Sample records for sewage disposal problems

  1. Numerical convergence for a sewage disposal problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Alvarez-Vázquez; A. Mart??nez; C. Rodr??guez; M. E. Vázquez-Méndez

    2001-01-01

    The management of sewage disposal and the design of wastewater treatment systems can be formulated as a constrained pointwise optimal control problem. In this paper we study the convergence of the numerical resolution for the corresponding state system by means of a characteristics Galerkin method. The main difficulty of the problem is due to the existence of Radon measures in

  2. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  3. The economics of the disposal of sewage and trade effluents*

    PubMed Central

    Townend, C. B.

    1959-01-01

    In this review of the economics of the disposal of sewage and trade wastes, the author touches on all aspects of the subject, from the annual costs of sewerage and sewage-disposal services in England and Wales, and what he terms the “uneconomics” of pollution of natural waters, to the financing of capital expenditure on the construction of new sewage works and equipment and on alterations to existing works. He discusses the purposes and relative costs of the various processes in the treatment of domestic sewage and outlines the special problems involved in the disposal of trade wastes. PMID:13839093

  4. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayotamuno, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

  5. Hybrid disposal systems and nitrogen removal in individual sewage disposal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, A.L.

    1993-06-01

    The use of individual disposal systems in ground-water basins that have adverse salt balance conditions and/or geologically unsuitable locations, has become a major problem in many areas of the world. There has been much research in design of systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of the treated waste in areas with adverse geologic conditions and systems for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus prior to percolation to the ground water. This paper outlines the history of development and rationale for design and construction of individual sewage disposal systems and describes the designs and limitations of the hybrid and denitrification units. The disposal systems described include Mounds, Evapotranspiration and Evapotranspiration/Infiltration systems. The denitrification units include those using methanol, sulfur and limestone, gray water and secondary treated wastewater for energy sources.

  6. The Development of a Guideline on the Sampling/Testing of Innovative/Alternative Disposal Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Disposal

    E-print Network

    Rhode Island, University of

    Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Disposal Principle Investigators Calvin P. C. Poon #12;Problem and Research Objectives Individual sewage disposal systems (ISDS) have been implicated as a potential cause/alternative sewage disposal system which potentially use less leaching area and more efficient in pollutant removal

  7. Home Sewage Disposal. Special Circular 212.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Site requirements, characteristics and preparation are outlined for a variety of alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches, and oversized absorption area. Diagrams indicating construction…

  8. Wildlife health implications of sewage disposal in wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, M.

    1985-01-01

    Wildlife health concerns associated with disposal of sewage effluent in wetlands are of three primary types: (1) introduction of pathogens, (2) introduction of pollutants that adversely impact on host body defense mechanisms, and (3) changes in the physical and chemical properties of wetlands that favor the development and maintenance of disease problems. Unlike the situation with human health concerns, introduction of pathogens is not the major concern regarding wildlife health. Instead, the focus of attention needs to be directed at environmental changes likely to take place as a result of effluent discharges into different types of wetlands. Unless these changes are adequately addressed from a disease perspective, marshes utilized for sewage disposal could become disease incubators and wildlife death traps. This result would be unfortunate because the backlash would likely negate the potentially beneficial aspects of the use of sewage wastewater for the creation of new wetlands and have a severe impact on progress being made towards evaluation of the compatibility of wildlife and sewage effluents.

  9. Macrobenthic succession following the cessation of sewage sludge disposal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvana N. R. Birchenough; Chris L. J. Frid

    2009-01-01

    Half a million tonnes of sewage sludge was disposed annually over an 18-yr period at a licensed area off the Northumberland coast, UK. The disposal operation ceased in December 1998, providing the ecological opportunity to study macrobenthic changes in relation to theoretical succession models. A transect from the centre of the disposal site to a control station was monitored three

  10. Movement of heavy metals below sewage disposal ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Lund; A. L. Page; C. O. Nelson

    1976-01-01

    Coarse-textured soils below sludge and effluent disposal ponds at two sewage treatment plants were studied. The concentrations of Zn, Cd, Cu, Cr, and Ni in the soils at various depths were determined to investigate the downward movement of these heavy metals below the two types of disposal ponds. Concentrations of acid-extractable metals (4N HNOâ) were greater under disposal ponds than

  11. The Monitoring of UK Sewage Sludge Disposal Sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Rowlatt; H. L. Rees; C. M. G. Vivian; M. M. Parker

    1991-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increase in the intensity and frequency of environmental monitoring surveys at UK sewage sludge disposal sites. These have been carried out by the regulatory authorities and by the licensees. in order to ensure maximum efficiency, a coordinated and harmonised programme of monitoring has been developed. the programme concentrates on sediment chemical and biological

  12. RESTORATION OF FAILING ON-LOT SEWAGE DISPOSAL AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate two rehabilitative techniques-water conservation and absorption bed resting--for restoration of failing on-site sewage disposal areas. Eleven homes with failing absorption areas were characterized and baseline water flow and septic ta...

  13. SEWAGE DISPOSAL BY EVAPORATION-TRANSPIRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the methods for on-site disposal of wastewater from individual homes is by evaporation. Two types of evaporative disposal systems have been investigated in this study; evapo-transpiration (ET) beds and mechanical evaporation units. Twenty nine test lysimeters of 0.22 cubic...

  14. Macrobenthic succession following the cessation of sewage sludge disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Frid, Chris L. J.

    2009-11-01

    Half a million tonnes of sewage sludge was disposed annually over an 18-yr period at a licensed area off the Northumberland coast, UK. The disposal operation ceased in December 1998, providing the ecological opportunity to study macrobenthic changes in relation to theoretical succession models. A transect from the centre of the disposal site to a control station was monitored three times a year (i.e. March, August and December). This study provides a description of the changes in the macrobenthos and physical environment in the initial '3 years' (i.e. 1999 - 2001). During the period of sewage sludge disposal there were indications of an impact on the macrobenthic community with a high total abundance of individuals ( N) and high total number of species ( S) at the stations located in the centre of the disposal ground. During the immediate post-disposal phase the site continued to show a localised increased of individuals and species in the disposal area. Over time the communities showed signs of successional changes when the reduction of organic matter source was eliminated from the natural system. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a clear gradient of change in the community composition between impacted and control stations. While most benthic studies assess re-colonisation and succession stages of macrobenthos by using manipulative field experiments, this study provides an in situ long-term assessment in the offshore environment. This study contributes with information on: i) initial colonization and succession of macrobenthic communities over a large scale and real world data; ii) macrobenthic data into existing successional models and iii) resilience of benthic communities following the cessation of sewage sludge disposal. This information has the potential to contribute to an effective management of the marine communities in the North Sea.

  15. Field assessment of numerical impacts of coastal sewage disposal on fish larvae relative to natural variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Gray

    1997-01-01

    Sewage disposal in aquatic environments can have significant impacts on assemblages of organisms. There have been few field investigations on effects of sewage disposal on fish larvae. Data on abundances of larvae, current velocities and the size and shape of sewage plumes from point-source shoreline outfalls off Sydney (Australia) indicated that alongshore currents could transport large numbers of fish larvae

  16. Sewage and the community—One view of Sydney's deepwater outfalls, the environmental monitoring programme and the future of sewage disposal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duncan Leadbitter

    1996-01-01

    Sydney's sewage disposal problems have been the catalyst for wider questioning by the community about the management of the water cycle in the Sydney Basin. Public concern over the deepwater ocean outfalls generated an involvement in the Environmental Monitoring Programme (EMP) which provided a number of insights into the marine environment offshore Sydney, interactions between agencies and the role of

  17. Preparing sewage sludge for land application or surface disposal: A guide for preparers of sewage sludge on the monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general responsibilities. USEPA promulgated at 40 CFR Part 503 Phase 1 of the risk-based regulations that govern the final use or disposal of sewage sludge. The intent of the Federal program is to ensure that the use or disposal of sewage sludge occurs in a way that protects both human health and the environment. The Part 503 regulation establishes general requirements, pollutant limits, operational standards, and management practices, as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. These requirements apply to sewage sludge that is land applied, placed on a surface disposal site, or incinerated in a sewage sludge-only incinerator.

  18. Supposed Sewage Disposal Lands Environmentally Aware Band in Trouble

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Dave Matthews Band has delighted audiences around the world for the past 15 years with its Grateful Dead-inspired musical stylings, infused with a passion for vigorously supporting various environmental causes. According to a civil complaint filed this week by the Illinois Attorney General Lisa Madigan, the band's tour bus and its driver apparently shared a bit too much of the band several weeks ago as the bus passed over the Chicago River. The complaint, which was filed this week, states that on August 8, the Dave Matthews Band tour bus driver (Stefan A. Wohl) polluted the Chicago River by dumping liquid waste from the septic tank, effectively unleashing close to 800 pounds of human waste into the river as it passed over the Kinzie Street bridge. Additionally, a number of unsuspecting passengers riding on a vessel as part of a well-known architectural tour were sprayed with the raw sewage. While Chicago Police Superintendent Phil Cline says his department has videotape footage from nearby businesses showing the bus pass over the bridge at the time of the incident, the members of the Dave Matthews Band issued a statement this week noting "Our driver has stated that he was not involved in this incident".The first link leads to an article from this week's venerable Chicago Sun-Times that talks about the complaint filed by the Illinois Attorney General against the band and its tour bus driver. The second link leads to another news report from NBC5 in Chicago that talks about the evidence gathered by the Chicago Police Department that links the bus to the scene of the alleged illegal sewage disposal. The third link leads to a news article from April 2004 from the Virginian Pilot that discusses the many laudatory contributions the band has made to environmental causes through the group's charitable foundation, Bama Works. The fourth link will take visitors to the official press release issued August 24 by the Illinois Attorney General's Office that spells out the exact nature of the alleged sewage dump and its ramifications for public health and the Chicago River. On a somewhat related note, the fifth link leads to a rather interesting article from the Howstuffworks website that provides a detailed answer to the question of how a toilet functions in a commercial airliner. The sixth and final link whisks visitors away to the homepage of the Friends of the Chicago River organization, which works to create new recreational opportunities along the river and to share in the environmental stewardship of this waterway. Visitors may be keen to find out that the organization is opening a river museum at the Michigan Avenue Bridge Towers in 2006.

  19. NEAR-BOTTOM PELAGIC BACTERIA AT A DEEP-WATER SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. ixed cultures and bacterial...

  20. Data-element dictionary 1988 sewage-sludge use and disposal: Questionnaire data base

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS) is a questionnaire and analytical survey of Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) intended to produce national estimates of: (1) Concentrations of toxic contaminants in municipal sludge; (2) Sludge generation and treatment processes; (3) Sludge use and disposal practices and alternative use and disposal practices; and (4) Treatment and disposal costs. The survey will provide reliable, current data that can be used in the regulatory impact analysis (RIA) and aggregate risk analysis (ARA) to project impacts and benefits to support promulgation of the first round technical regulation for sewage sludge pollutants and use and disposal practices (40 CFR Part 503).

  1. Technical support document for the surface disposal of sewage sludge. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The document provides the technical background and justification for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) final regulation (40 CFR Part 503) covering the surface disposal of sewage sludge. The document summarizes current practices in land application and presents data supporting the risk assessment methodology used to derive human health and environmental risk-based limits for contaminants in sewage sludge placed on surface disposal sites. The management practices associated with surface disposal are outlined and the different pathways by which contaminants reach highly-exposed individuals (HEIs) through surface disposal are discussed.

  2. On-Site Sewage Treatment Alternatives

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    for conventional on-site systems. Introduction Inadequate disposal of residential sewage creates prob- lems,000 Virginia households rely on on-site methods for sewage disposal. About 700,000 of these homes use. Inadequate sewage disposal, due to failing or nonexistent on-site treatment, is a problem in many Vir- ginia

  3. Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment and disposal of sewage sludges. Citations discuss sludge digestion, dewatering, disinfection, stabilization, chlorination, and desulfurization. Topics include pretreatment programs, land disposal, incineration, and waste utilization. Environmental monitoring and protection, federal regulations, and legal aspects are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Ocean Disposal of New York City Sewage Sludge - A Multimedia Waste Management Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gift; D. Segar; J. Fava; H. Plugge; B. Rubin; W. Rue; S. Storms

    1984-01-01

    There are evolving discussions among both scientists and policy makers of the desirability of making waste management decisions based on comparison of potential effects in various available disposal media (ocean, land, or atmosphere). This represents a departure from our traditional media-by-media regulatory focus. A comprehensive Special Permit Application prepared to address the ocean disposal of New York City sewage sludge

  5. FUEL EFFICIENT INCINERATION FOR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, demonstrated that 34 to 70 percent of the fuel used for sewage sludge incineration could be saved. These savings were the result of study of how sewage sludge incineration in a multiple hearth incinerator works, adding instrumentation and contro...

  6. Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment processes and disposal of sewage sludges. Topics include resource and energy recovery operations, land disposal, composting, ocean disposal, and incineration. Digestion, dewatering, and disinfection are among the pretreatment processes discussed. Environmental aspects, including the effects on soils, plants, and animals, are also presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. STRATEGY FOR MONITORING OF CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTIONS RESULTING FROM PROPOSED SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL AT THE 106-MILE OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been proposed that future ocean disposal of sewage sludge from the US east coast be done at a site beyond the edge of the continental shelf. In anticipation of that, a monitoring strategy has been developed to determine the average spatial distribution of contamination. Th...

  8. Guidance for writing permits for the use or disposal of sewage sludge. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Section 405(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) directs the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop regulations containing guidelines for the use and disposal of sewage sludge. On February 19th, 1993, EPA published final regulations at 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 503 as the culmination of a major effort to develop technical standards in response to Section 405(d). These regulations govern three sewage sludge use and disposal practices: land application, surface disposal, and incineration. A key element in EPA's implementation of the Part 503 regulations is educating Agency and State personnel about these new requirements. Although the regulations are generally directly enforceable against all persons involved in the use and disposal of sewage sludge, they will also be implemented through permits issued to treatment works treating domestic sewage as defined in 40 CFR 122.22. Thus, the primary focus of the manual is to assist permit writers in incorporating the Part 503 requirements into permits; it serves as an update to the Guidance for Writing Case-by-Case Permit Conditions for Municipal Sewage Sludge (PB91-145508/HDM).

  9. Near-bottom pelagic bacteria at a deep-water sewage sludge disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Takizawa, M.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. Mixed cultures and bacterial isolates obtained from water overlying sediment core samples collected at the deep-water (2,500 m) municipal sewage disposal site were tested for the ability to grow under in situ conditions of temperature and pressure. The responses of cultures collected at a DWD-106 station heavily impacted by sewage sludge were compared with those of samples collected from a station at the same depth which was not contaminated by sewage sludge. Significant differences were observed in the ability of mixed bacterial cultures and isolates from the two sites to grow under deep-sea pressure and temperature conditions. The levels of sludge contamination were established by enumerating Clostridium perfringens, a sewage indicator bacterium, in sediment samples from the two sites. (Copyright (c) 1993, American Society for Microbiology.)

  10. Soil cadmium mobility as a consequence of sewage sludge disposal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Lamy; S. Bourgeois; A. Bermond

    1993-01-01

    Anaerobically digested liquid sewage sludge was applied as a single treatment to a loamy hydromorphic drained soil, characteristic of agricultural soils in the North of France, at a rate of 11 Mg of dry solids ha⁻¹. Total Cd concentrations of drainage waters for both amended and unamended plots were monitored at selected times to follow the mobility of Cd after

  11. Water supply and sewage disposal at Mohenjo?Daro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jansen

    1989-01-01

    Mohenjo?Daro, a major urban centre of the Indus Civilization, dating to the mid?third millennium BC has produced evidence of a sophisticated system for supplying water and expelling sewage. Water came from more than 700 wells and supplied not only domestic demands but also a system of private baths and a Great Bath for public use. Drains and sewers were carefully

  12. Sewage disposal in the Musi-River, India: water quality remediation through irrigation infrastructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeroen H. J. Ensink; Christopher A. Scott; Simon Brooker; Sandy Cairncross

    2010-01-01

    The disposal of untreated urban sewage in to open water bodies is common in most developing countries. This poses potential\\u000a negative consequences to public health and agricultural sustainability. Hyderabad, one of India’s largest cities, disposes\\u000a large amounts of its wastewater untreated into the Musi River, from where it is used, with the aid of irrigation weirs, for\\u000a agricultural production. This

  13. Nearshore macrobenthos of northern Kotzebue Sound, Alaska, with reference to local sewage disposal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen C. Jewett; Lisa M. Clough; Arny L. Blanchard; William G. Ambrose; Howard M. Feder; Max K. Hoberg; Alex V. Whiting

    2009-01-01

    Macrobenthos of the shallow (<10 m) nearshore marine waters of northern Kotzebue Sound was examined in 2002–2004 to (1) determine\\u000a nearshore community structure and (2) assess the influence of sewage disposal. A variable number of benthic stations were\\u000a sampled during three summers, with extensive effort at the disposal zone in 2003. The benthic community structure is similar\\u000a to other nearshore Arctic

  14. Evaluation of onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems in shallow karst terrain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harmon S. Harden; Eberhard Roeder; Mark Hooks; Jeffrey P. Chanton

    2008-01-01

    Two conventional onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems (OSTDSs) at Manatee Springs State Park, Florida, USA, were studied to assess their impact on groundwater quality in a shallow karst environment. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and fluorescein were used as tracers to establish connections between the drainfields and monitoring wells. Elevated nutrients were found in all wells where significant concentrations of both

  15. Alternate Methods of Effluent Disposal for On-Lot Home Sewage Systems. Special Circular 214.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Several alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches and oversized absorption areas are discussed. Site characteristics and preparation are outlined. Each alternative is accompanied by a diagram…

  16. Phosphorus losses from sewage sludge disposed on a field: evidence from storm event simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Vanden Bossche; J. M. Audic; A. Huyard; C. Gascuel-Odoux; F. Trolard; G. Bourrié

    2000-01-01

    Sewage sludge is used as fertilizer, owing to its nutrient contents. But little is known about the consequences of sludge disposal on erosion intensity and P losses from soil to runoff. This paper reports on a study of three simulated storm events (40 mm h-1 during 30 min), performed on a field supplied with liquid sludge (23 g L-1 of

  17. EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT OF ON-SITE SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS: NEW CHALLENGES, NEW INITIATIVES, NEW PARTNERSHIPS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry Johnson; Richard Fleece; Wayne County

    Management of onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDS) is necessary to assure proper performance of these systems, protect public health and protect surface water and groundwater quality. In the Rouge River Watershed, studies identified failure rates of OSDS ranging from 20% to 52%. As part of the storm water discharge permits issued by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), failing

  18. SEWAGE DISPOSAL ON AGRICULTURAL SOILS: CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS. VOLUME II. MICROBIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The city of San Angelo, Texas, has been using agricultural land for decades as a means of disposing of all of its municipal sewage after primary treatment. Water applications have been high enough to satisfy crop requirements for a 600 ha farm even tough the farm consists of only...

  19. Effects of sewage disposal into the White Nile on the plankton community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eisa M. Abdellatif; Osman M. Ali; Insaf F. Khalil; Betty M. Nyonje

    1993-01-01

    Twenty water samples and 30 plankton samples were taken from the sewage disposal site (El Lamab, south of Khartoum), from 250 m upstream and 250 m downstream during January–March, 1987 and Februar–April, 1988. The water samples were examined for physical and chemical characteristics. Plankton samples were examined for species composition and relative abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton.

  20. NITROGEN REMOVAL FOR ON-SITE SEWAGE DISPOSAL: A RECIRCULATING SAND FILTER/ROCK TANK DESIGN

    E-print Network

    Gold, Art

    NITROGEN REMOVAL FOR ON-SITE SEWAGE DISPOSAL: A RECIRCULATING SAND FILTER/ROCK TANK DESIGN, C. G. McKiel ABSTRACT: The nitrogen removal abilities of recirculating sand filter/rock tank (RSF in recirculating sand filters, with an average of 66% for the two-year study period. Denitrification was achieved

  1. Use of a sensitive indicator species in the assessment of biological effects of sewage disposal in fjords near Bergen, Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Blackstock; P. J. Johannessen; T. H. Pearson

    1986-01-01

    Coordinated environmental, ecological and biochemical studies have been applied to assess the impact of sewage disposal in a fjordic system near Bergen, Norway. The ecological and biochemical effects were studied in 1983 at four sampling locations situated along a spatial gradient of effects of the sewage on conditions in the sediments. Two of the locations, near Dolviken, were found to

  2. Study on algorithm of process neural network for soft sensing in sewage disposal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zaiwen; Xue, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyi; Yang, Bin; Lu, Siying

    2006-11-01

    A new method of soft sensing based on process neural network (PNN) for sewage disposal system is represented in the paper. PNN is an extension of traditional neural network, in which the inputs and outputs are time-variation. An aggregation operator is introduced to process neuron, and it makes the neuron network has the ability to deal with the information of space-time two dimensions at the same time, so the data processing enginery of biological neuron is imitated better than traditional neuron. Process neural network with the structure of three layers in which hidden layer is process neuron and input and output are common neurons for soft sensing is discussed. The intelligent soft sensing based on PNN may be used to fulfill measurement of the effluent BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) from sewage disposal system, and a good training result of soft sensing was obtained by the method.

  3. Fate of individual sewage disposal system wastewater within regolith in mountainous terrain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen Dano; Eileen Poeter; Geoff Thyne

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve understanding of the fate of septic tank or individual sewage disposal system (ISDS) effluent in regolith\\u000a overlying fractured-rock aquifers, effluent from an ISDS in such a setting was tracked via geophysical, hydrological, and\\u000a geochemical methods. Under typical precipitation conditions, the effluent entered the fractured bedrock within 5 m of the\\u000a boundary of the constructed infiltration area. During

  4. Trophically-based assessment of the impacts of deepwater sewage disposal on a demersal fish community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas M. Otway; Darryl J. Sullings; Norman W. Lenehan

    1996-01-01

    The impacts of sewage disposal on the demersal fish community were identified after approximately 2 years of operation of a deepwater outfall off Sydney, NSW Australia. Gut-content analyses were used as a basis for identifying groups of fish with dietary similarities. Similar results from multivariate analyses (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity measure and MDS) identified 8 trophically-similar groups of fish. The majority of

  5. Mercury speciation in sediments at a municipal sewage sludge marine disposal site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Shoham-Frider; G. Shelef; N. Kress

    2007-01-01

    Mercury speciation was performed in excess activated sewage sludge (ASS) and in marine sediments collected at the AAS disposal site off the Mediterranean coast of Israel in order to characterize the spatial and vertical distribution of different mercury species and assess their environmental impact. Total Hg (HgT) concentrations ranged between 0.19 and 1003ng\\/g at the polluted stations and 5.7 and

  6. Algal growth potential as an indicator of eutrophication degree in coastal areas under sewage disposal influence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. O. Moser; T. C. S. Sigaud-Kutner; C. O. Cattena; S. M. F. Gianesella; E. S. Braga; K. P. Schinke; E. Aidar

    2004-01-01

    Algal growth potential was used to quantify the degree of eutrophication of three coastal regions in São Paulo, Brazil which are subject to sewage disposal. Surface water was collected in Praia Grande, Santos, Guarujá and São Sebastião during two surveys (low tourist season—October 1997 and high tourist season—March 1998). Water was filtered and used in chlorophyll-a and nutrient analyses and

  7. Treating Higher-Strength Commercial Sewage for Disposal or ReUse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Craig Jowett

    2003-01-01

    Commercial high-strength sewage has high organics and nitrogen, variable diurnal and seasonal flows, use of disinfectants and grease-strippers, and fast-food type employees. A 'pre-engineered' treatment process developed to counter these challenges results in a more consistent effluent quality. Consistency is important for nitrogen removal, for difficult disposal sites, and for irrigation or toilet re-use. The standard process includes an exterior

  8. Land application technique for the treatment and disposal of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Basri; F. Suja; O. Jaafar

    2002-01-01

    Some of the major concerns when applying sewage sludge to land include the potential effect on pH and cation exchange capacity; the mobility and the accumulation of heavy metals in sludge treated soil; the potential of applying too much nutrients and the problems associated with odors and insects. The main objective of this study is to identify the effects of

  9. Viral tracer studies indicate contamination of marine waters by sewage disposal practices in key largo, Florida.

    PubMed

    Paul, J H; Rose, J B; Brown, J; Shinn, E A; Miller, S; Farrah, S R

    1995-06-01

    Domestic wastewater disposal practices in the Florida Keys are primarily limited to on-site disposal systems such as septic tanks, injection wells, and illegal cesspits. Poorly treated sewage is thus released into the highly porous subsurface Key Largo limestone matrix. To investigate the fate and transport of sewage in the subsurface environment and the potential for contamination of marine surface waters, we employed bacteriophages as tracers in a domestic septic system and a simulated injection well in Key Largo, Florida. Transport of bacteriophage (Phi)HSIC-1 from the septic tank to adjacent surface canal waters and outstanding marine waters occurred in as little as 11 and 23 h, respectively. Transport of the Salmonella phage PRD1 from the simulated injection well to a canal adjacent to the injection site occurred in 11.2 h. Estimated rates of migration of viral tracers ranged from 0.57 to 24.2 m/h, over 500-fold greater than flow rates measured previously by subsurface flow meters in similar environments. These results suggest that current on-site disposal practices can lead to contamination of the subsurface and surface marine waters in the Keys. PMID:16535046

  10. U.S. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY)-SPONSORED EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF WASTEWATER AND SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1975 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has sponsored 11 epidemiological studies of the potential health effects associated with the treatment and disposal of sewage and sewage sludge. Three of these have been occupational exposure studies: One of sewage treatment pla...

  11. Assessing impacts of deepwater sewage disposal: A case study from New South Wales, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Otway

    1995-01-01

    To overcome the problems of beach pollution Sydney Water constructed three deepwater sewage outfalls off North Head, Bondi and Malabar. The outfalls were commissioned over the period September 1990–July 1991. A 5-year multi-disciplinary environmental monitoring programme was set up to assess the impacts on the demersal fish and soft-bottom macro-invertebrate communities. Assessment of impact was based on an asymmetrical analysis

  12. Challenge of urban sewage disposal in a karst region: Mérida, Yucátan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, E. C.; Villasuso, M.

    2013-05-01

    Four hydrogeologic factors influence urban sewage management on the northern Yucátan (Mexico) Peninsula: 1) lack of rivers capable of transporting and/or oxidizing sewage, 2) near-surface flat-lying, porous, permeable limestone and dolomite with shallow layers of variable permeability but without major subsurface aquitards, 3) rapid groundwater transmission, penetration of seawater inland beneath a fresh water lens, and a flat water table only a few meters below land surface and controlled by sea level, 4) near absence of soil cover. Mérida, Yucátan (population approaching one million, approximately the world's 450th most populous city) has no central sewage system. The water table beneath the city is consistently only 7-9 m below land surface, and the 40 m-thick fresh water lens, which is the sole source of municipal, industrial, and agricultural water, directly overlies a marine intrusion of modified seawater composition. The old city has an estimated 130,000 drains feeding untreated household waste directly into the permeable karst aquifer. Numerous storm drains send street runoff directly to the aquifer. In addition, industries, hotels, and some subdivisions have unmonitored injection wells that pump untreated wastewater into the underlying saline intrusion. Some injection wells have flow problems possibly because of low aquifer permeability within the saline intrusion. Deep injection is also problematic because density contrast with saline intrusion water can produce a gravity imbalance, and high sulfate water can react with organic waste to produce H2S. Some city water supply wells are reportedly affected by inflation of the water table beneath the city, by local upconing of saline water, and by nitrate contamination. Paradoxically, Mérida with an abundant, easily contaminated source of fresh water, lacks streams to transport sewage off-site, and thus shares some water supply/sewage treatment problems with cities in arid regions. Recently, compact, efficient systems that provide almost tertiary-level sewage treatment have been developed and installed in various localities worldwide. Fitting the old parts of Mérida with several such systems would be less disruptive than blasting a monolithic sewer network through the city's rocky base, and it would minimize the problem of pumping sewage in an almost completely flat-lying area. Appropriate reuse of water from such local treatment facilities would be more flexible than from a single central system. Furthermore, injecting water into the aquifer after secondary or tertiary treatment would be a huge improvement over pumping of untreated "aguas negras" into the saline intrusion. Finally, there is a renaissance of sorts in sewage treatment technology, and it would be much easier to upgrade a number of individual systems as they became obsolete than to replace a monolithic central system. Safe, effective operation and monitoring of the suggested of sewage system would be challenging. Yet, as more cities join those 500 world-wide that now have populations approaching or exceeding one million, use of streams to export pollution may become infeasible. Perhaps Mérida can become a model to demonstrate that people can safely process and reuse their own wastewater.

  13. Transferring of components and energy output in industrial sewage sludge disposal by thermal pretreatment and two-phase anaerobic process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyi Yang; Xin Wang; Lei Wang

    2010-01-01

    For a better sewage sludge disposal and more efficient energy reclamation, transforming of components and energy in sludge by thermal and WAO pretreatment followed by two-phase anaerobic UASB process were studied in the pilot scale. Biogas outputs and the qualities and quantities of the effluent and solid residue were compared with a traditional anaerobic sludge digestion. Sludge components, including carbon,

  14. Modelling of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn uptake, by winter wheat and forage maize, from a sewage disposal farm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Hough; N. M. J. Crout

    2003-01-01

    A predictive model of metal concentrations in crops was developed to optimize soil liming and sludge application strategies at a dedicated sewage sludge disposal site. Predictions of metal concentrations in plant tissue were derived from measured values of soil metal concentration, humus content and soil pH. The plant and soil data used to parameterize the model were collected on site

  15. 32 CFR 644.395 - Coordination on disposal problems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 true Coordination on disposal problems. 644.395 Section 644.395 National...Action § 644.395 Coordination on disposal problems. If any major change or problem requires a significant revision in the...

  16. 32 CFR 644.395 - Coordination on disposal problems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 true Coordination on disposal problems. 644.395 Section 644.395 National...Action § 644.395 Coordination on disposal problems. If any major change or problem requires a significant revision in the...

  17. 32 CFR 644.395 - Coordination on disposal problems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 true Coordination on disposal problems. 644.395 Section 644.395 National...Action § 644.395 Coordination on disposal problems. If any major change or problem requires a significant revision in the...

  18. 32 CFR 644.395 - Coordination on disposal problems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Coordination on disposal problems. 644.395 Section 644.395 National...Action § 644.395 Coordination on disposal problems. If any major change or problem requires a significant revision in the...

  19. 32 CFR 644.395 - Coordination on disposal problems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Coordination on disposal problems. 644.395 Section 644.395 National...Action § 644.395 Coordination on disposal problems. If any major change or problem requires a significant revision in the...

  20. Study of Performance of Heat Pump Usage in Sewage Treatment and Fouling Impact on System

    E-print Network

    Song, Y.; Yao, Y.; Ma, Z.; Na, W.

    2006-01-01

    A heat pump using disposed sewage as a heat source to heat raw sewage is presented to solve the problem that sewage temperature is low in sewage biologic treatment in cold region. According to the status of one medicine factory in Harbin, China...

  1. Experimental Study on the Treatment of low C/N ratio disposal of sewage with BAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. J.; Ma, T.; Cheng, W.

    2010-03-01

    The Biological Aerated Filter (BAF) is a simple, high-efficient, low-consumptive for new biological membrane method correspond to the situation of china, will be one of the main technical measures to solve the progressive deterioration of water environment problem faced china especially medium and small towns. This paper focuses on the experimental study and mechanism analysis in which the up flow, cocurrent gas-water, single-stage BAF was adopted on treatment domestic wastewater, the results showed that BAF has good performance in treating domestic sewage, and it had steady treatment effect with different pollution loads.

  2. Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. January 1980-February 1992 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Feb 92

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment processes and disposal of sewage sludges. Topics include resource and energy recovery operations, land disposal, composting, ocean disposal, and incineration. Digestion, dewatering, and disinfection are among the pretreatment processes discussed. Environmental aspects, including the effects on soils, plants, and animals, are also presented. (Contains 181 citations with title list and subject index.)

  3. SEWAGE DISPOSAL ON AGRICULTURAL SOILS: CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS. VOLUME I. CHEMICAL IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The city of San Angelo, Texas, has used sewage effluent which has undergone primary treatment for irrigation of the same 259-hectare sewage farm since 1958. The impact of 18 years of sewage effluent irrigation on the soil and water quality was studied from 1975 to 1977. The volum...

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn Kidman

    1998-01-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Comective Action Unit (CAU) 404. CAU 404 consists of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons (Corrective Action Site [CAS] TA-03-O01-TA-RC) and the;\\u000aNorth Disposal Trench (CAS TA-21-001-TA-RC). The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi])

  5. Nutrient couplings between on-site sewage disposal systems, groundwaters, and nearshore surface waters of the Florida Keys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian E. Lapointe; Julie D. O'Connell; George S. Garrett

    1999-01-01

    We performed a one-year study to determine the effects of on-site sewage disposal systems (OSDS, septic tanks) on the nutrient\\u000a relations of limestone groundwaters and nearshore surface waters of the Florida Keys. Monitor wells were installed on canal\\u000a residences with OSDS and a control site in the Key Deer National Wildlife Refuge on Big Pine Key. Groundwater and surface\\u000a water

  6. Fate of individual sewage disposal system wastewater within regolith in mountainous terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dano, Kathleen; Poeter, Eileen; Thyne, Geoff

    2008-06-01

    In order to improve understanding of the fate of septic tank or individual sewage disposal system (ISDS) effluent in regolith overlying fractured-rock aquifers, effluent from an ISDS in such a setting was tracked via geophysical, hydrological, and geochemical methods. Under typical precipitation conditions, the effluent entered the fractured bedrock within 5 m of the boundary of the constructed infiltration area. During a period of unusually high spring recharge, the plume migrated between 50 and 100 m within the regolith before infiltrating the fractured bedrock. The chemical signature of the effluent is similar to that required to account for the decline in water quality, suggesting a causative relationship (as estimated from mass-balance models of the surface-water chemistry near the mouth of the basin). The elevated salt content of the effluent during periods of high natural recharge to the infiltration area correlates with elevated salt concentrations in surface and groundwater at the basin scale, suggesting that some of the effluent salt load may be stored in the unsaturated zone during dry periods and flushed during periods of elevated natural recharge.

  7. Condition assessment survey of onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Roger W; Lamichhane, Krishna M; Cummings, Michael J; Cheong, Gloria H

    2014-01-01

    Onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) are the third leading cause of groundwater contamination in the USA. The existing condition of OSDSs in the State of Hawaii was investigated to determine whether a mandatory management program should be implemented. Based on observed conditions, OSDSs were differentiated into four categories: 'pass', 'sludge scum', 'potential failure' and 'fail'. Of all OSDSs inspected, approximately 68% appear to be in good working condition while the remaining 32% are failing or are in danger of failing. Homeowner interviews found that 80% of OSDSs were not being serviced in any way. About 70% of effluent samples had values of total-N and total-P greater than typical values and 40% had total suspended solids (TSS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) greater than typical values. The performance of aerobic treatment units (ATUs) was no better than septic tanks and cesspools indicating that the State's approach of requiring but not enforcing maintenance contracts for ATUs is not working. In addition, effluent samples from OSDSs located in drinking water wells estimated 2-year capture zones had higher average concentrations of TSS, BOD5, and total-P than units outside of these zones, indicating the potential for contamination. These findings suggest the need to introduce a proactive, life-cycle OSDS management program in the State of Hawaii. PMID:25259498

  8. Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS.

  9. Land application of sewage sludge: A guide for land appliers on the requirements of the federal standards for the use or disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated a regulation at 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 503 to ensure that sewage sludge is used or disposed of in a way that protects human health and the environment. Part 503 imposes requirements for the land application, surface disposal, and incineration of sewage sludge. The manual focuses on land application, providing guidance to land appliers of sewage sludge. The purpose of the document is to provide the land applier with sufficient guidance to comply fully with all applicable Part 503 requirements. The guidance is structured to first provide a general understanding of the Rule and its underlying principles, including definitions of sewage sludge, land application, and an explanation of who under the Rule is considered a land applier.

