. Photocopy of photograph showing the three Walker sisters ginning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph showing the three Walker sisters ginning cotton. Misses Hettie, Martha and Louisa are from left to right. The original photograph was taken on May 21, 1936 by Edouard E. Exline and is one of five photographs in the album, 'A Sketch of Mountain Life: Great Smoky Mountains National Park', compiled by Edouard E. Exline and C.S. Grossman. The album is on file at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the photograph number is III-A-HSE-9642. - Walker Family Farm (General views), Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. 5. Photocopy of May 21, 1936 photograph showing the interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of May 21, 1936 photograph showing the interior of the Big House (main portion, living-bedroom). The woman is Hettie Walker. The fireplace is on the house's front side. The original photograph was taken by Edouard E. Exline and is one of five photographs in the album, 'A Sketch of Mountain Life: Great Smoky Mountains National Park', compiled by Edouard E. Exline and C.S. Grossman. The album is on file at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the photograph number is II-B-(7)-8086. - Walker Family Farm, Big House, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  11. 4. Photocopy of photograph showing the corn crib as it ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph showing the corn crib as it looked on May 21, 1936. This structure was also used as a gear shed. Immediately to the right of the shed is Hettie Walker and an unidentified family member or friend. The original photograph was taken by Edouard E. Exline and is one of five photographs in the album, 'A Sketch of Mountain Life: Great Smoky Mountains National Park', compiled by Edouard E. Exline and C.S. Grossman. The album is on file at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the photograph number is II-B-(7)-8091. - Walker Family Farm, Corn Crib, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. Comprehensive identification of virulence factors required for respiratory melioidosis using Tn-seq mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Maria G.; Yoder-Himes, Deborah R.; Warawa, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory melioidosis is a disease presentation of the biodefense pathogen, Burkholderia pseudomallei, which is frequently associated with a lethal septicemic spread of the bacteria. We have recently developed an improved respiratory melioidosis model to study the pathogenesis of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the lung (intubation-mediated intratracheal [IMIT] inoculation), which more closely models descriptions of human melioidosis, including prominent septicemic spread from the lung and reduced involvement of the upper respiratory tract. We previously demonstrated that the Type 3 Secretion System cluster 3 (T3SS3) is a critical virulence determinant for B. pseudomallei when delivered directly into the lung. We decided to comprehensively identify all virulence determinants required for respiratory melioidosis using the Tn-seq phenotypic screen, as well as to investigate which virulence determinants are required for dissemination to the liver and spleen. While previous studies have used Tn-seq to identify essential genes for in vitro cultured B. pseudomallei, this represents the first study to use Tn-seq to identify genes required for in vivo fitness. Consistent with our previous findings, we identified T3SS3 as the largest genetic cluster required for fitness in the lung. Furthermore, we identified capsular polysaccharide and Type 6 Secretion System cluster 5 (T6SS5) as the two additional major genetic clusters facilitating respiratory melioidosis. Importantly, Tn-seq did not identify additional, novel large genetic systems supporting respiratory melioidosis, although these studies identified additional small gene clusters that may also play crucial roles in lung fitness. Interestingly, other previously identified virulence determinants do not appear to be required for lung fitness, such as lipopolysaccharide. The role of T3SS3, capsule, and T6SS5 in lung fitness was validated by competition studies, but only T3SS3 was found to be important for respiratory melioidosis when delivered as a single strain challenge, suggesting that competition studies may provide a higher resolution analysis of fitness factors in the lung. The use of Tn-seq phenotypic screening also provided key insights into the selective pressure encountered in the liver. PMID:26583079

  13. Comprehensive identification of virulence factors required for respiratory melioidosis using Tn-seq mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Maria G; Yoder-Himes, Deborah R; Warawa, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory melioidosis is a disease presentation of the biodefense pathogen, Burkholderia pseudomallei, which is frequently associated with a lethal septicemic spread of the bacteria. We have recently developed an improved respiratory melioidosis model to study the pathogenesis of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the lung (intubation-mediated intratracheal [IMIT] inoculation), which more closely models descriptions of human melioidosis, including prominent septicemic spread from the lung and reduced involvement of the upper respiratory tract. We previously demonstrated that the Type 3 Secretion System cluster 3 (T3SS3) is a critical virulence determinant for B. pseudomallei when delivered directly into the lung. We decided to comprehensively identify all virulence determinants required for respiratory melioidosis using the Tn-seq phenotypic screen, as well as to investigate which virulence determinants are required for dissemination to the liver and spleen. While previous studies have used Tn-seq to identify essential genes for in vitro cultured B. pseudomallei, this represents the first study to use Tn-seq to identify genes required for in vivo fitness. Consistent with our previous findings, we identified T3SS3 as the largest genetic cluster required for fitness in the lung. Furthermore, we identified capsular polysaccharide and Type 6 Secretion System cluster 5 (T6SS5) as the two additional major genetic clusters facilitating respiratory melioidosis. Importantly, Tn-seq did not identify additional, novel large genetic systems supporting respiratory melioidosis, although these studies identified additional small gene clusters that may also play crucial roles in lung fitness. Interestingly, other previously identified virulence determinants do not appear to be required for lung fitness, such as lipopolysaccharide. The role of T3SS3, capsule, and T6SS5 in lung fitness was validated by competition studies, but only T3SS3 was found to be important for respiratory melioidosis when delivered as a single strain challenge, suggesting that competition studies may provide a higher resolution analysis of fitness factors in the lung. The use of Tn-seq phenotypic screening also provided key insights into the selective pressure encountered in the liver. PMID:26583079

  14. 75 FR 61696 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, TN; Application for Subzone; Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... America, Inc. (Carbon Fiber and Oxidized Polyacrylonitrile Fiber Manufacturing); Rockwood, TN An... carbon fiber and oxidized polyacrylonitrile fiber (OPF) manufacturing and warehousing facilities of Toho... manufacturing, warehousing and distribution of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)--based carbon fiber and OPF (up to...

  15. Transfer of Vancomycin Resistance Transposon Tn1549 from Clostridium symbiosum to Enterococcus spp. in the Gut of Gnotobiotic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Launay, Aline; Ballard, Susan A.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Grayson, M. Lindsay; Lambert, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    The vancomycin resistance vanB2 gene cluster is disseminated worldwide and has been found in phylogenetically remote bacterial genera. The vanB2 operon is part of conjugative transposons Tn1549/Tn5382, but conjugative transposition of these elements has not been demonstrated. We have obtained transfer of a Tn1549-like element (referred to herein as “Tn1549-like”) from Clostridium symbiosum MLG101 to Enterococcus faecium 64/3 and Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice and to E. faecium 64/3 in vitro. Retransfer of Tn1549-like from an E. faecium transconjugant also containing Tn916 to E. faecium BM77 was obtained in vitro, albeit at a very low frequency. Transfer efficiency was found to be both donor and recipient dependent. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of total SmaI-digested DNA of 48 transconjugants indicated in 27 instances the acquisition of ca. 34 kb of DNA. Two transconjugants harbored two copies of the transposon. Sequencing of the flanking regions of Tn1549-like in 48 transconjugants revealed 29 integration events in 26 loci in the E. faecium genome, and two hot spots for insertion were identified. Integration of the transposon was associated with the acquisition of 5 (n = 18) or 6 (n = 7) bp of donor DNA or with 5-bp duplications of target DNA in the remaining transconjugants. These data demonstrate functionality of the Tn1549-like element and attest that the transfer of the vanB operon between enterococci and human commensal anaerobes occurs in the intestinal environment. PMID:16495268

  16. 77 FR 21505 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Blountville, TN, and Revocation of Class E Airspace...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ...This action proposes to amend Class D and Class E surface airspace at Blountville, TN, and remove Class E airspace at Tri-City, TN, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures have been developed at Tri-Cities Regional Airport. This action would enhance the safety and airspace management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations for SIAPs at the airport. This action would also update the......

  17. Nitrogen removal from low COD/TN ratio manure-free piggery wastewater within an upflow microaerobic sludge reactor.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jia; Li, Jiuling; Li, Jianzheng; Antwi, Philip; Deng, Kaiwen; Wang, Cheng; Buelna, Gerardo

    2015-12-01

    An upflow microaerobic sludge reactor (UMSR) was constructed in treating manure-free piggery wastewater with high ammonium concentration and a COD/TN ratio as low as 0.84. The UMSR offered an outstanding removal of NH4(+)-N and TN at 35°C and hydraulic retention time 8h subsequent to inoculated sludge acclimation. A short NO2(-)-N accumulation phase was observed whenever there was a considerable increase in TN loading rate (NLR), but decreased rapidly along with an evident increase in TN removal. Fed with raw wastewater at a NLR of 1.10 kg/(m(3)d), the average COD, NH4(+)-N and TN removal reached 0.72, 0.76 and 0.94 kg/(m(3)d), respectively. Inference drawn from stoichiometry based on the potential nitrogen removal pathways and the C/N ratio required by denitrification indicated that anammox was the main mechanism for NH4(+)-N and TN removal in the UMSR. PMID:26409858

  18. The Listeria monocytogenes transposon Tn6188 provides increased tolerance to various quaternary ammonium compounds and ethidium bromide.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anneliese; Rychli, Kathrin; Zaiser, Andreas; Wieser, Cornelia; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2014-12-01

    Tolerance of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to sublethal concentrations of disinfectants has been frequently reported. Particularly, quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) are often used in disinfectants and also as antiseptics in food industry and hospitals. Recently, we described Tn6188, a novel transposon in L. monocytogenes harbouring the transporter QacH, a molecular mechanism leading to increased tolerance to BC. In this study, we investigated the presence of Tn6188 within the genus Listeria spp. Our screening indicates that the distribution of Tn6188 may be limited to L. monocytogenes. We confirm that QacH is responsible for the observed increase in tolerance by complementation of a qacH deletion mutant and introducing qacH in a Tn6188 negative strain. We investigated the transporter's substrate spectrum by determining minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and showed that QacH also confers higher tolerance towards other QACs and ethidium bromide (EtBr). This result was supported by increased expression of qacH in the presence of the various substrates as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). In addition, we detected expression of a Tn6188 transposase gene and circular forms of Tn6188, suggesting activity and possible transfer of this transposon. PMID:25312720

  19. 75 FR 52367 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Memphis Pink Palace Museum, Memphis, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Togo site (3CS24), Cross County, AR, during amateur excavations. The human remains were donated to the... amateur excavations. The human remains were donated to the museum in 1972 (Accn. 1972.28.1-5). No...

  20. Tn916-generated, lipooligosaccharide mutants of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, D S; McAllister, C F; Zhou, D; Lee, F K; Apicella, M A

    1994-01-01

    A library of Tn916-generated, tetracycline-resistant (Tc) mutants of the group B Neisseri meningitidis strain NMB was screened by using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognize structural differences in neisserial lipooligosaccharide (LOS). The LOS of parental strain NMB had a relative molecular mass of 4.5 kDa, reacted with MAbs 3F11 and 6B4 but not with MAb 4C4 or 6E4, and contained a lacto-N-neotetrose unit. Two phenotypically stable mutants, SS3 and R6, altered in LOS, were identified by colony immunoblots, electrophoresis, and Western immunoblots. The LOS of mutant SS3 was 3.4 kDa and reacted with MAbs 4C4 and 6E4 but not MAb 3E11 or 6B4. The LOS of mutant R6 was 3.1 to 3.2 kDa and reacted with MAb 6E4 but not MAb 3F11, 6B4, or 4C4. Thus, the LOSs of the R6 and SS3 mutants were predicted to contain different truncations of the core oligosaccharide. The LOS phenotype of each mutant was linked to Tc(r), as determined by transformation of the parent strain with DNA from the mutant. Southern hybridizations and single-specific-primer PCR revealed in each mutant a single truncated tn916 insertion which had lost genes required for mobilization. Tn916 mutagenesis was used to identify two distinct genetic sites in the meningococcal chromosome involved in biosynthesis of the oligosaccharide chain of LOS and to create genetically defined LOS mutants of N. meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Images PMID:7516313

  1. The 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Rebecca; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2015-04-01

    The 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland, was much more explosive than previous eruptions, specifically its 2004 eruption. This research examines the degassing processes of the 2011 eruption, through density and vesicule analyses, to help uncover the reasons for the more vigorous eruption. Over 1200 collected tephra samples from the 2011 sequences are measured for density and vesicularity. Several samples are chosen to be representative of eruptive phases; samples from the beginning of the eruption, the mid-eruption and the end phases are chosen. These pumice samples are impregnated with epoxy and made into plugs for use in a Scanning Electron Microscope with which, a nested image approach is taken to image the vesicules of the samples at different magnifications. Each backscatter image is converted to binary and corrected using GIMP. Using ImageJ software, quantitative vesicularity analysis of the images is performed and results are converted to volume. The density, quantitative vesicularity, and volume results are assessed for patterns and the processes of the magma during the ascent in the conduit and eruptive phases are inferred. The objective of this research is to use the microscopic vesicularity analyses of the eruptive products to theorize the larger scale magmatic and degassing processes and to understand why the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption was uncharacteristically explosive. Currently, the results are being examined and have not been included in this abstract, however the research will be finalized in time for presentation at the EGU 2015 conference. Keywords: Grímsvötn volcano, quantitative vesicularity analysis, bubble size distribution, volcanic degassing, conduit processes

  2. Characterization of a transposon Tn916-generated mutant of Haemophilus ducreyi 35000 defective in lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, B W; Campagnari, A A; Melaugh, W; Phillips, N J; Apicella, M A; Grass, S; Wang, J; Palmer, K L; Munson, R S

    1997-01-01

    To define the role of the surface lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of Haemophilus ducreyi in the pathogenesis of chancroid, Tn916 mutants of H. ducreyi 35000 defective in expression of the murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) 3F11 epitope on H. ducreyi LOS were identified by immunologic screening. One mutant, designated 1381, has an LOS which lacks the MAb 3F11 epitope and migrates with an increased mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The gene disrupted by the Tn916 element in strain 1381 was identified by cloning the sequences flanking the Tn916 element. The sequences were then used to probe a lambda DASHII genomic library. In strain 1381, Tn916 interrupts a gene which encodes an open reading frame (ORF) with an Mr of 40,246. This ORF has homology to the product of the rfaK gene of Escherichia coli. The major LOS glycoform produced by strain 1381 was analyzed by using a combination of mass spectrometry, linkage and composition analysis, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The major LOS species was found to terminate in a single glucose attached to the heptose (L-glycero-D-manno-heptose, or Hep) trisaccharide core. In the wild-type strain 35000, glucose serves as the acceptor for the addition of the D-glycero-D-manno-heptose (or DDHep), which extends to form the mature branch of the H. ducreyi LOS. This mature oligosaccharide is in turn partially capped by the addition of sialic acid (NeuAc), i.e., NeuAc2 alpha-->3Gal beta1-->4GlcNAc beta1-->3Gal beta1-->4DDHep alpha1-->6Glc beta1 (W. Melaugh et al., Biochemistry 33:13070-13078, 1994). Since this LOS terminates prior to the addition of the branch DD-heptose, this gene is likely to encode the D-glycero-D-manno-heptosyltransferase. Strain 1381 exhibits a significant reduction in adherence to and invasion of primary human keratinocytes. This defect was complemented by the cloned heptosyltransferase gene, indicating that the terminal portion of the LOS oligosaccharide plays an important role in adherence to human keratinocytes. PMID:9260947

  3. Mutagenesis of dimeric plasmids by the transposon. gamma. delta. (Tn1000)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Berg, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The Escherichia coli F factor mediates conjugal transfer of a plasmid such as pBR322 primarily by replicative transposition of transposon {gamma}{delta} (Tn1000) from F to that plasmid to form a cointegrate intermediate. Although resolution of this cointegrate always yields a plasmid containing a single {gamma}{delta} insertion, the occasional recovery of transposon-free plasmids after connuugal transfer has led to alternative hypotheses for F mobilization. The authors show here that {gamma}{delta}-free plasmids are found after F-mediated conjugal transfer only when the donor plasmid is a dimer and the recipient is Rec{sup +}.

  4. The Tn7 transposition regulator TnsC interacts with the transposase subunit TnsB and target selector TnsD

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ki Young; Spencer, Jeanelle M.; Craig, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    The excision of transposon Tn7 from a donor site and its insertion into its preferred target site, attachment site attTn7, is mediated by four Tn7-encoded transposition proteins: TnsA, TnsB, TnsC, and TnsD. Transposition requires the assembly of a nucleoprotein complex containing all four Tns proteins and the DNA substrates, the donor site containing Tn7, and the preferred target site attTn7. TnsA and TnsB together form the heteromeric Tn7 transposase, and TnsD is a target-selecting protein that binds specifically to attTn7. TnsC is the key regulator of transposition, interacting with both the TnsAB transposase and TnsD-attTn7. We show here that TnsC interacts directly with TnsB, and identify the specific region of TnsC involved in the TnsBTnsC interaction during transposition. We also show that a TnsC mutant defective in interaction with TnsB is defective for Tn7 transposition both in vitro and in vivo. Tn7 displays cis-acting target immunity, which blocks Tn7 insertion into a target DNA that already contains Tn7. We provide evidence that the direct TnsBTnsC interaction that we have identified also mediates cis-acting Tn7 target immunity. We also show that TnsC interacts directly with the target selector protein TnsD. PMID:24982178

  5. Triboelectric charging of volcanic ash from Grímsvötn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, Isobel; Aplin, Karen; Nicoll, Keri

    2013-04-01

    Volcanic ash is known to charge electrically, producing some of the most spectacular displays of lightning in nature. Triboelectric charging is one mechanism associated with volcanic plume electrification. Previous theoretical work on triboelectric charging of single-material particle systems has shown that the charging is likely to be determined by the number size distribution (Lacks and Levandovsky, 2007). Here we investigate triboelectric charging of a sample of ash from the Grímsvötn eruption in 2011 using a specially designed apparatus. Ash is released to fall under gravity through a screened metal cylinder and into an isolated Faraday cup. A sensitive electrometer is used to measure the voltage change associated with the charge on the ash. The release mechanism has been designed to facilitate only self-charging of the ash, as is expected in the atmospheric plume. Using geological sieves to separate the sample into different size fractions, we were able to create artificial size distributions to investigate the effects of changing the number size distribution. We find that for a sample with a narrow range of particle sizes, the Faraday cup voltage change is much smaller than for a sample with a wide range of particle sizes, in agreement with theory. These results demonstrate that self-charging of ash through triboelectrification is likely, supporting both a frictional origin for the sustained lightning observed during the Grímsvötn eruption, and other observations of self-charging in a plume distant from the source.

  6. The Sugar Creek zinc deposit, Jackson Co. TN -- Exploration history, geology and mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Reinbold, G.; Moran, A.V.; Stevens, D.L. )

    1993-03-01

    During the 60's and 70's zinc exploration of central TN and KY was active. The Sugar Creek Project was one of several investigated by Exxon. The discovery hole, Cu 15, was drilled in early 1973. The Sugar Creek Zinc Deposit was acquired by Independence Mining Co. in 1986 and I.M.C. has subsequently completed additional drilling, both stepout and confirmation holes. A total of 137 holes for 300,833 ft have been drilled. The Sugar Creek deposit is a typical Tennessee zinc deposit (Mississippi Valley Type) which occurs in solution collapse breccias in the Lower Ordovician, Knox Dolomite. The Knox consists of fine grained dolomite with interlayered limestones and crystalline dolomite. Only scattered residual limestone is found in the Sugar Creek area. Collapse breccias have formed which control zinc deposition and are similar to other TN Zn. deposits. At Sugar Creek the types of breccias include: a vertically exaggerated glory hole breakthrough breccia which extends to within 137 ft. of the Knox unconformity, has 500 ft. of zinc mineralization with 8 significant zinc intervals; holes with stacked zinc intervals interpreted to be sides of breakthrough breccia; and single zinc intervals in laterally positioned bedded mineral zones. A total of 99 holes were drilled in the more intense mineralized areas. The ratio of ore to non ore holes is nearly 1 to 1. The mineralization is typical M.V.T. with predominantly sphalerite and only minor occurrences of galena, fluorite, pyrite, etc.

  7. Target DNA bending is an important specificity determinant in target site selection in Tn10 transposition.

    PubMed

    Pribil, Patrick A; Haniford, David B

    2003-07-01

    The bacterial transposon Tn10 inserts preferentially into specific DNA sequences. DNA footprinting and interference studies have revealed that the Tn10-encoded transposase protein contacts a large stretch of target DNA ( approximately 24 bp) and that the target DNA structure is deformed upon incorporation into the transpososome. Target DNA deformation might contribute significantly to target site selection and thus it is of interest to further define the nature of this deformation. Circular permutation analysis was used to demonstrate that the target DNA is bent upon its incorporation into the transpososome. Two lines of evidence are presented that target DNA bending is an important event in target site selection. First, we demonstrate a correlation between increased target site usage and an increased level of target DNA bending. Second, transposase mutants with relaxed target specificity are shown to cause increased target DNA bending relative to wild-type transposase. This latter observation provides new insight into how relaxed specificity may be achieved. We also show that Ca(2+) facilitates target capture by stabilizing transposase interactions with sequences immediately flanking the insertion site. Ca(2+) could, in theory, exert this effect by stabilizing bends in the target DNA. PMID:12823965

  8. Tn5-induced mutations affecting sulfur-oxidizing ability (Sox) of Thiosphaera pantotropha

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, T.S.; Friedrich, C.G.

    1986-05-01

    Mutants of Thiosphaera pantotropha defective in chemolithoautotrophic growth were obtained by transpositional mutagenesis with Tn5 coding for kanamycin resistance. The suicide vehicle for introducing Tn5 to T. pantotropha was pSUP5011 harbored by Escherichia coli. Kanamycin-resistant isolates were screened for the inability to grow with reduced sulfur compounds (Sox/sup -/). Four classes of Sox/sup -/ mutants were obtained. Three were of different pleiotropic phenotypes: (i) unable to grow with formate, nitrate, and xanthine; (this class strongly suggested the involvement of a molybdenum cofactor in inorganic sulfur-oxidizing ability); (ii) no growth with hydrogen; (iii) slight growth with hydrogen and formate. Two plasmids, pHG41 (about 450 kilobase pairs) and pHG42 (110 kilobases), were identified in lysates of T. pantotropha. In one Sox/sup -/ mutant pHG41 could not be detected. Revertant analysis suggested that pHG41 and pHG42 were not involved in the Sox character.

  9. Comparison of preoperative TN staging of gastric carcinoma by endoscopic ultrasonography with CT examination

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wen; Zhang, Ya-Li; Li, Guo-Xing; Zhou, Dian-Yuan; Zhang, Wan-Dai

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To assess the accuracy and limitations of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the preoperative staging of gastric carcinoma in comparison with computed tomography (CT). METHODS: According to the new (1987) TN staging, 62 patients with gastric carcinomas were examined preoperatively by EUS and the results compared with those of postoperative pathological TN staging. CT of abdomen was performed before surgery for 32 of the patients. RESULTS: The overall accuracy of T staging was 83.9% for EUS and 28.1% for CT. For the detection of regional lymph node metastases, EUS accuracy was 79.0%, sensitivity 80.0% and specificity 87.5%, versus 50.0% accuracy for CT. The coincidence of perigastric infiltration was 90.0% for EUS and 41.2% for CT. The most frequent causes of misdiagnosis by EUS were microscopic tumor invasion and peritumorous inflammatory or fibrous changes. CONCLUSION: EUS is a reliable method for the clinical evaluation of locoregional extension of gastric cancer and more accurate than CT in the preoperative staging of gastric carcinoma.

  10. Modeling in-situ uranium(VI) bioreduction at Oak Ridge, TN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, J.; Weber, F.; Cirpka, O. A.; Wu, W.; Nyman, J. L.; Carley, J. M.; Jardine, P. M.; Criddle, C. S.; Kitanidis, P. K.

    2005-12-01

    A travel-time based reactive-transport model is developed to simulate an in-situ bioremediation experiment for demonstrating enhanced bioreduction of uranium(VI) at Oak Ridge, TN. The space to travel-time transformation is obtained from a conservative-tracer test. Reactive transport is solved numerically in time and travel-time coordinates. Reaction kinetics include aquatic equilibrium geochemistry, uranium sorption and precipitation, and the microbial reduction of nitrate, sulfate and U(VI). U(VI) sorption/desorption is described by a surface-complexation model and the characteristics of kinetic sorption/desorption is described by mass transfer between stagnant micro-pores and mobile flow zones. The model characterizes the succession of terminal electron accepting processes and the growth and decay of sulfate-reducing bacteria, concurrent with the enzymatic reduction of aqueous U(VI) species. The effective U(VI) reduction rate and sorption site distributions are determined by fitting the model simulation to an in-situ experiment at Oak Ridge, TN. Results indicate that (1) nitrate inhibits U(VI) reduction at the site; (2) the effective reduction rate of U(VI) is much smaller than the values reported for laboratory experiments; (3) U(VI) sorption/desorption is kinetically controlled; (4) pH and bicarbonate concentration varies over the experimental period, significantly influencing the U(VI) sorption/desorption; and (5) calcium concentration influences the concentrations of biodegradable U(VI) species.

  11. Excision and Transposition of Tn5 as an Sos Activity in Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, C. T.; Liu, S. K.; Tessman, I.

    1991-01-01

    Excision and transposition of the Tn5 element in Escherichia coli ordinarily appear to occur by recA-independent mechanisms. However, recA(Prt(c)) genes, which encode RecA proteins that are constitutively activated to the protease state, greatly enhanced excision and transposition; both events appeared to occur concomitantly and without destruction of the donor DNA. The recombinase function of the RecA protein was not required. Transposition was accompanied by partial, and occasionally full, restoration of the functional integrity of the gene vacated by the excised Tn5. The stimulation of transposition was inhibited by an uncleavable LexA protein and was strongly enhanced by an additional role of the RecA(Prt(c)) protein besides its mediation of LexA cleavage. To account for the enhanced transposition, we suggest that (i) there may be a LexA binding site within the promoter for the IS50 transposase, (ii) activated RecA may cleave the IS50 transposition inhibitor, and (iii) the transposase may be formed by RecA cleavage of a precursor molecule. PMID:1648004

  12. A modular master on the move: the Tn916 family of mobile genetic elements.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Adam P; Mullany, Peter

    2009-06-01

    The Tn916 family is a group of mobile genetic elements that are widespread among many commensal and pathogenic bacteria. These elements are found primarily, but not exclusively, in the Firmicutes. They are integrated into the bacterial genome and are capable of conjugative transfer to a new host and, often, intracellular transposition to a different genomic site - hence their name: 'conjugative transposons', or 'integrative conjugative elements'. An increasing variety of Tn916 relatives are being reported from different bacteria, harbouring genes coding for resistance to various antibiotics and the potential to encode other functions, such as lantibiotic immunity. This family of mobile genetic elements has an extraordinary ability to acquire accessory genes, making them important vectors in the dissemination of various traits among environmental, commensal and clinical bacteria. These elements are also responsible for genome rearrangements, providing considerable raw material on which natural selection can act. Therefore, the study of this family of mobile genetic elements is essential for a better understanding and control of the current rise of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria. PMID:19464182

  13. 40 CFR 81.304 - Arkansas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... County Howard County Lafayette County Little River County Miller County Sevier County 1 This date is... Interstate Unclassifiable/Attainment Columbia County Hempstead County Howard County Lafayette County...

  14. Diversity of Tn1546 and its role in the dissemination of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Novais, Carla; Freitas, Ana R; Sousa, João C; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M; Peixe, Luísa V

    2008-03-01

    We characterized the molecular diversity of vanA vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE; 176 isolates/87 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types) from different sources and cities in Portugal (1996 to 2004): (i) food animals (FA; n = 38 isolates out of 31 samples), hospitalized humans (HH; n = 101/101), healthy human volunteers (HV; n = 7/4), and environmental sources (n = 30/10). Some strains were isolated from different hosts and persistently recovered for years. Twenty-four Tn1546 variants were identified, all located on plasmids (30 to 250 kb). Some Tn1546 variants were associated with specific sources such as FA (3 types), HH (11 types), or HV (1 type), while others were recovered from isolates of different origins (8 types). Polymorphisms in the central vanRSHA region of Tn1546 were scarcely detected, while alterations upstream of vanR and downstream of vanA were frequently identified involving mutations (vanS and vanX), deletions (vanY), insertions (IS1216V, ISEf1, and IS19; sequences with or without homology with others available in GenBank databases), and different genetic rearrangements. Most Tn1546 variants contained IS1216V (14 types) or ISEf1 (6 types). IS1216V was found alone or associated with an IS3-like element at different orientations and positions in Tn1546 from human, animal, and environmental samples. ISEf1 was located within vanX-vanY region at nucleotide 9044 of Tn1546 variants mostly associated with clinical isolates, suggesting a common genetic platform. IS19 was observed within the vanX-vanY region in one Tn1546 variant from poultry. Recent spread of VRE in Portugal reflects a complex epidemiology involving both clonal spread and plasmid dissemination containing a variety of Tn1546 types. Apparent Tn1546 heterogeneity among enterococci from human, animal, and environmental sources might reflect frequent genetic exchange events and evolution of particular widely disseminated genetic elements. PMID:18180362

  15. One step in-situ synthesis of amine functionalized graphene for immunosensing of cardiac marker cTnI.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Satish K; Kukkar, Manil; Suri, C R; Paul, A K; Deep, Akash

    2015-04-15

    2-Aminobenzyl amine (2-ABA) functionalized graphene is proposed for the ultrasensitive immunosensing of Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI). 2-ABA was electrochemically polymerized on the graphene decorated interdigitated electrode to obtain the amine functionalized graphene (f-GN). The f-GN electrode was then modified with monoclonal anti-cTnI antibodies via Schiff reaction based chemistry. Detailed characteristics of the processes involved and the finally developed antibody conjugated f-GN interdigitated electrode have been studied. The above micro-device was used in a drain source configuration for the sensing of cTnI. A wide dynamic linear range of antigen detection (0.01-1ng/mL) is achieved with the limit of detection of 0.01ng/mL. The utility of the proposed sensing technique is demonstrated by successfully testing the antigen concentration in spiked serum samples. PMID:25460893

  16. [City and County Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Judith O.; And Others

    Six papers presented at the Institute were concerned with city and county records. They are: "EWEB and Its Records," which discusses the history, laws and records of the Eugene Water and Electric Board (EWEB);""Police Records: Eugene, Oregon," classifies police records, other than administrative, into three general categories: (1) case or…

  17. Westchester County Employers Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Marcia M.

    The Westchester County Employers Survey was done in May 2003 in order learn more about employee training needs, how they accomplished these needs, and how it would be possible for the Westchester Community College to fulfill these needs. Out of the 639 surveys sent, 145 were returned in a satisfactory format, which produces a 22.6% return rate.…

  18. Counties Without a Physician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Virginia

    1982-01-01

    Uses a budgeting technique to determine if free-market incentives or forces would provide an economic base sufficient to support medical professionals who might practice in the approximately 140 U.S. counties that lack a physician (located mainly in a narrow band from west Texas north through South Dakota). (AH)

  19. Meigu County Yi Tone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eatough, Andy

    One dialect of Yi spoken in Meigu County in the southern part of China's Sichuan Province is analyzed for its tone patterns, based on data provided by a bilingual native speaker. Consonant and vowel inventories are provided. Three contrastive tones are found. One has three allophones, which are conditioned by the preceding tone. Tonal allophony is…

  20. Experimental manipulation of TN:TP ratiossuppress cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystinconcentration in large-scale in situ mesocosms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Theodore D.; Wilhelm, Frank M.; Graham, Jennifer; Loftin, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    A global dataset was compiled to examine relations between the total nitrogen to total phosphorus ratio (TN:TP) and microcystin concentration in lakes and reservoirs. Microcystin concentration decreased as TN:TP ratios increased, suggesting that manipulation of the TN:TP ratio may reduce microcystin concentrations. This relationship was experimentally tested by adding ammonium nitrate to increase the TN:TP ratio in large-scale (70 m3), in situ mesocosms located in a eutrophic reservoir that routinely experiences toxic blooms of cyanobacteria. At a TN:TP ratio >75:1, chlorophytes dominated the phytoplankton community in the mesocosms, while cyanobacterial biovolume was significantly reduced and microcystin was not detected. In contrast, the unmanipulated reservoir was dominated by cyanobacteria, and microcystin was detected. Secchi depths were 1.1 to 1.8 times greater in the mesocosms relative to the reservoir. Cladoceran zooplankton had a larger body size (0.14 mm on average) in the mesocosms compared to conspecifics in the reservoir, which was likely related to the higher quality food. Combined, these empirical and experimental data indicate that although nutrient addition is counterintuitive to current cyanobacteria management practices, increasing the TN:TP ratio by adding nitrogen may be a potential short-term management strategy to reduce cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins when other alternatives (e.g., phosphorus reduction) are not possible. Additional experimental studies with careful controls are needed to define best management practices and identify any potential unintended consequences before nitrogen addition is implemented as a lake and reservoir management practice.

