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1

Marine sewage disposal  

SciTech Connect

An activated sludge marine sewage disposal apparatus is described that includes an aeration chamber immediately adjacent to a flooded settling tank, rising above a disinfectant chamber and a holding chamber disposed around the lower part of the tank. Flow from the aeration chamber to the settling tank is through a port in the common wall between the aeration chamber and settling tank, and up inside a pond separated from the rest of the tank by a downwardly flaring baffle of skirt depending from the top of the tank. A single shimmer at the center of the area at the top of the pond picks up floating solids and returns them to the top of the aeration chamber. A vent disposed directly over the shimmer continuously draws off air and gas to the aeration chamber. A sludge return line picks up heavy solids for the bottom of the tank and returns them to the top of the aeration chamber through a riser located in the aeration chamber. Liquid in the settling tank flows out through a submerged perforated pipe into a standpipe in the aeration chamber, with is located centrally in the aeration chamber, and overflows through an inverted U tube, vented to the aeration chamber, the tube connecting to a downcomer sending the liquid back through the common wall to the disinfectant compartment. When sufficient volume of fluid accumulates in the disinfectant compartment, it overflows into a holding tank, from which it emerges via a port.

Sullivan, D.W.

1981-03-03

2

Sewage disposal system and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

The system includes transport means to carry sewage to holding pits or tanks in open areas remote from community and delivery from tanks to tunnels plowed in ground. Transport may be by tankers or pipeline. Tender tankers receive batches of sewage from storage tanks and deliver to field where tractors pull frames with depending plow members which produce tunnels in ground with narrow slashes or crevices extending to surface. Frames carry manifolds and discharge conduits to deliver sewage to tunnels. Tender tankers arranged beside tractors have supply conduits connecting them to manifolds, with pumps in conduits to produce continuous flow. Tankers travel in synchronism with tractors and deliver sewage to tunnels as they are formed. Compacting rollers pulled behind frames close crevices directly after they are formed by plow, and sewage is sealed into ground. The sewage provides moisture, nutrients, and humus at a proper sub-surface level to support crop growth for a year or more, and the same ground may be used for repeated disposals at suitable intervals.

Danford, J.D.

1981-02-03

3

Disposal of Sewage Sludge Into a Sanitary Landfill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the results of a three-year demonstration study of the disposal of liquid sewage sludge and septic tank pumpings into solid waste at a sanitary landfill. Bench-scale laboratory studies were conducted to determine the moisture-absorbin...

R. Stone

1974-01-01

4

Sewage Disposal by Evaporation-Transpiration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the methods for on-site disposal of wastewater from individual homes is by evaporation. Two types of evaporative disposal systems have been investigated in this study; evapo-transpiration (ET) beds and mechanical evaporation units. Twenty nine test...

E. R. Bennett K. D. Linstedt

1978-01-01

5

SEWAGE DISPOSAL BY EVAPORATION-TRANSPIRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the methods for on-site disposal of wastewater from individual homes is by evaporation. Two types of evaporative disposal systems have been investigated in this study; evapo-transpiration (ET) beds and mechanical evaporation units. Twenty nine test lysimeters of 0.22 cubic...

6

Distribution of sewage indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-water disposal site after cessation of sewage disposal.  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens, a marker of domestic sewage contamination, was enumerated in sediment samples obtained from the vicinity of the 106-Mile Site 1 month and 1 year after cessation of sewage disposal at this site. C. perfringens counts in sediments collected at the disposal site and from stations 26 nautical miles (ca. 48 km) and 50 nautical miles (ca. 92 km) to the southwest of the site were, in general, more than 10-fold higher than counts from an uncontaminated reference site. C. perfringens counts at the disposal site were not significantly different between 1992 and 1993, suggesting that sewage sludge had remained in the benthic environment at this site. At stations where C. perfringens counts were elevated (i.e., stations other than the reference station), counts were generally higher in the top 1 cm and decreased down to 5 cm. In some cases, C. perfringens counts in the bottom 4 or 5 cm showed a trend of higher counts in 1993 than in 1992, suggesting bioturbation. We conclude that widespread sludge contamination of the benthic environment has persisted for at least 1 year after cessation of ocean sewage disposal at the 106-Mile Site.

Hill, R T; Straube, W L; Palmisano, A C; Gibson, S L; Colwell, R R

1996-01-01

7

Preparing sewage sludge for land application or surface disposal: A guide for preparers of sewage sludge on the monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503  

SciTech Connect

The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general responsibilities. USEPA promulgated at 40 CFR Part 503 Phase 1 of the risk-based regulations that govern the final use or disposal of sewage sludge. The intent of the Federal program is to ensure that the use or disposal of sewage sludge occurs in a way that protects both human health and the environment. The Part 503 regulation establishes general requirements, pollutant limits, operational standards, and management practices, as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. These requirements apply to sewage sludge that is land applied, placed on a surface disposal site, or incinerated in a sewage sludge-only incinerator.

Not Available

1993-08-01

8

Near-bottom pelagic bacteria at a deep-water sewage sludge disposal site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. Mixed cultures and bacterial isolates obtained from water overlying sediment core samples collected at the deep-water (2,500 m) municipal sewage disposal site

M. Takizawa; W. L. Straube; R. T. Hill; R. R. Colwell

1994-01-01

9

Supposed Sewage Disposal Lands Environmentally Aware Band in Trouble  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dave Matthews Band has delighted audiences around the world for the past 15 years with its Grateful Dead-inspired musical stylings, infused with a passion for vigorously supporting various environmental causes. According to a civil complaint filed this week by the Illinois Attorney General Lisa Madigan, the band's tour bus and its driver apparently shared a bit too much of the band several weeks ago as the bus passed over the Chicago River. The complaint, which was filed this week, states that on August 8, the Dave Matthews Band tour bus driver (Stefan A. Wohl) polluted the Chicago River by dumping liquid waste from the septic tank, effectively unleashing close to 800 pounds of human waste into the river as it passed over the Kinzie Street bridge. Additionally, a number of unsuspecting passengers riding on a vessel as part of a well-known architectural tour were sprayed with the raw sewage. While Chicago Police Superintendent Phil Cline says his department has videotape footage from nearby businesses showing the bus pass over the bridge at the time of the incident, the members of the Dave Matthews Band issued a statement this week noting "Our driver has stated that he was not involved in this incident".The first link leads to an article from this week's venerable Chicago Sun-Times that talks about the complaint filed by the Illinois Attorney General against the band and its tour bus driver. The second link leads to another news report from NBC5 in Chicago that talks about the evidence gathered by the Chicago Police Department that links the bus to the scene of the alleged illegal sewage disposal. The third link leads to a news article from April 2004 from the Virginian Pilot that discusses the many laudatory contributions the band has made to environmental causes through the group's charitable foundation, Bama Works. The fourth link will take visitors to the official press release issued August 24 by the Illinois Attorney General's Office that spells out the exact nature of the alleged sewage dump and its ramifications for public health and the Chicago River. On a somewhat related note, the fifth link leads to a rather interesting article from the Howstuffworks website that provides a detailed answer to the question of how a toilet functions in a commercial airliner. The sixth and final link whisks visitors away to the homepage of the Friends of the Chicago River organization, which works to create new recreational opportunities along the river and to share in the environmental stewardship of this waterway. Visitors may be keen to find out that the organization is opening a river museum at the Michigan Avenue Bridge Towers in 2006.

10

FUEL EFFICIENT INCINERATION FOR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, demonstrated that 34 to 70 percent of the fuel used for sewage sludge incineration could be saved. These savings were the result of study of how sewage sludge incineration in a multiple hearth incinerator works, adding instrumentation and contro...

11

Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment processes and disposal of sewage sludges. Topics include resource and energy recovery operations, land disposal, composting, ocean disposal, and incineration. Digestion, dewatering, and disinfection are among the pretreatment processes discussed. Environmental aspects, including the effects on soils, plants, and animals, are also presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-09-01

12

Guidance for writing permits for the use or disposal of sewage sludge. Draft report  

SciTech Connect

Section 405(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) directs the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop regulations containing guidelines for the use and disposal of sewage sludge. On February 19th, 1993, EPA published final regulations at 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 503 as the culmination of a major effort to develop technical standards in response to Section 405(d). These regulations govern three sewage sludge use and disposal practices: land application, surface disposal, and incineration. A key element in EPA's implementation of the Part 503 regulations is educating Agency and State personnel about these new requirements. Although the regulations are generally directly enforceable against all persons involved in the use and disposal of sewage sludge, they will also be implemented through permits issued to treatment works treating domestic sewage as defined in 40 CFR 122.22. Thus, the primary focus of the manual is to assist permit writers in incorporating the Part 503 requirements into permits; it serves as an update to the Guidance for Writing Case-by-Case Permit Conditions for Municipal Sewage Sludge (PB91-145508/HDM).

Not Available

1993-03-01

13

Near-bottom pelagic bacteria at a deep-water sewage sludge disposal site  

SciTech Connect

The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. Mixed cultures and bacterial isolates obtained from water overlying sediment core samples collected at the deep-water (2,500 m) municipal sewage disposal site were tested for the ability to grow under in situ conditions of temperature and pressure. The responses of cultures collected at a DWD-106 station heavily impacted by sewage sludge were compared with those of samples collected from a station at the same depth which was not contaminated by sewage sludge. Significant differences were observed in the ability of mixed bacterial cultures and isolates from the two sites to grow under deep-sea pressure and temperature conditions. The levels of sludge contamination were established by enumerating Clostridium perfringens, a sewage indicator bacterium, in sediment samples from the two sites. (Copyright (c) 1993, American Society for Microbiology.)

Takizawa, M.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.

1994-01-01

14

Nearshore macrobenthos of northern Kotzebue Sound, Alaska, with reference to local sewage disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrobenthos of the shallow (<10 m) nearshore marine waters of northern Kotzebue Sound was examined in 2002–2004 to (1) determine\\u000a nearshore community structure and (2) assess the influence of sewage disposal. A variable number of benthic stations were\\u000a sampled during three summers, with extensive effort at the disposal zone in 2003. The benthic community structure is similar\\u000a to other nearshore Arctic

Stephen C. Jewett; Lisa M. Clough; Arny L. Blanchard; William G. Ambrose; Howard M. Feder; Max K. Hoberg; Alex V. Whiting

2009-01-01

15

Management Plan for Wastewater Sludge by Metropolitan Denver, Sewage Disposal District No. 1, Denver, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary is made of the full report. The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District No. 1 (Metro) has proposed to construct the necessary facilities to transport sludge to a site in Adams County for air drying in earthen basins, stockpiling in above-gr...

M. A. Gansecki

1976-01-01

16

Evaluation of onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems in shallow karst terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two conventional onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems (OSTDSs) at Manatee Springs State Park, Florida, USA, were studied to assess their impact on groundwater quality in a shallow karst environment. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and fluorescein were used as tracers to establish connections between the drainfields and monitoring wells. Elevated nutrients were found in all wells where significant concentrations of both

Harmon S. Harden; Eberhard Roeder; Mark Hooks; Jeffrey P. Chanton

2008-01-01

17

Effects of sewage disposal into the White Nile on the plankton community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty water samples and 30 plankton samples were taken from the sewage disposal site (El Lamab, south of Khartoum), from 250 m upstream and 250 m downstream during January–March, 1987 and Februar–April, 1988. The water samples were examined for physical and chemical characteristics. Plankton samples were examined for species composition and relative abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton.

Eisa M. Abdellatif; Osman M. Ali; Insaf F. Khalil; Betty M. Nyonje

1993-01-01

18

25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?...

2013-04-01

19

Mercury speciation in sediments at a municipal sewage sludge marine disposal site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury speciation was performed in excess activated sewage sludge (ASS) and in marine sediments collected at the AAS disposal site off the Mediterranean coast of Israel in order to characterize the spatial and vertical distribution of different mercury species and assess their environmental impact. Total Hg (HgT) concentrations ranged between 0.19 and 1003ng\\/g at the polluted stations and 5.7 and

E. Shoham-Frider; G. Shelef; N. Kress

2007-01-01

20

The deep-ocean option for the disposal of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present methods of disposal of high-bulk low-toxicity wastes, such as sewage sludge, into shallow marine environments are beginning to be questioned by many environmentalists. The alternative options generally considered all have environmental costs. A novel approach of discharging such wastes as slurries into the deep ocean at depths of 4,000 m close to the abyssal sea bed is considered. Such

Martin V Angel

1988-01-01

21

Treating Higher-Strength Commercial Sewage for Disposal or ReUse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial high-strength sewage has high organics and nitrogen, variable diurnal and seasonal flows, use of disinfectants and grease-strippers, and fast-food type employees. A 'pre-engineered' treatment process developed to counter these challenges results in a more consistent effluent quality. Consistency is important for nitrogen removal, for difficult disposal sites, and for irrigation or toilet re-use. The standard process includes an exterior

E. Craig Jowett

2003-01-01

22

Viral Tracer Studies Indicate Contamination of Marine Waters by Sewage Disposal Practices in Key Largo, Florida  

PubMed Central

Domestic wastewater disposal practices in the Florida Keys are primarily limited to on-site disposal systems such as septic tanks, injection wells, and illegal cesspits. Poorly treated sewage is thus released into the highly porous subsurface Key Largo limestone matrix. To investigate the fate and transport of sewage in the subsurface environment and the potential for contamination of marine surface waters, we employed bacteriophages as tracers in a domestic septic system and a simulated injection well in Key Largo, Florida. Transport of bacteriophage (Phi)HSIC-1 from the septic tank to adjacent surface canal waters and outstanding marine waters occurred in as little as 11 and 23 h, respectively. Transport of the Salmonella phage PRD1 from the simulated injection well to a canal adjacent to the injection site occurred in 11.2 h. Estimated rates of migration of viral tracers ranged from 0.57 to 24.2 m/h, over 500-fold greater than flow rates measured previously by subsurface flow meters in similar environments. These results suggest that current on-site disposal practices can lead to contamination of the subsurface and surface marine waters in the Keys.

Paul, J. H.; Rose, J. B.; Brown, J.; Shinn, E. A.; Miller, S.; Farrah, S. R.

1995-01-01

23

Environmental Study of the Sewage Outfall Area at San Clemente Island. An Open-Ocean Sewage Disposal Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An environmental-impact study of the San Clemente Island sewage discharge site was used as a model to predict the effects of dumping raw sewage into the open ocean. Coliform bacterial counts, used to assess water sanitary quality, showed that the water at...

P. R. Kenis M. H. Salazar J. A. Tritschler

1972-01-01

24

Life cycle GHG emissions of sewage sludge treatment and disposal options in Tai Lake Watershed, China.  

PubMed

The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge generate considerable amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pose environmental and economic challenges to wastewater treatment in China. To achieve a more informed and sustainable sludge management, this study conducts a life cycle inventory to investigate the GHG performances of six scenarios involving various sludge treatment technologies and disposal strategies. These scenarios are landfilling (S1), mono-incineration (S2), co-incineration (S3), brick manufacturing (S4), cement manufacturing (S5), and fertilizer for urban greening (S6). In terms of GHG emissions, S2 demonstrates the best performance with its large offset from sludge incineration energy recovery, followed by S4 and S6, whereas S1 demonstrates the poorest performance primarily because of its large quantity of methane leaks. The scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. In most scenarios, GHG performance could be improved by using waste gas or steam from existing facilities for drying sludge. Furthermore, considering the GHG performance along with economic, health, and other concerns, S6 is recommended. We thus suggest that local governments promote the use of composted sludge as urban greening fertilizers. In addition, the use of sludge with 60% water content, in place of the current standard of 80%, in wastewater treatment plants is proposed to be the new standard for Tai Lake Watershed in China. PMID:23410857

Liu, Beibei; Wei, Qi; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun

2013-02-07

25

Sewage Disposal Facility (Land Acquisition Portion only) Fy 72 Military Construction Program, 1 April 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acquisition is proposed of approximately 440 acres near the Naval Air Station, Lemoore, California, to construct sewage treatment and evaporation ponds for sewage and surface water runoff from the Naval Air Station administrative and housing areas. The fl...

1972-01-01

26

SEWAGE DISPOSAL ON AGRICULTURAL SOILS: CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS. VOLUME I. CHEMICAL IMPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The city of San Angelo, Texas, has used sewage effluent which has undergone primary treatment for irrigation of the same 259-hectare sewage farm since 1958. The impact of 18 years of sewage effluent irrigation on the soil and water quality was studied from 1975 to 1977. The volum...

27

Nutrient couplings between on-site sewage disposal systems, groundwaters, and nearshore surface waters of the Florida Keys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a one-year study to determine the effects of on-site sewage disposal systems (OSDS, septic tanks) on the nutrient\\u000a relations of limestone groundwaters and nearshore surface waters of the Florida Keys. Monitor wells were installed on canal\\u000a residences with OSDS and a control site in the Key Deer National Wildlife Refuge on Big Pine Key. Groundwater and surface\\u000a water

Brian E. Lapointe; Julie D. O'Connell; George S. Garrett

1999-01-01

28

BY-PRODUCTS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE  

PubMed Central

Economy and conservation have worked for years at the problem of profit from sewage. Mr. Weston notes that many American cities have potential by-products enough to make recovery worth trying. English cities have found the American Miles process profitable. It will at least lessen the cost of sewage disposal.

Weston, Robert Spurr

1920-01-01

29

Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS.

NONE

1997-07-01

30

Sewage Sludge Disposal in a Sanitary Landfill. Volume II. Description of Study and Technical Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second volume describes the results of work conducted on liquid sewage sludge and septic tank pumpings into solid waste at a sanitary landfill. Pilot plant lysimeters were used to investigate the effects of sewage and septic tank sludges on solid wast...

1973-01-01

31

Potential Health Hazards Associated with the Disposal of Sewage Sludge on Agricultural Soils in Western Oregon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field experiments were carried out to determine the extent of potential health hazards due to the persistence of fecal coliform bacteria in four Willamette Valley soils after application of anaerobically-digested sewage sludge. It was originally thought t...

C. Hagedorn

1980-01-01

32

Sewage Disposal Facility (Land Acquisition Portion Only) Fy 72 Military Construction Program 1 April 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The secondary sewage treatment plant presently serving the Administrative and Housing Area at the Naval Air Station, Lemoore, California, discharges its effluent into the Kings River near its crossing of State Highway 198. The Station has met the requirem...

1971-01-01

33

Optimization study on sewage sludge conditioning using Moringa oleifera seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of sewage sludge is a main problem faced by local municipalities in Malaysia. Sludge conditioned with chemical polymer often termed as undesirable use for land application. However, using natural polymer will help to reduce the impact of this problem. In this study, optimization using Moringa oleifera seeds as a natural polymer in sewage sludge conditioning is highlighted. An earlier

Wai Kien Tat; Azni Idris; Megat Johari Megat Mohd Noor; Thamer A. Mohamed; Abdul Halim Ghazali; Suleyman A. Muyibi

2010-01-01

34

Pulverized fuel ash products solve the sewage sludge problems of the wastewater industry  

SciTech Connect

Sewage sludge recycling has become one of the predominant problems of the water industry. Not all types of sewage sludges are able to be recycled to farm land or into composting processes. Pulverized fuel ash is used as a major ingredient in a product called Rhenipal which is used to stabilize sewage sludge for recycling into a material for land reclamation, as a soil conditioner, as cover material for landfill and as a landfill engineering material. This article deals with the results achieved when applying rhenipal in a post-stabilization process to prepare landfill engineering material. The process is currently developed further and can be operated in a pre-stabilization mode, which will further improve the economical results shown for the post-stabilization method in this paper.

Dirk, G. [Rhenipal UK Ltd., Birkenhead (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

35

Impact assessment of treated\\/untreated wastewater toxicants discharged by sewage treatment plants on health, agricultural, and environmental quality in the wastewater disposal area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were undertaken to assess the impact of wastewater\\/sludge disposal (metals and pesticides) from sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Jajmau, Kanpur (5 MLD) and Dinapur, Varanasi (80 MLD), on health, agriculture and environmental quality in the receiving\\/application areas around Kanpur and Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, India. The raw, treated and mixed treated urban wastewater samples were collected from the inlet

Kunwar P Singh; Dinesh Mohan; Sarita Sinha; R Dalwani

2004-01-01

36

TECHNICAL-ECONOMIC STUDY OF SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL ON DEDICATED LAND  

EPA Science Inventory

This study documents the technical, cost, and environmental factors for disposing of sludge on dedicated land. Dedicated land is characterized by the practice of applying sludge on land where sludge disposal is the primary objective and other purposes such as improved crop yields...

37

Sludge Utilization and Disposal in Virginia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This state-of-the-art study was initiated to determine the problem issues, present knowledge about the issues, and additional research needs in the area of land disposal of municipal sewage sludge. Three questionnaires were developed to survey technically...

D. C. Martens G. D. McCart R. B. Reneau T. W. Simpson T. Ban-Kiat

1982-01-01

38

Nuclear waste problem: how to dispose of the undisposable  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the state of high-level radioactive waste disposal at the present time. In early June, Radioactive Waste Campaign issued an analysis of the problems the DOE has encountered in managing wastes from 19 nuclear-weapons manufacturing plants. A week later, the House Energy and Commerce Committee's Oversight and Investigations Subcommittee released a report in which it identified 41

B. Merz

1988-01-01

39

Effects of leachate recirculation on biogas production from landfill co-disposal of municipal solid waste, sewage sludge and marine sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leachate recirculation is an emerging technology associated with the management of landfill. The impact of leachate recirculation on the co-disposal of three major wastes (municipal solid waste, sewage sludge and sediment dredgings) was investigated using a laboratory column study. Chemical parameters (pH, COD, ammoniacal-N, total-P) and gas production (total gas volume, production rates and concentrations of CH4 and CO2) were

G. Y. S. Chan; L. M. Chu; M. H. Wong

2002-01-01

40

Microbial utilization and transformation of humic acid-like substances extracted from a mixture of municipal refuse and sewage sludge disposed of in a landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the research was to establish whether humic acid-like substances (HA) related to municipal refuse disposed of in a landfill can resist microbial degradation and if they contribute, in that way, to long-term stabilization of landfill refuse. Using a mixture of 0.1 M Na4P2O7 + 0.1 M NaOH, we extracted HA from municipal refuse mixed with sewage sludge

Z Filip; W Pecher; J Berthelin

2000-01-01

41

Chemical Changes and Heavy Metal Partitioning in an Oxisol Cultivated with Maize (Zea mays, L.) after 5 Years Disposal of a Domestic and an Industrial Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for solutions to minimize the negative environmental impacts of anthropogenic activities Fhas increased. Sewage sludge\\u000a is composed of predominantly organic matter and can be used to improve soil characteristics, such as fertility. Therefore,\\u000a its application in agriculture is an adequate alternative for its final disposal. However, there is a lack of information\\u000a on its long-term effects on soil

S. Alcantara; D. V. Pérez; M. R. A. Almeida; G. M. Silva; J. C. Polidoro; W. Bettiol

2009-01-01

42

The dissipation of phosphorus in sewage and sewage effluents.  

PubMed

Of the 41 kt of phosphorus reaching the sewage works in England and Wales 15 kt is removed in sewage sludge and the remainder is disposed of to rivers. 60% of the sewage sludge is now used as fertilizer and this proportion will no doubt increase in the future. The total use of sewage sludge, however, represents only about 5% of the current annual usage of artificial phosphorus fertilizer. At present there is no general economic incentive to make better use of the phosphorus in effluents. Phosphorus removal is expensive--about 2--3 pence/m3. If all the sewage effluents in England and Wales were to be so treated the cost would be about 100--150 million pounds annually, that is about 50% of the present costs of sewage treatment. In certain cases, but rarely in the UK, phosphate is removed, not to conserve phosphorus but to minimize the problems it creates in the environment. The phosphorus removed has little value as fertilizer. Alternative methods of using the phosphorus in effluents by the production and harvesting of crops of algae or aquatic plants have so far proved uneconomic. However, these methods need to be reviewed periodically as they may in the future become economically more attractive, especially in warmer climates where plant growth can be maintained throughout the year. PMID:357121

Collingwood, R W

43

Effects of high temperature melting on the porosity and microstructure of slags from domestic sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage treatment plant sludges continue to pose great problems in terms of volume, odour and method of disposal. Thermal treatment of sewage sludge is considered as an attractive method in reducing sludge volume, which at the same time produces reusable by-products. Studies on high temperature melting of sewage sludge, above 1200ºC, show promising results where by stable and inert by-products

Z. Abu-Kaddourah; A. Idris; M. J. M. M. Noor; F. R. Ahmadun

44

Disinfection and reduction of organic load of sewage water by electron beam radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of electron beam radiation for the disinfection and reduction of organic load of sewage water was assessed with\\u000a ILU-6 Accelerator at Radiation Technology Development Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai India. The current\\u000a problem on environmental health in relation to water pollution insists for the safe disposal of sewage water. In general,\\u000a sewage water comprises heterogeneous

Y. Avasn Maruthi; N. Lakshmana Das; Kaizar Hossain; K. S. S. Sarma; K. P. Rawat; S. Sabharwal

2011-01-01

45

Disposal of fly ash—an environmental problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report intends to summarize impacts of fly?ash disposal on soil?water environment with special reference to the behaviour of trace elements. Physico?chemical properties of fly?ash and trace elements release in environment are dependent on the geological origin of coal, form of the element in coal, combustion products, type of coal burning process, nature of emission control devices, methods of disposal

M. H. Fulekar; J. M. Dave

1986-01-01

46

Sewage effects in marine and estuarine environments. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of disposal of sewage effluents and sludge on marine and estuarine environments. Citations discuss the effects on specific flora and fauna, ocean dumping problems, and pollutant distribution. Regional and site-specific studies regarding environmental effects of ocean waste disposal are presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

47

Two-phase anaerobic digestion of partially acidified sewage sludge: a pilot plant study for safe sludge disposal in developing countries.  

PubMed

The unsafe disposal of wastewater and sludge in different areas of developing countries results in significant environmental pollution, particularly for groundwater, thus increasing the risk of waterborne diseases spreading. In this work, a two-phase anaerobic digestion process for post-treatment of partially acidified sewage sludge was investigated to evaluate its feasibility as a safe sludge disposal system. Pilot tests showed that an effective sludge stabilization can be achieved (total volatile solids content <65%, organic acid concentration <200 mg/L at flow rate = 50 L/d and hydraulic residence time = 18 d) as well as a relative low faecal coliform density (<1000 most probable number per g total solids), showing that land application of the sludge without restrictions is possible according to US Environmental Protection Agency criteria for safe sludge disposal. A biogas production as high as 390 L/d with a 60% methane content by volume was achieved, showing that energy production from biogas may be achieved as well. PMID:23240203

Passio, Luca; Rizzoa, Luigi; Fuchs, Stephan

2012-09-01

48

Nuclear Waste Disposal: the Nature of the Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current plans and policies for the disposal of nuclear waste have been predicated on the beliefs that (1) nuclear waste poses a potential danger of great magnitude because of its extreme toxicity, and (2) the long half-lives of certain components such as plutonium present a threat of unprecedented duration. Evidence is presented indicating that both of these beliefs are technically

Jerry J. Cohen

1986-01-01

49

Low-cost water treatment solves disposal problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gulf Oil Corp. has eliminated open pit disposal of waste water from crude oil separators, and has significantly improved water quality for subsurface injection in its Red Ribbon Ranch plant near Bakersfield, Calif. The water purifying facility has been tested with throughputs of 10,600 bwpd with 100 ppm oil contamination. The discharge consistently tested less than 4 ppm oil, with

Beckett

1971-01-01

50

MOVEMENT OF SELECTED METALS, ASBESTOS, AND CYANIDE IN SOIL: APPLICATIONS TO WASTE DISPOSAL PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents information on movement of selected hazardous substances in soil which can be applied to problems of selecting and operating land disposal sites for wastes containing arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, mercury, selen...

51

Microbial utilization and transformation of humic acid-like substances extracted from a mixture of municipal refuse and sewage sludge disposed of in a landfill.  

PubMed

The purpose of the research was to establish whether humic acid-like substances (HA) related to municipal refuse disposed of in a landfill can resist microbial degradation and if they contribute, in that way, to long-term stabilization of landfill refuse. Using a mixture of 0.1 M Na(4)P(2)O(7) + 0.1 M NaOH, we extracted HA from municipal refuse mixed with sewage sludge and disposed of for up to 12 months, in a 40-m(3) model landfill. In laboratory experiments under aerobic conditions, up to 50% of HA was utilized as a supplementary source of nutrients by an assemblage of soil microorganisms in only 21 days. The microbial utilization was enhanced to over 80%, and up to 98%, respectively, if HA served as the sole source of carbon or nitrogen. Remaining HA which could be re-isolated from microbial cultures were lower in carbon (<12%) and nitrogen (<2.3%). Spectroscopic analysis (UV, Vis, FTIR) indicated losses, especially in aliphatic structural units, and a relative enhancement in aromatic structures. It was postulated that for their high degree of degradability, HA indigenous to that anthropogenic environment would not play an important role in the long-term stabilization of landfill refuse. PMID:15092916

Filip, Z; Pecher, W; Berthelin, J

2000-07-01

52

The problem of nitrogen disposal in the obese.  

PubMed

Amino-N is preserved because of the scarcity and nutritional importance of protein. Excretion requires its conversion to ammonia, later incorporated into urea. Under conditions of excess dietary energy, the body cannot easily dispose of the excess amino-N against the evolutively adapted schemes that prevent its wastage; thus ammonia and glutamine formation (and urea excretion) are decreased. High lipid (and energy) availability limits the utilisation of glucose, and high glucose spares the production of ammonium from amino acids, limiting the synthesis of glutamine and its utilisation by the intestine and kidney. The amino acid composition of the diet affects the production of ammonium depending on its composition and the individual amino acid catabolic pathways. Surplus amino acids enhance protein synthesis and growth, and the synthesis of non-protein-N-containing compounds. But these outlets are not enough; consequently, less-conventional mechanisms are activated, such as increased synthesis of NO? followed by higher nitrite (and nitrate) excretion and changes in the microbiota. There is also a significant production of N(2) gas, through unknown mechanisms. Health consequences of amino-N surplus are difficult to fathom because of the sparse data available, but it can be speculated that the effects may be negative, largely because the fundamental N homeostasis is stretched out of normalcy, forcing the N removal through pathways unprepared for that task. The unreliable results of hyperproteic diets, and part of the dysregulation found in the metabolic syndrome may be an unwanted consequence of this N disposal conflict. PMID:22309896

Alemany, Marià

2012-02-06

53

Impact assessment of treated/untreated wastewater toxicants discharged by sewage treatment plants on health, agricultural, and environmental quality in the wastewater disposal area.  