  10. The use of time-series data in the assessment of macrobenthic community change after the cessation of sewage-sludge disposal in Liverpool Bay (UK)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Whomersley; M. Schratzberger; M. Huxham; H. Bates; H. Rees

    2007-01-01

    Sewage sludge was disposed of in Liverpool Bay for over 100 years. Annual amounts increased from 0.5 million tonnes per annum in 1900 to approximately 2 million tonnes per annum by 1995. Macrofauna and a suite of environmental variables were collected at a station adjacent to, and a reference station distant from, the disposal site over 13 years, spanning a

  11. Viral Tracer Studies Indicate Contamination of Marine Waters by Sewage Disposal Practices in Key Largo, Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN H. PAUL; JOAN B. ROSE; JORDAN BROWN; EUGENE A. SHINN; STEVEN MILLER; SAMUEL R. FARRAH

    1995-01-01

    DomesticwastewaterdisposalpracticesintheFloridaKeysareprimarilylimitedtoon-sitedisposalsystems such as septic tanks, injection wells, and illegal cesspits. Poorly treated sewage is thus released into the highly porous subsurface Key Largo limestone matrix. To investigate the fate and transport of sewage in the subsurface environment and the potential for contamination of marine surface waters, we employed bacterio- phages as tracers in a domestic septic system and a simulated

  12. Comparative criteria: Land application of sewage sludge and ocean disposal of dredged material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P O'Connor

    1998-01-01

    That societal perceptions differ between use of the land and the ocean is exemplified by environmental regulations in the United States that allow much higher levels of chemical contamination in sewage sludge to be used on land than in dredged material to be dumped at sea. Criteria for sewage sludge acceptability for land application are bulk chemical concentrations. Criteria for

  13. Predicting Nitrogen Transport From Individual Sewage Disposal Systems for a Proposed Development in Adams County, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heatwole, K. K.; McCray, J.; Lowe, K.

    2005-12-01

    Individual sewage disposal systems (ISDS) have demonstrated the capability to be an effective method of treatment for domestic wastewater. They also are advantageous from a water resources standpoint because there is little water leaving the local hydrologic system. However, if unfavorable settings exist, ISDS can have a detrimental effect on local water-quality. This presentation will focus on assessing the potential impacts of a large housing development to area water quality. The residential development plans to utilize ISDS to accommodate all domestic wastewater generated within the development. The area of interest is located just west of Brighton, Colorado, on the northwestern margin of the Denver Basin. Efforts of this research will focus on impacts of ISDS to local groundwater and surface water systems. The Arapahoe Aquifer, which exists at relatively shallow depths in the area of proposed development, is suspected to be vulnerable to contamination from ISDS. Additionally, the local water quality of the Arapahoe Aquifer was not well known at the start of the study. As a result, nitrate was selected as a fo-cus water quality parameter because it is easily produced through nitrification of septic tank effluent and because of the previous agricultural practices that could be another potential source of nitrate. Several different predictive tools were used to attempt to predict the potential impacts of ISDS to water quality in the Arapahoe Aquifer. The objectives of these tools were to 1) assess the vulnerability of the Arapahoe Aquifer to ni-trate contamination, 2) predict the nitrate load to the aquifer, and 3) determine the sensitivity of different parameter inputs and the overall prediction uncertainty. These predictive tools began with very simple mass-loading calcula-tions and progressed to more complex, vadose-zone numerical contaminant transport modeling.

  14. Sewage-sludge pretreatment and disposal. December 1981-February 1988 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for December 1981-February 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment utilized in the pretreatment processes and disposal of sewage sludges. Topics include resource and energy recovery operations, land disposal, composting, ocean disposal, and incineration. Digestion, dewatering, and disinfection are among the pretreatment processes discussed. Environmental aspects, including the effects on soils, plants, and animals are also presented. (This updated bibliography contains 323 citations, 74 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  15. The determination of settling velocities for sewage sludge disposed at 106-Mile Site

    E-print Network

    Hernandez, Daniel Saul

    1991-01-01

    THE DBTERMZNATZON OF SETTLING VELOCZTZES FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE DZSPOSED AT 106-MILE SITE A Thesis by DANIEL SAUL HERNANDEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Civil Engineering THB DETERMZNATZON OF SBTTLZNG VELOCZTZES FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE DZSPOSBD AT 106-MZLE SZTB A Thesis by DANIEL SAUL HERNANDEZ Approved as to style and content by: James S. Bonner '(Chair...

  16. Effects of land disposal of municipal sewage sludge on soil, streambed sediment, and ground- and surface-water quality at a site near Denver, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Gaggiani, N.G.

    1991-01-01

    The report describes the effects of burial and land application of municipal sewage sludge on soil and streambed sediment and water quality in the underlying aquifers and surface water within and around the Lowry sewage-sludge-disposal area. The existing ground-water observation-well network at the disposal area was expanded for the study. Surface-water-sampling sites were selected so that runoff could be sampled from intense rainstorms or snowmelt. The sampling frequency for ground-water and surface-water runoff was changed from yearly to quarterly, and soil samples were collected. Four years of data were collected from 1984 to 1987 during the expanded monitoring program at the Lowry sewage-sludge-disposal area. These data, in addition to the data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1981 to 1983, were used to determine effects of sewage-sludge-disposal on soil and streambed sediment and surface- and ground-water quality at the disposal area.

  17. Sewage disposal in the Musi-River, India: water quality remediation through irrigation infrastructure

    E-print Network

    Scott, Christopher

    into the Musi River, from where it is used, with the aid of irrigation weirs, for agricultural production sewage in the city to irrigation water safe for use in agriculture 40 km downstream of the city in most developing countries. This poses potential negative consequences to public health and agricultural

  18. Numerical responses of larval fishes to deepwater sewage disposal: a field assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Gray; N. M. Otway; A. G. Miskiewicz

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a large-scale ‘beyond BACI’ designed assessment of the influences of effluent discharges from Sydney's deepwater sewage outfalls on assemblages of larval fishes. Larval fishes were sampled at three outfalls and at multiple control locations three times before and three times after the deepwater outfalls were commissioned. Sampling was stratified to account for time of

  19. The spatial variability of nitrogen and phosphorus concentration in a sand aquifer influenced by onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems: a case study on St. George Island, Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Reide Corbett; Kevin Dillon; William Burnett; Geoff Schaefer

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater from a shallow freshwater lens on St. George Island, a barrier island located in the Panhandle of Florida, eventually discharges into Apalachicola Bay or the Gulf of Mexico. Nutrient concentrations in groundwaters were monitored downfield from three onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems (OSTDS) on the island. Estimates of natural groundwater nutrient concentrations were obtained from an adjacent uninhabited

  20. Accumulation and persistence of chlorobiphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and faecal sterols at the Garroch Head sewage sludge disposal site, Firth of Clyde

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Kelly

    1995-01-01

    The sediment concentrations of organic carbon, faecal sterols, individual chlorobiphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides have been measured in seabed cores from the sewage sludge disposal area at Garroch Head in the Firth of Clyde. The measurements confirm the accumulative nature of the site with high levels of sedimentary faecal sterols (152 mg kg?1 coprostanol). Levels of chlorobiphenyls, DDT compounds and

  1. The Noell Conversion Process - a gasification process for the pollutant-free disposal of sewage sludge and the recovery of energy and materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jaeger; M. Mayer

    The Noell Conversion Process was developed to guarantee the safe disposal of sewage sludge and other waste materials by means of thermal treatment, even with very strict emission standards. The center piece of this process is a pressurized entrained flow gasifier. The reactin conditions in this gasifier does not only suppresses the formation of dioxins and furans, but also completely

  2. Sewage sludge gasification: First studies

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Bacaicoa, P.; Bilbao, R.; Uson, C. [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain)

    1995-11-01

    Wastewater treatment installations produce a large quantity of sewage sludge, the disposal and treatment of which causes several problems because of its volume, its toxic organic constituents and the heavy metals that it contains. Certain methods of treatment and disposal do exist, but they are not entirely satisfactory. Moreover, it is important to develop a technology for the adequate treatment of sewage sludge in order to reduce the environmental problem and the costs of treatment. It can be assumed that gasification is a suitable technology because it reduces the waste volume, destroys the toxic organic compounds and fixes the heavy metals in the resultant solid. In order to gain knowledge of the processes occurring in the gasifier, the results obtained in experiments on the thermal decomposition of sewage sludge at different heating rates are shown.

  3. Comparative study of the methods used for treatment and final disposal of sewage sludge in European countries.

    PubMed

    Kelessidis, Alexandros; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

    2012-06-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment results to the production of large quantities of sewage sludge, which requires proper and environmentally accepted management before final disposal. In European Union, sludge management remains an open and challenging issue for the Member States as the relative European legislation is fragmentary and quite old, while the published data concerning sludge treatment and disposal in different European countries are often incomplete and inhomogeneous. The main objective of the current study was to outline the current situation and discuss future perspectives for sludge treatment and disposal in EU countries. According to the results, specific sludge production is differentiated significantly between European countries, ranging from 0.1 kg per population equivalent (p.e.) and year (Malta) to 30.8 kg per p.e. and year (Austria). More stringent legislations comparing to European Directive 86/278/EC have been adopted for sludge disposal in soil by several European countries, setting lower limit values for heavy metals as well as limit values for pathogens and organic micropollutants. A great variety of sludge treatment technologies are used in EU countries, while differences are observed between Member States. Anaerobic and aerobic digestion seems to be the most popular stabilization methods, applying in 24 and 20 countries, respectively. Mechanical sludge dewatering is preferred comparing to the use of drying beds, while thermal drying is mainly applied in EU-15 countries (old Member States) and especially in Germany, Italy, France and UK. Regarding sludge final disposal, sludge reuse (including direct agricultural application and composting) seems to be the predominant choice for sludge management in EU-15 (53% of produced sludge), following by incineration (21% of produced sludge). On the other hand, the most common disposal method in EU-12 countries (new Member States that joined EU after 2004) is still landfilling. Due to the obligations set by Directive 91/271/EC, a temporary increase of sludge amounts that are disposed in landfills is expected during the following years in EU-12 countries. Beside the above, sludge reuse in land and sludge incineration seem to be the main practices further adopted in EU-27 (all Member States) up to 2020. The reinforcement of these disposal practices will probably result to adoption of advanced sludge treatment technologies in order to achieve higher pathogens removal, odors control and removal of toxic compounds and ensure human health and environmental protection. PMID:22336390

  4. TECHNICAL-ECONOMIC STUDY OF SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL ON DEDICATED LAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study documents the technical, cost, and environmental factors for disposing of sludge on dedicated land. Dedicated land is characterized by the practice of applying sludge on land where sludge disposal is the primary objective and other purposes such as improved crop yields...

  5. Microbial utilization and transformation of humic acid-like substances extracted from a mixture of municipal refuse and sewage sludge disposed of in a landfill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z Filip; W Pecher; J Berthelin

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to establish whether humic acid-like substances (HA) related to municipal refuse disposed of in a landfill can resist microbial degradation and if they contribute, in that way, to long-term stabilization of landfill refuse. Using a mixture of 0.1 M Na4P2O7 + 0.1 M NaOH, we extracted HA from municipal refuse mixed with sewage sludge

  6. Effects of leachate recirculation on biogas production from landfill co-disposal of municipal solid waste, sewage sludge and marine sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Y. S. Chan; L. M. Chu; M. H. Wong

    2002-01-01

    Leachate recirculation is an emerging technology associated with the management of landfill. The impact of leachate recirculation on the co-disposal of three major wastes (municipal solid waste, sewage sludge and sediment dredgings) was investigated using a laboratory column study. Chemical parameters (pH, COD, ammoniacal-N, total-P) and gas production (total gas volume, production rates and concentrations of CH4 and CO2) were

  7. Land application of sewage sludge in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min-Jian Wang

    1997-01-01

    Land application of sewage sludge in China is thoroughly reviewed. Operation of sewage sludge disposal is usually expensive and\\/or easy to contaminate the environment. In China, most sewage sludge has not been treated and disposed of properly, resulting in environmental pollution and potential exposure to humans. In the near future, sewage sludge production in China will increase rapidly together with

  8. The Real World of Industrial Chemistry: The Use of Oxygen in the Treatment of Sewage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Gerhard A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the events leading up to the establishment of oxygen (rather than air) as an important component in the second stage treatment of municipal wastewater in sewage-disposal plants. Advantages, problems, and costs of using oxygen are discussed. (CS)

  9. Geological aspects of the nuclear waste disposal problem

    SciTech Connect

    Laverov, N.P.; Omelianenko, B.L.; Velichkin, V.I. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    1994-06-01

    For the successful solution of the high-level waste (HLW) problem in Russia one must take into account such factors as the existence of the great volume of accumulated HLW, the large size and variety of geological conditions in the country, and the difficult economic conditions. The most efficient method of HLW disposal consists in the maximum use of protective capacities of the geological environment and in using inexpensive natural minerals for engineered barrier construction. In this paper, the principal trends of geological investigation directed toward the solution of HLW disposal are considered. One urgent practical aim is the selection of sites in deep wells in regions where the HLW is now held in temporary storage. The aim of long-term investigations into HLW disposal is to evaluate geological prerequisites for regional HLW repositories.

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    1998-09-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Comective Action Unit (CAU) 404. CAU 404 consists of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons (Corrective Action Site [CAS] TA-03-O01-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS TA-21-001-TA-RC). The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest ofLas Vegas, Nevada. . The sewage lagoons received ~quid sanitary waste horn the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp in 1963 and debris from subsequent range and construction cleanup activities. The debris and ordnance was subsequently removed and properly dispos~, however, pesticides were detected in soil samples born the bottom of the lagoons above the U,S. Environmental Protection Agency Region IX Prelimimuy Remediation Goals (EPA 1996). . The North Disposal Trench was excavated in 1963. Debris from the man camp and subsequent range and construction cleanup activities was placed in the trench. Investigation results indicated that no constituents of concern were detected in soil samples collected from the trench. Remedial alternative proposed in the Comctive Action Decision Document (CADD) fm the site was “Covering” (DOE, 1997a). The Nevada Division of”Enviromnental Protection (NDEP)-approved Correction Action Plan (CAP) proposed the “Covering” niethodology (1997b). The closure activities were completed in accorhce with the approwil CAP and consisted of baclctllling the sewage lagoons and disposal trench, constructing/planting an engineered/vegetative cover in the area of the sewage lagoons and dikposal trencQ installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on fi~e use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan. “ Since closure activities. for CAU 404 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved CAP (DOE, 1997b) as documented in this Closure Report, the U.S. Department of Energy, NevadaOperations Office (DOE/NV) requests: CAU 404 be moved from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. NDEP provide a Notice of Completion to the DOE/NV.

  11. Monitoring of the Fate, Transport, and Effects of Sewage Sludge Disposed at the 106Mile Deepwater Municipal Sludge Dump Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Redford; Douglas Pabst; Carlton D. Hupt

    1992-01-01

    Since 1985, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has conducted monitoring studies to determine the transport, fate, and effects of sewage sludge dumped at the 106-Mile Deepwater Municipal Sludge Dump Site (106-Mile Site). This paper describes EPA's 106-Mile Site monitoring activities and the results from six oceanographic surveys of the Site. Surveys have been conducted to track sewage sludge plumes

  12. The Application of the Fuzzy Controller Based on PLC in Sewage Disposal System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kang Sun; Yan-min Song; Guo-chuan Feng

    2009-01-01

    In order to solve the problems such as long time-delay, non-linear and the difficulty to establish an accurate mathematical model emerged in industrial field, we combine advanced intelligent control method with traditional automated devices, and put forward a Fuzzy Controller in accordance with the principle of fuzzy control and the characteristics of PLC. The Fuzzy Controller realized on the basis

  13. Potential benefits and risks of land application of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Singh; M. Agrawal

    2008-01-01

    Sewage sludge, also referred as biosolids, is a byproduct of sewage treatment processes. Land application of sewage sludge is one of the important disposal alternatives. Characteristics of sewage sludge depend upon the quality of sewage and type of treatment processes followed. Being rich in organic and inorganic plant nutrients, sewage sludge may substitute for fertilizer, but availability of potential toxic

  14. 25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

  15. 25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

  16. 25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

  17. 25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

  18. 25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

  19. Sewage sludge combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Werther; T. Ogada

    1999-01-01

    In the current review paper, various issues related to the combustion of sewage sludge are discussed. After briefly explaining the formation and treatment of sewage sludge, current and future sludge production are discussed. Thereafter, the four sludge disposal methods which are currently used, i.e. recycling in agriculture, landfilling, dumping into sea and incineration, are examined, and the future trend presented

  20. Subfertility Problems Leading to Disposal of Breeding Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Khatun, Marzina; Kaur, Simarjeet; Kanchan; Mukhopadhyay, C. S.

    2013-01-01

    Subfertility problems are encountered frequently in the cattle and buffalo bulls commercially maintained for semen production in dairy farms and under field conditions for natural insemination. Reports are scarce on the incidence of subfertility in breeding bulls, especially in India. The objective of the present study was to assess the incidence of the male reproductive anomalies leading to disposal of bovine bulls at GADVASU dairy farm, Ludhiana, Punjab (India). Data on frequency of various subfertility and disposal pattern of bulls maintained at the dairy farm, GADVASU, were collected for 12 yrs (1999 to 2010) and compiled from different record registers. Percentage of bulls that produced freezable semen (out of reserved ones) was less in cattle (25.641%) as compared to that of buffalo (30.4%). Various subfertility traits like poor libido and unacceptable seminal profile were found to be the significant reasons (p<0.01) for culling of the breeding bulls. Inadequate sex drive and poor semen quality were the main contributing factors for bull disposal in cattle whereas poor semen freezability was most frequently observed in buffalo bulls. All the male reproductive traits were significantly different (p<0.05) for the periods of birth, except for semen volume, initial motility (IM), age at last semen collection (ALSC) and age at disposal. The ages at first and last semen collection as well as freezing (i.e. AFSC, ALSC and AFSF, ALSF, respectively) and age at disposal (AD) were higher in buffalo. The spermatological parameters and semen production period (SPP) were higher in cattle. The age at first semen donation and breeding period could be reduced by introducing the bulls to training at an early age. The results revealed an increasing trend in individual motility (IM) while semen volume, AFSC, AFSF, AD, FSPP, SPP, ALSC and ALSF showed a decreasing, however, not a definite trend, over the periods. The semen donation traits like, AFSF, of the cattle and buffalo bulls could be predicted from the AFSC, using prediction equation derived in the present study. PMID:25049791

  1. Waste paper and clinoptilolite as a bulking material with dewatered anaerobically stabilized primary sewage sludge (DASPSS) for compost production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonis A Zorpas; Dimitris Arapoglou; Karlis Panagiotis

    2003-01-01

    Environmental problems associated with sewage sludge disposal have prompted strict legislative actions over the past few years. At the same time, the upgrading and expansion of wastewater treatment plants have greatly increased the volume of sludge generated. The major limitation of land application of sewage sludge compost is the potential for high heavy metal content in relation to the metal

  2. Sewage and Waste Technologies Department of Civil Engineering

    E-print Network

    Siegen, Universität

    Research Institute for Water and Environment Section Sewage and Waste Technologies EFFICIENT practical for ecological and economical evaluation of waste treatment, disposal and recycling · Identification, evaluationSewage and Waste Technologies Department of Civil Engineering Section Sewage and Waste Technologies

  3. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503...applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge...

  4. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503...applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge...

  5. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503...applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge...

  6. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503...applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge...

  7. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503...applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge...

  8. Assessment of odour problem in sewage-treated effluent in a closed loop irrigation system.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad Saeed; Miran, Mamdoh M

    2011-05-01

    Uses of wastewater drives significant economic activity, supports countless livelihoods particularly those for developing countries. While using wastewater, the challenge is to identify practical, affordable safeguards that do not threaten the health of users. In Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah, treated sewage effluent (TSE) is used for landscape purposes. In the present study, the odour problem caused by TSE in community area has been addressed. Samples were collected and analysed for total coliform, odour, trihalomethanes (THMs), total organic carbon (TOC) and other physicochemical parameters. Results show that in distribution network, residual chlorine was below the detection limit, turbidity, THMs, TOC and total coliform concentration was much higher than point source, and concentration of these parameters was further increased in problematic areas. It was also observed that areas with odourous problem were at the tail of irrigation network. This indicates that odour problem was due to less residual chlorine high turbidity, high rate of coliform and TOC. In odourous water samples, carbon disulphide and dimethyl sulphide were also identified by GC/MS, while in other areas where there was no odour, both these compounds were not detected. Odour problem was successfully resolved by improving sand filtration system to minimise turbidity the main cause of odour, increasing the residual chlorine at the treatment plant and regularly flushing the distribution network. PMID:20568010

  9. Use of chemometrics methods and multicriteria decision-making for site selection for sustainable on-site sewage effluent disposal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wael Al-Shiekh Khalil; Ashantha Goonetilleke; Serge Kokot; Steven Carroll

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a study undertaken to evaluate site suitability for sewage effluent renovation based on physico-chemical characteristics of the soil. The results obtained showed that as the soil becomes acidic, the phosphorus concentration in the soil reduces accordingly. The chloride ion concentration was found to be a reliable indicator for evaluating the soil capacity to remove nitrogen. A high

  10. Sewage effects in marine and estuarine environments. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of disposal of sewage effluents and sludge on marine and estuarine environments. Citations discuss the effects on specific flora and fauna, ocean dumping problems, and pollutant distribution. Regional and site-specific studies regarding environmental effects of ocean waste disposal are presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. The long-term and the short-term at a cropping municipal sewage sludge disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Welby, C.W. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1994-03-01

    The City of Raleigh, NC, chose land application of municipal sewage sludge as a means of reducing pollution to the Neuse River. The Neuse River Waste Water Treatment Plant (NRWWTP) is located in the Piedmont Province of North Carolina. The soils at the facility are derived largely from the Rolesville Granite. Sewage sludge is applied to over 640 acres of cropland, owned in fee or leased. In making the policy decision for use of the sludge land application method 20 or so years ago, the City had to evaluate the potential for heavy metal accumulation in the soils and plants as well as the potential for ground-water contamination from the nitrate-nitrogen. The city also had to make a policy decision about limiting the discharge of heavy metals to the sewer system. Study of data from monitoring wells demonstrate that well position is a key in determining whether or not nitrate-nitrogen contamination is detected. Data from a three-year study suggest that nitrate-nitrogen moves fairly rapidly t the water table, although significant buildup in nitrogen-nitrogen may take a number of years. Evidence exists suggesting that the time between application of sewage sludge and an increase of nitrate-nitrogen at the water table may be on the order of nine months to a year. It is apparent that in the case of municipal sewage sludge application one can anticipate some nitrate-nitrogen buildup and that the public policy on drinking water standards must recognize this fact.

  12. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-06-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench (Corrective Action Unit [CAW 404]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404, Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV--187. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on September 11, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 18, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 404 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. The site inspections were conducted after completion of the revegetation activities (October 30, 1997) and NDEP approval of the CR (May 18, 1999). All site inspections were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

  13. Interim Control Strategy for the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond - Two-year Update

    SciTech Connect

    L. V. Street

    2007-04-01

    The Idaho Cleanup Project has prepared this interim control strategy for the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office pursuant to DOE Order 5400.5, Chapter 11.3e (1) to support continued discharges to the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond. In compliance with DOE Order 5400.5, a 2-year review of the Interim Control Strategy document has been completed. This submittal documents the required review of the April 2005 Interim Control Strategy. The Idaho Cleanup Project's recommendation is unchanged from the original recommendation. The Interim Control Strategy evaluates three alternatives: (1) re-route the discharge outlet to an uncontaminated area of the TSF-07; (2) construct a new discharge pond; or (3) no action based on justification for continued use. Evaluation of Alternatives 1 and 2 are based on the estimated cost and implementation timeframe weighed against either alternative's minimal increase in protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Evaluation of Alternative 3, continued use of the TSF-07 Disposal Pond under current effluent controls, is based on an analysis of four points: - Record of Decision controls will protect workers and the public - Risk of increased contamination is low - Discharge water will be eliminated in the foreseeable future - Risk of contamination spread is acceptable. The Idaho Cleanup Project recommends Alternative 3, no action other than continued implementation of existing controls and continued deactivation, decontamination, and dismantlement efforts at the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility.

  14. Problems and prospects for nuclear waste disposal policy

    SciTech Connect

    Herzik, E.B.; Mushkatel, A.H. [eds.

    1996-07-01

    This book is a collection of articles examining legal, organizational, and public-interest issues involving the transportation, storage, treatment, and disposal of radioactive wastes. The introductions examines the unresolved issues of nuclear-waste policy-making in the USA and then presents essays covering the disposal of commercial power plant fuel, low level radioactive wastes, the by-products of nuclear weapons production, and the challenges of transporting radiological materials.

  15. 1988 NATIONAL SEWAGE SLUDGE SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose: Originally developed to support Phase I regulation for use or disposal of biosolids (sewage sludge). Data collected were used to estimate risks, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation. This is currently the only statistically designed surv...

  16. Low-cost water treatment solves disposal problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beckett

    1971-01-01

    Gulf Oil Corp. has eliminated open pit disposal of waste water from crude oil separators, and has significantly improved water quality for subsurface injection in its Red Ribbon Ranch plant near Bakersfield, Calif. The water purifying facility has been tested with throughputs of 10,600 bwpd with 100 ppm oil contamination. The discharge consistently tested less than 4 ppm oil, with

  17. Assessing the water quality response to an alternative sewage disposal strategy at bathing sites on the east coast of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Bedri, Zeinab; O'Sullivan, John J; Deering, Louise A; Demeter, Katalin; Masterson, Bartholomew; Meijer, Wim G; O'Hare, Gregory

    2015-02-15

    A three-dimensional model is used to assess the bathing water quality of Bray and Killiney bathing sites in Ireland following changes to the sewage management system. The model, firstly calibrated to hydrodynamic and water quality data from the period prior to the upgrade of the Wastewater Treatment Works (WwTW), was then used to simulate Escherichia coli (E. coli) distributions for discharge scenarios of the periods prior to and following the upgrade of the WwTW under dry and wet weather conditions. E. coli distributions under dry weather conditions demonstrate that the upgrade in the WwTW has remarkably improved the bathing water quality to a Blue Flag status. The new discharge strategy is expected to drastically reduce the rainfall-related incidents in which environmental limits of the Bathing Water Directive are breached. However, exceedances to these limits may still occur under wet weather conditions at Bray bathing site due to storm overflows that may still be discharged through two sea outfalls offshore of Bray bathing site. PMID:25577474

  18. MOVEMENT OF SELECTED METALS, ASBESTOS, AND CYANIDE IN SOIL: APPLICATIONS TO WASTE DISPOSAL PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents information on movement of selected hazardous substances in soil which can be applied to problems of selecting and operating land disposal sites for wastes containing arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, mercury, selen...

  19. The problem of nitrogen disposal in the obese.

    PubMed

    Alemany, Marià

    2012-06-01

    Amino-N is preserved because of the scarcity and nutritional importance of protein. Excretion requires its conversion to ammonia, later incorporated into urea. Under conditions of excess dietary energy, the body cannot easily dispose of the excess amino-N against the evolutively adapted schemes that prevent its wastage; thus ammonia and glutamine formation (and urea excretion) are decreased. High lipid (and energy) availability limits the utilisation of glucose, and high glucose spares the production of ammonium from amino acids, limiting the synthesis of glutamine and its utilisation by the intestine and kidney. The amino acid composition of the diet affects the production of ammonium depending on its composition and the individual amino acid catabolic pathways. Surplus amino acids enhance protein synthesis and growth, and the synthesis of non-protein-N-containing compounds. But these outlets are not enough; consequently, less-conventional mechanisms are activated, such as increased synthesis of NO? followed by higher nitrite (and nitrate) excretion and changes in the microbiota. There is also a significant production of N(2) gas, through unknown mechanisms. Health consequences of amino-N surplus are difficult to fathom because of the sparse data available, but it can be speculated that the effects may be negative, largely because the fundamental N homeostasis is stretched out of normalcy, forcing the N removal through pathways unprepared for that task. The unreliable results of hyperproteic diets, and part of the dysregulation found in the metabolic syndrome may be an unwanted consequence of this N disposal conflict. PMID:22309896

  20. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  1. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...features adequate for transfer of sewage from all movable floating pump-out...facilities; (j) A reliable disposal method consisting of: (1...2) Proof of a contract with a sewage disposal contractor; and (k) A...

  2. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...features adequate for transfer of sewage from all movable floating pump-out...facilities; (j) A reliable disposal method consisting of: (1...2) Proof of a contract with a sewage disposal contractor; and (k) A...

  3. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...features adequate for transfer of sewage from all movable floating pump-out...facilities; (j) A reliable disposal method consisting of: (1...2) Proof of a contract with a sewage disposal contractor; and (k) A...

  4. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...features adequate for transfer of sewage from all movable floating pump-out...facilities; (j) A reliable disposal method consisting of: (1...2) Proof of a contract with a sewage disposal contractor; and (k) A...

  5. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...features adequate for transfer of sewage from all movable floating pump-out...facilities; (j) A reliable disposal method consisting of: (1...2) Proof of a contract with a sewage disposal contractor; and (k) A...

  6. Monitoring of Cd pollution in soils and plants irrigated with untreated sewage water in some industrialized cities of Punjab, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sikka; V. Nayyar; S. S. Sidhu

    2009-01-01

    The disposal of industrial and sewage water is a problem of increasing importance throughout the world. In India, and most\\u000a of the developing countries untreated sewage and industrial wastes are discharged on land or into the running water streams\\u000a which is used for irrigating crops. These wastes often contain high amount of trace elements which may accumulate in soils\\u000a in

  7. Assessing the feasibility of land application of fly ash, sewage sludge and their mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S Sajwan; S Paramasivam; A. K Alva; D. C Adriano; P. S Hooda

    2003-01-01

    Land disposal of fly ash (FA) and sewage sludge (SS) is a major problem due largely to their potentially harmful constituents. Combined use of FA and SS however may help reduce the associated pollution potential. In this paper we summarize the results of several case studies designed to assess the feasibility of land application of FA with and without SS.

  8. 33 CFR 401.19 - Disposal and discharge systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Condition of Vessels § 401.19 Disposal and discharge systems. (a...ordure shall be equipped with a sewage disposal system enabling compliance with...Regulations, the Canadian Great Lakes Sewage Pollution Prevention...

  9. 33 CFR 401.19 - Disposal and discharge systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Condition of Vessels § 401.19 Disposal and discharge systems. (a...ordure shall be equipped with a sewage disposal system enabling compliance with...Regulations, the Canadian Great Lakes Sewage Pollution Prevention...

  10. 33 CFR 401.19 - Disposal and discharge systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Condition of Vessels § 401.19 Disposal and discharge systems. (a...ordure shall be equipped with a sewage disposal system enabling compliance with...Regulations, the Canadian Great Lakes Sewage Pollution Prevention...

  11. 33 CFR 401.19 - Disposal and discharge systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Condition of Vessels § 401.19 Disposal and discharge systems. (a...ordure shall be equipped with a sewage disposal system enabling compliance with...Regulations, the Canadian Great Lakes Sewage Pollution Prevention...

  12. 26 CFR 1.142(a)(5)-1 - Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...processing, or final disposal of— (A) Wastewater...treatment; or (B) Sewage sludge removed...processing, or final disposal of septage (without...1), such as sewage disinfection property...processing, or final disposal of the wastewater...1362, is not a sewage facility....

  13. 26 CFR 1.142(a)(5)-1 - Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...processing, or final disposal of— (A) Wastewater...treatment; or (B) Sewage sludge removed...processing, or final disposal of septage (without...1), such as sewage disinfection property...processing, or final disposal of the wastewater...1362, is not a sewage facility....

  14. 26 CFR 1.142(a)(5)-1 - Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...processing, or final disposal of— (A) Wastewater...treatment; or (B) Sewage sludge removed...processing, or final disposal of septage (without...1), such as sewage disinfection property...processing, or final disposal of the wastewater...1362, is not a sewage facility....

  15. 26 CFR 1.142(a)(5)-1 - Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...processing, or final disposal of— (A) Wastewater...treatment; or (B) Sewage sludge removed...processing, or final disposal of septage (without...1), such as sewage disinfection property...processing, or final disposal of the wastewater...1362, is not a sewage facility....

  16. Marine Pollution Monitoring Management Group The Group Co-ordinating Sea Disposal Monitoring

    E-print Network

    ............................................................................................................................... 9 2. Sampling and analysis at sewage-sludge disposal sites ............................................................................. 15 4. Standards for sediment metals at sewage-sludge disposal sitesMarine Pollution Monitoring Management Group The Group Co-ordinating Sea Disposal Monitoring

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix...

  2. Environmental Impact of Wastewater Disposal in the Florida Keys, Monroe County Tom Higginbotham

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    the Florida Keys are increasing and sewage disposal is suspected to be a source of nitrogen that is adversely to the Florida Department of Health, there are more than 2.6 million on- site sewage treatment and disposal and the sprawling nature of the Florida Keys makes adequate sewage disposal problematic. Drainfields and sewage

  3. 15th International Conference Ramiran, May 3-6, 2013, Versailles Accounting GHG emissions from sludge treatment and disposal routes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    sludge treatment and disposal routes ­ methodological problems focused on sludge land spreading% of sewage sludge is directly land spreading or composted before land spreading. Sludge application to quantify GHG emissions emitted during sludge treatment and disposal routes. This paper aims to present how

  4. Numerical Zoom for Multiscale Problems with an Application to Nuclear Waste Disposal

    E-print Network

    Numerical Zoom for Multiscale Problems with an Application to Nuclear Waste Disposal Jean of a nuclear waste repository site. Key words: Multiscale, Finite Element, Domain Decomposition, Chimera, Numerical Zoom, Nuclear Waste. PACS: 02.30.Jr, 47.11.Fg, 28.41.Kw, 47.55.P- 1 Introduction The present paper

  5. Sewage Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  6. Phosphorus species and fractionation--why sewage derived phosphorus is a problem.

    PubMed

    Millier, Helen K G R; Hooda, Peter S

    2011-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) inputs to sewage treatment works (STW) come from a variety of sources and filtration of treated wastewater prior to discharge into receiving waters is a common practice. This means P in treated wastewaters may be present in forms that are potentially more bioavailable and mobile. We conducted a 2-year study to determine P species up and downstream of two STW outfalls into two tributaries of the River Thames. Downstream of the outfalls, P concentrations in both rivers were frequently greater by an order of magnitude for all species of P. A high proportion of total P (TP) in the downstream waters was determined as dissolved, which was largely comprised of soluble reactive P (SRP) - considered as the most bioavailable P species. Furthermore no significant difference in SRP was found in receiving waters passed through 0.45 and 0.10 ?m filters. This means that P from STWs occurs in <0.1 ?m fraction size, which will not readily settle to the channel bed and is more easily assimilated by biota. This distinguishes STW inputs from agricultural runoff where a high proportion of P occurs as particulate P which is both less bioavailable and more likely to settle to the channel bed. This implies that STWs derived P is likely to have a greater adverse impact on the receiving river than agricultural runoff. PMID:21215509

  7. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

  8. Ground-Water Quality and Potential Effects of Individual Sewage Disposal System Effluent on Ground-Water Quality in Park County, Colorado, 2001-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Lisa D.; Ortiz, Roderick F.