  1. 76 FR 58241 - Opportunity for Designation in the Jamestown, ND; Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... & Grain, McPaul, Fremont County, Iowa; and Haveman Grain, Murray, Cass County, Nebraska. Midsouth Pursuant..., Pipestone, Murray, Cottonwood, Rock, Nobles, Jackson, and Martin Counties. In Nebraska: Cedar, Dakota, Dixon... areas, in the States of Minnesota and North Dakota, are assigned to this official agency. In...

  2. A simple in vitro Tn7-based transposition system with low target site selectivity for genome and gene analysis

    PubMed Central

    Biery, Matthew C.; Stewart, Fiona J.; Stellwagen, Anne E.; Raleigh, Elisabeth A.; Craig, Nancy L.

    2000-01-01

    A robust Tn7-based in vitro transposition system is described that displays little target site selectivity, allowing the efficient recovery of many different transposon insertions in target DNAs ranging from small plasmids to cosmids to whole genomes. Two miniTn7 derivatives are described that are useful for the analysis of genes: one a derivative for making translational and transcriptional target gene fusions and the other a derivative that can generate 15 bp (5 amino acid) insertions in target DNAs (proteins). PMID:10666445

  3. The sulfur budget of the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Haddadi, Baptiste; Carn, Simon; Moune, Séverine; Gudnason, Jónas; Yang, Kai; Clarisse, Lieven

    2013-12-01

    Sulfur concentrations have been measured in 28 melt inclusions (MIs) in plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and olivine crystals extracted from tephra produced during the explosive eruption of Grímsvötn in May 2011. The results are compared to sulfur concentrations in the groundmass glass in order to estimate the mass of sulfur brought to surface during the eruption. Satellite measurements yield order of magnitude lower sulfur (~0.2 Tg) in the eruption plume than estimated from the difference between MI and the groundmass glass. This sulfur "deficit" is readily explained by sulfur adhering to tephra grains but principally by sulfide globules caused by basalt-sulfide melt exsolution before degassing. A mass balance calculation reveals that approximately ~0.8 Tg of SO2 is present as globules, representing ~50% of the total sulfur budget. Most of the sulfide globules likely reside at depth due to their elevated density, for potential later remobilization by new magma or hydrothermal circulation.

  4. TN-68 Spent Fuel Transport Cask Analytical Evaluation for Drop Events

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M. J.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Koeppel, Brian J.

    2007-03-30

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for licensing commercial spent nuclear fuel transported in casks certified by NRC under the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR), Title 10, Part 71 [1]. Both the International Atomic Energy Agency regulations for transporting radioactive materials [2, paragraph 727], and 10 CFR 71.73 require casks to be evaluated for hypothetical accident conditions, which includes a 9-meter (m) (30-ft) drop-impact event onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, in the most damaging orientation. This paper examines the behavior of one of the NRC certified transportation casks, the TN-68 [3], for drop-impact events. The specific area examined is the behavior of the bolted connections in the cask body and the closure lid, which are significantly loaded during the hypothetical drop-impact event. Analytical work to evaluate the NRC-certified TN-68 spent fuel transport cask [3] for a 9-m (30-ft) drop-impact event on a flat, unyielding, horizontal surface, was performed using the ANSYS® [4] and LS DYNA™ [5] finite-element analysis codes. The models were sufficiently detailed, in the areas of bolt closure interfaces and containment boundaries, to evaluate the structural integrity of the bolted connections under 9-m (30-ft) free-drop hypothetical accident conditions, as specified in 10 CFR 71.73. Evaluation of the cask for puncture, caused by a free drop through a distance of 1-m (40-in.) onto a mild steel bar mounted on a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, required by 10 CFR 71.73, was not included in the current work, and will have to be addressed in the future. Based on the analyses performed to date, it is concluded that, even though brief separation of the flange and the lid surfaces may occur under some conditions, the seals would close at the end of the drop events, because the materials remain elastic during the duration of the event.

  5. Immunization of breast cancer patients using a synthetic sialyl-Tn glycoconjugate plus Detox adjuvant.

    PubMed

    MacLean, G D; Reddish, M; Koganty, R R; Wong, T; Gandhi, S; Smolenski, M; Samuel, J; Nabholtz, J M; Longenecker, B M

    1993-01-01

    We have synthesized various formulations that have potential for active specific immunotherapy (ASI) of human cancers. Sialyl-Tn (STn) is a potentially important target structure for ASI because its expression on mucins is a strong, independent predictor of poor prognosis, suggesting that it may have functional significance in the metastatic process. In this first pilot study of synthetic sialyl-Tn hapten conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (STn-KLH), with Detox adjuvant, toxicity and humoral immunogenicity were assessed in 12 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Toxicity was minimal, restricted to local cutaneous reactions (apart from transient nausea and vomiting following single low-dose cyclophosphamide treatment). Using STn-conjugated human serum albumin in a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, it was shown that all patients developed IgM and IgG specific for the synthetic STn hapten. Following immunization, most patients were shown to develop increased titres of complement-mediated cytotoxic antibodies, partially inhibited by synthetic STn hapten, but not by the related TF hapten. We also detected IgM and IgG antibodies reactive with natural STn determinants expressed on ovine submaxillary mucin, the STn specificity of this reactivity being confirmed by hapten inhibition. Evaluation of clinical efficacy in a small pilot study is difficult. Five patients are alive 12 or more months after entry, and another 4 patients are alive 6 or more months after entry into the study. All 3 patients with known widespread bulky disease progressed despite ASI, 2 having died from widespread cancer. Two patients had partial responses, each lasting 6 months. While several patients had disease stability for 3-10 months, 1 patient with pulmonary metastases remains stable 15 months after entry into the program. PMID:8439984

  6. Variations in geothermal heat flux at Grímsvötn, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iona Reynolds, Hannah; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnús

    2014-05-01

    Thermal signals from sub-surface magmatic sources are difficult to quantify, as the measurement of fluxes from the ground to the atmosphere is subject to large uncertainties. Ice cauldrons are depressions which form on the surface of glaciers due to basal melting as a result of geothermal flux from the bedrock beneath, often generated by volcanic sources. The monitoring of ice cauldrons provides a unique opportunity to quantify heat flux to a much improved accuracy, as the melting ice acts as a calorimeter. Time series data of ice surface elevation at cauldrons above Grímsvötn volcano are presented over a 14 year period, with estimates of the melt volume and surface heat flux required for this melting to have occurred. Three volcanic eruptions took place at Grímsvötn during the study period, the effects of which are visible in ice surface elevation data. However, separate thermal anomalies are observed in areas unaffected by erupted products. A peak in surface heat flux is observed following the 1998 eruption, several kilometres east of the vent, with a maximum rise of ~200 W·m-2. The anomalous signal lasts for approximately three years. Possible explanations include the intrusion of a dyke beneath this area during the eruption, or increased permeability from greater dilatational strain due to regional stress, both of which would significantly increase heat flux. We investigate possible scenarios which could produce such a thermal anomaly, using finite element modelling. The effects of cooling magmatic intrusions and changes to the parameter space for country rock conductivity and permeability are considered, in relation to heat flux and the timescales and spatial extent of associated surface anomalies. Our results advance the understanding and interpretation of thermal signals observed at ice-covered volcanoes.

  7. Tn5-Induced and Spontaneous Switching of Sinorhizobium meliloti to Faster-Swarming Behavior†

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xueming; Bauer, Wolfgang D.

    1999-01-01

    Tn5 mutants of Sinorhizobium meliloti RMB7201 which swarmed 1.5 to 2.5 times faster than the parental strain in semisolid agar, moist sand, and viscous liquid were identified. These faster-swarming (FS) mutants outgrew the wild type 30- to 40-fold within 2 days in mixed swarm colonies. The FS mutants survived and grew as well as or better than the wild type under all of the circumstances tested, except in a soil matrix subjected to air drying. Exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis was reduced in each of the FS mutants when they were grown on defined succinate-nitrate medium, but the extent of reduction was different for each. It appears that FS behavior likely results from a modest, general derepression of motility involving an increased proportion of motile and flagellated cells and an increased average number of flagella per cell and increased average flagellar length. Spontaneous FS variants of RMB7201 were obtained at a frequency of about 1 per 10,000 to 20,000 cells by either enrichment from the periphery of swarm colonies or screening of colonies for reduced EPS synthesis on succinate-nitrate plates. The spontaneous FS variants and Tn5 FS mutants were symbiotically effective and competitive in alfalfa nodulation. Reversion of FS variants to wild-type behavior was sporadic, indicating that reversion is affected by unidentified environmental factors. Based on phenotypic and molecular differences between individual FS variants and mutants, it appears that there may be multiple genetic configurations that result in FS behavior in RMB7201. The facile isolation of spontaneous FS variants of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa indicates that switching to FS behavior may be fairly common among bacterial species. The substantial growth advantage of FS mutants and variants wherever nutrient gradients exist suggests that switching to FS forms may be an important behavioral adaptation in natural environments. PMID:10049888

  8. Sequence-Based Characterization of Tn5801-Like Genomic Islands in Tetracycline-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Other Gram-positive Bacteria from Humans and Animals

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Lisbeth E.; Hasman, Henrik; Jurado Rabadán, Sonia; Agersø, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in pathogens is often associated with mobile genetic elements, such as genomic islands (GI) including integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs). These can transfer resistance genes within and between bacteria from humans and/or animals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Tn5801-like GIs carrying the tetracycline resistance gene, tet(M), are common in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from pets, and to do an overall sequences-based characterization of Tn5801-like GIs detected in Gram-positive bacteria from humans and animals. A total of 27 tetracycline-resistant S. pseudintermedius isolates from Danish pets (1998–2005) were screened for tet(M) by PCR. Selected isolates (13) were screened for GI- or ICE-specific genes (intTn5801 or xisTn916) and their tet(M) gene was sequenced (Sanger-method). Long-range PCR mappings and whole-genome-sequencing (Illumina) were performed for selected S. pseudintermedius-isolates (seven and three isolates, respectively) as well as for human S. aureus isolates (seven and one isolates, respectively) and one porcine Enterococcus faecium isolate known to carry Tn5801-like GIs. All 27 S. pseudintermedius were positive for tet(M). Out of 13 selected isolates, seven contained Tn5801-like GIs and six contained Tn916-like ICEs. Two different Tn5801-like GI types were detected among S. pseudintermedius (Tn5801 and GI6287) - both showed high similarity compared to GenBank sequences from human pathogens. Two distinct Tn5801-like GI types were detected among the porcine E. faecium and human S. aureus isolates (Tn6014 and GI6288). Tn5801-like GIs were detected in GenBank-sequences from Gram-positive bacteria of human, animal or food origin worldwide. Known Tn5801-like GIs were divided into seven types. The results showed that Tn5801-like GIs appear to be relatively common in tetracycline-resistant S. pseudintermedius in Denmark. Almost identical Tn5801-like GIs were identified in different Gram-positive species of pet and human origin, suggesting that horizontal transfer of these elements has occurred between S. pseudintermedius from pets and human pathogens, including S. aureus. PMID:27199912

  9. Effect of subinhibitory concentrations of four commonly used biocides on the conjugative transfer of Tn916 in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Seier-Petersen, M. A.; Jasni, A.; Aarestrup, F. M.; Vigre, H.; Mullany, P.; Roberts, A. P.; Agersø, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Large amounts of biocides are used to reduce and control bacterial growth in the healthcare sector, food production and agriculture. This work explores the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of four commonly used biocides (ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine digluconate and sodium hypochlorite) on the conjugative transposition of the mobile genetic element Tn916. Methods Conjugation assays were carried out between Bacillus subtilis strains. The donor containing Tn916 was pre-exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of each biocide for a defined length of time, which was determined by an analysis of the transcriptional response of the promoter upstream of tet(M) using β-glucuronidase reporter assays. Results Ethanol significantly (P = 0.01) increased the transfer of Tn916 by 5-fold, whereas hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine digluconate and sodium hypochlorite did not significantly affect the transfer frequency. Conclusions These results suggest that exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of ethanol may induce the transfer of Tn916-like elements and any resistance genes they contain. PMID:24092655

  10. Arbitrary PCR for Rapid Mapping of Tn5 Insertions in Pyoverdine Genes of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of 13 transposon mutants deficient in pyoverdine production was analyzed using an arbitrary polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach to map the sites of Tn5 insertions in the genome of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. The arbitrary PCR method involved two rounds of reactions, with the fi...

  11. 78 FR 25403 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dayton, TN, Establishment of Class E Airspace; Cleveland...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959..., Establishment of Class E Airspace; Cleveland, TN, and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Bradley Memorial...

  12. Identification of a catabolic transposon, Tn4371, carrying biphenyl and 4-chlorobiphenyl degradation genes in Alcaligenes eutrophus A5.

    PubMed Central

    Springael, D; Kreps, S; Mergeay, M

    1993-01-01

    Alcaligenes eutrophus A5 catabolizes biphenyl to CO2 via benzoate and 4-chlorobiphenyl to 4-chlorobenzoate. In curing and conjugation experiments, the A5 endogenous 51-kb IncP1 plasmid pSS50 was found to be dispensable for biphenyl and 4-chlorobiphenyl catabolism. Transfer of the biphenyl- and 4-chlorobiphenyl-degrading phenotype by means of pSS50 was observed at a frequency of 10(-5) per transferred plasmid in matings of A5 with other A. eutrophus strains. Transconjugants harbor enlarged pSS50 derivatives which contain additional genetic information governing the oxidation of biphenyl and 4-chlorobiphenyl to benzoate and 4-chlorobenzoate and originating from the chromosome of strain A5. The following observations indicate that the catabolic genes reside on a 59-kb large transposon (Tn4371) for which a restriction map is presented. (i) Tn4371 transposes between different replicons and at different locations of the same replicon. (ii) Transposition was observed in a Rec- strain of A. eutrophus. (iii) Tn4371 transposes as a single, contiguous piece of DNA. Although an RP4::Tn4371 plasmid was stably maintained in different hosts, the plasmid conferred growth on biphenyl only when present in strains of A. eutrophus and in an Acinetobacter sp. strain. Images PMID:8383664

  13. Resistance determinant erm(X) is borne by transposon Tn5432 in Bifidobacterium thermophilum and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, Angela H A M; Mayrhofer, Sigrid; Domig, Konrad J; Aarts, Henk J M

    2008-06-01

    The erm(X) gene from erythromycin- and clindamycin-resistant Bifidobacterium strains was characterised by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis, including flanking regions. Results suggest that the resistance determinant was part of transposon Tn5432 that has been described in several opportunistic pathogens such as Corynebacterium striatum and Propionibacterium acnes. PMID:18378122

  14. 77 FR 73978 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, TN, Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ...), located in Rockwood, Tennessee, with authority to manufacture carbon fiber for export and oxidized polyacrylonitrile fiber (Board Order 1868, 77 FR 69435, 11/19/2012). Board Order 1868 did not include authority to... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 148--Knoxville, TN, Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon...

  15. 76 FR 53115 - Foreign-Trade Zone 77-Memphis, TN; Application for Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Manufacturing Authority; Flextronics Logistics USA, Inc. (Cell Phone/Mobile Handset Kitting); Memphis, TN An..., Memphis (Site 4). Under T/IM procedures, Flextronics has requested authority to produce cell phones/mobile... duty rates during customs entry procedures that apply to cell phone/mobile handset kits (duty free)...

  16. RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENT OF THE BIOGENIC CONTRIBUTION TO SUMMERTIME PM 2.5 AMBIENT AEROSOL IN NASHVILLE, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurements performed on PM-2.5 samples collected near Nashville, TN from June 21 to July 13, 1999, showed high levels of modern carbon, ranging from 56 to 80% of the total carbon in the samples. Radiocarbon measurements performed on dichloromethane extracts of...

  17. 76 FR 34799 - Permanent Dam Safety Modification at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Permanent Dam Safety Modification at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams, TN AGENCY... various alternatives for permanent modifications to the existing dam facilities at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar dams in Tennessee. The level of review will be determined after the public...

  18. 77 FR 68818 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office, Oak Ridge, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office, Oak Ridge, TN AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Energy... National Park Service's administrative responsibilities under NAGPRA, 25 U.S.C. 3003(d)(3)....

  19. [Spatial variability of soil nitrogen and related affecting factors at a county scale in hilly area of Mid-Sichuan Basin].

    PubMed

    Luo, You-Lin; Li, Qi-Quan; Wang, Chang-Quan; Li, Bin; Zhang, Xin; Feng, Wen-Ying; Weng, Qian; Wu, Mian

    2015-02-01

    Spatial distribution characteristics of soil total nitrogen ( TN ) and available nitrogen ( AN ) were analyzed by using geostatistical methods and the effects of the influencing factors were quantified by regression analysis based on 555 soil samples collected in RenShou county. The results showed that the contents of soil TN ranged from 0.34-2.57 g x kg(-1) with a mean value of 1.12 g x kg(-1), which indicated the TN of the study area was at a medium level, and AN ranged from 25.86-184.17 mg x kg(-1) with a mean value of 74.35 mg x kg(-1), which indicated the AN of the study area was low. The values of the nugget to sill ratio were 0.608 and 0.790 respectively, which suggestd TN had moderate spatial dependence, which was determined by the co-effects of structural and random factors, while AN was mainly affected by random factors. The contents of TN and AN in north area were much higher than those of south area and distribution of Patchy. The soil parent materials were able to explain 6.3% and 1.0% of TN and AN spatial variability. Soil types explained 26.5% - 36.1% of TN variability and 27.7% - 28.7% of AN variability. Topographical factors explained 5.5% of TN variability and 6.1% of AN variability, the structural factors of soil types reflected spatial variability of nitrogen in the study area. The randomness factors of land use types explained 37.7% of TN variability and 40.0% of AN variability that were much larger than the other factors, which suggested land use had the higherst independent explaining capacity for nitrogen spatial variability among those influence factors and land use type was the main factor to accurately predict the spatial distribution of soil nitrogen in the hilly area of Middle Sichuan Basin. PMID:26031095

  20. Snohomish County Biodiesel Project

    SciTech Connect

    Terrill Chang; Deanna Carveth

    2010-02-01

    Snohomish County in western Washington State began converting its vehicle fleet to use a blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel in 2005. As prices for biodiesel rose due to increased demand for this cleaner-burning fuel, Snohomish County looked to its farmers to “grow” this fuel locally. Suitable seed crops that can be crushed to extract oil for use as biodiesel feedstock include canola, mustard, and camelina. The residue, or mash, has high value as an animal feed. County farmers began with 52 acres of canola and mustard crops in 2006, increasing to 250 acres and 356 tons in 2008. In 2009, this number decreased to about 150 acres and 300 tons due to increased price for mustard seed.

  1. Mobility and generation of mosaic non-autonomous transposons by Tn3-derived inverted-repeat miniature elements (TIMEs).

    PubMed

    Szuplewska, Magdalena; Ludwiczak, Marta; Lyzwa, Katarzyna; Czarnecki, Jakub; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Functional transposable elements (TEs) of several Pseudomonas spp. strains isolated from black shale ore of Lubin mine and from post-flotation tailings of Zelazny Most in Poland, were identified using a positive selection trap plasmid strategy. This approach led to the capture and characterization of (i) 13 insertion sequences from 5 IS families (IS3, IS5, ISL3, IS30 and IS1380), (ii) isoforms of two Tn3-family transposons--Tn5563a and Tn4662a (the latter contains a toxin-antitoxin system), as well as (iii) non-autonomous TEs of diverse structure, ranging in size from 262 to 3892 bp. The non-autonomous elements transposed into AT-rich DNA regions and generated 5- or 6-bp sequence duplications at the target site of transposition. Although these TEs lack a transposase gene, they contain homologous 38-bp-long terminal inverted repeat sequences (IRs), highly conserved in Tn5563a and many other Tn3-family transposons. The simplest elements of this type, designated TIMEs (Tn3 family-derived Inverted-repeat Miniature Elements) (262 bp), were identified within two natural plasmids (pZM1P1 and pLM8P2) of Pseudomonas spp. It was demonstrated that TIMEs are able to mobilize segments of plasmid DNA for transposition, which results in the generation of more complex non-autonomous elements, resembling IS-driven composite transposons in structure. Such transposon-like elements may contain different functional genetic modules in their core regions, including plasmid replication systems. Another non-autonomous element "captured" with a trap plasmid was a TIME derivative containing a predicted resolvase gene and a res site typical for many Tn3-family transposons. The identification of a portable site-specific recombination system is another intriguing example confirming the important role of non-autonomous TEs of the TIME family in shuffling genetic information in bacterial genomes. Transposition of such mosaic elements may have a significant impact on diversity and evolution, not only of transposons and plasmids, but also of other types of mobile genetic elements. PMID:25121765

  2. Mobility and Generation of Mosaic Non-Autonomous Transposons by Tn3-Derived Inverted-Repeat Miniature Elements (TIMEs)

    PubMed Central

    Szuplewska, Magdalena; Ludwiczak, Marta; Lyzwa, Katarzyna; Czarnecki, Jakub; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Functional transposable elements (TEs) of several Pseudomonas spp. strains isolated from black shale ore of Lubin mine and from post-flotation tailings of Zelazny Most in Poland, were identified using a positive selection trap plasmid strategy. This approach led to the capture and characterization of (i) 13 insertion sequences from 5 IS families (IS3, IS5, ISL3, IS30 and IS1380), (ii) isoforms of two Tn3-family transposons – Tn5563a and Tn4662a (the latter contains a toxin-antitoxin system), as well as (iii) non-autonomous TEs of diverse structure, ranging in size from 262 to 3892 bp. The non-autonomous elements transposed into AT-rich DNA regions and generated 5- or 6-bp sequence duplications at the target site of transposition. Although these TEs lack a transposase gene, they contain homologous 38-bp-long terminal inverted repeat sequences (IRs), highly conserved in Tn5563a and many other Tn3-family transposons. The simplest elements of this type, designated TIMEs (Tn3 family-derived Inverted-repeat Miniature Elements) (262 bp), were identified within two natural plasmids (pZM1P1 and pLM8P2) of Pseudomonas spp. It was demonstrated that TIMEs are able to mobilize segments of plasmid DNA for transposition, which results in the generation of more complex non-autonomous elements, resembling IS-driven composite transposons in structure. Such transposon-like elements may contain different functional genetic modules in their core regions, including plasmid replication systems. Another non-autonomous element “captured” with a trap plasmid was a TIME derivative containing a predicted resolvase gene and a res site typical for many Tn3-family transposons. The identification of a portable site-specific recombination system is another intriguing example confirming the important role of non-autonomous TEs of the TIME family in shuffling genetic information in bacterial genomes. Transposition of such mosaic elements may have a significant impact on diversity and evolution, not only of transposons and plasmids, but also of other types of mobile genetic elements. PMID:25121765

  3. Solid-phase synthesis of a pentavalent GalNAc-containing glycopeptide (Tn antigen) representing the nephropathy-associated IgA hinge region

    PubMed Central

    Bolscher, Jan G.M.; Brevoord, Judith; Nazmi, Kamran; Ju, Tongzhong; Veerman, Enno C.I.; van Wijk, Joanna A. E.; Cummings, Richard D.; van Die, Irma

    2010-01-01

    Incomplete or aberrant glycosylation leading to Tn antigen (GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr) expression on human glycoproteins is strongly associated with human pathological conditions, including tumors, certain autoimmune diseases, such as the idiopathic IgA nephropathy, and may modulate immune homeostasis. In addition, the Tn antigen is highly expressed by certain pathogens and plays a role in host–pathogen interactions. To enable experimental approaches to study interactions of the Tn antigen with the immune system and analyse anti-Tn antibody responses in infection or disorders, we generated a Tn-expressing resource that can be used for high-throughput screening. In consideration of IgA nephropathy in which the hinge region is incompletely glycosylated, we used this hinge sequence that encodes five potential glycosylation sites as the ideal template for the synthesis of a Tn antigen expressing glycopeptide. Inclusion of an N-terminal biotin in the peptide enabled binding to streptavidin-coated ELISA plates as monitored using Helix pomatia agglutinin or anti-Tn monoclonal antibody. We also found that the biotinylated IgA-Tn peptide is a functional acceptor for β1-3-galactosylation using recombinant T-synthase (β1-3-galactosyltransferase). Besides its immunochemical functionality as a possible diagnostic tool for IgA nephropathy, the peptide is an excellent substrate for glycan elongation and represents a novel template applicable for glycan–antigen-associated diseases. PMID:20719305

  4. Skeletal Muscle Troponin I (TnI) in Animal Fat Tissues to Be Used as Biomarker for the Identification of Fat Adulteration

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bong-Sup; Oh, Young-Kyoung; Kim, Min-Jin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the existence of skeletal muscle troponin I (smTnI), well-known as a muscle protein in fat tissues, and the utilization of smTnI as a biomarker for the identification of fat adulteration were investigated. A commercial antibody (ab97427) specific to all of animals smTnI was used in this study. Fat and meat samples (cooked and non-cooked) of pork and beef, and chicken considered as representative meats were well minced and extracted by heating and non-heating methods, and the extracts from fat and meat tissues were probed by the antibody used in both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot. The antibody exhibited a strong reaction to all meat and fat extracts in ELISA test. On the other hand, the results of immunoblot analsis revealed a 23 kDa high intensity band corresponding to the molecular weight of smTnI (23786 Da). These results demonstrate that the existence of smTnI in all animal fat tissues. Since there are monoclonal antibodies specific to each species smTnI, smTnI in fat tissues could be used as a biomarker to identify or determine animal species adulterated in meat products. Therefore, an analytical method to identify fraudulent fat adulteration can be developed with an antibody specific to each species smTnI. PMID:26761680

  5. Skeletal Muscle Troponin I (TnI) in Animal Fat Tissues to Be Used as Biomarker for the Identification of Fat Adulteration.

    PubMed

    Park, Bong-Sup; Oh, Young-Kyoung; Kim, Min-Jin; Shim, Won-Bo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the existence of skeletal muscle troponin I (smTnI), well-known as a muscle protein in fat tissues, and the utilization of smTnI as a biomarker for the identification of fat adulteration were investigated. A commercial antibody (ab97427) specific to all of animals smTnI was used in this study. Fat and meat samples (cooked and non-cooked) of pork and beef, and chicken considered as representative meats were well minced and extracted by heating and non-heating methods, and the extracts from fat and meat tissues were probed by the antibody used in both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot. The antibody exhibited a strong reaction to all meat and fat extracts in ELISA test. On the other hand, the results of immunoblot analsis revealed a 23 kDa high intensity band corresponding to the molecular weight of smTnI (23786 Da). These results demonstrate that the existence of smTnI in all animal fat tissues. Since there are monoclonal antibodies specific to each species smTnI, smTnI in fat tissues could be used as a biomarker to identify or determine animal species adulterated in meat products. Therefore, an analytical method to identify fraudulent fat adulteration can be developed with an antibody specific to each species smTnI. PMID:26761680

  6. Solid-phase synthesis of a pentavalent GalNAc-containing glycopeptide (Tn antigen) representing the nephropathy-associated IgA hinge region.