PubMed

Studies were undertaken to assess the impact of wastewater/sludge disposal (metals and pesticides) from sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Jajmau, Kanpur (5 MLD) and Dinapur, Varanasi (80 MLD), on health, agriculture and environmental quality in the receiving/application areas around Kanpur and Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, India. The raw, treated and mixed treated urban wastewater samples were collected from the inlet and outlet points of the plants during peak (morning and evening) and non-peak (noon) hours. The impact of the treated wastewater toxicants (metals and pesticides) on the environmental quality of the disposal area was assessed in terms of their levels in different media samples viz., water, soil, crops, vegetation, and food grains. The data generated show elevated levels of metals and pesticides in all the environmental media, suggesting a definite adverse impact on the environmental quality of the disposal area. The critical levels of the heavy metals in the soil for agricultural crops are found to be much higher than those observed in the study areas receiving no effluents. The sludge from the STPs has both positive and negative impacts on agriculture as it is loaded with high levels of toxic heavy metals and pesticides, but also enriched with several useful ingredients such as N, P, and K providing fertilizer values. The sludge studied had cadmium, chromium and nickel levels above tolerable levels as prescribed for agricultural and lands application. Bio-monitoring of the metals and pesticides levels in the human blood and urine of the different population groups under study areas was undertaken. All the different approaches indicated a considerable risk and impact of heavy metals and pesticides on human health in the exposed areas receiving the wastewater from the STPs. PMID:14761695

Singh, Kunwar P; Mohan, Dinesh; Sinha, Sarita; Dalwani, R

2004-04-01

54

Types and quantities of leftover drugs entering the environment via disposal to sewage — Revealed by coroner records  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmaceuticals designed for humans and animals often remain unused for a variety of reasons, ranging from expiration to a patient's non-compliance. These leftover, accumulated drugs represent sub-optimal delivery of health care and the potential for environmentally unsound disposal, which can pose exposure risks for humans and wildlife. A major unknown with respect to drugs as pollutants is what fractions of

Ilene Sue Ruhoy; Christian G. Daughton

2007-01-01

55

1988 NATIONAL SEWAGE SLUDGE SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Originally developed to support Phase I regulation for use or disposal of biosolids (sewage sludge). Data collected were used to estimate risks, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation. This is currently the only statistically designed surv...

56

The spatial variability of nitrogen and phosphorus concentration in a sand aquifer influenced by onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems: a case study on St. George Island, Florida.  

PubMed

Groundwater from a shallow freshwater lens on St. George Island, a barrier island located in the Panhandle of Florida, eventually discharges into Apalachicola Bay or the Gulf of Mexico. Nutrient concentrations in groundwaters were monitored downfield from three onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems (OSTDS) on the island. Estimates of natural groundwater nutrient concentrations were obtained from an adjacent uninhabited island. Silicate, which was significantly higher in the imported drinking water relative to the surficial aquifer on St. George Island (12.2+/-1.9 mg Si l(-1) and 2.9+/-0.2 mg Si l(-1), respectively), was used as a natural conservative tracer. Our observations showed that nitrogen concentrations were attenuated to a greater extent than that of phosphorus relative to the conservative tracer. At the current setback distance (23 m), both nitrogen and phosphate concentrations are still elevated above natural levels by as much as 2 and 7 times, respectively. Increasing the setback distance to 50 m and raising the drainfields 1 m above the ground surface could reduce nutrient levels to natural concentrations (1.1+/-0.1 mg N l(-1), 0.20+/-0.02 mg P l(-1)). PMID:11916049

Corbet, D Reide; Dillon, Kevin; Burnett, William; Schaefer, Geoff

2002-01-01

57

40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7...

2011-07-01

58

Alleviation of Environmental Pollution Using Nuclear Techniques Recycling of Sewage Water and Sludge in Agriculture: a Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture soil has always been the disposal site for sewage effluent and solid sewage sludge. In Egypt, the use of raw sewage effluent as a source of irrigation and fertilization has been practiced for almost 80 years at ElGabal ElAsfar farm. At Helwan sewage effluent has started to be used in agriculture since 1992. Raw sewage sludge and sewage water

Rawia A. El-Motaium

59

The Problem of Disposing of Nuclear Low-Level Waste: Where Do We Go from Here.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A problem has developed in nuclear waste disposal. As late as 1975, six commercial low-level nuclear waste burial sites were licensed to operate in the United States. Now only three sites remain. Of these, two were temporaily shut down during the past yea...

1980-01-01

60

Effects of Sewage on the Marine Biota: A Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography contains 108 references to articles concerning marine waste disposal, marine sewage pollution, and the effects of sewage on the marine environment. The bibliography was originally intended to be a complete survey of the effects of pollut...

R. R. Corey M. M. Bundy

1977-01-01

61

A Unique Approach To The Offshore Gas Disposal Problem: Castellon 'Sals' Production Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the problems, and their solutions, associated with the production, storage and gas disposal facilities of Shell Espana's successful Single Anchor Leg Storage (SALS) development of the Castellon Field, situated in some 380-ft waterdepth, offshore Eastern Spain. An underwater completed well produces some 10,000 bbl\\/day, with Gas\\/Oil ratio of 125 sdf\\/bbl, via a single-anchor leg mooring system to

D. A. ONeill; B. C. Hoornenborg

1979-01-01

62

The importance of pathogenic organisms in sewage and sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Deficient sanitation poses a serious threat to human and animal health, involving complex relationships between environments, animals, refuse, food, pathogens, parasites, and man. However, by sanitizing and stabilizing the organic matter of sewage sludge, agriculture can utilize it to maintain soil, water, and air quality. As ingredients in soil amendments, such bioresidues are a source of nutrients for plants. Stabilization and sanitation of sewage sludge safely couple its recycling and disposal. This coupling becomes increasingly important as economic and environmental constraints make strategies for waste disposal more difficult to apply. The occurrence of viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and zooparasites in sewage sludge is reviewed in this article, and consequential epidemiologic concerns that arise from sewage sludge recycling is also addressed. PMID:11417676

Dumontet, S; Scopa, A; Kerje, S; Krovacek, K

2001-06-01

63

Examination of eastern oil shale disposal problems - the Hope Creek field study  

SciTech Connect

A field-based study of problems associated with the disposal of processed Eastern oil shale was initiated in mid-1983 at a private research site in Montgomery County, Kentucky. The study (known as the Hope Creek Spent Oil Shale Disposal Project) is designed to provide information on the geotechnical, revegetation/reclamation, and leachate generation and composition characteristics of processed Kentucky oil shales. The study utilizes processed oil shale materials (retorted oil shale and reject raw oil shale fines) obtained from a pilot plant run of Kentucky oil shale using the travelling grate retort technology. Approximately 1000 tons of processed oil shale were returned to Kentucky for the purpose of the study. The study, composed of three components, is described. The effort to date has concentrated on site preparation and the construction and implementation of the field study research facilities. These endeavors are described and the project direction in the future years is defined.

Koppenaal, D.W.; Kruspe, R.R.; Robl, T.L.; Cisler, K.; Allen, D.L.

1985-02-01

64

Sewage Treatment Control System Design Based on Industry Ethernet  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing attention has been paid to environment protection by government, sewage treatment works is becoming more and more concerned. There are many equipments and complicated process in the project of sewage disposal. The paper discussed the application of PLC and network in the sewage treatment plant. Through the combination of the industrial automatic control technology, computer technology, network

Zhang Hongwei; Wang Xinhuan; Yan Youyun; Zhang Tao

2010-01-01

65

Salt enrichment of municipal sewage: New prevention approaches in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the

Baruch Weber; Yoram Avnimelech; Marcelo Juanico

1996-01-01

66

Scoping survey of perceived concerns, issues, and problems for near-surface disposal of FUSRAP waste  

SciTech Connect

This report is a scoping summary of concerns, issues, and perceived problems for near-surface disposal of radioactive waste, based on a survey of the current literature. Near-surface disposal means land burial in or within 15 to 20 m of the earth's surface. It includes shallow land burial (burial in trenches, typically about 6 m deep with a 2-m cap and cover) and some intermediate-depth land burial (e.g., trenches and cap similar to shallow land burial, but placed below 10 to 15 m of clean soil). Proposed solutions to anticipated problems also are discussed. The purpose of the report is to provide a better basis for identifying and evaluating the environmental impacts and related factors that must be analyzed and compared in assessing candidate near-surface disposal sites for FUSRAP waste. FUSRAP wastes are of diverse types, and their classification for regulatory purposes is not yet fixed. Most of it may be characterized as low-activity bulk solid waste, and is similar to mill tailings, but with somewhat lower average specific activity. It may also qualify as Class A segregated waste under the proposed 10 CFR 61 rules, but the parent radionuclides of concern in FUSRAP (primarily U-238 and Th-232) have longer half-lives than do the radionuclides of concern in most low-level waste. Most of the references reviewed deal with low-level waste or mill tailings, since there is as yet very little literature in the public domain on FUSRAP per se.

Robinson, J.E.; Gilbert, T.L.

1982-12-01

67

The applicability of expert systems to risk analysis for waste disposal problems  

SciTech Connect

This report investigates the specificity of expert system tools in view of their application to nuclear waste disposal and related activities. The nature of expert systems and their unique characteristics are first discussed, and several examples are given. The trial and error process used for building them is then outlined. The type of problems they can solve is emphasized. We have chosen one problem, well test interpretation, as an example and begun the development of a prototype system. Upon completion, this program will interpret the pressure versus time curve obtained during a pumping test in order to draw conclusions about the type of hydrologic regime underground and provide an estimate of the relevant hydraulic parameters. The current state of this effort is described, and a listing of the program in LISP and ART languages is given in the appendix. 11 refs., 11 figs.

Billaux, D.; Uszynski, M.; Benson, S.M.

1988-03-01

68

Effect of cofiring coal and biofuel with sewage sludge on alkali problems in a circulating fluidized bed boiler  

SciTech Connect

Cofiring experiments were performed in a 12 MW circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuel combinations were biofuel (wood+straw), coal+biofuel, coal+sewage sludge+biofuel, and sewage sludge+biofuel. Limestone or chlorine (PVC) was added in separate experiments. Effects of feed composition on bed ash and fly ash were examined. The composition of flue gas was measured, including on-line measurement of alkali chlorides. Deposits were collected on a probe simulating a superheater tube. It was found that the fuel combination, as well as addition of limestone, has little effect on the alkali fraction in bed ash, while chlorine decreases the alkali fraction in bed ash. Sewage sludge practically eliminates alkali chlorides in flue gas and deposits. Addition of enough limestone to coal and sludge for elimination of the SO{sub 2} emission does not change the effect of chlorine. Chlorine addition increases the alkali chloride in flue gas, but no chlorine was found in the deposits with sewage sludge as a cofuel. Cofiring of coal and biofuel lowers the alkali chloride concentration in the flue gas to about a third compared with that of pure biofuel. This is not affected by addition of lime or chlorine. It is concluded that aluminum compounds in coal and sludge are more important than sulfur to reduce the level of KCl in flue gas and deposits. 24 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

K.O. Davidsson; L.-E. Aamand; A.-L. Elled; B. Leckner [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Department of Energy and Environment

2007-12-15

69

Organic Contaminants from Sewage Sludge Applied to Agricultural Soils. False Alarm Regarding Possible Problems for Food Safety? (8 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background   Sewage sludge produced in wastewater treatment contains large amounts of organic matter and nutrients and could, therefore,\\u000a be suitable as fertiliser. However, with the sludge, besides heavy metals and pathogenic bacteria, a variety of organic contaminants\\u000a can be added to agricultural fields. Whether the organic contaminants from the sludge can have adverse effects on human health

Christian Grøn; Karin von Arnold

2007-01-01

70

Interactions of aquaculture and waste disposal in the coastal zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the world, the coastal zones of many countries are used increasingly for aquaculture in addition to other activities such as waste disposal. These activities can cause environmental problems and health problems where they overlap. The interaction between aquaculture and waste disposal, and their relationship with eutrophication are the subjects of this paper. Sewage discharge without adequate dispersion can lead to nutrient elevation and hence eutrophication which has clearly negative effects on aquaculture with the potential for toxic blooms. Blooms may be either toxic or anoxia-causing through the decay process or simply clog the gills of filter-feeding animals in some cases. With the development of aquaculture, especially intensive aquaculture, many environmental problems appeared, and have resulted in eutrophication in some areas. Eutrophication may destroy the health of whole ecosystem which is important for sustainable aquaculture. Sewage discharge may also cause serious public health problems. Filter-feeding shellfish growing in sewage-polluted waters accumulate micro-organims, including human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, and heavy metal ion, presenting a significant health risk. Some farmed animals may also accumulate heavy metals from sewage. Bivalves growing in areas affected by toxic algae blooms may accumulate toxins (such as PSP, DSP) which can be harmful to human beings.

Xuemei, Zhai; Hawkins, S. J.

2002-04-01

71

Problems of site selection for nuclear waste disposal in a loess-covered hill environment in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of the long-term storage of nuclear waste produced by the Paks power plant have recently come to the fore in Hungary. After an extensive debate between investors and the local population the decision makers took the side of those having opposed the establishment of the waste disposal site in the initially proposed environment. Several studies have been conducted to

János Balogh; Ferenc Schweitzer; Tibor Tiner

1995-01-01

72

Approach to solve some of the problems of coal mine liquid tailings disposal in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper outlines the main problems of disposal of coal mines liquid tailings containing 0.5 mm size particles and in excess of 70 % moisture in lagoons. The shear strength and handleability properties of tailings can be improved either by mixing PFA, cement and additives or by adding cement, additives and various power station desulphurization residues. The paper describes a

R. N. Singh; A. S. Atkins; A. M. El-Mherig

1985-01-01

73

Salt enrichment of municipal sewage: New prevention approaches in Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the most immediately available solution. The body of initiatives presently structured by the Ministry of the Environment of Israel are herein described, with the aim to contribute to the search for a long-term solution of salinity problems in arid countries. The new initiatives are based on: (1) search for new technologies to reduce salt consumption and discharge into sewage; (2) different technologies to cope with different situations; (3) raising the awareness of the public and industry on the environmental implications of salinity pollution; and (4) an elastic legal approach expressed through new state-of-the-art regulations. The main contributor to the salinity of sewage in Israel is the watersoftening process followed by the meat koshering process. Some of the adopted technical solutions are: the discharge of the brine into the sea, the substitution of sodium by potassium salts in the ion-exchangers, the construction of centralized systems for the supply of soft water in industrial areas, the precipitation of Ca and Mg in the effluents from ion-exchangers and recycling of the NaCI solution, a reduction of the discharge of salts by the meat koshering process, and new membrane technology for salt recovery.

Weber, Baruch; Avnimelech, Yoram; Juanico, Marcelo

1996-07-01

74

Sewage Sludge ElectroDewatering Treatment—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purification of municipal wastewater generates huge amounts of sewage sludge, which contains large quantities of water, biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances. It is widely known that sewage sludge usually has a poor dewaterability. A large amount of water in sludge directly translates into high transport and handling costs; therefore, sludge treatment and disposal usually requires over 50% of the operation

Pham-Anh Tuan; Sillanpää Mika; Isosaari Pirjo

2012-01-01

75

USING MECHANICAL THERMAL EXPRESSION (MTE) TO DEWATER SEWAGE SLUDGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dewatering of sewage sludge is an important part of proper sludge management practice. It is becoming a challenging issue for water industries as new regulations on sludge disposal are being imposed. In this paper, the application of mechanical thermal expression (MTE) to dewater sewage sludge and the conditioning of sludge by mixing with brown coal prior to MTE are investigated.

K. B. Thapa; S. A. Clayton; A. F. A. Hoadley

76

Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification.  

PubMed

Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures--gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation--are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes. PMID:17919896

Gross, Bodo; Eder, Christian; Grziwa, Peter; Horst, Juri; Kimmerle, Klaus

2007-10-04

77

Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. (Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil))

1993-01-01

78

A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF HOURLY AND DAILY SEWAGE FLOW RATES IN FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOLS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A DETERMINATION OF THE HOURLY AND DAILY SEWAGE FLOW RATES IN FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOLS WAS MADE TO IDENTIFY THE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AND TO PROVIDE A MORE PRECISE BASIS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SEWAGE DISPOSAL FACILITIES IN SCHOOLS. WATER FLOW DATA WAS COLLECTED FOR 158 SCHOOLS AND SEWAGE FLOW DATA FROM 42 SCHOOLS. THE FINDINGS…

FOGARTY, WILLIAM J.; REEDER, MILTON E.

79

CONTROL OF PATHOGENS AND VECTORS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document describes the federal requirements concerning pathogens in sewage sludge and septage destined for land application or surface disposal. t also provides guidance for meeting those requirements. he chapters of this document discuss why pathogen control is necessary, t...

80

The nuclear waste problem and reconsideration of the ocean disposal option  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuation of the nuclear power option around the world requires an eventual resolution for nuclear waste disposal. The United States now has about 70,000 tons of high level nuclear waste stored on site of about 100 nuclear power plants around the country. Another 3,000 tons is being produced each year. Over the last forty years many plans have been

F. Wicks

2002-01-01

81

Oxidation of Unsymmmetrical Dimethyl Hydrazine over Oxide and Noble Metal Catalysts. Solution of Environmental Problems of Production, Storage and Disposal of Highly Toxic Rocket Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction and conversion of weapons production in Russia have made extremely urgent the problems of development and implementation\\u000a of environmentally safe and efficient processes of disposal of rocket fuel components (RFC). One of the most pressing problems\\u000a is the development of a disposal process for extremely toxic 1,1- dymethylhydrazine (unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine -UDMH).\\u000a There are no industrial facilities for UDMH treatment

Z. Ismagilov; M. Kerzentsev; I. Ismagilov; V. Sazonov; V. Parmon; G. Elizarova; O. Pestunova; V. Shandakov; Yu. Zuev; V. Eryomin; N. Pestereva; F. Garin; H. Veringa

82

[Radioecological condition of cleansing structures on the territory contaminated with radionuclides as a result of the accident on the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station and the problems handing with the forming precipitates of sewage in republic Belarus].  

PubMed

This article deals with the problems, connected with the formation of radioactive deposits in sewage (D.S.). It's shown that the main places of the accumulation of D.S. are the fields of filtration, silty sites and biological pools. In order to reduce the extent of the risk of the secondary contamination of environment we could offer the modernization of the elements of the cleansing structures, the development of refining technologies and reduction of mobility of radiocaesium. PMID:10576020

Kavtukha, G A; Basharin, A V; Vishnevskaia, A A; Ivanski?, I I; Skurat, V V; Shiriaeva, N M; Stankevich, L A

83

Uranium mill tailngs: the problem of disposal with a special look at New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

A properly done GEIS should provide a good definition of the problem. A joint research program should be established between EPA and NRC. Both have information in the area; a joint effort should keep them from wrangling over jurisdictional problems. The study should establish: 1) the risks involved as measured at real sites; 2) what can be expected to happen

1978-01-01

84

Emission characteristics of granulated fuel produced from sewage sludge and coal slime.  

PubMed

The neutralization of wastewater treatment residues is an issue for many countries. The European Union (EU) legal regulations have limited the use of the residues in agriculture and implemented a ban for their disposal. Therefore, urgent action should be taken to find solutions for the safe disposal of sewage sludge. The problem refers in particular to the new EU member countries, including Poland, where one can now observe an intensive development of sewage system networks and new sewage treatment plants. At the same time, these countries have few installations for thermal sewage sludge utilization (e.g., there is only one installation of that type in Poland). Simultaneously, there are many coal-fired mechanical stoker-fired boilers in some of these countries. This paper presents suggestions for the production of granulated fuel from sewage sludge and coal slime. Additionally, among others, lime was added to the fuel to decrease the sulfur compounds emission. Results are presented of research on fuel with two average grain diameters (approximately 15 and 35 mm). The fuel with such diameters is adapted to the requirements of the combustion process taking place in a stoker-fired boiler. The research was aimed at identifying the behavior of the burning fuel, with special attention paid to its emission properties (e.g., to the emissions of oxides of nitrogen [NO(x)], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and carbon monoxide [CO], among others). The concentration and emission values were compared with similar results obtained while burning hard coal. The combustion process was carried out in a laboratory stand where realization of the large-scale tests is possible. The laboratory stand used made simulation possible for a wide range of burning processes in mechanical stoker-fired boilers. PMID:21243903

Wzorek, Ma?gorzata; Kozio?, Micha?; Scierski, Waldemar

2010-12-01

85

Persistence of poliovirus 1 in soil and on vegetables grown in soil previously flooded with inoculated sewage sludge or effluent.  

PubMed

Land disposal of sewage sludge and effluent is becoming a common practice in the United States. The fertilizer content and humus value of such wastes are useful for agricultural purposes, and the recycling of sewage onto the land eliminates many of our stream pollution problems. The potential exists for crops grown in such irrigated soil to be contaminated by viruses that may be present in the sewage. Studies were initiated to determine viral persistence in soil and on crops grown under natural conditions in field plots that had been flooded to a depth of 1 inch (2.54 cm) with poliovirus 1-inoculated sewage wastes. Lettuce and radishes were planted in sludge- or effluent-flooded soil. In one study, the vegetables were planted 1 day before flooding, and in another they were planted 3 days after the plots were flooded. Survival of poliovirus 1 in soil irrigated with inoculated sewage sludge and effluent was determined during two summer growing seasons and one winter period. The longest period of survival was during the winter, when virus was detected after 96 days. During the summer, the longest survival period was 11 days. Poliovirus 1 was recovered from the mature vegetables 23 days after flooding of the plots had ceased. Lettuce and radishes are usually harvested 3 to 4 weeks after planting. PMID:189685

Tierney, J T; Sullivan, R; Larkin, E P

1977-01-01

86

Solutions of test problems for disposal of CO2 in saline aquifers  

SciTech Connect

This report presents detailed results for three flow problems involving CO2 migration in saline aquifers, that had been posed as part of an international code intercomparison study. Selected data for PVT properties of aqueous mixtures involving CO2 are given, and the dynamics of immiscible displacement of an aqueous phase by supercritical CO2 is discussed. Simulations were conducted with a version of the TOUGH2 general purpose reservoir simulator that includes a special property package for supercritical CO2. The results can serve as benchmarks for debugging numerical simulation models.

Pruess, Karsten; Garcia, Julio

2003-03-05

87

Bacteriological hazards of disposable bedpan systems  

PubMed Central

A system using disposable papier maché bedpans and urinals in hospital has advantages of ease of handling for the nurse and cleanliness for the patient. Disposal of the bedpans and their contents is by destruction and flushing to waste. Some bacteriological hazards of this process in the Haigh Sluicemaster and J.M.L. Clinimatic machines are assessed, particularly the dispersal of the contents in spray and aerosol during opening, closing, and running the machines. Various safety devices were tested and some deficiencies are discussed. A major defect in the system is the need at present for a bedpan carrier or support which is not disposable and requires cleaning and disinfection. Minor problems include ordering and storing bulky items, possibly the texture of the bedpans themselves, and perhaps the effect of the bulk of paper discharged into the sewage system. At present the system seems unsuitable for use in infectious disease hospitals and has some deficiencies in use in general wards. The improvements suggested would greatly increase its acceptability which should then be completely re-assessed. To this end the examination of improved models using totally disposable bedpans is proceeding. Images

Gibson, G. L.

1973-01-01

88

Leachate tests with sewage sludge contaminated by radioactive cesium.  

PubMed

The sewer systems of eastern Japan have transported radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to wastewater treatment plants, where the radioisotopes have accumulated. To better understand the potential problems associated with the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills, leachate tests were conducted with radioactive incinerator ash, cement solidification incinerator ash, and dewatered sludge cake. Radioactivity was undetectable in the eluate from incinerator ash and dewatered sludge cake, but about 30% of the radioactivity initially in cement solidification incinerator ash appeared in the eluate during the leaching experiments. Moreover, modification of test conditions revealed that the presence of Ca(2+) ions and strong alkali in the water that contacted the incinerator ash enhanced leaching of cesium. Lastly, the capacity of pit soil to absorb radioactive cesium was estimated to be at least 3.0 Bq/g (dry). PMID:23947711

Tsushima, Ikuo; Ogoshi, Masashi; Harada, Ichiro

2013-01-01

89

Wood ash disposal and recycling sourcebook  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents information on thirteen different methods of using or disposing of wood ash in Section III. Discussion concentrates on agricultural landspreading and landfilling since these two methods account for the disposition of about 95% of the wood ash produced at present in the Northeast. The thirteen disposal options include spreading on agricultural lands, landfilling, a sewage sludge composting

Greene

1988-01-01

90

[Environmental impacts of sewage treatment system based on emergy analysis].  

PubMed

"Integrated sewage treatment system" (ISTS) consists of sewage treatment plant system and their products (treated water and dewatered sludge) disposal facilities, which gives a holistic view of the whole sewage treatment process. During its construction and operation, ISTS has two main impacts on the environment, i.e., the consumption of resources and the damage of discharged pollutants on the environment, while the latter was usually ignored by the previous researchers when they assessed the impacts of wastewater treatment system. In order to more comprehensively understanding the impacts of sewage treatment on the environment, an analysis was made on the ISTS based on the theories of emergy analysis, and, in combining with ecological footprint theory, the sustainability of the ISTS was also analyzed. The results showed that the emergy of the impacts of water pollutants on the environment was far larger than that of the impacts of air pollutants, and NH3-N was the main responsible cause. The emergy consumption of ISTS mainly came from the emergy of wastewater and of local renewable resources. The "sewage treatment plant system + landfill system" had the highest emergy utilization efficiency, while the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + incineration system" had the lowest one. From the aspect of environmental sustainability, the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + landfill system" was the best ISTS, while the "sewage treatment plant system + incineration system" was the worst one. PMID:23705396

Li, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Min; Deng, Shi-Huai

2013-02-01

91

Archaeology and public perception of a trans-scientific problem; disposal of toxic wastes in the unsaturated zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Predicting the effects of toxic-waste disposal on the environment over periods of millenia to hundreds of millenia is a transscientific problem; that is, one not fully addressed by quantitative scientific and engineering endeavors. Archaeology is a pertinent adjunct to such predictions in several ways. First, and foremost, archaeological records demonstrate that delicate, as well as durable, objects buried in thick unsaturated zones of arid and semiarid environments may survive intact for millenia to tens of millenia. This successful preservation of Late Paleolithic to Iron Age artifacts provides independent support for the tentative favorable conclusions of earth scientists regarding the general utility of thick unsaturated zones for toxic-waste isolation. By analogy with the archaeological record, solidified toxic wastes of low solubility that are buried in arid unsaturated zones should remain isolated from the environment indefinitely; modern man presumably should be able to improve upon the techniques used by his ancestors to isolate and preserve their sacred and utilitarian objects. Second, archaeological evidence pertinent to the fate of objects buried in unsaturated zones-although qualitative in nature and subject to the limitations of arguments by analogy-is meaningful to the public and to the courts who, with some scientists and engineers, are reluctant to rely exclusively on computer-generated predictions of the effects of buried toxic wastes on the environment. Third, the archaeological record issues a warning that our descendants may intrude into our waste disposal sites and that we must therefore take special measures to minimize such entry and, if it occurs, to warn of the dangers by a variety of symbols. And fourth, archaeology provides a record of durable natural and manmade materials that may prove to be suitable for encapsulation of our wastes and from which we can construct warning markers that will last for millenia. For these four reasons, archaeologists must join with earth scientists, and other scientists and engineers, in addressing the likely fate of solidfied toxic wastes buried in the thick (200-600 m) unsaturated zones of arid and semiarid regions. Indeed, the input of archaeology might be crucial to public acceptance of even the most carefully chosen and technically sound waste repository.

Winograd, Isaac Judah

1986-01-01

92

Heavy metals in sludge from the sewage treatment plant of Rio de Janeiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The final disposal of sewage sludge on soils as a compost for agriculture increases heavy metal contamination in soils. This demands controlled use to avoid hazardous situations. This work measures the heavy metals content in sludge and its potential as a fertilizer in agriculture. Samples were collected from the Penha urban sewage plant, the largest in Rio de Janeiro. Heavy

Tomaz Langenbach; Wolfgang Pfeifer; Luiz Rodrigues Freire; Michele Sarpa; Sueli Paim

1994-01-01

93

Manual for Composting Sewage Sludge by the Beltsville Aerated-Pile Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In producing clean water from sewage, wastewater treatment plants also produce sludge. Most of the commonly used methods to dispose of this material are now considered to be either environmentally unacceptable, wasteful of energy, or very expensive. To ea...

G. B. Willson J. F. Parr E. Epstein P. B. Marsh R. L. Chaney

1980-01-01

94

CONNECTICUT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of sewage treatment plants in Connecticut. It is a point Shapefile that includes the locations of sewage treatment plants, but not their discharge locations to surface or groundater. The National Pollution Discharge Elimintation Discharge Syste...

95

Ocean waste disposal (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1964July 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of the cited topics discuss the ocean disposal of sewage, sewage sludge, and dredged material, although reports on the disposal of radioactive wastes, brines and industrial wastes are also covered. The ecological affects are included, as is research on the pollution of the New York Bight. However, studies on the discharge of heated effluents are excluded. (This updated

1977-01-01

96

Disposal of Industrial and Domestic Wastes: Land and Sea Alternatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The workshop should be organized into eight panels: public policy, economics, risk assessment, marine sciences, biological effects, land disposal, sewage sludge, and industrial wastes. In addition to organizing the workshop, the steering committee identif...

1984-01-01

97

Transport of Sewage Sludge in a Mixed Water Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge from four publicly-owned treatment works was sampled and characterized in terms of parameters affecting transport at the 106-mile deep ocean disposal site as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's site monitoring programme. Samples from treatment plants in Passaic Valley, Rahway, and Elizabeth, New Jersey and New York City were characterized in terms of dynamic size distribution, suspended

J. S. Bonner; A. N. Ernest; D. S. Hernandez; R. L. Autenrieth

1992-01-01

98

SPREADING LAGOONED SEWAGE SLUDGE ON FARMLAND: A CASE HISTORY  

EPA Science Inventory

This project demonstrated that land application is feasible and practical for a metropolitan treatment plant for disposal of a large volume (265,000 cu m) of stabilized, liquid sewage sludge stored in lagoons. The project involved transportation of sludge by semi-trailer tankers ...