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Park County, Colorado, began a study to evaluate ground-water quality in the various aquifers in Park County that supply water to domestic wells. The focus of this study was to identify and describe the principal natural and human factors that affect ground-water quality. In addition, the potential effects of individual sewage disposal system (ISDS) effluent on ground-water quality were evaluated. Ground-water samples were collected from domestic water-supply wells from July 2001 through October 2004 in the alluvial, crystalline-rock, sedimentary-rock, and volcanic-rock aquifers to assess general ground-water quality and effects of ISDS's on ground-water quality throughout Park County. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, bacteria, and boron; and selected samples also were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon, human-related (wastewater) compounds, trace elements, radionuclides, and age-dating constituents (tritium and chlorofluorocarbons). Drinking-water quality is adequate for domestic use throughout Park County with a few exceptions. Only about 3 percent of wells had concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, and (or) uranium that exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national, primary drinking-water standards. These primary drinking-water standards were exceeded only in wells completed in the crystalline-rock aquifers in eastern Park County. Escherichia coli bacteria were detected in one well near Guffey, and total coliform bacteria were detected in about 11 percent of wells sampled throughout the county. The highest total coliform concentrations were measured southeast of the city of Jefferson and west of Tarryall Reservoir. Secondary drinking-water standards were exceeded more frequently. About 19 percent of wells had concentrations of one or more constituents (pH, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and dissolved solids) that exceeded secondary drinking-water standards. Currently (2004), there is no federally enforced drinking-water standard for radon in public water-supply systems, but proposed regulations suggest a maximum contaminant level of 300 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) and an alternative maximum contaminant level of 4,000 pCi/L contingent on other mitigating remedial activities to reduce radon levels in indoor air. Radon concentrations in about 91 percent of ground-water samples were greater than or equal to 300 pCi/L, and about 25 percent had radon concentrations greater than or equal to 4,000 pCi/L. Generally, the highest radon concentrations were measured in samples collected from wells completed in the crystalline-rock aquifers. Analyses of ground-water-quality data indicate that recharge from ISDS effluent has affected some local ground-water systems in Park County. Because roughly 90 percent of domestic water used is assumed to be recharged by ISDS's, detections of human-related (wastewater) compounds in ground water in Park County are not surprising; however, concentrations of constituents associated with ISDS effluent generally are low (concentrations near the laboratory reporting levels). Thirty-eight different organic wastewater compounds were detected in 46 percent of ground-water samples, and the number of compounds detected per sample ranged from 1 to 17 compounds. Samples collected from wells with detections of wastewater compounds also had significantly higher (p-value < 0.05) chloride and boron concentrations than samples from wells with no detections of wastewater compounds. ISDS density (average subdivision lot size used to estimate ISDS density) was related to ground-water quality in Park County. Chloride and boron concentrations were significantly higher in ground-water samples collected from wells located in areas that had average subdivision lot sizes of less than 1 acre than in areas that had average subdivision lot sizes greater than or equal to 1 acre. For wells completed in the crystalline-

  9. Oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1994-01-01

    Federal regulations banning ocean dumping of sewage sludge coupled with stricter regulations on the disposal of sewage sludge in landfills have forced municipalities, especially those in the northeast United States, to consider alternate methods for disposal of this solid waste. Coincineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) and sludge has proven to be economically attractive for both Europe and Japan, but has not yet proven to be a viable sludge disposal technology in the United States because of a history of operational problems in existing facilities. The most prevalent problem in coincinerating MSW and a dewatered sewage sludge (15 to 25% solids) is incomplete sludge combustion. Incomplete sludge combustion is primarily a function of sludge particle size, occurring when the surface of the sludge particle dries and hardens, while the inner mass is unaffected. This phenomenon is commonly referred to in the industry as the {open_quotes}hamburger effect.{close_quotes} In an effort to promote technology development in this area, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. teamed with the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate a new process being developed for the disposal of a dewatered sewage sludge, {open_quotes}Oxygen-Enriched Coincineration of MSW and Sewage Sludge.{close_quotes} This report provides a comprehensive summary of the pilot demonstration test program for oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge. This report describes the pilot test facility, instrumentation, and methods of data collection and data analyses; describes how the tests were executed; and discusses the test results. Recommendations for the future development of this technology in the current marketplace are also provided.

  10. Disinfection and reduction of organic load of sewage water by electron beam radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruthi, Y. Avasn; Das, N. Lakshmana; Hossain, Kaizar; Sarma, K. S. S.; Rawat, K. P.; Sabharwal, S.

    2011-09-01

    The efficacy of electron beam radiation for the disinfection and reduction of organic load of sewage water was assessed with ILU-6 Accelerator at Radiation Technology Development Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai India. The current problem on environmental health in relation to water pollution insists for the safe disposal of sewage water. In general, sewage water comprises heterogeneous organic based chemicals as well as pathogens. EB treatment of the wastewater has found to be very effective in reducing the pathogens as well as organic load. EB dose of 1.5 kGy was sufficient for complete elimination of total coli forms. The experimental results elucidated the reduction of biological oxygen demand—BOD (35 and 51.7%) in both inlet and outlet sewage samples. Similarly reduction of chemical oxygen demand—COD was observed (37.54 and 52.32%) in both sewage samples with respect to increase in irradiation doses (0.45-6 kGy). The present study demonstrated the potential of ionizing radiation for disinfection of sewage and to increase the water quality of the wastewater by decreasing BOD and COD. So, the irradiation sewage water can find its application either in agriculture for irrigation, in industry for cooling purpose and some selected domestic purposes.

  11. Optimising the preparation of activated carbon from digested sewage sludge and coconut husk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H Tay; X. G Chen; S Jeyaseelan; N Graham

    2001-01-01

    Preparation of activated carbon from sewage sludge is a promising way to dispose of sewage sludge as well as to produce a low-cost adsorbent for pollutant removal. This research work aimed to optimise the condition for activated carbon preparation from anaerobically digested sewage sludge with the additive coconut husk. The sewage sludge sample was mixed with the additive coconut husk.

  12. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

  13. Examination of eastern oil shale disposal problems - the Hope Creek field study

    SciTech Connect

    Koppenaal, D.W.; Kruspe, R.R.; Robl, T.L.; Cisler, K.; Allen, D.L.

    1985-02-01

    A field-based study of problems associated with the disposal of processed Eastern oil shale was initiated in mid-1983 at a private research site in Montgomery County, Kentucky. The study (known as the Hope Creek Spent Oil Shale Disposal Project) is designed to provide information on the geotechnical, revegetation/reclamation, and leachate generation and composition characteristics of processed Kentucky oil shales. The study utilizes processed oil shale materials (retorted oil shale and reject raw oil shale fines) obtained from a pilot plant run of Kentucky oil shale using the travelling grate retort technology. Approximately 1000 tons of processed oil shale were returned to Kentucky for the purpose of the study. The study, composed of three components, is described. The effort to date has concentrated on site preparation and the construction and implementation of the field study research facilities. These endeavors are described and the project direction in the future years is defined.

  14. Linear alkylbenzenes as tracers of sewage-sludge-derived inputs of organic matter, PCBs, and PAHs to sediments at the 106-mile deep water disposal site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamoureux, E.M.; Brownawell, B.J.; Bothner, Michael H.

    1996-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) are sensitive source-specific tracers of sewage inputs to the marine environment. Because they are highly particle reactive and nonspecifically sorbed to organic matter, LABs are potential tracers of the transport of both sludge-derived organic matter and other low solubility hydrophobic contaminants (e.g., PCBs and PAHs); sediment trap studies at the 106-Mile Site have shown LABs to be valuable in testing models of sludge deposition to the sea floor. In this study we report on the distributions of LABs, PCBs, PAHs, and Ag in surface sediments collected within a month of the complete cessation of dumping (July, 1992) in the vicinity of the dump site. Total LAB concentrations were lower than those measured by Takada and coworkers in samples from nearby sites collected in 1989. LABs from both studies appear to be significantly depleted (6 to 25-fold) in surface sediments relative to excess Ag (another sludge tracer) when compared to sewage sludge and sediment trap compositions. Comparison of LAB sediment inventories to model predictions of sludge particle fluxes supports the contention that LABs have been lost from the bed. The use of LABs to examine the short-or long-term fate of sludge derived materials in deep-sea sediments should be questioned. The causes of this LAB depletion are unclear at this point, and we discuss several hypotheses. The concentrations of total PCBs and PAHs are both correlated with sludge tracers, suggesting that there may be a measurable contribution of sludge-derived inputs on top of other nonpoint sources of these contaminant classes. This possibility is consistent with the composition of these contaminants determined in recent and historical analyses of sewage sludge.

  15. 33 CFR 401.19 - Disposal and discharge systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal and discharge systems. 401...Condition of Vessels § 401.19 Disposal and discharge systems. (a...ordure shall be equipped with a sewage disposal system enabling...

  16. Effect of cofiring coal and biofuel with sewage sludge on alkali problems in a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    SciTech Connect

    K.O. Davidsson; L.-E. Aamand; A.-L. Elled; B. Leckner [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Department of Energy and Environment

    2007-12-15

    Cofiring experiments were performed in a 12 MW circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuel combinations were biofuel (wood+straw), coal+biofuel, coal+sewage sludge+biofuel, and sewage sludge+biofuel. Limestone or chlorine (PVC) was added in separate experiments. Effects of feed composition on bed ash and fly ash were examined. The composition of flue gas was measured, including on-line measurement of alkali chlorides. Deposits were collected on a probe simulating a superheater tube. It was found that the fuel combination, as well as addition of limestone, has little effect on the alkali fraction in bed ash, while chlorine decreases the alkali fraction in bed ash. Sewage sludge practically eliminates alkali chlorides in flue gas and deposits. Addition of enough limestone to coal and sludge for elimination of the SO{sub 2} emission does not change the effect of chlorine. Chlorine addition increases the alkali chloride in flue gas, but no chlorine was found in the deposits with sewage sludge as a cofuel. Cofiring of coal and biofuel lowers the alkali chloride concentration in the flue gas to about a third compared with that of pure biofuel. This is not affected by addition of lime or chlorine. It is concluded that aluminum compounds in coal and sludge are more important than sulfur to reduce the level of KCl in flue gas and deposits. 24 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Scoping survey of perceived concerns, issues, and problems for near-surface disposal of FUSRAP waste

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.E.; Gilbert, T.L.

    1982-12-01

    This report is a scoping summary of concerns, issues, and perceived problems for near-surface disposal of radioactive waste, based on a survey of the current literature. Near-surface disposal means land burial in or within 15 to 20 m of the earth's surface. It includes shallow land burial (burial in trenches, typically about 6 m deep with a 2-m cap and cover) and some intermediate-depth land burial (e.g., trenches and cap similar to shallow land burial, but placed below 10 to 15 m of clean soil). Proposed solutions to anticipated problems also are discussed. The purpose of the report is to provide a better basis for identifying and evaluating the environmental impacts and related factors that must be analyzed and compared in assessing candidate near-surface disposal sites for FUSRAP waste. FUSRAP wastes are of diverse types, and their classification for regulatory purposes is not yet fixed. Most of it may be characterized as low-activity bulk solid waste, and is similar to mill tailings, but with somewhat lower average specific activity. It may also qualify as Class A segregated waste under the proposed 10 CFR 61 rules, but the parent radionuclides of concern in FUSRAP (primarily U-238 and Th-232) have longer half-lives than do the radionuclides of concern in most low-level waste. Most of the references reviewed deal with low-level waste or mill tailings, since there is as yet very little literature in the public domain on FUSRAP per se.

  18. Interactions of aquaculture and waste disposal in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuemei, Zhai; Hawkins, S. J.

    2002-04-01

    Throughout the world, the coastal zones of many countries are used increasingly for aquaculture in addition to other activities such as waste disposal. These activities can cause environmental problems and health problems where they overlap. The interaction between aquaculture and waste disposal, and their relationship with eutrophication are the subjects of this paper. Sewage discharge without adequate dispersion can lead to nutrient elevation and hence eutrophication which has clearly negative effects on aquaculture with the potential for toxic blooms. Blooms may be either toxic or anoxia-causing through the decay process or simply clog the gills of filter-feeding animals in some cases. With the development of aquaculture, especially intensive aquaculture, many environmental problems appeared, and have resulted in eutrophication in some areas. Eutrophication may destroy the health of whole ecosystem which is important for sustainable aquaculture. Sewage discharge may also cause serious public health problems. Filter-feeding shellfish growing in sewage-polluted waters accumulate micro-organims, including human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, and heavy metal ion, presenting a significant health risk. Some farmed animals may also accumulate heavy metals from sewage. Bivalves growing in areas affected by toxic algae blooms may accumulate toxins (such as PSP, DSP) which can be harmful to human beings.

  19. Salt enrichment of municipal sewage: New prevention approaches in Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Baruch; Avnimelech, Yoram; Juanico, Marcelo

    1996-07-01

    Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the most immediately available solution. The body of initiatives presently structured by the Ministry of the Environment of Israel are herein described, with the aim to contribute to the search for a long-term solution of salinity problems in arid countries. The new initiatives are based on: (1) search for new technologies to reduce salt consumption and discharge into sewage; (2) different technologies to cope with different situations; (3) raising the awareness of the public and industry on the environmental implications of salinity pollution; and (4) an elastic legal approach expressed through new state-of-the-art regulations. The main contributor to the salinity of sewage in Israel is the watersoftening process followed by the meat koshering process. Some of the adopted technical solutions are: the discharge of the brine into the sea, the substitution of sodium by potassium salts in the ion-exchangers, the construction of centralized systems for the supply of soft water in industrial areas, the precipitation of Ca and Mg in the effluents from ion-exchangers and recycling of the NaCI solution, a reduction of the discharge of salts by the meat koshering process, and new membrane technology for salt recovery.

  20. Removing phosphorus from sewage effluent and agricultural runoff

    E-print Network

    Heal, Kate

    321 14 Removing phosphorus from sewage effluent and agricultural runoff using recovered ochre K, for instance,Younger et al., 2002). Typically, this ochre is stockpiled pending use or disposal. Although sewage effluent and agricultural runoff. Phosphorus pollution from point and diffuse sources is a serious

  1. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF HOURLY AND DAILY SEWAGE FLOW RATES IN FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOGARTY, WILLIAM J.; REEDER, MILTON E.

    A DETERMINATION OF THE HOURLY AND DAILY SEWAGE FLOW RATES IN FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOLS WAS MADE TO IDENTIFY THE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AND TO PROVIDE A MORE PRECISE BASIS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SEWAGE DISPOSAL FACILITIES IN SCHOOLS. WATER FLOW DATA WAS COLLECTED FOR 158 SCHOOLS AND SEWAGE FLOW DATA FROM 42 SCHOOLS. THE FINDINGS…

  2. Problems of site selection for nuclear waste disposal in a loess-covered hill environment in Hungary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    János Balogh; Ferenc Schweitzer; Tibor Tiner

    1995-01-01

    Problems of the long-term storage of nuclear waste produced by the Paks power plant have recently come to the fore in Hungary. After an extensive debate between investors and the local population the decision makers took the side of those having opposed the establishment of the waste disposal site in the initially proposed environment. Several studies have been conducted to

  3. CONTROL OF PATHOGENS AND VECTORS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes the federal requirements concerning pathogens in sewage sludge and septage destined for land application or surface disposal. t also provides guidance for meeting those requirements. he chapters of this document discuss why pathogen control is necessary, t...

  4. IDENTIFYING COMPOUNDS DESPITE CHROMATOGRAPHY LIMITATIONS: ORGANOPHOSPHATES IN TREATED SEWAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Highly concentrated extracts of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents contain detectable levels of dozens of compounds resulting from human activities. Recent concern over use and disposal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPS) (1) has stimulated interest ...

  5. Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Bodo [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany); Eder, Christian [CET, Christian Eder Technology, Eduard-Didion Strasse, D-66539 Neunkirchen (Germany); Grziwa, Peter [BISANZ Anlagenbau GmbH, Scheidter Strasse 2, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Horst, Juri [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany)], E-mail: horst@izes.de; Kimmerle, Klaus [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures - gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation - are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes.

  6. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  7. Effects of sewage and industrial effluent on the concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in water and sediments along Waterfalls stream and lower Mukuvisi River in Harare, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyamangara, J.; Bangira, C.; Taruvinga, T.; Masona, C.; Nyemba, A.; Ndlovu, D.

    The disposal of sewage and industrial effluent is a problem confronting municipalities in most developing countries. A study was conducted to determine the effects of the disposal of sewage and industrial effluent into Mukuvisi River and Waterfalls stream, a tributary of Mukuvisi River in Harare, Zimbabwe. Water and sediment samples were collected over two seasons (October 2003 to November 2004). Sampling sites were located before and after Firle Sewage Treatment Works (FSTW) along Mukuvisi River and before and after Prospect Industrial Area (PIA) along the Waterfalls stream. The water and sediment samples were analysed for pH, and total Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd. The FSTW had no effect on water and sediment pH in Mukuvisi River, which ranged 6.8-7.0 and 5.0-5.6, respectively. The heavy metal concentration upstream of the sewage processing plant was higher than down stream implying that the effluent disposed into the river had lower metal concentrations compared to the river water. Metal concentrations in water and sediment samples along the Waterfalls stream showed an increase just after the PIA, and were more significant in sediment samples. It was concluded that the metal pollution of the two streams was due to industrial pollution rather than sewage effluent disposal. Accumulation of heavy metals in streams is better monitored using sediments where they accumulate rather than water. Continued dumping of industrial effluent into Mukuvisi River and its tributaries will cause further damage to the ecosystem and the food chain.

  8. 50 CFR 27.94 - Disposal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.94 Disposal of waste. (a) The littering, disposing, or dumping in any manner of garbage, refuse sewage, sludge, earth, rocks, or other debris on...

  9. 50 CFR 27.94 - Disposal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.94 Disposal of waste. (a) The littering, disposing, or dumping in any manner of garbage, refuse sewage, sludge, earth, rocks, or other debris on...

  10. 50 CFR 27.94 - Disposal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.94 Disposal of waste. (a) The littering, disposing, or dumping in any manner of garbage, refuse sewage, sludge, earth, rocks, or other debris on...

  11. 50 CFR 27.94 - Disposal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.94 Disposal of waste. (a) The littering, disposing, or dumping in any manner of garbage, refuse sewage, sludge, earth, rocks, or other debris on...

  12. 50 CFR 27.94 - Disposal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.94 Disposal of waste. (a) The littering, disposing, or dumping in any manner of garbage, refuse sewage, sludge, earth, rocks, or other debris on...

  13. Energy minimization at Metro Denver Sewage District

    SciTech Connect

    Korbitz, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Metro Denver Sewage District energy minimization includes adjustment of treatment operations to maximize use of high purity oxygen treatment with 31 percent reduction in electric power and replacement of sludge incineration with land disposal at 23 percent energy reduction. Future sludge utilization as fertilizer and minor energy reduction efforts in areas of illumination, heating and employee transportation offer additional benefits.

  14. Heavy Metals Precipitation in Sewage Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Maya Marchioretto; Harry Bruning; Wim Rulkens

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal?polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another advantage is the application of the sludge as soil improver. The

  15. HANFORD CANYON DISPOSITION INITIATIVE (CDI). A BETTER SOLUTION TO AN EXPENSIVE WASTE DISPOSAL PROBLEM

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, J.J.; MacFarlan, G.M.; Jacques, I.D.; Goodenough, James D.

    2003-02-27

    Environmental cleanup that is occurring at most U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is going to be long and expensive. How expensive can really only be answered when cleanup paths forward have been identified, agreed to, and planned. In addition, all the major issues must have been identified. This also means being able to answer the question ''What about the waste?'' Where the waste goes and how it will be handled greatly affects the cost. However, within the mandatory safety and legal envelope, ingenuity can play a huge role in keeping the cost down, getting necessary decisions made earlier in the process, and being protective of the worker, public, and the environment. This paper examines how ingenuity addressed a cleanup action that had no agreed to and identified path forward and resulted in a decision made early that has spurred thinking on what to do with the other similar waste cleanup situations. The Canyon Disposition Initiative (CDI) is an example of finding a better way to address a specific problem, getting agreement on a path forward, opening the options for waste disposal, and reducing the time line for final disposition. For the CDI, the challenge was whether an old inactive building designed for reprocessing and used for multiple missions during its lifetime could be economically and sufficiently characterized to satisfy and bring consensus among groups with vastly different view points. The CDI has actively involved members of various DOE offices (i.e., Waste Management, Science and Technology, Environmental Restoration, and Facility Transition), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), Hanford Advisory Board (HAB), and the three affected Tribal Nations. The ability to partner between these diverse groups has allowed the CDI to go from a concept, to a funded priority project, to a complete review of various alternatives, and finally to a proposed plan to demonstrate the wisdom of finding a better way.

  16. Federal register, Volume 60, No. 234, Wednesday, December 6, 1995 proposed rules. Part 2. 40 CFR part 122, et al. National pollutant discharge elimination system permit application requirements for publicly owned treatment works and other treatment works treating domestic sewage; proposed rule

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-06

    The Environmental Protection Agency proposes to amend permit application requirements and application forms for publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and other treatment works treating domestic sewage (TWTDS). TWTDS include facilities that generate sewage sludge, provide commercial treatment of sewage sludge, manufacture a product derived from sewage sludge, or provide disposal of sewage sludge.

  17. Activated carbon and biochar amendments decrease pore-water concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    - tion, which is one way of sewage sludge disposal, is very expensive and meets opposition from hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge Patryk Oleszczuk a,b, , Sarah E. Hale a , Johannes Lehmann c , Gerard Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Bioavailability Sewage sludge a b s t r a c t The aim of the research

  18. A CEFAS Multidisciplinary Project Team The Rame Head Disposal Site Environmental impacts resulting from disposal of

    E-print Network

    modelling 63 5.1.6. Sediment budget for the disposal site. 64 5.2. Is Disposal Having an Impact on DivingA CEFAS Multidisciplinary Project Team ­ The Rame Head Disposal Site 1 Environmental impacts Recreational diving 19 Fishing and shellfishery activities 20 Sewage outfalls and overflows 20 2.2.6. Public

  19. Environmental problems in the coastal and wetlands ecosystems of Virginia Beach, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buzzanell, Peter J.; McGinty, Herbert K., III

    1975-01-01

    Many of the city of Virginia Beach's beach stabilization and sewage disposal problems are the result of an inadequate understanding of the physical and biological systems. Influenced by population and economic pressures, natural systems were artificially stabilized by engineering projects that had to be constantly maintained. These same pressures continue to prevail today in spite of a new environmental awareness; changes are occurring very slowly. Furthermore, the lack of adequate sewage disposal facilities and the continued urbanization of inappropriate areas are threatening Virginia Beach's attractiveness as a resort area.

  20. 1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TANKS AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT, BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TANKS AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT, BUILDING 304, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Sewage Plant & Tanks, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  1. Leachate tests with sewage sludge contaminated by radioactive cesium.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Ikuo; Ogoshi, Masashi; Harada, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The sewer systems of eastern Japan have transported radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to wastewater treatment plants, where the radioisotopes have accumulated. To better understand the potential problems associated with the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills, leachate tests were conducted with radioactive incinerator ash, cement solidification incinerator ash, and dewatered sludge cake. Radioactivity was undetectable in the eluate from incinerator ash and dewatered sludge cake, but about 30% of the radioactivity initially in cement solidification incinerator ash appeared in the eluate during the leaching experiments. Moreover, modification of test conditions revealed that the presence of Ca(2+) ions and strong alkali in the water that contacted the incinerator ash enhanced leaching of cesium. Lastly, the capacity of pit soil to absorb radioactive cesium was estimated to be at least 3.0 Bq/g (dry). PMID:23947711

  2. Study Into Combustion of Sewage Sludge as Energetic Fuel / Badania Spalania OSADÓW ?CIEKOWYCH Jako Paliwa Energetycznego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka; ?roda, Katarzyna; Otwinowski, Henryk

    2013-12-01

    Along with the development of civilisation, it can be observed that the amount of waste of different type is growing and the preparation process for further usage of the waste or the utilization process differs. What is to be focused on is municipal sewage sludge which, due to its energetic properties, constitutes a valuable fuel. The problem of usage of municipal sewage sludge remains still unsolved, which stems both from the increasing amount of such waste, and from the lack of properly adjusted systems for thermal processing thereof. What is of an additional obstacle are the increasingly stricter legal regulations regarding disposal of sewage sludge after the year 2013; hence, it is necessary to consider various benefits resulting from thermal processing of such waste. This work presents an overview of methods of disposal of sewage sludge, taking into consideration, in particular, thermal methods including the process of combustion and co-combustion as a means of successful utilization. The research section of the work presents the results of study into the mechanism and kinetics of combustion of sewage sludge in various conditions of the process carried out in air flow. Combustion of sewage sludge has been compared against combustion of coal and biomass. Wraz z rozwojem cywilizacji zaobserwowa? mo?na post?puj?ce powstawanie ró?nego rodzaju odpadów ró?ni?cych si?, m.in. sposobem przygotowania do dalszego wykorzystania, czy procesem utylizacji. Na szczególn? uwag? zas?uguj? komunalne osady ?ciekowe, które z uwagi na w?a?ciwo?ci energetyczne stanowi? cenne paliwo. Problem wykorzystania komunalnych osadów ?ciekowych jest nadal otwarty, a wynika to zarówno z rosn?cej produkcji tych odpadów, jak i braku odpowiednio przystosowanych instalacji do termicznego ich przekszta?cania. Dodatkowym utrudnieniem s? zaostrzaj?ce si? przepisy prawne dotycz?ce sk?adowania osadów ?ciekowych po 2013 r. sk?aniaj?ce tym samym do rozwa?a? nad korzy?ciami p?yn?cymi z termicznej obróbki tych odpadów. W pracy przedstawiono przegl?d sposobów unieszkodliwiania osadów ?ciekowych ze szczególnym uwzgl?dnieniem metod termicznych, g?ównie spalania i wspó?spalania jako drogi do ich sukcesywnej utylizacji. W cz??ci badawczej pracy zaprezentowano wyniki bada? mechanizmu i kinetyki spalania osadów ?ciekowych w ró?nych warunkach procesu prowadzonego w strumieniu powietrza. Spalanie osadów ?ciekowych porównano ze spalaniem w?gla oraz biomasy.

  3. [Environmental impacts of sewage treatment system based on emergy analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Min; Deng, Shi-Huai

    2013-02-01

    "Integrated sewage treatment system" (ISTS) consists of sewage treatment plant system and their products (treated water and dewatered sludge) disposal facilities, which gives a holistic view of the whole sewage treatment process. During its construction and operation, ISTS has two main impacts on the environment, i.e., the consumption of resources and the damage of discharged pollutants on the environment, while the latter was usually ignored by the previous researchers when they assessed the impacts of wastewater treatment system. In order to more comprehensively understanding the impacts of sewage treatment on the environment, an analysis was made on the ISTS based on the theories of emergy analysis, and, in combining with ecological footprint theory, the sustainability of the ISTS was also analyzed. The results showed that the emergy of the impacts of water pollutants on the environment was far larger than that of the impacts of air pollutants, and NH3-N was the main responsible cause. The emergy consumption of ISTS mainly came from the emergy of wastewater and of local renewable resources. The "sewage treatment plant system + landfill system" had the highest emergy utilization efficiency, while the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + incineration system" had the lowest one. From the aspect of environmental sustainability, the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + landfill system" was the best ISTS, while the "sewage treatment plant system + incineration system" was the worst one. PMID:23705396

  4. Current state of sewage treatment in China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lingyun; Zhang, Guangming; Tian, Huifang

    2014-12-01

    The study reported and analyzed the current state of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in urban China from the aspects of scale, treatment processes, sludge handling, geographical distribution, and discharge standards. By 2012, there were 3340 WWTPs in operation in China with a capacity of 1.42 × 10(8) m(3)/d. The number of medium-scale WWTPs (1-10 × 10(4) m(3)/d) counted for 75% of total WWTPs. On average, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of small-scale, medium-scale, large-scale and super-large-scale WWTPs were 81, 85.5, 87.5 and 86.5%, respectively. Generally speaking, the nutrients removal instead of COD removal was of concern. As to the different processes, oxidation ditch, anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A(2)/O) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were the mainstream technologies in China. These technologies had minor difference in terms of overall COD removal efficiency. The sludge treatment in WWTPs was basically "thickening-coagulation-mechanical dehydration" and the major disposal method was sanitary landfill in China. The distributions of WWTPs and their utilization showed significant regional characteristics. The sewage treatment capacity of China concentrated on the coastal areas and middle reaches of Yangtze River, which were the economically developed zones. Besides, most WWTPs enforced the Class 1 or Class 2 discharge standards, but few realized wastewater reuse. Finally, existing problems were discussed, including low removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus, emerging contaminants, low reuse of reclaimed water, poor sludge treatment and disposal, low execution standard of effluent, and emissions of greenhouse gas from WWTPs. Suggestions regarding potential technical and administrative measures were given. PMID:25189479

  5. Modeling sewage leakage to surrounding groundwater and stormwater drains.

    PubMed

    Ly, Duy Khiem; Chui, Ting Fong May

    2012-01-01

    Underground sewage pipe systems deteriorate over time resulting in cracks and joint defects. Sewage thus leaks out and contaminates the surrounding groundwater and the surface water in stormwater drains. Many studies have investigated the problem of sewage leakage but no published studies, to the best knowledge of the authors, have examined the hydrologic interactions between leaky sewage pipes, groundwater and stormwater drains. This study numerically models such interactions using generic conditions in Singapore. It first develops accurate representations of weep holes and leaky sewage pipes, and further shows the long-term and short-term system responses to rainfall events. Some of the implications include: (1) quality of water seeping into the drains tends to be low in dry years; (2) complete contaminant attenuation after pipe rehabilitation takes several years; (3) responses to rainfall events at weep holes are immediate but the effects on sewage leakage might only show up a few days later. The simulation results allow us to better understand the local-scale migration of sewage leakage from a sewage pipe to nearby stormwater drains. With calibrations and verifications with local field data, the modeling framework would be applicable and beneficial to the sewage leakage monitoring and sewage pipe rehabilitation worldwide. PMID:23109583

  6. Sewage treatment costs and economics. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the costs and economics for developing technologies and the systems for sewage treatment, sludge disposal, and sewer lines. Most of the studies cover the overall construction and operating costs of sewage treatment plants. Other studies cover rate structures, financing, user charges, and benefits of regionalized plants. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Heavy metals in sludge from the sewage treatment plant of Rio de Janeiro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomaz Langenbach; Wolfgang Pfeifer; Luiz Rodrigues Freire; Michele Sarpa; Sueli Paim

    1994-01-01

    The final disposal of sewage sludge on soils as a compost for agriculture increases heavy metal contamination in soils. This demands controlled use to avoid hazardous situations. This work measures the heavy metals content in sludge and its potential as a fertilizer in agriculture. Samples were collected from the Penha urban sewage plant, the largest in Rio de Janeiro. Heavy

  8. Evaluation of dioxin contamination in sewage sludge discharges on coastal sediments from catalonia, spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Eljarrat; J Caixach; J Rivera

    2001-01-01

    The fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in sewage sludges after discharge into the sea was investigated. Sediment samples were analysed at a sewage sludge disposal site as well as in the surrounding areas. Moreover, eight sediment samples from two rivers in Catalonia and three sediment samples from Catalonian Coast were analysed to determine the background levels of

  9. COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS AND EMISSION OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS IN COMMERCIAL FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTORS FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ha-Na Jang; Seong-Bum Park; Jeong-Hun Kim; Yong-Chil Seo

    2011-01-01

    Since the disposal of sewage sludge in ocean has been prohibited recently according to London Dumping Convention, technological need for treating sewage sludge safely and efficiently are getting increased in Korea. FBC (Fluidized Bed Combustor) technology has been selected and utilized as one of the alternatives because of combustible content in sludge, on-going process development to maintain the best combustion

  10. A wastewater treatment problem: study of the numerical convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Vázquez, L. J.; Martínez, A.; Rodríguez, C.; Vázquez-Méndez, M. E.

    2002-03-01

    We deal with the numerical approximation of a problem related to the management of sewage disposal and the design of wastewater treatment systems. We use a characteristics finite element method for the discretization of the state system. The main difficulty is due to the existence of Radon measures in the right-hand side of the system. We give convergence results and we present numerical experiences for a realistic problem.

  11. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  12. National Sewage-Sludge Survey facility analytical results. Volume 1-4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS) is a questionnaire and analytical survey of Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) intended to produce national estimates of: (1) Concentrations of toxic contaminants in municipal sludge; (2) Sludge generation and treatment processes; (3) Sludge use and disposal practices and alternative use and disposal practices; and (4) Treatment and disposal costs. The survey will provide reliable, current data that can be used in the regulatory impact analysis (RIA) and aggregate risk analysis (ARA) to project impacts and benefits to support promulgation of the first round technical regulation for sewage sludge pollutants and use and disposal practices (40 CFR Part 503).

  13. REGULATION OF SLUDGE DISPOSAL THROUGH APPLICATION OF RISK ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk-based methodologies are developed to establish criteria for regulating contaminant concentrations in sewage sludge for various disposal options. he paper describes the methodology developed for landfilling. he methodology is structured into three tiers. he first tier compare...

  14. SPREADING LAGOONED SEWAGE SLUDGE ON FARMLAND: A CASE HISTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project demonstrated that land application is feasible and practical for a metropolitan treatment plant for disposal of a large volume (265,000 cu m) of stabilized, liquid sewage sludge stored in lagoons. The project involved transportation of sludge by semi-trailer tankers ...

  15. DIRECT THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE TO FUEL OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A disposal method for primary sewage sludge and industrial sludges which generates boiler fuel as a product and is energy self sufficient or energy-generating is described. The method involves direct liquefaction in a mild aqueous alkali above 250 degs. C and was demonstrated for...

  16. SEWAGE SLUDGE ENTRENCHMENT SYSTEM FOR USE BY SMALL MUNICIPALITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method of disposing of dewatered sewage sludge by entrenching it into soil was developed for small communities. Readily available and relatively inexpensive equipment was used. Included were a tractor equipped with a loader and backhoe, and dump truck or concrete mixer truck. A...

  17. Is There Sewage in My Sample?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson students investigate the relationship between sediment sampling and ocean pollution as they discover how scientists collect and study sediment on the bottom of the ocean. They will also find out if the sediment sampling methods used by scientists can be used to detect pollution. They will learn about the proximity of the Hudson Shelf Valley and the Hudson Canyon to the New York City metropolitan region, one of the most populated areas in the United States; and will learn that formerly two dumpsites in the Hudson Shelf Valley and Hudson Canyon were used to dispose of sewage sludge. Students will also learn how scientists collect and use core samples to study seafloor sediments and what are some of the impacts of dumping sewage in the ocean.

  18. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate. PMID:23777667

  19. Safeguards problems and possible solutions with deep underground disposal of used nuclear fuel and fuel recycle waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Smith; D. W. Jung

    1987-01-01

    The disposal of used, radioactive, nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel recycle waste, which is often more radioactive, has been one of the major undertakings of the nuclear industry in many countries. Technology must be developed and facilities must be built for safe long-term storage or disposal of this used fuel and fuel recycle waste. In Canada, the United States, Sweden,

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Sewage Sludge by Gamma Irradiation with Pasteurization as a Tool for Hygienization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyadarshini, J.; Roy, P. K.; Mazumdar, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this research work, management of sewage sludge disposal on agricultural soils is addressed. The increasing amount of sewage sludge and more legislative regulation of its disposal have stimulated the need for developing new technologies to recycle sewage sludge efficiently. The research was structured along two main avenues, namely, the efficacy of the irradiation process for removing enteric pathogenic microorganisms and the potential of irradiated sludge as a soil amendment. This study investigated how application of irradiation with heat treatment reduced pathogens in sewage sludge. Raw and pasteurised Sewage sludge was treated at different dose treatment of 1.5, 3 and 5 kilogray (kGy) gamma irradiation individually and for 3 kGy sufficiency was achieved. Decrease in irradiation dose from 5 to 3 kGy was observed for pasteurised sludge resulting in saving of radiation energy. The presence of heavy metals in untreated sewage sludge has raised concerns, which decreases after irradiation.