    PubMed

    Bolscher, Jan G M; Brevoord, Judith; Nazmi, Kamran; Ju, Tongzhong; Veerman, Enno C I; van Wijk, Joanna A E; Cummings, Richard D; van Die, Irma

    2010-09-23

    Incomplete or aberrant glycosylation leading to Tn antigen (GalNAcalpha1-Ser/Thr) expression on human glycoproteins is strongly associated with human pathological conditions, including tumors, certain autoimmune diseases, such as the idiopathic IgA nephropathy, and may modulate immune homeostasis. In addition, the Tn antigen is highly expressed by certain pathogens and plays a role in host-pathogen interactions. To enable experimental approaches to study interactions of the Tn antigen with the immune system and analyze anti-Tn antibody responses in infection or disorders, we generated a Tn-expressing resource that can be used for high-throughput screening. In consideration of IgA nephropathy in which the hinge region is incompletely glycosylated, we used this hinge sequence that encodes five potential glycosylation sites as the ideal template for the synthesis of a Tn antigen-expressing glycopeptide. Inclusion of an N-terminal biotin in the peptide enabled binding to streptavidin-coated ELISA plates as monitored using Helix pomatia agglutinin or anti-Tn monoclonal antibody. We also found that the biotinylated IgA-Tn peptide is a functional acceptor for beta1-3-galactosylation using recombinant T-synthase (beta1-3-galactosyltransferase). Besides its immunochemical functionality as a possible diagnostic tool for IgA nephropathy, the peptide is an excellent substrate for glycan elongation and represents a novel template applicable for glycan-antigen-associated diseases. PMID:20719305

  7. The effect and biological mechanism of COD/TN ratio on nitrogen removal in a novel upflow microaerobic sludge reactor treating manure-free piggery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianzheng; Meng, Jia; Li, Jiuling; Wang, Cheng; Deng, Kaiwen; Sun, Kai; Buelna, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    A novel upflow microaerobic sludge reactor (UMSR) was constructed to treat manure-free piggery wastewater with high NH4(+)-N concentration and low COD/TN ratio, and the effect and biological mechanism of COD/TN ratio on nitrogen removal were investigated at a constant hydraulic retention time of 8h and 35°C. The results showed that the UMSR could treat the wastewater with a better synchronous removal of COD, NH4(+)-N and TN. The microaerobic UMSR allowed nitrifiers, and heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifiers to thrive in the flocs, revealing a multiple nitrogen removal mechanism in the reactor. Both the nitrifiers and denitrifiers would be restricted by an influent COD/TN ratio more than 0.82, resulting in a decrease of TN removal in the UMSR. To get a TN removal over 80% with a TN load removal above 0.86kg/(m(3)·d) in the UMSR, the influent COD/TN ratio should be less than 0.70. PMID:26972024

  8. Use of the promoter fusion transposon Tn5 lac to identify mutations in Bordetella pertussis vir-regulated genes.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, A A; Melton, A R; Walker, K E; Andraos-Selim, C; Meidl, J J

    1989-01-01

    Mutants of Bordetella pertussis deficient in virulence-associated factors were identified by using the transposon Tn5 lac. Tn5 lac is a derivative of Tn5 which generates promoter fusions for beta-galactosidase. Tn5 lac insertions in the vir-regulated genes of B. pertussis were identified by selecting for kanamycin-resistant mutants that expressed beta-galactosidase when the vir-regulated genes were expressed but not when the vir-regulated genes were turned off. Fourteen different mutations in vir-regulated genes were identified. Two mutants were deficient in the production of the filamentous hemagglutinin, two mutants were deficient in the production of adenylate cyclase toxin and hemolysin, and one mutant was deficient in the production of dermonecrotic toxin. One insertion mapped adjacent to the pertussis toxin gene, but the mutant produced pertussis toxin. The phenotypes of the remaining eight mutants were not determined, but the mutants did not appear to be deficient in the production of the 69,000-dalton outer membrane protein (agglutinogen 3) or the capsule. Screening for mutations in either of the fimbrial genes proved to be problematic since the parental strain was found to switch from a fimbriated to a nonfimbriated state at a high frequency, which was suggestive of the metastable expression of pili in other bacteria. We used Southern blot analysis with a 30-mer specific for the fimbrial sequences. No bands with the predicted increase in size due to the 12 kilobases from Tn5 lac were observed, which suggests that none of these genes were mutated. Southern blot analysis also revealed that seven of the eight unidentified mutations mapped to different restriction fragments, which suggests that they could be deficient in as many as seven different genes. Images PMID:2569447

  9. Use of the promoter fusion transposon Tn5 lac to identify mutations in Bordetella pertussis vir-regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Weiss, A A; Melton, A R; Walker, K E; Andraos-Selim, C; Meidl, J J

    1989-09-01

    Mutants of Bordetella pertussis deficient in virulence-associated factors were identified by using the transposon Tn5 lac. Tn5 lac is a derivative of Tn5 which generates promoter fusions for beta-galactosidase. Tn5 lac insertions in the vir-regulated genes of B. pertussis were identified by selecting for kanamycin-resistant mutants that expressed beta-galactosidase when the vir-regulated genes were expressed but not when the vir-regulated genes were turned off. Fourteen different mutations in vir-regulated genes were identified. Two mutants were deficient in the production of the filamentous hemagglutinin, two mutants were deficient in the production of adenylate cyclase toxin and hemolysin, and one mutant was deficient in the production of dermonecrotic toxin. One insertion mapped adjacent to the pertussis toxin gene, but the mutant produced pertussis toxin. The phenotypes of the remaining eight mutants were not determined, but the mutants did not appear to be deficient in the production of the 69,000-dalton outer membrane protein (agglutinogen 3) or the capsule. Screening for mutations in either of the fimbrial genes proved to be problematic since the parental strain was found to switch from a fimbriated to a nonfimbriated state at a high frequency, which was suggestive of the metastable expression of pili in other bacteria. We used Southern blot analysis with a 30-mer specific for the fimbrial sequences. No bands with the predicted increase in size due to the 12 kilobases from Tn5 lac were observed, which suggests that none of these genes were mutated. Southern blot analysis also revealed that seven of the eight unidentified mutations mapped to different restriction fragments, which suggests that they could be deficient in as many as seven different genes. PMID:2569447

  10. Electrical Properties Of Volcanic Ash Samples From Grímsvötn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, I. M.; Aplin, K. L.; Nicoll, K. A.; Green, O.; Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent Icelandic eruptions in 2012 and 2011 were associated with sustained charging of the ash plume (Harrison et al., 2010) and significant volcanic lightning (Bennett et al., 2010; Arason et al., 2012). The sustained charging suggests that some charging of the plume is independent of the eruption process, in addition to other electrification mechanisms such as triboelectric or fractoemission processes at the vent, the 'dirty thunderstorm' mechanism if ice forms in the plume, and the internal radioactivity of the plume (Mather and Harrison, 2006; James et al., 2008). We investigate the triboelectric charging of volcanic material using a charged particle apparatus, which allows the charged particles to fall under gravity in a screened metallic cylinder. This apparatus comprises two induction rings connected to sensitive electrometers, which detect charge induced by the falling ash, and a Faraday cup to measure the total ash charge. The release mechanism has been designed to facilitate only self charging of the ash, as is expected in the atmospheric plume. Previous work on triboelectric charging of single-material particle systems has shown that the charging is likely to be determined by the number size distribution (Lacks and Levandovsky, 2007). We present a mass distribution measurement for a sample of volcanic ash provided by the Icelandic Meteorological Office collected 70 km from the crater of the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption. This shows a high proportion of fine particles compared with the volumetric size distribution reported in Piper et al. (2012). Optical microscopy of the different size fractions of the Grímsvötn sample indicates that the composition varies with size. In addition to charge transfer as a function of size, the different substances will triboelectrically interact with each other, which complicates the nature of the charge interactions. To separate the dependence of particle charging on size from composition, particle charging experiments were performed with pumice (a much more homogeneous material than ash) and compared to the results obtained with the volcanic ash samples. Arason P, Bennett A J and Burgin L E 2011 Charge mechanism of volcanic lightning revealed during the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, J. Geophys. Res. 116 B00C03 Bennett A J, Odams P, Edwards D and Arason P 2010 Monitoring of lightning from the April-May 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption using a very low frequency lightning location network, Environ. Res. Lett. 5 044013 Harrison R G, Nicoll K A, Ulanowksi Z and Mather T A 2010 Self-charging of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash plume Environ. Res. Lett. 5 024004 James M R, Wilson L, Lane S J , Gilbert J S, Mather T A, Harrison R G and Martin R S 2008 Electrical charging of volcanic plumes, Space Science Reviews 137 399-418 Lacks D J and Levandovsky A, 2007, Effect of particle size distribution on the polarity of triboelectric charging in granular insulator systems, J. Electrostatics, 65, 107-112 Mather T A and Harrison R G 2006 Electrification of volcanic plumes, Surveys in Geophysics 27 4 387-432 Piper I M, Aplin K L and Nicoll K A 2012 Electrical properties of volcanic ash samples from Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn, Proceedings of Annual Aerosol Society Conference 2012, arXiv 1207.6733

  11. Geodetic constraints on volcanic plume height at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Roberts, Matthew; Björnsson, Halldór; Grapenthin, Ronni; Arason, Pórdur; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Hólmjárn, Jósef; Geirsson, Halldór; Bennett, Richard; Gudmundsson, Magnús; Oddsson, Björn; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Villemin, Thierry; Jónsson, Torsteinn; Sturkell, Erik; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Larsen, Gudrún; Thordarson, Thor; Óladóttir, Bergrún

    2014-05-01

    In 2011 a VEI 4 explosive eruption took place at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland. Grímsvötn is a subglacial basaltic volcano beneath the Vatnajökull ice cap. It is Iceland's most frequently erupting volcano, with recent eruptions in 1983, 1998, 2004, and 2011. The volcano has a low seismic velocity anomaly down to about 3 km depth, interpreted as a magma chamber. A continuous GPS station and a tiltmeter are located on a nunatak, Mount Grímsfjall, which protrudes from the ice at the southern rim of the caldera. The 21-28 May 2011 eruption was Grímsvötn's largest since 1873, resulting in airspace closure in northern Europe and the cancellation of about 900 passenger flights. The eruption was preceded by gradual inflation following the 2004 eruption and progressive increase in seismicity. Kinematic 1 Hz solutions were derived for the position of the GPS station in the hours immediately before and during the 2011 eruption. The onset of deformation preceded the eruption by one hour and reached maximum of 0.57 m within 48 hours. Throughout the eruption the GPS station moved consistently in direction N38.4+/-0.5W, opposite to the direction of movements during the 2004-2011 inter eruptive phase. The deformation characteristics suggest that the signal was mostly due to pressure change in a source at 1.7 +/- 0.2 km depth. We use the geodetic measurements to infer co-eruptive pressure change in the magma chamber using the Mogi model. The rate of pressure drop is then used to estimate the magma flow rate from the chamber. Numerous studies have shown that plume height in explosive eruptions can be related to magma discharge. Using an empirical relationship between the volcanic plume height and magma flow rate (Mastin et al., 2009) we estimate the evolution of the plume height from the geodetic data. Two weather radars monitored the height of the volcanic plume during the eruption. A strong initial plume with peaks at 20-25 km was followed by a declining, pulsating activity. The observed plume height and the geodetically inferred plume height correlate closely in the first 24 h, showing pulsating behavior with peaks exceeding 15 km height in the first 12 h. After 24 h the measured plume height drops to 10 km or lower. The time from the initiation of the pressure drop to the onset of the eruption was about 60 min, with about 25% of the total pressure change preceding the eruption. During the eruption we find constant scaling between the geodetic station velocity and eruptive flux evaluated from plume height data. If interpreted in near-real time, these observations could greatly improve forecasting of the onset and evolution of explosive eruptions and volcanic plume height.

  12. Hydrology of Lake County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Darwin D.; Hughes, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    Lake County includes a 1,150 square-mile area consisting of ridges, uplands, and valleys in central-peninsular Florida. About 32 percent of the county is covered by lakes, swamps, and marshes. Water requirements in 1970 averaged about 54 million gallons per day. About 85 percent of the water was obtained from wells; about 15 percent from lakes. The Floridan aquifer supplies almost all the ground water used in Lake County. Annual recharge to the Floridan aquifer averages about 7 inches over the county; runoff average 8.5 inches. The quality of ground and surface water in Lake County is in general good enough for most uses; however, the poor quality of Floridan-aquifer water in the St. John River Valley probably results from the upward movement of saline water along a fault zone. Surface water in Lake County is usually less mineralized than ground water but is more turbid and colored. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. KPC-4 Is Encoded within a Truncated Tn4401 in an IncL/M Plasmid, pNE1280, Isolated from Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Kendall A.; Van Schooneveld, Trevor C.; Thapa, Ishwor; Bastola, Dhundy; Williams, Laurina O.; Safranek, Thomas J.; Hinrichs, Steven H.; Rupp, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the transfer of blaKPC-4 from Enterobacter cloacae to Serratia marcescens in a single patient. DNA sequencing revealed that KPC-4 was encoded on an IncL/M plasmid, pNE1280, closely related to pCTX-M360. Further analysis found that KPC-4 was encoded within a novel Tn4401 element (Tn4401f) containing a truncated tnpA and lacking tnpR, ISKpn7 left, and Tn4401 IRL-1, which are conserved in other Tn4401 transposons. This study highlights the continued evolution of Tn4401 transposons and movement to multiple plasmid backbones that results in acquisition by multiple species of Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:23070154

  14. A rapid and simple method for the isolation of mutant variants regulating tissue-specific expression of the TnI gene through drug selection

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Youngwon; Kim, Myoung Hee; Emerson, C.P. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    TnINEO fusion gene was constructed by fusing 3.4-kbp of quail TnI genomic DNA sequences spanning the promoter to exon 5 and a neo gene in frame. A myoblast cell line was established after transfection of pTnINEO. Since this cell line was passaged several times, a high frequency of neomycin (G418) sensitivity conversion was detected. Two drug-resistant variants were analyzed through genomic Southern blot and S1 nuclease protection assay. One variant has a mutation(s) in the regulatory element that activated the dormant TnI promoter-enhancer in myoblast, and the other has shown the geonomic rearrangement. This result presented the possibility of isolating factor(s) that activate the muscle-specific TnI promoter simply by screening drug-resistant cells having appropriate mutations. 12 refs., 4 fig.

  15. TnBP⁄Triton X-45 Treatment of Plasma for Transfusion Efficiently Inactivates Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ming-Li; Burnouf, Thierry; Chang, Shun-Pang; Hung, Ting-Chun; Lin, Chun-Ching; Richardson, Christopher D.; Lin, Liang-Tzung

    2015-01-01

    Risk of transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) by clinical plasma remains high in countries with a high prevalence of hepatitis C, justifying the implementation of viral inactivation treatments. In this study, we assessed the extent of inactivation of HCV during minipool solvent/detergent (SD; 1% TnBP / 1% Triton X-45) treatment of human plasma. Luciferase-tagged infectious cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) particles were used to spike human plasma prior to treatment by SD at 31 ± 0.5°C for 30 min. Samples were taken before and after SD treatment and filtered on a Sep-Pak Plus C18 cartridge to remove the SD agents. Risk of cytotoxicity was assessed by XTT cell viability assay. Viral infectivity was analyzed based on the luciferase signals, 50% tissue culture infectious dose viral titer, and immunofluorescence staining for HCV NS5A protein. Total protein, cholesterol, and triglyceride contents were determined before and after SD treatment and C18 cartridge filtration. Binding analysis, using patient-derived HCV clinical isolates, was also examined to validate the efficacy of the inactivation by SD. SD treatment effectively inactivated HCVcc within 30 min, as demonstrated by the baseline level of reporter signals, total loss of viral infectivity, and absence of viral protein NS5A. SD specifically targeted HCV particles to render them inactive, with essentially no effect on plasma protein content and hemostatic function. More importantly, the efficacy of the SD inactivation method was confirmed against various genotypes of patient-derived HCV clinical isolates and against HCVcc infection of primary human hepatocytes. Therefore, treatment by 1% TnBP / 1% Triton X-45 at 31°C is highly efficient to inactivate HCV in plasma for transfusion, showing its capacity to enhance the safety of therapeutic plasma products. We propose that the methodology used here to study HCV infectivity can be valuable in the validation of viral inactivation and removal processes of human plasma-derived products. PMID:25658612

  16. Monoclonal antibodies toward different Tn-amino acid backbones display distinct recognition patterns on human cancer cells. Implications for effective immuno-targeting of cancer.

    PubMed

    Mazal, Daniel; Lo-Man, Richard; Bay, Sylvie; Pritsch, Otto; Dériaud, Edith; Ganneau, Christelle; Medeiros, Andrea; Ubillos, Luis; Obal, Gonzalo; Berois, Nora; Bollati-Fogolin, Mariela; Leclerc, Claude; Osinaga, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    The Tn antigen (GalNAcα-O-Ser/Thr) is a well-established tumor-associated marker which represents a good target for the design of anti-tumor vaccines. Several studies have established that the binding of some anti-Tn antibodies could be affected by the density of Tn determinant or/and by the amino acid residues neighboring O-glycosylation sites. In the present study, using synthetic Tn-based vaccines, we have generated a panel of anti-Tn monoclonal antibodies. Analysis of their binding to various synthetic glycopeptides, modifying the amino acid carrier of the GalNAc(*) (Ser* vs Thr*), showed subtle differences in their fine specificities. We found that the recognition of these glycopeptides by some of these MAbs was strongly affected by the Tn backbone, such as a S*S*S* specific MAb (15G9) which failed to recognize a S*T*T* or a T*T*T* structure. Different binding patterns of these antibodies were also observed in FACS and Western blot analysis using three human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, LS174T and Jurkat). Importantly, an immunohistochemical analysis of human tumors (72 breast cancer and 44 colon cancer) showed the existence of different recognition profiles among the five antibodies evaluated, demonstrating that the aglyconic part of the Tn structure (Ser vs Thr) plays a key role in the anti-Tn specificity for breast and colon cancer detection. This new structural feature of the Tn antigen could be of important clinical value, notably due to the increasing interest of this antigen in anticancer vaccine design as well as for the development of anti-Tn antibodies for in vivo diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:23604173

  17. The fully synthetic MAG-Tn3 therapeutic vaccine containing the tetanus toxoid-derived TT830-844 universal epitope provides anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Laubreton, Daphné; Bay, Sylvie; Sedlik, Christine; Artaud, Cécile; Ganneau, Christelle; Dériaud, Edith; Viel, Sophie; Puaux, Anne-Laure; Amigorena, Sebastian; Gérard, Catherine; Lo-Man, Richard; Leclerc, Claude

    2016-03-01

    Malignant transformations are often associated with aberrant glycosylation processes that lead to the expression of new carbohydrate antigens at the surface of tumor cells. Of these carbohydrate antigens, the Tn antigen is particularly highly expressed in many carcinomas, especially in breast carcinoma. We designed MAG-Tn3, a fully synthetic vaccine based on three consecutive Tn moieties that are O-linked to a CD4(+) T cell epitope, to induce anti-Tn antibody responses that could be helpful for therapeutic vaccination against cancer. To ensure broad coverage within the human population, the tetanus toxoid-derived peptide TT830-844 was selected as a T-helper epitope because it can bind to various HLA-DRB molecules. We showed that the MAG-Tn3 vaccine, which was formulated with the GSK proprietary immunostimulant AS15 and designed for human cancer therapy, is able to induce an anti-Tn antibody response in mice of various H-2 haplotypes, and this response correlates with the ability to induce a specific T cell response against the TT830-844 peptide. The universality of the TT830-844 peptide was extended to new H-2 and HLA-DRB molecules that were capable of binding this T cell epitope. Finally, the MAG-Tn3 vaccine was able to induce anti-Tn antibody responses in cynomolgus monkeys, which targeted Tn-expressing tumor cells and mediated tumor cell death both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MAG-Tn3 is a highly promising anticancer vaccine that is currently under evaluation in a phase I clinical trial. PMID:26847142

  18. Insertions of mini-Tn10 transposon T-POP in Salmonella enterica sv. typhi.

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Alejandro A; Trombert, A Nicole; Castro-Alonso, J C; Santiviago, Carlos A; Tesser, Bruno R; Youderian, Philip; Mora, Guido C

    2004-01-01

    We have mutagenized a clinical strain of Salmonella enterica sv. typhi with mini-transposon Tn10dTet (T-POP) to obtain conditional lethal (tetracycline-dependent) mutants with T-POP insertions upstream of essential genes. Generalized transducing phage P22 was used to introduce T-POP from a S. typhimurium donor into a S. typhi recipient. Chromosomal DNA was purified from the mutagenized donor strains, fragmented, and then electroporated into S. typhi to backcross the original T-POP insertions. Four tetracycline-dependent mutants with two distinct terminal phenotypes were found among 1700 mutants with T-POP insertions. When grown in the absence of tetracycline, two of the four tetracycline-dependent mutants arrest at a late stage in the cell cycle, can be rescued by outgrowth in media with tetracycline, and define a reversible checkpoint late in the cell cycle. One of these insertions creates an operon fusion with a gene, yqgF, that is conserved among gram-negative bacteria and likely encodes an essential Holliday junction resolvase. T-POP insertions can be used not only to identify essential S. typhi genes but also to reveal novel phenotypes resulting from the depletion of their products. PMID:15280224

  19. Sialyl-Tn in Cancer: (How) Did We Miss the Target?

    PubMed Central

    Julien, Sylvain; Videira, Paula A.; Delannoy, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Sialyl-Tn antigen (STn) is a short O-glycan containing a sialic acid residue α2,6-linked to GalNAcα-O-Ser/Thr. The biosynthesis of STn is mediated by a specific sialyltransferase termed ST6GalNAc I, which competes with O-glycans elongating glycosyltransferases and prevents cancer cells from exhibiting longer O-glycans. While weakly expressed by fetal and normal adult tissues, STn is expressed by more than 80% of human carcinomas and in all cases, STn detection is associated with adverse outcome and decreased overall survival for the patients. Because of its pan-carcinoma expression associated with an adverse outcome, an anti-cancer vaccine, named Theratope, has been designed towards the STn epitope. In spite of the great enthusiasm around this immunotherapy, Theratope failed on Phase III clinical trial. However, in lieu of missing this target, one should consider to revise the Theratope design and the actual facts. In this review, we highlight the many lessons that can be learned from this failure from the immunological standpoint, as well as from the drug design and formulation and patient selection. Moreover, an irrefutable knowledge is arising from novel immunotherapies targeting other carbohydrate antigens and STn carrier proteins, such as MUC1, that will warrantee the future development of more successful anti-STn immunotherapy strategies. PMID:24970145

  20. Alterations in peptidoglycan precursors and vancomycin susceptibility in Tn917 insertion mutants of Enterococcus faecalis 221.

    PubMed Central

    Handwerger, S

    1994-01-01

    Derivatives of the highly vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis strain 221 (MIC, 1,024 micrograms/ml) harboring Tn917 insertions in vanR, vanH, and vanA were compared with the parent strain and the susceptible plasmid-free strain JH2-2 (MIC, 2 micrograms/ml). Cytoplasmic pools of UDP-N-acetyl-muramyl-peptide precursors of strain 221 contained the depsipeptide-terminating precursor as well as elevated levels of both the tripeptide and tetrapeptide precursors. Insertional inactivation of vanR resulted in the loss of carboxypeptidase activity, full susceptibility to vancomycin, and precursor pools similar to those of JH2-2. For the vanA insertional mutant the MBC of vancomycin was fourfold higher than that for JH2-2, and the mutant had increased levels of tripeptide and tetrapeptide precursors compared with those for JH2-2. The vanH insertional mutant showed elevated levels of these precursors, as well as a small amount of depsipeptide, and both the MIC and the MBC of vancomycin were increased compared with those for JH2-2. These findings suggest that DD-carboxypeptidase activity, under the control of vanR, results in increased pools of both tripeptide and tetrapeptide precursors, which may contribute to survival in the presence of vancomycin. PMID:8203839

  1. Peptidoglycan composition in heterogeneous Tn551 mutants of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, B L; Chang, Y S; Gage, D; Tomasz, A

    1992-06-01

    It was shown that Tn551 inactivation of two chromosomal (so-called auxiliary) loci other than the mec gene result in a dramatic reduction of methicillin resistance and decreased cell wall turnover and autolytic capacity in a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain (de Jonge, B. L. M., de Lencastre, H., and Tomasz, A. (1990) J. Bacteriol. 173, 1105-1110). To understand the mechanistic basis of these phenomena we have examined the status of the autolytic enzymes and the muropeptide composition of peptidoglycan using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectral analyses. While no differences could be detected in the number of autolytic hydrolases, the mutants showed major changes in peptidoglycan composition. Nine prominent muropeptides of the parental strain each carrying a pentaglycyl substituent were missing from the cell wall of one group of mutants. The second mutant lacked four parental muropeptides which were composed of the unsubstituted disaccharide pentapeptide and its alanyl-tetraglycine derivative. The auxiliary genes are genetic determinants involved with the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan precursors, the presence of which in the cell wall may be needed for optimal cell wall turnover. PMID:1317861

  2. Triboelectric charging of volcanic ash from the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Isobel M P; Aplin, Karen L; Nicoll, Keri A

    2013-09-13

    The plume from the 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn was highly electrically charged, as shown by the considerable lightning activity measured by the United Kingdom Met Office's low-frequency lightning detection network. Previous measurements of volcanic plumes have shown that ash particles are electrically charged up to hundreds of kilometers away from the vent, which indicates that the ash continues to charge in the plume [R. G. Harrison, K. A. Nicoll, Z. Ulanowski, and T. A. Mather, Environ. Res. Lett. 5, 024004 (2010); H. Hatakeyama J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 27, 372 (1949)]. In this Letter, we study triboelectric charging of different size fractions of a sample of volcanic ash experimentally. Consistently with previous work, we find that the particle size distribution is a determining factor in the charging. Specifically, our laboratory experiments demonstrate that the normalized span of the particle size distribution plays an important role in the magnitude of charging generated. The influence of the normalized span on plume charging suggests that all ash plumes are likely to be charged, with implications for remote sensing and plume lifetime through scavenging effects. PMID:24074123

  3. Triboelectric Charging of Volcanic Ash from the 2011 Grímsvötn Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, Isobel M. P.; Aplin, Karen L.; Nicoll, Keri A.

    2013-09-01

    The plume from the 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn was highly electrically charged, as shown by the considerable lightning activity measured by the United Kingdom Met Office’s low-frequency lightning detection network. Previous measurements of volcanic plumes have shown that ash particles are electrically charged up to hundreds of kilometers away from the vent, which indicates that the ash continues to charge in the plume [R. G. Harrison, K. A. Nicoll, Z. Ulanowski, and T. A. Mather, Environ. Res. Lett. 5, 024004 (2010)1748-932610.1088/1748-9326/5/2/024004; H. Hatakeyama J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 27, 372 (1949)JMSJAU0026-1165]. In this Letter, we study triboelectric charging of different size fractions of a sample of volcanic ash experimentally. Consistently with previous work, we find that the particle size distribution is a determining factor in the charging. Specifically, our laboratory experiments demonstrate that the normalized span of the particle size distribution plays an important role in the magnitude of charging generated. The influence of the normalized span on plume charging suggests that all ash plumes are likely to be charged, with implications for remote sensing and plume lifetime through scavenging effects.

  4. Tn7-Based Device for Calibrated Heterologous Gene Expression in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Zobel, Sebastian; Benedetti, Ilaria; Eisenbach, Lara; de Lorenzo, Victor; Wierckx, Nick; Blank, Lars M

    2015-12-18

    The soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida is increasingly attracting considerable interest as a platform for advanced metabolic engineering through synthetic biology approaches. However, genomic context, gene copy number, and transcription/translation interplay often introduce considerable uncertainty to the design of reliable genetic constructs. In this work, we have established a standardized heterologous expression device in which the promoter strength is the only variable; the remaining parameters of the flow have stable default values. To this end, we tailored a mini-Tn7 delivery transposon vector that inserts the constructs in a single genomic locus of P. putida's chromosome. This was then merged with a promoter insertion site, an unvarying translational coupler, and a downstream location for placing the gene(s) of interest under fixed assembly rules. This arrangement was exploited to benchmark a collection of synthetic promoters with low transcriptional noise in this bacterial host. Growth experiments and flow cytometry with single-copy promoter-GFP constructs revealed a robust, constitutive behavior of these promoters, whose strengths and properties could be faithfully compared. This standardized expression device significantly extends the repertoire of tools available for reliable metabolic engineering and other genetic enhancements of P. putida. PMID:26133359

  5. Correlation of thermodynamic and genetic properties in the Tn10 encoded TET gene control region.

    PubMed Central

    Hillen, W; Unger, B

    1982-01-01

    The thermal stability of the Tn10 encoded tetracycline resistance (TET) gene control region is investigated by melting studies using purified DNA restriction fragments containing various amounts of flanking sequences. In order to study the thermodynamic properties of this control region under conditions, where enough flanking DNA is present to mimic the situation in the chromosome, the five step melting process of a 1450-bp DNA fragment is analyzed. Because most of the sequence of this DNA is not known, the assignment of the melting transitions to segments of the DNA is done by an experimental method. This employs the preparation of subfragments from the 1450-bp DNA and comparison of their denaturation profiles with the one of the intact sequence. This approach results in the complete assignment of the five denaturation steps. Rather than from the ends, the unwinding starts from the TET gene control region in the middle of the 1450-bp sequence. A clear correlation between the thermodynamic and genetic properties of this DNA is observed. The regulatory sequence forms a small cooperative unit with the lowest stability in the entire fragment. The thermal denaturation of the TET repressor. TET operator complex reveals, that the TET repressor specifically recognizes the double stranded TET operator DNA and stabilizes this structure by 2.4 degrees C. This results is also discussed as an example of the possible action of denaturing or stabilizing proteins on this genetic control region. PMID:6281740

  6. Correlation between sialyl Tn antigen and lymphatic metastasis in patients with Borrmann type IV gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Kakeji, Y.; Maehara, Y.; Morita, M.; Matsukuma, A.; Furusawa, M.; Takahashi, I.; Kusumoto, T.; Ohno, S.; Sugimachi, K.