99

Sewage impacts coral reefs at multiple levels of ecological organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against a backdrop of rising sea temperatures and ocean acidification which pose global threats to coral reefs, excess nutrients and turbidity continue to be significant stressors at regional and local scales. Because interventions usually require local data on pollution impacts, we measured ecological responses to sewage discharges in Surin Marine Park, Thailand. Wastewater disposal significantly increased inorganic nutrients and turbidity

Pasinee Reopanichkul; Thomas A. Schlacher; R. W. Carter; Suchai Worachananant

2009-01-01

100

PRELIMINARY RISK ASSESSMENT FOR PATHOGENS IN LANDFILLED MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

A methodology and accompanying model, SLDGFILL (sludge monofill), have been developed to assess the risk to human health posed by parasites, bacteria and viruses in municipal sewage sludge disposed of in sludge-only landfills (monofills). he following information is required for ...

101

Composting Dewatered Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The test program described was designed to obtain the following basic information concerning the composting of a combination of primary and secondary dewatered sewage sludges: (1) effect of mixing; (2) effect of moisture content; (3) effect of recycling; ...

1973-01-01

102

Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.  

PubMed

A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate. PMID:23777667

Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

2013-06-15

103

Effects of Irrigation of Municipal Sewage Effluent on Spoil Banks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The discharge of increasing volumes of sewage effluent from waste water treatment plants as a result of increasing population and urbanization has accentuated water pollution problems in the eastern United States. Such effluents are relatively rich in min...

W. E. Sopper

1971-01-01

104

Collection, Underwater Storage and Disposal of Pleasurecraft Waste. Feasibility of Connecting Sewage Holding Tanks on Board Recreational Watercraft to a Dockside Collection System and Storage in an Underwater Tank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot plant was designed, constructed and operated to show the feasibility of providing a facility for the collection, storage and disposal of waste from recreational watercraft. An on-board holding tank was installed in each of ten boats for total impo...

1969-01-01

105

Predicting Water Quality Problems Associated with Coal Fly Ash Disposal Facilities Using a Trace Element Partitioning Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

For much of the U.S., coal-fired power plants are the most important source of electricity for domestic and industrial use. Large quantities of fly ash and other coal combustion by-products are produced every year, the majority of which is impounded in lagoons and landfills located throughout the country. Many older fly ash disposal facilities are unlined and have been closed

S. Bhattacharyya; R. J. Donahoe; E. Y. Graham

2006-01-01

106

Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce.

Anwar F. Al Yaqout; Anwar F

2003-01-01

107

Ocean waste disposal. Volume 2. 1977July, 1978 (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1977July 1978. [111 abstracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of the cited topics cover the ocean disposal of sewage, sewage sludge, and dredged material, although reports on the disposal of radioactive wastes, brines, and industrial wastes are also included. The ecological affects are given, as is research on the pollution of the New York Bight. However, studies on the discharge of heated effluents are excluded.

1978-01-01

108

Water and sewage systems, socio-demographics, and duration of residence associated with endemic intestinal infectious diseases: A cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies of water-related gastrointestinal infections are usually directed at outbreaks. Few have examined endemic illness or compared rates across different water supply and sewage disposal systems. We conducted a cohort study of physician visits and hospitalizations for endemic intestinal infectious diseases in a mixed rural and urban community near Vancouver, Canada, with varied and well-characterized water and sewage systems.

Kay Teschke; Neil Bellack; Hui Shen; Jim Atwater; Rong Chu; Mieke Koehoorn; Ying C MacNab; Hans Schreier; Judith L Isaac-Renton

2010-01-01

109

Ground-Water Quality near a Sewage-Sludge Recycling Site and a Landfill near Denver, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the City and County of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the gro...

S. G. Robson

1977-01-01

110

Democratic input into the nuclear waste disposal problem: The influence of geographical data on decision making examined through a Web-based GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper elucidates the manner in which users of an online decision support system respond to spatially distributed data when assessing the solution to environmental risks, specifically, nuclear waste disposal. It presents tests for revealing whether users are responding to geographical data and whether they are influenced by their home location (Not in My Back Yard - style behavior). The tests specifically cope with problems associated with testing home-to-risk distances where both locations are constrained by the shape of the landmass available. In addition, we detail the users' wider feelings towards such a system, and reflect upon the possibilities such systems offer for participatory democracy initiatives.

Evans, Andrew J.; Kingston, Richard; Carver, Steve

111

Economics of disposal at future disposal facilities  

SciTech Connect

Passage of the Low-Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 clearly leaves the responsibility for the disposal of low-level (radioactive) waste (LLW) at the doorstep of the state capitol of the state of origin. Fortunately, this does not mean that the future will see each state operating its own LLW disposal facility. The provision for regional compacts specifically provides that states may work together to solve the problem of waste disposal. As is the case with many political solutions to problems, the Low-Level Waste Policy Act does not address economics nor was the cost of disposal a factor in the debate leading to ultimate passage of the act. Also, with the passage of the Low-Level Waste Policy Act Amendment of 1985, significant surcharges will be experienced by generators in regions not yet providing their own LLW disposal. The generators of these wastes are seriously asking questions as to the future costs of disposal. While a comprehensive study of future costs must await detailed disposal facility design, some estimates can be made based on the volume of waste generated in a compact region and on the conceptual design of the facility. It is the purpose of this paper to present some of these estimates for the regions that seem to be establishing fairly fixed political boundaries.

Scoville, J.J.

1986-01-01

112

Evaluating waste disposal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste disposal systems conventionally exhibit many problems, such as difficulties in finding final disposal sites for incinerator\\u000a residues and the issue of how to recycle waste materials. Some new technologies have been developed to solve such problems,\\u000a including ash melting and gasification melting. Furthermore, to improve the power generation efficiency of waste treatment\\u000a facilities so that their energy is used

Yasuhiko Wada; Takuma Okumoto; Nariaki Wada

2008-01-01

113

TRANSPORT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This project was initiated with the overall objective of developing organized information pertaining to the costs of various sewage sludge transport systems. Transport of liquid and dewatered sludge by truck and rail and liquid sludge by barge and pipeline is included. The report...

114

The disposal of nuclear waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is considered likely that energy production via the nuclear route will grow in future years. A major drawback to acceptance of this is the problem of nuclear waste disposal. A number of technologies have been proposed to dispose of such waste. The most promising of these is the disposal of the waste into deep geological repositories as part of

Stuart Baskerville

115

Biochemical and physiological responses of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown on different sewage sludge amendments rates.  

PubMed

Using sewage sludge, a biological residue from sewage treatment processes, in agriculture is an alternative disposal technique of waste. To study the biochemical and physiological responses of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown on different sewage sludge amendments (SSA) rates a field experiment was conducted by mixing sewage sludge at 0, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, 12 kg m(-2) rate to the agricultural soil. Rate of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance increased in plants grown at different SSA rate. Chlorophyll and protein contents also increased due to different SSA rates. Lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid, peroxidase activity and proline content increased, however, thiol and phenol content decreased in plants grown at different SSA rates. The study concludes that for rice plant sewage sludge amendment in soil may be a good option as plant has adequate heavy metal tolerance mechanism showed by increased rate of photosynthesis and chlorophyll content and various antioxidant levels. PMID:20414639

Singh, R P; Agrawal, M

2010-04-23

116

Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility.

Silva, M.K.

1996-08-01

117

Disposal of drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

Prior to 1974 the disposal of drilling fluids was not considered to be much of an environmental problem. In the past, disposal of drilling fluids was accomplished in various ways such as spreading on oil field lease roads to stabilize the road surface and control dust, spreading in the base of depressions of sandy land areas to increase water retention, and leaving the fluid in the reserve pit to be covered on closure of the pit. In recent years, some states have become concerned over the indescriminate dumping of drilling fluids into pits or unauthorized locations and have developed specific regulations to alleviate the perceived deterioration of environmental and groundwater quality from uncontrolled disposal practices. The disposal of drilling fluids in Kansas is discussed along with a newer method or treatment in drilling fluid disposal.

Bryson, W.R.

1983-06-01

118

Bulk Transport of Waste Slurries to Inland and Ocean Disposal Sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the summary report of a three volume study principally concerned with the development of regional land and ocean pipeline disposal systems for digested sewage sludge and maintenance dredgings.

E. J. Wasp T. L. Thompson P. E. Snoek J. P. Kenny J. C. Carney

1969-01-01

119

Effect of liming on the distribution of heavy metals in untreated industrial sewage sludge produced in Pakistan for the cultivation of Sorghum bicolor (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recycling of sewage sludge on agriculture land represents an alternative, advantageous, disposal of this waste material.\\u000a The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using industrial sewage sludge, produced in Pakistan, as a\\u000a fertiliser. Agricultural soil amended with 25% (w\\/w) sewage sludge with or without lime treatment was used for growing a variety\\u000a of sorghum

Mohammad Khan Jamali; Tasneem Gul Kazi; Mohammad Bilal Arain; Hassan Imran Afridi; Nusrat Jalbani; Jameel A. Baig; Abdul Niaz

2008-01-01

120

Basic Study of Concrete Made Using Ash Derived from the Incinerating Sewage Sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sewage sludge incinerated ash is discharged as waste. Those are increasing with progress of a sewage enterprise every year. However, the reservation of the last disposal place for reclaiming the generated incineration ash is becoming quickly difficult. In this situation of sewage sludge processing, it is very important to promote more reducing and development of new reusing method. Recently, in the construction industry, reusing technology that was used sewage sludge incinerated ash as aggregate for concrete products is developed. But there are many unknown points in the performance and durability of concrete. In this study, sewage sludge incinerated ash is used instead of natural aggregate for concrete. It is investigated about fresh characteristics, chloride content, strength, resistance to frost damage and drying shrinkage of concrete using sewage sludge incinerated ash. As the results of this research, the compressive strength increases with ratio of sewage sludge incinerated ash. And the relationship between the compressive strength and the dynamic modulus of elasticity can be comparatively expressed as the linear relationship. If this concrete includes proper air content, the resistance to frost damage is enough. The drying shrinkage is become larger with increase of substitute rate of sewage sludge incinerated ash.

Sasaoka, Nobutaka; Yokoi, Katsunori; Yamanaka, Takashi

121

Process for utilizing a pumpable fuel from highly dewatered sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for disposing of sewage sludge comprising: (1) dewatering an aqueous slurry of sewage sludge having a solids content of at least about 3 wt. % to produce an aqueous slurry of sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 5 to 20 wt. %; (2) pressing and/or centrifuging the dewatered slurry of sewage sludge from (1) to produce amorphous sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 28 to 50 wt. %; (3) heating the amorphous sewage sludge from (2) in a closed pressure vessel at a temperature in the range of about 150 F to 510 F in the absence of air for a period in the range of about 3 seconds to 60 minutes and shearing the sewage sludge by a rotor/mixer operating at a speed in the range of about 15 to 100 rpm, thereby producing a pumpable slurry of sewage sludge having a viscosity in the range of about 400 to 1,500 centipoise when a measured at 200 F and a higher heating value in the range of about 5,000 to 9,500 Btu/lb, dry basis; and (4) burning said pumpable slurry from (3) in a partial oxidation gasifier, furnace, boiler, or incinerator to produce an effluent gas stream.

Khan, M.R.

1993-08-10

122

Analysis of the combustion of sewage sludge-derived fuel by a thermogravimetric method in China.  

PubMed

The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge are significant environmental problems in China. The reuse of sewage sludge for fuel could be an effective solution. The aim of this study was to characterize the behavior of sludge-derived fuel during combustion by a thermogravimetric method. The combustion profiles obtained showed four obvious weight loss regions. The results of dynamics analysis showed that first-order reactions together with Arrhenius' law explained reasonably well the different stages of weight loss in the samples. Three temperature regions (162-327 degrees C, 367-445 degrees C, and 559-653 degrees C for sawdust and 162-286 degrees C, 343-532 degrees C, and 609-653 degrees C for coal) in each derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) curve corresponded well with the Arrhenius equation. The reactivity of sludge was lower than that of samples containing sawdust, but higher than that of coal-containing samples. These data demonstrate that sludge-derived fuel has better combustion characteristics than sludge, sawdust, or coal. PMID:20356726

Jiang, Jianguo; Du, Xuejuan; Yang, Shihui

2010-03-30

123

Diversity and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of cultivable anaerobic bacteria from soil and sewage samples of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil and sewage act as a reservoir of animal pathogens and their dissemination to animals profoundly affects the safety of our food supply. Moreover, acquisition and further spread of antibiotic resistance determinants among pathogenic bacterial populations is the most relevant problem for the treatment of infectious diseases. Bacterial strains from soil and sewage are a potential reservoir for antimicrobial resistance

Nabonita Sengupta; Syed Imteyaz Alam; Ravi Bhushan Kumar; Lokendra Singh

2011-01-01

124

Sewage contamination of a densely populated coral 'atoll' (Bermuda).  

PubMed

Bermuda is a densely populated coral 'atoll' located on a seamount in the mid-Atlantic (Sargasso Sea). There is no national sewerage system and the ?20 × 10(6) L of sewage generated daily is disposed of via marine outfalls, cess pits/septic tanks underneath houses and through waste disposal (injection) wells. Gastrointestinal (GI) enterococci concentrations were measured in surface seawater samples collected monthly at multiple locations across the island over a 5-year period. According to the EU Bathing Water Directive microbial classification categories, 18 of the sites were in the 'excellent' category, four sites in the 'good', five sites were in the 'sufficient' and three sites in the 'poor' categories. One of the sites in the 'poor' category is beside a popular swimming beach. Between 20-30% of 58 sub tidal sediment samples collected from creeks, coves, bays, harbours and marinas in the Great Sound complex on the western side of Bermuda tested positive for the presence of the human specific bacterial biomarker Bacteroides (using culture-independent PCR-based methods) and for the faecal biomarker coprostanol (5?-cholestan-3-?-ol, which ranged in concentration from <0.05-0.77 mg kg(?-?1). There was a significant statistical correlation between these two independent techniques for faecal contamination identification. Overall the microbial water quality and sedimentary biomarker surveys suggest sewage contamination in Bermuda was quite low compared with other published studies; nevertheless, several sewage contamination hotpots exist, and these could be attributed to discharge of raw sewage from house boats, from nearby sewage outfalls and leakage from septic tanks/cess pits. PMID:20978839

Jones, Ross; Parsons, Rachel; Watkinson, Elaine; Kendell, David

2010-10-27

125

Organic chemicals in sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludges are residues resulting from the treatment of wastewater released from various sources including homes, industries, medical facilities, street runoff and businesses. Sewage sludges contain nutrients and organic matter that can provide soil benefits and are widely used as soil amendments. They also, however, contain contaminants including metals, pathogens, and organic pollutants. Although current regulations require pathogen reduction and

Ellen Z. Harrison; Summer Rayne Oakes; Matthew Hysell; Anthony Hay

2006-01-01

126

Phosphate fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA).  

PubMed

Ashes from sewage sludge incineration are rich in phosphorus content, ranging between 4% and 9%. Due to the current methods of disposal used for these ashes, phosphorus, which is a valuable plant nutrient, is removed from biological cycling. This article proposes the possible three-stage processing of SSA, whereby more than 90% of phosphorus can be extracted to make an adequate phosphate fertilizer. SSA from two Swiss sewage sludge incinerators was used for laboratory investigations. In an initial step, SSA was leached with sulfuric acid using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2. The leaching time and pH required for high phosphorus dissolution were determined. Inevitably, dissolution of heavy metals takes place that would contaminate the fertilizer. Thus in a second step, leach solution has to be purified by having the heavy metals removed. Both ion exchange using chelating resins and sulfide precipitation turned out to be suitable for removing critical Cu, Ni and Cd. Thirdly, phosphates were precipitated as calcium phosphates with lime water. The resulting phosphate sludge was dewatered, dried and ground to get a powdery fertilizer whose efficacy was demonstrated by plant tests in a greenhouse. By measuring the weight of plants after 6 weeks of growth, fertilized in part with conventional phosphate fertilizer, fertilizer made from SSA was proven to be equal in its plant uptake efficiency. PMID:17919895

Franz, M

2007-10-04

127

Low biodegradability of fluoxetine HCl, diazepam and their human metabolites in sewage sludge-amended soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  The European Union banned disposal of sewage sludge (SS) at sea in Europe in 1998. Since that time, the application rate of\\u000a SS to land has risen significantly and is set to rise further. Fifty-two percent of SS was disposed to land in the UK in 2000.\\u000a Land application is, thus, possibly an important transport route for

Clare H. Redshaw; Martin P. Cooke; Helen M. Talbot; Steve McGrath; Steven J. Rowland

2008-01-01

128

Radioactive waste disposal and geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is an excellent, well-presented treatise on the nature and types of radioactive wastes, disposal alternatives and strategies, radionuclide release and disposal models, geologic repositories, natural analogues, subsea-bed options, and low-level wastes. The authors provide national and international perspectives on radioactive waste disposal problems. They carefully dissected each issue, treating its pros and cons equally. Moreover, they is careful

K. B. Krauskopf

1988-01-01

129

Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge management: A review.  

PubMed

In this article, 35 published studies on life cycle assessment (LCA) of sewage sludge were reviewed for their methodological and technological assumptions. Overall, LCA has been providing a flexible framework to quantify environmental impacts of wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and disposal processes for multiple scales, ranging from process selection to policy evaluation. The results of LCA are, in principle, unique to the goal and scope of each study, reflecting its local conditions and comparison between different LCAs is not intended. Furthermore, the assessments are limited by the methodological development of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) and the advancement of research in quantifying environmental emissions associated with wastewater and sewage sludge treatment processes. Thus, large discrepancies were found in the selection of the environmental emissions to be included and how they were estimated in the analysis. In order to reduce these choice uncertainties, consolidation of the modelling approach in the following area are recommended: quantification of fugitive gas emissions and modelling of disposal practices. Besides harmonization of the key technical assumptions, clear documentation of the modelling approach and the uncertainties associating with each assumption is encouraged so as to improve the integrity and robustness of assessment. PMID:24061046

Yoshida, Hiroko; Christensen, Thomas H; Scheutz, Charlotte

2013-09-23

130

DISPERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE DISCHARGED INTO NEW YORK BIGHT. PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA AND LABORATORY ANALYSES - 1975  

EPA Science Inventory

This volume contains data on the dispersion of sewage sludge subsequent to its disposal at a site near the apex of the New York Bight. Cruises were made in May, July, and October, 1975. An optical tracer method was used to measure the water column distribution of waste material f...

131

DISPERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE DISCHARGED INTO NEW YORK BIGHT. PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA - DECEMBER 1974  

EPA Science Inventory

This volume contains physical oceanographic data collected at the sewage sludge disposal site near the apex of the New York Bight December 18 through 21, 1974. An optical tracer method was used to measure the water column distribution of waste material with time after discharge. ...

132

BENTHIC DISTRIBUTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE INDICATED BY CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRIGENS AT A DEEP-OCEAN DUMP SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

Clostridium perfrigens in sediment samples collected at the Deep Water Municipal Sewage Sludge Disposal Site (also called the 106-Mile Site), off the coast of New Jersey, was enumerated. he counts of C. perfrigens found in sediment samples collected within and to the southwest of...

133

MANUAL FOR COMPOSTING SEWAGE SLUDGE BY THE BELTSVILLE AERATED-PILE METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

In producing clean water from sewage, wastewater treatment plants also produce sludge. Most of the commonly used methods to dispose of this material are now considered to be either environmentally unacceptable, wasteful of energy, or very expensive. To ease this situation, a rela...

134

Heat and Mass Transfer During Fry-Drying of Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep-frying, which consists of immersing a wet material in a large volume of hot oil, presents a process easily adaptable to dry rather than cook materials. A suitable material for drying is sewage sludge, which may be dried using recycled cooking oils (RCO) as frying oil. One advantage is that this prepares both materials for convenient disposal by incineration.This study

C. Peregrina; P. Arlabosse; D. Lecomte; V. Rudolph

2006-01-01

135

Exposure Analysis for Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In February 1993, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the Standards for the Use or Disposal of Sewage Sludge (40 CFR Part 503). This regulation lists management practices and pollutant limits that protect public health and the environ...

2001-01-01

136

Sewage Sludge Pathogen Transport Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, ra...

1981-01-01

137

Partial oxidation of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

A process is described comprising: (1) splitting a stream of dewatered sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 17-40 wt.% into a first stream and a second stream; (2) drying the first stream of dewatered sewage sludge to produce a stream of dried sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 75-99 wt.%: (3) grinding the dried sewage sludge from (2) to a particle size so that 100 wt% passes through ASTM E11 Standard Sieve Designation 1.40 mm; (4) mixing about 2-8 parts by dry weight aqueous slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel having a solids content of about 50-70 wt. % with each part by weight of said second stream of dewatered sewage sludge from (1); (5) heating the solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage slurry from (4) to a temperature of about 140-212 F; and mixing together 3-9 parts by dry weight of the solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage sludge slurry from (4) with each part by weight of dried sewage sludge from (2) to produce a pumpable fuel slurry comprising sewage sludge and solid carbonaceous fuel and having a solids content in the range of about 45-70 wt. %; and (6) reacting the fuel slurry from (5) in the reaction zone of a partial oxidation gas generator at a temperature in the range of about 1800-3500 F and a pressure in the range of about 1-35 atmospheres, and in the presence of free-oxygen containing gas, thereby producing a hot raw effluent gas stream of synthesis gas, reducing gas or fuel gas; (7) cooling, cleaning and purifying said raw effluent gas stream to produce a stream of fuel gas; (8) burning the fuel gas from (7) with air in a combustor of a gas turbine, and passing the hot exhaust gas through an expansion turbine which drives an electric generator; and (9) passing the hot exhaust gas from (8) in indirect heat exchange with water to produce steam for use in drying said first stream of dewatered sewage sludge in (2) and/or for heating said solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage slurry is (5) by indirect heat exchange.

McMahon, M.A.; Martin, M.C.; McKenzie, K.W.

1993-07-27

138

Combustible gas production from sewage sludge with a downdraft gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, sewage sludge has particularly become an important problem all over the world because of its harmful impacts on the environment and living beings. It should be converted to combustible gas or useful energy in order to remove all its negative effects and to contribute to a significant portion of the power generation. In this study, combustible gas production from

Adnan Midilli; Murat Dogru; Colin R. Howarth; Mike J. Ling; Teoman Ayhan

2001-01-01

139

Optimal policies for solid waste disposal Taxes, subsidies, and standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pricing trash collection and disposal services can be politically unpopular and may lead to increased illegal disposal of trash. Several studies have shown that deposit-refund systems can act like disposal charges without the illegal disposal problem and thus can generate an optimal amount of solid waste disposal. We assess the efficiency implications of an alternative policy currently in use in

Karen Palmer; Margaret Walls

1997-01-01

140

Minimization Method for Combined Sewage Overflow of Urban Drainage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the overflow of combined sewage is concerned with in this paper. The sewer's discrete state-space model of the hydraulics and predictive model are established to predict the future output at sampling time. Firstly, the model is corrected by the errors between value of observation and prediction. Secondly a quadratic function by comparing the predicted output with the reference trajectory is introduced to calculate the best flow rate. Finally, the minimal overflow of combined sewage is obtained in urban hydraulic system.

Liqun, Cao; Jianzhong, Wang; Renquan, Lu

2009-09-01

141

Disposal rabbit  

DOEpatents

A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

1983-10-12

142

Occurrence of high-tonnage anionic surfactants in Spanish sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Agricultural application has become the most widespread method of sewage sludge disposal, being the most economical outlet for sludge and also recycling beneficial plant nutrients and organic matter to soil for crop production. As a matter of fact, the European Sewage Sludge Directive 86/278/EEC seeks to encourage the disposal of sewage sludge in agriculture applications and regulate its use to prevent harmful effects on the soil environment. At the present time, the sewage sludge Directive is under revision and a possible cut-off limit for some organic chemicals may be implemented. Linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), the main synthetic anionic surfactant, has been included in the draft list of chemicals to be limited. The present research work deals with the monitoring of LAS and soap in Spanish sewage sludge. The average concentration of LAS found in anaerobic sewage sludge samples was 8.06 g/kg, higher than the average values for European sludge. Besides, it has been also found that more than 55% of Spanish anaerobic sludge would not fulfil the limit proposed by the 3rd European Working paper on sludge. As a consequence, the implementation of the limit for LAS would make the disposal of most Spanish biosolids for agricultural applications almost impossible. Regarding the mechanisms why anionic surfactants are found in sludge, two surfactants are compared: LAS and soap, both readily biodegraded in aerobic conditions. Irrespective of the anaerobic biodegradability of soap, its concentration found in sludge is higher than LAS (only anaerobically biodegradable under particular conditions). The relevance of anaerobic biodegradation to assure environmental protection is discussed for this case. PMID:21652141

Cantarero, Samuel; Prieto, Carlos A; López, Ignacio

2011-06-08

143

Vermitechnology for sewage sludge recycling.  

PubMed

The present paper is aimed at safe reuse and recycling of sewage sludge (SS) and production of good quality compost using vermicomposting. Three different earthworm species Eiseniafetida (E. fetida), Eudrilus eugeniae (E. eugeniae), Perionyx excavatus (P. excavatus) in individual and combinations were utilized to compare the suitability of worm species for composting of sewage sludge as well as the quality of the end product. The sewage sludge without blending can be directly converted into good quality fertilizer (vermicompost). Vermicomposting resulted in reduction in C/N ratio 25.6 to 6-9, TOC (25%) but increase in electrical conductivity (EC) (47-51%), total nitrogen (TN) (2.4-2.8 times), potassium (45-71%), calcium (49-62%), sodium (62-82%) and total phosphorous (TP) (1.5-1.8 times), which indicated that sewage sludge can be recycled as a good quality fertilizer. The present study also inferred that the application of sewage sludge in the agricultural fields after vermicomposting would not have any adverse effect as the heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) are now within the permissible limits. PMID:18515003

Khwairakpam, Meena; Bhargava, Renu

2008-04-29

144

Salt Reduction in Municipal Sewage allocated for Reuse: the Outcome of a New Policy in Israel1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem: Israel has practiced agricultural irrigation with treated wastewater for decades and is presently reusing about 70% of its sewage. Sewage is more saline than the supplied freshwater and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts (mainly Cl, Na and B) have negative effects on crops, soil and groundwater. The buildup of salts in soils and aquifers

Baruch Weber

145

TREATMENT OF BEET SUGAR PLANT SEWAGE  

PubMed Central

Beet sugar is an industry yearly attaining greater and greater importance. Likewise the disposal of the wastes is a problem of increasing consequence in various sections of the country. This paper and the discussions constitute an unusual assembling of the facts, valuable to local authorities and those commercially interested, alike.

Pearse, Langdon; Greeley, Samuel A.

1920-01-01

146

33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel...307 Untreated sewage. No person shall...discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel into the applicable waters of...

2009-07-01

147

33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel...307 Untreated sewage. No person shall...discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel into the applicable waters of...

2010-07-01

148

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF STEELMAKING FURNACE DUST DISPOSAL METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to examine the nature of steelmaking furnace residues and disposal techniques, and to assess potential problems associated with residue disposal, a potential multimedia environmental problem. Solubilization tests of 18 furnace residue samples s...

149

Dewatering behavior of sewage screenings.  

PubMed

Screenings from municipal sewage treatment plants have increased in importance in recent years, particularly in Germany, where laws prohibit depositing of screenings in landfill. This paper presents basic investigations of sewage screenings, especially the structure and dewatering behavior. Two standard experiments are conducted. First, the relationship between pressure and water content is determined. Secondly the flow resistance as a function of pressure is evaluated. The results help to derive simulation models in order to understand how the material behaves inside a wash press. PMID:23374399

Gregor, H; Rupp, W; Janoske, U; Kuhn, M

2013-01-29

150

Democratic input into the nuclear waste disposal problem: The influence of geographical data on decision making examined through a Web-based GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper elucidates the manner in which users of an online decision support system respond to spatially distributed data when assessing the solution to environmental risks, specifically, nuclear waste disposal. It presents tests for revealing whether users are responding to geographical data and whether they are influenced by their home location ( Not in My Back Yard – style behavior).

Andrew J. Evans; Richard Kingston; Steve Carver

2004-01-01

151

CHARACTERIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND SEWAGE SLUDGE-SOIL SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Field and laboratory studies were conducted to characterize the chemical properties of municipal sewage sludges, to evaluate the fate of sludge components in soils, and to determine the distribution of trace metals in milling fractions of grains grown on sludge-treated soils....

152

Incineration system for sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incineration system consists of a sludge dryer, a cyclone separator unit, an incomplete combustion incinerator, a complete combustion incinerator with a heat exchanger, a heat exchanger and so forth and comprises gas circulation passage involving the units above in order to burn sewage sludge economically without any additional fuel except for starting up thereof, with stable heat balancing in

Hirose

1982-01-01

153

Glenwood Sewage Treatment Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the previous annaul report, the authors described the plant at Glenwood, Minnesota and its mode of operation. In this report, they discuss their high flow problem and how they corrected it by finding infiltration sources.

1967-01-01

154

Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

Robson, Stanley G.

1977-01-01

155

Radioactive waste disposal in granite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal geotechnical problems in selecting a repository site for radioactive waste disposal in granite are to evaluate the suitability of the rock mass in terms of: (1) fracture characteristics, (2) thermomechanical effects, and (3) fracture hydrology. Underground experiments in a mine in Sweden have provided an opportunity to study these problems. The research has demonstrated the importance of hydrogeology

P. A. Witherspoon; D. J. Watkins

1982-01-01

156

Searching for acceptable solutions to nuclear-waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three lettes are presented here, all addressing the problem of nuclear waste disposal. Robert M. Bernero (former director of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, US NRC) points out there are only 4 options for managing toxic and nuclear waste (recycling, outer space disposal; deep-ocean disposal, geologic disposal) and that the stragegy should prevent people from inadvertently stumbling

Bernero

1995-01-01

157

Distribution, movement and plant availability of trace metals in soils amended with sewage sludge composts: application to low metal loadings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three soils, representative of various physico–chemical properties, an acid soil from a granitic arena with a sandy texture, a calcareous soil with a sandy silty texture and a clayey and silty one, were used in a lysimetric experiment to evaluate the ecotoxicological risks associated with the disposal of sewage sludge composts (SSC) containing trace metal contents below the recommended limit

P. Planquart; G. Bonin; A. Prone; C. Massiani

1999-01-01

158

REPORT OF PYROLYSIS OF SEWAGE SLUDGES IN THE NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY METROPOLITAN AREA (PHASE I)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this work was to reduce the volume of municipal wastewater (sewage) sludge in a multiple-hearth furnance via starved air combustion (pyrolysis) to determine how it compared with incineration as an environmentally acceptable method of sludge disposal. Sludge was fir...