  1. Archaeology and public perception of a trans-scientific problem; disposal of toxic wastes in the unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winograd, Isaac Judah

    1986-01-01

    Predicting the effects of toxic-waste disposal on the environment over periods of millenia to hundreds of millenia is a transscientific problem; that is, one not fully addressed by quantitative scientific and engineering endeavors. Archaeology is a pertinent adjunct to such predictions in several ways. First, and foremost, archaeological records demonstrate that delicate, as well as durable, objects buried in thick unsaturated zones of arid and semiarid environments may survive intact for millenia to tens of millenia. This successful preservation of Late Paleolithic to Iron Age artifacts provides independent support for the tentative favorable conclusions of earth scientists regarding the general utility of thick unsaturated zones for toxic-waste isolation. By analogy with the archaeological record, solidified toxic wastes of low solubility that are buried in arid unsaturated zones should remain isolated from the environment indefinitely; modern man presumably should be able to improve upon the techniques used by his ancestors to isolate and preserve their sacred and utilitarian objects. Second, archaeological evidence pertinent to the fate of objects buried in unsaturated zones-although qualitative in nature and subject to the limitations of arguments by analogy-is meaningful to the public and to the courts who, with some scientists and engineers, are reluctant to rely exclusively on computer-generated predictions of the effects of buried toxic wastes on the environment. Third, the archaeological record issues a warning that our descendants may intrude into our waste disposal sites and that we must therefore take special measures to minimize such entry and, if it occurs, to warn of the dangers by a variety of symbols. And fourth, archaeology provides a record of durable natural and manmade materials that may prove to be suitable for encapsulation of our wastes and from which we can construct warning markers that will last for millenia. For these four reasons, archaeologists must join with earth scientists, and other scientists and engineers, in addressing the likely fate of solidfied toxic wastes buried in the thick (200-600 m) unsaturated zones of arid and semiarid regions. Indeed, the input of archaeology might be crucial to public acceptance of even the most carefully chosen and technically sound waste repository.

  2. Preparation of biochar from sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Aurora; María Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Biomass waste materials appropriate for biochar production include crop residues (both field residues and processing residues such as nut shells, fruit pits, bagasse, etc), as well as yard, food and forestry wastes, and animal manures. Biochar can and should be made from biomass waste materials and must not contain unacceptable levels of toxins such as heavy metals which can be found in sewage sludge and industrial or landfill waste. Making biochar from biomass waste materials should create no competition for land with any other land use option—such as food production or leaving the land in its pristine state. Large amounts of agricultural, municipal and forestry biomass are currently burned or left to decompose and release CO2 and methane back into the atmosphere. They also can pollute local ground and surface waters—a large issue for livestock wastes. Using these materials to make biochar not only removes them from a pollution cycle, but biochar can be obtained as a by-product of producing energy from this biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product from wastewater treatment plants, and contains significant amounts of heavy metals, organic toxins and pathogenic microorganisms, which are considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Agricultural use, land filling and incineration are commonly used as disposal methods. It was, however, reported that sewage sludge applications in agriculture gives rise to an accumulation of harmful components (heavy metals and organic compounds) in soil. For this reason, pyrolysis can be considered as a promising technique to treat the sewage sludge including the production of fuels. The objective of this work is to study the advantages of the biochar prepared from sewage sludge.

  3. Impact of Lead and Sewage Sludge on Soil Microbial Biomass and Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Dar

    1997-01-01

    Sewage sludge disposal on arable land is viewed as a method to reduce waste accumulation and to enrich soil fertility. However, such disposal can degrade soil ecosystems due to the presence of potentially harmful substances, such as heavy metals. Pb has assumed greater significance because currently its dispersal through anthropogenic activities has exceeded the inputs from natural sources by about

  4. National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS), data element dictionary for the ASCII format databases

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-16

    A data element dictionary including ASCII database file structures, variable naming conventions, and unique identifier variables is provided for the ASCII formats of the Questionnaire, Data Conventions, and Analytical Databases for the 1988 National Sewage Sludge Use and Disposal Survey (NSSS). Data collected in the questionnaire component of the survey are contained in the Questionnaire Database. Revised questionnaire data, including regulatory analytical use or disposal practices, followup information from the Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs), and imputed values for missing or improbable responses which could not be resolved, are recorded in the Data Conventions Database. Chemical concentrations from sewage sludge samples collected just prior to disposal are recorded in the Analytical Database.

  5. Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Houot, S.; Imhoff, M.; Valentin, N.; Gómez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.

    2009-04-01

    The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related to their high water content. One way to overcome these problems, in a cheap and clean way, is the drying of sludges using the energy of the sun under greenhouse conditions. This drying may affect sludge chemical characteristics including organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, parameters which have to be controlled for the proper management of dry sludge application onto soils. For this reason, the main aim of this work was to study the impact of greenhouse drying of different sewage sludges on their organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, assessed by biochemical fractionation and mineralization assays. Three sewage sludges were sampled before (dehydrated sludges) and after greenhouse drying (dried sludges). The analyses consisted of: humidity, organic matter, mineral and organic N contents, N and C mineralization during 91-day laboratory incubations in controlled conditions, and biochemical fractionation using the Van Soest procedure. Greenhouse drying decreased the water content from 70-80% to 10% and also the odours, both of which will improve the management of the final product from the perspective of application and transport. We also found that drying reduced the organic matter content of the sludges but not the biodegradability of the remaining carbon. Organic N mineralization occurred during greenhouse drying, explaining why mineral N content tended to increase and the potential mineralization of organic nitrogen decreased after greenhouse drying. The biochemical stability did not change so much except for the one of the sludges, which experienced an important reduction. According to the results, and from a point of view of future soil applications, the balance of the drying process could be considered as positive. It is using a free, renewable and clean energy, which reduces the water content and odours of sludge, thereby improving their management. Except for the water content, there was little modification of the behaviour in soil of greenhouse dried sludges compared to the dehydrated sludges, maintaining its large amount of available nitrogen after drying. Acknowledgements: Jose. M. Soriano-Disla gratefully acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Culture for a research fellowship (AP2005-0320).

  6. Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes the development of a project involving the application of approximately 265,000 cubic meters of lagooned sewage sludge from a metropolitan area on privately-owned farm land in an adjacent, rural county. The sludge application project was initiated to enable use of the land occupied by the lagoons for expansion of the sewage treatment plant. The procedures developed will be valuable to those proposing to practice land disposal of stabilized sludge as part of the Nation`s resource conservation program.

  7. Effects of aeration on gamma irradiation of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Libing; Wang, Jianlong; Wang, Bo

    2010-08-01

    In this paper the effect of aeration on gamma irradiation of sewage sludge was investigated to examine the potential solubilization of solids in sewage sludge to ultimately reduce the solids volume for disposal. Results showed that aeration increased the effectiveness of gamma radiation. The efficiency of sludge solubilization with aeration was increased by around 25% compared to that without aeration at an irradiation dose of 2.5-9 kGy. The soluble protein, polysaccharide and humic (like) substance concentrations were higher under aerated conditions. With aeration the overall reaction appears to be oxidative as evidenced by the higher nitrate and nitrite ion concentrations in solution.

  8. Amelioration of groundwater nitrate contamination following installation of a central sewage system in two Israeli villages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avisar, Dror; Kronfeld, Joel; Siep Talma, A.

    2009-08-01

    This study traces both the long-term deterioration of the ground water supply in two neighboring villages that had relied upon cesspits/cesspools for waste disposal, as well as the subsequent progressive improvement to original water quality levels. The rapid improvement is attributed to the replacement of the cesspits by a central sewage disposal network. In each of the villages of Kefar Bara and Kefar Kassem, a single, relatively deep, community well supplies drinking water. These wells were drilled into the underlying carbonate Judea Group aquifer that initially provided very high quality potable water. Over time, large increases in the nitrate contamination, reaching to as high as 67 mg/L nitrate, paralleled the population growth. The higher dissolved nitrate concentrations were also marked by enrichments in the ?15 N (approximately +8 ‰(air)) values above those of the surrounding and regional uncontaminated background ?15 N values (in the range of +3 to +6 ‰ (air)). Within several years after the cesspit disposal was terminated the nitrate values declined to concentrations that were reported (approximately 25 mg/L-NO3) decades prior, when the water quality monitoring had just commenced. This study demonstrates not only how water quality can degrade but also how it can be restored once the problem is identified and countered. This simple method of ameliorating a water quality problem that was tending towards reaching serious proportions would seem to be quite efficacious for any area lacking economic alternative water resources.

  9. Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

  10. TRANSPORT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project was initiated with the overall objective of developing organized information pertaining to the costs of various sewage sludge transport systems. Transport of liquid and dewatered sludge by truck and rail and liquid sludge by barge and pipeline is included. The report...

  11. The amount of heat resources and available heat of treated sewage

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, M.K.; Cho, C.G.; Pang, S.K.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to understand the amount of regional heat resources from treated sewage, and present the heat resources data available to develop a heat recovery system. In this study, the amount of treated sewage in disposal plants are investigated on a nationwide scale in seven large cities and nine provinces in Korea. As the result of this study, the amount of treated sewage was determined to be 3,223,572,000 ton/year on a nationwide scale, and the quantity of it amounted to 73.6% in large cities including Seoul. The location of sewage disposal plants and the amount of heat resources were visualized on the map using a GIS database of them on personal computer. The amount of available heat resources turned out to be enormous, a capacity equivalent to 45 Mcal/month in the case of Taejon city.

  12. Sewage treatment costs and economics. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the costs and economics for developing technologies and the systems for sewage treatment, sludge disposal, and sewer lines. Most of the studies cover the overall construction and operating costs of sewage treatment plants. Other studies cover rate structures, financing, user charges, and benefits of regionalized plants.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. 26 CFR 1.142(a)(6)-1 - Exempt facility bonds: solid waste disposal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...into a qualified solid waste disposal process described in paragraph...constitutes an input to a final disposal process or residual material...dissolved material in domestic sewage or other significant pollutant...constitutes an input to a final disposal process and/or an...

  14. 36 CFR 6.5 - Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...continued use of a solid waste disposal site only if the operator has...for the storage, handling or disposal of a solid waste containing...septic system waste or domestic sewage; (vii) Petroleum, including...operator of the solid waste disposal site must cease...

  15. 36 CFR 6.5 - Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...continued use of a solid waste disposal site only if the operator has...for the storage, handling or disposal of a solid waste containing...septic system waste or domestic sewage; (vii) Petroleum, including...operator of the solid waste disposal site must cease...

  16. 36 CFR 6.5 - Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...continued use of a solid waste disposal site only if the operator has...for the storage, handling or disposal of a solid waste containing...septic system waste or domestic sewage; (vii) Petroleum, including...operator of the solid waste disposal site must cease...

  17. 36 CFR 6.5 - Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...continued use of a solid waste disposal site only if the operator has...for the storage, handling or disposal of a solid waste containing...septic system waste or domestic sewage; (vii) Petroleum, including...operator of the solid waste disposal site must cease...

  18. Rheological measurements on different types of sewage sludge for pumping design.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Vincenzo; Lotito, Adriana Maria

    2014-05-01

    Sewage sludge pumping could represent an optimal solution to assure adequate treatment of sludge in centralized plants, with a consequent reduction of the environmental impact of sludge disposal (volume, odour, putrescence), because small wastewater treatment plants usually do not provide an adequate treatment due to high costs. An accurate knowledge of rheological parameters is required to compute head loss for pipeline design, but only few data are available. In order to circumvent the problem of the scarcity of sludge rheological data, we have performed tests on different types of sludge, with solids concentration and temperature in the typical range of a conventional wastewater treatment plant. Bingham rheological parameters and sludge thixotropy values have been processed by regression analysis to identify their dependence on solids concentration or temperature. The results of this study allow the definition of guidelines and optimal strategies for designers in order to reduce pumping costs. PMID:24681323

  19. Predicting Water Quality Problems Associated with Coal Fly Ash Disposal Facilities Using a Trace Element Partitioning Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bhattacharyya; R. J. Donahoe; E. Y. Graham

    2006-01-01

    For much of the U.S., coal-fired power plants are the most important source of electricity for domestic and industrial use. Large quantities of fly ash and other coal combustion by-products are produced every year, the majority of which is impounded in lagoons and landfills located throughout the country. Many older fly ash disposal facilities are unlined and have been closed

  20. Sewage sludge treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  1. Environmental and economic assessment of sewage sludge handling options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Lundin; M Olofsson; G. J Pettersson; H Zetterlund

    2004-01-01

    The environmental and economic consequences of four recycling and disposal options for municipal sewage sludge have been assessed. The four options were: agricultural application, co-incineration with waste, incineration combined with phosphorus recovery (Bio-Con) and fractionation including phosphorus recovery (Cambi-KREPRO). Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to assess the environmental consequences, while effects in the district heating system were analysed using

  2. Disposal methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Alan

    1991-01-01

    A number of disposal options for space nuclear reactors and the associated risks, mostly in the long term, based on probabilities of Earth reentry are discussed. The results are based on a five year study that was conducted between 1978 and 1983 on the space disposal of high level nuclear waste. The study provided assessment of disposal options, stability of disposal or storage orbits, and assessment of the long term risks of Earth reentry of the nuclear waste.

  3. Effect of liming on the distribution of heavy metals in untreated industrial sewage sludge produced in Pakistan for the cultivation of Sorghum bicolor (L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Khan Jamali; Tasneem Gul Kazi; Mohammad Bilal Arain; Hassan Imran Afridi; Nusrat Jalbani; Jameel A. Baig; Abdul Niaz

    2008-01-01

    The recycling of sewage sludge on agriculture land represents an alternative, advantageous, disposal of this waste material.\\u000a The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using industrial sewage sludge, produced in Pakistan, as a\\u000a fertiliser. Agricultural soil amended with 25% (w\\/w) sewage sludge with or without lime treatment was used for growing a variety\\u000a of sorghum

  4. Monitoring of Cd pollution in soils and plants irrigated with untreated sewage water in some industrialized cities of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Sikka, R; Nayyar, V; Sidhu, S S

    2009-07-01

    The disposal of industrial and sewage water is a problem of increasing importance throughout the world. In India, and most of the developing countries untreated sewage and industrial wastes are discharged on land or into the running water streams which is used for irrigating crops. These wastes often contain high amount of trace elements which may accumulate in soils in excessive quantities on long term use and enter the food chain through absorption by the plants. Among the trace metals, Cd has received the greater attention because of its easy absorption and accumulation in plants and animals to levels toxic for their health. The objective of this study conducted in three industrially different cities viz., Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla was to monitor the extent of Cd accumulation in soils and plants receiving untreated sewage water. Plant and soil samples were collected from sewage and tubewell irrigated areas. Soil samples were analysed for texture, pH, EC, organic carbon (OC), CaCO(3), bioavailable DTPA-Cd and plant samples were analysed for total Cd. In sewage irrigated soils, the mean values of pH were lower but organic carbon and electrical conductivity were generally higher both in surface and sub-surface layers of all the three cities as compared to tubewell irrigated soils. The mean DTPA- extractable Cd in sewage irrigated soil was 6.3- and 4.36-fold in Ludhiana, 3.38- and 1.71-fold in Jalandhar and 3.35- and 6.67-fold in Malerkotla in 0-15 and 15-30 cm soil depth, respectively, compared with the values in tubewell irrigated soils. The accumulation of DTPA-Cd in sewage irrigated soils was restricted to 30 cm depth after which the values were generally close to values in tubewell irrigated soils. Soil pH, OC, CaCO(3), clay and silt collectively accounted for 37.1%, 65.1% and 53.9% DTPA-extractable bioavailable Cd in soils of Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla, respectively. Lower R(2) values in Ludhiana suggest that factors other than the ones mentioned may be affecting Cd availability. At all sites plants receiving sewage irrigation had elevated levels of Cd as compared to the plants receiving tubewell irrigation. The mean Cd content of sewage irrigated plants irrespective of the city was 5.96 microg g(-1) dry matter as compared to 0.98 microg g(-1) dry matter in tubewell irrigated plants. The results suggest that the intake of Cd obtained from consumption of crops grown on sewage irrigated soils would be much higher than the tolerable limits set by WHO and may, therefore, prove potentially toxic leading to various health ailments to humans and animals. PMID:18612834

  5. Basic Study of Concrete Made Using Ash Derived from the Incinerating Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaoka, Nobutaka; Yokoi, Katsunori; Yamanaka, Takashi

    Sewage sludge incinerated ash is discharged as waste. Those are increasing with progress of a sewage enterprise every year. However, the reservation of the last disposal place for reclaiming the generated incineration ash is becoming quickly difficult. In this situation of sewage sludge processing, it is very important to promote more reducing and development of new reusing method. Recently, in the construction industry, reusing technology that was used sewage sludge incinerated ash as aggregate for concrete products is developed. But there are many unknown points in the performance and durability of concrete. In this study, sewage sludge incinerated ash is used instead of natural aggregate for concrete. It is investigated about fresh characteristics, chloride content, strength, resistance to frost damage and drying shrinkage of concrete using sewage sludge incinerated ash. As the results of this research, the compressive strength increases with ratio of sewage sludge incinerated ash. And the relationship between the compressive strength and the dynamic modulus of elasticity can be comparatively expressed as the linear relationship. If this concrete includes proper air content, the resistance to frost damage is enough. The drying shrinkage is become larger with increase of substitute rate of sewage sludge incinerated ash.

  6. Effects of Adding Sewage Sludge and Urea-Phosphate Fertilizers to the Great Sippewissett Salt Marsh, Falmouth, MA on Heavy Metals and Microbial N-Cycling

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Effects of Adding Sewage Sludge and Urea-Phosphate Fertilizers to the Great Sippewissett Salt Marsh, microbes, nitrogen cycle, sewage sludge, urea phosphate fertilizer, heavy metals INTRODUCTION Pollution of nitrogen gas in the atmosphere. Salt marshes have been used as disposal sites because they act as filters

  7. Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jianhong

    Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220sp°C) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This shows the fundamental importance of rapid processing. Rapid thermal conditioning may be incorporated into a wastewater treatment plant where biological treatment is used. For purposes of a concrete example, flow-sheets for the incorporation of the RTC process into the New York City Wards Island WPCP were prepared, and experimental data from the laboratory scale RTC test facility were used to set design parameters. A design incorporating nitrogen removal into the RTC flow sheet was also examined. ASPEN software was used to design the proposed processes and perform economic analyses. Cost estimates for these alternatives show a substantial advantage to implement RTC in comparison to present plant operation. About one third of the current sludge processing cost can be saved by incorporation of RTC into the Wards Island Plant. With nitrogen removal, the economics are even more attractive.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY: CONTROL OF PATHOGENS AND VECTOR ATTRACTION IN SEWAGE SLUDGE (INCLUDING DOMESTIC SEWAGE) UNDER 40 CFR PART 503

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes the federal requirements concerning pathogens in sewage sludge applied to land or placed on a surface disposal site, and it provides guidance concerning those requirements. The document is intended for: (1) Owners and operators of treatment works treati...

  9. Sewage contamination of a densely populated coral 'atoll' (Bermuda).

    PubMed

    Jones, Ross; Parsons, Rachel; Watkinson, Elaine; Kendell, David

    2011-08-01

    Bermuda is a densely populated coral 'atoll' located on a seamount in the mid-Atlantic (Sargasso Sea). There is no national sewerage system and the ?20 × 10(6) L of sewage generated daily is disposed of via marine outfalls, cess pits/septic tanks underneath houses and through waste disposal (injection) wells. Gastrointestinal (GI) enterococci concentrations were measured in surface seawater samples collected monthly at multiple locations across the island over a 5-year period. According to the EU Bathing Water Directive microbial classification categories, 18 of the sites were in the 'excellent' category, four sites in the 'good', five sites were in the 'sufficient' and three sites in the 'poor' categories. One of the sites in the 'poor' category is beside a popular swimming beach. Between 20-30% of 58 sub tidal sediment samples collected from creeks, coves, bays, harbours and marinas in the Great Sound complex on the western side of Bermuda tested positive for the presence of the human specific bacterial biomarker Bacteroides (using culture-independent PCR-based methods) and for the faecal biomarker coprostanol (5?-cholestan-3-?-ol, which ranged in concentration from <0.05-0.77 mg kg(?-?1). There was a significant statistical correlation between these two independent techniques for faecal contamination identification. Overall the microbial water quality and sedimentary biomarker surveys suggest sewage contamination in Bermuda was quite low compared with other published studies; nevertheless, several sewage contamination hotpots exist, and these could be attributed to discharge of raw sewage from house boats, from nearby sewage outfalls and leakage from septic tanks/cess pits. PMID:20978839

  10. Sewage treatment works odour measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Gostelow; S. A. Parsons

    Public concern over odours from sewage treatment works is increasing. More people are being exposed to odours, due to development around existing works or the construction of new works. Raised awareness of both the environment and individual rights has meant people are now more likely to complain. Odour abatement and control is a major issue for sewage works operators. To

  11. Sewage treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alex G. (4407 Laurel Dr., West Richland, WA 99352)

    1995-01-01

    The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating the solids from the liquid and producing an aqueous stream containing a high concentration of ammonia. The third step is removal of ammonia from the aqueous stream using a hydrothermal process.

  12. In-line Pretreatment of Sewage Through a New Green and Economical Technique: the DRAUSY Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grace F. Tjandraatmadja; L. Stewart Burn; CSIRO BCE

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The quality of sewage has a large impact on the operation of treatment plants. In general most sewage pipelines tend to develop anaerobic conditions at some stage. These are associated with a large number of problems. They favour the growth of filamentous bacteria, which easily clog filters in treatment plants. It is also conducive to hydrogen sulfide (H2S)

  13. Perception of technical personnel on research and education needs for land application of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Kelley; T. W. Simpson; R. B. Reneau; G. D. McCart; D. C. Martens

    1984-01-01

    A questionnaire was developed and sent to individuals involved in waste management to get their perspective on problem areas associated with land application of sewage sludge that need additional research. From their responses, a list of research priorities was formulated to give direction to future research in land application of sewage sludge. All the questions received a mean response that

  14. Complete survey of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Grabner, Angela; Adam, Christian

    2014-10-21

    The amount of sewage sludge produced worldwide is expected to further increase due to rising efforts in wastewater treatment. There is a growing concern against its direct use as fertilizer due to contamination of the sludge with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Incinerating the sludge degrades organic compounds almost completely and concentrates heavy metals and phosphorus. However, the sewage sludge ash (SSA) is almost completely disposed of and with it all resources are removed from the economic cycle. Comprehensive knowledge of the composition of SSA is crucial to assess the resource recovery potentials. We conducted a survey of all SSA emerging in Germany and determined the respective mass fractions of 57 elements over a period of one year. The median content of phosphorus was 7.9%, indicating an important recovery potential. Important trace elements were Zn (2.5 g/kg), Mn (1.3 g/kg), and Cu (0.9 g/kg). Mass fractions of technology metals such as V, Cr, Ga, Nb, and rare earths were comparatively low. Considering the possible use of SSA as secondary raw material for fertilizer production it should be noted that its Cd and U content (2.7 mg/kg and 4.9 mg/kg respectively) is significantly lower than that of rock phosphate based mineral fertilizers. PMID:25265150

  15. Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, M.K.

    1996-08-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility.

  16. Predicting Water Quality Problems Associated with Coal Fly Ash Disposal Facilities Using a Trace Element Partitioning Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Donahoe, R. J.; Graham, E. Y.

    2006-12-01

    For much of the U.S., coal-fired power plants are the most important source of electricity for domestic and industrial use. Large quantities of fly ash and other coal combustion by-products are produced every year, the majority of which is impounded in lagoons and landfills located throughout the country. Many older fly ash disposal facilities are unlined and have been closed for decades. Fly ash often contains high concentrations of toxic trace elements such as arsenic, boron, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, lead, strontium and vanadium. Trace elements present in coal fly ash are of potential concern due to their toxicity, high mobility in the environment and low drinking water MCL values. Concern about the potential release of these toxic elements into the environment due to leaching of fly ash by acid rain, groundwater or acid mine drainage has prompted the EPA to develop national standards under the subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to regulate ash disposal in landfills and surface impoundments. An attempt is made to predict the leaching of toxic elements into the environment by studying trace element partitioning in coal fly ash. A seven step sequential chemical extraction procedure (SCEP) modified from Filgueiras et al. (2002) is used to determine the trace element partitioning in seven coal fly ash samples collected directly from electric power plants. Five fly ash samples were derived from Eastern Bituminous coal, one derived from Western Sub-bituminous coal and the other derived from Northern Lignite. The sequential chemical extraction procedure gives valuable information on the association of trace elements: 1) soluble fraction, 2) exchangeable fraction, 3) acid soluble fraction, 4) easily reducible fraction, 5) moderately reducible fraction, 6) poorly reducible fraction and 7) oxidizable organics/sulfide fraction. The trace element partitioning varies with the composition of coal fly ash which is influenced by the type of coal burned. Preliminary studies show that in some fly ash samples, significant amounts of As, B, Mo, Se, Sr and V are associated with the soluble and exchangeable fraction, and thus would be highly mobile in the environment. Lead, on the other hand, is mainly associated with the amorphous Fe and Mn oxide fractions and would be highly immobile in oxidizing conditions, but mobile in reducing conditions. Ni and Cr show different associations in different fly ash samples. In most fly ash samples, significant amounts of the trace elements are associated with more stable fractions that do not threaten the environment. The study of trace element partitioning in coal fly ash thus helps us to predict their leaching behavior under various conditions.

  17. Over a third of Indianas population lives in residences having private waste disposal systems. In many cases,

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    how the common home sewage disposal system works and how to keep it working. It also containsOver a third of Indianas population lives in residences having private waste disposal systems homeowners have little understanding of, or interest in, the operation of their waste disposal systems until

  18. Integrated drying and incineration of wet sewage sludge in combined bubbling and circulating fluidized bed units.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiyuan; Li, Yunyu; Lu, Qinggang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yao, Yao; Bao, Shaolin

    2014-12-01

    An original integrated drying and incineration technique is proposed to dispose of sewage sludge with moisture content of about 80% in a circulating fluidized bed. This system combines a bubbling fluidized bed dryer with a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. After drying, sewage sludge with moisture less than 20% is transported directly and continuously from the fluidized bed dryer into a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. Pilot plant results showed that integrated drying and incineration is feasible in a unique single system. A 100 t/d Sewage Sludge Incineration Demonstration Project was constructed at the Qige sewage treatment plant in Hangzhou City in China. The operational performance showed that the main operation results conformed to the design values, from which it can be concluded that the scale-up of this technique is deemed both feasible and successful. PMID:25263217

  19. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge management: a review.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Christensen, Thomas H; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-11-01

    In this article, 35 published studies on life cycle assessment (LCA) of sewage sludge were reviewed for their methodological and technological assumptions. Overall, LCA has been providing a flexible framework to quantify environmental impacts of wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and disposal processes for multiple scales, ranging from process selection to policy evaluation. The results of LCA are, in principle, unique to the goal and scope of each study, reflecting its local conditions and comparison between different LCAs is not intended. Furthermore, the assessments are limited by the methodological development of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) and the advancement of research in quantifying environmental emissions associated with wastewater and sewage sludge treatment processes. Thus, large discrepancies were found in the selection of the environmental emissions to be included and how they were estimated in the analysis. In order to reduce these choice uncertainties, consolidation of the modelling approach in the following area are recommended: quantification of fugitive gas emissions and modelling of disposal practices. Besides harmonization of the key technical assumptions, clear documentation of the modelling approach and the uncertainties associating with each assumption is encouraged so as to improve the integrity and robustness of assessment. PMID:24061046

  20. DISPERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE DISCHARGED INTO NEW YORK BIGHT. PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA AND LABORATORY ANALYSES - 1975

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume contains data on the dispersion of sewage sludge subsequent to its disposal at a site near the apex of the New York Bight. Cruises were made in May, July, and October, 1975. An optical tracer method was used to measure the water column distribution of waste material f...

  1. DISPERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE DISCHARGED INTO NEW YORK BIGHT. PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA - DECEMBER 1974

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume contains physical oceanographic data collected at the sewage sludge disposal site near the apex of the New York Bight December 18 through 21, 1974. An optical tracer method was used to measure the water column distribution of waste material with time after discharge. ...

  2. Aeration of anaerobically digested sewage sludge for COD and nitrogen removal: optimization at large-scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Parravicini; K. Svardal; R. Hornek; H. Kroiss

    2008-01-01

    The paper will report about the experiences matured at an Austrian large wastewater treatment plant of 720.000 population equivalents, where anaerobically digested sewage sludge is further stabilised under aerobic conditions. Enhanced stabilisation of the anaerobically digested sludge was required at the plant in order to get a permit for landfill disposal of the dewatered stabilized sludge. By implementing a post-aeration

  3. USE OF FLY ASH AND MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE: CHALLENGES, OPPORTUNITIES, AND FUTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilization of coal combustion by-products (CCBP) and municipal by-products, mainly sewage sludge (SS), as agricultural soil amendments is of considerable importance not only as an avenue to dispose these materials but also to explore the potential advantages as source of some plant nutrients and to...

  4. BENTHIC DISTRIBUTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE INDICATED BY CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRIGENS AT A DEEP-OCEAN DUMP SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clostridium perfrigens in sediment samples collected at the Deep Water Municipal Sewage Sludge Disposal Site (also called the 106-Mile Site), off the coast of New Jersey, was enumerated. he counts of C. perfrigens found in sediment samples collected within and to the southwest of...

  5. INVESTIGATION OF ALLEGED HEALTH INCIDENTS ASSOCIATED WITH LAND APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELLEN Z. HARRISON; SUMMER RAYNE OAKES

    2002-01-01

    The majority of U.S. sewage sludges are disposed by application to land for use as a soil amendment. Class B sludges, containing a complex mix of chemical and biological contaminants, comprise the majority. Residents near land application sites report illness. Symptoms of more than 328 people involved in 39 incidents in 15 states are described. Investigation and tracking of the

  6. Trace metal concentration in durum wheat from application of sewage sludge and commercial fertilizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather L Frost; Lloyd H Ketchum

    2000-01-01

    Repetitive application of commercial fertilizer continually introduces potentially toxic trace metals to the soil. Such metallic elements are not biodegradable, accumulate in the soil, and are subsequently taken up by food crops. Sewage sludge, often disposed of in landfills, contains high nutrient and organic contents and is now being recycled and beneficially applied to agricultural land worldwide in increasing amounts.

  7. Program for Monitoring Municipal Sewage Dump Site in the New York Bight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Levine

    1986-01-01

    This program is performed by the New York City Department of Environmental Protection in accordance with Special Condition Number 6 (monitoring) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Interim Ocean Dumping Permit regulating the transporting and disposing of municipal sewage sludge into ocean waters. The program is designed to monitor the marine environment at and adjacent to the designated dump site

  8. Faecal contamination of watercourses from farm waste disposal for three sites in the UK with contrasting soil

    E-print Network

    Owens, Philip

    Faecal contamination of watercourses from farm waste disposal for three sites in the UK), primarily due to investment in secondary sewage treatment works. In 2003, 98.8% of UK bathing waters sewage treatment has been made (Wyer et al. 1996; Kay et al. 1999). Also, the proportion of compliant

  9. Radioactive waste disposal and geology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. B. Krauskopf

    1988-01-01

    This book is an excellent, well-presented treatise on the nature and types of radioactive wastes, disposal alternatives and strategies, radionuclide release and disposal models, geologic repositories, natural analogues, subsea-bed options, and low-level wastes. The authors provide national and international perspectives on radioactive waste disposal problems. They carefully dissected each issue, treating its pros and cons equally. Moreover, they is careful

  10. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section...RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within...

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF ACCEPTABLE SYSTEMS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective was to demonstrate sludge application systems for farmland that would minimize any adverse effects on the environment and public health, achieve both urban and rural acceptance, and be generally beneficial for producer and receptor of the sludge. A comprehensive hea...

  12. Disposable diapers: safe and effective.

    PubMed

    Singh, Namita; Purthi, P K; Sachdev, Anupam; Gupta, Suresh

    2003-09-01

    Nappy rash is a common problem in infants due to their thinner skin, wetness, heat and friction under cloth nappy, fecal enzymes and alkaline urine. The disposable diapers containing Super Absorbent Material (SAM) reduce the incidence of nappy rash. SAM quickly absorbs urine and keeps the skin dry. Also disposable diapers prevent fecal contamination by absorbing the urine and containing stools. PMID:14620187

  13. ASSESSING GHG EMISSIONS FROM SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL ROUTES THE METHOD BEHIND GESTABOUES TOOL

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ASSESSING GHG EMISSIONS FROM SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL ROUTES ­ THE METHOD BEHIND GESTABOUES TOOL Pradel M., Reverdy, A.L. ORBIT2012 1 Assessing GHG emissions from sludge treatment and disposal.pradel@irstea.fr EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In 2007, 1 100 000 tons of sewage sludge were produced in France. This figure

  14. MONITORING AND MODELING NEARSHORE DREDGE DISPOSAL FOR INDIRECT BEACH NOURISHMENT, OCEAN BEACH, SAN

    E-print Network

    MONITORING AND MODELING NEARSHORE DREDGE DISPOSAL FOR INDIRECT BEACH NOURISHMENT, OCEAN BEACH, SAN disposal was performed during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA, a high energy tidal attack during the winter months has had a severe impact on existing sewage infrastructure. Although

  15. Chemical Disposal for a High School Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mento, Mary Ann

    1973-01-01

    A method of disposal is suggested that is superior to the dilution method. The proceudres are based on the conversion of the wastes to less toxic or harmless forms or neutralization, so that they won't be a shock to the sewage system, and then excess dilution. (Author/DF)

  16. County develops beneficial use program for sludge disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.W. (Camden County Municipal Utilities Authority, Camden, NJ (United States)); Jepson, C.B. (BCM Engineers, Plymouth Meeting, PA (United States))

    1993-08-01

    This article describes a program of sewage sludge disposal that is beneficial and deals with contract services necessary for the hauling and marketing of sludge products. The topics of the article include dealing with insurance, obtaining the best price, quality of sludge, beneficial uses of sludge, and future plans for new methods of beneficial use.

  17. Sewage sludge to landfill: some pertinent engineering properties.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, Brendan C

    2005-06-01

    More stringent controls on the quality of wastewater discharges have given rise to increasing volumes of sewage sludge for disposal, principally to land, using either land-spreading or sludge-to-landfill operations. Current sludge-to-landfill methods generally involve mixing the concentrated sludge with other solid waste in municipal landfills. However, stricter waste disposal legislation and higher landfill taxes are forcing the water industry to look for more efficient disposal strategies. Landfill operators are also increasingly reluctant to accept sludge material in the slurry state because of construction difficulties and the potential for instability of the landfill slopes. The engineering and drying properties of a municipal sewage sludge are presented and applied, in particular, to the design, construction, and performance of sewage sludge monofills. Sludge handling and landfill construction are most effectively conducted within the water content range of 85% water content, the optimum water content for standard proctor compaction, and 95% water content, the sticky limit of the sludge material. Standard proctor compaction of the sludge within this water content range also achieves the maximum dry density of approximately 0.56 tonne/m3, which maximizes the storage capacity and, hence, the operational life of the landfill site. Undrained shear strength-water content data (pertinent to the stability of the landfill body during construction) and effective stress-strength parameters, which take into account the landfill age and the effects of ongoing sludge digestion, are presented. Landfill subsidence, which occurs principally because of creep and decomposition of the solid organic particles, is significant and continues indefinitely but at progressively slower rates. PMID:16022414

  18. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel into the applicable waters of...

  19. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel into the applicable waters of...

  20. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel into the applicable waters of...

  1. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel into the applicable waters of...

  2. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel into the applicable waters of...