    1995-01-01

    The expression of sialyl Tn (STn) antigen in 180 patients with Borrmann type IV gastric carcinomas was examined immunohistochemically. The rate of positive STn staining was 32% (57/180) for the primary tumours, and this positive staining correlated well with tumour extension, lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05) and peritoneal dissemination (P < 0.01). One-third (5/15) of patients with positive STn-staining cancer cells had a high level of serum STn. Lesions with positive STn staining were related to a lower survival rate for the patients (P < 0.05). Proliferative activity of the tumour, as measured by proliferating nuclear antigen (PCNA) labelling percentage and argyrophilic nucleolar organiser region (AgNOR) count, was significantly higher (41.5 +/- 13.0%, 3.78 +/- 0.98) in the STn-positive group than in the STn-negative group (34.2 +/- 13.2%, 3.48 +/- 0.85) (P < 0.01, P < 0.05 respectively). Estimating STn antigen may be useful for predicting the likelihood of lymph node metastasis or peritoneal dissemination and the clinical prognosis for patients with Borrmann type IV gastric carcinoma. Images Figure 1 PMID:7819038

  7. pp-GalNAc-T13 induces high metastatic potential of murine Lewis lung cancer by generating trimeric Tn antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Yasuyuki; Zhang, Qing; Akita, Kaoru; Nakada, Hiroshi; Hamamura, Kazunori; Tokuda, Noriyo; Tsuchida, Akiko; Noguchi Institute, 1-8-1 Kaga, Itabashi, Tokyo 173-0003 ; Matsubara, Takeshi; Hori, Tomoko; Okajima, Tetsuya; Furukawa, Keiko; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chubu University College of Life and Health Sciences, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai 487-8501 ; Urano, Takeshi; Furukawa, Koichi

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ppGalNAc-T13 was up-regulated in high metastatic sublines of Lewis lung cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ppGalNAc-T13 expression enhanced cell invasion activity in low metastatic sublines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trimeric Tn antigen was induced in the transfectant cells of ppGalNAc-T13 cDNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A major protein carrying trimeric Tn structure was identified as Syndecan-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing of ppGalNAc-T13 resulted in the reduction of invasion and of metastasis.. -- Abstract: In order to analyze the mechanisms for cancer metastasis, high metastatic sublines (H7-A, H7-Lu, H7-O, C4-sc, and C4-ly) were obtained by repeated injection of mouse Lewis lung cancer sublines H7 and C4 into C57BL/6 mice. These sublines exhibited increased proliferation and invasion activity in vitro. Ganglioside profiles exhibited lower expression of GM1 in high metastatic sublines than the parent lines. Then, we established GM1-Si-1 and GM1-Si-2 by stable silencing of GM1 synthase in H7 cells. These GM1-knockdown clones exhibited increased proliferation and invasion. Then, we explored genes that markedly altered in the expression levels by DNA microarray in the combination of C4 vs. C4-ly or H7 vs. H7 (GM1-Si). Consequently, pp-GalNAc-T13 gene was identified as up-regulated genes in the high metastatic sublines. Stable transfection of pp-GalNAc-T13 cDNA into C4 (T13-TF) resulted in increased invasion and motility. Then, immunoblotting and flow cytometry using various antibodies and lectins were performed. Only anti-trimeric Tn antibody (mAb MLS128), showed increased expression levels of trimeric Tn antigen in T13-TF clones. Moreover, immunoprecipitation/immunoblotting was performed by mAb MLS128, leading to the identification of an 80 kDa band carrying trimeric Tn antigen, i.e. Syndecan-1. Stable silencing of endogenous pp-GalNAc-T13 in C4-sc (T13-KD) revealed that primary tumors generated by subcutaneous injection of T13-KD clones showed lower coalescence to fascia and peritoneum, and significantly reduced lung metastasis than control clones. These data suggested that high expression of pp-GalNAc-T13 gene generated trimeric Tn antigen on Syndecan-1, leading to the enhanced metastasis.

  8. Mutagenesis of Bordetella pertussis with transposon Tn5tac1: conditional expression of virulence-associated genes.

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, B T; Berg, D E; Goldman, W E

    1990-01-01

    The Tn5tac1 transposon contains a strong outward-facing promoter, Ptac, a lacI repressor gene, and a selectable Kanr gene. Transcription from Ptac is repressed by the lacI protein unless an inducer (isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside [IPTG]) is present. Thus, Tn5tac1 generates insertion mutations in Escherichia coli with conditional phenotypes because it is polar on distal gene expression when IPTG is absent and directs transcription of these genes when the inducer is present. To test the usefulness of Tn5tac1 in Bordetella pertussis, a nonenteric gram-negative bacterial pathogen, we chose the bifunctional adenylate cyclase-hemolysin determinant as an easily scored marker to monitor insertional mutagenesis. Tn5tac1 delivered to B. pertussis on conjugal suicide plasmids resulted in Kanr exconjugants at a frequency of 10(-3) per donor cell, and nonhemolytic (Hly-) mutants were found among the Kanr colonies at a frequency of about 1%. Of eight independent Kanr Hly- mutants, two were conditional and exhibited an Hly+ phenotype only in the presence of IPTG. Using a new quantitative assay for adenylate cyclase based on high-pressure liquid chromatography, we found that enzymatic activity in these two strains was specifically induced at least 500-fold in a dose-dependent fashion over the range of 0 to 125 microM IPTG. These data show that Ptac serves as a promoter, lacI is expressed and is functional, and IPTG can induce Ptac transcription in B. pertussis. Adenylate cyclase expression in whole cells, culture supernatants, and cell extracts from these strains depended upon IPTG, suggesting that the insertions do not merely alter secretion of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin. Other virulence determinants under control of the vir locus are expressed normally, implying that these Tn5tac1 insertions specifically regulate adenylate cyclase-hemolysin expression. We conclude that Tn5tac1 insertion mutations permit sensitive, exogenous control over the expression of genes of interest, providing a useful tool for studying virulence and other important traits of diverse bacterial species. PMID:2156797

  9. Drug Abuse Montgomery County Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Drug Commission, Norristown, PA.

    This is a research report and survey on drug abuse in Montgomery County, Norristown, Pennsylvania, conducted by the Montgomery County Drug Commission. The nine-month study is incorporated into a single volume. An analysis of the results of the drug survey points out that many variables which had heretofore been regarded as being significantly…

  10. Bacteroides fragilis Transfer Factor Tn5520: the Smallest Bacterial Mobilizable Transposon Containing Single Integrase and Mobilization Genes That Function in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Vedantam, Gayatri; Novicki, Thomas J.; Hecht, David W.

    1999-01-01

    Many bacterial genera, including Bacteroides spp., harbor mobilizable transposons, a class of transfer factors that carry genes for conjugal DNA transfer and, in some cases, antibiotic resistance. Mobilizable transposons are capable of inserting into and mobilizing other, nontransferable plasmids and are implicated in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. This paper presents the isolation and characterization of Tn5520, a new mobilizable transposon from Bacteroides fragilis LV23. At 4,692 bp, it is the smallest mobilizable transposon reported from any bacterial genus. Tn5520 was captured from B. fragilis LV23 by using the transfer-deficient shuttle vector pGAT400ΔBglII. The termini of Tn5520 contain a 22-bp imperfect inverted repeat, and transposition does not result in a target site repeat. Tn5520 also demonstrates insertion site sequence preferences characterized by A-T-rich nucleotide sequences. Tn5520 has been sequenced in its entirety, and two large open reading frames whose predicted protein products exhibit strong sequence similarity to recombinase-integrase enzymes and mobilization proteins, respectively, have been identified. The transfer, mobilization, and transposition properties of Tn5520 have been studied, revealing that Tn5520 mobilizes plasmids in both B. fragilis and Escherichia coli at high frequency and also transposes in E. coli. PMID:10198023

  11. Analysis of tetracycline resistance encoded by transposon Tn10: deletion mapping of tetracycline-sensitive point mutations and identification of two structural genes.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, D C; Chopra, I; Shales, S W; Howe, T G; Foster, T J

    1983-01-01

    Deletions in the tet genes derived from Tn10 were formed from different tet::Tn5 insertion mutations by removing DNA sequences located between a HindIII site in Tn5 and a HindIII site adjacent to the tet genes. Tetracycline-sensitive point mutations were mapped in recombination tests with the deletions and were thus aligned with the genetic and physical map of the tet region. Plasmids carrying point mutations were tested for complementation with derivatives of pDU938, a plasmid carrying cloned tet genes derived from Tn10 which had been inactivated by Tn5 insertions. Complementation occurred between promoter-proximal tet point mutations and distal tet::Tn5 insertions, suggesting the existence of two structural genes, tetA and tetB. These results, together with the analysis of polypeptides in minicells harboring pDU938tet::Tn5 mutants, suggested that tetA and tetB are expressed coordinately in an operon. The tetB gene encodes the previously characterized 36,000-dalton cytoplasmic membrane TET protein, but the product of tetA was not identified. Point mutations in either tetA or tetB led to the defective expression of the resistance mechanism involving tetracycline efflux. It is suggested that the tetA and tetB products interact cooperatively in the membrane to express resistance. Images PMID:6296060

  12. Comparison of the gentamicin resistance transposon Tn5281 with regions encoding gentamicin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis isolates from diverse geographic locations.

    PubMed Central

    Hodel-Christian, S L; Murray, B E

    1992-01-01

    The genetic determinant encoding gentamicin resistance (Gmr) on the beta-lactamase encoding plasmid pBEM10 of Enterococcus faecalis HH22 is carried on a transposon, termed Tn5281, that is highly related to the staphylococcal Gmr transposons Tn4001 found in Australian isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Tn4031 found in United States isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis. We have now studied plasmid DNA from Gmr strains of E. faecalis isolated from diverse geographical locations (Houston, Pennsylvania, Thailand, and Chile) by using restriction endonuclease analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization to determine whether other Gmr E. faecalis carry Tn5281 or a similar type of element. We also compared these enterococci to several United States isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with nonmobile Gmr determinants. Three E. faecalis isolates (from Houston and Chile) carried Tn5281-like elements, whereas two isolates (from Houston and Pennsylvania) had restriction endonuclease and DNA-DNA hybridization patterns more similar to those of the Tn4001-IS257 hybrid found in the nonmobile Gmr determinants in United States isolates of S. aureus. A strain from Thailand had a third pattern unrelated to either Tn5281 or the nonmobile Gmr determinants present in United States isolates of S. aureus. Our results demonstrate that there is both similarity and diversity between the Gmr determinant of strains of E. faecalis isolated in diverse geographic locations. Images PMID:1332593

  13. Identification of seven novel virulence genes from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri by Tn5-based random mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Song, Xue; Guo, Jing; Ma, Wen-xiu; Ji, Zhi-yuan; Zou, Li-fang; Chen, Gong-you; Zou, Hua-song

    2015-05-01

    To identify novel virulence genes, a mutant library of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri 29-1 was produced using EZ-Tn5 transposon and the mutants were inoculated into susceptible grapefruit. Forty mutants with altered virulence phenotypes were identified. Nine of the mutants showed a complete loss of citrus canker induction, and the other 31 mutants resulted in attenuated canker symptoms. Southern blot analysis revealed that each of the mutants carried a single copy of Tn5. The flanking sequence was identified by plasmid rescue and 18 different ORFs were identified in the genome sequence. Of these 18 ORFs, seven had not been previously associated with the virulence of X. citri subsp. citri and were therefore confirmed by complementation analysis. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the seven genes were upregulated when the bacteria were grown in citrus plants, suggesting that the expression of these genes was essential for canker development. PMID:25935304

  14. Primary Breast Cancer Tumours Contain High Amounts of IgA1 Immunoglobulin: An Immunohistochemical Analysis of a Possible Carrier of the Tumour-Associated Tn Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Welinder, Charlotte; Baldetorp, Bo; Blixt, Ola; Grabau, Dorthe; Jansson, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The Tn antigen (GalNAc alpha-O-Ser/Thr) as defined by the binding of the lectin, helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) or anti-Tn monoclonal antibodies, is known to be exposed in a majority of cancers, and it has also been shown to correlate positively with the metastatic capacity in breast carcinoma. The short O-glycan that forms the antigen is carried by a number of different proteins. One potential carrier of the Tn antigen is immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), which we surprisingly found in tumour cells of the invasive parts of primary breast carcinoma. Conventional immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded sections from primary breast cancers showed IgA1 to be present in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane of 35 out of 36 individual primary tumours. The immunohistochemical staining of HPA and anti-Tn antibody (GOD3-2C4) did to some extent overlap with the presence of IgA1 in the tumours, but differences were seen in the percentage of stained cells and in the staining pattern in the different breast cancers analysed. Anti-Tn antibody and HPA were also shown to specifically bind to a number of possible constellations of the Tn antigen in the hinge region of IgA1. Both reagents could also detect the presence of Tn positive IgA in serum. On average 51% of the tumour cells in the individual breast cancer tumour sections showed staining for IgA1. The overall amount of staining in the invasive part of the tumour with the anti Tn antibody was 67%, and 93% with HPA. The intra-expression or uptake of IgA1 in breast cancer makes it a new potential carrier of the tumour associated and immunogenic Tn antigen. PMID:23637900

  15. Primary breast cancer tumours contain high amounts of IgA1 immunoglobulin: an immunohistochemical analysis of a possible carrier of the tumour-associated Tn antigen.

    PubMed

    Welinder, Charlotte; Baldetorp, Bo; Blixt, Ola; Grabau, Dorthe; Jansson, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The Tn antigen (GalNAc alpha-O-Ser/Thr) as defined by the binding of the lectin, helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) or anti-Tn monoclonal antibodies, is known to be exposed in a majority of cancers, and it has also been shown to correlate positively with the metastatic capacity in breast carcinoma. The short O-glycan that forms the antigen is carried by a number of different proteins. One potential carrier of the Tn antigen is immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), which we surprisingly found in tumour cells of the invasive parts of primary breast carcinoma. Conventional immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded sections from primary breast cancers showed IgA1 to be present in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane of 35 out of 36 individual primary tumours. The immunohistochemical staining of HPA and anti-Tn antibody (GOD3-2C4) did to some extent overlap with the presence of IgA1 in the tumours, but differences were seen in the percentage of stained cells and in the staining pattern in the different breast cancers analysed. Anti-Tn antibody and HPA were also shown to specifically bind to a number of possible constellations of the Tn antigen in the hinge region of IgA1. Both reagents could also detect the presence of Tn positive IgA in serum. On average 51% of the tumour cells in the individual breast cancer tumour sections showed staining for IgA1. The overall amount of staining in the invasive part of the tumour with the anti Tn antibody was 67%, and 93% with HPA. The intra-expression or uptake of IgA1 in breast cancer makes it a new potential carrier of the tumour associated and immunogenic Tn antigen. PMID:23637900

  16. Molecular Description and Industrial Potential of Tn6098 Conjugative Transfer Conferring Alpha-Galactoside Metabolism in Lactococcus lactis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Machielsen, Ronnie; Siezen, Roland J.; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E. T.

    2011-01-01

    A novel 51-kb conjugative transposon of Lactococcus lactis, designated Tn6098, encoding the capacity to utilize α-galactosides such as raffinose and stachyose, was identified and characterized. Alpha-galactosides are a dominant carbon source in many plant-derived foods. Most dairy lactococcus strains are unable to use α-galactosides as a growth substrate, yet many of these strains are known to have beneficial industrial traits. Conjugal transfer of Tn6098 was demonstrated from the plant-derived donor strain L. lactis KF147 to the recipient L. lactis NZ4501, a derivative of the dairy model strain L. lactis MG1363. The integration of Tn6098 into the genome of the recipient strain was confirmed by Illumina sequencing of the transconjugant L. lactis NIZO3921. The molecular structure of the integration site was confirmed by a PCR product spanning the insertion site. A 15-bp direct repeat sequence (TTATACCATAATTAC) is present on either side of Tn6098 in the chromosome of L. lactis KF147. One copy of this sequence is also present in the L. lactis MG1363 chromosome and represents the sole integration site. Phenotypic characterization of all strains showed that the transconjugant has not only acquired the ability to grow well in soy milk, a substrate rich in α-galactosides, but also has retained the flavor-forming capabilities of the recipient strain L. lactis MG1363. This study demonstrates how (induced) conjugation can be used to exploit the beneficial industrial traits of industrial dairy lactic acid bacteria in fermentation of plant-derived substrates. PMID:21115709

  17. Targeting of T/Tn antigens with a plant lectin to kill human leukemia cells by photochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Poiroux, Guillaume; Pitié, Marguerite; Culerrier, Raphaël; Lafont, Elodie; Ségui, Bruno; Van Damme, Els J M; Peumans, Willy J; Bernadou, Jean; Levade, Thierry; Rougé, Pierre; Barre, Annick; Benoist, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Photochemotherapy is used both for solid tumors and in extracorporeal treatment of various hematologic disorders. Nevertheless, its development in oncology remains limited, because of the low selectivity of photosensitizers (PS) towards human tumor cells. To enhance PS efficiency, we recently covalently linked a porphyrin (TrMPyP) to a plant lectin (Morniga G), known to recognize with high affinity tumor-associated T and Tn antigens. The conjugation allowed a quick uptake of PS by Tn-positive Jurkat leukemia cells and efficient PS-induced phototoxicity. The present study was performed: (i) to evaluate the targeting potential of the conjugate towards tumor and normal cells and its phototoxicity on various leukemia cells, (ii) to investigate the mechanism of conjugate-mediated cell death. The conjugate: (i) strongly increased (×1000) the PS phototoxicity towards leukemic Jurkat T cells through an O-glycan-dependent process; (ii) specifically purged tumor cells from a 1∶1 mixture of Jurkat leukemia (Tn-positive) and healthy (Tn-negative) lymphocytes, preserving the activation potential of healthy lymphocytes; (iii) was effective against various leukemic cell lines with distinct phenotypes, as well as fresh human primary acute and chronic lymphoid leukemia cells; (iv) induced mostly a caspase-independent cell death, which might be an advantage as tumor cells often resist caspase-dependent cell death. Altogether, the present observations suggest that conjugation with plant lectins can allow targeting of photosensitizers towards aberrant glycosylation of tumor cells, e.g. to purge leukemia cells from blood and to preserve the normal leukocytes in extracorporeal photochemotherapy. PMID:21858067

  18. First report of an OXA-23 carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolate related to Tn2006 in Spain.

    PubMed

    Espinal, P; Macià, M D; Roca, I; Gato, E; Ruíz, E; Fernández-Cuenca, F; Oliver, A; Rodríguez-Baño, J; Bou, G; Tomás, M; Vila, J

    2013-01-01

    A carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolate belonging to European clone II and sequence type 2 was recovered from a patient in the Son Espases hospital in Mallorca, Spain. Genetic analysis showed the presence of the bla(OXA-23) gene in association with the widely disseminated transposon Tn2006. This is the first reported identification of A. baumannii carrying bla(OXA-23) in Spain. PMID:23070166

  19. Mn-oxidizing Bacteria in Oak Ridge, TN and the Potential for Mercury Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, K. L.; McNeal, K. S.; Han, F. X.

    2012-12-01

    East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, TN was highly contaminated with elemental mercury in the 1950 and 1960. The area is still experiencing the effects of mercury contamination, and researchers are searching for ways to remediate the EFPC. One possible mechanism for bioremediation is the use of biogenic Mn oxides to remove heavy metals from water systems. Six native Pseudomonas bacteria species were isolated from the EFPC in order to examine biogenic Mn oxides production and bioremediation of Oak Ridge slurries. To investigate the biochemical interactions of Pseudomonas and the native microbial communities with Hg, Mn, Fe, S, six different slurry treatment groups were compared using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Oak Ridge slurries were autoclaved to inhibit microbial growth (group 1), autoclaved and amended with HgS (group 2), autoclaved and amended with Pseudomonas isolates and additional HgS (group 3), untreated slurry (group 4), normal slurry amended with HgS (group 5), and normal slurry amended with Pseudomonas isolates and additional HgS (group 6). The comparison of the autoclaved groups with the counterpart untreated and normal Oak Ridge slurries highlighted important microbial interactions. Also, the Pseudomonas isolates were grown separately in a MnSO4 media, and the individual bacteria were monitored for Mn-oxidization using ICP-AES and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the slurry sediments, the Pseudomonas isolates did produce Mn oxides which bound to mercury, and mercury bound to organic matter significantly decreased. However, after a significant decrease of dissolved mercury in the water, dissolved mercury was cycled back into the water system on day 10 of the study. Additionally, two individual native Oak Ridge Pseudomonas isolates demonstrated Mn-oxidization. Biogenic Mn oxides have the potential to decrease mercury cycling, however there is need for more in depth and long-term studies to confirm their sustained use as Hg bioremediators.

  20. Identification of multiple mercury sources to stream sediments near Oak Ridge, TN, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, Patrick M.; Blum, Joel D.; Demers, Jason D.; Gu, Baohua; Brooks, Scott C.; Peryam, John

    2014-03-03

    In this paper, sediments were analyzed for total Hg concentration (THg) and isotopic composition from streams and rivers in the vicinity of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y12) in Oak Ridge, TN (USA). In the stream directly draining Y12, where industrial releases of mercury (Hg) have been documented, high THg (3.26 to 60.1 μg/g) sediments had a distinct Hg isotopic composition (δ202Hg of 0.02 ± 0.15‰ and Δ199Hg of -0.07 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD, n=12) compared to sediments from relatively uncontaminated streams in the region (δ202Hg = -1.40 ± 0.06‰ and Δ199Hg of –0.26 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD, n=6). Additionally, several streams that are nearby but do not drain Y12 had sediments with intermediate THg (0.06 to 0.21 μg/g) and anomalous δ202Hg (as low as -5.07‰). We suggest that the low δ202Hg values in these sediments provide evidence for the contribution of an additional Hg source to sediments, possibly derived from atmospheric deposition. In sediments directly downstream of Y12 this third Hg source is not discernible and the Hg isotopic composition can be largely explained by the mixing of low THg sediments with high THg sediments contaminated by Y12 discharges.

  1. Genetic analysis of transcriptional activation and repression in the Tn21 mer operon. [Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.; Park, S.J.; Summers, A.O. )

    1989-07-01

    Transcription of the Tn21 mercury resistance operon (mer) is controlled by the toxic metal cation Hg(II). This control is mediated by the product of the merR gene, a 144-amino-acid protein which represses transcription of the structural genes (merTPCAD) in the absence of Hg(II) and activates transcription in the presence of Hg(II). We have used a mer-lac transcriptional fusion to obtain regulatory mutants in this metal-responsive system. Some mutants were defective in Hg(II)-induced activation while retaining repression function, others were defective in repression but not activation, and some had lost both functions. Mutations in three of the four cysteine residues of merR resulted in complete loss of Hg(II)-inducible activation but retention of the repressor function. Other lesions adjacent to or very near these cysteines exhibited severely reduced activation and also retained repressor function. There were two putative helix-turn-helix (HTH) domains in merR, and mutants in each had very different phenotypes. A partially dominant mutation in the more amino-terminal region of the two putative HTH regions resulted in loss of both activation and repression, consistent with a role for this region in DNA binding. Mutations in the more centrally located HTH region resulted only in loss of Hg(II)-induced activation. Lesions in the central and in the carboxy-terminal regions of merR exhibited both Hg(II)-independent and Hg(II)-dependent transcriptional activation. The sole cis-acting mutant obtained with this operon fusion strategy, a down-promoter mutation, lies in a highly conserved base in the -35 region of the merTPCAD promoter.

  2. Identification of multiple mercury sources to stream sediments near Oak Ridge, TN, USA

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Donovan, Patrick M.; Blum, Joel D.; Demers, Jason D.; Gu, Baohua; Brooks, Scott C.; Peryam, John

    2014-03-03

    In this paper, sediments were analyzed for total Hg concentration (THg) and isotopic composition from streams and rivers in the vicinity of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y12) in Oak Ridge, TN (USA). In the stream directly draining Y12, where industrial releases of mercury (Hg) have been documented, high THg (3.26 to 60.1 μg/g) sediments had a distinct Hg isotopic composition (δ202Hg of 0.02 ± 0.15‰ and Δ199Hg of -0.07 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD, n=12) compared to sediments from relatively uncontaminated streams in the region (δ202Hg = -1.40 ± 0.06‰ and Δ199Hg of –0.26 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD,more » n=6). Additionally, several streams that are nearby but do not drain Y12 had sediments with intermediate THg (0.06 to 0.21 μg/g) and anomalous δ202Hg (as low as -5.07‰). We suggest that the low δ202Hg values in these sediments provide evidence for the contribution of an additional Hg source to sediments, possibly derived from atmospheric deposition. In sediments directly downstream of Y12 this third Hg source is not discernible and the Hg isotopic composition can be largely explained by the mixing of low THg sediments with high THg sediments contaminated by Y12 discharges.« less

  3. New transposon Tn6133 in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 contains vga(E), a novel streptogramin A, pleuromutilin, and lincosamide resistance gene.

    PubMed

    Schwendener, Sybille; Perreten, Vincent

    2011-10-01

    A novel streptogramin A, pleuromutilin, and lincosamide resistance determinant, Vga(E), was identified in porcine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398. The vga(E) gene encoded a 524-amino-acid protein belonging to the ABC transporter family. It was found on a multidrug resistance-conferring transposon, Tn6133, which was comprised of Tn554 with a stably integrated 4,787-bp DNA sequence harboring vga(E). Detection of Tn6133 in several porcine MRSA ST398 isolates and its ability to circularize suggest a potential for dissemination. PMID:21768510

  4. Tn5-OT182 should not be used to identify genes involved in biofilm formation in Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Songsri, Jirarat; Proungvitaya, Tanakorn; Wongratanacheewin, Surasak; Homchampa, Preecha

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, a gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of melioidosis. One of the important virulence properties of this bacteria is its ability to form a biofilm. Genes involved in biofilm formation in B. pseudomallei have not been thoroughly studied. In this study, Tn5-OT182 mutagenesis was used to isolate of B. pseudomallei strain A2 mutants unable to produce biofilm. Ten biofilm-defective transposon mutants were isolated and analyzed. Flanking DNA from each transposon mutant were self-cloned and sequenced, then the sequences were analyzed with the BLAST program. To confirm these genes are involved in biofilm formation, we constructed three gene deletion mutants marked with a tetracycline resistance gene. The constructed tet(r)-marked deletion mutants were checked for correct structure and size by polymerase chain reaction. When subjected to biofilm assay, all tested tet(r)-marked deletion mutants were still able to produce biofilm, indicating the three genes are not involved in biofilm formation. These results suggest integration of Tn5-OT182 in genes not involved in biofilm production can render B. pseudomallei unable to produce biofilm by an unknown mechanism. This information demonstrates Tn5-OT182 is not a reliable tool for identifying genes involved in biofilm formation unless a confirmatory experiment is carried out in parallel. PMID:23082562

  5. Locating essential Escherichia coli genes by using mini-Tn10 transposons: the pdxJ operon.

    PubMed Central

    Takiff, H E; Baker, T; Copeland, T; Chen, S M; Court, D L

    1992-01-01

    The mini-Tn10 transposon (delta 16 delta 17Tn10) confers tetracycline resistance. When inserted between a gene and its promoter, it blocks transcription and prevents expression of that gene. Tetracycline in the medium induces divergent transcription of the tetA and tetR genes within the transposon, and this transcription extends beyond the transposon in both directions into the bacterial genes. If the mini-Tn10 inserts between an essential bacterial gene and its promoter, the insertion mutation can cause conditional growth which is dependent on the presence of tetracycline. Two essential genes in adjacent operons of Escherichia coli have been detected by screening for tetracycline dependence among tetracycline-resistant insertion mutants. These essential genes are the era gene in the rnc operon and the dpj gene in the adjacent pdxJ operon. The pdxJ operon has not been described previously. It consists of two genes, pdxJ and dpj. Whereas the dpj gene is essential for E. coli growth in all media tested, pdxJ is not essential. The pdxJ gene encodes a protein required in the biosynthesis of pyridoxine (vitamin B6). Images PMID:1537799

  6. Random Transposition by Tn916 in Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans Allows for Isolation and Characterization of Halorespiration-Deficient Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Smidt, Hauke; Song, Donglin; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M.

    1999-01-01

    To allow for the molecular analysis of halorespiration by the strictly anaerobic gram-positive bacterium Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans, halorespiration-deficient mutants were selected and characterized following insertional mutagenesis by the conjugative transposon Tn916. To facilitate rapid screening of transconjugants, a highly efficient method for the growth of single colonies on solidified medium has been developed. A streptomycin-resistant mutant of D. dehalogenans was isolated and mated with Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 carrying Tn916. Insertion of one or two copies of Tn916 into the chromosome of D. dehalogenans was observed. From a total of 2,500 transconjugants, 24 halorespiration-deficient mutants were selected based upon their inability to use 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid as an electron acceptor. Physiological characterization led to the definition of three phenotypic classes of mutants that differed in their ability to use the additional terminal electron acceptors nitrate and fumarate. The activities of hydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase were determined, and the transposon insertion sites in selected mutants representing the different classes were analyzed on the sequence level following amplification by inverse PCR. The results of the molecular characterization as well as the pleiotropic phenotypes of most mutants indicate that genes coding for common elements shared by the different respiratory chains present in the versatile D. dehalogenans have been disrupted. PMID:10559152

  7. Isolation and Characterization of a Native Composite Transposon, Tn14751, Carrying 17.4 Kilobases of Corynebacterium glutamicum Chromosomal DNA

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Masayuki; Tsuge, Yota; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Verts, Alain A.; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2005-01-01

    A native composite transposon was isolated from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 14751. This transposon comprises two functional copies of a corynebacterial IS31831-like insertion sequence organized as converging terminal inverted repeats. This novel 20.3-kb element, Tn14751, carries 17.4 kb of C. glutamicum chromosomal DNA containing various genes, including genes involved in purine biosynthesis but not genes related to bacterial warfare, such as genes encoding mediators of antibiotic resistance or extracellular toxins. A derivative of this element carrying a kanamycin resistance cassette, minicomposite Tn14751, transposed into the genome of C. glutamicum at an efficiency of 1.8 102 transformants per ?g of DNA. Random insertion of the Tn14751 derivative carrying the kanamycin resistance cassette into the chromosome was verified by Southern hybridization. This work paves the way for realization of the concept of minimum genome factories in the search for metabolic engineering via genome-scale directed evolution through a combination of random and directed approaches. PMID:15640215

  8. [Estimation of the TN and SOM contents in soil from GAN NAN navel orange plant area by NIR diffuse spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-De; Xiong, Song-Sheng; Chen, Dong-Bin

    2013-10-01

    The soil sampled from GAN NAN navel orange plant area was selected as research object, and the feasibility of analyzing the total nitrogen (TN) and soil organic matter (SOM) of soil was investigated by near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) techniques in the wavelength range of 4 000 - 7 500 cm(-1). Different pretreatment methods including multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), first derivative(1st D), second derivative (2nd D), Savitzkv-Golay (SG), standard normalized variate (SNV) and baseline were used. The partial least square regress (PLS) was built for the calibration models. The best TN model using SG pretreatment features the prediction correlation coefficients (r(c)) of 0.802, the root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 2.754, the calibration correlation coefficients (r(p)) of 0.715, and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 3.077 in the wave-length range of 4 000 - 7 500 cm(-1). The best SOM model using SNV pretreatment has r(c) of 0.848, RMSEC of 0.128, r(p) of 0.790, and RMSEP of 0.152. The results showed that the NIR diffuse reflectance can be used for quick estimate of the TN and SOM contents in soil with the wavelength range of 4 000 - 7 500 cm(-1). PMID:24409716

  9. Testing and analyses of the TN-24P PWR spent-fuel dry storage cask loaded with consolidated fuel

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, M A; Michener, T E; Jensen, M F; Rodman, G R

    1989-02-01

    A performance test of a Transnuclear, Inc. TN-24P storage cask configured for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel was performed. The work was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and the Electric Power Research Institute. The performance test consisted of loading the TN-24P cask with 24 canisters of consolidated PWR spent fuel from Virginia Power's Surry and Florida Power and Light's Turkey Point reactors. Cask surface and fuel canister guide tube temperatures were measured, as were cask surface gamma and neutron dose rates. Testing was performed with vacuum, nitrogen, and helium backfill environments in both vertical and horizontal cask orientations. Transnuclear, Inc., arranged to have a partially insulated run added to the end of the test to simulate impact limiters. Limited spent fuel integrity data were also obtained. From both heat transfer and shielding perspectives, the TN-24P cask with minor refinements can be effectively implemented at reactor sites and central storage facilities for safe storage of unconsolidated and consolidated spent fuel. 35 refs., 93 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. Hydrology of Polk County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spechler, Rick M.; Kroening, Sharon E.