159

Genetic diversity of noroviruses in raw and treated sewage water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human noroviruses cause gastroenteritis in humans, leading to high virus loads in sewage. Norovirus concentrations in raw and treated sewage samples from two sewage treatment plants (STP) were studied, along with virus removal and genetic diversity. Over one year, the average norovirus concentrations in raw sewage were approximately 105 pcr detectable units (pdu) per liter compared with 103 pdu\\/l of treated sewage.

Harold van den Berg; Willemijn Lodder; Wim van der Poel; Harry Vennema; Ana Maria de Roda Husman

2005-01-01

160

Landfill disposal systems  

PubMed Central

The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated. A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual inspections and any repairs can be made without disturbing the waste. The surface seal landfill does not employ a subsurface barrier. The surface seal landfill successfully addresses each of the four environmental problems listed above, provided that this landfill design is utilized for dry wastes only and is located at a site which provides protection from groundwater and temporary perched water tables. ImagesFIGURE 3.FIGURE 4.FIGURE 7.FIGURE 7.

Slimak, Karen M.

1978-01-01

161

Landfill disposal systems.  

PubMed

The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated.A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual inspections and any repairs can be made without disturbing the waste. The surface seal landfill does not employ a subsurface barrier. The surface seal landfill successfully addresses each of the four environmental problems listed above, provided that this landfill design is utilized for dry wastes only and is located at a site which provides protection from groundwater and temporary perched water tables. PMID:738247

Slimak, K M

1978-12-01

162

Disinfection of municipal sewage sludges in installation equipped with electron accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growing awareness of environment pollution hazards causes more and more stringent waste disposal regulations in many countries which stimulate searching for new methods of waste disposal, the best of which is recycling them after suitable treatment. Sludges from municipal sewage treatment plants contain organic and inorganic components valuable as soil fertilizer, so if disinfected they can be beneficially recycled in agriculture instead of being burdensome waste. Investigations performed in many countries showed that irradiation with a suitable dose of gamma or electron beam radiation makes sewage sludges sanitary safe and usable as soil fertilizer immediately after treatment. This paper describes some results of investigations performed in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology and the Institute of Environmental Protection in Warsaw on the influence of 10 MeV electron beam on bacteria, parasites and parasite eggs present in sewage sludges from different municipal sewage treatment plants in Poland. Basic design parameters of the industrial installation elaborated on the basis of those experiments are presented, too.

Chmielewski, A. G.; Zimek, Z.; Bryl-Sandelewska, T.; Kosmal, W.; Kalisz, L.; Ka?mierczuk, M.

1995-09-01

163

Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge with a hybrid process of low pressure wet oxidation and nanofiltration.  

PubMed

Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge will become increasingly important within the next decades due to depletion of mineral phosphorus resources. In this work a new process concept was investigated, which aims at realising phosphorus recovery in a synergistic way with the overall sewage sludge treatment scheme. This process combines a low pressure wet oxidation for sewage sludge decomposition as well as phosphorus dissolution and a nanofiltration process to separate phosphorus from heavy metals and obtain a clean diluted phosphoric acid, from which phosphorus can be recovered as clean fertiliser. It was shown that this process concept is feasible for sewage sludge for wastewater treatment plants that apply enhanced biological removal or precipitation with alumina salts for phosphorus removal. The critical parameter for phosphorus dissolution in the low pressure wet oxidation process is the iron concentration, while in the nanofiltration multi-valent cations play a predominant role. In total, a phosphorus recovery of 54% was obtained for an exemplary wastewater treatment plant. Costs of the entire process are in the same range as conventional sewage sludge disposal, with the benefit being phosphorus recovery and reduced emission of greenhouse gases due to avoidance of sludge incineration. PMID:22325934

Blöcher, Christoph; Niewersch, Claudia; Melin, Thomas

2012-01-28

164

Spatial and temporal trends in water quality in a Mediterranean temporary river impacted by sewage effluents.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes how changes in hydrological conditions can affect the water quality of a temporary river that receives direct inputs of sewage effluents. Data from 12 spatial surveys of the Vène river were examined. Physico-chemical parameters, major ion, and nutrient concentrations were measured. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate analyses were performed. ANOVA revealed significant spatial differences for conductivity and major ion but no significant spatial differences for nutrient concentrations even if higher average concentrations were observed at stations located downstream from sewage effluent discharge points. Significant temporal differences were observed among all the parameters. Karstic springs had a marked dilution effect on the direct disposal of sewage effluents. During high-flow periods, nutrient concentrations were high to moderate whereas nutrient concentrations ranged from moderate to bad at stations located downstream from the direct inputs of sewage effluents during low-flow periods. Principal component analysis showed that water quality parameters that explained the water quality of the Vène river were highly dependent on hydrological conditions. Cluster analysis showed that when the karstic springs were flowing, water quality was homogeneous all along the river, whereas when karstic springs were dry, water quality at the monitoring stations was more fragmented. These results underline the importance of considering hydrological conditions when monitoring the water quality of temporary rivers. In view of the pollution observed in the Vène river, "good water chemical status" can probably only be achieved by improving the management of sewage effluents during low-flow periods. PMID:22847028

David, Arthur; Tournoud, Marie-George; Perrin, Jean-Louis; Rosain, David; Rodier, Claire; Salles, Christian; Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Picot, Bernadette

2012-07-31

165

Sewage sludge treatment with lime.  

PubMed

The article describes the application of lime as a method for treatment and hygienisation of sewage sludges with lime products such as quicklime, slake lime and dolomitic lime. As a result of the increase in temperature and pH-value during sludge and lime mixing most pathogenic vectors of disease (i.e. bacteria, worms, viruses and parasites) are reduced in concentration and viability to manufacture a safe product for further application on agricultural land. PMID:10842835

Herbst, B

2000-01-01

166

Long-term fate of organic micropollutants in sewage-contaminated groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of secondary sewage effluent by rapid infiltration has produced a plume of contaminated groundwater over 3500 m long near Falmouth, MA. Approximately 50 volatile organic compounds were detected and identified in the plume, at concentrations ranging from 10 ng\\/L to 500 μg\\/L, by closed-loop stripping and purge-and-trap in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The dominant contaminants were di-, tri-

Larry B. Barber; E. Michael. Thurman; Michael P. Schroeder; Denis R. LeBlanc

1988-01-01

167

Recharging of contaminated aquifer with reclaimed sewage water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 40% of the water supply of Cairo, Egypt, is drawn from a groundwater reservoir located southeast of the Nile Delta. Several thousand shallow wells supply drinking water to the farmers from the same groundwater reservoir, which is recharged by seepage from Ismailia canal, the irrigation canal network, and other wastewater lagoons in the same areas. Sewage water lagoons were located at the high ground of the area, recharging contaminated water into the aquifer. Since the groundwater in this area is used for drinking purposes, it was decided to treat the sewage water recharging the aquifer for health reasons. In this paper a solution to the problem is presented using an injection well recharging good quality water into the aquifer. A pumping well located at a distance downstream is used to pump the contaminated water out of the aquifer. A three-dimensional solute transport model was developed to study the concentration distribution with remediation time in the contaminated zone.

Soliman, M. M.; El-Din, M. Nour; Hassan, N. A.

1995-04-01

168

25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT OF INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within...

2011-04-01

169

Stabilization of primary sewage sludge during vermicomposting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, over the last few decades, there has been a remarkable increase in sewage sludge production due to population increase and unplanned urbanization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform primary sewage sludge (PSS) amended with cow dung (CD) into value added product, i.e., vermicompost in laboratory

Renuka Gupta; V. K. Garg

2008-01-01

170

Quality requirements for irrigation with sewage water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigation is an excellent use for sewage effluent because it is mostly water with nutrients. For small flows, the effluent can be used on special, well-supervised sewage farms, where forage, fiber, or seed crops are grown that can be irrigated with standard primary or secondary effluent. Large-scale use of the effluent requires special treatment so that it meets the public

Herman Bouwer; Emanuel Idelovitch

1987-01-01

171

Treatment and reuse of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge was treated using composting, fixed-bed and stirred anaerobic digesters. The treatment performance in terms of the physico chemical parameters, bacterial indicators and pathogenic forms were assessed. In addition, the biogas production rate was recorded in the case of anaerobic digesters. Composting of the sewage sludge increased its total solids from 39 to 93% after 6 weeks, while the

Fayza A. Nasr

1997-01-01

172

Revisiting Methanotrophic Communities in Sewage Treatment Plants  

PubMed Central

The methanotrophic potential in sewage treatment sludge was investigated. We detected a diverse aerobic methanotrophic community that potentially plays a significant role in mitigating methane emission in this environment. The results suggest that community structure was determined by conditions specific to the processes in a sewage treatment plant.

Vlaeminck, Siegfried E.; Ettwig, Katharina F.; Schneider, Bellinda; Frenzel, Peter

2013-01-01

173

Mortality among Paris sewage workers  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the mortality of Paris sewage workers. Methods A cohort of all Paris sewage workers since 1970 was established and followed up in mortality until 1999. The causes of death were determined by matching with a national database. The mortality rates were compared to the rates of a local reference population. Results A large excess in mortality (standardised mortality ratio (SMR)?=?1.25; 530 cases, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.36) and in particular mortality from cancer (SMR?=?1.37, 235 cases) was detected which was particularly important in the subgroup of subjects who had left employment because they resigned or were laid off (SMR?=?1.77; 50 cases). The excess mortality is to a large extent due to alcohol related diseases (SMR?=?1.65, 122 cases) especially malignant (SMR?=?1.85, 16 cases) and non?malignant (SMR?=? 1.68, 38 cases) liver diseases, lung cancer (SMR?=?1.47, 68 cases), and infectious diseases (SMR?=? 1.86, 25 cases). The SMRs for some diseases (all cancers, cancers of the oesophagus and lung, all alcohol related diseases) seem to increase with duration of employment as a sewage worker. Other than lung cancer, smoking related diseases were not in excess. Conclusion The increased mortality by both malignant and non?malignant liver diseases is probably due to excessive alcohol consumption, but could be partially the result of occupational exposure to chemical and infectious agents and interactions of these factors. The excess lung cancer is unlikely to be due to an increased smoking prevalence.

Wild, P; Ambroise, D; Benbrik, E; Tiberguent, A; Massin, N

2006-01-01

174

Boston Harbor sewage stack (for microcomputers). Software  

SciTech Connect

The Boston Harbor Sewage Stack is interactive educational computer program about how municipalities deal with sewage, how sewage systems work, non point pollution, and what citizens can do to help - focusing on Boston Harbor and the Boston Harbor Cleanup. The program is written at a level accessible to middle-school students, but with enough depth for adults. Schools and environmental organizations, especially in coastal areas, will find this program a useful addition to their environmental education offerings. The program shows what happens to sewage - from the moment of flush to its passage through the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority's sewage system and into Boston Harbor - now and as the cleanup proceeds. Users encounter topics for exploration, including storm sewers and combined sewer overflows (CSOs); non point pollution from pets, spilled waste oil, lawn and garden chemicals, and other sources; what not to flush and why; how officials can tell if water is polluted; and why it all matters.

Not Available

1992-12-01

175

Persistence of enteroviruses in sewage sludge*  

PubMed Central

Sewage from residential areas often contains viruses pathogenic for man and significant amounts are probably associated with solids in sewage sludge. Information on the survival of viruses in sewage sludge is necessary in order to develop guidelines for recycling programmes that involve spreading the sludge on land. In the present study, a number of enteroviruses were added to sewage sludge and the artificially contaminated sludges were tested for viruses at intervals over a 12-week period. Most of the viruses survived for many weeks at room temperature. It is clear that sewage sludge destined for land application should be adequately treated for virus inactivation. In interpreting these results, it should be borne in mind that the survival of hepatitis A virus might be similar. Recent reports about the reappearance of poliomyelitis in regions with immunization programmes should also be taken into consideration.

Subrahmanyan, T. P.

1977-01-01

176

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1986-01-01

177

Radioactive waste disposal in the marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to find the optimal solution to waste disposal problems, it is necessary to make comparisons between disposal media. It has become obvious to many within the scientific community that the single medium approach leads to over protection of one medium at the expense of the others. Cross media comparisons are being conducted in the Department of Energy ocean

D. R. Anderson

1981-01-01

178

Domestic Waste Disposal Practice of Sylhet City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses the analysis of current practices of household waste disposal, problems faced by the residents during waste disposal and their views for improvement of the waste management system. However, it has been found that traditional concepts and technologies usually adopted in waste collection is becoming insufficient and ineffective causing more than half of the generated wastes (44%) remain

2006-01-01

179

Sewage impacts coral reefs at multiple levels of ecological organization.  

PubMed

Against a backdrop of rising sea temperatures and ocean acidification which pose global threats to coral reefs, excess nutrients and turbidity continue to be significant stressors at regional and local scales. Because interventions usually require local data on pollution impacts, we measured ecological responses to sewage discharges in Surin Marine Park, Thailand. Wastewater disposal significantly increased inorganic nutrients and turbidity levels, and this degradation in water quality resulted in substantial ecological shifts in the form of (i) increased macroalgal density and species richness, (ii) lower cover of hard corals, and (iii) significant declines in fish abundance. Thus, the effects of nutrient pollution and turbidity can cascade across several levels of ecological organization to change key properties of the benthos and fish on coral reefs. Maintenance or restoration of ecological reef health requires improved wastewater management and run-off control for reefs to deliver their valuable ecosystems services. PMID:19515390

Reopanichkul, Pasinee; Schlacher, Thomas A; Carter, R W; Worachananant, Suchai

2009-06-09

180

Intestinal parasite carriage in workers exposed to sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of protozoan cysts and helminth eggs in sewage and the very low minimal infective doses of parasites suggest an occupational risk for workers exposed to sewage. The objective of this study was to assess this risk in a group of raw sewage–exposed workers. The relationship between sewage exposure and intestinal parasite carriage was estimated by a multiple cross-sectional

Olivier Schlosser; Dany Grall; Marie-Noëlle Laurenceau

1999-01-01

181

Anaerobic Treatment of Domestic Sewage at Low Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this thesis was to asses the anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature and the possibilities to optimize the performance of high-rate anaerobic systems treating domestic sewage at low temperature.The anaerobic biodegradability of domestic sewage and its fractions was investigated in batch experiments. The results showed a high potential of anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage

T. A. Elmitwalli; G. Zeeman; G. Lettinga

2000-01-01

182

Biogas production from Sludge of Sewage Treatment Plant at Haridwar (Uttarakhand)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas, a source of non-conventional energy is produced by fermentation of sludges. The sewage have collected through sewage pumping stations and treated in the primary and secondary treatment steps in sewage treatment plant at Jagjitpur, Hardwar. The Sewage Treatment Plant receives approximately 40 mld sewage from different pumping stations and 18 mld sewage is used for treatment at sewage treatment

D. S. Malik; Umesh Bharti

183

Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees' discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures

W. E. Jr. Kennedy; M. A. Parkhurst; R. L. Aaberg; K. C. Rhoads; R. L. Hill; J. B. Martin

1992-01-01

184

Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures

W. E. Jr. Kennedy; M. A. Parkhurst; R. L. Aaberg; K. C. Rhoads; R. L. Hill; J. B. Martin

1992-01-01

185

Waste Disposal in the Marine Environment. 1. Biological Availability of Heavy Metals to Marine Invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic wastes such as fly ash, drilling muds, dredged materials and sewage sludge often contain significant amounts of trace metals. Disposal of these materials in coastal or marine waters may result in metal contamination of bottom sediments. There exists considerable uncertainty about the ultimate availability of these metals to the marine fauna, either through direct uptake of desorbed trace elements

R. Breteler; J. Neff

1983-01-01

186

Tampa Bay Dredged Material Disposal Site Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Ocean Bed Conditions; Disposal Operation Phenomena; Short-Term Fate of Turbidity Plume; Long-Term Fate of Deposited Dredge Material; Appendix A: Example Problem for Change in Maintenance Rate.

D. T. Williams

1983-01-01

187

Impact of industrial wastewater disposal on surface water bodies in Mostord area, north greater Cairo.  

PubMed

The studied area (Shoubra El-Khima, Bahteem and Mostorod) lies in the industrial area north of Greater Cairo. The area suffers from several environmental problems such as sewage and disposal of pollutants from the surrounding factories into the surface water pathways in the area. Water samples were collected seasonally from different waterways found in the area, domestic and or industrial liquid wastes from 12 discharge tubes of different factories (as a point source of pollution). Chemical characteristics of different water samples and its heavy metals content were determined using ion coupled plasma technique (ICP). Results indicate that industrial and domestic wastewater samples contain several toxic levels of tested heavy metals (Cd, Co, Pb and Ni) which have a serious impact on surface waterways in the area. Shebin El-Qanater collector drain samples exhibited the highest levels of Cd, Co, Pb and Ni compared to other tested water bodies. Mostorod collector drain samples showed the highest levels of Zn and Cu. Industrial effluent samples collected from Cairo Company for Fabric industry had the highest amounts of total Zn Cu, Cd, Co and Pb, while Delta steel company discharges the highest amounts of total Fe and Mn. Al-Ahleya Plastic Company discharges the highest amounts of total-Ni. Generally, it is necessary to impose the environmental laws and its regulation regarding the industrial wastewater treatments and disposals to minimize the risk of the adverse effects of these pollutants. PMID:11723938

Abdel-Sabour, M F; Rabie, F H; Mostafa, T; Hassan, S A

2001-10-01

188

Microalgae cultured by sewage and organic constituents.  

PubMed

The microalgae could be multiplied by supplying only sewage influent or effluent without any additional microalgal stock or nutrient salt. In a semicontinuous culture, the N:P weight ratios consumed were 14:1 and 18:1 for the sewage influent and effluent, respectively. The total cell number and green algae ratio of microalgae cultivated by semicontinuous culture exceeded those of batch culture. No cyanobacterial cells were observed in the semicontinuous culture using the sewage effluent. The organic components in the cultured microalgae using sewage effluent, eluted by n-hexane, were determined. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acid exceeded that of saturated fatty acid, which was possibly attributable to the fluidity of the cell membrane. The squalene was also obtained by the culture using sewage alone, free of any external stock or nutrient salt. The higher heating value of the microalgae of semicontinuous culture using the sewage influent was 25MJkg(-1), corresponding to the heating value of lignite and showing the potential of the sewage culture microalgae as a means of power generation and combustion aid. PMID:24059978

Inoue, Kenichiro; Uchida, Tsutomu

2013-09-20

189

Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

190

Hydrodynamic assessment of sewage impact on water quality of Malad Creek, Mumbai, India.  

PubMed

The rapid population growth and uncontrolled development in the coastal zone have led to major pollution impacts on creeks, estuarine, and coastal environment. Water quality models are valuable tools to understand the environmental processes for prediction of pollution impacts and evaluate future trends for management. Presently, the Malad creek in west coast of Mumbai receives wastewater and sewage from open drains and partially treated sewage from Malad and Versova treatment plants. The objective of the paper is to assess the environmental quality and estimate the extent of improvement in different parts of the creek by enhancing the collection efficiency and adequate treatment of sewage as well as disposal through ocean outfall. A hydrodynamic and water quality simulation has been carried out for the present condition in the creek and calibrated and validated with two different season data for better representation of the system. Calibrated model has been used to generate future scenarios based on various options. Among scenarios, option of treated effluent diverted to propose outfall and improvement in collection of unorganized flow through sewage up to 40% and 60% are found most significant for biochemical oxygen demand reduction and increase in dissolved oxygen. Fecal coliform reduction is also found drastically but still very high against standard. To improve the environmental quality of the creek, still upper stretch requires more dilution and flushing due to narrow width and contribution of heavy pollution from open drains. PMID:19424815

Vijay, Ritesh; Sardar, Veena K; Dhage, Shivani S; Kelkar, Prakash S; Gupta, Apurba

2009-05-08

191

Distribution of Coliphages in Hong Kong Sewage  

PubMed Central

Coliphage content of sewage collected from 11 different localities in Hong Kong was determined. The number of plaque-forming units (PFU) ranged from 0.036 × 103 to 15.9 × 103 per ml. In general, urban sewage tended to be richer than rural sewage both in PFU count as well as plaque morphological variation. Seventy-seven isolates were subjected to a host range study. Fifty per cent of these were able to grow on Escherichia coli K-12 as well as E. coli B. Approximately 32% were found to be male specific, and the remaining 18% were K-12 specific although sex-indifferent.

Dhillon, T. S.; Chan, Y. S.; Sun, S. M.; Chau, W. S.

1970-01-01

192

Nuclear waste disposal: Subseabed option  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on options for nuclear waste disposal in the oceans, as opposed to disposal on land, is being done because of mounting difficulties of site management: some political, others geological. ‘The Ocean, as a commonly owned (or unowned) resource, is not protected by market place and political forces,’ according to K. S. Kamlet (Oceanus, 24, Spring 1981). Societal restrictions and a relatively unstable geological environment are problems that would be minimized in the use of ocean sediments as a disposal site for high-level nuclear wastes.There are strong proponents for using the oceans and ocean floors as a repository for waste. For example, in a recent article (Oceanus, sup.), E. D. Goldberg of Scripps Institution on Oceanography states.

193

Underground storage tank disposal: alternatives, economics, and environmental costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative technologies are examined for the disposal of disused underground storage tanks (UST) that once contained petroleum products or other hazardous chemicals and the effects of hazardous-waste laws on disposal are discussed. Disposal options for the large population of old vessels are considered in terms of currently required and available technologies, the benefits and problems associated with various strategies, and

Janet E. Robinson; Denise W. Scott; William R. Knocke; W. David Conn

1988-01-01

194

DISPOSAL OF DRAINAGE EFFLUENT IN EVAPORATION PONDS OF PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drainage project without proper disposal system further aggravates the problem pertaining to environmental issues. Nonetheless, due to geographical, technical, environmental and other socio-economic factors, the disposal of saline effluent to the sea becomes a difficult proposition. Evaporation ponds are considered as a feasible alternative for disposal of drainage effluent. Surface and sub-surface drainage effluents from two salinity control and

I. Javed; Abdul Hafeez

195

Sewage and the fuel cell  

SciTech Connect

This article very briefly describes a phosphoric-acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant installed by the New York Power Authority at a wastewater treatment plant. The facility is the first in the world to use anaerobic digester gas (ADG), a natural byproduct of sewage treatment, as fuel. ADG is partially utilized and partially flared at the plant. The PAFC captures a portion of the otherwise flared ADG and uses it as fuel to produce approximately 200kW of electricity and heat for plant use. The U.S. Department of Energy, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Electric Power Research Institute are helping the power authority finance the project.

Zelingher, S. [New York Power Authority`s Energy Efficiency Unit, NY (United States); Kishinevsky, Y.

1998-01-01

196

Sewage Sludge Pathogen Transport Model Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, ra...

J. F. Dawson K. E. Hain B. McClure R. E. Sheridan J. G. Yeager

1981-01-01

197

Sewage Sludge Incinerator Fuel Reduction, Hartford, Connecticut.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel u...

A. J. Verdouw E. W. Waltz P. F. Gilbert

1984-01-01

198

Reducing the Vulnerability of Sewage Treatment Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide describes characteristics of typical modern sewage treatment plants in the United States, reviews their relative vulnerability to nuclear effects and considers protective measures. For this guide, OCD has established the effects of 2, 5, and 10...

1965-01-01

199

CONFIRMED VIRUSES VERSUS UNCONFIRMED PLAQUES IN SEWAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Ninety-two treated and untreated sewage samples from seven wastewater treatment plants in Chicago, Illinois, Memphis, Tennessee, and Cincinnati, Ohio were examined for their virus content. Concentrated and unconcentrated samples were plaque assayed in five different cell culture ...

200

Tackling a Local Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students studying water as a class project were concerned by levels of pollution at a nearby river and the local beach. They identified three environmental problems for research including sewage discharge, beach litter, and quality of swimming water. Research consisted of field trips which allowed for opportunities to improve skills in collecting…

Cook, Martin

1995-01-01

201

Perchlorate in sewage sludge, rice, bottled water and milk collected from different areas in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a new emerging environmental contaminant, perchlorate has prompted people to pay more attention. The presence of perchlorate in the human body can result in improper regulation of metabolism for adults. Furthermore, it also causes developmental and behavioral problems for infants and children because it can interfere with iodide uptake into the thyroid tissue. In this paper, perchlorate in sewage

Yali Shi; Ping Zhang; Yawei Wang; Jianbo Shi; Yaqi Cai; Shifen Mou; Guibin Jiang

2007-01-01

202

Ionometric determination of quaternary ammonium cations in industrial extraction reagents and sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

When extraction reagents based on salts of quaternary ammonium bases (QAS) are used in the technology of purification of rare earth elements (REE), the problem arises of determining QAS in technological and dilute aqueous solutions (circulating waters and sewage). A direct method of determining cations of QAS is known, based on the use of ion-selective electrodes, reversible to hydrophobic cations.

V. V. Kokovkin; A. M. Nemirovskii; L. Kh. Kravchenko; B. S. Smolyakov

1988-01-01

203

A Family Physician's Guide to Sewage Sludge  

PubMed Central

The potential environmental and personal health effects from the agricultural uses of domestic sewage sludge may increasingly require the guidance of the family physician, especially in farming communities. This article summarizes the potential health hazards and outlines the tripartite risk phenomenon—hazard identification, risk assessment, and social evaluation. For the agricultural use of dewatered sewage sludge, strict adherence to regulated procedures should not increase risk beyond that of agriculture generally. Confirmation by prospective epidemiological studies is recommended.

Connop, Peter J.

1983-01-01

204

Lightweight aggregate from flyash and sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of treating flyash and sewage sludge. It comprises: mixing flyash with sewage sludge having a high fuel value; agglomerating the mixture; drying the agglomerated mixture; heating the agglomerated mixture to a temperature less than the melting point of the mixture in a rotary kiln using the agglomerated mixture as the principal source of fuel in the kiln to form a porous nodular product; and recovering the nodular product from the kiln.

Nechvatal, T.M.; Heian, G.A.

1991-10-15

205

Assessment of compost application to coal ash disposal sites to promote the rapid vegetation establishment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the city of Tuzla, located in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a coal fired thermo electric power plant is operated by the company JP ELEKTROPRIVERDA BIH TERMOELEKTRANA "TUZLA". High amounts of ash are produced by the power plant, which are currently disposed into settlement ponds bordered by dams in natural valleys. A total of four ash disposal sites covering an area of approx. 170 ha have been established during the last decades. Due to the fact that residual ash from coal combustion was found to contain a variety of trace elements (Ni, Cr, As, B), it must be assumed that ash disposal of that magnitude constitutes an environmental problem which is investigated within the EU-FP6 / STREP project "Reintegration of Coal Ash Disposal Sites and Mitigation of Pollution in the West Balkan Area" RECOAL. The main hazards relate to soil and groundwater contamination due to leaching toxins, dust dispersion, and toxins entering the food chain as these disposal sites are used for agricultural purposes. In order to rapidly establish a vegetation cover on barren ash dumps that particularly would prevent dust erosion we assessed the applicability of compost, produced from locally available municipal and industrial organic residues as an amendment to ash to improve substrate fertility. The envisaged remediation technology was considered to be a low cost, easy applicable and rapid method capable of substantially enhancing living conditions of residents in the vicinity of the abandoned disposal sites. Various compost application rates were evaluated in the field on experimental site Divkovici I in Tuzla and additionally in the greenhouse environment at Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus. Field and laboratory tests revealed that plant growth and cover rate can substantially be improved by mixing compost into the upper ash layer to a maximum depth of approx. 20 cm. Besides direct growth observations in the field analysis of soil parameters gave evidence that the fertility of ashy substrates amended with compost produced from locally available sewage sludge and saw dust can be improved. The metal content of grass grown in the various treatments was considered to be elevated compared to normal contents. However, metal uptake in compost treatments was lower than in untreated plots. A preliminary cost assessment, comparing the remediation technology tested on site Divkovici with a standard soil covering technique revealed financial benefits for the compost method due to significant lower application rates.

Repmann, F.; Slazak, A.; Babic, M.; Schneider, B. U.; Schaaf, W.; Hüttl, R. F.

2009-04-01

206

Analysis of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products in sewage sludge by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been acknowledged as emerging pollutants due to widespread contamination in environment. A rapid and reliable analytical method, based on ultrasonic extraction, clean up on Envi-carb cartridge, derivatized with N-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was developed for determination of 4 EDCs (bisphenol A, estrone, nonylphenol and octylphenol) and 10 PPCPs (acetylsalicylic acid, carbamazepine, clofibric acid, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, paracetamol and triclosan) in sewage sludge. Mean recoveries of the target analytes, at different spike levels (40, 300 and 2000 ng/g), ranged from 57.9% to 103.1%. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 1.3-9.5% at different spiked levels. The limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 4.7 to 39 ng/g. The method was applied to sewage sludge samples from sewage treatment plants (STPs) in southern California. High concentrations of PPCPs and EDCs were found in sewage sludge, ranging from 1502 to 5327 ng/g dry weight. Appropriate disposal of sewage sludge was required to avoid secondary contamination. PMID:22284489

Yu, Yong; Wu, Laosheng

2011-12-17

207

A spatial multicriteria decision making tool to define the best agricultural areas for sewage sludge amendment.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge amendment on agricultural soils has recently become a practice of heightened interest, as a consequence of sewage sludge production increase. This practice has benefits to soil and crops, however it may also lead to environmental contamination, depending on the characteristics of the fields. In order to define the suitability of the different agricultural fields to receive sewage sludge, a spatial tool is proposed. This tool, elaborated in GIS platform, aggregates different criteria regarding human exposure and environmental contamination. The spatial tool was applied to a case study in the region of Catalonia (NE of Spain). Within the case study, each step of the tool development is detailed. The results show that the studied region has different suitability degrees, being the appropriate areas sufficient for receiving the total amount of sewage sludge produced. The sensitivity analysis showed that "groundwater contamination", "distance to urban areas", "metals concentration in soil" and "crop type" are the most important criteria of the evaluation. The developed tool successfully tackled the problem, providing a comprehensive procedure to evaluate agricultural land suitability to receive sewage sludge as an organic fertilizer. Also, the tool implementation gives insights to decision makers, guiding them to more confident decisions, based on an extensive group of criteria. PMID:21982027

Passuello, Ana; Cadiach, Oda; Perez, Yolanda; Schuhmacher, Marta

2011-09-10

208

Disposal of Nuclear Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical options which should be studied relative to the disposal of ; radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants, the technical advantages and ; disadvantages of each method, and the cost and benefits of different disposal ; methods are discussed. These options include: mausolea (engineered near-surface ; structures); disposal in mines, salt vaults, or continental ice sheets; in situ ;

Arthur S. Kubo; David J. Rose

1973-01-01

209

Synthetic Fibers as Indicators of Municipal Sewage Sludge, Sludge Products, and Sewage Treatment Plant Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of concerns regarding health, safety, and aesthetics, a test that identifies the presence of sewage sludge or its products (biosolids) in commercial materials such as soil conditioners and composts would be useful. This test could also trace the effluent plume from a sewage treatment plant. We have discovered that synthetic fibers serve as such an indicator. Synthetic fibers are

Daniel Habib; David C. Locke; Leonard J. Cannone

1998-01-01

210

Characterization of Malaysian sewage sludge and nitrogen mineralization in three soils treated with sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies to determine the chemical composition of sewage sludges produced in Malaysia and the potentially mineralizable nitogen (No) and mineralization rate constant (k) of sewage sludge in three Malaysian soils are reported. Analyses of the sludges collected from 10 wastewater treatment plants in Malaysia are acidic in nature and the N. P, Ca, K and Mg contents is variable. The

A. B. Rosenani; D. R. Kala; C. I. Fauziah

211

Prevention of Sewage Pollution by Stabilization Ponds Sewage Pollution & Stabilization Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is polluted when it constitutes a health hazard or when its usefulness is impaired. The major sources of water pollution are municipal, manufacturing, mining, steam, electric power, cooling and agricultural. Municipal or sewage pollution forms a greater part of the man's activity and it is the immediate need of even smaller communities of today to combat sewage pollution. It

J. S. S. Lakshminarayana

1975-01-01

212

Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-05-01

213

Vermistabilization of primary sewage sludge.  