  3. Soil microbial functional and fungal diversity as influenced by municipal sewage sludge accumulation.

    PubMed

    Fr?c, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Nwaichi, Eucharia Oluchi

    2014-09-01

    Safe disposal of municipal sewage sludge is a challenging global environmental concern. The aim of this study was to assess the response of soil microbial functional diversity to the accumulation of municipal sewage sludge during landfill storage. Soil samples of a municipal sewage sludge (SS) and from a sewage sludge landfill that was 3 m from a SS landfill (SS3) were analyzed relative to an undisturbed reference soil. Biolog EcoPlatesTM were inoculated with a soil suspension, and the Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon-Weaver index (H) were calculated to interpret the results. The fungi isolated from the sewage sludge were identified using comparative rDNA sequencing of the LSU D2 region. The MicroSEQ® ID software was used to assess the raw sequence files, perform sequence matching to the MicroSEQ® ID-validated reference database and create Neighbor-Joining trees. Moreover, the genera of fungi isolated from the soil were identified using microscopic methods. Municipal sewage sludge can serve as a habitat for plant pathogens and as a source of pathogen strains for biotechnological applications. PMID:25170681

  4. Soil Microbial Functional and Fungal Diversity as Influenced by Municipal Sewage Sludge Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Fr?c, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Nwaichi, Eucharia Oluchi

    2014-01-01

    Safe disposal of municipal sewage sludge is a challenging global environmental concern. The aim of this study was to assess the response of soil microbial functional diversity to the accumulation of municipal sewage sludge during landfill storage. Soil samples of a municipal sewage sludge (SS) and from a sewage sludge landfill that was 3 m from a SS landfill (SS3) were analyzed relative to an undisturbed reference soil. Biolog EcoPlatesTM were inoculated with a soil suspension, and the Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon-Weaver index (H) were calculated to interpret the results. The fungi isolated from the sewage sludge were identified using comparative rDNA sequencing of the LSU D2 region. The MicroSEQ® ID software was used to assess the raw sequence files, perform sequence matching to the MicroSEQ® ID-validated reference database and create Neighbor-Joining trees. Moreover, the genera of fungi isolated from the soil were identified using microscopic methods. Municipal sewage sludge can serve as a habitat for plant pathogens and as a source of pathogen strains for biotechnological applications. PMID:25170681

  5. Agronomic value of sewage sludge and corn cob biochar in an infertile Oxisol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deenik, J. L.; Cooney, M. J.; Antal, M. J., Jr.

    2013-12-01

    Disposal of sewage sludge and other agricultural waste materials has become increasingly difficult in urban environments with limited land space. Carbonization of the hazardous waste produces biochar as a soil amendment with potential to improve soil quality and productivity. A series of greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to assess the agrnomic value of two biochars made from domestic wastewater sludge and corn cob waste. The ash component of the sewage sludge biochar was very high (65.5%) and high for the corn cob (11.4%) biochars. Both biochars contained low concentrations of heavy metals and met EPA land application criteria. The sewage sludge biochar was a better liming material and source of mineral nutrients than the corn cob biochar, but the corn cob biochar showed the greatest increase in soil carbon and total nitrogen. Both biochar materials increased soil pH compared with soils not receiving biochar, but the sewage sludge biochar was a more effective liming material maintaining elevated soil pH throughout the 3 planting cycles. The sewage sludge biochar also showed the greatest increase in extractable soil P and base cations. In the first planting cycle, both biochars in combination with conventional fertilizers produced significantly higher corn seedling growth than the fertilized control. However, the sewage sludge biochar maintained beneficial effects corn seedling growth through the third planting cycle showing 3-fold increases in biomass production compared with the control in the third planting. The high ash content and associated liming properties and mineral nutrient contributions in the sewage sludge biochar explain benefits to plant growth. Conversion of sewage sludge waste into biochar has the potential to effectively address several environmental issues: 1) convert a hazardous waste into a valuable soil amendment, 2) reduce land and water contamination, and 3) improve soil quality and productivity.

  6. Disposal rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  7. Disposable rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Trammell, David R. (Rigby, ID)

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND SEWAGE SLUDGE-SOIL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to characterize the chemical properties of municipal sewage sludges, to evaluate the fate of sludge components in soils, and to determine the distribution of trace metals in milling fractions of grains grown on sludge-treated soils....

  9. UNITED STATES PRACTICE IN SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sludge treatment and disposal problems and costs grow with increased concern about the quality of wastewater treatment. As standards for effluent quality in the United States have become stricter, the problems of sludge treatment and disposal have grown disproportionately. Today ...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF STEELMAKING FURNACE DUST DISPOSAL METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to examine the nature of steelmaking furnace residues and disposal techniques, and to assess potential problems associated with residue disposal, a potential multimedia environmental problem. Solubilization tests of 18 furnace residue samples s...

  11. Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1977-01-01

    The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Ecological risks associated with the application of sewage sludge to non-agricultural ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, R.A.; Sample, B.E.; Luxmoore, R.J.; Tharp, M.L.; Barnthouse, L.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Daniel, F.B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Clean Water Act of 1977 directed EPA to establish standards for use and disposal of sewage sludge (biosolids). The application of biosolids to non-agricultural lands is becoming increasingly important as a method of waste disposal. Ecological endpoints at the population, community, and/or ecosystem level have not previously been emphasized in the development of regulatory standards for municipal sewage sludge. This risk assessment focuses on terrestrial endpoints in four ecosystem types to which substantial quantities of sludge have been applied or are expected to be applied in the future: northwest Douglas-fir forest, southeastern loblolly pine plantation, eastern deciduous forest, and semi-arid rangeland. Conceptual models suitable for all ecosystems were developed that depict the links among assessment endpoints. Estimates of risks to wildlife from contaminants and simulations of impacts of nitrogen in sewage sludge on the structure and function of forest communities are presented in detail elsewhere at this conference. This project overview integrates these two assessment components and adds contaminant risks to plants, soil invertebrates, and microbial processes and risk of leaching and erosion altered by biosolids application. Management practices and empirical measures of bioavailability are considered for each ecosystem. Concentrations of constitutents of sewage sludge used for the analyses have been obtained from the 1988 USEPA National Sewage Sludge Survey. Existing regulatory standards that are primarily human health-based are also evaluated for the adequacy of protection of ecological systems and populations. Predicted impacts of sewage sludge applications are presented, even if they may be regarded as benefits rather than risks.

  13. REPORT OF PYROLYSIS OF SEWAGE SLUDGES IN THE NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY METROPOLITAN AREA (PHASE I)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this work was to reduce the volume of municipal wastewater (sewage) sludge in a multiple-hearth furnance via starved air combustion (pyrolysis) to determine how it compared with incineration as an environmentally acceptable method of sludge disposal. Sludge was fir...

  14. Distribution, movement and plant availability of trace metals in soils amended with sewage sludge composts: application to low metal loadings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Planquart; G. Bonin; A. Prone; C. Massiani

    1999-01-01

    Three soils, representative of various physico–chemical properties, an acid soil from a granitic arena with a sandy texture, a calcareous soil with a sandy silty texture and a clayey and silty one, were used in a lysimetric experiment to evaluate the ecotoxicological risks associated with the disposal of sewage sludge composts (SSC) containing trace metal contents below the recommended limit

  15. Benthic distribution of sewage sludge indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-ocean dump site

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.T.; Anikis, M.S.; Colwell, R.R. (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (United States)); Knight, I.T. (James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Since 1986, sewage sludge from New York and northern New Jersey has been dumped 196 km off the coast of New Jersey at the Deep Water Municipal Sewage Sludge Disposal Site. This study determines the distribution of sludge contamination of the benthic environment in the area, by using Clostridium perfringens as an indicator. The counts of C. perfringens confirm a previous report that sewage sludge is reaching the ocean floor at the disposal site as a result of the sludge dumping. C. perfringes counts within the dump site and to the south and west of the dump site are considerably elevated compared to counts east of the site. The distribution pattern of C. perfringes is broadly consistent with the estimates of the sea floor area impacted in the most recent computer model. However, the area of maximum desposition of sludge may be slightly further north than predicted. Use of C. perfringens has proven to be an efficient and reliable method for tracing sewage contamination of deep ocean sediments. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Disposable diapers: Safe and effective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Namita Singh; P. K. Purthi; Anupam Sachdev; Suresh Gupta

    2003-01-01

    Nappy rash is a common problem in infants due to their thinner skin, wetness, heat and friction under cloth nappy, fecal enzymes\\u000a and alkaline urine. The disposable diapers containing Super Absorbent Material (SAM) reduce the incidence of nappy rash. SAM\\u000a quickly absorbs urine and keeps the skin dry. Also disposable diapers prevent fecal contamination by absorbing the urine and\\u000a containing

  17. Assessment of groundwater pollution in Tokyo using PPCPs as sewage markers.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Murakami, Michio; Oguma, Kumiko; Muramatsu, Yuki; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2012-02-01

    While the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in groundwater has typically been reported in bank filtration sites, irrigated fields, septic tanks, and sewage disposal practices, fewer studies have been conducted in highly urbanized areas, where infiltration of treated or untreated sewage is not supposed to be a source of groundwater recharge. Furthermore, little is known about the occurrence of various kinds of PPCPs in relation to microbial indicators in groundwater from different types of aquifers. Thus, we examined the city-wide occurrence of selected PPCPs (diethyltoluamide, crotamiton, ethenzamide, propyphenazone, carbamazepine, and caffeine) and E. coli in 50 groundwaters from unconfined aquifers (<30 m in depth) and confined aquifers (up to 500 m in depth) in Tokyo, where unintended groundwater contamination could take place due to decrepit sewer networks. PPCPs were detected in unconfined aquifers and springs (23/34 samples, 68%), and in confined aquifers (7/16 samples, 44%). Compared with published results for sewage influents, concentrations of PPCPs, excluding caffeine, were generally 1-2 orders of magnitude lower, while in some samples concentrations were quite comparable. The high occurrence rate of PPCPs, even in confined aquifers, indicated that such aquifers are not always protected from pollution by sewage near the land surface. Among the PPCPs analyzed, carbamazepine and crotamiton were most frequently detected, which would appear to be owing to their high persistence, combined with the high concentration of crotamiton in sewage. Crotamiton was detected in all four E. coli-positive groundwaters, and thus may potentially serve as a precautionary indicator of E. coli contamination. Using carbamazepine as a sewage marker, we estimated that 0.8%-1.7% of the dry-weather flow of sewage was leaking out into the unconfined aquifers. PMID:22191375

  18. Evaluation of sludge characteristics and metals emissions from municipal sewage sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, R.S.; Conklin, J.A.; Munn, B.G. [Stearns & Wheler, LLC, Cazenovia, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has promulgated regulations affecting the disposal of municipal sewage sludge under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) Part 503. The paper addresses emissions requirements for sewage sludge incineration under 40 CFR Part 503, Subpart E. The paper focuses on factors that may influence sewage sludge characteristics, sewage sludge metals feed rates, and the corresponding metals emission rates. Emissions test programs were conducted at three municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), City of Auburn WWTP. City of Glens Falls WWTP, and Saratoga County Sewer District No. 1 WWTP, to determine mass emissions of multiple metals (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Hg, Se, and Zn). The influent incinerator sludge was sampled in conjunction with each test program to determine the sludge metals content. The sewage sludge was analyzed in accordance with USEPA Method SW846. Multiple metals emissions were determined in accordance with USEPA 40 CFR 60, Appendix A, Method 29 sampling and analytical procedures. The results from these test programs were analyzed to identify the factors that influence the metals emission rates. The resulting metals removal efficiencies from each of the three pollution control systems are quantified. Unique analytical issues encountered during these test programs are also addressed. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge with a hybrid process of low pressure wet oxidation and nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Blöcher, Christoph; Niewersch, Claudia; Melin, Thomas

    2012-04-15

    Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge will become increasingly important within the next decades due to depletion of mineral phosphorus resources. In this work a new process concept was investigated, which aims at realising phosphorus recovery in a synergistic way with the overall sewage sludge treatment scheme. This process combines a low pressure wet oxidation for sewage sludge decomposition as well as phosphorus dissolution and a nanofiltration process to separate phosphorus from heavy metals and obtain a clean diluted phosphoric acid, from which phosphorus can be recovered as clean fertiliser. It was shown that this process concept is feasible for sewage sludge for wastewater treatment plants that apply enhanced biological removal or precipitation with alumina salts for phosphorus removal. The critical parameter for phosphorus dissolution in the low pressure wet oxidation process is the iron concentration, while in the nanofiltration multi-valent cations play a predominant role. In total, a phosphorus recovery of 54% was obtained for an exemplary wastewater treatment plant. Costs of the entire process are in the same range as conventional sewage sludge disposal, with the benefit being phosphorus recovery and reduced emission of greenhouse gases due to avoidance of sludge incineration. PMID:22325934

  20. Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    MedlinePLUS

    Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants Hazard Alert During construction and maintenance of sewage and ... Careful work habits can help protect you. Some Biological Hazards That May Be in Sewage Or Wastewater ...

  1. 1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF STORAGE SHED (BLDG 773). SECURITY FENCE EAST OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Sewage Treatment Plant, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. Using nitrogen stable isotope ratios (delta 15N) of macroalgae to determine the effectiveness of sewage upgrades: changes in the extent of sewage plumes over four years in Moreton Bay, Australia.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Simon D; Udy, James; Longstaff, Ben; Jones, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Nitrogen loading to aquatic ecosystems from sewage is recognised worldwide as a growing problem. The use of nitrogen stable isotopes as a means of discerning sewage nitrogen in the environment has been used annually by the Ecosystem Health Monitoring Program in Moreton Bay (Australia) since 1997 when the technique was first developed. This ("sewage plume mapping") technique, which measures the delta(15)N isotopic signature of the red macroalga Catenella nipae after incubation in situ, has demonstrated a large reduction in the magnitude and spatial extent of sewage nitrogen within Moreton Bay over the past 5 years. This observed reduction coincides with considerable upgrades to the nitrogen removal efficacy at several sewage treatment plants within the region. This paper describes the observed changes and evaluates whether they can be attributed to the treatment upgrades. PMID:15757722

  3. Landfill disposal systems

    PubMed Central

    Slimak, Karen M.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated. A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual inspections and any repairs can be made without disturbing the waste. The surface seal landfill does not employ a subsurface barrier. The surface seal landfill successfully addresses each of the four environmental problems listed above, provided that this landfill design is utilized for dry wastes only and is located at a site which provides protection from groundwater and temporary perched water tables. ImagesFIGURE 3.FIGURE 4.FIGURE 7.FIGURE 7. PMID:738247

  4. Utilization and Conversion of Sewage Sludge as Metal Sorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xu Dong; Li, Loretta Y.

    2013-04-01

    Most biosolids are disposed on land. With improvements in wastewater treatment processes and upgrading of treatment plants across Canada, biosolids generation will increase dramatically. These biosolids will need to be dealt with because they contain various contaminants, including heavy metals and several classes of emerging contaminants. A number of researchers have recently focused on preparation of sewage sludge-based adsorbents by carbonation, physical activation and chemical activation for decontamination of air and wastewater. These previous studies have indicated that sludge-based activated carbon can have good adsorption performance for organic substances in dye wastewater. The overall results suggest that activated carbon from sewage sludge can produce a useful adsorbent, while also reducing the amount of sewage sludge to be disposed. However, sludge-derived activated carbon has not been extensively studied, especially for adsorption of heavy metal ions in wastewater and for its capacity to remove emerging contaminants, such as poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs). Previous research has indicated that commercial activated carbons adsorb organic compounds more efficiently than heavy metal ions. 45 Activated carbon can be modified to enhance its adsorption capacity for special heavy metal ions,46 e.g. by addition of inorganic and organic reagents. The modifications which are successful for commercial activated carbon should also be effective for sludge-derived activated carbon, but this needs to be confirmed. Our research focuses on (a) investigation of techniques for converting sewage sludge (SS) to activated carbon (AC) as sorbents; (b) exploration of possible modification of the activated carbon (MAC) to improve its sorption capacity; (c) examination of the chemical stability of the activated carbon and the leachability of contaminants from activated carbon,; (d) comparison of adsorptivity with that of other sorbents. Based on XRD and FT-IR, we successfully converted SS to AC and further modified it to improve absorption. SSMAC has large specific surface areas based on the BET technique. Batch adsorption results indicate that metal adsorption for SSMAC > SSAC, with adsorption occurring within the first 5 minutes of contact. Comparison of the adsorptivity of various sorbents such as commercial activated carbon (CAC), mineral sorbents such as perlite, clinoptilolite and illite indicates that SSMAC × CAC × clinoptilolite > kaolite.

  5. National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS), data element dictionary for the data conventions databases

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-16

    A data element dictionary including variable naming conventions, file formats, and unique identifier variables is provided for the Data Conventions Database for the 1988 National Sewage Sludge Use and Disposal Survey (NSSS). Following publication of the Questionnaire Database, EPA developed use or disposal practice definitions to be used for the purpose of regulation and the process used during data analysis identified responses that needed clarification. At EPA's direction, questionnaire use or disposal practices were classified into regulatory analytical use or disposal practices, certain questionnaire responses were referred back to the responding Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) for clarification, and values were imputed for missing or improbable responses that could not otherwise be resolved. The revised data are recorded in the Data Conventions Database for the NSSS.

  6. Commerce clause limitations on a state's regulation of waste disposal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    McElwee

    1978-01-01

    The courts, in striking down the New Jersey Waste Control Act, determined that waste disposal sites are a natural resource and must be shared by the states. The court was more impressed by the common problem of waste disposal than by New Jersey's claims of health hazards. Future problems could lead to states banning all nuclear waste disposal rather than

  7. Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent

    E-print Network

    Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent: Significant Energy Savings over Traditional Activated Sludge Treatment This report presents results for an anaerobic digestion system operated;Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office

  8. REGROWTH OF SALMONELLAE IN COMPOSTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to investigate the regrowth of salmonellae in composted sewage sludge. Though composting effectively stabilizes and disinfects sewage sludges, the decrease in salmonellae may be only temporary, since this pathogen can survive and grow without a human or ani...

  9. Boston Harbor sewage stack (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Boston Harbor Sewage Stack is interactive educational computer program about how municipalities deal with sewage, how sewage systems work, non point pollution, and what citizens can do to help - focusing on Boston Harbor and the Boston Harbor Cleanup. The program is written at a level accessible to middle-school students, but with enough depth for adults. Schools and environmental organizations, especially in coastal areas, will find this program a useful addition to their environmental education offerings. The program shows what happens to sewage - from the moment of flush to its passage through the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority's sewage system and into Boston Harbor - now and as the cleanup proceeds. Users encounter topics for exploration, including storm sewers and combined sewer overflows (CSOs); non point pollution from pets, spilled waste oil, lawn and garden chemicals, and other sources; what not to flush and why; how officials can tell if water is polluted; and why it all matters.

  10. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  11. Comprehensive utilization of the pyrolysis products from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Xu, W Y; Wu, D

    2015-07-01

    Bio-oils were produced from pyrolysis of sewage sludge in a horizontal tubular furnace under the anoxic or anaerobic conditions, by varying operating parameters and moisture content (MC) of the feedstock. Physicochemical properties of the obtained bio-oil (such as density, acid value, kinematical viscosity, high heating value and flash point) were analysed and compared with Chinese fuel standards. Tend, RT and ? were found critical to control the yield and physico-chemical properties of bio-oil products. The relative importance of various parameters such as Tend, RT, ? and MC was determined and the optimum values for the lowest kinematic viscosity and acid value and the highest yield of the bio-oil were achieved using the orthogonal matrix method. The parameters 550°C, 45?min, 5°C?min(-1) and MC of 10% were found effective in producing the bio-oils with most of the desirable physico-chemical properties and yield. Benefit analysis was conducted to further optimize the operating parameters, considering pyrolysis treatment, comprehensive utilization of the pyrolysis products and final disposal of sewage sludge; the results showed the best economy of the pyrolysis parameters 450°C, 75?min, 3°C?min(-1) and MC of 10%. The char obtained under this condition may serve as a microporous liquid adsorbent, while the bio-oil may serve as a low grade fuel oil after upgrading it with conventional fuel oil and deacidification. Pyrolysis products may become economically competitive in addition to being environment friendly. PMID:25609547

  12. Sewage impacts coral reefs at multiple levels of ecological organization.

    PubMed

    Reopanichkul, Pasinee; Schlacher, Thomas A; Carter, R W; Worachananant, Suchai

    2009-09-01

    Against a backdrop of rising sea temperatures and ocean acidification which pose global threats to coral reefs, excess nutrients and turbidity continue to be significant stressors at regional and local scales. Because interventions usually require local data on pollution impacts, we measured ecological responses to sewage discharges in Surin Marine Park, Thailand. Wastewater disposal significantly increased inorganic nutrients and turbidity levels, and this degradation in water quality resulted in substantial ecological shifts in the form of (i) increased macroalgal density and species richness, (ii) lower cover of hard corals, and (iii) significant declines in fish abundance. Thus, the effects of nutrient pollution and turbidity can cascade across several levels of ecological organization to change key properties of the benthos and fish on coral reefs. Maintenance or restoration of ecological reef health requires improved wastewater management and run-off control for reefs to deliver their valuable ecosystems services. PMID:19515390

  13. Cogeneration using methane from sewage treatment waste digester gas

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsen, H.L.; Greenway, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the efforts undertaken at the Joint Meeting of Essex and Union Counties sewage treatment plant in Elizabeth, New Jersey, to generate electricity using the gas generated by anaerobic sludge digestion. The approach taken for the Joint Meeting Plant was to design a digester-gas-fired cogeneration system using internal combustion engines with waste heat recovery systems. This paper also describes the anaerobic sludge digestion process, waste gas characteristics, previous practices for disposal and use of waste gas, a discussion of why the selected cogeneration technology was chosen, and a discussion of the environmental effects and permitting requirements of the project. Finally, initial operating results of the cogeneration system are discussed.

  14. Technical aspects associated with the disposal of domestic sludge into the Gulf of Mexico

    E-print Network

    Baskin, Charles Henry

    1979-01-01

    99 102 103 106 106 109 113 115 117 TABLE OP CONTENTS (Continued) Page Disposal Method. Barge characteristics. Release techniques. 117 118 119 Mechanisms of Dispersion. Convective descent Collapse phase. Long term dispersion... of sewage sludge into the Gulf of Mexico still exists. The primary objective of this study was to develop and present the technical aspects of the barged disposal of sew- age sludge into the Gulf of Mexico. This study should serve as a technical basis...

  15. Radioactive waste disposal in the marine environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Anderson

    1981-01-01

    In order to find the optimal solution to waste disposal problems, it is necessary to make comparisons between disposal media. It has become obvious to many within the scientific community that the single medium approach leads to over protection of one medium at the expense of the others. Cross media comparisons are being conducted in the Department of Energy ocean

  16. Microalgae cultured by sewage and organic constituents.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kenichiro; Uchida, Tsutomu

    2013-10-01

    The microalgae could be multiplied by supplying only sewage influent or effluent without any additional microalgal stock or nutrient salt. In a semicontinuous culture, the N:P weight ratios consumed were 14:1 and 18:1 for the sewage influent and effluent, respectively. The total cell number and green algae ratio of microalgae cultivated by semicontinuous culture exceeded those of batch culture. No cyanobacterial cells were observed in the semicontinuous culture using the sewage effluent. The organic components in the cultured microalgae using sewage effluent, eluted by n-hexane, were determined. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acid exceeded that of saturated fatty acid, which was possibly attributable to the fluidity of the cell membrane. The squalene was also obtained by the culture using sewage alone, free of any external stock or nutrient salt. The higher heating value of the microalgae of semicontinuous culture using the sewage influent was 25 MJ kg(-1), corresponding to the heating value of lignite and showing the potential of the sewage culture microalgae as a means of power generation and combustion aid. PMID:24059978

  17. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

    A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

  18. Comparative goal-oriented assessment of conventional and alternative sewage sludge treatment options.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Jakob; Rechberger, Helmut

    2010-06-01

    Phosphorous (P) is a limited and non-substitutable resource. Sewage sludge contains significant amounts of P and is therefore a widely applied fertilizer. Due to its organic and inorganic contaminants, sewage sludge is also combusted in industrial facilities as well as in waste incinerators. This study compares five common methods and one novel alternative based on a thermo-chemical process to treat and dispose of sewage sludge with regard to environmental impact, resource recovery, and materials dissipation. The comparison is based on material flow analysis, energy balances, selected LCA impact analysis, and statistical entropy analysis. This work shows that the novel technology combines both advantages of the established practices: organic and inorganic pollutants are either destroyed or removed from the P containing material, and the P returned to the soil exhibits high plant-availability. The novel method also has low emissions. The additional energy requirements should be reduced. However, with regards to sewage sludge P recovery is more important than energy recovery. PMID:20219338

  19. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems. PMID:24987735

  20. Flow Characteristics of the Raw Sewage for the Design of Sewage-Source Heat Pump Systems

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems. PMID:24987735

  1. CONFIRMED VIRUSES VERSUS UNCONFIRMED PLAQUES IN SEWAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ninety-two treated and untreated sewage samples from seven wastewater treatment plants in Chicago, Illinois, Memphis, Tennessee, and Cincinnati, Ohio were examined for their virus content. Concentrated and unconcentrated samples were plaque assayed in five different cell culture ...

  2. Sewage Reflects the Microbiomes of Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ryan J.; McLellan, Sandra L.; Dila, Deborah K.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Eren, A. Murat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular characterizations of the gut microbiome from individual human stool samples have identified community patterns that correlate with age, disease, diet, and other human characteristics, but resources for marker gene studies that consider microbiome trends among human populations scale with the number of individuals sampled from each population. As an alternative strategy for sampling populations, we examined whether sewage accurately reflects the microbial community of a mixture of stool samples. We used oligotyping of high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequence data to compare the bacterial distribution in a stool data set to a sewage influent data set from 71 U.S. cities. On average, only 15% of sewage sample sequence reads were attributed to human fecal origin, but sewage recaptured most (97%) human fecal oligotypes. The most common oligotypes in stool matched the most common and abundant in sewage. After informatically separating sequences of human fecal origin, sewage samples exhibited ~3× greater diversity than stool samples. Comparisons among municipal sewage communities revealed the ubiquitous and abundant occurrence of 27 human fecal oligotypes, representing an apparent core set of organisms in U.S. populations. The fecal community variability among U.S. populations was significantly lower than among individuals. It clustered into three primary community structures distinguished by oligotypes from either: Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, or Lachnospiraceae/Ruminococcaceae. These distribution patterns reflected human population variation and predicted whether samples represented lean or obese populations with 81 to 89% accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that sewage represents the fecal microbial community of human populations and captures population-level traits of the human microbiome. PMID:25714718

  3. Detection of Giardia in sewage effluent.

    PubMed

    McHarry, M J

    1984-05-01

    Giardia sp. cysts were found at levels of 4,000-450,000/378,500 liters (100,000 gallons) in sewage effluents from three of seven sewage treatment plants in Sangamon County, Illinois, in June, July, and August 1981. Effluent from the positive plants is discharged into Lake Springfield (the present source of the city of Springfield's water supply) or the Sangamon River. PMID:6470993

  4. Perchlorate in sewage sludge, rice, bottled water and milk collected from different areas in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yali Shi; Ping Zhang; Yawei Wang; Jianbo Shi; Yaqi Cai; Shifen Mou; Guibin Jiang

    2007-01-01

    As a new emerging environmental contaminant, perchlorate has prompted people to pay more attention. The presence of perchlorate in the human body can result in improper regulation of metabolism for adults. Furthermore, it also causes developmental and behavioral problems for infants and children because it can interfere with iodide uptake into the thyroid tissue. In this paper, perchlorate in sewage

  5. Evaluation of biochemical and redox parameters in rats fed with corn grown in soil amended with urban sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Grotto, Denise; Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Sauer, Elisa; Garcia, Solange Cristina; de Melo, Wanderley José; Barbosa, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    The increased production of urban sewage sludge requires alternative methods for final disposal. A very promising choice is the use of sewage sludge as a fertilizer in agriculture, since it is rich in organic matter, macro and micronutrients. However, urban sewage sludge may contain toxic substances that may cause deleterious effects on the biota, water and soil, and consequently on humans. There is a lack of studies evaluating how safe the consumption of food cultivated in soils containing urban sewage sludge is. Thus, the aim of this paper was to evaluate biochemical and redox parameters in rats fed with corn produced in a soil treated with urban sewage sludge for a long term. For these experiments, maize plants were grown in soil amended with sewage sludge (rates of 5, 10 and 20 t/ha) or not (control). Four different diets were prepared with the corn grains produced in the field experiment, and rats were fed with these diets for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Biochemical parameters (glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) as well the redox state biomarkers such as reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase, glutathione peroxidase and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were assessed. Our results show no differences in the biomarkers over 1 or 2 weeks. However, at 4 weeks BuChE activity was inhibited in rats fed with corn grown in soil amended with sewage sludge (5, 10 and 20 t/ha), while MDA levels increased. Furthermore, prolonged exposure to corn cultivated in the highest amount per hectare of sewage sludge (8 and 12 weeks) was associated with an increase in MDA levels and a decrease in GSH levels, respectively. Our findings add new evidence of the risks of consuming food grown with urban sewage sludge. However, considering that the amount and type of toxic substances present in urban sewage sludge varies considerably among different sampling areas, further studies are needed to evaluate sludge samples collected from different sources and/or undergoing different types of treatment. PMID:23810366

  6. Assessment of compost application to coal ash disposal sites to promote the rapid vegetation establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repmann, F.; Slazak, A.; Babic, M.; Schneider, B. U.; Schaaf, W.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2009-04-01

    In the city of Tuzla, located in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a coal fired thermo electric power plant is operated by the company JP ELEKTROPRIVERDA BIH TERMOELEKTRANA "TUZLA". High amounts of ash are produced by the power plant, which are currently disposed into settlement ponds bordered by dams in natural valleys. A total of four ash disposal sites covering an area of approx. 170 ha have been established during the last decades. Due to the fact that residual ash from coal combustion was found to contain a variety of trace elements (Ni, Cr, As, B), it must be assumed that ash disposal of that magnitude constitutes an environmental problem which is investigated within the EU-FP6 / STREP project "Reintegration of Coal Ash Disposal Sites and Mitigation of Pollution in the West Balkan Area" RECOAL. The main hazards relate to soil and groundwater contamination due to leaching toxins, dust dispersion, and toxins entering the food chain as these disposal sites are used for agricultural purposes. In order to rapidly establish a vegetation cover on barren ash dumps that particularly would prevent dust erosion we assessed the applicability of compost, produced from locally available municipal and industrial organic residues as an amendment to ash to improve substrate fertility. The envisaged remediation technology was considered to be a low cost, easy applicable and rapid method capable of substantially enhancing living conditions of residents in the vicinity of the abandoned disposal sites. Various compost application rates were evaluated in the field on experimental site Divkovici I in Tuzla and additionally in the greenhouse environment at Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus. Field and laboratory tests revealed that plant growth and cover rate can substantially be improved by mixing compost into the upper ash layer to a maximum depth of approx. 20 cm. Besides direct growth observations in the field analysis of soil parameters gave evidence that the fertility of ashy substrates amended with compost produced from locally available sewage sludge and saw dust can be improved. The metal content of grass grown in the various treatments was considered to be elevated compared to normal contents. However, metal uptake in compost treatments was lower than in untreated plots. A preliminary cost assessment, comparing the remediation technology tested on site Divkovici with a standard soil covering technique revealed financial benefits for the compost method due to significant lower application rates.

  7. A spatial multicriteria decision making tool to define the best agricultural areas for sewage sludge amendment.

    PubMed

    Passuello, Ana; Cadiach, Oda; Perez, Yolanda; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Sewage sludge amendment on agricultural soils has recently become a practice of heightened interest, as a consequence of sewage sludge production increase. This practice has benefits to soil and crops, however it may also lead to environmental contamination, depending on the characteristics of the fields. In order to define the suitability of the different agricultural fields to receive sewage sludge, a spatial tool is proposed. This tool, elaborated in GIS platform, aggregates different criteria regarding human exposure and environmental contamination. The spatial tool was applied to a case study in the region of Catalonia (NE of Spain). Within the case study, each step of the tool development is detailed. The results show that the studied region has different suitability degrees, being the appropriate areas sufficient for receiving the total amount of sewage sludge produced. The sensitivity analysis showed that "groundwater contamination", "distance to urban areas", "metals concentration in soil" and "crop type" are the most important criteria of the evaluation. The developed tool successfully tackled the problem, providing a comprehensive procedure to evaluate agricultural land suitability to receive sewage sludge as an organic fertilizer. Also, the tool implementation gives insights to decision makers, guiding them to more confident decisions, based on an extensive group of criteria. PMID:21982027

  8. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

  9. Reduction in NO{sub x} emissions from an industrial sewage sludge incineration plant by employing primary measures in a fluidized bed furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, P.; Stamer, F.

    1999-07-01

    The results of an inquiry in 1997 show that the percentage of sewage sludge disposed of by incineration in Germany is 19%. Legal developments in Germany clearly show that this percentage amount is expected to increase in the next few years. According to legislation, the treatment of the sewage sludge will have to achieve a result of {le}5% combustible (according to TA-Siedlungsabfall, i.e., Technical guideline for handling and disposal of urban waste). Sewage sludge incineration will therefore become a preferred treatment process. Fluidized bed combustion is especially suitable in relation to the burn-up results. Around 19 sewage sludge incineration plants are operating in Germany, 17 of which have stationary fluidized bed furnaces, the others are multiple hearth roasters. The German statutory law affecting emissions from sewage sludge incineration plants is 17.BlmSchV (i.e., Paragraph 17 of the Federal Emissions Control Regulations). These regulations stipulate mandatory compliance with limit values as a daily average value figured in standard conditions. The intention is to build up an overview of the various possibilities to reduce the NO{sub x} emissions from one problematic industrial sludge by using primary measures, and if possible, to avoid expensive secondary measures, like the SNCR (selective non catalytic reduction) or SCR (selective catalytic reduction) processes.

  10. Co-composting of distillery and winery wastes with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, M A; Paredes, C; Moral, R; Moreno-Caselles, J; Pérez-Murcia, M D; Pérez-Espinosa, A; Bernal, M P

    2007-01-01

    The winery and distillery wastes (grape stalk and marc (GS and GM, respectively), wine lees (WL) and exhausted grape marc (EGM)) are produced in great amounts in the Mediterranean countries, where their treatment and disposal are becoming an important environmental problem, mainly due to their seasonal character and some characteristics that make their management difficult and which are not optimised yet. Composting is a treatment widely used for organic wastes, which could be a feasible option to treat and recycle the winery and distillery wastes. In this experiment, two different piles (pile 1 and 2) were prepared with mixtures of GS, GM, EG and sewage sludge (SS) and composted in a pilot plant by the Rutgers static pile composting system. Initially, GS, GM and EGM were mixed, the pile 1 being watered with fresh collected vinasse (V). After 17 days, SS was added to both piles as a nitrogen and microorganisms source. During composting, the evolution of temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, total organic C, total N, humic acid-like C and fulvic acid-like C contents, C/N ratio, cation exchange capacity and germination index of the mixtures were studied. The addition of V in pile 1 produced higher values of temperature, a greater degradation of the total organic C, higher electrical conductivity values and similar pH values and total N contents than in pile 2. The addition of this effluent also increased the cation exchange capacity and produced a longer persistence of phytotoxicity. However, both piles showed a stabilised organic matter and a reduction of the phytotoxicity at the end of the composting process. PMID:17849994

  11. Occurrence of selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) in sewage sludge and effluent samples of a wastewater-treatment plant in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Daso, Adegbenro P; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Odendaal, James P; Olujimi, Olanrewaju O

    2012-04-01

    The reuse of treated effluent from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as alternative water source for sport-field or landscape irrigation, agricultural, and other industrial purposes is growing significantly. Similarly, the application of treated sludge (biosolid) to agricultural soils is now being considered globally as the most economic means of sludge disposal. However, the presence of emerging organic contaminants in these matrices, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are potential endocrine disruptors, portends a high health risk to humans and the environment in general. In this study, effluent and sewage sludge samples collected from a WWTP were analysed for some selected PBDE congeners (BDE congeners 28, 47, 99 100 153 154 183, and 209) as well as BB-153 using a high-capillary gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. The sum of the eight PBDE congeners ranged from 369 to 4370, 19.2 to 2640, and 90.4 to 15,100 ng/l for raw water, secondary effluent, and final effluent, respectively. A similar result was observed for sewage sludge samples, which ranged between 13.1 and 652 ng/g dry weight (dw). The results obtained for BB-153 were generally lower compared with those found for most PBDE congeners. These ranged from ND to 18.4 ng/l and ND to 9.97 ng/g dw for effluents and sewage sludge, respectively. In both matrices, BDE 47 and 209 congeners were found to contribute significantly to the overall sum of PBDEs. The reuse of the treated effluent, particularly for agricultural purposes, could enhance the possibility of these contaminants entering into the food chain, thus causing undesirable health problems in exposed subjects. PMID:22002787

  12. Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

  13. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing...receive human sewage consisting of fecal matter, urine, and toilet paper in a ratio of four urinations to one defecation...