    2007-01-01

    Local water managers usually rely on information produced at the State and regional scale to make water-resource management decisions. Current assessments of hydrologic and water-quality conditions in Polk County, Florida, commonly end at the boundaries of two water management districts (South Florida Water Management District and the Southwest Florida Water Management District), which makes it difficult for managers to determine conditions throughout the county. The last comprehensive water-resources assessment of Polk County was published almost 40 years ago. To address the need for current countywide information, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 3?-year study in 2002 to update information about hydrologic and water-quality conditions in Polk County and identify changes that have occurred. Ground-water use in Polk County has decreased substantially since 1965. In 1965, total ground-water withdrawals in the county were about 350 million gallons per day. In 2002, withdrawals totaled about 285 million gallons per day, of which nearly 95 percent was from the Floridan aquifer system. Water-conservation practices mainly related to the phosphate-mining industry as well as the decrease in the number of mines in operation in Polk County have reduced total water use by about 65 million gallons per day since 1965. Polk County is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units. The uppermost water-bearing unit is the surficial aquifer system, which is unconfined and composed primarily of clastic deposits. The surficial aquifer system is underlain by the intermediate confining unit, which grades into the intermediate aquifer system and consists of up to two water-bearing zones composed of interbedded clastic and carbonate rocks. The lowermost hydrogeologic unit is the Floridan aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer system, a thick sequence of permeable limestone and dolostone, consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, a middle semiconfining unit, a middle confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer provides most of the water required to meet demand in Polk County. Data from about 300 geophysical and geologic logs were used to construct hydrogeologic maps showing the tops and thicknesses of the aquifers and confining units within Polk County. Thickness of the surficial aquifer system ranges from several feet thick or less in the extreme northwestern part of the county and along parts of the Peace River south of Bartow to more than 200 feet along the southern part of the Lake Wales Ridge in eastern Polk County. Thickness of the intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit is highly variable throughout the county because of past erosional processes and sinkhole formation. Thickness of the unit ranges from less than 25 feet in the extreme northwestern part of the county to more than 300 feet in southwestern Polk County. The altitude of the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the county ranges from about 50 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD 29) in the northwestern part to more than 250 feet below NGVD 29 in the southern part. Water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer fluctuate seasonally, increasing during the wet season (June through September) and decreasing during the rest of the year. Water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer also can change from year to year, depending on such factors as pumpage and climatic variations. In the southwestern part of the county, fluctuations in water use related to phosphate mining have had a major impact on ground-water levels. Hydrographs of selected wells in southwestern Polk County show a general decline in water levels that ended in the mid-1970s. This water-level decline coincides with an increase in water use associated with phosphate mining. A substantial increase in water levels that began in the mid-1970s coincides with a period of decreasing water use in the county. Despite reductions in water use since 1970, howev

  11. Electrical and radioactive properties of ash samples from Eyafjallajökull and Grimsvötn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, K.; Mather, T.; Pyle, D.; Piper, I.; Shrimpton, P.

    2012-04-01

    We have investigated the physical properties of ash samples from the recent Icelandic volcanic eruptions, motivated by two sets of unexplained electrical measurements. Firstly, in situ observations of sustained electrical charging of the Eyafjallajökull plume at 1200 km from the volcano (Harrison et al, 2010), and secondly, the rate of volcanic lightning from Grimsvötn was two orders of magnitude greater than at Eyafjallajökull (Bennett et al, 2010). Electrification of volcanic plumes is likely to be generated by multiple mechanisms which may include: triboelectric or fractoemission processes at the vent, the 'dirty thunderstorm' mechanism if ice forms in the plume, and the internal radioactivity of the plume (Mather and Harrison, 2006; James et al., 2008). Here we investigate the charging properties of the ash from the two eruptions, determined by a combination of the material (including natural radioactivity), particle size distribution and shape. Volcanic ash samples were provided by the Iceland Meteorological Office. Ash from the 2010 Ejyafjallajökull eruption was collected 22 km from the crater, and ash from the 2011 Grimsvötn eruption was collected 70 km from the crater. Approximately 50 g of ash from each volcano was analysed in an Ortec 7229N gamma ray spectrometer, with the energy response calibrated before use. Both samples indicated natural radioactivity above the background level, with the Eyafjallajökull ash showing significantly more gamma activity than Grimsvotn. Gamma ray peaks associated with the decay products of uranium-238 and thorium-232 were consistently about twice as high in the Eyafjallajökull sample relative to Grimsvötn, after correction for the mass of the samples and the test duration. The 1.46 MeV peak from potassium-40 was about 10% higher in the Eyafjallajökull ash. These measurements are qualitatively consistent with what is known about Grimsvötn and Eyafjallajökull ash which are thought to have about 0.5 wt% and 1.8 - 2 wt% K2O respectively. Data on uranium concentrations of the ash are not available, but it is likely to behave as incompatibly as potassium in these rocks, so should be enriched in the Eyafjallajökull ash compared to the Grimsvötn ash. Measurements of the ash size distribution and shape have also been taken using a particle sizer and a scanning electron microscope. We intend to use this information with the radioactivity data, and laboratory measurements of the triboelectric charging properties of the ash, to help understand the observations.

  12. Iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles conjugated with a conformationally blocked α-Tn antigen mimetic for macrophage activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuelli, Massimo; Fallarini, Silvia; Lombardi, Grazia; Sangregorio, Claudio; Nativi, Cristina; Richichi, Barbara

    2014-06-01

    Among new therapies to fight tumors, immunotherapy is still one of the most promising and intriguing. Thanks to the ongoing structural elucidation of several tumor antigens and the development of innovative antigen carriers, immunotherapy is in constant evolution and it is largely used either alone or in synergy with chemotherapy/radiotherapy. With the aim to develop fully synthetic immunostimulants we have recently developed a mimetic of the α-Tn mucin antigen, a relevant tumor antigen. The 4C1 blocked mimetic 1, unique example of an α-Tn mimetic antigen, was functionalized with an ω-phosphonate linker and used to decorate iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), employed as multivalent carriers. MNPs, largely exploited for supporting and carrying biomolecules, like antibodies, drugs or antigens, consent to combine in the same nanometric system the main features of an inorganic magnetic core with a bioactive organic coating. The superparamagnetic glyconanoparticles obtained, named GMNPs, are indeed biocompatible and immunoactive, and they preserve suitable characteristics for use as heat mediators in the magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) treatment of tumors. All together these properties make GMNPs attracting devices for innovative tumor treatment.Among new therapies to fight tumors, immunotherapy is still one of the most promising and intriguing. Thanks to the ongoing structural elucidation of several tumor antigens and the development of innovative antigen carriers, immunotherapy is in constant evolution and it is largely used either alone or in synergy with chemotherapy/radiotherapy. With the aim to develop fully synthetic immunostimulants we have recently developed a mimetic of the α-Tn mucin antigen, a relevant tumor antigen. The 4C1 blocked mimetic 1, unique example of an α-Tn mimetic antigen, was functionalized with an ω-phosphonate linker and used to decorate iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), employed as multivalent carriers. MNPs, largely exploited for supporting and carrying biomolecules, like antibodies, drugs or antigens, consent to combine in the same nanometric system the main features of an inorganic magnetic core with a bioactive organic coating. The superparamagnetic glyconanoparticles obtained, named GMNPs, are indeed biocompatible and immunoactive, and they preserve suitable characteristics for use as heat mediators in the magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) treatment of tumors. All together these properties make GMNPs attracting devices for innovative tumor treatment. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Optical rotation and spectroscopic data for all compounds; selected TEM images of MNPs, CMNPs and GMNPs; XRD patterns and FTIR spectra of MNPs coated with surfactants and with the α-Tn mimetic; MNP magnetic properties. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00070f

  13. Tennessee Higher Education County Profiles, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a localized perspective on Tennessee higher education, including: (1) county demographic and economic data; (2) information on public and private colleges and universities located in the county; (3) number of county residents enrolled in Tennessee public institutions; and (4) number of county residents participating in the…

  14. Efficient read-through of Tn9 and IS1 by RNA polymerase molecules that initiate at rRNA promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Siehnel, R J; Morgan, E A

    1983-01-01

    Transcription and translation are coupled in most Escherichia coli operons. As a consequence, ribosomes must be present on an mRNA molecule while transcription of the mRNA is in progress or else premature termination of transcription may result. This requirement is most clearly manifested when premature nonsense codons result in polarity in multicistronic operons. Polarity can also result from insertions of transposons and insertion sequences. However, since rRNA operons are not translated, some property of these operons must allow transcription to be uncoupled from translation. In this paper we demonstrate that transposon Tn9 and insertion sequence IS1 are nonpolar or incompletely polar in rRNA operons during normal growth. We also show that essentially all expression of rrn sequences distal to IS1 and Tn9 results from transcripts that originate at rRNA promoters. These results suggest either that rRNA operons possess some mechanism which reduces or prevents termination within rRNA operons or that Tn9 and IS1 can be very inefficient at blocking normal transcription. Insertions of Tn10 in rRNA operons are substantially but incompletely polar. We could not determine whether the residual downstream transcription observed results from promoters within Tn10 or from read-through of Tn10. We discuss the meaning of read-through of Tn9 and IS1 and the residual expression of genes downstream from Tn10 with regard to rRNA operon structure and previous experiments in which polarity of transposons or insertion sequences was observed in protein-encoding operons. Images PMID:6185465

  15. Construction of mobilizable mini-Tn7 vectors for bioluminescent detection of gram-negative bacteria and single-copy promoter lux reporter analysis.

    PubMed

    Damron, F Heath; McKenney, Elizabeth S; Barbier, Mariette; Liechti, George W; Schweizer, Herbert P; Goldberg, Joanna B

    2013-07-01

    We describe the construction of mini-Tn7-based broad-host-range vectors encoding lux genes as bioluminescent reporters. These constructs can be mobilized into the desired host(s) by conjugation for chromosomal mini-Tn7-lux integration and are useful for localization of bacteria during infections or for characterizing regulation of promoters of interest in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:23584769

  16. Broad host range vectors derived from an RSF1010::Tn1 plasmid.

    PubMed

    Chistoserdov, A Y; Tsygankov, Y D

    1986-11-01

    Plasmid vector derivatives of the IncQ/P4 plasmid RSF1010 available for cloning DNA into a broad range of bacterial species were constructed. The plasmid pAYC31 constructed for the positive selection of inserted fragments contains part of transposon Tn1 inserted into the sequence of the gene sul. Gene aph transcription in pAYC31 can be initiated from the promoter for the transposase gene tnpA which is under the negative control of the gene tnpR product (Heffron, 1983). The insertion of a BamHI fragment, or of fragments generated by Sau3A, BclI, BglII, or XhoII digestion into the unique BamHI site within the gene tnpR sequence, leads to initiation of transcription from the promoter of the tnpA gene toward the aph gene. Expression of the aph gene upon insertion of a BamHI restriction fragment provides a positive selection for hybrid plasmids by plating the transformed bacteria on media with streptomycin. Versatile cloning vectors pAYC32 of 9.7 kb in length and pAYC39 of 11.3 kb in length were also constructed. Insertion into the BamHI site of vector pAYC32 of a 1.6-kb BglII fragment that contains the lambda cos site produced cosmid vectors pAYC51 and pAYC52. The two 11.3-kb cosmids differ only by the orientation of the 1.6-kb BglII fragment. By insertion into the BamHI site of pAYC32 of a BglII-BamHI fragment of plasmid pHC79 that contains the gene tet and lambda cos site cosmid vector pAYC53 was constructed. Vector pAYC31 was used to construct a gene bank from the chromosomal DNA of an obligate methylotrophic strain Methylomicrobium flagellatum KT. PMID:3027724

  17. Randomly induced Escherichia coli K-12 Tn5 insertion mutants defective in hydrogenase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Stoker, K; Oltmann, L F; Stouthamer, A H

    1989-01-01

    Systematic screening of 6.10(4) independent Tn5 insertion mutants of Escherichia coli yielded one new hydrogenase locus, hydF, mapping near 64.8 min, i.e., close to the hydL locus (K. Stoker, L.F. Oltmann, and A.H. Stouthamer, J. Bacteriol. 170:1220-1226, 1988). It regulated specifically the activity of the hydrogenase isoenzymes, formate dehydrogenase and lyase activities being unaffected. In hydF mutants, hydrogenase 1 and 2 activities were reduced to 1% of the parental level, whereas the electrophoretically labile part was present at about 20% of the parental level. H2 uptake was also reduced to about 20%, which suggested a relationship between these two activities. Experiments with 63Ni indicated that hydrogenase isoenzymes 1 and 2 might be present in these strains but in an inactive form. The hydF product might therefore be a posttranslational activator. At least three other mutant classes were isolated. Additional data were obtained on coisolated, nickel-restorable hydC mutants (L.F. Wu and M.-A. Mandrand-Berthelot, Biochimie 68:167-179, 1986). These strains were found to suffer a general impairment of nickel uptake. Restoration of hydrogenase activities was specific for NiCl2 and inhibited by chloramphenicol, which indicated an effect either on the transcription of hydrogenase(-associated) genes or by cotranslational incorporation in nickel-containing enzymes (e.g., in hydrogenases). The hydC mutation could not be complemented in trans, evidence that the hydC product is not a nickel transport protein but rather a cis-acting regulatory gene. Parent HB101, hydF mutants, and the other mutants were further analyzed by monitoring the induction of hydrogenase and hydrogenase-associated activities upon transition of cells from aerobic to anaerobic growth. These experiments also revealed a correlation between the early-induced H2 uptake route and labile hydrogenase activity. The formate hydrogenlyase induction patterns followed quite well the slower induction patterns of hydrogenases 1 and 2. PMID:2536683

  18. First results from TN273 studies of the SE Mariana Forearc rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J. M.; Stern, R. J.; Kelley, K. A.; Shaw, A. M.; Shimizu, N.; Martinez, F.; Ishii, T.; Ishizuka, O.; Manton, W. I.

    2012-12-01

    TN 273 aboard R/V Thomas Thompson (Dec. 22 2011- Jan. 22 2012) studied an unusual region of rifting affecting the southern Mariana forearc S.W. of Guam. The S.E. Mariana Forearc Rift (SEMFR) formed by diffuse tectonic and volcanic deformation (Martinez and Sleeper, this meeting) ~2.7-3.7 Ma ago to accommodate opening of the southernmost Mariana Trough backarc basin. A total of 730 km linear-track of SEMFR seafloor was surveyed with deep-towed side-scan sonar IMI-30. 14 dredges provided samples of SEMFR igneous rocks, analyzed for whole rock (WR) and glass compositions. These new results coupled with results of earlier investigations confirm that SEMFR is dominated by Miocene lavas along with minor gabbro and diabase. SEMFR lavas range in major element composition from primitive basalt to fractionated andesite (Mg# = 0.36-0.73; SiO2 = 50-57 wt%), mainly controlled by crystal fractionation. Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns range from LREE-depleted, N-MORB-like to flat patterns, reflecting different mantle processes (i.e. different sources, degree of melting …). Glassy rinds and olivine-hosted melt inclusions in these lavas contain variable volatile compositions (F = 75-358 ppm, S = 35-1126 ppm, Cl= 74-1400 ppm, CO2 = 15-520 ppm, 0.36-2.36 wt% H2O). SEMFR lavas show spider diagrams with positive anomalies in LILE and negative anomalies in HSFE. SEMFR lavas have backarc basin-like (BAB-like) chemical composition (H2O < 2.5wt%, Ba/Yb~20, Nb/Yb~1 and ɛNd~9) along with stronger enrichment in Rb and Cs than arc and BAB lavas, as demonstrated by their higher Rb/Th and Cs/Ba ratios in WR and glasses, which may reflect the role of the ultra-shallow fluids. Ultra-shallow fluids are derived from the top of the subducting slab, beneath the forearc, where most of the water and the fluid-mobile elements (Rb, Cs, Ba,) are thought to be released (Schmidt and Poli, 1998, EPSL, Savov et al., 2005, G-3). Our results suggest that i) SEMFR lavas formed by metasomatism of a BAB mantle source by ultra-shallow fluids, likely released from subducted sediments and the altered oceanic crust; and ii) the ultra-shallow fluid is aqueous and is characterized by enrichment in Cs and Rb, suggesting that Cs and Rb are decoupled from Ba in ultra-shallow subduction processes.

  19. Groundwater Transport of Organic Compounds in Old Salvage Yard, Oak Ridge, TN - 12089

    SciTech Connect

    Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak; Tachiev, Georgio; Roelant, David; Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary

    2012-07-01

    In 1950's and early 1960's during production of nuclear weapons at the US Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge TN, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well as heavy metals, nitrates, and radionuclides were released to the environment. Field investigations revealed that much of this contamination is still present in soil, bedrock, and groundwater. Operational buildings and old disposal facilities at the site have been identified as major sources of contamination. The Old Salvage Yard (OSY) on the western side of the site has long been characterized as the major source of VOC contamination in soil and groundwater. In order to analyze the fate and transport of VOC contamination- including tetrachloroethene (PCE), 1,2- dichloroethene (1,2-DCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) - in groundwater and soil at the vicinity of OSY, an integrated surface and subsurface flow and transport model has been developed for the Y-12 NSC using the hydrodynamic and transport numerical package, MIKE-SHE. Hydrogeological characteristics of the site such as hydraulic conductivity, and transport parameters such as partitioning coefficients were varied in an effort to delineate subsurface flow and transport pathways, potential downstream impacts on Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, and the potential risk to industrial workers involved in related Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) activities. The simulation results were compared with the analytical modeling results previously performed by McLane Environmental Inc. using SESOIL-AT123D. Specific simulations have been performed to investigate the effect of possible remedial action (removing the contaminated surface soil layers) on the fate and transport of VOCs. The results of the MIKE-SHE reported here can be considered as an upper limit for the predicted concentrations. Based on MIKE-SHE results, PCE, 1,2 DCE, cis-1,2-DCE, and VC are sources in soil with potential to equal or exceed industrial groundwater hazard and risk levels at the vicinity of OSY. VOC contaminants in soil and groundwater will decay below industrial groundwater risk and hazard levels within approximately 20 years. Excavation of surface soil layers at the site will considerably reduce the concentration of VOCs in groundwater and the possibility of migration of VOCs to surface waters. (authors)

  20. Visible-near infrared reflectance spectroscopy for estimating soil total nitrogen contents in the Sanjiang Yuan Regions, China: a case study of Yushu County and Maduo County, Qinghai province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaohong; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Jia, Wei; Li, Jianshan; Tian, Chengming; Zhang, Yanjiao; He, Linhua

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the prediction ability of visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy(VNIRP) to estimate soil total nitrogen concentration (TN) in the Sanjiang Yuan regions, Qinghai province, China by using partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. A total of 149 soil samples (0-30cm) were collected respectively from Yushu county and Maduo county in August 2012. The soil total nitrogen concentrations were measured using Vario EL III elemental analyzer (Germany Elementar Inc), and the soil spectral reflectance of with spectral range 350-2500nm was measured using ASD FieldSpec 4 in the laboratory. PLSR model was used to relate the reflectance spectra and its five different pre-processing transformations including the first order derivative reflectance (FDR), the second order derivative reflectance(SDR), the logarithm of the inverse of the reflectance (Log (1/R)), the depth of the band (Band depth) and the first order derivative of the logarithm of reflectance (( Log R)') to the soil total nitrogen contents measured. The results showed that the combination of visible-near infrared reflectance spectroscopy and PLSR to estimate TN produced a good prediction ability with R2 < 0.76 and RPD < 2.01 in the Sanjiang Yuan regions. The best prediction ability was obtained by (Log R) ' with R2CV = 0.87, R2V =0.88 and RPD <2.67, followed by Log (1/R), Band Depth, SDR, FDR and Reflectance. Visible and near infrared spectroscopy provided a rapid and effective method for estimating soil TN from five different soil types in the Sanjiang Yuan Regions, Qinghai province.

  1. VERMONT COUNTY HEALTH DATA2

    EPA Science Inventory

    This datalayer contains Vermont Population and Health data describing public health (1986-2000), by county, extracted from various sources, such as; the Vermont Department of Health, the Vermont Center for Justice Research, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholis...

  2. The Ada County Internship Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallmon, Jim; Carter, Kay

    1991-01-01

    Describes Ada County (Idaho) Juvenile Courts' internship program in which undergraduate and graduate students participate in sponsored work experience in juvenile detention settings. Outlines recruitment, budget, placement, expectations of students and institutions, supervision, evaluation, termination, and grievance procedures. (SK)

  3. Energy Improvements in Barnstable County

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-01

    A fact sheet that describes Barnstable County, Massachusetts, effort to improve energy efficiency through a public appliance trade-in program, installation of compact fluorescent light bulbs in public buildings, and public energy education.

  4. Involvement of a chlorobenzoate-catabolic transposon, Tn5271, in community adaptation to chlorobiphenyl, chloroaniline, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in a freshwater ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Fulthorpe, R.R.; Wyndham, R.C. )

    1992-01-01

    A chlorobenzoate-catabolic transposon (Tn5271) was introduced on a conjugative plasmid (pBRC60) in the natural host, Alcaligenes sp. strain BR60, into lake water and sediment flowthrough microcosms. Experimental microcosms were exposed to micromolar levels of 3-chlorobenzoate, 4-chloroaniline, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate, or 3-chlorobiphenyl. The populations of the host, BR60, and organisms carrying Tn5271 were monitored over a 100-day period by use of selective plate counts and the most-probable-number-DNA hybridization method. Populations of Tn5271-carrying bacteria were significantly higher in microcosms dosed with 3-chlorobenzoate, 4-chloroaniline, and 3-chlorobiphenyl than in the control microcosms, indicating that each of these chemicals exerts a selective force on this particular genotype in natural systems. The rates of 3-chlorobenzoate uptake and respiration correlated with Tn5271-carrying populations, as did the rates of 4-chloroaniline uptake and respiration. Plasmid transfer in the 3-chlorobenzoate- and 3-chlorobiphenyl-dosed microcosms resulted in the selection of three phenotypic clusters of chlorobenzoate degraders, only one of which was closely related to the original pBRC60 (Tn5271) donor, Alcaligenes sp. strain BR60. Bacteria dominating 3-chloroaniline-dosed microcosms carried IS1071, the class II insertion sequence that brackets Tn5271, on a plasmid unrelated to pBRC60. The importance of plasmid transfer and transposition during chemical adaptation is discussed.

  5. Genome-wide investigation of the genes involved in nicotine metabolism in Pseudomonas putida J5 by Tn5 transposon mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhenyuan; Zhang, Wei; Lei, Liping; Liu, Xingzhong; Wei, Hai-Lei

    2015-08-01

    Pseudomonas putida J5 is an efficient nicotine-degrading bacterial strain isolated from the tobacco rhizosphere. We successfully performed a comprehensive whole-genome analysis of nicotine metabolism-associated genes by Tn5 transposon mutagenesis in P. putida J5. A total of 18 mutants with unique insertions screened from 16,324 Tn5-transformants failed to use nicotine as the sole carbon source. Flanking sequences of the Tn5 transposon were cloned with a shotgun method from all of the nicotine-growth-deficient mutants. The potentially essential products of mutated gene were classified as follows: oxidoreductases, protein and metal transport systems, proteases and peptidases, transcriptional and translational regulators, and unknown proteins. Bioinformatic analysis of the Tn5 insertion sites indicated that the nicotine metabolic genes were separated and widely distributed in the genome. One of the mutants, M2022, was a Tn5 insert into a gene encoding a homolog of 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine oxidase, the second enzyme of nicotine metabolism in Arthrobacter nicotinovorans. Genetic and biochemical analysis confirmed that three open reading frames (ORFs) from an approximately 13-kb fragment recovered from the mutant M2022 were responsible for the transformation of nicotine to 3-succinoyl-pyridine via pseudooxynicotine and 3-succinoyl semialdehyde-pyridine, the first three steps of nicotine degradation. Further research on these mutants and the Tn5-inserted genes will help us characterize nicotine metabolic processes in P. putida J5. PMID:25808517

  6. Rapid and efficient introduction of a foreign gene into bacterial artificial chromosome-cloned varicella vaccine by Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition

    SciTech Connect

    Somboonthum, Pranee; Koshizuka, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Shigefumi; Matsuura, Masaaki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Michiaki; Yamanishi, Koichi; Mori, Yasuko

    2010-06-20

    Using a rapid and reliable system based on Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition, we have successfully constructed a recombinant Oka varicella vaccine (vOka) expressing the mumps virus (MuV) fusion protein (F). The backbone of the vector was our previously reported vOka-BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) genome. We inserted the transposon Tn7 attachment sequence, LacZ{alpha}-mini-attTn7, into the region between ORF12 and ORF13 to generate a vOka-BAC-Tn genome. The MuV-F expressing cassette was transposed into the vOka-BAC genome at the mini-attTn7 transposition site. MuV-F protein was expressed in recombinant virus, rvOka-F infected cells. In addition, the MuV-F protein was cleaved in the rvOka-F infected cells as in MuV-infected cells. The growth of rvOka-F was similar to that of the original recombinant vOka without the F gene. Thus, we show that Tn7-mediated transposition is an efficient method for introducing a foreign gene expression cassette into the vOka-BAC genome as a live virus vector.

  7. Optimization of high-rate TN removal in a novel constructed wetland integrated with microelectrolysis system treating high-strength digestate supernatant.

    PubMed

    Guo, Luchen; He, Keli; Wu, Shubiao; Sun, Hao; Wang, Yanfei; Huang, Xu; Dong, Renjie

    2016-08-01

    The potential of high-rate TN removal in three aerated horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands to treat high-strength anaerobic digestate supernatant was evaluated. Different strategies of intermittent aeration and effluent recirculation were applied to compare their effect on nitrogen depuration performance. Additional glucose supply and iron-activated carbon based post-treatment systems were established and examined, respectively, to further remove nitrate that accumulated in the effluents from aerated wetlands. The results showed that intermittent aeration (1 h on:1 h off) significantly improved nitrification with ammonium removal efficiency of 90% (18.1 g/(m(2)·d)), but limited TN removal efficiency (53%). Even though effluent recirculation (a ratio of 1:1) increased TN removal from 53% to 71%, the effluent nitrate concentration was still high. Additional glucose was used as a post-treatment option and further increased the TN removal to 82%; however, this implementation caused additional organic pollution. Furthermore, the iron-activated carbon system stimulated with a microelectrolysis process achieved greater than 85% effluent nitrate removal and resulted in 86% TN removal. Considering the high TN removal rate, aerated constructed wetlands integrated with a microelectrolysis-driven system show great potential for treating high-strength digestate supernatant. PMID:27136616

  8. Barriers to breastfeeding in the African American population of Shelby County, Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Ware, Julie L; Webb, Larita; Levy, Marian

    2014-10-01

    Breastfeeding is recommended exclusively for the first 6 months of life, with continuation after the addition of complementary foods for at least 1 year of life. Breastfeeding rates are low in the Southeastern United States, especially among African Americans. Disparities in breastfeeding rates between African Americans and whites are especially pronounced in Memphis (Shelby County), TN. Our research objectives were to explore this disparity using focus groups, specifically to identify perceived barriers, and also to seek possible solutions from the target population. Focus groups were conducted in nine community settings within the county. Groups primarily consisted of women of childbearing years, but groups with men, grandmothers, and teens were also conducted. Common barriers for breastfeeding that were identified included pain, embarrassment with public nursing, going back to work, concern about "partying" and breastfeeding, and "just not wanting to" breastfeed. A notable finding was a substantial concern about sexuality and breastfeeding. As a possible solution, participants recommended putting breastfeeding educational materials widely across the county in many venues. Barriers to breastfeeding in Memphis are similar to those in other areas, with key concerns about sexuality and partying. Involving the target population yielded specific recommendations to improve breastfeeding promotion efforts. PMID:24972117

  9. Geothermal Development Plan: Pima County

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Pima County is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic province in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Continued growth as indicated by such factors as population growth, employment and income will require large amounts of energy. It is believed that geothermal energy could provide some of the energy that will be needed. Potential users of geothermal energy within the county are identified.

  10. Geothermal development plan: Pima County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. H.

    Geothermal development for Pima County which is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic province in which geothermal resources are known to occur was investigated. Continued growth as indicated by such factors as population growth, employment and income will require large amounts of energy. Geothermal energy can provide some of the energy that will be needed. Potential users of geothermal energy within the county are identified.

  11. Geothermal development plan: Yuma county

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    One hot spring and 33 wells drilled in the county discharge water at temperatures sufficient for direct-use geothermal applications such as process heat and space heating and cooling. Currently, one industry within the county has been identified which may be able to use geothermal energy for its process heat requirements. Also, a computer simulation model was used to predict geothermal energy on line as a function of time under both private and city-owned utility development of the resource.

  12. 75 FR 6636 - Foreign-Trade Zone 77-Memphis, TN Application for Subzone Cummins, Inc. (Engine Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... located at 4155 Quest Way in Memphis (Shelby County), Tennessee. The facility is used for warehousing and... Secretary at the address listed above and in the ``Reading Room'' section of the Board's Web site, which...