PubMed

An integrated composting-vermicomposting process has been developed for utilization of primary sewage sludge (PSS). Matured vermicompost was used as bulking material and a source of active microbial culture during aerobic activated composting (AAC). AAC resulted in sufficient enrichment of bulking material with organic matter after 20 cycles of recycling and mixing with PSS and produced materials acceptable for vermicomposting. Vermicomposting caused significant reduction in pH, volatile solids (VS), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), total organic carbon (TOC), C/N ratio and pathogens and substantial increase in electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) as compared to compost. Environmental conditions and stocking density have profound effects on vermicomposting. Temperature of 20°C with high humidity is favorable environmental condition for vermicomposting employing Eisenia fetida. Favorable stocking density range for vermiculture is 0.5-2.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 0.5 kg m(-2)) and for vermicomposting is 2.0-4.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 3.0 kg m(-2)), respectively. PMID:21036608

Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod

2010-10-12

214

12. Sewage Ejector Pumps, view to the southwest. These pumps ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Sewage Ejector Pumps, view to the southwest. These pumps are connected to sewage treatment tanks. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

215

1. EXTERIOR CONTEXT VIEW OF BUILDING 620, THE SEWAGE EJECTOR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR CONTEXT VIEW OF BUILDING 620, THE SEWAGE EJECTOR, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Sewage Ejector, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

216

Future trends which will influence waste disposal.  

PubMed

The disposal and management of solid wastes are ancient problems. The evolution of practices naturally changed as populations grew and sites for disposal became less acceptable. The central search was for easy disposal at minimum costs. The methods changed from indiscriminate dumping to sanitary landfill, feeding to swine, reduction, incineration, and various forms of re-use and recycling. Virtually all procedures have disabilities and rising costs. Many methods once abandoned are being rediscovered. Promises for so-called innovations outstrip accomplishments. Markets for salvage vary widely or disappear completely. The search for conserving materials and energy at minimum cost must go on forever. PMID:570105

Wolman, A

1978-12-01

217

Disposal of solid waste in Istanbul and along the Black Sea coast of Turkey.  

PubMed

The increasing amount of solid waste arising from municipalities and other sources and its consequent disposal has been one of the major environmental problems in Turkey. Istanbul is a metropolitan city with a current population of around 14 million, and produces about 9000 ton of solid waste every day. The waste composition for Istanbul has changed markedly from 1981 to 1996 with large decreases in waste density, much of which is related to decreased amounts of ash collected in winter. In recent years, the Istanbul region has implemented a new solid waste management system with transfer stations, sanitary landfills, and methane recovery, which has led to major improvements. In the Black Sea region of Turkey, most of the municipal and industrial solid wastes, mixed with hospital and hazardous wastes, are dumped on the nearest lowlands and river valleys or into the sea. The impact of riverside and seashore dumping of solid wastes adds significantly to problems arising from sewage and industry on the Black Sea coast. Appropriate integrated solid waste management systems are needed here as well; however, they have been more difficult to implement than in Istanbul because of more difficult topography, weaker administrative structures, and the lower incomes of the inhabitants. PMID:15949934

Berkun, Mehmet; Aras, Egemen; Nemlioglu, Semih

2005-01-01

218

Disposal of solid waste in Istanbul and along the Black Sea coast of Turkey  

SciTech Connect

The increasing amount of solid waste arising from municipalities and other sources and its consequent disposal has been one of the major environmental problems in Turkey. Istanbul is a metropolitan city with a current population of around 14 million, and produces about 9000 ton of solid waste every day. The waste composition for Istanbul has changed markedly from 1981 to 1996 with large decreases in waste density, much of which is related to decreased amounts of ash collected in winter. In recent years, the Istanbul region has implemented a new solid waste management system with transfer stations, sanitary landfills, and methane recovery, which has led to major improvements. In the Black Sea region of Turkey, most of the municipal and industrial solid wastes, mixed with hospital and hazardous wastes, are dumped on the nearest lowlands and river valleys or into the sea. The impact of riverside and seashore dumping of solid wastes adds significantly to problems arising from sewage and industry on the Black Sea coast. Appropriate integrated solid waste management systems are needed here as well; however, they have been more difficult to implement than in Istanbul because of more difficult topography, weaker administrative structures, and the lower incomes of the inhabitants.

Berkun, Mehmet [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)]. E-mail: berkun@ktu.edu.tr; Aras, Egemen [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Nemlioglu, Semih [Istanbul University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 34850 Avcilar-Istanbul (Turkey)

2005-10-15

219

Planning for the Disposal of the Dead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Concurrent with the dramatic increase in the nation's elderly population expected in coming decades will be a need to dispose of larger numbers of our dead. This issue has religious, cultural, and economic salience, but is not typically considered a planning problem. Although cremation rates are rising, burial is projected to remain the preferred alternative for the majority of

Carlton Basmajian; Christopher Coutts

2010-01-01

220

Radioactive waste disposal in granite. [Stripa mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal geotechnical problems in selecting a repository site for radioactive waste disposal in granite are to evaluate the suitability of the rock mass in terms of: (1) fracture characteristics, (2) thermomechanical effects, and (3) fracture hydrology. Underground experiments in a mine in Sweden have provided an opportunity to study these problems. The research has demonstrated the importance of hydrogeology

P. A. Witherspoon; D. J. Watkins

1982-01-01

221

Solid waste disposal: a plan of action. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the solid waste disposal problem in the City of Newark, New Jersey and plans for the solution of this problem are discussed. This plan of action looks at potential advantages and disadvantages of solid waste disposal alternatives, including landfill, rail haul, incineration, material recovery, and energy recovery. Resource recovery is recommended as the best alternative for Newark at

Liss

1975-01-01

222

Application of food waste disposers and alternate cycles process in small-decentralized towns: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of food waste disposers (FWDs) can be an interesting option to integrate the management of municipal wastewaters and household organic waste in small towns and decentralized areas. This strategy can be even more environmentally friendly if a suitable treatment process of the resulting sewage is performed in order to control nutrients emission. However, still nowadays, part of the

Paolo Battistoni; Francesco Fatone; Daniele Passacantando; David Bolzonella

2007-01-01

223

Accumulation of organic contaminants in sentinel mallards utilizing confined disposal facilities at Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine analysis was performed on adult and juvenile farm-raised mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) released and collected at three experimental sites in southern Ontario: Hamilton Harbour Confined Disposal Facility (CDF); Winona Sewage Lagoons (SL); and Big Creek Marsh, Canada. Collections were scheduled at 10, 30, and 70 days after release. Hamilton Harbour CDF and Winona SL are known to be contaminated whereas

Martin B. Gebauer; D. Vaughn Weseloh

1993-01-01

224

FINE PARTICAL AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect

This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and pulverized coal. The objective was to determine potential tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} mitigation through using a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel, such as municipal sewage sludge, and the emergence of other potential problems such as the emission of toxic fly ash particles. The work led to new insight into mechanisms governing the partitioning of major and trace metals from the combustion of sewage sludge, and mixtures of coal and sewage sludge. The research also showed that the co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge emitted fine particulate matter that might potentially cause greater lung injury than that from the combustion of either coal alone or municipal sewage sludge alone. The reason appeared to be that the toxicity measured required the presence of large amounts of both zinc and sulfur in particles that were inhaled. MSS provided the zinc while coal provided the sulfur. Additional research showed that the toxic effects could most likely be engineered out of the process, through the introduction of kaolinite sorbent downstream of the combustion zone, or removing the sulfur from the fuel. These results are consequences of applying ''Health Effects Engineering'' to this issue. Health Effects Engineering is a new discipline arising out of this work, and is derived from using a collaboration of combustion engineers and toxicologists to mitigate the potentially bad health effects from combustion of this biomass fuel.

Jost O.L. Wendt; Wayne S. Seames; Art Fernandez

2003-09-21

225

Comprehensive Study of Solid Waste Disposal in Cascade County, Montana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report considers the various forms of solid wastes and the related problems in their storage, collection and disposal. It discusses in detail the entire solid waste problem and methods to improve existing conditions.

1970-01-01

226

Geochemical and hydrologic controls on phosphorus transport in a sewage-contaminated sand and gravel aquifer near Ashumet Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Currently (1993), about 170 kg/yr of phosphorus discharges into Ashumet Pond on Cape Cod from a plume of sewage-contaminated ground water. Phosphorus in the plume is mobile in two distinct geochemical environments--an anoxic zone containing dissolved iron and a suboxic zone containing dissolved oxygen. Phosphorus mobility in the suboxic zone is due to saturation of available sorption sites. Phosphorus loading to Ashumet Pond may increase significantly after sewage disposal is stopped due to phosphorus desorption from sediment surfaces.

Walter, Donald A.; Rea, Brigid A.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Savoie, Jennifer

1996-01-01

227

Wastes to Resources: Appropriate Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Conversion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Appropriate technology options for sewage management systems are explained in this four-chapter report. The use of appropriate technologies is advocated for its health, environmental, and economic benefits. Chapter 1 presents background information on sewage treatment in the United States and the key issues facing municipal sewage managers.…

Anderson, Stephen P.

228

Estrogenic Effects of Effluents from Sewage Treatment Works  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of hermaphrodite fish in the lagoons of sewage treatment works led us to hypothesize that sewage effluent might contain a substance, or substances, estrogenic to fish. to test this hypothesis, we placed cages containing rainbow trout in the effluent from sewage-treatment works, and one to three weeks later measured the vitellogenin concentration in the plasma of the fish.

C. E. Purdom; P. A. Hardiman; V. V. J. Bye; N. C. Eno; C. R. Tyler; J. P. Sumpter

1994-01-01

229

Bioluminescent method in studying the complex effect of sewage components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibition of bacterial luminescence has been used in testing industrial enterprises sewage. The toxicity of the sewage is less than the total toxicity of separate components due to neutralization of quinone products of polyphenol oxidation in the reactions with the other phenol components of sewage. Toxicity increase is due to their influence on the cell membrane. Studies of cell

Devard I. Stom; Tatyana A. Geel; Alla E. Balayan; Galina I. Shachova; Aleksandr M. Kuznetsov; Svetlana E. Medvedeva

1992-01-01

230

Study of the pyrolysis liquids obtained from different sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis of sewage sludge in fluidized bed to produce bio-oil is under study as a useful way to valorise this waste. Sewage sludge is the waste produced in the wastewater treatment plants. Its composition may change due to the origin and to the non-standardized treatments in the wastewater treatment plants. The pyrolysis of three samples of anaerobically digested sewage sludge

I. Fonts; M. Azuara; G. Gea; M. B. Murillo

2009-01-01

231

Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants.

Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

2012-01-01

232

Land Application of Treated Sewage Sludge: Community Health and Environmental Justice  

PubMed Central

Background: In the United States, most of the treated sewage sludge (biosolids) is applied to farmland as a soil amendment. Critics suggest that rules regulating sewage sludge treatment and land application may be insufficient to protect public health and the environment. Neighbors of land application sites report illness following land application events. Objectives: We used qualitative research methods to evaluate health and quality of life near land application sites. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with neighbors of land application sites and used qualitative analytic software and team-based methods to analyze interview transcripts and identify themes. Results: Thirty-four people in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia responded to interviews. Key themes were health impacts, environmental impacts, and environmental justice. Over half of the respondents attributed physical symptoms to application events. Most noted offensive sludge odors that interfere with daily activities and opportunities to socialize with family and friends. Several questioned the fairness of disposing of urban waste in rural neighborhoods. Although a few respondents were satisfied with the responsiveness of public officials regarding sludge, many reported a lack of public notification about land application in their neighborhoods, as well as difficulty reporting concerns to public officials and influencing decisions about how the practice is conducted where they live. Conclusions: Community members are key witnesses of land application events and their potential impacts on health, quality of life, and the environment. Meaningful involvement of community members in decision making about land application of sewage sludge will strengthen environmental health protections.

McDonald, Mary Anne; Wing, Steve; Muhammad, Naeema

2013-01-01

233

In-situ caustic generation from sewage: The impact of caustic strength and sewage composition.  

PubMed

Periodic caustic dosage is a commonly used method by the water industry to elevate pH levels and deactivate sewer biofilms responsible for hydrogen sulfide generation. Caustic (NaOH) can be generated in-situ from sewage using a divided electrochemical cell, which avoids the need for transport, handling and storage of concentrated caustic solutions. In this study, we investigated the impact of caustic strength in the cathode compartment and the impact of sodium concentration in sewage on the Coulombic efficiency (CE) for caustic generation. The CE was found to be independent of the caustic strength produced in the range of up to ?3 wt%. Results showed that a caustic solution of ?3 wt% could be produced directly from sewage at a CE of up to 75 ± 0.5%. The sodium concentration in sewage had a significant impact on the CE for caustic generation as well as on the energy requirements of the system, with a higher sodium concentration leading to a higher CE and lower energy consumption. The proton, calcium, magnesium and ammonium concentrations in sewage affected the CE for caustic generation, especially at low sodium concentrations. Economical assessment based on the experimental results indicated that sulfide control in sewers using electrochemically-generated caustic from sewage is an economically attractive strategy. PMID:23938119

Pikaar, Ilje; Rozendal, René A; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo

2013-07-26

234

Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture  

PubMed Central

The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary. Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds. More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation.

Petrik, Milivoj

1954-01-01

235

Mechanical properties of dewatered sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties of dewatered, anaerobically digested sewage sludge were determined from soil laboratory tests. The sludge material is largely composed of organic clay sized-particles, a sizable fraction of which is in an active state of biological digestion which can continue over many years under field conditions. Moderately digested sludge material was found to have a typical specific gravity of

Brendan C. O’Kelly

2005-01-01

236

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOEpatents

This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

Carlson, L.W.

1985-08-30

237

COMPARISON OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF SEWAGE SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested by using the Salmonella/microsome reverse mutation ...

238

HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An epidemiology study which included environmental samples and clinical specimens within a three mile radius of a new sewage treatment plant near Chicago, Illinois was carried out. Evaluations were made before and after plant start-up to determine if operations resulted in any ad...

239

Seasonal occurrence of rotavirus in sewage.  

PubMed Central

A seasonal distribution was observed for rotaviruses in sewage by using indirect immunofluorescence. Levels were low from May through September and generally higher during winter and spring. In contrast, no seasonal pattern was observed for total enteroviruses. Limitations of the indirect immunofluorescence assay and enzyme immunoassay for environmental samples are discussed.

Hejkal, T W; Smith, E M; Gerba, C P

1984-01-01

240

Sewage and Water Works Construction, 1968.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This annual report of 'Sewage and Water Works Construction 1968' is published to provide a continuing and ready source of information and reference as to how successfully the national needs in municipal water supply and pollution control are being met thr...

1968-01-01

241

FUEL SAVINGS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of a demonstration project partly sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the Indianapolis Center for Advanced Research, the City of Indianapolis, Indiana, realized a 34% fuel savings for sewage sludge incineration. At the sa...

242

Sewage sludge incinerator fuel reduction, Hartford, Connecticut  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel efficient burning procedures and operator training further reduced that amount 51%. The Hartford plant originally used 122

A. J. Verdouw; E. W. Waltz; P. F. Gilbert

1984-01-01

243

SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION, HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT  

EPA Science Inventory

A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel ef...

244

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of CAS 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Area 25 Sewage Lagoons (Figure 1-2) (IT, 1999b) are located approximately 0.3 mi south of the Test Cell 'C' (TCC) Facility and were used for the discharge of sanitary effluent from the TCC facility. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 232 or the sewage lagoons.

DOE /NV Operations Office

1999-05-01

245

Environmental Effectiveness of Swine Sewage Management: A Multicriteria AHP-Based Model for a Reliable Quick Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental issues related to swine production are still a major concern for the general public and represent a key challenge for the swine industry. The environmental impact of higher livestock concentration is particularly significant where it coincides with weaker policy standards and poor manure management. Effective tools for environmental monitoring of the swine sewage management process become essential for verifying the environmental compatibility of farming facilities and for defining suitable policies aimed at increasing swine production sustainability. This research aims at the development and application of a model for a quick assessment of the environmental effectiveness of the pig farming sewage management process. In order to define the model, multicriteria techniques, and in particular, Saaty's analytic hierarchy process, were used to develop an iterative process in which the various key factors influencing the process under investigation were analyzed. The model, named EASE (Environmental Assessment of Sewages management Effectiveness), was optimized and applied to the Lake Trasimeno basin (Umbria, Italy), an area of high natural, environmental and aesthetic value. In this context, inadequate disposal of pig sewage represents a potential source of very considerable pollution. The results have demonstrated how the multicriteria model can represent a very effective and adaptable tool also in those decision-making processes aimed at the sustainable management of livestock production.

Vizzari, Marco; Modica, Giuseppe

2013-10-01

246

Environmental Effectiveness of Swine Sewage Management: A Multicriteria AHP-Based Model for a Reliable Quick Assessment.  

PubMed

Environmental issues related to swine production are still a major concern for the general public and represent a key challenge for the swine industry. The environmental impact of higher livestock concentration is particularly significant where it coincides with weaker policy standards and poor manure management. Effective tools for environmental monitoring of the swine sewage management process become essential for verifying the environmental compatibility of farming facilities and for defining suitable policies aimed at increasing swine production sustainability. This research aims at the development and application of a model for a quick assessment of the environmental effectiveness of the pig farming sewage management process. In order to define the model, multicriteria techniques, and in particular, Saaty's analytic hierarchy process, were used to develop an iterative process in which the various key factors influencing the process under investigation were analyzed. The model, named EASE (Environmental Assessment of Sewages management Effectiveness), was optimized and applied to the Lake Trasimeno basin (Umbria, Italy), an area of high natural, environmental and aesthetic value. In this context, inadequate disposal of pig sewage represents a potential source of very considerable pollution. The results have demonstrated how the multicriteria model can represent a very effective and adaptable tool also in those decision-making processes aimed at the sustainable management of livestock production. PMID:23974904

Vizzari, Marco; Modica, Giuseppe

2013-08-24

247

Segregation vs blending - which way to go with your FGD waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last five years, regulatory and enforcement action in the area of waste disposal has created problems for designers and operators of coal-fired power plants. At issue are satisfactory methods for the disposal of the two largest waste streams - fly ash and scrubber sludge. The traditional method of disposal - ponding - creates water pollution problems in violation

H. H. Braden; P. E. Cooke

1980-01-01

248

Disposable contact lens wear systems.  

PubMed

The majority of problems associated with soft lens wear in general are related to lens deterioration, deposits, care systems, and lack of patient compliance. The greatest problem with soft lenses is that they can never be totally cleaned. The point of a disposable lens wear program is to discard the lens while it is still in relatively good condition. If either the patient or the practitioner wishes to use the lens until problems occur, the entire system is rendered useless. Practitioners must emphasize to new patients that soft lenses become dirty and deteriorate regardless of the level of care; this deterioration will affect comfort and visual acuity; and frequent replacement avoids these negative factors. PMID:2366254

Harrison, K W

249

Environmental assessment of sewage sludge recycling options and treatment processes in Tokyo.  

PubMed

Tokyo has historically suffered from a shortage of final disposal sites for the treated sewage sludge. Given this situation, sludge recycling and incineration have been promoted to reduce the volume of treated sludge conveyed to the disposal site, and the recycling options have changed since the late 1990s. This study aims to revisit the sewage sludge treatment and recycling processes in Tokyo and to evaluate different recycling options (brick, aggregate, refuse derived fuel and slag) from the energy consumption perspective by clarifying the complex flow of treated sludge within Tokyo's 23 wards. The study also estimates environmental loads associated with the operation of the whole sludge management system in the area. The environmental loads include: (1) total energy consumption and (2) gas emissions (greenhouse and acidification gases). The estimation was carried out for the years 1995, 1997, 1999 and 2001, during which a drastic change in recycling options occurred. The results indicated that the production of refuse derived fuel was the most energy consuming recycling option while aggregate production is the least energy consuming. They also showed that despite the increasing sludge volume, the energy consumption associated with the operation of the whole system decreased during the period while the gas emissions increased. PMID:18439814

Hara, K; Mino, T

2008-04-25

250

Heavy metal balances of an Italian soil as affected by sewage sludge and Bordeaux mixture applications  

SciTech Connect

Applications of sewage sludge and Bordeaux mixture (Bm) (a mixture of copper sulfate and lime) add heavy metals to the soil. At an experimental farm in the Cremona district (Italy), the authors measured current heavy metal contents in soil and their removal via harvested products. They also measured heavy metal adsorption by soil from this farm. With these data, projections were made of the long-term development of heavy metal (Cd, Cu, and Zn) contents in soil, crop removal, and leaching at different application rates of sewage sludge and Bm. These projections were compared with existing quality standards of the European Union (EU) and Italy with regard to soil and groundwater. The calculations reveal that the permitted annual application rates of sewage sludge and Bm are likely to result in exceedance of groundwater and soil standards. Sewage sludge applications, complying with the Italian legal limits, may pose problems for Cd, Cu, and Zn within 30, 70, and 100 yr, respectively. Furthermore, severe Cu pollution of integrated and especially organic (Bm only) vineyards is unavoidable with the currently allowed application rates of Bm. The results suggest that the current Italian soil protection policy as well as the EU policy are not conducive of a sustainable heavy metal management in agroecosystems.

Moolenaar, S.W. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands); Beltrami, P. [Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza (Italy)

1998-07-01

251

The use of delta(15)N in assessing sewage stress on coral reefs.  

PubMed

While coral reefs decline, scientists argue, and effective strategies to manage land-based pollution lag behind the extent of the problem. There is need for objective, cost-effective, assessment methods. The measurement of stable nitrogen isotope ratios, delta(15)N, in tissues of reef organisms shows promise as an indicator of sewage stress. The choice of target organism will depend upon study purpose, availability, and other considerations such as conservation. Algae are usually plentiful and have been shown faithfully to track sewage input. The organic matrix of bivalve shells can provide time series spanning, perhaps, decades. Gorgonians have been shown to track sewage, and can provide records potentially centuries-long. In areas where baseline data are lacking, which is almost everywhere, delta(15)N in gorgonians can provide information on status and trends. In coral tissue, delta(15)N combined with insoluble residue determination can provide information on both sewage and sediment stress in areas lacking baseline data. In the developed world, delta(15)N provides objective assessment in a field complicated by conflicting opinions. Sample handling and processing are simple and analysis costs are low. This is a method deserving widespread application. PMID:19286230

Risk, Michael J; Lapointe, Brian E; Sherwood, Owen A; Bedford, Bradley J

2009-03-14

252

Criteria for Designing Sewage Treatment Plants for Enhanced Removal of Organic Micropollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This work addresses the problem of micropollutants removal in sewage treatment plants trying to identify the main factors\\u000a influencing their fate and behaviour. Firstly the most significant groups of substances that are continuously emitted into\\u000a the environment are presented and the physico-chemical properties and biodegradability of representative compounds are discussed.\\u000a This information is crucial to understand the main removal mechanisms

Francisco Omil; Sonia Suárez; Marta Carballa; Rubén Reif; Juan M. Lema

253

Determination of siloxanes and VOC in landfill gas and sewage gas by canister sampling and GC-MS\\/AES analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogases such as landfill gas and sewage gas undergo a combustion process which is generating electric energy. Since several trace compounds such as siloxanes (also halogenated and sulfur compounds) are known to cause severe problems to these gas combustion engines, they are of particular interest. In this work, a new technique for sampling, identification, and quantification of siloxanes and volatile

Martin Schweigkofler; Reinhard Niessner

1999-01-01

254

Use of MSW compost, dried sewage sludge and other wastes as partial substitutes for peat and soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of different materials; peat, sand or forest soil, in the production of substrates for ornamental plants and for revegetating sealed landfills is a practice leading to economic and environmental problems. Therefore, the feasibility of using composted municipal solid wastes (MSW), sewage sludge and other organic wastes to produce alternative substrates for ornamental plants and to improve the re-vegetation

F. Ingelmo; R. Canet; M. A. Ibañez; F. Pomares; J. García

1998-01-01

255

Disposal of Tritiated Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After some introductory remarks on the origin of tritium, its properties and its behaviour in a reprocessing plant three alternative methods for the disposal of tritiated effluents produced during reprocessing are described (deep well injection, in-situ s...

K. Hartmann H. Bruecher

1981-01-01

256

Disposable contact lenses.  

PubMed

Disposable soft contact lenses are an alternative to conventional extended-wear lenses and provide an acceptable margin of safety and convenience for the wearer. The lenses are worn for one to two weeks and then discarded. Buildup of tear film deposits is minimized, and the need for cleaning and disinfecting solutions is eliminated. The long-term safety of disposable contact lenses is unknown. PMID:2021100

White, G L; Thiese, S M; Olafsson, H E; Lundergan, M K

1991-05-01

257

COMPREHENSIVE SUMMARY OF SLUDGE DISPOSAL RECYCLING HISTORY  

EPA Science Inventory

Since 1971 the only mode of sludge disposal used by Denver District No. 1 has been land application. A number of different application procedures have been tried over the intervening years. The development of methodology and problems associated with each procedure are discussed i...

258

Waste Management and Disposal for Artists and Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Artists, art teachers, and students need to understand the problems associated with disposing of waste materials, some of which may be hazardous. The waste products of art projects, even if non-hazardous, also use up space in overloaded landfills. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets forth guidelines for disposing of hazardous wastes.…

Babin, Angela; McCann, Michael

259

Disposal strategies for municipal solid waste incineration residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented of the various types of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) residues produced, their characteristics and their leaching properties. It is established that short- and long-term leaching and release of contaminants constitute the most important potential environmental problems related to disposal of MSWI residues. A set of basic principles of waste disposal or leachate management strategy which

Ole Hjelmar

1996-01-01

260

High-Level Radioactive Waste: Safe Storage and Ultimate Disposal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described are problems and techniques for safe disposal of radioactive waste. Degrees of radioactivity, temporary storage, and long-term permanent storage are discussed. Included are diagrams of estimated waste volumes to the year 2000 and of an artist's conception of a permanent underground disposal facility. (SL)|

Dukert, Joseph M.

261

Recycling cell formation using group technology for disposal products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recycling cell formation problem means that disposal products are classified into recycling part families using group technology in their end of life phase. Disposal products have the uncertainties of product status by usage influences. Recycling cells are formed considering design, process and usage attributes. In this paper, a novel approach to the design of a cellular recycling system is

1999-01-01

262

Geochemical and hydrologic controls on phosphorus transport in a sewage-contaminated sand and gravel aquifer near Ashumet Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The disposal of secondarily treated sewage onto rapid infiltration sand beds at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, has created a sewage plume in the underlying sand and gravel aquifer; the part of the\\x11sewage plume that contains dissolved phosphorus extends about 2,500 feet downgradient of the sewage-disposal beds. A part of the plume that\\x11contains nearly 2 milligrams per liter of phosphorus currently (1993) discharges into Ashumet Pond along about 700 feet of shoreline. The sewage plume discharges from about 59 to about 76 kilograms of phosphorus per year into the pond. Hydraulic-head measurements indicate that the north end of Ashumet Pond is a ground-water sink and an increased component of ground-water discharge and phosphorus flux into\\x11the pond occurs at higher water levels. Phosphorus was mobile in ground water in two distinct geochemical environments-an anoxic zone that contains no dissolved oxygen and as much as 25\\x11milligrams per liter of dissolved iron, and a more areally extensive suboxic zone that contains little or no iron, low but detectable dissolved oxygen, and as much as 12 milligrams per liter of dissolved manganese. Dissolved phosphorus is mobile in the suboxic geochemical environment because continued phosphorus loading has filled available sorption sites in the aquifer. Continued disposal of sewage since 1936 has created a large reservoir of sorbed phosphorus that is much greater than the mass of dissolved phosphorus in the ground water; the average ratio of sorbed to dissolved phosphorus in the anoxic and suboxic parts of the sewage plume were 31:1 and 155:1, respectively. Column experiments indicate that phosphorus in the anoxic core of the plume containing dissolved iron may be immobilized within 17 years by sorption and coprecipitation with new iron oxyhydroxides following the cessation of sewage disposal and the introduction of uncontaminated oxygenated ground water into the aquifer in December 1995. Residual oxygen demand associated with sorbed organic compounds and ammonia could retard the movement of oxygenated water into the aquifer. Sorbed phosphorus in the suboxic zone of the aquifer will continue to desorb into the ground water and will remain mobile in the ground water for perhaps hundreds of years. Also, the introduction of uncontaminated water into the aquifer may cause dissolved-phosphorus concentrations in the suboxic zone of the aquifer to increase sharply and remain higher than precessation levels for many years due to the desorption of loosely bound phosphorus. Data from three sampling sites, located along the eastern and western boundaries of the sewage plume and downgradient of abandoned sewage-disposal beds, indicate that ground-water mixing and phosphorus desorption may already be occurring in the aquifer in response to the introduction of uncontaminated recharge water into previously contaminated parts of the aquifer.