  14. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing...receive human sewage consisting of fecal matter, urine, and toilet paper in a ratio of four urinations to one defecation...

  15. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing...receive human sewage consisting of fecal matter, urine, and toilet paper in a ratio of four urinations to one defecation...

  16. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing...receive human sewage consisting of fecal matter, urine, and toilet paper in a ratio of four urinations to one defecation...

  17. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing...receive human sewage consisting of fecal matter, urine, and toilet paper in a ratio of four urinations to one defecation...

  18. JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

  19. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from...

  20. Reactive-transport simulation of phosphorus in the sewage plume at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, David L.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Colman, John A.

    2003-01-01

    The subsurface transport of phosphorus introduced by the disposal of treated sewage effluent to ground-infiltration disposal beds at the Massachusetts Military Reservation on western Cape Cod was simulated with a three-dimensional reactive-transport model. The simulations were used to estimate the load of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond during operation of the sewage-treatment plant?from 1936 to 1995?and for 60 years following cessation of sewage disposal. The model accounted for spatial and temporal changes in water discharge from the sewage-treatment plant, ground-water flow, transport of associated chemical constituents, and a set of chemical reactions, including phosphorus sorption on aquifer materials, dissolution and precipitation of iron- and manganese-oxyhydroxide and iron phosphate minerals, organic carbon sorption and decomposition, cation sorption, and irreversible denitrification. The flow and transport in the aquifer were simulated by using parameters consistent with those used in previous flow models of this area of Cape Cod, except that numerical dispersion was much larger than the physical dispersion estimated in previous studies. Sorption parameters were fit to data derived from phosphorus sorption and desorption laboratory column experiments. Rates of organic carbon decomposition were adjusted to match the location of iron concentrations in an anoxic iron zone within the sewage plume. The sensitivity of the simulated load of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond was calculated for a variety of processes and input parameters. Model limitations included large uncertainties associated with the loading of the sewage beds, the flow system, and the chemistry and sorption characteristics in the aquifer. The results of current model simulations indicate a small load of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond during 1965?85, but this small load was particularly sensitive to model parameters that specify flow conditions and the chemical process by which non-desorbable phosphorus is incorporated in the sediments. The uncertainties were large enough to make it difficult to determine whether loads of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond in the 1990s were greater or less than loads during the previous two decades. The model simulations indicate substantial discharge of phosphorus to Ashumet Pond after about 1965. After the period 2000?10 the simulations indicate that the load of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond decreases continuously, but the load of phosphorus remains substantial for many decades. The current simulations indicate a peak in phosphorus discharge to Ashumet Pond of about 1,000 kilograms per year during the 1990s; however, comparisons of simulated phosphorus concentrations with measured concentrations in 1993 indicate that the peak in phosphorus load transported to Ashumet Pond may be larger and moving more quickly in the model simulations than in the aquifer. The results of the three-dimensional reactive-transport simulations are consistent with the loading history, experimental laboratory data, and field measurements. The results of the simulations adequately reproduce the spatial distribution of phosphorus concentrations measured in 1993, the magnitude of changes in phosphorus concentration with time in a profile near the disposal beds following cessation of sewage disposal, the observed iron zone in the sewage plume, the approximate flow of treated sewage effluent into Ashumet Valley, and laboratory-column data for phosphorus sorption and desorption.

  1. Geotechnical Engineering Issues in Ocean Waste Disposal: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth R. Demars; Ronald C. Chaney

    2006-01-01

    Marine pollution has received considerable attention during the past few years as the news media has focused on such topics as contaminated seafoods, algae blooms, fish and mammal kills, and dirty beaches. The source of these pollution problems are many and include: sewage outfalls, industrial discharges, storm runoff from agricultural lands and metropolitan areas, waste sludges, dredge materials, and highly

  2. Geotechnical engineering for ocean waste disposal. An introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Homa J.; Demars, Kenneth R.; Chaney, Ronald C.

    1990-01-01

    As members of multidisciplinary teams, geotechnical engineers apply quantitative knowledge about the behavior of earth materials toward designing systems for disposing of wastes in the oceans and monitoring waste disposal sites. In dredge material disposal, geotechnical engineers assist in selecting disposal equipment, predict stable characteristics of dredge mounds, design mound caps, and predict erodibility of the material. In canister disposal, geotechnical engineers assist in specifying canister configurations, predict penetration depths into the seafloor, and predict and monitor canister performance following emplacement. With sewage outfalls, geotechnical engineers design foundation and anchor elements, estimate scour potential around the outfalls, and determine the stability of deposits made up of discharged material. With landfills, geotechnical engineers evaluate the stability and erodibility of margins and estimate settlement and cracking of the landfill mass. Geotechnical engineers also consider the influence that pollutants have on the engineering behavior of marine sediment and the extent to which changes in behavior affect the performance of structures founded on the sediment. In each of these roles, careful application of geotechnical engineering principles can contribute toward more efficient and environmentally safe waste disposal operations.

  3. Long-Term Distribution and Transport of Nitrate and Ammonium Within a Groundwater Sewage Plume, Cape Cod, MA, After Removal of the Contaminant Source.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repert, D. A.; Smith, R. L.

    2002-12-01

    Disposal of treated sewage for 60 yrs. onto infiltration beds at a site on Cape Cod, MA produced a groundwater contaminant plume >6 km long. The plume was characterized by an anoxic ammonium-containing core, surrounded by an oxic-suboxic outer zone within the sand and gravel aquifer. In Dec. 1995 the sewage treatment facility ceased operation. A long-term study to characterize the distribution of sewage plume constituents was conducted along a 500 m-long transect (source to 3 yrs. groundwater travel distance). Prior to sewage-disposal cessation, total inorganic N within 30 m vertical profiles decreased from 6.6 moles N/m2 (92% NO3-, 8% NH4+) at the point of discharge to 3.3 moles N/m2 (77% NO3-, 23% NH4+) at the furthest point along the transect. Post-cessation nitrate concentrations increased within the first 6 mo. and then gradually decreased. The nitrate decrease was accompanied by an initial nitrite increase, an indication that denitrification was reducing nitrate after the oxygenated sewage discharge was discontinued. There was also an apparent increase in ammonium concentration in the first 6 mo. after cessation. Previous laboratory experiments on pre-cessation cores showed that nitrification was important in converting sorbed ammonium to nitrate under the sewage beds. However, with the removal of the oxygenated sewage source, nitrification ceased, allowing ammonium to initially increase. This increase was correlated with dissolved organic carbon concentrations within the groundwater. Ammonium concentrations decreased dramatically after a year, but subsequently increased in the core of the plume to pre-cessation levels through mineralization of organic N. Recent laboratory core experiments and extractions show that there is a large pool of sorbed organic carbon, although dissolved organic carbon concentrations have been consistently less than 3 mg/L for 6 yrs. Seven yrs. after cessation of the sewage disposal, there is still a significant amount (0.6 moles N/m2) of fixed inorganic N present in groundwater at the disposal site. It is apparent that sorbed constituents now contribute significantly to the dissolved N pool and natural restoration of the contaminant plume, particularly with respect to N, will likely take several more years.

  4. Geochemical and hydrologic controls on phosphorus transport in a sewage-contaminated sand and gravel aquifer near Ashumet Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, Donald A.; Rea, Brigid A.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Savoie, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    Currently (1993), about 170 kg/yr of phosphorus discharges into Ashumet Pond on Cape Cod from a plume of sewage-contaminated ground water. Phosphorus in the plume is mobile in two distinct geochemical environments--an anoxic zone containing dissolved iron and a suboxic zone containing dissolved oxygen. Phosphorus mobility in the suboxic zone is due to saturation of available sorption sites. Phosphorus loading to Ashumet Pond may increase significantly after sewage disposal is stopped due to phosphorus desorption from sediment surfaces.

  5. Bioluminescent method in studying the complex effect of sewage components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devard I. Stom; Tatyana A. Geel; Alla E. Balayan; Galina I. Shachova; Aleksandr M. Kuznetsov; Svetlana E. Medvedeva

    1992-01-01

    The inhibition of bacterial luminescence has been used in testing industrial enterprises sewage. The toxicity of the sewage is less than the total toxicity of separate components due to neutralization of quinone products of polyphenol oxidation in the reactions with the other phenol components of sewage. Toxicity increase is due to their influence on the cell membrane. Studies of cell

  6. FINE PARTICAL AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Wayne S. Seames; Art Fernandez

    2003-09-21

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and pulverized coal. The objective was to determine potential tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} mitigation through using a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel, such as municipal sewage sludge, and the emergence of other potential problems such as the emission of toxic fly ash particles. The work led to new insight into mechanisms governing the partitioning of major and trace metals from the combustion of sewage sludge, and mixtures of coal and sewage sludge. The research also showed that the co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge emitted fine particulate matter that might potentially cause greater lung injury than that from the combustion of either coal alone or municipal sewage sludge alone. The reason appeared to be that the toxicity measured required the presence of large amounts of both zinc and sulfur in particles that were inhaled. MSS provided the zinc while coal provided the sulfur. Additional research showed that the toxic effects could most likely be engineered out of the process, through the introduction of kaolinite sorbent downstream of the combustion zone, or removing the sulfur from the fuel. These results are consequences of applying ''Health Effects Engineering'' to this issue. Health Effects Engineering is a new discipline arising out of this work, and is derived from using a collaboration of combustion engineers and toxicologists to mitigate the potentially bad health effects from combustion of this biomass fuel.

  7. Geological considerations in hazardouswaste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, K.; Gilkeson, R.H.; Johnson, T.M.

    1981-01-01

    Present regulations assume that long-term isolation of hazardous wastes - including toxic chemical, biological, radioactive, flammable and explosive wastes - may be effected by disposal in landfills that have liners of very low hydraulic conductivity. In reality, total isolation of wastes in humid areas is not possible; some migration of leachate from wastes buried in the gound will always occur. Regulations should provide performance standards applicable on a site-by-site basis rather than rigid criteria for site selection and design. The performance standards should take into account several factors: (1) the categories, segregation, degradation and toxicity of the wastes; (2) the site hydrogeology, which governs the direction and rate of contaminant transport; (3) the attenuation of contaminants by geochemical interactions with geologic materials; and (4) the release rate of unattenuated pollutants to surface or groundwater. An adequate monitoring system is essential. The system should both test the extent to which the operation of the site meets performance standards and provide sufficient warning of pollution problems to allow implementation of remedial measures. In recent years there has been a trend away from numerous, small disposal sites toward fewer and larger sites. The size of a disposal site should be based on the attenuation capacity of the geologic material, which has a finite, though generally not well-defined, limit. For slowly degradable wastes, engineered sites with leachate-collection systems appear to be only a temporary solution since the leachate collected will also require final disposal. ?? 1981.

  8. Connecticut Public Health Code. 19a-36-A25. Laboratories to register

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    of sources of pollution, problems of sewage disposal or effectiveness of sewage treatment; (4) any treatment (3) those performed on sewage, sewage effluent or sewage sludge in connection with investigation of operators whose qualifications have been approved by the state department of health or of sewage treatment

  9. Future trends which will influence waste disposal.

    PubMed Central

    Wolman, A

    1978-01-01

    The disposal and management of solid wastes are ancient problems. The evolution of practices naturally changed as populations grew and sites for disposal became less acceptable. The central search was for easy disposal at minimum costs. The methods changed from indiscriminate dumping to sanitary landfill, feeding to swine, reduction, incineration, and various forms of re-use and recycling. Virtually all procedures have disabilities and rising costs. Many methods once abandoned are being rediscovered. Promises for so-called innovations outstrip accomplishments. Markets for salvage vary widely or disappear completely. The search for conserving materials and energy at minimum cost must go on forever. PMID:570105

  10. Improving material and energy recovery from the sewage sludge and biomass residues.

    PubMed

    Kliopova, Irina; Makarskien?, Kristina

    2015-02-01

    Sewage sludge management is a big problem all over the world because of its large quantities and harmful impact on the environment. Energy conversion through fermentation, compost production from treated sludge for agriculture, especially for growing energetic plants, and treated sludge use for soil remediation are widely used alternatives of sewage sludge management. Recently, in many EU countries the popularity of these methods has decreased due to the sewage sludge content (heavy metals, organic pollutions and other hazards materials). This paper presents research results where the possibility of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production from the separate fraction (10-40mm) of pre-composted materials - sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plant and biomass residues has been evaluated. The remaining fractions of pre-composted materials can be successfully used for compost or fertiliser production, as the concentration of heavy metals in the analysed composition is reduced in comparison with sewage sludge. During the experiment presented in this paper the volume of analysed biodegradable waste was reduced by 96%: about 20% of input biodegradable waste was recovered to SRF in the form of pellets with 14.25MJkg(-1) of the net calorific value, about 23% were composted, the rest - evaporated and discharged in a wastewater. The methods of material-energy balances and comparison analysis of experiment data have been chosen for the environmental impact assessment of this biodegradable waste management alternative. Results of the efficiency of energy recovery from sewage sludge by SRF production and burning, comparison analysis with widely used bio-fuel-sawdust and conclusions made are presented. PMID:25481696

  11. Disposal of solid waste in Istanbul and along the Black Sea coast of Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Berkun, Mehmet [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)]. E-mail: berkun@ktu.edu.tr; Aras, Egemen [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Nemlioglu, Semih [Istanbul University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 34850 Avcilar-Istanbul (Turkey)

    2005-10-15

    The increasing amount of solid waste arising from municipalities and other sources and its consequent disposal has been one of the major environmental problems in Turkey. Istanbul is a metropolitan city with a current population of around 14 million, and produces about 9000 ton of solid waste every day. The waste composition for Istanbul has changed markedly from 1981 to 1996 with large decreases in waste density, much of which is related to decreased amounts of ash collected in winter. In recent years, the Istanbul region has implemented a new solid waste management system with transfer stations, sanitary landfills, and methane recovery, which has led to major improvements. In the Black Sea region of Turkey, most of the municipal and industrial solid wastes, mixed with hospital and hazardous wastes, are dumped on the nearest lowlands and river valleys or into the sea. The impact of riverside and seashore dumping of solid wastes adds significantly to problems arising from sewage and industry on the Black Sea coast. Appropriate integrated solid waste management systems are needed here as well; however, they have been more difficult to implement than in Istanbul because of more difficult topography, weaker administrative structures, and the lower incomes of the inhabitants.

  12. Unsafe Sewage Sludge or Beneficial Biosolids?: Liability, Planning, and Management Issues Regarding the Land Application of Sewage Treatment Residuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Goldfarb; Uta Krogmann; Christopher Hopkins

    1999-01-01

    Commentators have identified fear of liability as a major deterrent to the widespread land application of sewage sludge. Liability issues regarding land application include not only legal liability, but also market liability as a result of negative public perceptions of the land application of sewage sludge. Under current law, municipal sewage treatment facilities, landowners, farmers, and even lenders are potentially

  13. Environmental application for GIS: Assessing Iskandar Malaysia's (IM) sewage sludge for potential biomass resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, M. R.; Shaharuddin, N.; Abdullah Halim, K.

    2014-02-01

    The low carbon scenario could be achieved through the identification of major sectors contributing to the emission of high greenhouse gases (GHG) into the atmosphere. Sewage treatment plant (STP) was ranked as one of the major sectors that emits methane gas (CH4) during treatment processes, including sludge treatment. Sludge treatment is also capital extensive with high operational cost. Thus, sewage sludge has been accepted as a nuisance in STP. However, many has claimed that, sludge produced contain organic matter that has the potential for biomass resource. Thus, it would be such a Žwaste? if sludge are directly disposed of into the landfill without utilizing them at its full potential. In order to do so, it is vital to be able to determine the amount of sludge production. This research was implemented in Iskandar Malaysia regions in the state of Johor. By using GIS tool, the regions that produced the most sewage sludge can be determined, and can be group as critical area. Result shows that Nusajaya produces the most, compared to other regions, which indicated Nusajaya as a densely populated region.

  14. Impact of feedstock properties and operating conditions on sewage sludge gasification in a fixed bed gasifier.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian

    2014-10-01

    This work presents results of experimental studies on the gasification process of granulated sewage sludge in a laboratory fixed bed gasifier. Nowadays, there is a large and pressing need for the development of thermal methods for sewage sludge disposal. Gasification is an example of thermal method that has several advantages over the traditional combustion. Gasification leads to a combustible gas, which can be used for the generation of useful forms of final energy. It can also be used in processes, such as the drying of sewage sludge directly in waste treatment plant. In the present work, the operating parameters were varied over a wide range. Parameters, such as air ratio ? = 0.12 to 0.27 and the temperature of air preheating t = 50 °C to 250 °C, were found to influence temperature distribution and syngas properties. The results indicate that the syngas heating value decreases with rising air ratio for all analysed cases: i.e. for both cold and preheated air. The increase in the concentration of the main combustible components was accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of carbon dioxide. Preheating of the gasification agent supports the endothermic gasification and increases hydrogen and carbon monoxide production. PMID:24938298

  15. Occurrence of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in sewage sludge from Shanghai: implications for source and environmental burden.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Nan; Chen, Ling; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    Sewage sludge is regarded as one important sink for hydrophobic pollutants, including hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), but the current pollution situation of HBCD in sludge from China is unknown, despite that many studies have reported its occurrence in other environmental compartments across China. In this study, we collected 27 sludge samples from Shanghai to investigate the occurrence and distribution, to examine the diastereoisomer profile and sources, and to provide advice for future pollution control. HBCD is ubiquitous in sludge with a mean concentration of 4.7ngg(-1) dry weight (dw) (range: 0.10-37.2ngg(-1) dw), lower than data from European countries and the United States. Sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) treating industrial wastewater contained high levels of HBCD. However, no significant relationships were found between HBCD and four parameters (total organic carbon, the percentage of industrial wastewater, capacity and sludge production of WWTPs). ?- and ?-HBCD were two main components with the corresponding contributions of 47.9% and 48.0%. Comparing with the annual production of HBCD in China, its storage in sewage sludge is extremely low (less than 0.002%), indicating future release of HBCD from waste polystyrene foam will be significant, and careful considerations should be taken during waste disposal. To our knowledge, this is the first report on HBCD in sewage sludge from China. PMID:25240774

  16. Distribution of enteric bacteria in Antarctic seawater surrounding a sewage outfall.

    PubMed

    McFeters, G A; Barry, J P; Howington, J P

    1993-04-01

    The spatial distribution and movement of the sewage plume from McMurdo Station, Antarctica, was investigated in the ocean under the early summer sea ice. Ocean currents were also examined to determine their effect on the movement of the plume. Samples of sea water were obtained via holes drilled through the ice and analyzed for coliform bacteria. Coliform densities in ice cores were also determined. Densities of coliform bacteria as high as 10(5)/100 ml were found along the c. 1 km shoreline of McMurdo Station and the plume extended 200-300 m seaward. The relocation of the outfall from a surface configuration to the subsurface (11 m deep) had little influence on the distribution of the plume that sometimes reached the seawater intake station, 400 m to the south. Ocean current measurements in the study area confirmed that, while the prevailing advection was to the north and away from the intake area, episodic reversals of flow at some current meter stations coincided with pulses of sewage that moved to the intake. These findings support the use of bacterial indicators as one means to map the distribution and movement of recent sewage contamination in cold (-1.8 degrees C) sea water and provide evidence that the disposal and movement of domestic wastes deserves attention in coastal [correction of costal] polar environments. PMID:11537610

  17. Planning for the Disposal of the Dead

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlton Basmajian; Christopher Coutts

    2010-01-01

    Problem: Concurrent with the dramatic increase in the nation's elderly population expected in coming decades will be a need to dispose of larger numbers of our dead. This issue has religious, cultural, and economic salience, but is not typically considered a planning problem. Although cremation rates are rising, burial is projected to remain the preferred alternative for the majority of

  18. Treatment of the biodegradable fraction of used disposable diapers by co-digestion with waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Torrijos, M; Sousbie, P; Rouez, M; Lemunier, M; Lessard, Y; Galtier, L; Simao, A; Steyer, J P

    2014-03-01

    The results presented in this paper are part of a project aimed at designing an original solution for the treatment of used disposable diapers permitting the recycling of materials and the recovery of energy. Diapers must be collected separately at source and transported to an industrial facility to undergo special treatment which makes it possible to separate plastics and to recover a biodegradable fraction (BFD) made up mainly of cellulose. The methane yield of BFD was measured and found to be 280 ml CH4/g VSfed on average. 150 kg of dry BFD can be retrieved from the treatment of one ton of used disposable diapers, representing an energy potential of about 400 kW h of total energy or 130 kW h of electricity. As the treatment process for used diapers requires very high volumes of water, the setting up of the diaper treatment facility at a wastewater treatment plant already equipped with an anaerobic digester offers the advantages of optimizing water use as well as its further treatment and, also, the anaerobic digestion of BFD. The lab-scale experiments in a SBR showed that BFD co-digestion with sewage sludge (38% BFD and 62% waste activated sludge on volatile solids basis) was feasible. However, special attention should be paid to problems that might arise from the addition of BFD to a digester treating WAS such as insufficient mixing or floating particles leading to the accumulation of untreated solids in the digester. PMID:24380632

  19. Characterization and lytic activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens phages from sewage

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Ananthi; Ananthasubramanian, M.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens phages from sewage were tested against P. fluorescens isolates of soil and sewage. The phages were characterized as to host range, morphology, structural proteins and genome fingerprint. Of the seven phages isolated, one was found to be abundant in sewage (5.9×107 pfu/mL), having broad host range, and distinct protein and DNA profile when compared to the other six phages. DNA restriction and protein profiles of the phages and their morphology indicate the diversity in the sewage environment. None of the isolates from the rhizosphere regions of various cultivated soils were susceptible to phages isolated from sewage. PMID:24031839

  20. Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunbo; Wang, Chang; Chen, Hongmei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Pang, Daoxiong; Lu, Pei

    2013-04-01

    Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water was studied. Influences of main reaction parameters, including temperature (623-698 K), pressure (25-35 Mpa), residence time (10-15 min) and dry matter content (5-25 wt%), were investigated to optimize the gasification process. The main gas products were methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and traces of ethene, etc. Results showed that 10 wt% dry matter content digested sewage sludge at a temperature of 698 K and residence time of 50 min, with a pressure of 25 MPa, were the most favorable conditions for the sewage sludge gasification and carbon gasification efficiencies. In addition, potassium carbonate (K2CO3) was also employed as the catalyst to make a comparison between gasification with and without catalyst. When 2.6 g K2CO3 was added, a gasification efficiency of 25.26% and a carbon gasification efficiency of 20.02% were achieved, which were almost four times as much as the efficiencies without catalyst. K2CO3 has been proved to be effective in sewage sludge gasification. PMID:23315366

  1. FUEL SAVINGS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a result of a demonstration project partly sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the Indianapolis Center for Advanced Research, the City of Indianapolis, Indiana, realized a 34% fuel savings for sewage sludge incineration. At the sa...

  2. COMPARISON OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested by using the Salmonella/microsome reverse mutation ...

  3. SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION, HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel ef...

  4. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1985-08-30

    This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

  5. Water recovery from sewage using forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Lutchmiah, Kerusha; Cornelissen, Emile R; Harmsen, Danny J H; Post, Jan W; Lampi, Keith; Ramaekers, Hans; Rietveld, Luuk C; Roest, Kees

    2011-01-01

    This research is part of the Sewer Mining project aimed at developing a new technological concept by extracting water from sewage by means of forward osmosis (FO). FO, in combination with a reconcentration system, e.g. reverse osmosis (RO) is used to recover high-quality water. Furthermore, the subsequent concentrated sewage (containing an inherent energy content) can be converted into a renewable energy (RE) source (i.e. biogas). The effectiveness of FO membranes in the recovery of water from sewage has been evaluated. Stable FO water flux values (>4.3 LMH) were obtained with primary effluent (screened, not treated) used as the feed solution. Fouling of the membrane was also induced and further investigated. Accumulated fouling was found to be apparent, but not irreversible. Sewer Mining could lead to a more economical and sustainable treatment of wastewater, facilitating the extraction of water and energy from sewage and changing the way it is perceived: not as waste, but as a resource. PMID:22179641

  6. Application of fuzzy controls in sewage treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Lu Zhu; Hui-Qiong Deng; Shuai Wang

    2010-01-01

    For the shortages of the traditional flow program control and time program control in the process of sewage treatment, this paper adopts a Fuzzy programming method based on PLC. The PLC and its general I\\/O module are involved in forming the Module Controller in hardware. We use the DO and the sludge reflux ratio as the main control parameters, and

  7. Thermal processing of sewage sludge – II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucie Houdková; Jaroslav Borá?; Vladimír Ucekaj; Thomas Elsäßer; Petr Stehlík

    2008-01-01

    This paper is focused on heat and economic aspects of selected sludge management options. Sewage sludge produced by waste water cleaning process is biodegradable material with growing production. This paper compares three alternative technologies of sludge management where sludge is used to produce energy. Alternative 1 considers anaerobic digestion of mixed raw sludge with subsequent cogeneration of obtained biogas. Alternative

  8. VALORATION ADDITION DRY SLUDGE SEWAGE IN CONCRETE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Yagüe; S. Valls; E. Vázquez

    The great amount of dry sewage sludge that is generated and the need to stabilize, solidify and, whenever possible, reuse it has led us to attempt the application of new approaches to its treatment. The search for recycling alternatives for this dry sludge has given rise to the possibility of their use addition in concrete with Portland cement. Portland cement

  9. ACTINOMYCETES OF SEWAGE-TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In some activated sludge sewage treatment plants a thick foam rich in Nocardia may be formed at the surface of the secondary aeration and settling tanks. It had previously been observed that the supernatant from anaerobic digesters contained suspended solids which were toxic for ...

  10. Are Sewage Treatment Plants Promoting Antibiotic Resistance?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen L. Jury; Stuart J. Khan; Tony Vancov; Richard M. Stuetz; Nicholas J. Ashbolt

    2011-01-01

    There is widespread speculation that sewage treatment plants (STPs) and aquatic environments in general may be breeding grounds for antibiotic resistant bacteria. We examine the question of whether low concentrations of antibiotics in STPs can provide or contribute to a selective pressure facilitating the acquisition or proliferation of antibiotic resistance among bacteria in the receiving environment. Examination of available literature

  11. [Carbonization of heavy metal Cu implanted sewage sludge and stability of heavy metal in the resulting char].

    PubMed

    Dou, Xiao-Min; Chen, De-Zhen; Dai, Xiao-Hu

    2014-11-01

    In this research, a new method for sewage sludge (SS) disposal was introduced, by which heavy metals were implanted into sewage sludge before pyrolysis. Cu was adopted as the representative of heavy metals to test this process and was implanted in the form of CuCl2. Effects of Cu implanting concentration and reaction temperature on the residual ratio and immobilization of heavy metals in pyrolysis char were studied. Meanwhile, two leaching methods were employed with the purpose to determine the maximum capacity of heavy metal immobilization in the char. The primary research results showed that when the Cu implanting concentration was 0.5% (mass fraction), more than 90% of Cu remained in the char after carbonization, and the leachability of heavy metals in the char was related to pyrolysis temperature. Cu leaching from the char increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature. There was also a limitation for Cu implanting concentration in the sewage sludge, which was determined by the destination of the pyrolyzed char. If it went to sanitary landfill, the limitation would be 0.5%. The primary results showed that sewage sludge could be kneaded with other wastes containing heavy metals before pyrolysis to achieve co-processing. PMID:25639117

  12. Environmental Effectiveness of Swine Sewage Management: A Multicriteria AHP-Based Model for a Reliable Quick Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizzari, Marco; Modica, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Environmental issues related to swine production are still a major concern for the general public and represent a key challenge for the swine industry. The environmental impact of higher livestock concentration is particularly significant where it coincides with weaker policy standards and poor manure management. Effective tools for environmental monitoring of the swine sewage management process become essential for verifying the environmental compatibility of farming facilities and for defining suitable policies aimed at increasing swine production sustainability. This research aims at the development and application of a model for a quick assessment of the environmental effectiveness of the pig farming sewage management process. In order to define the model, multicriteria techniques, and in particular, Saaty's analytic hierarchy process, were used to develop an iterative process in which the various key factors influencing the process under investigation were analyzed. The model, named EASE (Environmental Assessment of Sewages management Effectiveness), was optimized and applied to the Lake Trasimeno basin (Umbria, Italy), an area of high natural, environmental and aesthetic value. In this context, inadequate disposal of pig sewage represents a potential source of very considerable pollution. The results have demonstrated how the multicriteria model can represent a very effective and adaptable tool also in those decision-making processes aimed at the sustainable management of livestock production.

  13. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE/NV Operations Office

    1999-05-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of CAS 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Area 25 Sewage Lagoons (Figure 1-2) (IT, 1999b) are located approximately 0.3 mi south of the Test Cell 'C' (TCC) Facility and were used for the discharge of sanitary effluent from the TCC facility. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 232 or the sewage lagoons.

  14. Evaluation of groundwater pollution potential of sewage-irrigated vegetable growing areas of the eastern fringe of Calcutta city.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A; Gupta, S K

    2000-01-01

    In recent years recycling in agriculture is a common method of disposal or utilisation of waste. However, recycling of wastes may cause contamination of groundwater by toxic elements like heavy metals, cationic and anionic contaminants and pathogens. Groundwater of shallow and deep tubewells was collected during 1991 to 1997 from raw sewage effluent irrigated garbage farming areas on the eastern fringe of Calcutta city. In general raw sewage effluents, sludges and sewage-irrigated soils contain very high amounts of cations, anions, organics and heavy metals. It is found that most of the groundwater contained undesirable pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, phenolic compounds, iron and manganese and the observed values or concentrations were much above the maximum desirable limits specified by World Health Organisation (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) for use as drinking water. Groundwater of that area may be used for irrigation. Dispersion by leaching of the metals, cationic and anionic contaminants from irrigated soil and from settled bottom sludge in unlined sewage channels are the principal causes of groundwater contamination. Some management plans have been suggested to control further deterioration of groundwater quality. PMID:10842824

  15. Tackling a Local Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Martin

    1995-01-01

    Students studying water as a class project were concerned by levels of pollution at a nearby river and the local beach. They identified three environmental problems for research including sewage discharge, beach litter, and quality of swimming water. Research consisted of field trips which allowed for opportunities to improve skills in collecting…

  16. Heavy metal balances of an Italian soil as affected by sewage sludge and Bordeaux mixture applications

    SciTech Connect

    Moolenaar, S.W. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands); Beltrami, P. [Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    Applications of sewage sludge and Bordeaux mixture (Bm) (a mixture of copper sulfate and lime) add heavy metals to the soil. At an experimental farm in the Cremona district (Italy), the authors measured current heavy metal contents in soil and their removal via harvested products. They also measured heavy metal adsorption by soil from this farm. With these data, projections were made of the long-term development of heavy metal (Cd, Cu, and Zn) contents in soil, crop removal, and leaching at different application rates of sewage sludge and Bm. These projections were compared with existing quality standards of the European Union (EU) and Italy with regard to soil and groundwater. The calculations reveal that the permitted annual application rates of sewage sludge and Bm are likely to result in exceedance of groundwater and soil standards. Sewage sludge applications, complying with the Italian legal limits, may pose problems for Cd, Cu, and Zn within 30, 70, and 100 yr, respectively. Furthermore, severe Cu pollution of integrated and especially organic (Bm only) vineyards is unavoidable with the currently allowed application rates of Bm. The results suggest that the current Italian soil protection policy as well as the EU policy are not conducive of a sustainable heavy metal management in agroecosystems.

  17. The use of delta(15)N in assessing sewage stress on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Risk, Michael J; Lapointe, Brian E; Sherwood, Owen A; Bedford, Bradley J

    2009-06-01

    While coral reefs decline, scientists argue, and effective strategies to manage land-based pollution lag behind the extent of the problem. There is need for objective, cost-effective, assessment methods. The measurement of stable nitrogen isotope ratios, delta(15)N, in tissues of reef organisms shows promise as an indicator of sewage stress. The choice of target organism will depend upon study purpose, availability, and other considerations such as conservation. Algae are usually plentiful and have been shown faithfully to track sewage input. The organic matrix of bivalve shells can provide time series spanning, perhaps, decades. Gorgonians have been shown to track sewage, and can provide records potentially centuries-long. In areas where baseline data are lacking, which is almost everywhere, delta(15)N in gorgonians can provide information on status and trends. In coral tissue, delta(15)N combined with insoluble residue determination can provide information on both sewage and sediment stress in areas lacking baseline data. In the developed world, delta(15)N provides objective assessment in a field complicated by conflicting opinions. Sample handling and processing are simple and analysis costs are low. This is a method deserving widespread application. PMID:19286230

  18. SEWAGE SLUDGE AND SOIL SUSTAINABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable management has three critical elements: ecological health and resilience, economic vitality, and social value and equity. To address the issues of sustainability, we examine strategies for conducting research that not only increases our scientific knowledge base and solves problems but a...

  19. Microbial-Plant Filters (artificial Marshes) for Treating Domestic Sewage and Industrial Wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    Wastewater treatment is an integral part of the water crisis that is emerging throughout the world. Even areas of the U.S. and other parts of the world with a plentiful supply of water are facing problems because the water is becoming contaminated with sewage and/or hazardous chemicals. Therefore, one of the most urgent environmental needs in the world today is a simple, low cost means of wastewater treatment and water reuse.

  20. Criteria for Designing Sewage Treatment Plants for Enhanced Removal of Organic Micropollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Omil; Sonia Suárez; Marta Carballa; Rubén Reif; Juan M. Lema

    \\u000a This work addresses the problem of micropollutants removal in sewage treatment plants trying to identify the main factors\\u000a influencing their fate and behaviour. Firstly the most significant groups of substances that are continuously emitted into\\u000a the environment are presented and the physico-chemical properties and biodegradability of representative compounds are discussed.\\u000a This information is crucial to understand the main removal mechanisms

  1. Geochemical and hydrologic controls on phosphorus transport in a sewage-contaminated sand and gravel aquifer near Ashumet Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, D.A.; Rea, B.A.; Stollenwerk, K.G.; Savoie, Jennifer

    1995-01-01

    The disposal of secondarily treated sewage onto rapid infiltration sand beds at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, has created a sewage plume in the underlying sand and gravel aquifer; the part of the\\x11sewage plume that contains dissolved phosphorus extends about 2,500 feet downgradient of the sewage-disposal beds. A part of the plume that\\x11contains nearly 2 milligrams per liter of phosphorus currently (1993) discharges into Ashumet Pond along about 700 feet of shoreline. The sewage plume discharges from about 59 to about 76 kilograms of phosphorus per year into the pond. Hydraulic-head measurements indicate that the north end of Ashumet Pond is a ground-water sink and an increased component of ground-water discharge and phosphorus flux into\\x11the pond occurs at higher water levels. Phosphorus was mobile in ground water in two distinct geochemical environments-an anoxic zone that contains no dissolved oxygen and as much as 25\\x11milligrams per liter of dissolved iron, and a more areally extensive suboxic zone that contains little or no iron, low but detectable dissolved oxygen, and as much as 12 milligrams per liter of dissolved manganese. Dissolved phosphorus is mobile in the suboxic geochemical environment because continued phosphorus loading has filled available sorption sites in the aquifer. Continued disposal of sewage since 1936 has created a large reservoir of sorbed phosphorus that is much greater than the mass of dissolved phosphorus in the ground water; the average ratio of sorbed to dissolved phosphorus in the anoxic and suboxic parts of the sewage plume were 31:1 and 155:1, respectively. Column experiments indicate that phosphorus in the anoxic core of the plume containing dissolved iron may be immobilized within 17 years by sorption and coprecipitation with new iron oxyhydroxides following the cessation of sewage disposal and the introduction of uncontaminated oxygenated ground water into the aquifer in December 1995. Residual oxygen demand associated with sorbed organic compounds and ammonia could retard the movement of oxygenated water into the aquifer. Sorbed phosphorus in the suboxic zone of the aquifer will continue to desorb into the ground water and will remain mobile in the ground water for perhaps hundreds of years. Also, the introduction of uncontaminated water into the aquifer may cause dissolved-phosphorus concentrations in the suboxic zone of the aquifer to increase sharply and remain higher than precessation levels for many years due to the desorption of loosely bound phosphorus. Data from three sampling sites, located along the eastern and western boundaries of the sewage plume and downgradient of abandoned sewage-disposal beds, indicate that ground-water mixing and phosphorus desorption may already be occurring in the aquifer in response to the introduction of uncontaminated recharge water into previously contaminated parts of the aquifer.