  13. Rapid Transposon Liquid Enrichment Sequencing (TnLE-seq) for Gene Fitness Evaluation in Underdeveloped Bacterial Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fels, Samuel R.; Zane, Grant M.; Blake, Sean M.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-genome fitness analysis in microbes that uses saturating transposon mutagenesis combined with massively parallel sequencing (Tn-seq) is providing a measure of the contribution of each gene to a given growth condition. With this technique, gene fitness profiles and essential genes are discovered by simultaneous analyses of whether the absence of each gene product alters the growth kinetics of the bacterium. Here we modify the standard Tn-seq procedure to simplify and shorten the process by including delivery of the transposon through conjugation and liquid culture enrichment of the mutant pool, creating transposon liquid enrichment sequencing (TnLE-seq). To illustrate the success of these modifications and the robustness of the procedure, analyses of gene fitness of two cultures of the strictly anaerobic bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough were performed, with growth on lactate as the electron donor and sulfate as the electron acceptor. These data demonstrate reproducibility and provide a base condition for analysis of fitness changes in deletion mutants and in various growth conditions. The procedural modifications will facilitate the application of this powerful genetic analysis to microbes lacking a facile genetic system. Pilot studies produced 2.5 × 105 and 3.4 × 105 unique insertion mutants in the anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough grown under typical laboratory conditions in rich medium. These analyses provided two similar high-resolution maps of gene fitness across the genome, and the method was also applied to growth in minimal medium. These results were also compared to the coverage obtained with a ca. 13,000-member cataloged transposon library constructed by sequencing transposon insertion sites in individual mutants. PMID:24077707

  14. Analysis of the Zinc Finger Domain of TnpA, a DNA Targeting Protein Encoded by Mobilizable Transposon Tn4555

    PubMed Central

    Bacic, Melissa K.; Jain, Jinesh C.; Parker, Anita C.; Smith, C. Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    The mobilizable transposon Tn4555, found in Bacteroides spp., is an important antibiotic resistance element encoding a broad spectrum β-lactamase. Tn4555 is mobilized by conjugative transposons such as CTn341 which can transfer the transposon to a wide range of bacterial species where it integrates into preferred sites on the host chromosome. Selection of the preferred target sites is mediated by a DNA-binding protein TnpA which has a prominent zinc finger motif at the N-terminus of the protein. In this report the zinc finger motif was disrupted by site directed mutagenesis in which two cysteine residues were changed to serine residues. Elemental analysis indicated that the wild-type protein but not the mutated protein was able to coordinate zinc at a molar ration of 1/1. DNA binding electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the ability to bind the target site DNA was not significantly affected by the mutation but there was about a 50% decrease in the ability to bind single stranded DNA. Consistent with these results, electrophoretic mobility shift assays incorporating zinc chelators did not have a significant affect the binding of DNA target. In vivo, the zinc finger mutation completely prevented transposition/integration as measured in a conjugation assay. This was in contrast to results in which a TnpA knockout was still able to insert into host genomes but there was no preferred target site selection. The phenotype of the zinc finger mutation was not effectively rescued by providing wild-type TnpA in trans. Taken together these results indicated that the zinc finger is not required for DNA binding activity of TnpA but that it does have an important role in transposition and it may mediate protein/protein interactions with integrase or other Tn4555 proteins to facilitate insertion into the preferred sites. PMID:17204325

  15. Isolation of Rhizobium phaseoli Tn5-induced mutants with altered expression of cytochrome terminal oxidases o and aa3.

    PubMed Central

    Soberón, M; Membrillo-Hernández, J; Aguilar, G R; Sánchez, F

    1990-01-01

    Two Rhizobium phaseoli mutants affected in cytochrome expression were obtained by Tn5-mob mutagenesis of the wild-type strain (CE3). Mutant strain CFN031 expressed sevenfold less cytochrome o in culture, expressed cytochrome aa3 under microaerophilic culture conditions, in contrast to strain CE3, and was affected in its vegetative growth properties and proliferation inside plant host cells. Mutant CFN037 expressed cytochrome aa3 under microaerophilic culture conditions, while bacteroid development and nitrogen fixation occurred earlier than in strain CE3. Images FIG. 2 PMID:2155209

  16. Phage ϕC2 Mediates Transduction of Tn6215, Encoding Erythromycin Resistance, between Clostridium difficile Strains

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Shan; Hussain, Haitham; Chang, Barbara J.; Emmett, Warren; Riley, Thomas V.; Mullany, Peter

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this work, we show that Clostridium difficile phage ϕC2 transduces erm(B), which confers erythromycin resistance, from a donor to a recipient strain at a frequency of 10−6 per PFU. The transductants were lysogenic for ϕC2 and contained the erm(B) gene in a novel transposon, Tn6215. This element is 13,008 bp in length and contains 17 putative open reading frames (ORFs). It could also be transferred at a lower frequency by filter mating. PMID:24255122

  17. Elution of Nitrate at the NABIR Field Research Center, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, TN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fienen, M. N.; Criddle, C. S.; Jardine, P. M.; Kitanidis, P. K.; Mehlhorn, T. L.; Watson, D. B.; Wu, W.

    2003-12-01

    As part of a bioremediation project for the in situ bioreduction of uranium at the Department of Energy Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN, aquifer and groundwater conditioning is required before conducting the remediation experiment. One step includes flushing of the aquifer with pH-adjusted fresh water in order to remove extremely high concentrations of nitrate, calcium, and aluminum that would interfere with in situ bioreduction. The elution of nitrate from the test zone was used as an inverse tracer to discern contaminant transport pathways and model parameters. Concentration time series data augmented pressure tests, a bromide tracer study, and electromagnetic borehole flowmeter (EBF) measurements. The aquifer at the FRC is a fractured shale with strike of about 1.5 degrees north of west, and dip of about 30 degrees to the southwest, as inferred from area observations and EBF logging. A network of injection and extraction wells are aligned along strike, while a separate network of observation wells with multiple screen intervals (MLS wells) are oriented along dip at the midpoint of the injection/extraction well network. Flow generally occurs along strike in fractures associated with bedding planes, however other lesser fracture networks provide communication between the major fracture sets. Previous data have indicated a high hydraulic conductivity zone, approximately 10-50 cm thick located at a depth of about 12 m along the centerline of the injection/extraction well network. Above the major flow zone, the matrix weathers to saprolite, decreasing hydraulic conductivity. The elution tracer test was conducted by injecting clean, acidified tap water in the farthest upgradient injection well, and extracting at half the injection rate from the farthest downgradient extraction well. This flow ratio was chosen to produce flushing focused on a small cell of the aquifer which will later be used as an in situ bioreactor. Nitrate concentrations were measured frequently over 100 hours. Concentration time series indicate that flushing occurred predominantly in the previously identified high conductivity zone at 12 m depth. The strongest, most rapid nitrate concentration decrease was observed at a similar depth in each MLS well, which is consistent with the depth at which injection and extraction occurred. A decrease in downdip, nitrate concentration extended to 15m depth, whereas at the centerline and updip, little nitrate concentration reduction occurred below 13.75 m depth. This asymmetry is consistent with the competing contributions of bedding plane fractures and weathering depths. In the future, time series crosshole seismic and ground penetrating radar collected by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and borehole electrical conductivity measurements collected by Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be integrated with the concentration, pressure, and EBF data to obtain a comprehensive interpretation of this test.

  18. Characterization of the repeat-tract instability and mutator phenotypes conferred by a Tn3 insertion in RFC1, the large subunit of the yeast clamp loader.

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Y; Counter, C; Alani, E

    1999-01-01

    The RFC1 gene encodes the large subunit of the yeast clamp loader (RFC) that is a component of eukaryotic DNA polymerase holoenzymes. We identified a mutant allele of RFC1 (rfc1::Tn3) from a large collection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants that were inviable when present in a rad52 null mutation background. Analysis of rfc1::Tn3 strains indicated that they displayed both a mutator and repeat-tract instability phenotype. Strains bearing this allele were characterized in combination with mismatch repair (msh2Delta, pms1Delta), double-strand break repair (rad52), and DNA replication (pol3-01, pol30-52, rth1Delta/rad27Delta) mutations in both forward mutation and repeat-tract instability assays. This analysis indicated that the rfc1::Tn3 allele displays synthetic lethality with pol30, pol3, and rad27 mutations. Measurement of forward mutation frequencies in msh2Delta rfc1:Tn3 and pms1Delta rfc1:Tn3 strains indicated that the rfc1::Tn3 mutant displayed a mutation frequency that appeared nearly multiplicative with the mutation frequency exhibited by mismatch-repair mutants. In repeat-tract instability assays, however, the rfc1::Tn3 mutant displayed a tract instability phenotype that appeared epistatic to the phenotype displayed by mismatch-repair mutants. From these data we propose that defects in clamp loader function result in DNA replication errors, a subset of which are acted upon by the mismatch-repair system. PMID:9927446

  19. Population substructure in Cache County, Utah: the Cache County study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Population stratification is a key concern for genetic association analyses. In addition, extreme homogeneity of ethnic origins of a population can make it difficult to interpret how genetic associations in that population may translate into other populations. Here we have evaluated the genetic substructure of samples from the Cache County study relative to the HapMap Reference populations and data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Results Our findings show that the Cache County study is similar in ethnic diversity to the self-reported "Whites" in the ADNI sample and less homogenous than the HapMap CEU population. Conclusions We conclude that the Cache County study is genetically representative of the general European American population in the USA and is an appropriate population for conducting broadly applicable genetic studies. PMID:25078123

  20. Geothermal development plan: Yuma County

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Yuma County Area Development Plan evaluated the county-wide market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 90/sup 0/C (194/sup 0/F), and in addition, two areas are inferred to contain geothermal resources with intermediate (90/sup 0/C to 150/sup 0/C, 194/sup 0/F to 300/sup 0/F) temperature potential. The resource areas are isolated, although one resource area is located near Yuma, Arizona. One resource site is inferred to contain a hot dry rock resource. Anticipated population growth in the county is expected to be 2 percent per year over the next 40 years. The primary employment sector is agriculture, though some light industry is located in the county. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support future growth without advese affect on agriculture. Six firms were found in Yuma County which may be able to utilize geothermal energy for process heat needs. In addition, several agricultural processors were found, concentrated in citrus processing and livestock raising. Geothermal energy utilization projections suggest that by the year 2000, geothermal energy may economically provide the energy equivalent of 53,000 barrels of oil per year to the industrial sector if developed privately. Geothermal utilization projections increase to 132,000 barrels of oil per year by 2000 if a municipal utility developed the resource.

  1. Expression, purification, and characterization of avian Thy-1 from Lec1 mammalian and Tn5 insect cells.

    PubMed

    Mehndiratta, Promod; Walton, Wendy J; Hare, Joan T; Pulido, Silvia; Parthasarathy, Gopalakrishnan; Emmett, Mark R; Marshall, Alan G; Logan, Timothy M

    2004-02-01

    Structural studies of asparagine-linked glycoproteins are complicated by the oligosaccharide heterogeneity inherent to individual glycosylation sites. Herein, we report the cloning of a novel isoform of avian Thy-1 and the subsequent expression, purification, and characterization of a soluble form of Thy-1 from Lec1 mammalian and Tn5 insect cells. The novel isoform of Thy-1 differs from the previously reported chicken isoform by eight amino acid residues, but these changes do not alter the secondary structure content, the disulfide bond pattern, or the sites of glycosylation. The disulfide linkage pattern and glycoform distribution on each N-glycosylation site of recombinant chicken Thy-1 from both cell lines were determined by a combination of amino-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry. The mass spectral data showed that the amino-terminal glutamine was modified to pyroglutamate. Recombinant Thy-1 from Lec1 cells contained (GlcNAc)(2)(Man)(5) on asparagine 60, whereas the oligosaccharides on asparagine 23 and 100 contained approximately 80% (GlcNAc)(2)(Man)(4) and approximately 20% (GlcNAc)(2)(Man)(5). The glycoforms on Thy-1 expressed in Tn5 cells were more heterogeneous, with the oligosaccharides ranging over (GlcNAc)(2)(Fuc)(0-2)(Man)(2-3) on each site. The ability to generate recombinant glycoproteins with restricted carbohydrate heterogeneity is the first step toward the systematic study of structure-function relationships in intact glycoproteins. PMID:14711516

  2. Interaction of the Tn7-encoded transposition protein TnsB with the ends of the transposon.

    PubMed Central

    Arciszewska, L K; Craig, N L

    1991-01-01

    We have used several high resolution methods to examine the interaction of TnsB, a transposition protein encoded by the bacterial transposon Tn7, with its binding sites at the ends of the transposon. These binding sites lie within the DNA segments that are directly involved in transposition. We show that the binding of TnsB to DNA can promote DNA bending, suggesting that the interaction of TnsB with the ends may result in formation of a highly organized protein-DNA complex. We also identify likely positions of close contact between of TnsB and its binding sites. Analysis of the interaction of TnsB with intact Tn7 ends reveals TnsB occupies its binding sites in a particular order, the sites immediately adjacent to the transposon termini being occupied only after other inner sites are bound. Such ordered occupancy suggests that the various binding sites have differing apparent affinities for TnsB. Images PMID:1656385

  3. Chlorobenzoate catabolic transposon Tn5271 is a composite class I element with flanking class II insertion sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, C; Ng, J; Singh, R; Straus, N; Wyndham, C

    1991-01-01

    The structure of a transposon specifying the biodegradation of chlorobenzoate contaminants is described. Tn5271 is a 17-kilobase (kb) transposon that resides in the plasmid or chromosome of Alcaligenes sp. strain BR60 and allows this organism to grow on 3- and 4-chlorobenzoate. The transposon is flanked by a directly repeated sequence of 3201 base pairs (bp), which in turn is flanked by 110-bp inverted repeats. The 3.2-kb repeated sequence, designated IS1071, exists in multiple copies in the genome of Alcaligenes sp. strain BR60 and is involved in recombination of the catabolic genes into the chromosome of this strain. Sequence analysis revealed that the inverted repeat of IS1071 and the derived amino acid sequence of the single open reading frame within IS1071 are related to the inverted repeats and transposase (TnpA) proteins of the class II (Tn3 family) transposable elements. The absence of a resolvase gene within IS1071 suggests that this element is capable of determining the first step in class II transposition only. This was confirmed by observations on the IS1071-dependent formation of stable cointegrates in a recombination-deficient Escherichia coli. These results support an evolutionary scheme in which the class II transposable elements descended from simple insertion sequences. PMID:1656436

  4. A novel detergent-stable solvent-tolerant serine thiol alkaline protease from Streptomyces koyangensis TN650.

    PubMed

    Ben Elhoul, Mouna; Zaraî Jaouadi, Nadia; Rekik, Hatem; Bejar, Wacim; Boulkour Touioui, Souraya; Hmidi, Maher; Badis, Abdelmalek; Bejar, Samir; Jaouadi, Bassem

    2015-08-01

    An alkaline proteinase (STAP) was produced from strain TN650 isolated from a Tunisian off-shore oil field and assigned as Streptomyces koyangensis strain TN650 based on physiological and biochemical properties and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis revealed that the purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 45125.17-Da. The enzyme had an NH2-terminal sequence of TQSNPPSWGLDRIDQTTAFTKACSIKY, thus sharing high homology with those of Streptomyces proteases. The results showed that this protease was completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), diiodopropyl fluorophosphates (DFP), and partially inhibited by 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitro benzoic acid) (DTNB), which strongly suggested its belonging to the serine thiol protease family. Using casein as a substrate, the optimum pH and temperature values for protease activity were pH 10 and 70 °C, respectively. The protease was stable at pH 7-10 and 30-60 °C for 24 h. STAP exhibited high catalytic efficiency, significant detergent stability, and elevated organic solvent resistance compared to the SG-XIV proteases from S. griseus and KERAB from Streptomyces sp. AB1. The stap gene encoding STAP was isolated, and its DNA sequence was determined. These properties make STAP a potential candidate for future application in detergent formulations and non-aqueous peptide biocatalysis. PMID:26056991

  5. Utilization of a thermosensitive episome bearing transposon TN10 to isolate Hfr donor strains of Erwinia carotovora subsp. chrysanthemi.

    PubMed Central

    Kotoujansky, A; Lemattre, M; Boistard, P

    1982-01-01

    A thermosensitive episome bearing the transposon Tn10, F(Ts)::Tn10 Lac+, has been successfully transferred from Escherichia coli to several wild strains of the enterobacteria Erwinia carotovora subsp. chrysanthemi, which are pathogenic on Saintpaulia ionantha. In one of these strains, all of the characters controlled by this episome (Lac+, Tetr, Tra+) were expressed, and its replication was stopped at 40 degrees C and above. At 30 degrees C, the episome was easily transferred between strains derived from E. carotovora subsp. chrysanthemi 3937j and to E coli. Hfr donor strains were obtained from a F' strain of 3937j by selecting clones which grew at 40 degrees C on plates containing tetracycline. One of these strains, Hfrq, was examined in more detail: the characters Lac+ and Tetr were stabilized and did not segregate higher than its parental F' strain. The mating was most efficient at 37 degrees C on a membrane. Hfrq transferred its chromosome to recipient strains at high frequency and in a polarized fashion, as evidenced by the gradient of transfer frequencies, the kinetics of marker entry (in interrupted mating experiments), and the analysis of linkage between different markers. The chromosome of Hfrq was most probably transferred in the following sequence: origin...met...xyl...arg...ile...leu...thr...cys...pan...ura...gal...trp...his. ..pur... Moreover, this genetic transfer system proved to be efficient in strain construction. PMID:6277860

  6. The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Grímsvötn eruptions: Insights from GPS geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hreinsdottir, S.; Sigmundsson, F.; Roberts, M.; Árnadóttir, P.; Ófeigsson, B.; Grapenthin, R.; Sturkell, E.; Villemin, T.; Bennett, R.; Geirsson, H.

    2012-04-01

    Both the Eyjafjallajökull summit eruption in 2010 and Grímsvötn eruption in 2011 resulted in significant disruption of aviation. Three historic (last 1100 years) eruptions are known in Eyjafjallajökull volcano prior to 2010 (in 920, 1612, and 1821-23). In contrast Grímsvötn volcano is Icelands most active volcano with the last three eruptions in 1983, 1998, and 2004. Both volcanoes have been monitored with continuous GPS measurements in the last few years, revealing different style of deformation leading up to and during the eruption. On March 20 2010 a 300 m long fissure opened up on the east flank of Eyjafjallajökull volcano. The eruption was preceded by three months of unrest with increased seismic activity and surface deformation. The deformation pattern leading up to the eruption was both spatially and temporally variable. In January and February 2010 inflation was observed at GPS sites on the flanks of the volcano indicating formations of sills. From February 20 more distant GPS stations showed a small but distinct change in horizontal velocity. Sites started moving in toward the volcano, suggesting deep pressure changes. In early March seismic activity intensified and rapid deformation leading up to the eruption suggested the upward migration of magma. During the flank eruption deformation almost ceased and the volcano remained at an inflated state. On April 14 2010, a more explosive eruption began at the ice-caped summit of the volcano. Rapid deformation toward the summit and subsidence was observed at GPS sites around the volcano during this eruption. In early May a small but significant inflation signal was observed at the GPS sites closest to the summit suggesting a renewed flux of magma from depth but was followed by a continued deformation toward the summit for a few weeks. Around 19 UTC on May 21, 2011 a phreatomagmatic eruption started at Grímsvötn volcano lasting until the May 28. The Grímsvötn volcano lies beneath the Vatnajökul icecap, limiting the near field monitoring efforts to a single nunatak, Mt. Grímsvötn. A high rate GPS station and electronic tilt meter are collocated at the nunatak. The GPS station had registered inflation of the volcano since the 2004 when it last erupted. Rapid deformation, starting about an hour prior to the onset of the eruption, suggested a pressure drop in a magma chamber located at a shallow depth (~1.8 km). The GPS station recorded a total displacement of 57 cm with over 20% of the deformation taking place prior to the eruption and majority of the displacement (95%) taking place within the first 24 hours of the eruption. Rapid inflation signal was observed following the eruption suggesting refilling of the magma chamber.

  7. 7 CFR 1280.606 - Farm Service Agency County Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Service Agency County Committee. 1280.606....606 Farm Service Agency County Committee. Farm Service Agency County Committee, also referred to as... Farm Service Agency County Committee....

  8. 7 CFR 1280.606 - Farm Service Agency County Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Service Agency County Committee. 1280.606....606 Farm Service Agency County Committee. Farm Service Agency County Committee, also referred to as... Farm Service Agency County Committee....

  9. 7 CFR 1280.606 - Farm Service Agency County Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Service Agency County Committee. 1280.606....606 Farm Service Agency County Committee. Farm Service Agency County Committee, also referred to as... Farm Service Agency County Committee....

  10. 7 CFR 1280.606 - Farm Service Agency County Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Service Agency County Committee. 1280.606....606 Farm Service Agency County Committee. Farm Service Agency County Committee, also referred to as... Farm Service Agency County Committee....

  11. 7 CFR 1280.606 - Farm Service Agency County Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Service Agency County Committee. 1280.606....606 Farm Service Agency County Committee. Farm Service Agency County Committee, also referred to as... Farm Service Agency County Committee....

  12. 35. Photocopy of original drawing in possession of the County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photocopy of original drawing in possession of the County Auditor, Johnson County, Iowa. SPECIFICATIONS FOR BRIDGE OVER THE CEDAR RIVER AT SUTLIFF'S FERRY JOHNSON COUNTY, IOWA - Sutliff's Ferry Bridge, Spanning Cedar River (Cedar Township), Solon, Johnson County, IA

  13. 33. Photocopy of original drawing in possession of the County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photocopy of original drawing in possession of the County Auditor, Johnson County, Iowa. PLAN OF STONE PIER FOR EAST END, SUTLIFF'S FERRY BRIDGE, JOHNSON COUNTY, IOWA, 1897 - Sutliff's Ferry Bridge, Spanning Cedar River (Cedar Township), Solon, Johnson County, IA

  14. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Colusa County Chamber of Commerce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Colusa County Chamber of Commerce Booklet - Album of the 'County of Good Luck' Original: 1908 Re-photo: September 1940 - Hall of Records & County Jail, Colusa, Colusa County, CA

  15. Radioprotection of the Brain White Matter by Mn(III) N-Butoxyethylpyridylporphyrin-Based Superoxide Dismutase Mimic MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+

    PubMed Central

    Weitzel, Douglas H.; Tovmasyan, Artak; Ashcraft, Kathleen A.; Rajic, Zrinka; Weitner, Tin; Liu, Chunlei; Li, Wei; Buckley, Anne F.; Prasad, Mark R.; Young, Kenneth H.; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Wetsel, William C.; Peters, Katherine B.; Spasojevic, Ivan; Herndon, James E.; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Cranial irradiation is a standard therapy for primary and metastatic brain tumors. A major drawback of radiotherapy (RT), however, is long-term cognitive loss that affects quality of life. Radiation-induced oxidative stress in normal brain tissue is thought to contribute to cognitive decline. We evaluated the effectiveness of a novel mimic of superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD), MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ (Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(N-n-butoxyethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin), to provide long-term neuroprotection following 8 Gy of whole brain irradiation. Long-term RT damage can only be assessed by brain imaging and neurocognitive studies. C57BL/6J mice were treated with MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ before and after RT and evaluated three months later. At this time point, drug concentration in the brain was 25 nmol/L. Mice treated with MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+/RT exhibited MRI evidence for myelin preservation in the corpus callosum compared with saline/RT treatment. Corpus callosum histology demonstrated a significant loss of axons in the saline/RT group that was rescued in the MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+/RT group. In addition, the saline/RT groups exhibited deficits in motor proficiency as assessed by the rotorod test and running wheel tests. These deficits were ameliorated in groups treated with MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+/RT. Our data demonstrate that MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ is neuroprotective for oxidative stress damage caused by radiation exposure. In addition, glioblastoma cells were not protected by MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ combination with radiation in vitro. Likewise, the combination of MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ with radiation inhibited tumor growth more than RT alone in flank tumors. In summary, MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ has dual activity as a neuroprotector and a tumor radiosensitizer. Thus, it is an attractive candidate for adjuvant therapy with RT in future studies with patients with brain cancer. PMID:25319393

  16. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa county

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Maricopa county is the area of Arizona receiving top priority since it contains over half of the state's population. The county is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic region in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Several approaches were taken to match potential users to geothermal resources. One approach involved matching some of the largest facilities in the county to nearby geothermal resources. Other approaches involved identifying industrial processes whose heat requirements are less than the average assessed geothermal reservoir temperature of 110/sup 0/C (230/sup 0/F). Since many of the industries are located on or near geothermal resources, geothermal energy potentially could be adapted to many industrial processes.

  17. Archuleta County CO Lineaments

    SciTech Connect

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Publication Date: 2012 Title: Archuleta Lineaments Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Reno Nevada Publisher: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Description: This layer traces apparent topographic and air-photo lineaments in the area around Pagosa springs in Archuleta County, Colorado. It was made in order to identify possible fault and fracture systems that might be conduits for geothermal fluids. Geothermal fluids commonly utilize fault and fractures in competent rocks as conduits for fluid flow. Geothermal exploration involves finding areas of high near-surface temperature gradients, along with a suitable “plumbing system” that can provide the necessary permeability. Geothermal power plants can sometimes be built where temperature and flow rates are high. To do this, georeferenced topographic maps and aerial photographs were utilized in an existing GIS, using ESRI ArcMap 10.0 software. The USA_Topo_Maps and World_Imagery map layers were chosen from the GIS Server at server.arcgisonline.com, using a UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection. This line shapefile was then constructed over that which appeared to be through-going structural lineaments in both the aerial photographs and topographic layers, taking care to avoid manmade features such as roads, fence lines, and right-of-ways. These lineaments may be displaced somewhat from their actual location, due to such factors as shadow effects with low sun angles in the aerial photographs. Note: This shape file was constructed as an aid to geothermal exploration in preparation for a site visit for field checking. We make no claims as to the existence of the lineaments, their location, orientation, and nature. Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4132831.990103 m Left: 311979.997741 m Right: 331678.289280 m Bottom: 4116067.165795 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Contact Person: Richard “Rick” Zehner Address: 3740 Barron Way City: Reno State: NV Postal Code: 89511 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 775-737-7806 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  18. The Biphenyl- and 4-Chlorobiphenyl-Catabolic Transposon Tn4371, a Member of a New Family of Genomic Islands Related to IncP and Ti Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Toussaint, Ariane; Merlin , Christophe; Monchy, Sébastien; Benotmane, M. Abderrafi; Leplae, Raphaël; Mergeay, Max; Springael, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the biphenyl catabolic transposon Tn4371 has been completed and analyzed. It confirmed that the element has a mosaic structure made of several building blocks. In addition to previously identified genes coding for a tyrosine recombinase related to phage integrases and for biphenyl degradation enzymes very similar to those of Achromobacter georgiopolitanum KKS102, Tn4371 carries many plasmid-related genes involved in replication, partition, and other, as-yet-unknown, plasmid functions. One gene cluster contains most of the genes required to express a type IV secretion-mating pair formation apparatus coupled with a TraG ATPase, all of which are related to those found on IncP and Ti plasmids. Orthologues of all Tn4371 plasmid-related genes and of the tyrosine recombinase gene were found, with a very similar organization, in the chromosome of Ralstonia solanacearum and on the yet-to-be-determined genomic sequences of Erwinia chrysanthemi and Azotobacter vinelandii. In each of these chromosomal segments, conserved segments were separated by different groups of genes, which also differed from the Tn4371 bph genes. The conserved blocks of genes were also identified, in at least two copies, in the chromosome of Ralstonia metallidurans CH34. Tn4371 thus appears to represent a new family of potentially mobile genomic islands with a broad host range since they reside in a wide range of soil proteobacteria, including plant pathogens. PMID:12902278

  19. TnpI recombinase: identification of sites within Tn5401 required for TnpI binding and site-specific recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Baum, J A

    1995-01-01

    The Bacillus thuringiensis class II transposon Tn5401 encodes a recombinase protein, TnpI, that mediates the resolution of cointegrate molecules generated as intermediates during Tn5401 transposition by the TnpA transposase. This recombination event requires a specific target site, or internal resolution site, at which TnpI binds and catalyzes the exchange of DNA strands. Gel mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting analyses were used to localize the TnpI binding region to the sequence extending from nucleotides 637 to 747 of Tn5401. Deletions within this region blocked TnpI-mediated recombination in vivo. The 12-bp sequence ATGTCC RCTAAY, present in four copies within the TnpI binding region, is proposed to be the recognition sequence for TnpI binding. TnpI also binds to a single copy of this sequence located within the 53-bp terminal inverted repeats of Tn5401. The unique juxtaposition of recombinase and transposase binding sites at the terminal inverted repeats of Tn5401 suggests that TnpI regulates the binding and/or catalytic activity of TnpA transposase. PMID:7608077

  20. 75 FR 24944 - Adequacy Status of the Milwaukee-Racine, Door County, Manitowoc County, and Sheboygan County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... determining the adequacy of submitted SIP budgets in our July 1, 2004, preamble starting at 69 FR 40038, and... the Milwaukee-Racine area, Door County, Manitowoc County, and Sheboygan County, Wisconsin on September 11, 2009. As a result of our finding, these Wisconsin areas must use the MVEBs from the...

  1. Comparing Appalachia's Counties with the Nation's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the economic performance of all United States counties for 1970, 1980, and the mid 1980s and compares Appalachian counties with all counties in the nation using population, income, unemployment, and urbanization to measure different aspects of economic change. Includes data tables and maps. (JHZ)

  2. Once Distressed, Jackson County Moves On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1998-01-01

    In 1981, Jackson County, North Carolina, appeared on the first list of "distressed counties" in Appalachia. Since then, the rural county has made significant improvements by investing in its physical infrastructure (which also promotes tourism); fostering economic-development partnerships among governments, small businesses, and local colleges;…

  3. Trouble Brewing in Orange County. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Orange County will soon face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that Orange County faces a total $41.2 billion liability for retiree benefits that are underfunded--including $9.4 billion for the county pension system and an estimated…

  4. Community Types and Mortality in Georgia Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Using an "ecological regional analysis" methodology for defining types of communities and their associated mortality rates, this study of Georgia's 159 counties finds that the suburban and town centered counties have low mortality while the city-centered type predicts low mortality for the whites. The military-centered counties do not predict. The…

  5. Tennessee Higher Education County Profiles, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a localized perspective on Tennessee higher education for the year 2009, including: (1) county demographic and economic data; (2) information on public and private colleges and universities located in the county; and (4) number of county residents participating in the state's primary need-based and merit-based financial aid…

  6. Johnson County Business and Industry Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Office of Institutional Research.

    In fall 1982, Johnson County Community College (JCCC) conducted two surveys to determine the internal training needs of business and industry in Johnson County. One survey was mailed to the chief executives of some 2,000 businesses and industries, and another was distributed to about 2,000 employees of a large corporation in the county. Study…

  7. 76 FR 13172 - Placer County Water Agency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Placer County Water Agency Notice of Application Tendered for Filing with... Filed: February 23, 2011 d. Applicant: Placer County Water Agency e. Name of Project: Middle Fork... Manager, Placer County Water Agency, 144 Ferguson Road, Auburn, CA 95603; Telephone: (530) 823-4490....

  8. A Phase I Study of Unimolecular Pentavalent (Globo-H-GM2-sTn-TF-Tn) Immunization of Patients with Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cancer in First Remission.