Walter, D. A.; Rea, B. A.; Stollenwerk, K. G.; Savoie, Jennifer

1995-01-01

263

Effect of sewage sludge amendment on heavy metal uptake and yield of ryegrass seedling in a mudflat soil.  

PubMed

Mudflat soil amendment by sewage sludge is a potential way to dispose of solid wastes and increase fertility of mudflat soils for crop growth. The present study aimed to assess the impact of sewage sludge amendment (SSA) on heavy metal accumulation and growth of ryegrass ( L.) in a seedling stage. We investigated the metal availability, plant uptake, and plant yield in response to SSA at rates of 0, 30, 75, 150, and 300 t ha. The SSA increased the metal availability in a mudflat soil and subsequently metal accumulation in ryegrass. The SSA increased the bioavailable fraction of the metals by 4550, 58.8, 898, 189, 35.8, and 84.8% for Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and Cd, respectively, at an SSA rate of 300 t ha as compared to unamended soil. Consequently, the metal concentrations in ryegrass increased by 1130, 12.9, 355, 108, 2230, and 497% in roots and by 431, -4.3, 92.6, 58.3, 890, and 211% in aboveground parts, for Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and Cd, respectively, at the 300 t ha rate as compared to unamended soil. The enhanced metal accumulation, however, did not induce growth inhibition of ryegrass. Fresh weight of aboveground parts and roots of ryegrass at 300 t ha SSA rate increased by 555 and 128%, respectively, as compared to those grown in unamended soil. The study suggests that SSA can promote yield of ryegrass seedlings grown in mudflat soils. None of metal concentrations at all SSA rates was above the Chinese permissible limits. Despite the data at only the seedling stage, our results indicate that SSA in mudflat soils might be a potential way for mudflat soil fertility improvement and sewage sludge disposal. Further study at plants' maturity stage is warranted to fully assess the suitability of sewage sludge amendment on mudflat soils. PMID:23673834

Gu, Chuanhui; Bai, Yanchao; Tao, Tianyun; Chen, Guohua; Shan, Yuhua

264

Magnesite disposal of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we report our progress on developing a method for carbon dioxide disposal whose purpose it is to maintain coal energy competitive even is environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other methods, our approach is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, its purpose is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. A successful development of this technology would guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth the most optimistic estimates that have been put forward. Our approach differs from all others in that we are developing an industrial process which chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Wendt, C.H.

1997-08-01

265

Anaerobic degradation of phenol in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic phenol degrading consortia were selected in sewage sludge and culture conditions were improved to allow maximum degradation rates of 0.9 g\\/l·d. Phenol had to be added in two portions of 0.45 g\\/l at intervals of 12 h to keep the fermentation at stable conditions. From U-14C-phenol little benzoate and acetate were formed as intermediates under a N2:CO2 gas phase.

G. Knoll; J. Winter

1987-01-01

266

Gold and platinoids in sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludges from German municipal wastewater treatment plants possess high gold concentrations (280 to 56,000 ?g\\/kg in dry matter) similar to some ore deposits which are being mined for gold. In addition, the sludges exhibit elevated platinum (<10 to 1,070 ?g\\/kg) and palladium values (38 to 4,700 ?g\\/kg), and low osmium (<3 to <51 ?g\\/kg), iridium (0.6 to 26.5 ?g\\/kg),

Bernd G. Lottermoser

1994-01-01

267

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. ...public parties to treat sewage or supply bulk water shall have written...

2009-01-01

268

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. ...public parties to treat sewage or supply bulk water shall have written...

2010-01-01

269

33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...discharge of treated sewage or graywater...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...discharge treated sewage or graywater from...the applicable waters of Alaska unless...the applicable waters of Alaska, treated sewage and...

2010-07-01

270

33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...discharge of treated sewage or graywater...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...discharge treated sewage or graywater from...the applicable waters of Alaska unless...the applicable waters of Alaska, treated sewage and...

2009-07-01

271

33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. 159.315 Section 159.315 Navigation... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While operating in the applicable...legible Sewage and Graywater Discharge Record Book with the vessel's name and...

2013-07-01

272

Usage of sewage effluent in irrigation of some woody tree seedlings. Part 3: Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.  

PubMed

A pot experiment was investigated to study the effect of sewage irrigation treatments (primary and secondary effluents) compared with tap water on the growth and chemical constituents of mahogany seedlings (Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.) as well as soil chemical properties. The experiment was conducted at a greenhouse in the nursery of Timber Trees Research Department of Sabahia, Horticultural Research Station in Alexandria, Egypt, from June 2003 to December 2004 for three irrigation periods (6, 12 and 18 months). The sewage effluent waters were taken from oxidation ponds located in New Borg EL-Arab city and used directly for irrigation. The primary effluent treatment was superior than other treatments in improving the growth parameters (plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, leaves number, fresh and dry weights of leaves, shoots and roots and shoot/root ratio) and showed the highest concentration and total uptake of N, P, K, Cd, Ni, Pb and Fe in plant parts, followed by secondary effluent then tap water. The data revealed that soil salinity in terms of electrical conductivity of saturated paste (EC), CaCO3%, organic matter% and soluble anions and cations were influenced significantly by primary or secondary effluent treatment. The data also showed that the use of sewage effluent for irrigation increased N, P, K and DTPA-extractable-heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, Mn and Zn). The effects of sewage effluent on growth parameters and elements content in plant parts and treated soil were more pronounced as water treatments were used for long period. The results suggested that the use of sewage effluent in irrigating mahogany trees grown on calcareous sandy loam soil was an important agriculture practice for improving soil properties, increasing fuel and timber production, and is an economic and safe way to dispose wastewaters. PMID:23961125

Ali, Hayssam M; El-Mahrouk, El-Sayed M; Hassan, Fatma A; El-Tarawy, Mohamed A

2010-08-13

273

Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.  

PubMed Central

Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts.

Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

2003-01-01

274

Study on the effect and mechanism of hydrothermal pretreatment of dewatered sewage sludge cake for dewaterability.  

PubMed

In China, over 17 million tons dewatered sewage sludge cake (DSSC), with about 80% water content, was generated from wastewater treatment plants in 2010. High water content is the bottleneck of sludge treatment and disposal. In this study, the combination of hydrothermal and mechanical treatments has been chosen in order to improve sludge dewaterability. Sludge thermogravimetry analysis was conducted to determine 180 degrees C as the upper-limit hydrothermal temperature. Five temperatures (60, 80, 120, 150, 180 degrees C) were chosen to study the effects of hydrothermal treatment temperature and the holding time on dewaterability. The higher the hydrothermal temperature, the better was the dewaterability character. The water contents of solid products were positively correlated with the hydrothermal holding time at predetermined temperatures in this study. Degradation of macromolecules into acidic compounds could be the reason of pH decrease of separated liquid. Destruction of zoogloe and decomposition of organic matters improved the sludge dewaterability. Sludge dewaterability experiencing hydrothermal processes in this study was negatively correlated with extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) content. With the rising temperature, sludge flocculate disaggregated to small particles generally, this could also be one of the important reasons for sludge dewaterability. Implications: High water content is the bottleneck of sludge treatment and disposal. Up to now, only a small amount of research has been conducted to determine whether the dewaterability of dewatered sewage sludge cake can be improved by hydrothermal pretreatment. The mechanism of sludge dewaterability by hydrothermal pretreatment is uncertain. In this study, a new sludge disposal method and corresponding parameters were given. The mechanism of sludge dewaterability was analyzed extensively by extracellular polymeric substances, scanning electron microscope images, element contents, and caloric values, etc. This study will be helpful for knowing about sludge hydrothermal pretreatment technology and its mechanism. PMID:24010381

Zhu, Ying; Han, Zhe; Liu, Xiuyu; Li, Jing; Liu, Feng; Feng, Suping

2013-08-01

275

Industrial and sewage wastes in the ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents papers on marine waste disposal. Topics considered include modeling and field studies of physical oceanographic aspects of waste disposal, chemical effects, biological and toxic effects, the Mid-Atlantic and New York Bight dumpsites, stabilized coal waste, the physical and chemical properties of coal wastes in seawater, the diffusion of calcium and sulfate compounds in stabilized coal wastes, and

I. W. Duedall; B. H. Ketchum; P. K. Park; D. R. Kester

1983-01-01

276

[Cholera update and vaccination problems].  

PubMed

Cholera remains an important public health problem. The long-term control of cholera depends on good personal hygiene, uncontaminated water supply and appropriate sewage disposal. However, the improvement of hygiene is distant goal for many countries. Thus the availability of an effective cholera vaccine is important for the prevention of cholera in these countries. Research on new cholera vaccines has mainly focused on oral formulations that stimulate the mucosal secretory immune system. Two oral cholera vaccines were experimented on large scale in human. The first vaccine, containing inactivated bacterial cells and B-subunit of cholera toxin, has been tested in Bangladesh from 1985 to 1989. This vaccine, according to WHO, may prove useful in the stable phase of refugee/displaced person crises, especially when given preventively. The second vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine containing the genetically manipulated Vibrio cholerae O1 strain CVD 103-HgR. Despite its efficacy in adult volunteers, results of a large-scale field trial carried-out in Indonesia for 4 years have shown a surprisingly low protection. Moreover, one of the safety concerns associated with live cholera vaccine is a possible horizontal gene transfer and recombination event leading to reversion to virulence. A new vaccine development program for cholera is based upon the hypothesis that immunoglobulins G directed to the O-specific polysaccharide of Vibrio cholerae O1 could confer protective immunity to cholera by inactivating the inoculum on intestinal mucosal surface. This program may lead to the development of cholera conjugate vaccines to elicit protection in infants. PMID:9812307

Fournier, J M; Villeneuve, S

1998-01-01

277

Evaluation of the co-application of fly ash and sewage sludge on soil biological and biochemical quality.  

PubMed

Disposal of sewage sludge (SS) and fly ash (FA) is a multifaceted problem, which can affect environmental quality. FA has the potential to stabilize SS by reducing metal availability and making the SS suitable for application in the agricultural sector. An experiment was performed to evaluate soil biological quality changes with the combined amendment of SS and FA (fluidized bed combustion ash (FBCA) and lignite fly ash (LFA)). SS was amended with 0, 10, 30, 50 and 100%, (w/w) of FA, and then the FA-SS mixtures were incubated with red soil at 1:1 (v/v). Soil quality parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, N, soil enzyme activities such as dehydrogenase (DHA), urease (URE), and catalase (CAT), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) were evaluated at 20, 30, and 60 days of incubation, pH and EC increased with FA-SS dose; however, N decreased. DHA and URE were found to be increased with 10% LFA amendment; thereafter it decreased. However, URE increased up to 30% of FBCA. CAT and MBC increased with both FA amendments, even up to addition of 50% FA. Bioavailable Zn, Cu, and Co contents were decreased by the addition of FA. Principal component analysis showed that pH is the most influential factor. MBC appears to be a sensitive soil indicator for the effects that result from the addition of FA-SS. Phytotoxicity studies with Zea mays showed optimum performance at 30% FA. Addition of 10-30% FBCA or LFA to SS has a positive advantage on soil biological quality. PMID:22720414

Masto, Reginald E; Sunar, Kapil K; Sengupta, Taniya; Ram, Lal C; Rout, T K; Selvi, Vetrivel A; George, Joshy; Sinha, Awadhesh K

278

Distribution of Coliphages Against Four E. Coli Virotypes in Hospital Originated Sewage Sample and a Sewage Treatment Plant in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of coliphages infecting different Escherichia coli virotypes (EHEC, EIEC, EPEC, ETEC) and an avirulent strain (K-12) in sewage system of a hospital and a sewage treatment plant\\u000a (STP) was investigated by culture-based agar overlay methods. Coliphages were found in all the samples except stool dumping\\u000a site in the sewage system of the hospital and lagoon of the STP.

Muntasir Alam; Tasmia Farzana; Chowdhury Rafiqul Ahsan; Mahmuda Yasmin; Jamalun Nessa

2011-01-01

279

Disposable mouthwash container  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A disposable mouthwash container for use at a location such as a restaurant or preparatory to a meeting, for quick and easy rinsing of the user's mouth and to receive the used mouthwash back into the same container and be re-sealed for disposal. Each embodiment of the invention seals the mouthwash liquid in a reservoir in the container and has an easily openable top and spout providing access to the mouthwash, and a return opening for directing the used mouthwash back into the container, which is reclosable for disposal. A quick-release split ring connection is provided for mounting the container on a key ring for ready availability, and a reflective tape mirror is provided on some embodiments to facilitate inspection after use.

Kahen; Soleyman (Los Angeles, CA)

2010-09-21

280

From sewage water treatment to wastewater reuse. One century of Paris sewage farms history  

Microsoft Academic Search

The irrigation fields of Paris have been used for 100 years. Their soils mainly contain heavy metals in the topmost layer. Metals come from raw sewage as well as from digested sludge of biological treatment plants which have been diluted for years in raw water. Vegetables that are cultivated in the irrigation fields concentrate metals but their average contents, however,

B. Védry; M. Gousailles; M. Affholder; A. Lefaux; J. Bontoux

281

Human Enteropathogen Load in Activated Sewage Sludge and Corresponding Sewage Sludge End Products?  

PubMed Central

This study demonstrated a significant reduction in the concentrations of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts, Giardia lamblia cysts, and spores of human-virulent microsporidia in dewatered and biologically stabilized sewage sludge cake end products compared to those of the respective pathogens in the corresponding samples collected during the sludge activation process.

Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Lucy, Frances E.; Tamang, Leena; Miraflor, Allen

2007-01-01

282

Wood ash disposal and recycling sourcebook  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information on thirteen different methods of using or disposing of wood ash in Section III. Discussion concentrates on agricultural landspreading and landfilling since these two methods account for the disposition of about 95% of the wood ash produced at present in the Northeast. The thirteen disposal options include spreading on agricultural lands, landfilling, a sewage sludge composting agent, spreading on forest lands, a fertilizer additive, to pretreat landfill leachate, cement production, a binding agent in charcoal production, a hazardous waste absorbing agent, a hazardous waste solidification agent, roadbase construction, a waste water treatment agent, and an agent in treating potato processing waste. Landfilling of wood ash at a ''secure'' landfill, i.e., one with a liner to allow recovery and treatment of leachate, costs about $40 to $45 per ton for tipping fees. This is the cost for using the landfill and can vary widely. The quoted range is based on 1987 rates in Maine and New Hampshire. In addition, there are transportation costs which typically run about $1.50 per mile for a 10- or 12-ton truck, or about $0.15 per ton per mile. Thus a facility producing 5000 tons per year of ash that would have to truck the ash 40 miles to the nearest landfill would have tipping fees of $200,000 to $225,000 per year and transportation costs of $30,000 per year. Regulatory requirements placed on landfills have increased dramatically over the last decade. This is reflected in substantially increased tipping fees.

Greene, W.T.

1988-04-25

283

Algal Growth Response in Two Illinois Rivers Receiving Sewage Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) primarily enters streams in Illinois as effluent released from sewage treatment plants and runoff from agricultural fields. As a result, water quality can be affected and large amounts of algal growth are possible. We determined the growth of periphytic algae (as chla) relative to differing amounts of P (factor of 10) released in sewage effluent in two rivers.

Linda M. Jacobson; Mark B. Davida; Corey A. Mitchell

2008-01-01

284

Cyanobacteria as a biosorbent of heavy metals in sewage water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sewage water on some physiological activities of cyanobacteria was studied. Metal-tolerant cyanobacterium (Nostoc linckia) and metal-sensitive (Nostoc rivularis) were grown at three levels of sewage water (25, 50 and 75%). The growth rate showed significant stimulation in low and moderate levels (50% for N. linckia and 25% for N. rivularis). Not only the number of cells was

A. E. El-Enany; A. A. Issa

2000-01-01

285

Effect of flooding with sewage water on three wetland sedges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants of three wetland sedges, Carex vesicaria, C. rostrata, and C. gracilis, were subjected to flooding with diluted pig farm sewage water in a sand-culture experiment lasting for one growing season (20 weeks). Sewage water application altered growth dynamics and accumulation of dry matter in all three species; it shifted the distribution of dry matter in favor of above-ground parts;

Hana Kon?alová; Jan Kv?t; Jan Pokorný; Václav Hauser

1993-01-01

286

Biological Degradation of Cyclophosphamide and Its Occurrence in Sewage Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutagenic and cancerogenic antineoplastic agent cyclophosphamide (CP) is released into sewage water by cancer patient excretion. To assess the biological degradability of CP two standardized test systems, the Zahn–Wellens\\/EMPA test (OECD 302B) and a laboratory scale sewage treatment plant, were used. In both test systems the agent exhibited only poor degradability. To verify the expected occurrence of CP in

T. Steger-Hartmann; K. Kümmerer; A. Hartmann

1997-01-01

287

Chironomidae From a Sewage Treatment Station of Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the great number of insects living and reproducing at a municipal sewage treatment station located in Piracicaba City and the fear about how dangerous it could be for human healthy, a study was conduct to identify the taxa presented there and to analyze their community structure using stable isotopes. The Chironomidae identification was performed on specific level. The sewage

R. P. Signoretti; K. C. Sonoda; E. Ferraz

2005-01-01

288

Removal of dissolved estrogen in sewage effluents by ?-cyclodextrin polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substances with estrogenic activity are found in effluents of municipal sewage plants and dairy farms. These effluents have the potential to induce feminization in male fish. In this study, cyclodextrin polymers (CDPs) that are insoluble in both polar and non-polar solvents were selected for the removal of dissolved estrogens in the effluent of a municipal sewage plant. The removal capacity

Kyoko Oishi; Ayumi Moriuchi

2010-01-01

289

Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in Swedish sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat in veterinary medicine and human healthcare. Resistance genes can spread from animals, through the food-chain, and back to humans. Sewage sludge may act as the link back from humans to animals. The main aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in treated sewage sludge, in a

Leena Sahlström; Verena Rehbinder; Ann Albihn; Anna Aspan; Björn Bengtsson

2009-01-01

290

Use of composted sewage sludge in growth media for broccoli  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the use of composted sewage sludge (CSS) as a binary component with peat (P) in growth media for a horticultural crop, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Botryti cv. Marathon), was evaluated. Four treatments were established, based on the addition of increasing quantities of composted sewage sludge to peat (0%, 15%, 30% and 50%, v\\/v). Physical, physico-chemical and chemical

M. D. Perez-Murcia; R. Moral; J. Moreno-Caselles; A. Perez-Espinosa; C. Paredes

2006-01-01

291

Endocrine disrupting chemicals accumulate in earthworms exposed to sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can alter endocrine function in exposed animals. Such critical effects, combined with the ubiquity of EDCs in sewage effluent and potentially in tapwater, have led to concerns that they could be major physiological disruptors for wildlife and more controversially for humans. Although sewage effluent is known to be a rich source of EDCs, there is as

Shai Markman; Irina A. Guschina; Sara Barnsley; Katherine L. Buchanan; David Pascoe; Carsten T. Müller

2007-01-01

292

Effects of sewage sludge application method on corn production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine the effects of land application of municipal sewage sludge to agricultural land in Upper Cumberland Region of the Tennessee valley. Treatments included single and annual applications of sewage sludge both surface applied and injected into the soil. The primary objective of the study was to determine the effects of different land application methods of

R. W. Cripps; S. K. Winfree; J. L. Reagan

1992-01-01

293

Energy Generation by a Renewable Source - Sewage Biogas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will present two projects related to energy generation using sewage biogas as fuel and different engines, one is a Otto cycle engine and the other is a microturbine. The first one had as project proposal the sewage biogas use as fuel in an 18 kva Otto cycle generator, to produce electric energy, which development was a commitment of

Sílvia Maria Stortini González; Orlando Cristiano; Osvaldo Stella Martins; Fernando Castro

294

Radioactive waste disposal package  

DOEpatents

A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

1986-01-01

295

Subductive waste disposal method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for the disposal of nuclear and toxic waste materials comprising the placing of waste materials into waste repositories radiating from an access tunnel constructed into a subtending tectonic plate adjacent or as near as possible a subduction zone. The waste materials descend within the tectonic plate into the mantle of the earth.

1991-06-11

296

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

1990-10-01

297

Nuclear Waste Disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related

Glendon W. Gee; Philip D. Meyer; Andy L. Ward

2005-01-01

298

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

1990-10-01

299

Coxiella burnetii in sewage water at sewage water treatment plants in a Q fever epidemic area.  

PubMed

During 2007-2010, over 4000 persons in The Netherlands contracted Q-fever, a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Goats and sheep are the main reservoir of C. burnetti and infected animals shed the bacterium with their urine, faeces and birth products. Human infections may occur through direct contact with infected animals, or through inhalation of contaminated dust particles or aerosols. Discharge of waste water from Q fever contaminated goat farms may result in the presence of C. burnetii in sewage water and aerosols at sewage water treatment plants (SWTPs) which may pose a health risk for workers or neighbouring residents. The objectives of this study were to determine the presence of C. burnetii at SWTPs and to optimize available detection methods. In March-July 2011, sewage influent and aeration tank samples from four SWTPs receiving discharge from Q fever positive goat farms were examined by using a multiplex real-time PCR detecting C. burnetii DNA by targeting IS1111 and com1 genes. Influent (44%; n=16/36) and active sludge (36%; n=13/36) samples were positive with low C. burnetii DNA content. Percentage positive samples per SWTP were 28-61%. Positive samples were most frequent in March 2011 and least frequent in May 2011. The presence of C. burnetii DNA in sewage water samples suggests that SWTPs receiving waste water from Q fever contaminated goat farms may contribute to the spread of C. burnetii to the environment. The low levels of C. burnetii DNA in sewage water during the decline of the Q fever outbreak in The Netherlands in 2011 indicate a low health risk for SWTP workers and residents. PMID:23347968

Schets, F M; de Heer, L; de Roda Husman, A M

2013-01-22

300

Assessment of a potential agricultural application of Bangkok-digested sewage sludge and finished compost products.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to investigate the levels of plant nutrients, heavy metals, parasites and fecal coliform bacteria in Bangkok-produced sewage sludge and finished compost products for potential agricultural application, as well as to compare the quality of compost under different composting conditions. The results indicated that digested sewage sludge had high fertilizing values for organic matter (19.01 ± 0.09%), total nitrogen (2.17 ± 0.07%), total phosphorus (2.06 ± 0.06%) and total potassium (1.16 ± 0.22%), but it was contaminated with human pathogens, including fecal coliform bacteria, viable helminthes egg and active forms of parasite cysts. Thus, fresh sewage sludge should not be disposed on land unless it has undergone pathogen reduction. It is proven that the quality of the sludge mixed with grass clippings at a ratio of 6:1 volume/volume after having passed a windrow composting process for 8 weeks can be classified as class A biosolids as the levels of remaining fecal coliforms were < 3 most probable number g(-1) dry solid and all human parasites were destroyed. Concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium in the finished compost were 16.53 ± 1.25%, 1.39 ± 0.06%, 0.42 ± 0.10% and 1.53 ± 0.05% respectively. The total copper concentration was rather high (2291.31 ± 121.77 mg kg(-1)), but all heavy metal concentrations were also well below the United States Environmental Protection Agency pollutant limits for land application. The finished compost products can be considered as a soil conditioner as they have relatively low essential plant nutrient concentrations. It is recommended to be initially used for gardening and landscaping to ensure safety utilization. PMID:23836101

Sreesai, Siranee; Peapueng, Panadda; Tippayamongkonkun, Taninporn; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

2013-07-08

301

Oil field waste disposal costs at commercial disposal facilities  

SciTech Connect

The exploration and production segment of the U.S. oil and gas industry generates millions of barrels of nonhazardous oil field wastes annually. In most cases, operators can dispose of their oil fields wastes at a lower cost on-site than off site and, thus, will choose on-site disposal. However, a significant quantity of oil field wastes are still sent to off-site commercial facilities for disposal. This paper provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in different states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and how much they charge. There appear to be two major off-site disposal trends. Numerous commercial disposal companies that handle oil field wastes exclusively are located in nine oil-and gas-producing states. They use the same disposal methods as those used for on-site disposal. In addition, the Railroad Commission of Texas has issued permits to allow several salt caverns to be used for disposal of oil field wastes. Twenty-two other oil- and gas-producing states contain few or no disposal companies dedicated to oil and gas industry waste. The only off-site commercial disposal companies available handle general industrial wastes or are sanitary landfills. In those states, operators needing to dispose of oil field wastes off-site must send them to a local landfill or out of state. The cost of off-site commercial disposal varies substantially, depending on the disposal method used, the state in which the disposal company is located, and the degree of competition in the area.

Veil, J.A.

1997-10-01

302

Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) biomass production in a calcareous soil amended with sewage sludge compost and irrigated with sewage water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy use is one of the most important current global issues. Traditional energetic resources are limited and its use generates environmental problems, i.e. Global Warming, thus it is necessary to find alternative ways to produce energy. Energy crops represent one step towards sustainability but it must be coupled with appropriate land use and management adapted to local conditions. Moreover, positive effects like soil conservation; economical improvement of rural areas and CO2 storage could be achieved. Treated sewage water and sewage sludge compost were used as low-cost inputs for nutrition and irrigation, to cultivate cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) a perennial Mediterranean crop. The aim of the present field experiment was to ascertain the optimum dose of compost application to obtain maximum biomass production. Four compost treatments were applied by triplicate (D1=0; D2=30; D3=50; D4=70 ton/ha) and forty eight cardoon plants were placed in each plot, 12 per treatment, in a calcareous soil (CLfv; WRB, 2006) plot, located in the South East of Spain, in semi-arid conditions. The experiment was developed for one cardoon productive cycle (one year); soil was sampled three times (October, April and July). Soil, compost and treated sewage irrigation water were analyzed (physical and chemical properties). Stalk, capitula and leave weight as well as height and total biomass production were the parameters determined for cardoon samples. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) at p=0,05 significance level were performed to detect differences among treatments for each sampling/plot and to study soil parameters evolution and biomass production for each plot/dose. Several statistical differences in soil were found between treatments for extractable zinc, magnesium and phosphorus; as well as Kjeldahl nitrogen and organic carbon due to compost application, showing a gradual increase of nutrients from D1 to D4. However, considering the evolution of soil parameters along time, pH was the only with marked and significant decreasing trend from the first to the last sampling period. Mean cardoon biomass production in D1subplot was 13 ton/ha which differed significantly from D4 production, which was about 20 ton/ha. Hence, the maximum biomass production was obtained with the maximum compost dose. The results show that compost amendment increased cardoon biomass production, probably due to the improvement of soil properties, especially plant nutrient availability. No significant differences were found in soil parameters along time, with the exception of pH. However, longer test time is needed to evaluate long term effects in soil and to check the maintenance of biomass productivity. References Fernadez J., Curt, M.D., Aguado P.L. Industrial applications of Cynara cardunculus for energy and other uses. Industrial Crops and Product 24 (2006) pp 222-229. WRB (2006). World Reference Base for Soil Resources (2nd ed.). World Soil Resources Report 103, FAO, Rome, Italy (2006) 133 pp. Casado, J.; Sellés, S.; Navarro, J.; Bustamante, M.A.; Mataix, J.; Guerrero, C.; Gomez, I. Evaluation of composted sewage sludge as nutricional source for horticulturals soils. Waste Management 26 (2006). pp 946-952. Acknowledgements: The author gratefully acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Science for a research fellowship (AP2007-01641).

Lag, A.; Gomez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Melendez, I.; Perez Gimeno, A.; Soriano-Disla, J. M.

2010-05-01

303

Concentrations and sources of an emerging pollutant, decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), in sewage sludge for land application.  

PubMed

The presence of an emerging brominated flame retardant, decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), has been confirmed in Spanish sewage sludge. Thirty one samples from different urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for this brominated flame retardant. DBDPE was positively identified and quantified in all samples at lower concentrations (47.0 +/- 29.7 ng/g dry weight (dw); mean +/- SD) than those obtained for decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) (290 +/- 236 ng/g dw; mean +/- SD) in a previous study. Influence of the WWTP characteristics in the pollutant levels was evaluated. No significant correlations were obtained between DBDPE concentrations and the population or sewage sludge production rate associated with the plants, neither wastewater treatment method. Sources of DBDPE in the sludge were also evaluated. Data indicate a common origin for DBDPE and BDE-209, which may be related to leaching processes during the use and disposal of consumer products containing these chemicals. Nevertheless, DBDPE contents are not influenced by industrial activities, which suggests that the infusion of DBDPE commercial mixture is not a source of this chemical into the environment, and indicates that the use of DBDPE in the Spanish industry is still low compared to deca-BDE. PMID:22655373

De la Torre, A; Concejero, M A; Martínez, M A

2012-01-01

304

Digester gas utilization at West-Southwest Sewage Treatment Works. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The physical site and operation of the West Southwest Sewage Treatment Works of the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago are described. Over a billion gallons of sewage is handled each day. Influent is screened to remove large debris, flows through preliminary settling tanks to separate most suspended and floating scum solids, passes through aeration tanks which assist biological decomposition of remaining impurities, and is allowed to settle again before chlorination and/or discharge to the waterway. Sludges collected during the process are mixed with scum and ground screenings, concentrated by gravity or mechanical means, and, in the case pertinent to the subject project, are fed to digestion tanks where the action of anaerobic bacteria generates heat and combustible gas, primarily methane. Digested sludge can be further concentrated and disposed of by application on strip mined land. Gas generated during anaerobic digestion has averaged approximately 2.7 million standard cubic feet per day. Of this amount, 1.7 million SCF per day is used keeping the digesters heated to the proper temperature for the bacteria to thrive. The excess 1.0 million SCF per day is piped from the digesters and burned to supply power for low pressure steam generator.

Not Available

1980-01-01

305

Water Purification, Distribution and Sewage Disposal. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-29.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, designed to serve as a training manual for technical instructors and as a field resource reference for Peace Corps volunteers, consists of nine units. Unit topics focus on: (1) water supply sources; (2) water treatment; (3) planning water distribution systems; (4) characteristics of an adequate system; (5) construction techniques;…

1979

306

Hazardous Waste Disposal Damage Reports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication is the first in a series of reports to document incidents of improper land disposal of hazardous wastes. Studies include: Arsenic poisoning in Minnesota; Industrial waste disposal on farmland in Illinois; Fatality at a New Jersey Industri...