  2. Feasibility study for the City of Twin Falls Sewage Hydroelectric Project in Twin Falls County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1981-08-01

    The City of Twin Falls, Idaho authorized J-U-B Engineers, Inc., to assess the feasibility of installing a small hydropower plant on the discharge of the City's Grandview sewage trunk line. The concept of developing hydropower from sewage flow is novel and may have applications in other areas of the nation if its technical feasibility can be established. No conventional turbine would be suitable in this application without extensively screening the influent. Therefore, finding a turbine which would work satisfactorily, was one of the major aspects of the study. A solution to this problem was found in a staged, non-clog, hydraulic turbine manufactured by Cornell Pump Co. A preliminary design configuration is presented using these turbines. The economical feasibility of the project depends on future sewage flows from Idaho Frozen Foods Company, a large contributor to the present Twin Falls sewage flows. The yearly revenue, would decrease by about one-third, if Idaho Frozen Foods disconnects from the City's sewage system. Therefore, the project is less feasible, economically, without the flow contributed by Idaho Frozen Foods. The cost of energy production is 47 mils per kilowatt-hour (kWh) with this flow, and about 60 mils/kWh without this flow. At the higher flow rate (5 cfs) the total capital investment is estimated to be $270,200 or approximately $2250 per installed kW capacity. Estimated annual energy production at 5.0 cfs is 440,650 kWh with a subsequent first year annual revenue of $59,460. Power could be put on line within nine months of the time the Twin Falls City Council makes a decision to develop the project.

  3. Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

    2003-04-01

    Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

  4. Sensitivity of amphipods to sewage pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de-la-Ossa-Carretero, J. A.; Del-Pilar-Ruso, Y.; Giménez-Casalduero, F.; Sánchez-Lizaso, J. L.; Dauvin, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Amphipods are considered a sensitive group to pollution but here different levels of sensitivity were detected among species, by analysing the impact of five sewage outfalls, with different flow and treatment levels, on amphipod assemblages from the Castellon coast (NE Spain). Sewage pollution produced a decrease in the abundance and richness of amphipods close to the outfalls. Most of the species showed high sensitivity, particularly species such as Bathyporeia borgi, Perioculodes longimanus and Autonoe spiniventris, whereas other species appeared to be more tolerant to the sewage input, such as Ampelisca brevicornis. These different responses could be related to burrowing behaviour, with fossorial species being more sensitive and domicolous species being less affected. Benthic amphipods, which live in direct contact with sediment, are widely used for bioassay and numerous species are usually employed in ecotoxicology tests for diverse contaminants. In order to consider amphipods for monitoring and biodiversity programmes, it is important to establish the degree of sensitivity of each species to different sources of pollution.

  5. Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

    2003-01-01

    Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

  6. Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

  7. 33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. 159.315 Section 159.315 Navigation... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While operating in the applicable...legible Sewage and Graywater Discharge Record Book with the vessel's name and...

  8. 33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. 159.315 Section 159.315 Navigation... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While operating in the applicable...legible Sewage and Graywater Discharge Record Book with the vessel's name and...

  9. 33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. 159.315 Section 159.315 Navigation... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While operating in the applicable...legible Sewage and Graywater Discharge Record Book with the vessel's name and...

  10. 33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. 159.315 Section 159.315 Navigation... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While operating in the applicable...legible Sewage and Graywater Discharge Record Book with the vessel's name and...

  11. 33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. 159.315 Section 159.315 Navigation... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While operating in the applicable...legible Sewage and Graywater Discharge Record Book with the vessel's name and...

  12. Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory

    E-print Network

    Benson, Eric R.

    Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Summary · Foam is currently a viable ­ Foam application directly to cage #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Legal Status of Foam · Procedure depopulation, culling, and euthanasia #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Acknowledgements · USDA AICAP2 · USDA

  13. Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory

    E-print Network

    Benson, Eric R.

    Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Compostaje de aves de corralRouchey et al., 2005) Investigación previa #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Se ha evaluado y documentado el, bovino Investigación previa #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Experimento nro. 1 Impacto de la espuma en

  14. Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory

    E-print Network

    Benson, Eric R.

    Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory 2004 ­ Participación de Bud Malone y la espuma 2009 ­ Ninguna ventaja para el gas Breve historia de la espuma #12;Disposal: Science sistema de boquilla ¿Qué es la espuma? #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · La espuma puede incluir: ­ Una

  15. Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory

    E-print Network

    Benson, Eric R.

    Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Foam Generator Setup · Drop off foam generator cart at one end of house #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Foam Generator Setup · Trailer parked generator attached to hose #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Foam Generation Begins · Team of two to operate

  16. Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory

    E-print Network

    Benson, Eric R.

    Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Foam Used in Actual Outbreak · Water #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Water Based Foam Culling Demo · First large scale comparison · Two:46 (m:s) #12;Disposal: Science and Theory WV H5N2 AIV 2007 · AIV positive turkeys ­ 25,000 turkey farm

  17. Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory

    E-print Network

    Benson, Eric R.

    Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Procedimiento básico ­ Desarrollar una pila de carcasas y lecho. Compostaje masivo de emergencia #12;Disposal: Science and Theory de emergencia #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Desarrollar planes antes de que ocurra una

  18. Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory

    E-print Network

    Benson, Eric R.

    Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory 0 20 40 60 80 100 Compostaje #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Delmarva fue de las primeras granjas en realizar el compostaje de en EE.UU. en los próximos 10 años. Pionera en compostaje en Delaware #12;Disposal: Science and Theory

  19. Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory

    E-print Network

    Benson, Eric R.

    Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Opciones para la producción de espuma espuma · Sistemas de boquilla #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Requisitos estimados: · Tiempo: 2 a 3 compactas ­ Equipo de respuesta propio de la industria Espuma de aire comprimido #12;Disposal: Science

  20. Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory

    E-print Network

    Benson, Eric R.

    Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Opciones para la eliminación · ¿Qué compostaje durante brotes de enfermedades Lista de contenido #12;Disposal: Science and Theory "Ante un brote brotes de IIAP #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · En 2004, se despoblaron 100 millones de aves en todo el

  1. Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory

    E-print Network

    Benson, Eric R.

    Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Las recomendaciones de campo se la espuma #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Múltiples especies de aves pueden despoblarse con espuma cesación #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Dentro de una especie, pueden existir variaciones ­ Los ánades

  2. Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory

    E-print Network

    Benson, Eric R.

    Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · El compostaje se ha usado como Virginia (2007) ­ British Columbia (2009) Uso del compostaje #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Primera apilamiento Delmarva (2004) #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · El compostaje se usó para proteger una densa

  3. High-Level Radioactive Waste: Safe Storage and Ultimate Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    Described are problems and techniques for safe disposal of radioactive waste. Degrees of radioactivity, temporary storage, and long-term permanent storage are discussed. Included are diagrams of estimated waste volumes to the year 2000 and of an artist's conception of a permanent underground disposal facility. (SL)

  4. Subsurface storage and disposal in Illinois

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    The storage of both liquids and gases in underground strata has become rather common in Illinois. The problem of disposal of fluid industrial wastes has caused greatest concern, especially for the possible effects on ground-water quality. Necessary precautions have been established in the requirements of the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) which has authority to control, prevent, and abate pollution

  5. COMPREHENSIVE SUMMARY OF SLUDGE DISPOSAL RECYCLING HISTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1971 the only mode of sludge disposal used by Denver District No. 1 has been land application. A number of different application procedures have been tried over the intervening years. The development of methodology and problems associated with each procedure are discussed i...

  6. Magnesite disposal of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Wendt, C.H.

    1997-08-01

    In this paper we report our progress on developing a method for carbon dioxide disposal whose purpose it is to maintain coal energy competitive even is environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other methods, our approach is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, its purpose is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. A successful development of this technology would guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth the most optimistic estimates that have been put forward. Our approach differs from all others in that we are developing an industrial process which chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

  7. Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few health concerns because sufficient decay occurs before it can reach the public however, incineration, which is done in winter months, directly releases the 131I from sewage sludge to the atmosphere, and even though exposures to both workers and the public were found to be considerably lower than 1% of natural background, incineration of sludge in a pathway for public exposure. Although 131I was readily measurable in sewage sludge, only about 1% of the radioione administered to patients was found in the sludge. The fate of the remaining radioactivity has not been established; some may be in secondary and tertiary residuals, but it is quite likely that most passed through the plant and was discharged in dilute concentrations in plant emissions. The behavior of radioiodine and other radioactive materials released into municipal seweage systems, such as those from large medical facilities, is not yet well understood. PMID:9258296

  8. Gille-STPA 35 1 Sewage on San Diego Beaches

    E-print Network

    Gille, Sarah T.

    from Tijuana across the border to IB and ultimately straight into the Pacific Ocean. As mayor of IB in his political career. A big source of beach pollution is sewage. Tijuana is estimated to generate 50 treatment standards, so that San Diego could dump less seriously treated sewage into the ocean. Then he

  9. CAUSES OF PAPILLOMAS ON FISH EXPOSED TO CHLORINATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research was initiated to determine the cause of oral papillomas in black bullheads (Ictalurus melas) from the final oxidation pond of the Tuskegee, Alabama, sewage treatment plant. The water in this pond was chlorinated effluent from the sewage treatment plant. The presence...

  10. APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGES AND COMPOSTS BPG NOTE 6

    E-print Network

    APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGES AND COMPOSTS BPG NOTE 6 Best Practice Guidance for Land Regeneration harmful organisms (plant, animal and human pathogens) in insufficiently composted materials · If C NOTE 6 PAGE 2 Applications of sewage sludges and composts Forestry Tree growth on nutrient

  11. A new approach for detecting and mapping sewage impacts.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, S D; O'Donohue, M J; Dennison, W C; Loneragan, N R; Thomas, M

    2001-02-01

    Increased nitrogen loading has been implicated in eutrophication occurrences worldwide. Much of this loading is attributable to the growing human population along the world's coastlines. A significant component of this nitrogen input is from sewage effluent, and delineation of the distribution and biological impact of sewage-derived nitrogen is becoming increasingly important. Here, we show a technique that identifies the source, extent and fate of biologically available sewage nitrogen in coastal marine ecosystems. This method is based on the uptake of sewage nitrogen by marine plants and subsequent analysis of the sewage signature (elevated delta 15N) in plant tissues. Spatial analysis is used to create maps of delta 15N and establish coefficient of variation estimates of the mapped values. We show elevated delta 15N levels in marine plants near sewage outfalls in Moreton Bay, Australia, a semi-enclosed bay receiving multiple sewage inputs. These maps of sewage nitrogen distribution are being used to direct nutrient reduction strategies in the region and will assist in monitoring the effectiveness of environmental protection measures. PMID:11381886

  12. Chemical composition of sewage-grown Spirulina platensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. Saxena; M. R. Ahmad; R. Shyam; P. S. Misra

    1982-01-01

    Summary Spirulina platensis has been grown in an outdoor pilot production unit, with an exposed surface area of 450 m2, on a medium consisting of raw domestic sewage supplemented with sodium bicarbonate and nitrate or urea fertilizer. The chemical composition and yield of the biomass grown on sewage-nitrate was comparable to that grown on synthetic medium. The protein content was

  13. Tracking persistent pharmaceutical residues from municipal sewage to drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Heberer

    2002-01-01

    In urban areas such as Berlin (Germany) with high municipal sewage water discharges and low surface water flows there is a potential risk of drinking water contamination by polar organic compounds when groundwater recharge is used in drinking water production. Thus, some pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are not eliminated completely in the municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they are

  14. Sewage sludge land application program in West Virginia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Skousen; C. Clinger

    2009-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge can be used as a fertilizer for crops but may also introduce undesirable metals into the food chain, especially when used on acid minesoils. In this study, sewage sludge from Morgantown, WV was surface applied to two acid minesoils and a neutral undisturbed soil to evaluate sludge application rates on forage production, nutrient loadings, and on heavy

  15. Effects of sewage sludge application method on corn production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Cripps; S. K. Winfree; J. L. Reagan

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of land application of municipal sewage sludge to agricultural land in Upper Cumberland Region of the Tennessee valley. Treatments included single and annual applications of sewage sludge both surface applied and injected into the soil. The primary objective of the study was to determine the effects of different land application methods of

  16. Credit PSR. Northeast and southwest facades of Sewage Pumping Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. Northeast and southwest facades of Sewage Pumping Station (Building 4330). Building retains its World War II construction materials and character. In the background at the extreme left is Building 4305 (Unicon Portable Hangar) - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Sewage Pumping Station, Southwest of E Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. Effect of flooding with sewage water on three wetland sedges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hana Kon?alová; Jan Kv?t; Jan Pokorný; Václav Hauser

    1993-01-01

    Plants of three wetland sedges, Carex vesicaria, C. rostrata, and C. gracilis, were subjected to flooding with diluted pig farm sewage water in a sand-culture experiment lasting for one growing season (20 weeks). Sewage water application altered growth dynamics and accumulation of dry matter in all three species; it shifted the distribution of dry matter in favor of above-ground parts;

  18. Effluent quality from 200 on-site sewage systems: design values for guidelines.

    PubMed

    Charles, K J; Ashbolt, N J; Roser, D J; McGuinness, R; Deere, D A

    2005-01-01

    The quality of effluent from an on-site sewage treatment system is a critical factor in designing the disposal area and, hence, ensuring the sustained performance of the system. Contaminant concentrations in effluent are typically specified in regulatory guidelines or standards; however, the accuracy of these guideline values are brought into question due to the poor performance of septic tanks and the high failure rates of disposal systems reported here and elsewhere. Results from studies of septic tank effluent quality indicated that the effluent is of poorer quality than currently suggested by guidelines. Aerated wastewater treatment systems were found to perform to accreditation guidelines; however, insufficient nutrient data is presently available to assess nutrient loads. It is proposed that the 80th percentile of system performance be adopted as the design value for sizing effluent disposal areas to minimise failure associated with overloading. For septic tanks this equates to 660 mg L(-1) SS, 330 mg L(-1) BOD, 250 mg L(-1) TN and 36 mg L(-1) TP. PMID:16104418

  19. [Characteristics of speciation and evaluation of ecological risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge of Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng-Ran; Lei, Yong-Qian; Cai, Da-Chuan; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Rui; Pan, Jia-Chuan

    2014-02-01

    Contents of heavy metals in different sewage sludges were analyzed and the speciation distribution and bioavailability of heavy metals were investigated, and the risk assessment code (RAC) and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure for solid waste were used to evaluate the potential ecological risk and leaching toxicity risk of heavy metals in sludge samples, respectively. The results showed that contents of Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn were high and presented a great difference by different sources in sewage sludges. Most of heavy metals existed in non-residual fractions and percentages of the mobile fraction (acid soluble fraction) of heavy metals in acidic sludge were higher. According to the results of single extraction, 1 mol x L(-1) NaOAc solution (pH 5.0) and 0.02 mol x L(-1) EDTA + 0.5 mol x L(-1) NH4OAc solution (pH 4.6) were suitable for evaluating bioavailable heavy metals in acidic and alkaline sludge, respectively. Percentages of bioavailable heavy metals were higher with the stronger of sludge acidity. The mobile ability of heavy metals resulted in the high ecological risk of sludge samples, and the bioavailability of heavy metals caused acidic sludges with a very high ecological risk but alkaline sludges with the middle ecological risk. Leaching toxicity risk was very high in sludge samples except domestic sewage sludge. After the removal of bioavailable heavy metals, leaching toxicity risk of sludge samples was still high in spite of its decrease; however, part type of sludges could be implemented landfill disposal. PMID:24812965

  20. Monitoring and modeling nearshore dredge disposal for indirect beach nourishment, Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hanes, Daniel M.; Lescinski, Jamie; Elias, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    Nearshore dredge disposal was performed during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA, a high energy tidal and wave environment. This trial run was an attempt to provide a buffer to a reach of coastline where wave attack during the winter months has had a severe impact on existing sewage infrastructure. Although the subsequent beach response was inconclusive, after one year the peak of the disposal mound had migrated ~100 m toward the shore, providing evidence that annual dredge disposal at this site could be beneficial over the long-term by at the very least providing: 1) additional wave dissipation during storms 2) compatible sediment to feed nearshore bars, 3) sediment cover on an exposed sewage outfall pipe, and 4) a viable alternative to the shoaling offshore disposal site. Numerical modeling suggests that despite the strong tidal currents in the region, wave forcing is the dominant factor moving the sediment slowly toward shore, and placing sediment at just slightly shallower depths (e.g. 9 m) in the future would have a more immediate impact.

  1. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szo?tysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to increased hardness of the vitrificates and reduced leaching of some heavy metals. PMID:25242604

  2. Molecular Characterization of Sewage-Borne Pathogens and Detection of Sewage Markers in an Urban Stream in Caracas, Venezuela?

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, W. Q.; Querales, L.; Sulbaran, Y. F.; Rodriguez-Diaz, J.; Caraballo, L.; Pujol, F. H.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular characterization of two sewage-borne pathogens identified hepatitis A virus (HAV) subgenotype IA and Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B as predominant genotypes circulating in an urban area of Venezuela. This study reveals epidemiological features of human pathogens of worldwide distribution and the efficacy of molecular methods for accurate assessment of sewage pollution. PMID:20097824

  3. A model for intrusion dose calculations for radioactive waste disposal sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zucchetti; P. Rocco

    1999-01-01

    Safe management and disposal of radioactive waste is one of the main problems for nuclear energy, both for fission or fusion sources. High-level waste from nuclear reactors will have to be disposed of in deep underground repositories. The main purpose of this disposal, from the safety viewpoint, is to avoid the return of the radioactive waste into the biosphere, with

  4. Growth, chemical composition and soil properties of Tipuana speciosa (Benth.) Kuntze seedlings irrigated with sewage effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Hayssam M.; Khamis, Mohamed H.; Hassan, Fatma A.

    2012-06-01

    This study was carried out at a greenhouse of Sabahia Horticulture Research Station, Alexandria, Egypt, to study the effect of sewage effluent on the growth and chemical composition of Tipuana speciosa (Benth.) Kuntze seedlings as well as on soil properties for three stages. The irrigation treatments were primary-treated wastewater and secondary-treated wastewater, in addition to tap water as control. Therefore, the treated wastewater was taken from oxidation ponds of New Borg El-Arab City. Results of these study revealed that the primary effluent treatment explored the highest significant values for vegetative growth and biomass, compared to the other treatments. In addition, the higher significant concentration and uptake of chemical composition in different plant parts were obtained from the primary effluent treatment during the three stages of irrigation. It was found that the concentration of heavy metals in either plant or soil was below as compared to the world-recommended levels. These findings suggested that the use of sewage effluent in irrigating T. speciosa seedlings grown in calcareous soil was beneficial for the improvement of soil properties and production of timber trees, and also important for the safe manner of disposal of wastewater.

  5. Quantification of metals in sewage sludges by X-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enzweiler, J.; de Moraes, M. P. G.; Mincato, R. L.

    2003-05-01

    The application of sewage sludge on soils is a common practice, but the heavy metals should be determined before disposal. Sewage sludges composition is mainly organic and the amount of heavy metals is variable. Usual methods for heavy metals determination are based on dissolution of the sample. The results depend, partially, on the efficiency of the dissolution of the heavy metals, which may vary from sample to sample. We studied the feasibility of analyzing pressed pellets of sludges by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WD-XRF), with fumdamental parameters matrix effects correction. Several ways of introducing the carbon content in the corrections were tested. Accuracy was evaluated by analysis of four international certificate reference materials. Results were within or very close to the confidence interval of the available certified values for most elements (Al, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Se, Si, V, Zn). Other metals, like Cd and Hg were below the detection limits (15 and 9 mg kg^{-l}, respectively). Despite the limitation concerning the proper matrix correction, the uncertainty of the XRF results is probably similar to the methods normally used in sludge analysis, with the advantage that sample preparation is much faster.

  6. Sharps disposal in the ED: simple techniques and equipment.

    PubMed

    Zimmers, T

    1999-01-01

    Disposal of sharp instruments and needles ("sharps") is an ongoing problem in the emergency department (ED). Cleanup and disposal of needles and other sharps after a procedure is the responsibility of all ED personnel, including physicians. Simple cleanup techniques are explained and illustrated. All techniques are designed to be done (1) without exposing physician to a needle stick, (2) with equipment readily available in the ED, and (3) with containers readily seen by those disposing of the sharps and other materials. Adherence to these cleanup procedures should help lessen the problem of sharps and disease exposure in the ED. PMID:9928701

  7. Accelerated simulation of the migration of solutes in sandy soils amended by sewage sludge: Transport and retardation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etchebers, O.; Kedziorek, M. A.; Chossat, J.; Riou, C.; Bourg, A. C.

    2003-12-01

    A common way to dispose of sewage sludge is to spead it on agricultural land because of its high nutrient (P, N) and org C contents. However, in addition to these beneficial components, sewage sludge can contain toxic chemicals such as heavy metals. This farming technique is relatively recent (several decades, at most) and there is still a need for information concerning the processes controlling the fate of the heavy metals in the sludge. To study how fast they migrate in the soil profile, the transfer of water and associated solutes in both unsaturated and unsaturated conditions can be accelerated by centrifugation according to the equation: tsimulated = treal * g2. (t: time). In a lysimeter study (diameter 30 cm, depth 60 cm) carried out using the CEA-CESTA Silat 265 centrifuge, we simulated, at 20 g, several months of percolation in one day. Experiments were done on cores of sandy forest soil (podzol) to which various sewage sludges (containing 2 to 12 mg/kg Cd, 20 to 120 mg/kg Ni, 50 to 465 mg/kg Pb) and simulated rain were applied. Major ions migrated at an estimated rate of 6-8.5 mm/simulated day (2-3 m/simulated year), while heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb) were retarded by a factor of 1.5 to 2. The retention of these heavy metals is associated with the organic C content of the soil profile (rich in the upper horizon).

  8. Waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  9. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    EPA Science Inventory

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  10. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glendon W. Gee; Philip D. Meyer; Andy L. Ward

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related

  12. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  13. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: SURFACE DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human domestic activities generate wastewater that is piped into municipal sewer systems, underground septic tanks, or portable sanitation devices. Wastewater in municipal systems is treated before being discharged into the environment, as required under the Clean Water Act. This...

  14. Water Purification, Distribution and Sewage Disposal. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    This document, designed to serve as a training manual for technical instructors and as a field resource reference for Peace Corps volunteers, consists of nine units. Unit topics focus on: (1) water supply sources; (2) water treatment; (3) planning water distribution systems; (4) characteristics of an adequate system; (5) construction techniques;…

  15. Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory

    E-print Network

    Benson, Eric R.

    Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Use of Composting · Composting has commercial production farms ­ ~328,000 birds · Depopulated using CO2 gassing · In-house composting ­ Mix and pile procedure Delmarva 2004 #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Delmarva 2004 · Composting used

  16. Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory

    E-print Network

    Benson, Eric R.

    Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Table of Contents · Why Depopulate? · Depopulation Methods · Basics of Foam · Types of Foam Equipment · Science Behind Foam · Implementing Foam Depopulation · Use of Foam in the Field · Conclusions #12;Disposal: Science and Theory "When HPAI outbreaks

  17. Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory

    E-print Network

    Benson, Eric R.

    Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Se ubica el carretón con el enfriamiento Ventiladores de túnel de viento #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Se estaciona el remolque en uno: Science and Theory · Se usa un equipo de dos personas para hacer funcionar el sistema: ­ Operario del

  18. Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory

    E-print Network

    Benson, Eric R.

    Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · El compostaje se define como la: Science and Theory · Compostaje óptimo ­ Relación carbono/nitrógeno (C:N): 20:1 a 35:1 ­ Contenido de Compostaje #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Se ha utilizado satisfactoriamente una variedad de materiales

  19. Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory

    E-print Network

    Benson, Eric R.

    Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Field recommendations based of activity ­ Corticosterone ­ EEG, ECG and motion studies · Large scale testing ­ Field scale units Science of Foam #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Cessation Time · Multiple bird species can be depopulated

  20. Waste Disposal Guide HOW TO PROPERLY DISPOSE OF WASTE MATERIALS

    E-print Network

    Schaefer, Marcus

    Waste Disposal Guide HOW TO PROPERLY DISPOSE OF WASTE MATERIALS GENERATED AT DEPAUL UNIVERSITY.4 Hazardous Waste Defined p.5 Chemical Waste Procedure for Generating Departments p.6 o A of Containers p.8 o E. Disposal of Empty Containers p.8 o F. Storage of Waste Chemicals p.8,9 o G

  1. Sampling of tar from sewage sludge gasification using solid phase adsorption.

    PubMed

    Ortiz González, Isabel; Pérez Pastor, Rosa Ma; Sánchez Hervás, José Ma

    2012-06-01

    Sewage sludge is a residue from wastewater treatment plants which is considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Gasification technology is a potential source of renewable energy that converts the sewage sludge into gases that can be used to generate energy or as raw material in chemical synthesis processes. But tar produced during gasification is one of the problems for the implementation of the gasification technology. Tar can condense on pipes and filters and may cause blockage and corrosion in the engines and turbines. Consequently, to minimize tar content in syngas, the ability to quantify tar levels in process streams is essential. The aim of this work was to develop an accurate tar sampling and analysis methodology using solid phase adsorption (SPA) in order to apply it to tar sampling from sewage sludge gasification gases. Four types of commercial SPA cartridges have been tested to determine the most suitable one for the sampling of individual tar compounds in such streams. Afterwards, the capacity, breakthrough volume and sample stability of the Supelclean™ ENVI-Carb/NH(2), which is identified as the most suitable, have been determined. Basically, no significant influences from water, H(2)S or NH(3) were detected. The cartridge was used in sampling real samples, and comparable results were obtained with the present and traditional methods. PMID:22526666

  2. Diaper area and disposable diapers.

    PubMed

    Erasala, G N; Romain, C; Merlay, I

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, cloth diapers have been replaced by disposable diapers. The evolution of healthier skin in the diaper area has been demonstrated in parallel to that of disposable diapers. The improvements of disposable diapers--fit, dryness, comfort--have been based on the understanding of factors playing a role in the development of diaper dermatitis. PMID:21325842

  3. Garbage + sewage water + coal = electricity. [Lakeland, Fla. 364MW unit cooled by sewage-water effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lesnett

    1979-01-01

    Lakeland, Florida is building a power-generating unit that will burn 80% Kentucky high-sulfur coal and 20% garbage and will be cooled by sewage water effluent. The plant was designed when a proposed new oil-fired unit was rejected in the mid-1970s, although additional capacity was anticipated to keep pace with the area's population and development growth. A coal\\/garbage fuel mixture has

  4. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in tropical recreational marine waters contaminated with domestic sewage: estimation of bathing-associated disease risks.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Walter Q; Duarte, Diana C; Vásquez, Rosa C; Gurian, Patrick L

    2014-08-15

    Sewage is a major contributor to pollution problems involving human pathogens in tropical coastal areas. This study investigated the occurrence of intestinal protozoan parasites (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) in tropical recreational marine waters contaminated with sewage. The potential risks of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection from recreational water exposure were estimated from the levels of viable (oo) cysts (DIC+, DAPI+, PI-) found in near-shore swimming areas using an exponential dose response model. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis was performed in order to determine the probability distribution of risks. Microbial indicators of recreational water quality (enterococci, Clostridium perfringens) and genetic markers of sewage pollution (human-specific Bacteroidales marker [HF183] and Clostridium coccoides) were simultaneously evaluated in order to estimate the extent of water quality deterioration associated with human wastes. The study revealed the potential risk of parasite infections via primary contact with tropical marine waters contaminated with sewage; higher risk estimates for Giardia than for Cryptosporidium were found. Mean risks estimated by Monte Carlo were below the U.S. EPA upper bound on recreational risk of 0.036 for cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis for both children and adults. However, 95th percentile estimates for giardiasis for children exceeded the 0.036 level. Environmental surveillance of microbial pathogens is crucial in order to control and eradicate the effects that increasing anthropogenic impacts have on marine ecosystems and human health. PMID:24975093

  5. 40 CFR 191.24 - Disposal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL...TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards...Disposal standards. (a) Disposal systems. (1) General. Disposal systems for waste and any associated...

  6. Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

  7. Space disposal of nuclear wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

  8. Raw Sewage Harbors Diverse Viral Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cantalupo, Paul G.; Calgua, Byron; Zhao, Guoyan; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Wier, Adam D.; Katz, Josh P.; Grabe, Michael; Hendrix, Roger W.; Girones, Rosina; Wang, David; Pipas, James M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. Importance At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that the viral universe is far more vast and diverse than previously suspected. PMID:21972239

  9. FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. The energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. These...

  10. FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. he energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. hese f...

  11. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: Preliminary feasibility evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano [University of Trento, Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it [Insubria University of Varese, Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The aim is to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a solar greenhouse. • The system allows the exploitation of heat available from OFMSW aerobic process. • Another aim is to face the problem of OFMSW treatment, in particular food waste. • Energy and mass balances are presented for a case study. - Abstract: In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications.

  12. Sandis irradiator for dried sewage solids. Final safety analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.

    1980-07-01

    Analyses of the hazards associated with the operation of the Sandia irradiator for dried sewage solids, as well as methods and design considerations to minimize these hazards, are presented in accordance with DOE directives.

  13. USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FOR FOREST-TREE SEEDLING PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...

  14. POTENTIAL EMISSIONS OF HAZARDOUS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory thermal decomposition studies were undertaken to evaluate potential organic emissions from sewage sludge incinerators. Precisely controlled thermal decomposition experiments were conducted on sludge spiked with mixtures of hazardous organic compounds, on the mixtures o...

  15. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage...integrity and performance of the waste treatment works serving the...collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...

  16. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage...integrity and performance of the waste treatment works serving the...collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...

  17. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage...integrity and performance of the waste treatment works serving the...collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...

  18. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage...integrity and performance of the waste treatment works serving the...collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...

  19. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage...integrity and performance of the waste treatment works serving the...collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...

  20. WINDROW AND STATIC PILE COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted on composting anaerobically digested and centrifuge dewatered sewage sludge from 1975 through 1980. Windrow and static pile composting processes were evaluated; new methods were employed using deeper windrows and aerated static piles were constructed withou...

  1. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

  2. Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate

    SciTech Connect

    Al Yaqout, Anwar F

    2003-07-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14{+-}1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85{+-}0.19 million t representing 37.22{+-}6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait.

  3. Nitrate depuration of secondary sewage effluents in mangrove sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge E. Corredor; Julio M. Morell

    1994-01-01

    The sewage treatment plant (STP) at La Parguera, on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico, discharges an average of 228,000 dm3 of secondary sewage effluents per day into percolation ponds located at the landward margin of the coastal mangrove fringe.\\u000a Effluents flowing from the STP percolation ponds to the adjacent mangrove fringe typically exhibited nitrate levels between\\u000a 0.2 mM and

  4. Impacts on groundwater due to land application of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Higgins

    1984-01-01

    The project was designed to demonstrate the potential benefits of utilizing sewage sludge as a soil conditioner and fertilizer on Sassafras sandy loam soil. Aerobically digested, liquid sewage sludge was applied to the soil at rates of 0, 22.4, and 44.8 Mg of dry solids\\/ha for three consecutive years between 1978 and 1981. Groundwater, soil, and crop contamination levels were

  5. Bioeconomic assessment of a poultry sewage and tilapia aquaculture system

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Robert Gordon

    1978-01-01

    BIOECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF A POULTRY SEWAGE AND TILAPIA AQUACULTURE SYSTEM A Thesis by ROBERT GORDON ANDERSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1978 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics BIOECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF A POULTRY SEWAGE AND TILAPIA AQUACULTURE SYSTEM A Thesis by ROBERT GORDON ANDERSON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of C it e (Hea of Department...

  6. [National survey of urban sewage reuse in China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu-Jie; Wang, Xue-Chao; Zhou, Zhen-Min

    2012-11-01

    On the basis of the national survey of the urban sewage treatment, the survey of 2007 national urban sewage reuse was conducted under the charge of the Ministry of Water Resources. The survey results indicated that the amount of urban sewage reuse was 17.9 x 10(8) m3 x a(-1), mainly used for industry, landscape, agriculture forestry, animal husbandry, urban non-potable water, and groundwater recharge. The urban sewage reuse rate was 5.23%. There were 127 sewage reclaiming plants in China, of which the production capacity of reclaimed water reached 347.75 x 10(4) m3 x d(-1), which produced 5.74 x 10(8) m3 reclaimed water in 2007. The total investment of sewage reclaiming plants was 56.44 x 10(8) Yuan, in which the central government investment, local fiscal investment and other investments accounted for 16%, 26% and 58%, respectively. The reclaimed water price varied greatly with the purposes or areas. PMID:23323420

  7. Oceanographic effects of the 1992 Point Loma sewage pipe spill

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, R.; Ciccateri, A.; Dougherty, K.; Gacek, L.; Lane, S.; Liponi, K.; Leeds, R.; Walsh, F. (Ocean Research Inst., San Diego, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Early in early 1992, 180 million gallons of advanced primarily treated sewage emptied into 10 meters of water from the broken Point Loma sewage pipe, San Diego. For about two months a sewage boil about the size of a football field existed at the surface and within the Point Loma kelp bed. Sampling and observations taken during the spill indicated the surface waters at the spill site were grayish and smelling of sewage. The sewage water had mixed with the marine waters reducing salinity to about one-half normal (or 15 ppt.). The sediment load of the sewage coated the blades of the giant kelp and the kelp was limp and withdrawn from the surface. At the site of the main boil the kelp appeared to have dropped to the bottom. Sediments on the bottom in the boil area were mainly coarse sands as compared to the surrounding sandy-muds. Preliminary results using laboratory analysis suggest: one month into the spill no infauna were observed in the sediments or planktons in the water of the boil area, but were in the surrounding sediments and water; the observed phytoplankton were dominated by dinoflagellates and suggested red tide conditions surrounding the boil. The site has been monitored monthly since the spill to observe further impact and recovery.