    PubMed

    O'Cearbhaill, Roisin E; Ragupathi, Govind; Zhu, Jianglong; Wan, Qian; Mironov, Svetlana; Yang, Guangbin; Spassova, Maria K; Iasonos, Alexia; Kravetz, Sara; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Spriggs, David R; Danishefsky, Samuel J; Sabbatini, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a phase I study in ovarian cancer patients to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a synthetic unimolecular pentavalent carbohydrate vaccine (Globo-H, GM2, sTn, TF, and Tn) supported on a peptide backbone, conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH), and mixed with immunological adjuvant QS-21. Twenty-four advanced-stage, poor-risk, first-remission ovarian cancer patients were enrolled from January 2011-Septermber 2013. Three dose levels were planned (25, 50, 100 mcg) with three cohorts of six patients each, with an additional 6-patient expansion cohort at the MTD. ELISA serologic IgM and IgG responses for each antigen was defined as positive response if antibody titers were ≥1:80 over the respective patient's pre-vaccination serum. The study would be considered positive if at least four of 12 patients treated at the MTD showed immune responses for at least three of the five antigens. Twenty-four patients (median age, 54 years [range, 36-68]) were included in the safety analysis. Histology was high-grade serous in 22 patients (92%); 18 had stage III and six stage IV disease. The vaccine was well-tolerated at all doses, with no DLTs. At the highest treated dose, IgG and/or IgM responses were recorded against ≥3 antigens in 9/12 patients (75%), ≥4 in 7/12 (58%), and 5 in 3/12 (25%). With a median follow-up of 19 months (range, 2-39), 20 patients (83%) recurred and six (25%) died. The unimolecular pentavalent vaccine construct was shown to be safe and immunogenic. Such a construct greatly simplifies regulatory requirements and manufacturing, facilitates scalability, and provides adaptability. PMID:27110823

  9. A Phase I Study of Unimolecular Pentavalent (Globo-H-GM2-sTn-TF-Tn) Immunization of Patients with Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cancer in First Remission

    PubMed Central

    O’Cearbhaill, Roisin E.; Ragupathi, Govind; Zhu, Jianglong; Wan, Qian; Mironov, Svetlana; Yang, Guangbin; Spassova, Maria K.; Iasonos, Alexia; Kravetz, Sara; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Spriggs, David R.; Danishefsky, Samuel J.; Sabbatini, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a phase I study in ovarian cancer patients to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a synthetic unimolecular pentavalent carbohydrate vaccine (Globo-H, GM2, sTn, TF, and Tn) supported on a peptide backbone, conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH), and mixed with immunological adjuvant QS-21. Twenty-four advanced-stage, poor-risk, first-remission ovarian cancer patients were enrolled from January 2011–Septermber 2013. Three dose levels were planned (25, 50, 100 mcg) with three cohorts of six patients each, with an additional 6-patient expansion cohort at the MTD. ELISA serologic IgM and IgG responses for each antigen was defined as positive response if antibody titers were ≥1:80 over the respective patient’s pre-vaccination serum. The study would be considered positive if at least four of 12 patients treated at the MTD showed immune responses for at least three of the five antigens. Twenty-four patients (median age, 54 years [range, 36–68]) were included in the safety analysis. Histology was high-grade serous in 22 patients (92%); 18 had stage III and six stage IV disease. The vaccine was well-tolerated at all doses, with no DLTs. At the highest treated dose, IgG and/or IgM responses were recorded against ≥3 antigens in 9/12 patients (75%), ≥4 in 7/12 (58%), and 5 in 3/12 (25%). With a median follow-up of 19 months (range, 2–39), 20 patients (83%) recurred and six (25%) died. The unimolecular pentavalent vaccine construct was shown to be safe and immunogenic. Such a construct greatly simplifies regulatory requirements and manufacturing, facilitates scalability, and provides adaptability. PMID:27110823

  10. Community Analysis, Stafford County, Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central Rappahannock Regional Library, Fredericksburg, VA.

    This study of the present and future library needs of residents of Stafford County, Virginia, with emphasis on the North Stafford areas, includes a review of demographic statistics and recommendations for library services. The currently increasing population is highly dependent on the automobile for transportation, and recommendations for library…

  11. Composting in Prince William County

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, K.

    1995-10-01

    Hidden in a small industrial corner of Prince Williams County, in Northern Virginia, a composting facility, after its first flourishing year in business, has found itself part of a symbiotic triangle. Along with a landfill and a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant, the composting facility is one of three programs that make up a joint public-private venture and form a interjurisdictional solid waste/refuse exchange agreement. Faced with the prospects of having to close a landfill at the end of the year, a mandate on yard waste collection that was increasing collection tonnage, and no room for further landfill development, Fairfax County, with approximately 900,000 residents, needed help. In a turn-around situation, Prince William County--with approximately 240,000 residents, a low budget, and much space available for development--responded. Together the counties created a solid waste exchange. The basis for the program is a unity between the local governments on some solid waste issues and a composting facility. Composting, specifically yard waste composting, has been among the fastest-growing aspects of waste management. In 1990, the nation was composting 2% of its solid waste. By the end of 1995, according to the US EPA, between 4% and 7% of solid waste will be recovered through composting. The number of yard waste composting facilities operating has increased from 651 in 1988 to more than 3,000 in 1994.

  12. Partnership Program, Essex County College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David A.

    The Partnership Program at Essex County College (ECC), in Newark, New Jersey, was a 3-year, intensive, college-high school faculty development project designed to coordinate curriculum and learning strategies in area feeder high schools with content and instructional methods used in introductory college courses. Weekly workshops were conducted…

  13. Geothermal development plan: Pima County

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Pima County Area Development evaluated the county-wide market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 100{sup 0}C (212{sup 0}F), and in addition, one area is identified as having a temperature of 147{sup 0}F (297{sup 0}F). Geothermal resources are found to occur in Tucson where average population growth rates of two to three percent per year are expected over the next 40 years. Rapid growth in the manufacturing sector and the existence of major copper mines provide opportunities for the direct utilization of geothermal energy. However, available water supplies are identified as a major constraint to projected growth. The study also includes a regional energy analysis, future predictions for energy consumption and energy prices. A major section of the report is aimed at identifying potential geothermal users in Pima County and providing projections of maximum economic geothermal utilization. The study identifies 115 firms in 32 industrial classes that have some potential for geothermal use. In addition, 26 agribusiness firms were found in the county.

  14. Geothermal development plan: Pima County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. H.; Goldstone, L. A.

    1982-08-01

    The Pima County Area Development evaluated the county-wide market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. Four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 1000 C (2120 F) were identified. In addition, one area is identified as having a temperature of 1470 F (2970 F). Geothermal resources are found to occur in Tecson where average population growth rates of two to three percent per year are expected over the next 40 years. Rapid growth in the manufacturing sector and the existence of major copper mines provide opportunities for the direct utilization of geothermal energy. However, available water supplies are identified as a major constraing to projected growth. A regional energy analysis, future predictions for energy consumption, and energy prices are given. Potential geothermal users in Pima County are identified and projections of maximum economic geothermal utilization are given. One hundred fifteen firms in 32 industrial classes have some potential for geothermal use are identified. In addition, 26 agribusiness firms were found in the county.

  15. Fresno County Mock Trial Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresno City Unified School District, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: The Fresno County Office of Education and the Fresno Unified School District hosted the Mock Trial Competition. The state competition is sponsored by the Constitutional Rights Foundation, with cosponsorship from the California State Bar Association and the California Young Lawyer's Association. This…

  16. Somerset County Employer Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rephann, Terance J.

    Allegany Community College in Cumberland, Maryland, conducted an employer assessment survey of Somerset County businesses during the winter of 1995 in order to provide evaluation data for planning and curriculum development for the secondary and postsecondary educational institutions. The survey was mailed to 760 establishments, with a 29 percent…

  17. Natural Decrease in Texas Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koebernick, Thomas E.; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    In replication of other studies, the natural decrease of Texas population was examined in terms of the effect of migration and fertility. Utilizing Texas and U.S. vital statistics and the 1970 U.S. Census of Population, Texas population trends were analyzed for the 1968-72 period by dividing the 254 Texas counties into: (1) 65 natural decrease

  18. Kinship Care in Walton County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charon, Sara L.; Nackerud, Larry

    1996-01-01

    The quality of life of maltreated children placed with relatives was examined through interviews with nine families in Walton County (Georgia) who had taken in related children. Over half of the children had experienced some improvement in home life, school performance, and their physical and mental status. Kinship care families indicated needs…

  19. A role for Tn6029 in the evolution of the complex antibiotic resistance gene loci in genomic island 3 in enteroaggregative hemorrhagic Escherichia coli O104:H4.

    PubMed

    Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; Charles, Ian G; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    In enteroaggregative hemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EAHEC) O104 the complex antibiotic resistance gene loci (CRL) found in the region of divergence 1 (RD1) within E. coli genomic island 3 (GI3) contains blaTEM-1, strAB, sul2, tet(A)A, and dfrA7 genes encoding resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and trimethoprim respectively. The precise arrangement of antibiotic resistance genes and the role of mobile elements that drove the evolutionary events and created the CRL have not been investigated. We used a combination of bioinformatics and iterative BLASTn searches to determine the micro-evolutionary events that likely led to the formation of the CRL in GI3 using the closed genome sequences of EAHEC O104:H4 strains 2011C-3493 and 2009EL-2050 and high quality draft genomes of EAHEC E. coli O104:H4 isolates from sporadic cases not associated with the initial outbreak. Our analyses indicate that the CRL in GI3 evolved from a progenitor structure that contained an In2-derived class 1 integron in a Tn21/Tn1721 hybrid backbone. Within the hybrid backbone, a Tn6029-family transposon, identified here as Tn6029C abuts the sul1 gene in the 3'-Conserved Segment (-CS) of a class 1 integron generating a unique molecular signature that has only previously been observed in pASL01a, a small plasmid found in commensal E. coli in West Africa. From this common progenitor, independent IS26-mediated events created two novel transposons identified here as Tn6029D and Tn6222 in 2011C-3493 and 2009EL-2050 respectively. Analysis of RD1 within GI3 reveals IS26 has played a crucial role in the assembly of regions within the CRL. PMID:25675217

  20. A TALE of Transposition: Tn3-Like Transposons Play a Major Role in the Spread of Pathogenicity Determinants of Xanthomonas citri and Other Xanthomonads

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rafael Marini; de Oliveira, Amanda Carolina P.; Moreira, Leandro M.; Belasque, José; Gourbeyre, Edith; Siguier, Patricia; Ferro, Maria Inês T.; Ferro, Jesus A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the genus Xanthomonas are among the most important phytopathogens. A key feature of Xanthomonas pathogenesis is the translocation of type III secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins (T3SEs) into the plant target cells via a T3SS. Several T3SEs and a murein lytic transglycosylase gene (mlt, required for citrus canker symptoms) are found associated with three transposition-related genes in Xanthomonas citri plasmid pXAC64. These are flanked by short inverted repeats (IRs). The region was identified as a transposon, TnXax1, with typical Tn3 family features, including a transposase and two recombination genes. Two 14-bp palindromic sequences within a 193-bp potential resolution site occur between the recombination genes. Additional derivatives carrying different T3SEs and other passenger genes occur in different Xanthomonas species. The T3SEs include transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs). Certain TALEs are flanked by the same IRs as found in TnXax1 to form mobile insertion cassettes (MICs), suggesting that they may be transmitted horizontally. A significant number of MICs carrying other passenger genes (including a number of TALE genes) were also identified, flanked by the same TnXax1 IRs and delimited by 5-bp target site duplications. We conclude that a large fraction of T3SEs, including individual TALEs and potential pathogenicity determinants, have spread by transposition and that TnXax1, which exhibits all of the essential characteristics of a functional transposon, may be involved in driving MIC transposition. We also propose that TALE genes may diversify by fork slippage during the replicative Tn3 family transposition. These mechanisms may play a crucial role in the emergence of Xanthomonas pathogenicity. PMID:25691597

  1. Capability Description for NASA's F/A-18 TN 853 as a Testbed for the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt

    2009-01-01

    The NASA F/A-18 tail number (TN) 853 full-scale Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) testbed has been designed with a full array of capabilities in support of the Aviation Safety Program. Highlights of the system's capabilities include: 1) a quad-redundant research flight control system for safely interfacing controls experiments to the aircraft's control surfaces; 2) a dual-redundant airborne research test system for hosting multi-disciplinary state-of-the-art adaptive control experiments; 3) a robust reversionary configuration for recovery from unusual attitudes and configurations; 4) significant research instrumentation, particularly in the area of static loads; 5) extensive facilities for experiment simulation, data logging, real-time monitoring and post-flight analysis capabilities; and 6) significant growth capability in terms of interfaces and processing power.

  2. IMP-1 encoded by a novel Tn402-like class 1 integron in clinical Achromobacter xylosoxidans, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhenhong; Fang, Haihong; Wang, Li; Sun, Fengjun; Wang, Yong; Yin, Zhe; Yang, Huiying; Yang, Wenhui; Wang, Jie; Xia, Peiyuan; Zhou, Dongsheng; Liu, Changting

    2014-01-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain A22732 is isolated from a pneumonia patient in China and produces carbapenemases OXA-114e and IMP-1, which are encoded by chromosome and plasmid, respectively, and confer resistance to multiple -lactam antibiotics including carbapenems. The blaIMP-1 gene together with aacA7 and orfE is captured by a novel Tn402-like class 1 integron in a conjugative IncP-1 plasmid. In addition to the intrinsic integron promoter PcW, there is still a blaIMP-1 gene cassette-specific promoter. This is the first report of carbapenemase-encoding IncP-1 plasmid in clinical bacterial isolate. PMID:25428613

  3. IMP-1 encoded by a novel Tn402-like class 1 integron in clinical Achromobacter xylosoxidans, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenhong; Fang, Haihong; Wang, Li; Sun, Fengjun; Wang, Yong; Yin, Zhe; Yang, Huiying; Yang, Wenhui; Wang, Jie; Xia, Peiyuan; Zhou, Dongsheng; Liu, Changting

    2014-01-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain A22732 is isolated from a pneumonia patient in China and produces carbapenemases OXA-114e and IMP-1, which are encoded by chromosome and plasmid, respectively, and confer resistance to multiple -lactam antibiotics including carbapenems. The blaIMP-1 gene together with aacA7 and orfE is captured by a novel Tn402-like class 1 integron in a conjugative IncP-1 plasmid. In addition to the intrinsic integron promoter PcW, there is still a blaIMP-1 gene cassette-specific promoter. This is the first report of carbapenemase-encoding IncP-1 plasmid in clinical bacterial isolate. PMID:25428613

  4. Rapid release of metal salts and nutrients from the 2011 Grímsvötn, Iceland volcanic ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, J.; Stipp, S. L. S.; Dalby, K. N.; Gislason, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    On May 21st, 2011, one of Iceland’s most active volcano, Grímsvötn, started its strongest eruption in a century. Grímsvötn produced hundreds of megatonnes of fine basaltic ash, which spread over Iceland, the North Atlantic and Europe. Such fine grained ash can impact human activity and health both with fertilization and with toxicity potential for aquatic environments. The purpose of this study was: (1) to investigate the basic physical and chemical properties of the ash from the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption, (2) to identify surface salts deposited on the ash during the eruption, (3) to identify which elements are released during ash-water interactions and their release rates, (4) to characterize the secondary phases formed during water exposure, and (5) to assess impact of the ash on humans and the environment. During the eruption, we collected a unique set of pristine ash samples over a range of 50-115 km from the source and examined them with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), surface area analysis (BET), laser absorption, electron microprobe (EMPA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ash could be classified as glassy tholeiitic basalt with <10 mass% crystalline plagioclase (Al1.6Ca0.6Na0.4Si2.4O8) and pyroxene. The particles were small (<125 μm) and elongated with sharp edges. About 50% of the particle mass was fine ash (<63 μm), which could travel long distances, and ∼8% was very fine ash (<10 μm), which is harmful if inhaled. The specific surface area of the pristine ash ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 m2/g. Material taken up on particle surfaces contributed the equivalent of <0.5 nm thick layer, consisting of salts such as CaSO4, Na2SO4, NaCl, CaF2, CaCl2, MgSO4 and MgCl2. We exposed the pristine ash to ultrapure deionised (MilliQ) water in a single pass, plug, flow through reactor and the effluent was analyzed for 73 elements using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectroscopy (ICP-SFMS) and ion chromatography (IC). High release rates of mainly S, Na, Ca, Mg, F and Cl were observed during the first 10 min but after 12 h, the most abundant element released was Si. The effluent was alkaline. Secondary phases of mainly Al and Fe precipitated on the ash surfaces and these were suspected of scavenging As, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, Ga, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Te, V and Zn. The maximum total of surface salts containing F, Cl and S, carried by the erupted ash, was 11, 13 and 117 kilotonne. The flux of nutrient and toxic elements from the Grímsvötn ash was low compared with that from other eruptions and would not have been expected to cause poisoning of mammals or aquatic life. The elements most likely to affect sensitive biota were F, Se, Cu and Zn.

  5. [A new resolution vector with cry1Ac10 gene based on Bacillus thuringiensis transposon Tn4430].

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Sun, M; Yu, Z

    2000-06-01

    A new resolution vector with cry1Ac10 gene based on TnpI-mediated site-specific recombination system of Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt) transposon Tn4430 was developed. The gene cry1Ac10, encoding a protoxin against plutella xylostella larvae, and the gene ori1030, from a plasmid of wide type Bacillus thuringiensis, were inserted into two copy sets of RES sites, named pBMB801. When pBMB801 was introduced into crystal negative Bt host BMB171, antibiotic resistance genes and other non-Bt DNA can be selectively eliminated. This recombinant plasmid was found very stable without antibiotic selection. The resulting strain only contained Bt DNA and is free of antibiotic resistance genes. This strategy should facilitate regulatory approval for its development as a commercial biopesticide. PMID:12548990

  6. The Laki (Skaftár Fires) and Grímsvötn eruptions in 1783 1785

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thordarson, Th; Self, S.

    1993-05-01

    The Laki (Skaftár Fires) fissure eruption in southern Iceland lasted for eight months during 1783 to 1784, and produced one of the largest basaltic lava flows in historic times (14.7±1.0 km3). In addition, neighboring Grímsvötn central volcano was frequently active during the period from May 1783 to May 1785. The combined activity is interpreted as having been the result of a two-year-long volcano-tectonic episode on the Grímsvötn volcanic system. Contemporary descriptions of the explosive activity make it possible to relate the tephra stratigraphy to the progress of the eruption on a weekly basis and show that activity on the fissures propagated to the NE with time, towards Grímsvötn. The eruption at Laki began on 8 June with a brief explosive event on a short fissure, and lava rapidly began to flow into the Skaftá river gorge. It reached the lowlands, 35 km away, four days later and continued to flow, with variable discharge, until 7 February 1784. Approximately 90% of the lava was emplaced in the first five months of activity. The 27-km-long vent complex is composed of ten en echelon fissures distributed on both sides of the much older Laki hyaloclastite mountain. The surface expression of each fissure is a continuous row of vents consisting of scoria cones, spatter cones, and tuff cones. Six tephra fall units are positively identified; two units are completely compsed of phreatomagmatic tephra derived from two tuff cones and the others are Strombolian deposits. The volume of tephra, including ash fall that extended to mainland Europe, is 0.4 km3 dense rock equivalent volume, or 2.6% of the total erupted volume. Interpretation of contemporary descriptions of tephra falls, combined with the preserved stratigraphy, allow the identification of ten eruptive episodes during the eight months of activity on the Laki fissures. These eruptive episodes are inferred to have resulted from the unsteady flow of magma in the feeder system. In addition, at least eight eruption episodes occurred at Grímsvötn in 1783 to 1785, five in 1783, two in 1784, and one in 1785. Each episode at Laki began with a seismic swarm of increasing intensity that led to the formation of a new fissure, the opening of which was followed by short-lived phreatomagmatic activity caused by the high water table around the eruption site. Activity usually changed to violent Strombolian or sub-Plinian, followed by Hawaiian fire fountaining and effusive activity as the availability of groundwater dwindled. Thus, the explosive activity associated with the opening of each fissure was largely controlled by external watermagma interactions. Maximum effusion rates, occurring in the first two episodes, are estimated to have been 8.5x103 and 8.7x103 m3 s-1 from fissures totaling 2.2 and 2.8 km in length, respectively, and, in general, discharge gradually decreased over time. The highest rates are equivalent to 5.6x103 and 4.5x103 kg s-1 per meter length of fissure, values that could conceivably be similar to those that produced some flood basalt lava flows. Maximum fire fountain heights are estimated to have varied from 800 m to 1400 m and convecting eruption columns above the vents rose to a maximum altitude of about 15 km. The release of sulfur gases during fountaining produced an acid haze (aerosol) which spread widely and had a considerable environmental, and possibly climatic, impact on the Northern Hemisphere.

  7. Origin and structural implications of upper Miocene rhyolites in Kingston Canyon, Piute County, Utah.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowley, P.D.; Steven, T.A.; Mehnert, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    Kingston Canyon is one of the deepest antecedent canyons in the High Plateaus subprovince of the Colorado Plateaus. Here the E Fork of the Sevier River flows westward transversely across the gently E tilted Sevier Plateau, which is developed on a basin-range fault block uplifted more than 1500m along the Sevier fault zone on the W. Upper Tertiary rhyolites, uncommon in SW Utah, occur both on the northern rim and in the bottom of Kingston Canyon. Those on the northern rim consist of lava flows and volcanic domes of the rhyolite of Forshea Mountain, dated by K/Ar methods at 7.6Ma old. Those in the bottom of Kingston Canyon, the rhyolite of Phonolite Hill, are especially well exposed and provide spectacular examples of a pyroclastic cone whose base is about at river level and a steep-sided volcanic dome emplaced into and through these deposits. The pyroclastic deposits, formerly 500 or more metres thick, consist of airfall, mudflow, and ash-flow(?) material of rhyolite and foreign lithic fragments especially olivine basalt. The dome consists of flow-banded, mostly devitrified rhyolite as much as 500m thick; it has been dated by K/Ar methods at 5.4Ma. In addition to the rhyolites, a dome and lava-flow complex, the rhyodacite of Dry Lake, occurs near the northern rim and is considered to postdate the rhyolite of Forshea Mountain and predate the rhyolite of Phonolite Hill. -from Authors

  8. Tn-seq of Caulobacter crescentus under uranium stress reveals genes essential for detoxification and stress tolerance

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yung, Mimi C.; Park, Dan M.; Overton, K. Wesley; Blow, Matthew J.; Hoover, Cindi A.; Smit, John R.; Murray, Sean R.; Ricci, Dante P.; Christen, Beat; Bowman, Grant R.; et al

    2015-07-20

    Ubiquitous aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus is highly resistant to uranium (U) and facilitates U biomineralization and thus holds promise as an agent of U bioremediation. In order to gain an understanding of how C. crescentus tolerates U, we employed transposon (Tn) mutagenesis paired with deep sequencing (Tn-seq) in a global screen for genomic elements required for U resistance. Of the 3,879 annotated genes in the C. crescentus genome, 37 were found to be specifically associated with fitness under U stress, 15 of which were subsequently tested through mutational analysis. Systematic deletion analysis revealed that mutants lacking outer membrane transporters (rsaFamore » and rsaFb), a stress-responsive transcription factor (cztR), or a ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase (spoT) exhibited a significantly lower survival rate under U stress. RsaFa and RsaFb, which are homologues of TolC in Escherichia coli, have previously been shown to mediate S-layer export. Transcriptional analysis revealed upregulation of rsaFa and rsaFb by 4- and 10-fold, respectively, in the presence of U. We additionally show that rsaFa mutants accumulated higher levels of U than the wild type, with no significant increase in oxidative stress levels. These results suggest a function for RsaFa and RsaFb in U efflux and/or maintenance of membrane integrity during U stress. In addition, we present data implicating CztR and SpoT in resistance to U stress. Together, our findings reveal novel gene targets that are key to understanding the molecular mechanisms of U resistance in C. crescentus.« less

  9. Tn-seq of Caulobacter crescentus under uranium stress reveals genes essential for detoxification and stress tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, Mimi C.; Park, Dan M.; Overton, K. Wesley; Blow, Matthew J.; Hoover, Cindi A.; Smit, John R.; Murray, Sean R.; Ricci, Dante P.; Christen, Beat; Bowman, Grant R.; Jiao, Yongqin

    2015-07-20

    Ubiquitous aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus is highly resistant to uranium (U) and facilitates U biomineralization and thus holds promise as an agent of U bioremediation. In order to gain an understanding of how C. crescentus tolerates U, we employed transposon (Tn) mutagenesis paired with deep sequencing (Tn-seq) in a global screen for genomic elements required for U resistance. Of the 3,879 annotated genes in the C. crescentus genome, 37 were found to be specifically associated with fitness under U stress, 15 of which were subsequently tested through mutational analysis. Systematic deletion analysis revealed that mutants lacking outer membrane transporters (rsaFa and rsaFb), a stress-responsive transcription factor (cztR), or a ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase (spoT) exhibited a significantly lower survival rate under U stress. RsaFa and RsaFb, which are homologues of TolC in Escherichia coli, have previously been shown to mediate S-layer export. Transcriptional analysis revealed upregulation of rsaFa and rsaFb by 4- and 10-fold, respectively, in the presence of U. We additionally show that rsaFa mutants accumulated higher levels of U than the wild type, with no significant increase in oxidative stress levels. These results suggest a function for RsaFa and RsaFb in U efflux and/or maintenance of membrane integrity during U stress. In addition, we present data implicating CztR and SpoT in resistance to U stress. Together, our findings reveal novel gene targets that are key to understanding the molecular mechanisms of U resistance in C. crescentus.

  10. Identification of Pathogenicity-Related Genes in Biofilm-Defective Acidovorax citrulli by Transposon Tn5 Mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinyan; Qiu, Wen; Chen, Lei; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Yu, Menghao; Shan, Changlin; Ilyas, Mehmoona; Li, Bin; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Guochang

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm formation is important for virulence of a large number of plant pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, some virulence genes have been found to be involved in the formation of biofilm in bacterial fruit blotch pathogen Acidovorax citrulli. However, some virulent strains of A. citrulli were unable to format biofilm, indicating the complexity between biofilm formation and virulence. In this study, virulence-related genes were identified in the biofilm-defective strain A1 of A. citrulli by using Tn5 insertion, pathogenicity test, and high-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (hiTAIL-PCR). Results from this study indicated that 22 out of the obtained 301 mutants significantly decreased the virulence of strain A1 compared to the wild-type. Furthermore, sequence analysis indicated that the obtained 22 mutants were due to the insertion of Tn5 into eight genes, including Aave 4244 (cation diffusion facilitator family transporter), Aave 4286 (hypothetical protein), Aave 4189 (alpha/beta hydrolase fold), Aave 1911 (IMP dehydrogenase/GMP reductase domain), Aave 4383 (bacterial export proteins, family 1), Aave 4256 (Hsp70 protein), Aave 0003 (histidine kinase, DNA gyrase B, and HSP90-like ATPase), and Aave 2428 (pyridoxal-phosphate dependent enzyme). Furthermore, the growth of mutant Aave 2428 was unaffected and even increased by the change in incubation temperature, NaCl concentration and the pH of the LB broth, indicating that this gene may be directly involved in the bacterial virulence. Overall, the determination of the eight pathogenicity-related genes in strain A1 will be helpful to elucidate the pathogenesis of biofilm-defective A. citrulli. PMID:26602922

  11. Annual Performance Evaluation of a Pair of Energy Efficient Houses (WC3 and WC4) in Oak Ridge, TN

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Christian, Jeffrey E; Gehl, Anthony C; Jackson, Roderick K; Boudreaux, Philip R

    2012-04-01

    Beginning in 2008, two pairs of energy-saver houses were built at Wolf Creek in Oak Ridge, TN. These houses were designed to maximize energy efficiency using new ultra-high-efficiency components emerging from ORNL s Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partners and others. The first two houses contained 3713 square feet of conditioned area and were designated as WC1 and WC2; the second pair consisted of 2721 square feet conditioned area with crawlspace foundation and they re called WC3 and WC4. This report is focused on the annual energy performance of WC3 and WC4, and how they compare against a previously benchmarked maximum energy efficient house of a similar footprint. WC3 and WC4 are both about 55-60% more efficient than traditional new construction. Each house showcases a different envelope system: WC3 is built with advanced framing featured cellulose insulation partially mixed with phase change materials (PCM); and WC4 house has cladding composed of an exterior insulation and finish system (EIFS). The previously benchmarked house was one of three built at the Campbell Creek subdivision in Knoxville, TN. This house (CC3) was designed as a transformation of a builder house (CC1) with the most advanced energy-efficiency features, including solar electricity and hot water, which market conditions are likely to permit within the 2012 2015 period. The builder house itself was representative of a standard, IECC 2006 code-certified, all-electric house built by the builder to sell around 2005 2008.

  12. Refinement of Isotopically Derived Fine Root Lifespans Using A Locally Released Radiocarbon Label in Oak Ridge, TN.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudinski, J. B.; Riley, W. J.; Torn, M. S.; Joslin, J. D.

    2003-12-01

    Isotopic techniques (13C and 14C) are relative newcomers among the approaches used to quantify fine root (< 2 mm diameter) dynamics in a field setting. Direct measurements of the isotopic content of root tissues, used as a proxy for root age, have shown that at least some portion of the fine root system lives for 5-10 years or more. In this work we take advantage of a local radiocarbon (14C) release in Oak Ridge, TN in summer 1999, to examine (1) the influence of stored C in new root growth and (2) the lifespan of fine roots from a mature, temperate deciduous forest. This release provides a local 14C pulse of similar magnitude to the peak of the 14C bomb spike. However, since we have been able to make ecosystem wide measurements within one year of the local 14C release we have much greater time resolution than we do with the standard bomb-14C technique applied today (which is 1-2 years). We have constructed a new multi-compartment model of root growth and decay, whose structure was developed using data from field sampling at Oak Ridge, TN. Model results, constrained with a 14C time series of new root growth, show that fine roots are grown with 10% of their carbon coming from stored C sources. Additionally, a three-year time series of root cores shows that at least two pools are required to account for 14C changes in live and dead fine roots. Testing this 14C data set with our model shows that the shorter-lived root pool has a turnover time (mean lifetime) of a few months and the longer-lived pool has a turnover time of ~5 years.