1975-01-01

307

Chesapeake Bay nutrient pollution: contribution from the land application of sewage sludge in Virginia.  

PubMed

Human health concerns and the dissemination of anthropogenic substances with unknown consequences are the reasons most often given why disposal of municipal sewage sludge in landfills or using the organic waste as biofuel is preferable to land application. But no "fertilizer" causes more nitrogen pollution than sludge when applied according to Virginia law. Poultry litter is the only other "fertilizer" that causes more phosphorus pollution than sludge. Cost savings by the few farmers in Virginia who use sludge are far less than the costs of the nitrogen pollution they cause. A ban on the land application of all forms of animal waste is very cost-effective and would reduce Chesapeake Bay nutrient pollution by 25%. PMID:22831861

Land, Lynton S

2012-07-24

308

Sampling of tar from sewage sludge gasification using solid phase adsorption.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge is a residue from wastewater treatment plants which is considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Gasification technology is a potential source of renewable energy that converts the sewage sludge into gases that can be used to generate energy or as raw material in chemical synthesis processes. But tar produced during gasification is one of the problems for the implementation of the gasification technology. Tar can condense on pipes and filters and may cause blockage and corrosion in the engines and turbines. Consequently, to minimize tar content in syngas, the ability to quantify tar levels in process streams is essential. The aim of this work was to develop an accurate tar sampling and analysis methodology using solid phase adsorption (SPA) in order to apply it to tar sampling from sewage sludge gasification gases. Four types of commercial SPA cartridges have been tested to determine the most suitable one for the sampling of individual tar compounds in such streams. Afterwards, the capacity, breakthrough volume and sample stability of the Supelclean™ ENVI-Carb/NH(2), which is identified as the most suitable, have been determined. Basically, no significant influences from water, H(2)S or NH(3) were detected. The cartridge was used in sampling real samples, and comparable results were obtained with the present and traditional methods. PMID:22526666

Ortiz González, Isabel; Pérez Pastor, Rosa Ma; Sánchez Hervás, José Ma

2012-04-24

309

Water and sewage systems, socio-demographics, and duration of residence associated with endemic intestinal infectious diseases: A cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of water-related gastrointestinal infections are usually directed at outbreaks. Few have examined endemic illness or compared rates across different water supply and sewage disposal systems. We conducted a cohort study of physician visits and hospitalizations for endemic intestinal infectious diseases in a mixed rural and urban community near Vancouver, Canada, with varied and well-characterized water and sewage systems. Methods Cohort members and their disease events were defined via universal health insurance data from 1995 through 2003. Environmental data were derived from municipal, provincial, and federal government sources. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between disease events and water and sewage systems, socio-demographic characteristics, and temporal factors. Results The cohort included 126,499 individuals and approximately 190,000,000 person-days. Crude incidence rates were 1,353 physician visits and 33.8 hospitalizations for intestinal infectious diseases per 100,000 person-years. Water supply chlorination was associated with reduced physician visit incidence (OR: 0.92, 95% CI 0.85-1.0). Two water systems with the highest proportions of surface water had increased incidence (ORs: 1.57, 95% CI 1.39-1.78; and 1.45, 95% CI 1.28-1.64). Private well water and well depth were not associated with increased risk, likely because of residents' awareness of and attention to water quality. There was increased crude incidence with increasing precipitation in the population served by surface water supplies, but this trend did not remain with adjustment for other variables. Municipal sewer systems were associated with increased risk (OR: 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.38). Most socio-demographic variables had predicted associations with risk: higher rates in females, in the very young and the elderly, and in residents of low income areas. Increased duration of area residence was associated with reduced risk (OR, duration ? 6 years: 0.69, 95% CI 0.60-0.80 vs. < 1 year: 1.16, 95% CI 1.03-1.30). Conclusions This large cohort study, with objective data on exposures and outcomes, demonstrated associations between endemic infectious intestinal diseases and factors related to water supply, sewage disposal, socio-demographics, and duration of residency. The results did not always follow prior expectations based on studies examining outbreaks and single systems, and underscore the importance of studying factors associated with endemic disease across water and sewage system types.

2010-01-01

310

Hammering away at waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waterhammer piledriver is described. The use of the piledriver in hazardous waste disposal is discussed. One of the safest methods for the disposal of radioactive and other long-term toxic wastes is the deep-ocean bottom. The piledriver drills holes in the ocean floor for safe disposal of these wastes. This puts the wastes away from currents like the Gulf Stream,

Wisotsky

1985-01-01

311

Suitability of Public Records for Evaluating Health Effects of Treated Sewage Sludge in North Carolina  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Exposure to potentially harmful agents because of waste disposal practices is receiving increased attention. Treated sewage sludge (TSS), or biosolid material, is the solid waste generated during domestic sewage treatment after it has undergone processes to reduce the number of pathogens and vector attractants. Application of TSS to land, which is the most common method for disposal, is promoted as a soil amendment and fertilizer. Few studies have examined the effects of land application on the health and quality of life of neighboring populations. We describe and summarize publicly available records that could be used to study the public health impact of practices associated with land application in North Carolina. METHODS We abstracted public records from the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources Division of Water Quality, to determine the following activities associated with land application of TSS in 8 counties in central North Carolina: the process for obtaining permits, reported applications, violations, documented concerns of residents, and penalties assessed. RESULTS The Division of Water Quality routinely collects records of permits and approvals for land application of TSS, amounts applied, and reported pollutant levels. Documentation was useful in summarizing land application practices, but lack of standardization in reporting was a concern. Research into the public health impacts of the land application program is hindered by inconsistency in documenting inspections and resident concerns. LIMITATIONS We were not able to validate state records with direct observation of land application of TSS. CONCLUSIONS Records from the Division of Water Quality would be of limited use in epidemiologic studies of the health effects of land application of biosolids. Information about locations, amounts, and dates of application are relevant to exposure potential, but additional information is needed for health investigations.

Keil, Alexander; Wing, Steven; Lowman, Amy

2011-01-01

312

Drilling mud disposal technique  

SciTech Connect

A disposable slurry is described comprising: (a) a slurry selected from the group consisting of water based drilling muds, brine slurries, muds from industrial evaporation ponds, and flocculated by-products of water treatment ponds; (b) a water-soluble crosslinkable polymer; and (c) a crosslinking agent, wherein the slurry is substantially devoid of inert non-packing, highly porous water-trapping, aggregate particles.

Dovan, H.T.

1993-05-25

313

Occurrence and removal of organic pollutants in sewages and landfill leachates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewages of different composition and the effluents of four sewage treatment plants (STPs), plus sewage sludges were analysed for semivolatile organic priority pollutants. Furthermore, 11 landfill leachates were analysed to evaluate their contribution to sewage pollutants when co-treated. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the pollutant occurring at highest concentrations (up to 122 ?g\\/l) and it was present in all sewages and

Sanna K Marttinen; Riitta H Kettunen; Jukka A Rintala

2003-01-01

314

Geotechnical engineering of ocean waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

This book report is on shallow ocean disposal and deals primarily with dredge material disposal. It is concerned with deep ocean disposal and deals primarily with both subseabed disposal of nuclear wastes and concentrated chemical wastes.

Demars, K.R.; Chaney, R.C.

1990-01-01

315

Records Disposal, A Guidebook for Laboratory Offices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Summary Checklist of Disposal Guidelines: Introduction to the Guidebook: Records and Records Disposal; Temporary and Permanent Records; Disposal Guidelines I: General Office Records; Disposal Guidelines II: Scientific and Technical Prog...

J. A. S. Pitts

1985-01-01

316

Metal transfer in vermicomposting of sewage sludge and plant wastes  

SciTech Connect

Sewage sludge is an urban waste that has a potential nutrient value for recycling into food production. A set of guidelines has been developed that prescribes the quality of sludge suitable for utilization on foodlands. A number of sewage sludges do not meet the criteria and are therefore not acceptable for direct foodland application. One of the options available for such sludges is the production of compost and one of these composting processes involves worms (vermicomposting). This study looks at a pilot vermicomposting operation and follows metal concentrations by batch lot from the sewage sludge to the final commercial product.

Frank, R. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario); Klauck, C.; Stonefield, K.I.

1983-12-01

317

PBDEs in Italian sewage sludge and environmental risk of using sewage sludge for land application.  

PubMed

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in sewage sludge samples collected from eight Italian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) between June 2009 and March 2010. Total PBDE concentrations ranged from 158.3 to 9427 ng g(-1) dw, while deca-BDE (BDE-209) (concentrations ranging from 130.6 to 9411 ng g(-1) dw) dominated the congener profile in all the samples, contributing between 77% and 99.8% of total PBDE. The suitability of using a magnetic particle enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) to analyse PBDEs in sewage sludge was also tested. The ELISA results, expressed as BDE-47 equivalents, were well correlated with those obtained by GC-NCI-MS, with correlation coefficients (r(2)) of 0.899 and 0.959, depending on the extraction procedure adopted. The risk assessment of PBDEs in sewage sludge addressed to land application was calculated. PEC(soil) values compared to the relative PNEC(soil) for penta and deca-BDE suggests that there is a low risk to the soil environment. PMID:22230090

Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Misuri, Lorenza; Lanciotti, Eudes; Sweetman, Andy; Laschi, Serena; Palchetti, Ilaria

2011-11-27

318

Lessons Learned from Radioactive Waste Storage and Disposal Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The safety of radioactive waste disposal facilities and the decommissioning of complex sites may be predicated on the performance of engineered and natural barriers. For assessing the safety of a waste disposal facility or a decommissioned site, a performance assessment or similar analysis is often completed. The analysis is typically based on a site conceptual model that is developed from site characterization information, observations, and, in many cases, expert judgment. Because waste disposal facilities are sited, constructed, monitored, and maintained, a fair amount of data has been generated at a variety of sites in a variety of natural systems. This paper provides select examples of lessons learned from the observations developed from the monitoring of various radioactive waste facilities (storage and disposal), and discusses the implications for modeling of future waste disposal facilities that are yet to be constructed or for the development of dose assessments for the release of decommissioning sites. Monitoring has been and continues to be performed at a variety of different facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. These include facilities for the disposal of commercial low-level waste (LLW), reprocessing wastes, and uranium mill tailings. Many of the lessons learned and problems encountered provide a unique opportunity to improve future designs of waste disposal facilities, to improve dose modeling for decommissioning sites, and to be proactive in identifying future problems. Typically, an initial conceptual model was developed and the siting and design of the disposal facility was based on the conceptual model. After facility construction and operation, monitoring data was collected and evaluated. In many cases the monitoring data did not comport with the original site conceptual model, leading to additional investigation and changes to the site conceptual model and modifications to the design of the facility. The following cases are discussed: commercial LLW disposal facilities; uranium mill tailings disposal facilities; and reprocessing waste storage and disposal facilities. The observations developed from the monitoring and maintenance of waste disposal and storage facilities provide valuable lessons learned for the design and modeling of future waste disposal facilities and the decommissioning of complex sites.

Esh, David W.; Bradford, Anna H. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Two White Flint North, MS T7J8, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

2008-01-15

319

Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate.  

PubMed

Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14+/-1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85+/-0.19 million t representing 37.22+/-6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait. PMID:14583244

Al Yaqout, Anwar F

2003-01-01

320

Raw Sewage Harbors Diverse Viral Populations  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. Importance At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that the viral universe is far more vast and diverse than previously suspected.

Cantalupo, Paul G.; Calgua, Byron; Zhao, Guoyan; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Wier, Adam D.; Katz, Josh P.; Grabe, Michael; Hendrix, Roger W.; Girones, Rosina; Wang, David; Pipas, James M.

2011-01-01

321

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

Forsberg, Charles W. (155 Newport Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Beahm, Edward C. (106 Cooper Cir., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Parker, George W. (321 Dominion Cir., Knoxville, TN 37922)

1995-01-01

322

Waste disposal system  

SciTech Connect

A waste disposal system provides a mixing stage where waste matter is water-charged, the water charged mixture is then steam exploded by being sprayed onto a white hot surface in a chamber with only one outlet where the expansion on vaporization forces the vapor out through a chemical spray stage; next a vertical filter stage removes and gravitationally drains coarse filtrate and finally a horizontal filter stage treats the vapor in the presence of a counterwash spray of fresh water before the vapor is released into the atmosphere; recirculation of the material filtered and treating materials is provided.

Romeo, S.T.

1981-03-10

323

Ionometric determination of quaternary ammonium cations in industrial extraction reagents and sewage  

SciTech Connect

When extraction reagents based on salts of quaternary ammonium bases (QAS) are used in the technology of purification of rare earth elements (REE), the problem arises of determining QAS in technological and dilute aqueous solutions (circulating waters and sewage). A direct method of determining cations of QAS is known, based on the use of ion-selective electrodes, reversible to hydrophobic cations. Two types of procedures can be distinguished within the framework of this method: potentiometric titration and direct potentiometry. In this work the authors discuss the possibilities of both types for practical use in industrial analysis.

Kokovkin, V.V.; Nemirovskii, A.M.; Kravchenko, L.Kh.; Smolyakov, B.S.

1988-01-01

324

FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. he energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. hese f...

325

FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. The energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. These...

326

High congruence of isotope sewage signals in multiple marine taxa.  

PubMed

Assessments of sewage pollution routinely employ stable nitrogen isotope analysis (?(15)N) in biota, but multiple taxa are rarely used. This single species focus leads to underreporting of whether derived spatial N patterns are consistent. Here we test the question of 'reproducibility', incorporating 'taxonomic replication' in the measurement of ?(15)N gradients in algae, seagrasses, crabs and fish with distance from a sewage outfall on the Adelaide coast (southern Australia). Isotopic sewage signals were equally strong in all taxa and declined at the same rate. This congruence amongst taxa has not been reported previously. It implies that sewage-N propagates to fish via a tight spatial coupling between production and consumption processes, resulting from limited animal movement that closely preserves the spatial pollution imprint. In situations such as this where consumers mirror pollution signals of primary producers, analyses of higher trophic levels will capture a broader ambit of ecological effects. PMID:23602260

Connolly, Rod M; Gorman, Daniel; Hindell, Jeremy S; Kildea, Timothy N; Schlacher, Thomas A

2013-04-18

327

POTENTIAL EMISSIONS OF HAZARDOUS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory thermal decomposition studies were undertaken to evaluate potential organic emissions from sewage sludge incinerators. Precisely controlled thermal decomposition experiments were conducted on sludge spiked with mixtures of hazardous organic compounds, on the mixtures o...

328

USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FOR FOREST-TREE SEEDLING PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...

329

Bacteriophages active against Bacteroides fragilis in sewage-polluted waters.  

PubMed Central

Twelve strains of different Bacteroides species were tested for their efficiency of detection of bacteriophages from sewage. The host range of several isolated phages was investigated. The results indicated that there was a high degree of strain specificity. Then, by using Bacteroides fragilis HSP 40 as the host, which proved to be the most efficient for the detection of phages, feces from humans and several animal species and raw sewage, river water, water from lagoons, seawater, groundwater, and sediments were tested for the presence of bacteriophages that were active against B. fragilis HSP 40. Phages were detected in feces of 10% of the human fecal samples tested and was never detected in feces of the other animal species studied. Moreover, bacteriophages were always recovered from sewage and sewage-polluted samples of waters and sediments, but not from nonpolluted samples. The titers recovered were dependent on the degree of pollution in analyzed waters and sediments.

Tartera, C; Jofre, J

1987-01-01

330

Sewage Sludge Incinerator Fuel Reduction at Nashville, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a report on the sewage sludge incineration fuel reduction program at the Nashville-Davidson County Metropolitan Government wastewater treatment plant in Nashville, Tennessee. Fuel usage was reduced over 40 percent by reprogramming the methods used...

A. J. Verdouw E. W. Waltz

1983-01-01

331

Preliminary Investigation of Sewage Sludge Dumping off Delaware Bay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Requests from Region II Water Supply and Sea Resources Program, the shellfish sanitation agencies in the states of Region II, the shelfish industry and others interested in the pollution potential of sewage sludge, chemical wastes and other wastes being d...

R. W. Buelow B. H. Pringle J. L. Verber

1968-01-01

332

Agricultural Utilization of Sewage Effluent and Sludge. An Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effluent and sewage sludge from municipal and industrial treatment plants is a source of water and nutrients for agricultural uses. Considering its potential, only a few instances of agricultural uses of waste water in crop production have been record...

J. P. Law

1968-01-01

333

Use of Coal to Enhance Metabolic Treatment of Sewage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A newly proposed sewage treatment process in which coal particulates are suspended in mixed liquor and recirculated with activated sludge has been investigated. The premise that the suspended coal particles concentrate nutrients and organic matter by phys...

1969-01-01

334

Metal sorption on soils as affected by the dissolved organic matter in sewage sludge and the relative calculation of sewage sludge application  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the influences of sewage sludge-derived organic matters on metal sorption and on the resultant sludge loading estimates, a batch experiment was conducted to compare the sorption of Ni, Cu and Pb in sewage sludge filtrates (1:20 sewage sludge to water) on eight soils and the adsorption of metals in a reference solution which had the same matrix as

Xiaoli Liu; Shuzhen Zhang; Wenyong Wu; Honglu Liu

2007-01-01

335

Aminopropanone as a marker for raw sewage in natural waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aminopropanone has been identified in raw sewage. Its presence at high concentrations (up to 60 ?mol l?1) in several samples from the Mersey Estuary (UK) and Port Erin Bay (Isle of Man) is consistent with the contamination at those sites. The lifetime of the ketone is sufficiently long (t12ca 8–10 days in raw sewage) for it to be useful as

Mark F. Fitzsimons; M. Kamil Abdul Rashid; John P. Riley; George A. Wolff

1995-01-01

336

Molecular Detection of Norwalk-Like Caliciviruses in Sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, Norwalk-like virus (NLV) RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) in sewage water concentrates. Sequence analysis of the RT-PCR products revealed identical sequences in stools of patients and related sewage samples. In 6 of 11 outbreak-unrelated follow-up samples, multiple NLV genotypes were present. Levels as high as 10 7 RNA-containing particles per liter were found. These

W. J. LODDER; J. VINJE ´; R. VAN DE HEIDE; A. M. DE; RODA HUSMAN; E. J. T. M. LEENEN; M. P. G. KOOPMANS

1999-01-01

337

Combustion kinetics of sewage sludge and combustible wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimated the kinetics of the mono- and co-combustion of sewage sludge pellets and combustible wastes such as municipal\\u000a solid waste (MSW) and refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Sewage sludge was manufactured into pellets with a diameter of 8, 12, or\\u000a 16 mm and a length of 30 mm. The RDF was composed of paper and plastics and was formed into

Ho-Soo Lee; Sung-Keun Bae

2009-01-01

338

Toxicity evaluation of sewage sludges in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobically digested sewage sludges collected from four wastewater treatment plants located in Sha Tin, Tai Po, Yuen Long, and Shek Wu Hui in Hong Kong were subjected to chemical characterization and toxicity testing to provide preliminary assessment of their suitability for land application. All sewage sludges were slightly alkaline with pH range of 8.3–8.7. Electrical conductivity (EC; 0.69 dS m?1)

J. W. C Wong; K Li; M Fang; D. C Su

2001-01-01

339

Extractabilities of heavy metals in chemically-fixed sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically-fixed sewage sludges, including lime-treated sludge (LS), lime–sodium silicate-treated sludge (LSS), cement-treated sludge (CS), and cement–sodium silicate-treated sludge (CSS), were produced from sewage sludge by bench processes using lime, cement, and sodium silicate as additives. The extractabilities of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn) in these chemically-fixed sludges were studied using sequential extraction and single extraction. For comparative objectives,

Ping-Chin Hsiau; Shang-Lien Lo

1998-01-01

340

[National survey of urban sewage reuse in China].  

PubMed

On the basis of the national survey of the urban sewage treatment, the survey of 2007 national urban sewage reuse was conducted under the charge of the Ministry of Water Resources. The survey results indicated that the amount of urban sewage reuse was 17.9 x 10(8) m3 x a(-1), mainly used for industry, landscape, agriculture forestry, animal husbandry, urban non-potable water, and groundwater recharge. The urban sewage reuse rate was 5.23%. There were 127 sewage reclaiming plants in China, of which the production capacity of reclaimed water reached 347.75 x 10(4) m3 x d(-1), which produced 5.74 x 10(8) m3 reclaimed water in 2007. The total investment of sewage reclaiming plants was 56.44 x 10(8) Yuan, in which the central government investment, local fiscal investment and other investments accounted for 16%, 26% and 58%, respectively. The reclaimed water price varied greatly with the purposes or areas. PMID:23323420

Guo, Yu-Jie; Wang, Xue-Chao; Zhou, Zhen-Min

2012-11-01

341

Gasification of dried sewage sludge: status of the demonstration and the pilot plant.  

PubMed

The disposal of sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plants is suffering from raising costs. The gasification is an alternative way of treatment, which can reduce the amount of solid residues that must be disposed from a water treatment plant. The produced gas can be used very flexible to produce electrical energy, to burn it very cleanly or to use it for upgrading. The gasification in the fluidised bed and the gas cleaning with the granular bed filter has shown successful operation. A demonstration plant in Balingen was set up in 2002 and rebuilt to a larger throughput in 2010. As a next step a demonstration plant was built in Mannheim and is now at the end of the commissioning phase. Nowadays the product gas is blended with biogas from sludge fermentation and utilized in a gas engine or combustion chamber to produce heat. In the future the process control for a maximized efficiency and the removal of organic and inorganic impurities in the gas will be further improved. PMID:22284442

Judex, Johannes W; Gaiffi, Michael; Burgbacher, H Christian

2012-01-28

342

Report: management problems of solid waste landfills in Kuwait.  

PubMed

This paper evaluates current operational practices in municipal solid waste landfills in Kuwait to provide existing knowledge on uncontrolled landfilling and associated problems of solid waste disposal in developing countries. The current landfilling practices are safe neither for humans nor for the environment. The landfill sites receive all kinds of wastes such as food wastes, oil products, debris, dead animals, agricultural wastes, chemical wastes, wastewater and sewage sludge. The wastes are dumped, spread and compacted in an uncontrolled manner and cover material is not applied regularly. Dust created within the landfill site and gas emissions cause a public nuisance. The characteristics of leachate formed indicate high organic content and presence of heavy metals, salts and nutrients. There are no provisions for leachate or landfill gas collection at the landfill sites. Recommendations for adjustment in landfill operation have been made in recognition of the transition period that is experienced in proceeding from the past and present to the future management of landfills in Kuwait to safeguard the public health and protect the environment. PMID:12363092

Al-Yaqout, Anwar F; Hamoda, Mohamed F

2002-08-01

343

The safe disposal of radioactive wastes  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive review is given of the principles and problems involved in the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to a study of the basic facts of radioactivity and of nuclear fission, the characteristics of radioisotopes, the effects of ionizing radiations, and the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity for workers and for the general public. In the second part, the author describes the different types of radioactive waste—reactor wastes and wastes arising from the use of radioisotopes in hospitals and in industry—and discusses the application of the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity to their disposal and treatment, illustrating his discussion with an account of the methods practised at the principal atomic energy establishments.

Kenny, A. W.

1956-01-01

344

Nutrient Input from the Loxahatchee River Environmental Control District Sewage-Treatment Plant to the Loxahatchee River Estuary, Southeastern Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Treated sewage effluent from the Loxahatchee River Environmental Control District sewage-treatment plant is discharged to the Loxahatchee River, 14 river miles upstream of Jupiter Inlet. Two test discharges of treated-sewage effluent to the Loxahatchee Ri...

1984-01-01

345

Which Disposable Chest Electrode?  

PubMed Central

Chest electrodes are preferred to limb electrodes for cardiac monitoring, as limb movements are not restricted and produce less interference of the E.C.G. trace. Eight types of disposable chest electrodes were investigated to compare their performance, skin reactions, cost, ease of application, size, and skin–electrode impedance. Elema-Schonander electrodes were found to be the most efficient and the most expensive. In their application care was required to avoid severe skin reactions. Dracard electrodes were simple to attach, worked well without severe skin reactions, and were cheap. They are recommended for routine use. Smith and Nephew electrodes, a type of “multipoint electrodes” which do not require electrode jelly, frequently produced severe skin reactions, making them unsuitable for monitoring for periods exceeding 12 hours.

Hubner, P. J. B.

1969-01-01

346

Waste Disposal and Pollution Management in Urban Areas: A Workable Remedy for the Environment in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Both wastes and the crude disposal techniques have created subtle and yet serious environmental pollution havoc in many d eveloping countries. This has lead to the degradation of abiotic and biotic components of the se nations' ecological systems. Poor industrial waste disposal systems as well as the indiscriminat e and inappropriate domestic litter disposal habit have been identified

J. A. Awomeso; A. M. Taiwo; A. M. Gbadebo; A. O. Arimoro

2010-01-01

347

Intestinal parasite carriage in workers exposed to sewage.  

PubMed

The presence of protozoan cysts and helminth eggs in sewage and the very low minimal infective doses of parasites suggest an occupational risk for workers exposed to sewage. The objective of this study was to assess this risk in a group of raw sewage-exposed workers. The relationship between sewage exposure and intestinal parasite carriage was estimated by a multiple cross-sectional survey comparing yearly prevalence rates in 126 employees working in sewers in Paris, France, with the prevalence rate in 363 food-handlers employed between 1988 and 1993. The incidence of intestinal parasitic infestation was estimated among sewage-exposed workers. Four parasite species were identified among sewage-exposed workers: whipworm, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nanus. The prevalence mean of intestinal parasite carriage was 11.8% (57/480), related to the presence of protozoa in 91% of samples. G. lamblia was present in 3.5% (17/480) of samples. The incidence of positive parasitological stool examination was 5.9/100 person-years. The incidence of G. lamblia in stool examinations was 1.7/100 person-years. Age-adjusted odds ratios were significantly higher in exposed workers in 1988 (OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 2.0-14.5), 1990 (OR: 4.4; 95% CI: 1.2-10.1) and 1991 (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.0-8.2), but not during the other three years. The results of this study emphasize an occupational risk of intestinal protozoan infestation in workers exposed to sewage. The decrease of adjusted OR with time reflects the efficacy of compliance with rules of hygiene. PMID:10395056

Schlosser, O; Grall, D; Laurenceau, M N

1999-03-01

348

The Phytotoxicity Changes of Sewage Sludge-Amended Soils.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was the estimation of changes in the phytotoxicity of soils amended with sewage sludge with relation to Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba and Sorghum saccharatum. The study was realised in the system of a plot experiment for a period of 29 months. Samples for analyses were taken at the beginning of the experiment, and then after 5, 17 and 29 months. Two kinds of sewage sludge, with varying properties, were added to a sandy soil (soil S) or a loamy soil (soil L) at the dose of 90 t/ha. The addition of sewage sludge to the soils at the start of the experiment caused a significant reduction of both seed germination capacity and root length of the test plants, the toxic effect being distinctly related to the test plant species. With the passage of time the negative effect of sewage sludge weakened, the extent of its reduction depending both of the kind of sewage sludge applied and on the type of soil. Phytotoxicity of the soils amended with the sewage sludges was significantly lower at the end of the experiment than at the beginning. The species of the plants grown on the soils also had a significant effect on their phytotoxicity. The greatest reduction of toxicity was observed in the soil on which no plants were grown (sandy soil) and in the soil under a culture of willow (loamy soil). Solid phase of sewage sludge-amended soils was characterised by higher toxicity than their extracts. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11270-012-1248-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:23002312

Oleszczuk, Patryk; Malara, Anna; Jo?ko, Izabela; Lesiuk, Adam

2012-07-01

349

Disposal of Coal Burning Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a second literature synopsis concerning disposal of coal burning waste within the KHM-project. A large amount of ash and FGD-wastes in the US are disposed either wet or dry. Approximately 5 - 10 percent of the ash is utilized in one way or ...

J. E. Meijer

1983-01-01

350

Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

BURBANK, D.A.

2000-09-25

351

Impact of an industrial and urban sewage off a coral fringing reef at Mauritius (Indian Ocean): modeling of plumes, distribution of trace metals in sediments and effects of the eutrophisation on coral reef communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of industrial and urban sewage outflows off tropical high islands is an important environmental problem. This problem is yet more acute when there are coral reefs. For Mauritius Island the effects of the main sewer outflow was studied. Dispersion of the plume was modelized using a bidimensional code. Seawater physical and chemical classic parameters, plus fecal bacteriological ones,

B. A. Thomassin; Ph. Gourbesville; B. Gout; A. Arnoux

1998-01-01

352

33 CFR 151.79 - Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01...requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of...Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.79...

2010-07-01

353

33 CFR 151.79 - Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2009-07-01...requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of...Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.79...

2009-07-01

354

Energy Production and Pollution Prevention at Sewage Treatment Plants Using Fuel Cell Power Plants  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses energy production and pollution prevention at sewage treatment plants using fuel cell power plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at waste water treatment plants during the anaerobic treatment of sewage to reduce solids. Fue...

R. J. Spiegel J. L. Preston

1999-01-01

355

Volatilization, Plant Uptake and Mineralization of Nitrogen in Soils Treated with Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify the amount of ammonia volatilization taking place after application of sewage sludge to the soil surface, evaluate the movement of nitrogen and plant uptake from soils treated with sewage sludge,...

L. E. Sommers C. F. Parker G. J. Meyers

1981-01-01

356

Enhanced soil sorption of methidathion using sewage sludge and surfactants.  

PubMed

Batch experiments were carried out to examine the partitioning of an organophosphorus insecticide, methidathion, in non-amended agricultural soil and soil amended with urban sewage sludge and/or different types of surfactant. Kinetic data showed that sewage sludge significantly reduced adsorption rate, whereas amendment of the soil with the cationic surfactant tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TDTMA) at 10 x CMC (critical micellar concentration) increased the adsorption rate by a factor of 10. The adsorption isotherms were evaluated using the Freundlich model. The soil adsorption capacity for methidathion was enhanced by amendment with sewage sludge and even more significantly with TDTMA at 10 x CMC or combined with sewage sludge. TDTMA conferred a high hydrophobic character to the soil, enhancing the adsorption capacity of the rather hydrophobic methidathion. The amendment of soil both with sewage sludge and TDTMA combines the increased hydrophobicity with a higher surfactant retention by organic matter, due to an increase in cation exchange capacity, which promotes even more the adsorption capacity for the insecticide. An anionic surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, and the non-ionic Tween 80 only induced a slight modification in the kinetics and adsorption of methidathion. PMID:12916766

Sánchez, Lourdes; Romero, Esperanza; Sánchez-Rasero, Francisco; Dios, Gonzalo; Peña, Aránzazu

2003-08-01

357

Development of Radwaste Disposal Technology (1).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study aims at technology development for the evaluation of disposal system and application of technical criteria to the disposal implementation. To meet these objectives, the following four sub-items were investigated; 1) evaluation on the disposal a...