  8. Sewage sludge effects on soil and plant quality in a degraded, semiarid grassland. [Bouteloua gracilis; Hilaria jamesii; Sitanion hystrix (Nutt. )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Fresquez; R. E. Francis; G. L. Dennis

    2009-01-01

    A major problem affecting grassland productivity in the semiarid southwestern USA is the low quantity of soil organic matter and plant-available N. In this study, dried, anaerobically digested sewage sludge was applied at three rates (22.5, 45, and 90 Mg Ha⁻¹) to a degraded semiarid grassland site to determine the effects of sludge on soil chemical and heavy metal properties,

  9. Pharmaceuticals in on-site sewage effluent and ground water, Western Montana.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Emily; Woessner, William W; Benotti, Mark J

    2007-01-01

    Human use of pharmaceuticals results in the excretion and disposal of compounds that become part of municipal and domestic waste streams. On-site waste water disposal and leaking city sewer systems can provide avenues for the migration of effluent to the underlying aquifers. This research assessed the occurrence and persistence of 22 target pharmaceuticals in septic tank effluent and two shallow, coarse-grained aquifers in western Montana. Twelve compounds (acetaminophen, caffeine, codeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, erythromycin-18, nicotine, paraxanthine, ranitidine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and warfarin) were detected in a high school septic tank effluent. Three of the 12 compounds, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, and nicotine, were detected in the underlying sand and gravel aquifer after effluent percolation through a 2.0-m thick sand vadose zone. Sampling of a second sand, gravel, and cobble dominated unconfined aquifer, partially overlain by septic systems and a city sewer system, revealed the presence of caffeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, nicotine, and trimethoprim. The presence of carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole in these aquifers appears to correlate with local usage based on a reported monthly prescription volume. This work highlights the need for expanding geochemical investigations of sewage waste impacted ground water systems to include sampling for selected pharmaceuticals. PMID:17470115

  10. Pharmaceuticals in on-site sewage effluent and ground water, Western Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godfrey, E.; Woessner, W.W.; Benotti, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Human use of pharmaceuticals results in the excretion and disposal of compounds that become part of municipal and domestic waste streams. On-site waste water disposal and leaking city sewer systems can provide avenues for the migration of effluent to the underlying aquifers. This research assessed the occurrence and persistence of 22 target pharmaceuticals in septic tank effluent and two shallow, coarse-grained aquifers in western Montana. Twelve compounds (acetaminophen, caffeine, codeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, erythromycin-18, nicotine, paraxanthine, ranitidine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and warfarin) were detected in a high school septic tank effluent. Three of the 12 compounds, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, and nicotine, were detected in the underlying sand and gravel aquifer after effluent percolation through a 2.0-m thick sand vadose zone. Sampling of a second sand, gravel, and cobble dominated unconfined aquifer, partially overlain by septic systems and a city sewer system, revealed the presence of caffeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, nicotine, and trimethoprim. The presence of carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole in these aquifers appears to correlate with local usage based on a reported monthly prescription volume. This work highlights the need for expanding geochemical investigations of sewage waste impacted ground water systems to include sampling for selected pharmaceuticals. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  11. Gasification of dried sewage sludge: status of the demonstration and the pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Judex, Johannes W; Gaiffi, Michael; Burgbacher, H Christian

    2012-04-01

    The disposal of sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plants is suffering from raising costs. The gasification is an alternative way of treatment, which can reduce the amount of solid residues that must be disposed from a water treatment plant. The produced gas can be used very flexible to produce electrical energy, to burn it very cleanly or to use it for upgrading. The gasification in the fluidised bed and the gas cleaning with the granular bed filter has shown successful operation. A demonstration plant in Balingen was set up in 2002 and rebuilt to a larger throughput in 2010. As a next step a demonstration plant was built in Mannheim and is now at the end of the commissioning phase. Nowadays the product gas is blended with biogas from sludge fermentation and utilized in a gas engine or combustion chamber to produce heat. In the future the process control for a maximized efficiency and the removal of organic and inorganic impurities in the gas will be further improved. PMID:22284442

  12. Preference of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, for plants grown in sewage sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

    1987-08-01

    Since passage of the Clean Water Act in the 1970s, disposal of the millions of tonnes of sewage sludge generated annually has become a major concern of municipalities throughout the United States. With the range of other disposal options having narrowed in recent years, application of sludge to land is increasingly viewed as a practical and economical means to recycle this waste material. However, sludges from large cities with industries may be contaminated with various toxic chemicals, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), other organic chemicals, such as pesticides, and heavy metals. Sludge application to land thus has the potential adversely to affect biota and the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. The authors previously demonstrated marked reductions in fecundity and survival of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, on collard plants, Brassica oleracea var. sabellica, growing in soil treated with chemically contaminated sludge as compared to aphids on plants growing either in soil treated with uncontaminated sludge of soil conventionally fertilized. Reduced plant growth and increased restlessness in aphids in the contaminated sludge treatment were also observed. The purpose of the present study was to examine more closely the influence of sludge contaminants on aphid settling behavior as indicated by differential preference of M. persicae for leaves of its collard host grown under different soil conditions.

  13. Disposable heat storage unit

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, M.E.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a single use, disposable, heat storage unit comprising a sealed pouch forming a wholly internal, sealed chamber having a predetermined maximum volume; and a particulate, fluent, dry, latent heat storage substance within the chamber, the volume of the substance within the chamber being sufficiently less than the predetermined maximum volume that the particles of the substance do not fill the chamber and are freely movable in all directions within the chamber, the substance having a predetermined heat of fusion temperature in excess of 100C, the pouch being formed of pliable, moisture resistant, thermal transfer material capable of withstanding without adverse consequences being heated to an initial temperature higher than the heat of fusion temperature of the substance. Thermal heat storage apparatus comprising a disposable container having walls of thermally insulating material forming a compartment; a single use, disposable, sealed, flexible pouch positioned within the compartment and formed of moisture resistant, heat transfer material, the pouch forming a wholly internal, sealed chamber having a maximum volume; a dry, particulate, fluent, latent head storage substance accommodated in the chamber, the volume of the substance within the chamber being sufficiently less than the maximum volume that the particles of the substance do not fill the chamber and are freely movable in all directions within the chamber, the substance having a heat of fusion temperature in excess of 100; the material of the wall and the material of the pouch being capable of withstanding without adverse consequences being heated to an initial temperature in excess of the heat of fusion temperature of the substance.

  14. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W. (155 Newport Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Beahm, Edward C. (106 Cooper Cir., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Parker, George W. (321 Dominion Cir., Knoxville, TN 37922)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  15. NRC disposed to site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    A committee of the National Research Council (NRC) has found the risk of human exposure to radiation from nuclear waste to be minimal at a proposed underground disposal site. In a report on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico, the NRC committee asserted that the danger of radioactive exposure at the site is unlikely to exceed U.S. and international standards for protection from radiation. Unless the site is breached by humans—most likely those drilling for gas or oil—there is no credible or probable chance of the release of the radioactive waste, the committee said.

  16. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  17. Government and Market Mechanisms to Provide Alternatives to Scrap Tire Disposal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy J. Merritt; William H. Redmond; Michael M. Pearson

    2005-01-01

    The current study examines disposal and recycling of scrap tires with a discussion of the role of government policies and an empirical study of tire dealers' preferences for market and government solutions to disposal problems. Preference for government intervention was related positively to dealer perceptions of environmental concerns, consumer concerns and the severity of the problem, but related negatively to

  18. The Phytotoxicity Changes of Sewage Sludge-Amended Soils.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Malara, Anna; Jo?ko, Izabela; Lesiuk, Adam

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was the estimation of changes in the phytotoxicity of soils amended with sewage sludge with relation to Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba and Sorghum saccharatum. The study was realised in the system of a plot experiment for a period of 29 months. Samples for analyses were taken at the beginning of the experiment, and then after 5, 17 and 29 months. Two kinds of sewage sludge, with varying properties, were added to a sandy soil (soil S) or a loamy soil (soil L) at the dose of 90 t/ha. The addition of sewage sludge to the soils at the start of the experiment caused a significant reduction of both seed germination capacity and root length of the test plants, the toxic effect being distinctly related to the test plant species. With the passage of time the negative effect of sewage sludge weakened, the extent of its reduction depending both of the kind of sewage sludge applied and on the type of soil. Phytotoxicity of the soils amended with the sewage sludges was significantly lower at the end of the experiment than at the beginning. The species of the plants grown on the soils also had a significant effect on their phytotoxicity. The greatest reduction of toxicity was observed in the soil on which no plants were grown (sandy soil) and in the soil under a culture of willow (loamy soil). Solid phase of sewage sludge-amended soils was characterised by higher toxicity than their extracts. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11270-012-1248-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:23002312

  19. Biotests for environmental quality assessment of composted sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kapanen, Anu; Vikman, Minna; Rajasärkkä, Johanna; Virta, Marko; Itävaara, Merja

    2013-06-01

    The quality of sewage sludge-based products, such as composts and growth media, is affected by the contamination of sewage sludge with, potentially, hundreds of different substances. Therefore, it is difficult to achieve the reliable environmental quality assessment of sewage sludge-based products solely based on chemical analysis. In the present work, we demonstrate the use of the kinetic luminescent bacteria test (ISO 21338) to evaluate acute toxicity and the Vitotox™ test to monitor genotoxicity of sewage sludge and composted sewages sludge. In addition, endocrine-disrupting and dioxin-like activity was studied using yeast-cell-based assays. The relative contribution of industrial waste water treated at the Waste Water Treatment Plants led to elevated concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F) in sewage sludge. The effect of elevated amounts of organic contaminants could also be identified with biotests able to demonstrate higher acute toxicity, genotoxicity, and potential for endocrine-disruptive properties. Additional extraction steps in kinetic luminescent bacteria test with DMSO and hexane increased the level of toxicity detected. Composting in a pilot-scale efficiently reduced the amounts of linear alkylbenzensulphonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenolethoxylates (NPE/NPs) and PAH with relative removal efficiencies of 84%, 61% and 56%. In addition, decrease in acute toxicity, genotoxicity and endocrorine-disrupting and dioxin-like activity during composting could be detected. However, the biotests did have limitations in accessing the ecotoxicity of test media rich with organic matter, such as sewage sludge and compost, and effects of sample characteristics on biotest organisms must be acknowledged. The compost matrix itself, however, which contained a high amount of nutrients, bark, and peat, reduced the sensitivity of the genotoxicity tests and yeast bioreporter assays. PMID:23540356

  20. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Mark R. Cole

    2013-12-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

  1. The disposal of nuclear waste in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The important problem of disposal of nuclear waste in space is addressed. A prior study proposed carrying only actinide wastes to space, but the present study assumes that all actinides and all fission products are to be carried to space. It is shown that nuclear waste in the calcine (oxide) form can be packaged in a container designed to provide thermal control, radiation shielding, mechanical containment, and an abort reentry thermal protection system. This package can be transported to orbit via the Space Shuttle. A second Space Shuttle delivers an oxygen-hydrogen orbit transfer vehicle to a rendezvous compatible orbit and the mated OTV and waste package are sent to the preferred destination. Preferred locations are either a lunar crater or a solar orbit. Shuttle traffic densities (which vary in time) are given and the safety of space disposal of wastes discussed.

  2. Disposable Electrochemical Immunosensors for Pcb Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laschi, S.; Mascini, M.; Fránek, M.

    2000-12-01

    We realised an electrochemical enzyme immunoassay for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) using carbon-based screen-printed disposable electrodes as solid-phase for reagent immobilisation and as signal transducer. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugate with Ag or Ab as enzyme label was used; hydrogen peroxide and ferrocenemonocarboxylic acid (FCA) as mediator were employed in order to evaluate the HRP activity in the range 10-8-10-10 M. Indirect and direct competitive assays for PCB were performed and a detection limit of 0.01 ?g/mL was obtained in direct competitive format. The advantage of this approach is the relatively fast analysis (30 min) in comparison with a test based on microtiter assay plates (14h); moreover, the use of disposable screen-printed electrodes eliminates the problems of fouling and surface regeneration of electrochemical device.

  3. Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory

    E-print Network

    Benson, Eric R.

    ­ Create carcass and litter windrow #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Mass Emergency Composting · Basic;Disposal: Science and Theory Mass Emergency Composting · Needs assessment first step · Determine litter and carbon needs ­ Number of birds ­ Bird weight ­ House dimensions ­ Litter depth · Requires ­ 12 -15 cm

  4. Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory

    E-print Network

    Benson, Eric R.

    · Nozzle increases air flow ratio versus standard fire nozzle ­ Air inlet ­ Mesh screen #12;Disposal · Expansion ratio ­ Water flow rate essential for fan speed Two sample water powered foam generators #12 nozzle ­ Medium expansion ­ Series of screens Spumifer Ag-1 nozzle #12;Disposal: Science and Theory

  5. Redistribution of sewage-nitrogen in estuarine food webs following sewage treatment upgrades.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Kylie A; Connolly, Rod M; Maxwell, Paul

    2009-04-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopes were used to assess the effects of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) upgrades on the utilisation of sewage-N by estuarine biota in Moreton Bay, Australia. We measured delta(15)N of filamentous algae, mangrove leaves and shore crabs at the Brisbane and Logan Rivers before and after scheduled WWTP upgrades, and at two reference rivers where WWTPs had been upgraded >4 years previously. The total N discharged into Brisbane River decreased by >80% after the upgrades had occurred, but N loads remained similar at Logan River despite the upgrade. In Brisbane River, delta(15)N values of algae and crabs decreased and were comparable to the reference rivers within 1-2 years but no changes occurred at Logan River. The delta(15)N of mangrove leaves remained elevated in all rivers, indicating that sewage-N remained a major source to mangroves either from residual WWTP discharges or from N accumulated in the sediments over many years. PMID:19138774

  6. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  7. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: preliminary feasibility evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications. PMID:24656467

  8. Response of benthic foraminifers to sewage discharge and remediation in Santa Monica Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGann, M.; Alexander, C.R.; Bay, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Examination of a time series of foraminiferal assemblage distributions on the continental shelf and slope of Santa Monica Bay from 1955 to 1997-1998 suggests that the benthic microfauna have been greatly affected by the quality and character of the municipal sludge and wastewater discharged into the bay over the last half-century by the Hyperion Treatment Plant serving the greater Los Angeles area. Five species dominate both the living and dead foraminiferal assemblages of the 1997-1998 surface samples, including Eggerella advena, Trochammina pacifica, Bulimina denudata, Buliminella elegantissima, and Epistominella bradyana. Temporal patterns of relative species abundances for both living and dead assemblages, as well as toxicity tests measuring amphipod survival and sea urchin fertilization success, show improvement since the sewage treatment program was enhanced in 1986. None of these trends are evident 10 years earlier, coincident with the onset of a Pacific Decadal Oscillation warming trend. This fact suggests that remediation, and not climate change, is responsible for the faunal changes observed. Even with remediation, however, all foraminiferal faunal trends have not returned to early-outfall levels. The organic-waste indicating species T. pacifica shows a slow decline in abundance as sewage treatment and sludge disposal activities have improved, whereas a dramatic increase in the abundance of the pioneer colonizer of impacted regions, E. advena, has occurred, often with a reciprocal response by B. denudata. Also evident is a dramatic shift in the abundance of the once-dominant species Nonionella basispinata and Nonionella stella, which were unable to recolonize Santa Monica Bay since the two major outfalls (5- and 7-mile) began discharging. Temporal variations in species abundances, as well as range expansions, contractions, and the inability to recolonize areas previously, or presently, impacted, suggests that foraminifers are a useful tool in defining areas affected by waste discharge.

  9. Evaluation of electrokinetic removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Yuan; Zhang, Di-Song; Stabnikova, Olena; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2005-09-30

    The presence of heavy metals is one of the main obstacles for agricultural use of million tonnes of dewatered sewage sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. Electrokinetic (EK) treatment can be applied to remove heavy metals from sludge. The aim of this study was to increase the efficiency of electrokinetic removal of heavy metals from dewatered sewage sludge. EK experiments were carried out with and without pH adjustment in cathode chamber of acidified sewage sludge. The selective sequential extraction (SSE) was used to determine the fractionation of heavy metals in sewage sludge. The mobility of heavy metals in sludge significantly increased after its acidification at pH 2.7 and followed the order: Ni, Zn, Cu, As, Cr, Pb. Removal efficiencies of heavy metals in the experiment with acidified sewage sludge and pH adjustment at cathode chamber at 2.0 were: 95% for Zn, 96% for Cu, 90% for Ni, 68% for Cr, 31% for As and 19% for Pb. The concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr and Pb after EK treatment were below the United States Environmental Protection Agency limits for biosolids applied to agricultural land, forest, public contact sites or reclamation sites. PMID:15994006

  10. Macrobenthos response to sewage pollution in a tropical inshore area.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, T; Rakhesh, M; Raman, A V; Nanduri, Sateesh; Moore, Shonda; Rajanna, B

    2014-06-01

    Organic sewage pollution is the major stressor that affects benthic communities in the coastal waters. In the present study involving a once-off sampling (July-August 2003) of a sewage treatment plant (STP) outfall and areas 6 km farther into the sea, we tried to estimate the severity of organic pollution on marine macrobenthos over a pollution gradient in the inshore waters (station depths, 5-30 m) off a heavily urbanized tropical city, on the east coast of India. Multivariate ordination analyses revealed two different groups of faunal assemblages. Group I is associated with sites impacted by the sewage outfall and group II with the locations 3-6 km away in the open sea. Polychaetes and amphipods were the predominant fauna with significant taxonomic differences between the assemblages. Despite the homogeneity in sediment texture, the two-fold increase in sediment organic matter near the sewage outfall area supported r-strategists, while group II locations favoured K-strategists. Approximation through benthic opportunistic polychaetes amphipods (BOPA) index and information on the key taxa responsible for the observed assemblage patterns corroborated these findings. Thus, the present findings revealed how organic sewage pollution influences benthic diversity in coastal waters by supporting communities of opportunistic characteristics. We advocate inclusion of community traits and compatible analytical tools (statistical approaches) in studies of similar nature so that the observations could be compared and broad remedial measures could be evolved. PMID:24464401

  11. Water/Wastewater Engineering Report (Storm Sewer/Infiltration Sanitary Sewage Separation-M1 Model)

    E-print Network

    Liu, Z.; Brumbelow, K.; Haberl, J. S.

    2006-10-30

    In some cities, the municipal sewer system collects both storm water and sanitary sewage in the same pipes. During dry weather these sewers carry all the sanitary sewage to the wastewater treatment plant for treatment. However, when rainstorms...

  12. 7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

  13. Changes in bacterial and eukaryotic communities during sewage decomposition in Mississippi River water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial decay processes are one of the mechanisms whereby sewage contamination is reduced in the environment. This decomposition process involves a highly complex array of bacterial and eukaryotic communities from both sewage and ambient waters. However, relatively little is kn...

  14. Household Disposal of Pharmaceuticals as a Pathway for Aquatic Contamination in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Bound, Jonathan P.; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2005-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are produced and used in increasingly large volumes every year. With this growth comes concern about the fate and effects of these compounds in the environment. The discovery of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has stimulated research in the last decade. A wide range of pharmaceuticals has been found in fresh and marine waters, and it has recently been shown that even in small quantities, some of these compounds have the potential to cause harm to aquatic life. The primary pathway into the environment is the use and disposal of medicines; although much of the research in the area currently focuses on the removal of pharmaceuticals during sewage treatment processes, disposal via household waste might be a significant pathway requiring further research. To investigate the household disposal of unused and expired pharmaceuticals as a source of pharmaceutical compounds in the environment, we carried out a survey and interviewed members of 400 households, predominantly from southeastern England. We used the information on when and how they disposed of unfinished pharmaceuticals to construct a conceptual model to assess the pathways of human pharmaceuticals into the environment. The model demonstrated that disposal of unused pharmaceuticals, either by household waste or via the sink or toilet, may be a prominent route that requires greater attention. PMID:16330351

  15. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    SciTech Connect

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  16. Wastewater Disposal Facility in Colorado

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Oilfield waste arrives by tanker truck at a wastewater disposal facility near Platteville, Colo. After removal of solids and oil, the wastewater is injected into a deep well for permanent storage underground. This disposal process has the potential to trigger earthquakes, but very few wastewater dis...

  17. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  18. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    2003-06-03

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met.

  19. Chemical Waste Management and Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    1988-01-01

    Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)

  20. Hanford Site Mixed Waste Disposal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2001-01-01

    Significant volumes of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) will be generated as part of the management and remediation of the Hanford Site. The MLLW that is generated as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) process will largely be managed as part of that remediation effort, with disposal likely in the centralized Environmental Restoration Disposal

  1. WASTE DISPOSAL SECTION CORNELL UNIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    2/07 WASTE DISPOSAL SECTION CORNELL UNIVERSITY PROCEDURE for DISPOSAL of RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS This procedure has been developed to ensure the safety of those individuals who handle radioactive waste identified hazardous waste, or other unusual issues require special consideration. Contact the Department

  2. Metal partitioning and toxicity in sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson-Ekvall, C.E.A.; Morrison, G.M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Sanitary Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Over 20 years of research has failed to provide an unequivocal correlation between chemically extracted metals in sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil and either metal toxicity to soil organisms or crop uptake. Partitioning of metals between phases and species can provide a better estimation of mobility and potential bioavailability. Partition coefficients, K{sub D} for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sludge/water solution were determined considering the sludge/water solution as a three-phase system (particulate, colloidal and electrochemically available) over a range of pH values, ionic strengths, contact times and sludge/water ratios and compared with the KD values for sludge/water solution as a two-phase system (aqueous phase and particulate phase). Partitioning results were interpreted in terms of metal mobility from sludge to colloids and in terms of potential bioavailability from colloids to electrochemically available. The results show that both mobility and potential bioavailability are high for Zn, while Cu partitions into the mobile colloidal phase which is relatively non-bioavailable. Lead is almost completely bound to the solid phase, and is neither mobile nor bioavailable. A comparison between K, values and toxicity shows that Zn in sludge is more toxic than can be accounted for in the aqueous phase, which can be due to synergistic effects between sludge organics and Zn. Copper demonstrates clear synergism which can be attributed to the formation of lipid-soluble Cu complexes with known sludge components such as LAS, caffeine, myristic acid and nonylphenol.

  3. Neurotoxic effects of solvent exposure on sewage treatment workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kraut, A.; Lilis, R.; Marcus, M.; Valciukas, J.A.; Wolff, M.S.; Landrigan, P.J.

    1988-07-01

    Nineteen Sewage Treatment Workers (STWs) exposed to industrial sewage that contained benzene, toluene, and other organic solvents at a primary sewage treatment plant in New York City (Plant A) were examined for evidence of solvent toxicity. Fourteen (74%) complained of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms consistent with solvent exposure, including lightheadedness, fatigue, increased sleep requirement, and headache. The majority of these symptoms resolved with transfer from the plant. Men working less than 1 yr at Plant A were more likely to complain of two or more CNS symptoms than men who were working there longer than 1 yr (p = .055). Objective abnormalities in neurobehavioral testing were found in all 4 men working longer than 9 yr at this plant, but in only 5 of 15 employed there for a shorter period (p = .03). These results are consistent with the known effects of solvent exposure. Occupational health personnel must be aware that STWs can be exposed to solvents and other industrial wastes.

  4. Useful Ingredients Recovery from Sewage Sludge by using Hydrothermal Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Moriyama, Mika; Yamasaki, Yuki; Takahashi, Yui; Inoue, Chihiro

    2006-05-01

    Hydrothermal treatment of sludge from a sewage treatment plant was conducted to obtain useful ingredients for culture of specific microbes which can reduce polysulfide ion into sulfide ion and/or hydrogen sulfide. Several additives such as acid, base, and oxidizer were added to the hydrothermal reaction of excess sludge to promote the production of useful materials. After hydrothermal treatment, reaction solution and precipitation were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and estimated the availability as nutrition in cultural medium. From the results of product analysis, most of organic solid in sewage was basically decomposed by hydrothermal hydrolysis and transformed into oily or water-soluble compounds. Bacterial culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) showed the good results in multiplication with medium which was obtained from hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge with magnesium or calcium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide.

  5. Impacts on groundwater due to land application of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, A.J.

    1984-06-01

    The project was designed to demonstrate the potential benefits of utilizing sewage sludge as a soil conditioner and fertilizer on Sassafras sandy loam soil. Aerobically digested, liquid sewage sludge was applied to the soil at rates of 0, 22.4, and 44.8 Mg of dry solids/ha for three consecutive years between 1978 and 1981. Groundwater, soil, and crop contamination levels were monitored to establish the maximum sewage solids loading rate that could be applied without causing environmental deterioration. The results indicate that application of 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha of sludge is the upper limit to ensure protection of the groundwater quality on the site studied. Application rates at or slightly below 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha are sufficient for providing plant nutrients for the dent corn and rye cropping system utilized in the study.

  6. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage treatment is performed in an environmentally safe and cost?effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by sp...

  7. Comparison of phosphorus availability with application of sewage sludge, sludge compost, and manure compost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guang Wen; Thomas E. Bates; R. Paul Voroney; Julien P. Winter; Mike P. Schellenbert

    1997-01-01

    The objectives were to determine if phosphorus (P) from different organic wastes differs in availability to crops. Four materials: digested, dewatered sewage sludge (DSS); irradiated sewage sludge (DISS); irradiated and composted sewage sludge (DICSS); and composted livestock manure (CLM) were applied for two years at five rates (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 Mg#lbha#lbyr) with four replicates. Uptake of P was

  8. Influence of bulking agents on speciation of heavy metals during sewage sludge composting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Liu; Ya-tong Xu

    2011-01-01

    The major limitation of soil application of sewage sludge compost is the total heavy metal contents and their bioavailability and mobility. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mature compost as a bulking agent on reduction the mobility and bioavailability of Zn, Cu , Pb and Cr during the sewage sludge composting process. The three composting processes: sewage

  9. [Nutrient contents and heavy metal pollutions in composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants in Beijing region].

    PubMed

    Bai, Li-Ping; Qi, Hong-Tao; Fu, Ya-Ping; Li, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Changes of nutrient contents and heavy metal pollutions in composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants (as represented by CSS-A and CSS-B, respectively) in Beijing region were investigated. The results showed that the pH values, nutrient contents, trace elements and heavy metals in CSS-A and CSS-B depended on the sludge resources and particular years. The average of organic matter content in different years (203 338.0 mg x kg(-1)) from CSS-A met both the requirement of sludge quality standard for agricultural use (CJ/T 309-2009) and land improvement (GB/T 24600-2009) in China except the permitted limit of sludge quality standards for garden or park use (GB/T 23486-2009) in China. Moreover, the average of organic matter in different years (298531.5 mg x kg(-1)) from CSS-B and the averages of pH values (7.1 and 7.2, respectively) and NPK concentrations (41 111.7 mg x kg(-1) and 65 901.5 mg x kg(-1), respectively) in different years from CSS-A and CSS-B all met the requirements of sludge quality standards for the above-mentioned disposal types of sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants. The contents of heavy metals in CSS-A and CSS-B except Hg and Ni were below the permitted limits of the A-class sludge quality standard for agricultural use (CJ/T 309-2009) , being the most stringent standards in China. It was suggested that composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants in Beijing region use as a fertilizer in agriculture, land improvement, and garden or park, but the top concern about potential environmental pollution of Hg and Ni should be considered. PMID:25826937

  10. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  11. Presence and destruction of tubercle bacilli in sewage*

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, K. Erik

    1954-01-01

    The author examined the sewage from 5 towns with tuberculosis sanatoria and from one institution for the care of the feeble-minded, which had a tuberculosis ward, for the presence of tubercle bacilli. The 6 effluents were treated in biological-purification plants and average samples taken. These were centrifuged, and the sediment treated for 1 hour at 37°C with 4% NaOH before inoculation into guinea-pigs. Tubercle bacilli were demonstrated in the influent to all the plants and in the digested sludge of all those operating on sewage where the ratio of infective patients to all persons connected with the plant was up to 1:600. Experiments with cultivated tubercle bacilli showed that centrifuging of sewage resulted in only an insignificant loss of bacilli, but that NaOH treatment caused a loss of over 99%. After consideration of the risk of infection to both man and cattle from the sewage of tuberculosis institutions, the author reports on his own studies on the killing of tubercle bacilli in sewage. It took about 11½-15 months before tubercle bacilli could no longer be demonstrated in sludge that had been kept on the drying beds. The addition of 10 mg of chlorine per litre of biologically purified effluent from an activated-sludge plant was found effectively to destroy tubercle bacilli. Disinfection of sludge was also carried out with 0.5% lysol and 0.1%-0.2% formol; 3.1% copper sulfate proved ineffective. The author concludes that the disinfection of sewage from tuberculosis institutions presents no special difficulties, but that work on this subject in different countries should be co-ordinated in an effort to improve plant and reduce costs. PMID:13160757

  12. Virus movement in soil columns flooded with secondary sewage effluent.

    PubMed Central

    Lance, J C; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

    1976-01-01

    Secondary sewage effluent containing about 3 X 10(4) plaque-forming units of polio virus type 1 (LSc) per ml was passed through columns 250 cm in length packed with calcareous sand from an area in the Salt River bed used for ground-water recharge of secondary sewage effluent. Viruses were not detected in 1-ml samples extracted from the columns below the 160-cm level. However, viruses were detected in 5 of 43 100-ml samples of the column drainage water. Most of the viruses were adsorbed in the top 5 cm of soil. Virus removal was not affected by the infiltration rate, which varied between 15 and 55 cm/day. Flooding a column continuosly for 27 days with the sewage water virus mixture did not saturate the top few centimeters of soil with viruses and did not seem to affect virus movement. Flooding with deionized water caused virus desorption from the soil and increased their movement through the columns. Adding CaCl2 to the deionized water prevented most of the virus desorption. Adding a pulse of deionized water followed by sewage water started a virus front moving through the columns, but the viruses were readsorbed and none was detected in outflow samples. Drying the soil for 1 day between applying the virus and flooding with deionized water greatly reduced desorption, and drying for 5 days prevented desorption. Large reductions (99.99% or more) of virus would be expected after passage of secondary sewage effluent through 250 cm of the calcareous sand similar to that used in our laboratory columns unless heavy rains fell within 1 day after the application of sewage stopped. Such virus movement could be minimized by the proper management of flooding and drying cycles. PMID:185960

  13. Salmonellosis in wild birds feeding at sewage treatment works.

    PubMed Central

    Plant, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    Between June 1976 and August 1977 faeces were collected from 599 wild British birds caught during ringing operations at two sewage treatment works in south-east England. Samples were incubated with selenite-F broth to detect the presence of Salmonella. Salm. anatum was isolated from one bird, a Dunnock Prunella modularis an incidence of 0.17% of the total birds examined and 3.23% of the Dunnocks. Comparisons are drawn with previously reported studies and it is suggested that sewage treatment works play little part in the transmission of Salmonella infections to wild birds feeding there. PMID:690424

  14. Constructed Landscaping Combination Constructed Wetlands System Used for Sewage Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Yong-hua; Wu Xiao-fu; Chen Ming-li; Yao Jing; Li Ke-lin; Wang Zhong-cheng; Lei Dian

    2010-01-01

    We constructed a combinant landscape constructed wetland for sewage treatment based on landscape plants in this study. The results are summerized as follows: the system uses model as: A(biological pretreatment pond)-B(biochemistry pond)- C(subsurface flow wetland)-D(surface flow wetland)-E(the third level vertical-flow wetland)-F(second-level vertical-flow wetland) -G(landscape surface flow wetland)-H(biology pond), this combination craft sewage treatment is performed effectively, and the system outcome

  15. Evaluation of forest trees growth after sewage sludge application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitkutä--, Dovilé; Balträ--Naitä--, Edita; Booth, Colin A.; Fullen, Michael A.; Pereira, Paulo

    2010-05-01

    Sewage sludge is extensively used in forest to improve soil properties. It is expected that sewage sludge rich in phosphorus, nitrogen and organic material enhance the germination of tree seedlings in poor soils. In Lithuania, the deforested soils are highly acid, and have a lack of nutrients, especially in exploited peat areas. Sewage sludge from industry contains beneficial components for the soils (such as organic matter, phosphorus, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, etc.). However, it is also rich in heavy metals, especially Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn. High heavy metals concentrations in soil can be phytotoxic and cause reduced plant growth or plant death. The main objectives of this research was to determine the influence of industrial sewage sludge in the forestry and to highlight the idea that industrial sewage sludge containing metals does not favour development of birch and pine trees. The study was performed in Taruskos experimental plot in Panevezys region (Lithuania), amended with industrial sewage sludge ten years ago was afforestated with birch and pine seedlings. In order to observe the effects of the amendment in accumulation the mentioned metals and tree growth we collected data from trees in amended plot and control plot. The results showed that soil parameters were improved in the amended plot, in comparing with control site (higher pH, organic matter and cation exchange capacity). However, the growth of investigated trees was slower (e.g. birch roots, shoot, stem and leaves biomass was 40, 7.4, 18.6, 22% smaller than in control site. In pine case: 30, 1.2, 17, 36%, respectively; the stem height of birch was 16% and pine - 12% smaller than in control site). This reduced growth can be related with heavy metals concentration load on soil and accumulation in trees. Cu and Cd concentrations were higher in soil amended with sewage sludge comparing with control site (60 and 36%, respectively). Also, in contaminated trees Cu and Cd concentrations were higher (Cu - 37% in birch and 27% in pine shoots; 6% in birch and 73% in pine roots; Cd was 3% in birch and 1.4% in pine shoots; 53% in birch and 24% in pine roots). Our results showed that the sewage sludge applied from industrial sources was not effective to improve tree growth, despite the fact, that it revealed positive effects on forest soil properties.

  16. Sewage sludge as a supplementary utility boiler fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwillenberg, M. L.; Guerra, C. R.; Singletary, J. H.

    1982-02-01

    The feasibility of utilizing sewage sludge as a supplementary boiler fuel was studied. Samples of sludge from sewage are gathered for chemicals analysis to determine the range of variation of composition and to select typical sludge compositions. Combustion tests are performed, and the effects of sludge combustion on utility boiler performance, corrosion, emission and economics is estimated. Design criteria for boilers convertible to sludge burning will be developed and a survey of the U.S. utility boiler population enables the estimation of the potential market for sludge as a fuel.

  17. Movement and fate of solutes in a plume of sewage-contaminated ground water, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeBlanc, D. R., (Edited By)

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has begun a nationwide program to study the fate of toxic wastes in groundwater. Several sites where groundwater is known to be contaminated are being studied by interdisciplinary teams of geohydrologists, chemists, and microbiologists. The objective of these studies is to obtain a thorough quantitative understanding of the physical, chemical, and biological processes of contaminant generation, migration, and attenuation in aquifers. One of the sites being studied by the USGS under this program is a plume of sewage contaminated groundwater on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The plume was formed by land disposal of treated sewage to a glacial outwash aquifer since 1936. This report summarizes results obtained during the first year of research at the Cape Cod s under the USGS Toxic-Waste Ground-Water Contamination Program. The seven papers included in this volume were presented at the Toxic Waste Technical Meeting, Tucson, Arizona, in March 1984. They provide an integrated view of the subsurface distribution of contaminants based on the first year of research and discuss hypotheses concerning the transport processes that affect the movement of contaminants in the plume. (See W89-09053 thru W89-09059) (Lantz-PTT)

  18. Simulation of co-incineration of sewage sludge with municipal solid waste in a grate furnace incinerator.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hai; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2012-03-01

    Incineration is one of the most important methods in the resource recovery disposal of sewage sludge. The combustion characteristics of sewage sludge and an increasing number of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants provide the possibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was used to verify the feasibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW, and predict the effect of co-incineration. In this study, wet sludge and semi-dried sludge were separately blended with MSW as mixed fuels, which were at a co-incineration ratios of 5 wt.% (wet basis, the same below), 10 wt.%, 15 wt.%, 20 wt.% and 25 wt.%. The result indicates that co-incineration of 10 wt.% wet sludge with MSW can ensure the furnace temperature, the residence time and other vital items in allowable level, while 20 wt.% of semi-dried sludge can reach the same standards. With lower moisture content and higher low heating value (LHV), semi-dried sludge can be more appropriate in co-incineration with MSW in a grate furnace incinerator. PMID:22119515

  19. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration.

    PubMed

    Holder, Amara L; Vejerano, Eric P; Zhou, Xinzhe; Marr, Linsey C

    2013-09-01

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which nanomaterials may enter incinerator waste streams and the fate of these nanomaterials during the incineration process. Although the literature on incineration of nanomaterials is scarce, results from studies of their behavior at high temperature or in combustion environments for other applications can help predict their fate within an incinerator. Preliminary evidence suggests nanomaterials may catalyze the formation or destruction of combustion by-products. Depending on their composition, nanomaterials may undergo physical and chemical transformations within the incinerator, impacting their partitioning within the incineration system (e.g., bottom ash, fly ash) and the effectiveness of control technology for removing them. These transformations may also drastically affect nanomaterial transport and impacts in the environment. Current regulations on incinerator emissions do not specifically address nanomaterials, but limits on particle and metal emissions may prove somewhat effective at reducing the release of nanomaterials in incinerator effluent. Control technology used to meet these regulations, such as fabric filters, electrostatic precipitators, and wet electrostatic scrubbers, are expected to be at least partially effective at removing nanomaterials from incinerator flue gas. PMID:23880913

  20. SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL. VOLUME 2. SLUDGE DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This two volume set presents in detail technical design information for the following sludge treatment and disposal processes: incineration, pyrolysis, composting, land utilization, and landfilling. The discussion of each process includes, where possible, a presentation of perfor...