  13. Identification of Pathogenicity-Related Genes in Biofilm-Defective Acidovorax citrulli by Transposon Tn5 Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jinyan; Qiu, Wen; Chen, Lei; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Yu, Menghao; Shan, Changlin; Ilyas, Mehmoona; Li, Bin; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Guochang

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm formation is important for virulence of a large number of plant pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, some virulence genes have been found to be involved in the formation of biofilm in bacterial fruit blotch pathogen Acidovorax citrulli. However, some virulent strains of A. citrulli were unable to format biofilm, indicating the complexity between biofilm formation and virulence. In this study, virulence-related genes were identified in the biofilm-defective strain A1 of A. citrulli by using Tn5 insertion, pathogenicity test, and high-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (hiTAIL-PCR). Results from this study indicated that 22 out of the obtained 301 mutants significantly decreased the virulence of strain A1 compared to the wild-type. Furthermore, sequence analysis indicated that the obtained 22 mutants were due to the insertion of Tn5 into eight genes, including Aave 4244 (cation diffusion facilitator family transporter), Aave 4286 (hypothetical protein), Aave 4189 (alpha/beta hydrolase fold), Aave 1911 (IMP dehydrogenase/GMP reductase domain), Aave 4383 (bacterial export proteins, family 1), Aave 4256 (Hsp70 protein), Aave 0003 (histidine kinase, DNA gyrase B, and HSP90-like ATPase), and Aave 2428 (pyridoxal-phosphate dependent enzyme). Furthermore, the growth of mutant Aave 2428 was unaffected and even increased by the change in incubation temperature, NaCl concentration and the pH of the LB broth, indicating that this gene may be directly involved in the bacterial virulence. Overall, the determination of the eight pathogenicity-related genes in strain A1 will be helpful to elucidate the pathogenesis of biofilm-defective A. citrulli. PMID:26602922

  14. Spatial variability assessment of soil nutrients in an intense agricultural area, a case study of Rugao County in Yangtze River Delta Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongcun; Xu, Xianghua; Darilek, Jeremy Landon; Huang, Biao; Sun, Weixia; Shi, Xuezheng

    2009-05-01

    Topsoil samples (0-20 cm) ( n = 237) were collected from Rugao County, China. Geostatistical variogram analysis, sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and principal component (PC) analysis were applied to assess spatial variability of soil nutrients, identify the possible areas of nutrient deficiency, and explore spatial scale of variability of soil nutrients in the county. High variability of soil nutrient such as soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), available P, K, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B concentrations were observed. Soil nutrient properties displayed significant differences in their spatial structures, with available Cu having strong spatial dependence, SOM and available P having weak spatial dependence, and other nutrient properties having moderate spatial dependence. The soil nutrient deficiency, defined here as measured nutrient concentrations which do not meet the advisory threshold values specific to the county for dominant crops, namely rice, wheat, and rape seeds, was observed in available K and Zn, and the deficient areas covered 38 and 11%, respectively. The first three PCs of the nine soil nutrient properties explained 62.40% of the total variance. TN and SOM with higher loadings on PC1 are closely related to soil texture derived from different parent materials. The PC2 combined intermediate response variables such as available Zn and P that are likely to be controlled by land use and soil pH. Available B has the highest loading on PC3 and its variability of concentrations may be primarily ascribed to localized anthropogenic influence. The amelioration of soil physical properties (i.e. soil texture) and soil pH may improve the availability of soil nutrients and the sustainability of the agricultural system of Rugao County.

  15. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    Chester County encompasses 760 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater- quality studies have been conducted in the county over several decades to address specific hydrologic issues. This report compiles and describes water-quality data collected during studies conducted mostly after 1990 and summarizes the data in a county-wide perspective. In this report, water-quality constituents are described in regard to what they are, why the constituents are important, and where constituent concentrations vary relative to geology or land use. Water-quality constituents are grouped into logical units to aid presentation: water-quality constituents measured in the field (pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), common ions, metals, radionuclides, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds.Waterquality constituents measured in the field, common ions (except chloride), metals, and radionuclides are discussed relative to geology. Bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds are discussed relative to land use. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or Chester County Health Department has drinkingwater standards for a constituent, the standards are included. Tables and maps are included to assist Chester County residents in understanding the water-quality constituents and their distribution in the county. Ground water in Chester County generally is of good quality and is mostly acidic except in the carbonate rocks and serpentinite, where it is neutral to strongly basic. Calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate are major constituents of these rocks. Both compounds have high solubility, and, as such, both are major contributors to elevated pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and the common ions. Elevated pH and alkalinity in carbonate rocks and serpentinite can indicate a potential for scaling in water heaters and household plumbing. Low pH and low alkalinity in the schist, quartzite, and gneiss rocks can indicate a potential for corrosive water. The only constituent measured in the field that has a USEPA Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) is pH. The SMCL for pH is 6.5-8.5; 64 percent of samples analyzed for pH were acidic (below pH 6.5). Only 1 percent of samples were basic (above pH 8.5). Of the common ions, the USEPA has SMCLs for chloride, sulfate, and total dissolved solids. The USEPA has a SMCL and a Primary Maximum Contaminant Level (PMCL) for fluoride. Chloride is more closely related to land use than geology. In Chester County, chloride exceeded the SMCL (250 mg/L) only in 5 percent of the services (commercial services, community services, and military) land-use areas. No samples analyzed for sulfate exceeded the SMCL (250 mg/L). Only 3 percent of samples analyzed for total dissolved solids exceeded the SMCL (500 milligrams per liter) (mg/L). No samples analyzed for fluoride equaled or exceeded the SMCL (2.0 mg/L) or PMCL (4.0 mg/L). Iron concentrations exceeded the USEPA SMCL in 11 percent of samples and were highest in schist (14 percent) and gneiss (13 percent). Manganese concentrations exceeded the SMCL in 19 percent of samples and were highest in quartzite and schist (both 28 percent). Lead and arsenic were present in low concentrations: the highest concentrations of lead occurred in water from quartzite (8 percent exceeded the USEPA Action Level), and arsenic was detected mostly in Triassic sedimentary rocks (9 percent exceeded the USEPA PMCL). The highest concentrations of copper occurred more frequently in quartzite rocks, and to a lesser extent were evenly distributed between ground water in gneiss, schist, and Triassic sedimentary rocks. Elevated concentrations of radon-222 and the combined radium-226/radium-228 radionuclides were common in water from quartzite and schist. Gross alpha and gross beta particle activities were elevated in water from quartzite and carbonate rocks. In contrast, elevated concentrations of uranium prima

  16. Sialyl-Tn, sialyl-Lewis Xi, CA 19-9, CA 125, carcinoembryonic antigen, and tissue polypeptide antigen in differentiating ovarian cancer from benign tumors.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Fujita, M; Nakazawa, A; Ogawa, H; Tanizawa, O

    1992-03-01

    Serum sialyl-Tn, sialyl-Lewis Xi, CA 19-9, CA 125, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and tissue polypeptide antigen were measured in 65 women with early-stage ovarian cancer (45 stage I and 20 stage II cases) and 317 with benign pelvic masses. As a single assay, sialyl-Tn showed the best sensitivity and specificity, 46 and 92%, respectively. CA 19-9 detected the greatest number of cancer patients but had the lowest specificity. The combination of sialyl-Tn, CA 125, tissue polypeptide antigen, and CEA seemed to perform the best, with a sensitivity and specificity of 71 and 76%, respectively. The combination of sialyl-Tn, CA 125, and tissue polypeptide antigen gave similar results and may be more cost-effective. However, one-fifth of the patients with early-stage cancer still showed up as false negatives even with use of the six markers in combination. Approaches other than serum assay alone will be needed to detect all malignant pelvic masses at an early stage. PMID:1346716

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma litorale TN-1T (DSM 21781), a Bacterium Isolated from a Green-Eyed Horsefly (Tabanus nigrovittatus)

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wen-Sui; Lai, Yi-Ching; Lien, Yun-Wei; Wang, Tzu-Haw

    2015-01-01

    Spiroplasma litorale TN-1T (DSM 21781) was isolated from the gut of a green-eyed horsefly (Tabanus nigrovittatus), collected at Ocracoke Island in North Carolina in 1983. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its biology. PMID:26430038

  18. New genetic techniques for group B streptococci: high-efficiency transformation, maintenance of temperature-sensitive pWV01 plasmids, and mutagenesis with Tn917.

    PubMed Central

    Framson, P E; Nittayajarn, A; Merry, J; Youngman, P; Rubens, C E

    1997-01-01

    Three techniques were developed to improve the genetic manipulation of group B streptococci (GBS). We first optimized a protocol for transformation of GBS by electroporation, which provided transformation efficiencies of 10(5) CFU/microgram. Variables that influenced the transformation efficiency were the glycine content of the competent cell growth media, the electric field strength during electroporation, the electroporation buffer composition, the host origin of the transforming plasmid, and the concentration of selective antibiotic at the final plating. Our transformation protocol provides an efficiency sufficient for cloning from ligation reactions directly into GBS, obviating an intermediate host such as Escherichia coli. Second, temperature-sensitive plasmids of the pWV01 lineage were shown to transform GBS, and their temperature-sensitive replication was confirmed. Lastly, the temperature-sensitive pWV01 plasmid pTV1OK, which contains Tn917, was used as a transposon delivery vector for the construction of genomic Tn917 mutant libraries. We have shown, for the first time, that Tn917 transposes to the GBS chromosome and at a frequency of 10(-3)/CFU. Furthermore, representative clones from a Tn917 library contained single transposon insertions that were randomly located throughout the chromosome. These techniques should provide useful methods for cloning, mutagenesis, and characterization of genes from GBS. PMID:9293004

  19. Mapping of Streptococcus faecalis plasmids pAD1 and pAD2 and studies relating to transposition of Tn917.

    PubMed Central

    Clewell, D B; Tomich, P K; Gawron-Burke, M C; Franke, A E; Yagi, Y; An, F Y

    1982-01-01

    Plasmids pAD1 (37.8 megadaltons) and pAD2 (17.1 megadaltons) of Streptococcus faecalis strain DS16 have been mapped with restriction enzymes. The location of a hemolysin-bacteriocin determinant on the conjugative pAD1 plasmid was derived from analyses of transposon insertions. Electron microscope and hybridization analyses located Tn917(Em) and the streptomycin (Sm) and kanamycin (Km) resistance determinants on the nonconjugative pAD2 plasmid. It was shown previously that the erythromycin (Em) resistance associated with Tn917 is inducible and that transposition from pAD2 to pAD1 is also stimulated by exposure of cells to low concentrations of Em. Here we show that inducing concentrations of Em also increase the conjugative transfer potential of pAD1; this is possibly related to a mild and short-lived inhibitory stress placed on the cells before full induction of resistance. Selection of Em-resistant transconjugants arising from matings between DS16 and a plasmid-free recipient gave rise to transconjugants which primarily harbor stable pAD1::pAD2 cointegrates. A 30-min exposure of donors to Em (0.5 microgram/ml) before mating resulted in a severalfold increase in the number of such transconjugants. However, a small fraction (e.g., 3 of 40) of these Emr Smr Kmr transconjugants harbored pAD1::Tn917 and pAD2 molecules. Since we believe pAD2 is incapable of being mobilized by pAD1 without being covalently linked, it is likely that transfer in these cases involved cointegrates representing structural intermediates in the transposition of Tn917 from pAD2 to pAD1. It follows that such intermediates probably had two copies of Tn917 and readily resolved after transfer. (These cointegrates are different from the stable cointegrates which were shown to have only a single copy of Tn917; the latter are assumed not to be related to transposition.) Two variants with altered Tn917 transposition properties were derived. One of them transposed at an elevated frequency, whereas the other showed no detectabel transposition. In neither case was transposition influenced by Em exposure; however, both remained inducible for Em resistance. Images PMID:6292164

  20. Knockdown of cytochrome P450 2E1 inhibits oxidative stress and apoptosis in the cTnT(R141W) dilated cardiomyopathy transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dan; Ma, Yuanwu; Zhang, Wei; Bao, Dan; Dong, Wei; Lian, Hong; Huang, Lan; Zhang, Lianfeng

    2012-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the metabolism of toxic substrates. CYP2E1 is upregulated in heart disease, including the dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) mouse model. Here, knockdown of CYP2E1 significantly ameliorated the dilated left ventricle, thin wall, and dysfunctional contraction in the cTnT(R141W) and adriamycin-induced DCM mouse models. Interstitial fibrosis, poorly organized myofibrils, and swollen mitochondria with loss of cristae were improved in the myocardium of α-myosin heavy chain (MHC)-cTnT(R141W)×CYP2E1-silence double-transgenic mice when compared with the cTnT(R141W) transgenic mice. Oxidative stress, the activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9, the release of cytochrome c, and the apoptosis in the myocardium were significantly decreased in double-transgenic mice compared with the cTnT(R141W) transgenic mice. In summary, the expression of CYP2E1 is upregulated in heart disease and might be induced by hypoxemia in cardiomyopathy. The overexpression of CYP2E1 can enhance the metabolism of endogenous ketones to meet the energy demand of the heart in certain disease states, but the overexpression of CYP2E1 can also increase oxidative stress and apoptosis in the DCM heart. Knockdown or downregulation of CYP2E1 might be a therapeutic strategy to control the development of DCM after mutations of cTnT(R141W) or other factors, because DCM is the third most common cause of heart failure and the most frequent cause of heart transplantation. PMID:22665122

  1. The determinants of county growth.

    PubMed

    Carlino, G A; Mills, E S

    1987-02-01

    The determinants of population and employment growth were explored from a broader interregional (as opposed to intraregional) perspective. Data for the 1970s, at the county level of disaggregation, were used to analyze the effects of economic, demographic, and climatic variables on population and employment growth in a simultaneous equation framework. The use of data from the more than 3000 US counties provides a considerably larger testing ground than those used in previous research. The point of departure was a conventional, general equilibrium model in which both households and producers are geographically mobile. The study's dependent variables refer to population, total, and manufacturing employment densities. Family income had a powerful effect in stimulating both population and employment density. A 10% increase in family income led to a 7.9% increase in total and a 9.2% increase in manufacturing employment densities. High family income must stand for high demand, and thus, firms are drawn to an area. High family income also drew households to an area. A 10% increase in family income led to a 5.5% increase in population density. High family income must represent "good" neighborhoods for households. High family income was positively correlated with population and employment density, but in other recent studies either a negative and significant relationship or an insignificant relationship were reported. Local taxes consist of the receipts of county government and those of municipalities, townships, school districts, and special districts within the county. The elasticities reported in Table 4 suggest that a 10% increase in such taxes resulted in about a 0.072% reduction in county population density during the decade. The Industrial Revenue Bonds (IRBs) and the percent of the labor force that is unionized are 2 potential policy instruments at the state level. The study results suggest that IRBs have not stimulated either manufacturing or total employment, and the coefficients were statistically insignificant in the structural equations. The elasticities imply that a 10% increase in percent union reduces total employment by 0.42% and manufacturing employment by 0.18%. The effect on population was tiny. Further, while not intended, the interstate highway program may have been a significant redistributor of population and employment but has not caused immigration of people and jobs from central cities. PMID:12268789

  2. 32. Photocopy of original drawing in possession of the County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photocopy of original drawing in possession of the County Auditor, Johnson County, Iowa. PROFILE OF HIGHWAY BRIDGE OVER CEDAR RIVER AT SUTLIFF'S FERRY IN JOHNSON COUNTY, IOWA, 1897. (RIGHT 1/4 OF DRAWING) PLAN OF APPROACH FOR SUTLIFF'S FERRY BRIDGE OVER CEDAR RIVER, JOHNSON COUNTY, IOWA, 1897 - Sutliff's Ferry Bridge, Spanning Cedar River (Cedar Township), Solon, Johnson County, IA

  3. 7 CFR 7.11 - County committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the county executive director, other employee of the county committee, or the county agricultural extension agent for the county. If the county agricultural extension agent is not selected as secretary to... Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION...

  4. 7 CFR 7.11 - County committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the county executive director, other employee of the county committee, or the county agricultural extension agent for the county. If the county agricultural extension agent is not selected as secretary to... Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION...

  5. Hudson County Community College Periodic Review Report. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson County Community Coll., Jersey City, NJ.

    Hudson County Community College (HCCC) serves Hudson County, New Jersey. Although the county is the smallest in the state, its 610,000 residents make up one of the most diverse counties in New Jersey. Approximately 40% of residents are Hispanic, 12% are African-American, 10% are Asian, and 35% are White. The county is also home to a growing Middle…

  6. Sulphide globules and their impact on sulphur degassing budget: the case of Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, Baptiste; Carn, Simon; Sigmarsson, Olgeir

    2014-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions are known to contribute sulphur to the atmosphere. Two different methods allow estimation of sulphur mass loading: remote satellite measurements and the petrologic method. Sulphur emission at subduction-related volcanoes is often underestimated by the latter method relative to the former whereas a fair agreement is found for hot spot-related volcanoes. The Grímsvötn 2011 eruption allows further comparison between these two methods. Grímsvötn is a basaltic subglacial volcano located under the Vatnajökull ice cap, above the Iceland mantle plume and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The May 2011 eruption lasted one week and took place inside the composite caldera of the volcano. During the first 24 hours, the column reached a height of more than 20 km and bulk of the magma was emitted. The basaltic tephra has quartz-normative tholeiite composition with 1-5% plagioclase, clinopyroxene, olivine, FeTi-oxide crystals and, noteworthy, sulphide globules present in the groundmass glass. Sulphur concentrations of twenty eight melt inclusions (MIs) were measured in plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine crystals extracted from the tephra produced during the most explosive phase. The difference between the mean sulphur content of both MIs and groundmass glass multiplied by the magma mass erupted, yields 0.73 ± 0.18 Tg of liberated sulphur. This is four times the estimated sulphur degassing by satellite measurements (0.19 ± 0.06 Tg). The contributions of different sulphur sinks were quantified. The geothermal system harvests approximately 0.037 Tg (5%), which are liberated during jökulhlaups. Sulphur adhering to the volcanic ash is approximately 0.12 Tg (15%). Added to the satellite measurements of sulphur entering the stratosphere, half of the S estimated by the petrologic method is still missing. Sulphur immiscibility forming sulphur globules in the magma chambers appears the most probable explanation for the missing 50% of sulphur. Due to elevated density of sulphide globules, they preferentially separate from the magmatic liquid at depth. This study clearly shows that estimations of S emissions in low fO2 basalts from older eruptions must take into account the potential sulphide immiscibility and, consequently, the storage of sulphur at depth.

  7. Water/magma mass fractions in phreatomagmatic eruption plumes - constraints from the Grímsvötn 2011 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, M. T.; Pálsson, F.; Thordarson, T.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Larsen, G.; Hognadottir, T.; Oddsson, B.; Oladottir, B. A.; Gudnason, J.

    2014-12-01

    Explosive interaction of magma and water leads to vaporization and introduces external water vapor to volcanic plumes. Theoretical considerations on the effect of external water magma ratio on volcanic plumes indicate that plume buoyancy should be enhanced by external water fractions up to at least 30%, while fractions reaching 40% should lead to plume collapse. The basaltic VEI 4 eruption of Grímsvötn in May 2011 produced a 15-20 km high eruption plume and over 100 km wide umbrella cloud. External water interacted with the magma and entered the plume from the melting out of a 100-150 m deep ice cauldron that had acquired a volume of 0.1 km3 at the end of the eruption. About 0.7 km3 of tephra was produced in the eruption whereof about half was erupted in phreatomagmatic phases and the other half in magmatic phases. During the dry, magmatic phases melting was apparently not fast enough to supply sufficient external water to the vents to control the style of activity. The only source of external water was the melting out of the ice cauldron since no changes took place in the level of the larger, subglacial lake in the center of the Grímsvötn caldera, and no meltwater was drained from the caldera. The eruption site therefore had little or no hydrological connection with the adjacent subglacial lake. Water remaining at the eruption site at the end of the eruption was miniscule compared to the amount of ice melted. Hence, most of the meltwater was vaporized and carried away as a part of the eruption plume. About one third of the thermal energy of the magma erupted was used to melt, heat up and vaporize water. A large part of this water was released from the plume through condensation and re-freezing, manifested in hail-rich tephra deposited out to several kilometers from the vent. The data indicate that the external water/tephra mass ratio in the phreatomagmatic phases was 20-25%, but similar to 5% for the predominantly magmatic phases.

  8. Association of Elevated High Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T(hs-cTnT) Levels with Hemorrhagic Transformation and 3-Month Mortality in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients with Rheumatic Heart Disease in China

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yao; Liu, Bian; Hao, Zilong; Tao, Wendan; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Elevated levels of high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) occur in a substantial proportion of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and can predict poor outcome and mortality after stroke. Whether elevated hs-cTnT levels can also predict hemorrhagic transformation (HT) or prognosis in AIS patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains unclear. Methods Data from the Chengdu Stroke Registry on consecutive AIS patients with RHD admitted to West China Hospital within1 month of stroke onset from October 2011 to February 2014 were examined. Clinico-demographic characteristics, HT, functional outcomes and stroke recurrence were compared between patients with elevated hs-cTnT levels(≥14ng/L) and patients with normal hs-cTnT levels (<14ng/L). Results The final analysis involved 84 patients (31 males; mean age, 61.6±12.2years), of whom serum hs-cTnT levels were elevated in 58.3%. Renal impairment was independently associated with elevated hs-cTnT levels (OR 4.184, 95%CI 1.17 to 15.01, P = 0.028), and patients with elevated hs-cTnT levels were at significantly higher risk of HT, 3-month mortality and 3-month disability/mortality (all P≤0.029). After controlling for age, sex, hypertension, renal impairment and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on admission, the risk of HT and 3-month mortality was, respectively, 4.0- and 5.5-fold higher in patients with elevated hs-cTnT levels than in patients with normal hs-cTnT levels. Conclusion Elevated hs-cTnT levels are independently associated with HT and 3-month mortality in AIS patients with RHD. These results with a small cohort should be verified and extended in large studies. PMID:26849554

  9. Waste source reduction county government case study

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-31

    Itasca County is located in north-central Minnesota, has a population of 42,000 and is known for its forests and scenic waterways. With Beltrami County, it contains the upper watershed of the Mississippi River. Its major industries are timber and tourism. Itasca County government made a commitment to source reduce its waste as much as possible. Secondarily, what they could not reduce they committed themselves to recycle. The project demonstrates functional reduction in practice. It shows that reduction is a realistic goal for county governments and that reduction can be measured on a waste stream by waste stream basis.

  10. Digital computer processing of LANDSAT data for North Alabama. [Linestone County, Madison County, Jackson County, Marshall County, and DeKalb County

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. D.; Atkinson, R. J.; Lybanon, M.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1977-01-01

    Computer processing procedures and programs applied to Multispectral Scanner data from LANDSAT are described. The output product produced is a level 1 land use map in conformance with a Universal Transverse Mercator projection. The region studied was a five-county area in north Alabama.

  11. Attitudes of County Commissioners in Twenty Counties in Middle Tennessee Concerning Public School Financial Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddick, Thomas L.; Peach, Larry E.

    In a survey of 96 county commissioners in 20 central Tennessee counties--a state where county commissioners determine the funds available for local public school systems--researchers used a seven-item questionnaire to elicit commissioners' attitudes on issues of public educational finance. The survey asked about local educational expenditures,…

  12. 75 FR 45557 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of Tulsa County, OK, and Angelina County, TX, to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Counties, TX. Santa Clara, CA On March 9, 2009, we published a final rule (74 FR 9951) that abolished the...; ] OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM22 Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of Tulsa County, OK, and Angelina County, TX, to Nonappropriated Fund Federal Wage System Wage Areas...

  13. 77 FR 73005 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County, Placer County, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). Under authority of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act), we are proposing to approve local rules that......

  14. 75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA AGENCY... Water Supply Project, Clarke County, Iowa. ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Sims, State... comments by NRCS information related to water supply demand requirements for permitting by the State...

  15. Transduction analysis of transposon Tn551 insertions in the trp-thy region of the Staphylococcus aureus chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, C J; Pattee, P A

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Tn551, a 5.2-kilobase-pair transposon that determines constitutive resistance to erythromycin, can occupy a variety of chromosomal sites between thy-101 and trp-103 in Staphylococcus aureus 8325. Although many of these insertions were "silent," many others, including lys, thr, met, tyr, and trp, resulted in auxotrophic mutations. The close proximity and erythromycin-resistant phenotypes of the insertions in this region have made their mapping by transformation difficult. Analysis of these sites and similar chemically induced mutations by generalized transduction with phage 80 alpha have defined the order and relationship of these insertion sites and provided a detailed map of this region of the chromosome, including the orientation of the trp operon. The results of this study and a limited phenotypic characterization of the mutants have shown that the divergent pathway from aspartate to lysine, threonine, and methionine, several reactions in tyrosine biosynthesis, and the entire tryptophan operon are determined by this region of the chromosome. The linkage results obtained by transduction have been compared with similar data obtained previously by transformation; this comparison suggests the existence, between thy and lys, of a preferred headful cutting site for transducing phage DNA morphogenesis from the host chromosome. PMID:6319364

  16. Identification of T6SS-dependent effector and immunity proteins by Tn-seq in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Tao G.; Ho, Brian T.; Yoder-Himes, Deborah R.; Mekalanos, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Type VI protein secretion system (T6SS) is important for bacterial competition through contact-dependent killing of competitors. T6SS delivers effectors to neighboring cells and corresponding antagonistic proteins confer immunity against effectors that are delivered by sister cells. Although T6SS has been found in more than 100 gram-negative bacteria including many important human pathogens, few T6SS-dependent effector and immunity proteins have been experimentally determined. Here we report a high-throughput approach using transposon mutagenesis and deep sequencing (Tn-seq) to identify T6SS immunity proteins in Vibrio cholerae. Saturating transposon mutagenesis was performed in wild type and a T6SS null mutant. Genes encoding immunity proteins were predicted to be essential in the wild type but dispensable in the T6SS mutant. By comparing the relative abundance of each transposon mutant in the mutant library using deep sequencing, we identified three immunity proteins that render protection against killing by T6SS predatory cells. We also identified their three cognate T6SS-secreted effectors and show these are important for not only antibacterial and antieukaryotic activities but also assembly of T6SS apparatus. The lipase and muramidase T6SS effectors identified in this study underscore the diversity of T6SS-secreted substrates and the distinctly different mechanisms that target these for secretion by the dynamic T6SS organelle. PMID:23362380

  17. Transposon Mutagenesis in Bifidobacterium breve: Construction and Characterization of a Tn5 Transposon Mutant Library for Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Lorena; Motherway, Mary O’Connell; Lanigan, Noreen; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are claimed to contribute positively to human health through a range of beneficial or probiotic activities, including amelioration of gastrointestinal and metabolic disorders, and therefore this particular group of gastrointestinal commensals has enjoyed increasing industrial and scientific attention in recent years. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these probiotic mechanisms are still largely unknown, mainly due to the fact that molecular tools for bifidobacteria are rather poorly developed, with many strains lacking genetic accessibility. In this work, we describe the generation of transposon insertion mutants in two bifidobacterial strains, B. breve UCC2003 and B. breve NCFB2258. We also report the creation of the first transposon mutant library in a bifidobacterial strain, employing B. breve UCC2003 and a Tn5-based transposome strategy. The library was found to be composed of clones containing single transposon insertions which appear to be randomly distributed along the genome. The usefulness of the library to perform phenotypic screenings was confirmed through identification and analysis of mutants defective in D-galactose, D-lactose or pullulan utilization abilities. PMID:23737995

  18. Structural basis for recognition of breast and colon cancer epitopes Tn antigen and Forssman disaccharide by Helix pomatia lectin.

    PubMed

    Lescar, Julien; Sanchez, Jean-Frederic; Audfray, Aymeric; Coll, Jean-Luc; Breton, Christelle; Mitchell, Edward P; Imberty, Anne

    2007-10-01

    Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) is a lectin that has been used extensively in histopathology, since its binding to tissue sections from breast and colon cancers is correlated with the worst prognosis for the patients. The lectin recognizes alpha-d-N-acetylgalactosamine (alphaGalNAc) containing epitopes which are only present in cancer cell lines having a high likelihood to undergo metastasis, such as the HT29 cancer colon cell line. Several breast cancer cell lines have also been shown to be labeled, although IGROV1, an ovarian cancer cell line, is not. Inhibition studies, using GalNAc monosaccharides, are reported here, showing that the labeling is dependent upon the presence of carbohydrate epitopes. The crystal structures of the lectin complexed with two GalNAc containing epitopes associated with cancer, the Tn (alphaGalNAc-Ser) and Forssman (alphaGalNAc1-3GalNAc) antigens, show the lectin's specificity for GalNAc is due to a particular network of hydrogen bonds. A histidine residue makes hydrophobic contact with the aglycon, rationalizing the preference for GalNAc bearing an additional sugar or amino acid in the alpha position. These structures provide the molecular basis for the use of HPA in metastasis research. PMID:17652409

  19. Identification of New Genes Contributing to the Extreme Radioresistance of Deinococcus radiodurans Using a Tn5-Based Transposon Mutant Library

    PubMed Central

    Passot, Fanny; Dutertre, Murielle; Porteron, Martine; Confalonieri, Fabrice; Sommer, Suzanne; Pasternak, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Here, we have developed an extremely efficient in vivo Tn5-based mutagenesis procedure to construct a Deinococcus radiodurans insertion mutant library subsequently screened for sensitivity to genotoxic agents such as γ and UV radiations or mitomycin C. The genes inactivated in radiosensitive mutants belong to various functional categories, including DNA repair functions, stress responses, signal transduction, membrane transport, several metabolic pathways, and genes of unknown function. Interestingly, preliminary characterization of previously undescribed radiosensitive mutants suggests the contribution of cyclic di-AMP signaling in the recovery of D. radiodurans cells from genotoxic stresses, probably by modulating several pathways involved in the overall cell response. Our analyses also point out a new transcriptional regulator belonging to the GntR family, encoded by DR0265, and a predicted RNase belonging to the newly described Y family, both contributing to the extreme radioresistance of D. radiodurans. Altogether, this work has revealed new cell responses involved either directly or indirectly in repair of various cell damage and confirmed that D. radiodurans extreme radiation resistance is determined by a multiplicity of pathways acting as a complex network. PMID:25884619

  20. Exploring the molecular basis for selective binding of homoserine dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium leprae TN toward inhibitors: a virtual screening study.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Dongling; Wang, Dongmei; Min, Weihong; Han, Weiwei

    2014-01-01

    Homoserine dehydrogenase (HSD) from Mycobacterium leprae TN is an antifungal target for antifungal properties including efficacy against the human pathogen. The 3D structure of HSD has been firmly established by homology modeling methods. Using the template, homoserine dehydrogenase from Thiobacillus denitrificans (PDB Id 3MTJ), a sequence identity of 40% was found and molecular dynamics simulation was used to optimize a reliable structure. The substrate and co-factor-binding regions in HSD were identified. In order to determine the important residues of the substrate (L-aspartate semialdehyde (L-ASA)) binding, the ASA was docked to the protein; Thr163, Asp198, and Glu192 may be important because they form a hydrogen bond with HSD through AutoDock 4.2 software. neuraminidaseAfter use of a virtual screening technique of HSD, the four top-scoring docking hits all seemed to cation-π ion pair with the key recognition residue Lys107, and Lys207. These ligands therefore seemed to be new chemotypes for HSD. Our results may be helpful for further experimental investigations. PMID:24469317