H. H. Park K. W. Han P. S. Han H. S. Lee W. J. Cho

1988-01-01

358

Radioactive waste disposal in simulated peat bog repositories  

SciTech Connect

The Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 have required state governments to be responsible for providing low-level waste (LLW) disposal facilities in their respective areas. Questions are (a) is the technology sufficiently advanced to ensure that radioactive wastes can be stored for 300 to 1000 yr without entering into any uncontrolled area. (b) since actual experience does not exist for nuclear waste disposal over this time period, can the mathematical models developed be tested and verified using unequivocal data. (c) how can the public perception of the problem be addressed and the potential risk assessment of the hazards be communicated. To address the technical problems of nuclear waste disposal in the acid precipitation regions of the Northern Hemisphere, a project was initiated in 1984 to evaluate an alternative method of nuclear waste disposal that may not rely completely on engineered barriers to protect the public. Certain natural biogeochemical systems have been retaining deposited materials since the last Ice Age (12,000 to 15,000 yr). It is the authors belief that the biogeochemical system of wetlands and peat bogs may provide an example of an analogue for a nuclear waste repository system that can be tested and verified over a sufficient time period, at least for the LLW disposal problem.

Schell, W.R.; Massey, C.D.

1987-01-01

359

Domestic sewage treatment in full-scale UASBB plant at Mangueira, Recife, Pernambuco.  

PubMed

The anaerobic technology application for domestic sewage treatment in Pernambuco State (Brazil) is relatively recent. Some UASB reactors of less than 250 m3 were built in the Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR) in the 1990s. Mangueira (18,000 inhabitants) was the first neighborhood where the municipality built a plant with a bigger UASB reactor of 810 m3. It was intended to evaluate the performance and verify if such technology would be feasible. The objective would be the possible application of UASB reactors to the RMR, according to the new sewage master-plan under elaboration that would benefit about 3 million inhabitants. The monitoring of the Mangueira UASB reactor over 30 months showed that satisfactory results were obtained. Three distinct operational phases occurred, in which efficiency varied from 60% up to 90% based on COD removal. The results were very dependent on the operation and maintenance, either in the plant or in the sewage collection. Significant amount of inert solids was measured inside the reactor. Despite the operational problems, the UASB was shown to be very robust and stable. Under high fluctuation of influent concentrations (150-750 mg COD/L) during the period, resulting in applied organic loading rate of 0.5 to 2.5 kg COD/m3.d, the average values of COD removal efficiency did not change significantly. An active biomass with specific methanogenic activity varying from 0.18 to 0.25 g COD/g VSS.d was measured at the end of the period. PMID:11579924

Florencio, L; Kato, M T; de Morais, J C

2001-01-01

360

Disposable hydrogel contact lenses for extended wear.  

PubMed

Nine ophthalmologists and nine optometrists conducted a premarket study of the Acuvue disposable contact lens manufactured by Vistakon, Inc. Of the 812 patients offered the lens, 733 accepted it and were enrolled in the study. These patients were fitted with the lens and followed for a period of 8 months. Over 98% of these patients had 20/25 or better vision on initial fitting; and subjective ratings of lens comfort were very good. Only 3.7% (27 of 733) discontinued wearing their lenses during the study period. Thirty-four patients (5.6%) experienced a problem while wearing their contact lenses. PMID:3147818

Donshik, P; Weinstock, F J; Wechsler, S; Asbell, P; Atwood, J; Davis, H; Farkas, B; Farris, R L; Gruber, E; Hartstein, J

361

Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus infection among sewage workers in the Parisian area, France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewers are an ideal environment to be occupationally exposed to viral hepatitis A (HAV) infection, because of high frequency and ability of the virus to remain viable for prolonged periods in sewage. However, data on the occupational risk of HAV infection among sewage workers is not well documented. In a cross sectional study comparing sewage workers (n = 155) to

P. Cadilhac; F. Roudot-Thoraval

1996-01-01

362

33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel...Operations § 159.315 Sewage and graywater discharge...in the applicable waters of Alaska each cruise...English, a legible Sewage and Graywater Discharge...into the applicable waters of Alaska: (1) Treated or untreated sewage; (2)...

2009-07-01

363

33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel...Operations § 159.315 Sewage and graywater discharge...in the applicable waters of Alaska each cruise...English, a legible Sewage and Graywater Discharge...into the applicable waters of Alaska: (1) Treated or untreated sewage; (2)...

2010-07-01

364

Fish bile used to detect estrogenic substances in treated sewage water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine disrupting effects on fish associated with sewage treatment effluents have been demonstrated in several studies. To investigate if the effluents from two modern Swedish sewage treatment plants contained estrogenic substances, juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to sewage water before and after the last treatment step which is a sand filter. As a biomarker for estrogenic effect, vitellogenin was analysed

Maria Pettersson; Margaretha Adolfsson-Erici; Jari Parkkonen; Lars Förlin; Lillemor Asplund

2006-01-01

365

THE LOADS OF PAHS IN WASTEWATER AND SEWAGE SLUDGE OF MUNICIPAL TREATMENT PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage and sewage sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant were analyzed for 16 EPA-PAHs. This plant is a classic mechanical-biological treatment plant, consisting of activated sludge technology with additional chemical treatment for the removal of phosphorus compounds. The process of sewage sludge treatment is carried out in closed as well as open sludge digesters. Primary and mechanically thickened sludge

Maria Wlodarczyk-Makula

2005-01-01

366

RADIOTRACER EXPERIMENTS IN THE MOHAWK RIVER, NEW YORK, TO STUDY SEWAGE PATH AND DILUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage from the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory near Schenectady, N. Y., ; was dosed with 4.53 curies of P³² prior to discharge into the Mohawk River. ; Its pattern of diffusion was measured in the river with immersible GM-tubes and ; by sampling. The initial path of sewage was strongly influenced by dlfferences ; in density betveen sewage and river

E. S. Simpson; W. A. Beetem; F. H. Ruggles

1958-01-01

367

Comparison of humification processes occurring during sewage purification in treatment plants with different technological processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The course of the humification process of sewage sludge collected from three biologic–mechanical treatment plants with different treatment technologies was studied. The maturity of sewage sludge and its usefulness for agricultural purposes was also discussed. The physical–chemical properties of humic acids extracted from sewage sludge received from comparable stages of sludge purification were described. Changes of the sludge properties during

J. Polak; M. Bartoszek; W. W. Su?kowski

2009-01-01

368

The Effect and Mechanism of Cement-Soil Using for Sewage Purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cement-soil samples were made from composite cement (25%), red clay (75%) and proper amount of ultra-pure water. The samples were used to treat sewage water in the experiment of anaerobic reaction and aerobic reaction respectively. The raw sewage was collected from the inflow path of a wastewater treatment plan and it mainly consisted of domestic sewage. Results showed that the

Jun-kang Lan; Bao-jian Liu

2010-01-01

369

Heavy Metal Contents of Vegetables Irrigated by Sewage\\/Tubewell Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted to find the effect of sewage\\/tube well water irrigation on the accumulated concentration of heavy metal contents in okra fruit and spinach leaves. Three adjacent fields were selected for each crop and separately irrigated by sewage water, tube well water and mixture of sewage and tube well water. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and spinach (Spinacea oleracea)

M. I. LONE; S. SALEEM; T. MAHMOOD; K. SAIFULLAH; G. HUSSAIN

370

PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage treatment is performed in an environmentally safe and costâ??effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by sp...

371

Modelling of pharmaceutical residues in Australian sewage by quantities of use and fugacity calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual model is presented for determining which currently prescribed pharmaceutical compounds are most likely to be found in sewage, and for estimating their concentrations, both in raw sewage and after successive stages of secondary sewage treatment. A ranking of the “top-50” pharmaceutical compounds (by total mass dispensed) in Australia over the 1998 calendar year was prepared. Information on the

Stuart J. Khan; Jerry E. Ongerth

2004-01-01

372

Concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in tropical soils amended with sewage sludge and composted sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge may be used as an agricultural fertilizer, but the practice has been criticized because sludge may contain trace elements and pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of total and pseudototal extractants of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn, and to compare the results with the bioavailable concentrations of these elements to maize and sugarcane in a soil that was amended with sewage sludge for 13 consecutive years and in a separate soil that was amended a single time with sewage sludge and composted sewage sludge. The 13-year amendment experiment involved 3 rates of sludge (5, 10, and 20 t ha(-1)). The one-time amendment experiment involved treatments reflecting 50, 100, and 200 % of values stipulated by current legislation. The metal concentrations extracted by aqua regia (AR) were more similar to those obtained by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 3052 than to those obtained by EPA3051, and the strongest correlation was observed between pseudo(total) concentrations extracted by AR and EPA3052 and bioavailable concentrations obtained by Mehlich III. An effect of sewage sludge amendment on the concentrations of heavy metals was only observed in samples from the 13-year experiment. PMID:22810380

Nogueirol, Roberta Corrêa; de Melo, Wanderley José; Bertoncini, Edna Ivani; Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú

2012-07-10

373

Hanford Site Mixed Waste Disposal  

SciTech Connect

Significant volumes of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) will be generated as part of the management and remediation of the Hanford Site. The MLLW that is generated as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) process will largely be managed as part of that remediation effort, with disposal likely in the centralized Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Other unique MLLW streams will be produced as part of the Hanford program to disposition tank wastes, and will include failed equipment (melters) and immobilized low-activity wastes. These disposal operations are in the early planning stages and will likely require development of specialized disposal facilities. This paper will focus on disposal of the more ''routine'' waste streams, those currently stored onsite in permitted Resource Conservation and Recover Act (RCRA) facilities, or those newly-generated MLLW streams requiring management in permitted RCRA facilities. These waste streams typically include RCRA regulated MLLW debris, sludges, soils and solidified liquids. In September 1999, the United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and Fluor Hanford began disposing of Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) compliant MLLW in a RCRA mixed waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site. This facility, one of two at Hanford, is an integral part of a comprehensive program to treat and dispose of the Hanford inventory of stored MLLW, and may aid the DOE Complex in disposing of its legacy of MLLW. The Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) record-of-decision (ROD) for MLLW identifies Hanford as one of the disposal sites for much of the DOE complex MLLW. A few actions remain to be completed before waste from offsite generators can be shipped to the Hanford Mixed Waste Facilities for disposal. These actions include, but are not limited to, completion of the Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement (SW EIS), resolving equity issues associated with the receipt of offsite MLLW, and verification that the candidate waste streams meet the Hanford Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The ROD for the SW EIS is expected in 2002, equity discussions are ongoing, and waste acceptance criteria are already established and can be used to determine acceptability.

MCKENNEY, D.E.

2001-01-01

374

A review of the sustainable value and disposal techniques, wastewater stabilisation ponds sludge characteristics and accumulation.  

PubMed

Based on worldwide works available in international literature, this paper describes the status of sewage sludge resulting from settleable solids in waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). This review presents, in detail, sludge characteristics, production and accumulation rates in order to provide background information to those who expect to advise or get involved with sewage disposal in situations where resources are limited. Knowing that several years are usually required for a sludge removal operation and that the long-term sustainability of WSP systems is dependent on the safe and effective management of their sludge, its cost must be estimated and taken into account in the annual maintenance costs of the processes. Thus, this paper intends to summarise desludging methods and their financial estimation. Even when ponds have been functioning for several years, most of the sediments are stabilised well, the final disposal is an issue in terms of risk due, for example, to their content in nematode eggs. More generally, the pathogen content in sludge from WSP ponds has to be known to define an appropriate management and to safeguard public health. Based on existing data, the rates and distribution of helminth eggs will be presented and practical treatment methods will be suggested. A number of sludge utilisation and disposal pathways will also be summarised. Sludge activity in terms of oxygen consumption is also discussed in order to gather more information to improve pond design and keep an economic and sustainable value of WSP. The objectives of the present review are to advance knowledge and gather scientific and technical information on all aspects of sludge management including production, characterisation, management, agricultural reuse and ultimate disposal. PMID:22331452

Keffala, Chéma; Harerimana, Casimir; Vasel, Jean-luc

2012-02-14

375

Mechanical properties of dewatered sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of dewatered, anaerobically digested sewage sludge were determined from soil laboratory tests. The sludge material is largely composed of organic clay sized-particles, a sizable fraction of which is in an active state of biological digestion which can continue over many years under field conditions. Moderately digested sludge material was found to have a typical specific gravity of solids value of 1.55, and loss on ignition (LOI) value of 70% dry mass. Strongly digested sludge, produced by digesting the liquid sludge further at 35 degrees C in the laboratory, was found to have a lower LOI value of 55% dry mass, and a higher specific gravity of solids value of about 1.72. The maximum dry density of 0.56 tonne/m3 for the dried sludge material was produced using standard Proctor compaction at roughly 85% moisture content (54% solids content). Air-dried, compacted sludge material was tested in quick-undrained triaxial compression and vane shear. Undrained shear strength-moisture content plots are presented. Shear strength values measured in triaxial compression and vane shear were consistent. The effective angle of shearing resistance (phi') was determined from consolidated-undrained, triaxial compression tests on pasteurized, normally consolidated samples of the sludge material. The mechanical properties of the sludge material changed with the level of sludge digestion. The phi' value increased from 32 degrees for moderately digested sludge, to 37 degrees for strongly digested sludge. The effective cohesion of the sludge material remained zero throughout. The shrinkage, swelling and adhesion properties of the sludge material were also studied. Significant shrinkage occurred as the compacted material dried. The sludge material lost its adhesion below about 95% moisture content (51% solids content). Re-hydration of the dry material caused the bulk volume to double. PMID:15681178

O'Kelly, Brendan C

2005-01-01

376

Drug Resistance of Coliform Bacteria in Hospital and City Sewage  

PubMed Central

The number and properties of drug-resistant coliform bacteria in hospital and city sewage were compared. There was little difference in the counts of organisms with nontransferable resistance to one or more of 13 commonly used drugs. An average of 26% of coliforms in hospital waste water had transferable resistance to at least one of the drugs ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamide, or tetracycline as compared to an average of 4% in city sewage. R+ bacteria in the hospital discharge were also resistant to a broader spectrum of drugs than those in city sewage. In both effluents, the occurrence of fecal Escherichia coli among R+ coliforms was twice as high as among coliforms with nontransferable resistance. Resistance was transferable to Salmonella typhi, and such drug-resistant pathogens in the water environment could be of particular concern. The significance of the results with regard to environmental pollution with R+ bacteria and the dissemination of these organisms is discussed.

Grabow, W. O. K.; Prozesky, O. W.

1973-01-01

377

Useful Ingredients Recovery from Sewage Sludge by using Hydrothermal Reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal treatment of sludge from a sewage treatment plant was conducted to obtain useful ingredients for culture of specific microbes which can reduce polysulfide ion into sulfide ion and/or hydrogen sulfide. Several additives such as acid, base, and oxidizer were added to the hydrothermal reaction of excess sludge to promote the production of useful materials. After hydrothermal treatment, reaction solution and precipitation were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and estimated the availability as nutrition in cultural medium. From the results of product analysis, most of organic solid in sewage was basically decomposed by hydrothermal hydrolysis and transformed into oily or water-soluble compounds. Bacterial culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) showed the good results in multiplication with medium which was obtained from hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge with magnesium or calcium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide.

Suzuki, Koichi; Moriyama, Mika; Yamasaki, Yuki; Takahashi, Yui; Inoue, Chihiro

2006-05-01

378

Evaluation of forest trees growth after sewage sludge application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sewage sludge is extensively used in forest to improve soil properties. It is expected that sewage sludge rich in phosphorus, nitrogen and organic material enhance the germination of tree seedlings in poor soils. In Lithuania, the deforested soils are highly acid, and have a lack of nutrients, especially in exploited peat areas. Sewage sludge from industry contains beneficial components for the soils (such as organic matter, phosphorus, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, etc.). However, it is also rich in heavy metals, especially Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn. High heavy metals concentrations in soil can be phytotoxic and cause reduced plant growth or plant death. The main objectives of this research was to determine the influence of industrial sewage sludge in the forestry and to highlight the idea that industrial sewage sludge containing metals does not favour development of birch and pine trees. The study was performed in Taruskos experimental plot in Panevezys region (Lithuania), amended with industrial sewage sludge ten years ago was afforestated with birch and pine seedlings. In order to observe the effects of the amendment in accumulation the mentioned metals and tree growth we collected data from trees in amended plot and control plot. The results showed that soil parameters were improved in the amended plot, in comparing with control site (higher pH, organic matter and cation exchange capacity). However, the growth of investigated trees was slower (e.g. birch roots, shoot, stem and leaves biomass was 40, 7.4, 18.6, 22% smaller than in control site. In pine case: 30, 1.2, 17, 36%, respectively; the stem height of birch was 16% and pine - 12% smaller than in control site). This reduced growth can be related with heavy metals concentration load on soil and accumulation in trees. Cu and Cd concentrations were higher in soil amended with sewage sludge comparing with control site (60 and 36%, respectively). Also, in contaminated trees Cu and Cd concentrations were higher (Cu - 37% in birch and 27% in pine shoots; 6% in birch and 73% in pine roots; Cd was 3% in birch and 1.4% in pine shoots; 53% in birch and 24% in pine roots). Our results showed that the sewage sludge applied from industrial sources was not effective to improve tree growth, despite the fact, that it revealed positive effects on forest soil properties.

Vaitkutä--, Dovilé; Balträ--Naitä--, Edita; Booth, Colin A.; Fullen, Michael A.; Pereira, Paulo

2010-05-01

379

Pharmaceutical and personal care products in sewage treatment works.  

PubMed

In this study a number of analytical procedures are described to determine pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and their metabolites during sewage treatment. The work shows that PPCPs occur in sewage influent and are removed by various wastewater treatment processes. PPCPs include a wide range of chemicals such as prescription drugs as well as diagnostic agents, fragrances, sun-screen agents, and various other compounds commonly present in household items (e.g. detergents, cleaners, toothpastes etc.). During this study a number of PPCPs including painkillers (aspirin, ibuprofen), cholesterol control medication (clofibric acid), antibacterial agents (triclosan), musks (including galaxolide and tonalide), X-ray contrast media (diatrizoate), cancer treatment drugs (cyclophosphamide) and anti-depressant drugs (fluvoxamine) were investigated. Analysis was carried out using a number of techniques. Samples were extracted using solid phase extraction or liquid-liquid extraction and the extracts analysed using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selected ion monitoring or liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or LC-MS-MS. The results obtained show that aspirin, clolibric acid, diatrozate, fluvoxamine and cyclophosphamide were not detected in any of the crude sewage or sewage effluent samples above the limit of detection of the applied methods. Ibuprofen was detected in all crude sewage samples as well as in all effluent samples with one exception. Removal of ibuprofen by the different STWs was generally between 80-100%, with the exception of one STW where removal was poor (14.4 to 44%). Triclosan was also detected in all crude sewage samples and in all sewage effluent samples. The highest concentration of triclosan detected was 3100 ng l(-1). A high removal efficiency was observed in effluent samples taken on two occasions (average removal 95.6%). The concentrations of musks detected in the crude sewage were generally low except for galaxolide and tonalide. The results from STW effluent samples showed significant removal of galaxolide (70-83% removal) except at one STW (STW 1) where removal was low (57% and 39%). Similar removal efficiencies for tonalide were achieved at these STWs (73-96%) except at STW 1 where removal was poor (53%). PMID:14587856

Kanda, Rakesh; Griffin, Paul; James, Huw A; Fothergill, James

2003-10-01

380

The application of potassium ferrate for sewage treatment.  

PubMed

The comparative performance of potassium ferrate(VI), ferric sulphate and aluminium sulphate for the removal of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour (as Vis400-abs) and bacteria in sewage treatment was evaluated. For coagulation and disinfection of sewage, potassium ferrate(VI) can remove more organic contaminants, COD and bacteria in comparison with the other two coagulants for the same doses used. Also, potassium ferrate(VI) produces less sludge volume and removes more contaminants, which should make subsequent sludge treatment easier. PMID:16182439

Jiang, Jia-Qian; Panagoulopoulos, Alex; Bauer, Mike; Pearce, Pete

2005-09-22

381

The detection of enteroviruses in sewage using Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

The work presented here demonstrates the utility of Caco-2 cells to detect enteroviruses in sewage. Viruses were concentrated by beef extract elution and organic flocculation prior to analysis by cell culture assays and RT-PCR. Enteroviruses were detected in all sewage samples, but only one sample was positive solely in RT-PCR assay. We proved that Caco-2 cells were more effective than RD and L20B cells in enterovirus isolation, depending on procedures used in the inoculation process. PMID:23829085

Wieczorek, Magdalena; Kuryk, ?ukasz; Witek, Agnieszka; Diuwe, Anna; Litwi?ska, Bogumi?a

2013-01-01

382

Coprostanol distribution from sewage discharge into Sarasota Bay, Florida  

SciTech Connect

Distribution of the fecal sterol, coprostanol, was determined in sediment from forty-one sites throughout Sarasota Bay, Florida. This project was part of a water quality study to estimate the impact of sewage effluent discharged from the City of Sarasota's wastewater treatment plant into Sarasota Bay. Coprostanol (5..beta..-cholestan-3..beta..-ol) is one of the principal sterols found in the feces of man and other mammals, and has been shown to be a reliable marker of fecal pollution. For this study, coprostanol was used as an indicator to estimate the extent to which sewage-derived particulate matter has been distributed within Sarasota Bay sediment.

Pierce, R.H.; Brown, R.C.

1984-01-01

383

Disposables that make the grade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This week's feature on plastics and other disposables for laboratory use ends with a preview of several products to be exhibited next week at the American Society of Human Genetics meeting in San Diego, California.

Carol Ezzell

1987-01-01

384

Puget Sound Dredged Disposal Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Future disposal of dredged material in the Puget Sound estuary of the State of Washington is of major interest to Federal, state, and local governmental regulatory agencies, as well as those responsible for maintaining existing waterways and harbors. Elev...

F. J. Urabeck K. E. Phillips

1992-01-01

385

Emission characteristics of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing odorous compounds during different sewage sludge chemical conditioning processes.  

PubMed

Chemical conditioners are often used to enhance sewage sludge dewaterability through altering sludge properties and flocs structure, both affect odorous compounds emissions not only during sludge conditioning but also in subsequent sludge disposal. This study was to investigate emission characteristics of ammonia (NH(3)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) generated from sewage sludge conditioned by three representative conditioners, i.e., organic polymers, iron salts and skeleton builders, F-S (Fenton's reagent and skeleton builders) composite conditioner. The results demonstrate that polyacrylamide (PAM) has an insignificant effect on emission characteristics of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing odorous compounds, because the properties, sulfur and nitrogen speciations are similar in PAM-conditioned sludge and raw sludge (RS). Significant increases of SO(2) and H(2)S emissions in the H(2)SO(4) conditioning process were observed due to the accelerated decomposition of sulfur-containing amino acids in acidic environment. Fenton peroxidation facilitates the formation of COS. CaO can reduce sulfur-containing gases emission via generation of calcium sulfate. However, under strong alkaline conditions, free ammonia or protonated amine in sludge can be easily converted to volatile ammonia, resulting in a significant release of NH(3). PMID:22902143

Liu, Huan; Luo, Guang-Qian; Hu, Hong-Yun; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Jia-Kuan; Yao, Hong

2012-08-07

386

Ocean Disposal Technology and Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The current, managed process of disposal at sea, practiced by most nations worldwide, is in sharp contrast to practices, extending\\u000a even as late as 1970, involving indiscriminant dumping, based largely on ignorance and an attitude that the ocean had unlimited\\u000a resources and an unending capacity to absorb impact. If done in an environmentally acceptable manner, disposal at sea can\\u000a be

Kok-Leng Tay; James Osborne; Lawrence K. Wang

387

Puget Sound Dredged Disposal Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Future disposal of dredged material in the Puget Sound estuary of the State of Washington is of major interest to Federal, state, and local governmental regulatory agencies, as well as those responsible for maintaining existing waterways and harbors. Elevated levels of toxic chemicals exist in bottom sediments of all the urban bays, with tumors and other biological abnormalities found in bottom fish associated with these water bodies. Public awareness of this situation has been heightened by extensive media coverage of recent government investigations of environmental conditions in Puget Sound. These investigations and public concerns have led to three ongoing regional planning efforts, all of which deal with Puget Sound water quality and marine bottom sediments. This paper reports on the Puget Sound Dredged Disposal Analysis (PSDDA), a 3-year joint Federal-state study primarily focusing on unconfined, open-water disposal of material dredged from Federal and non-Federal navigation projects. Study objectives include (a) selection of unconfined, open-water disposal sites; (b) development of sampling, testing, and test interpretation procedures to be used in evaluating the suitability of dredged material for disposal in Puget Sound waters; and (c) formulation of disposal site management plans. Preliminary findings for each of these objectives are discussed for central Puget Sound, which includes the ports of Seattle, Tacoma, and Everett.

Urabeck, F.J.; Phillips, K.E.

1992-04-01

388

Synergistic effect of rice husk addition on hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge: Fate and environmental risk of heavy metals.  

PubMed

Hydrothermal treatment (HTT) at 200°C was applied to immobilize heavy metals (HMs) and the effect of rice husk (RH) addition was investigated based on total HMs concentration, fractionation and leaching tests. The results indicated that a synergistic effect of RH addition and HTT could be achieved on reducing the risk of HMs from medium and low risk to no risk. Metals were redistributed and transformed from weakly bounded state to stable state during the HTT process under RH addition. Notably at a RH/sludge ratio of 1/1.75 (d.w.), all the HMs showed no eco-toxicity and no leaching toxicity, with the concentrations of leachable Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd decreased by 17%, 89%, 95% and 93%, respectively. This synergistic effect of RH addition and HTT on the risk reduction of HMs implies that HTT process with RH addition could be a promising and safe disposal technology for sewage sludge treatment in practice. PMID:24140855

Shi, Wansheng; Liu, Chunguang; Shu, Youju; Feng, Chuanping; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya

2013-10-02

389

Gypsum Waste Disposal: Land vs Sea or Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe disposal of waste gypsum wallboard at landfill sites in British Columbia (B.C.), Canada, resulted in the generation of hydrogen sulphide gas and toxic leachates. Although some remedial measures were taken to reduce or eliminate problems resulting from past dumping practices, many landfill operators refused to accept new waste for fear of litigation over the pollution of nearby streams and

William H. Nelson

1990-01-01

390

Geology of high-level nuclear waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of geological disposal is set out by describing the major rock types in terms of their ability to isolate high-level nuclear waste. The advantages and problems posed by particular rock formations are explored and the design and construction of geological repositories is considered, along with the methods used to estimate their safety. It gives special consideration to the

Roxburgh

1988-01-01

391

Water Supply and Waste Disposal Systems for Arctic Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The special problems of providing adequate water supply and waste disposal systems for arctic settlements are examined at the community of Frobisher Bay, Northwest Territories. The two existing methods, a trucked and a piped system, are compared for adequacy, reliability and cost. A series of alternative improvements to upgrade community services is proposed. It was concluded that any of the

G. W. HEINKE; B. DEANS

392

Approach to analysis of the environmental effects of spent oil shale disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a systematic approach to define the problems and mitigate potential environmental impacts associated with the disposal and reclamation of spent shale. A basic understanding of the hydrology and geochemistry of the land forms created from disposal of spent shales is needed for a quantitative description of water and solute flux for different scenarios and conditions. The approach

R. E. Franklin; R. E. Wildung

1983-01-01

393

Trash Conflicts: A Science and Social Studies Curriculum on the Ethics of Disposal. An Interdisciplinary Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for middle school science and social studies classes, this document is a curriculum on waste disposal. Mathematics and language skills also are incorporated into many of the activities. In the study of trash disposal, science students benefit from understanding the social issues related to the problem. Social studies students need…

Ballin, Amy; And Others

394

Bird use and heavy metal accumulation in waterbirds at dredge disposal impoundments, Corpus Christi, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal of dredged material resulting from the creation and maintenance of navigation waterways and harbors has become a matter of national concern. In recent years, the search for new energy reserves in bays and estuaries has increased dramatically, thereby compounding the problem of what to do with dredged material. There are several alternatives for disposal of dredged material including

Donald H. White; Eugene Cromartie

1985-01-01

395

Use Of Sediment Transport Calculations In Dredged Material Disposal Site Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of suitable sites for ocean disposal of dredged material is an ongoing problem for federal agencies, local port authorities, and users of marine resources. One of the considerations in site selection is dispersion of dredged material away from the site, either during disposal operations, or afterward. No formal technique for evaluation of sediment dispersion among candidate sites in the

C. R. Sherwood

1989-01-01

396

Site Selection and Geological Research Connected with High Level Waste Disposal Programme in the Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to solve the problem of high-level waste disposal including the spent fuel from nuclear power plants have been made in the Czech Republic for over the 10 years. Already in 1991 the Ministry of Environment entitled The Czech Geological Survey to deal with the siting of the locality for HLW disposal and the project No. 3308 ''The geological research

Tomas

2003-01-01

397

Radioactive Waste Disposal Implications of Extending Part IIA to cover Radioactively Contaminated Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA to address radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of the radioactive wastes arising from remediation.

DJ Nancarrow

398

Comparison of extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL) carrying Escherichia coli from sewage sludge and human urinary tract infection.  

PubMed

For many years, extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria were a problem mainly located in medical facilities. Within the last decade however, ESBL-producing bacteria have started spreading into the community and the environment. In this study, ESBL-producing Escherichia coli from sewage sludge were collected, analysed and compared to ESBL-E. coli from human urinary tract infections (UTIs). The dominant ESBL-gene-family in both sample groups was bla(CTX-M), which is the most prevalent ESBL-gene-family in human infection. Still, the distribution of ESBL genes and the frequency of additional antibiotic resistances differed in the two sample sets. Nevertheless, phenotyping did not divide isolates of the two sources into separate groups, suggesting similar strains in both sample sets. We speculate that an exchange is taking place between the ESBL E. coli populations in infected humans and sewage sludge, most likely by the entry of ESBL E. coli from UTIs into the sewage system. PMID:23202650

Zarfel, G; Galler, H; Feierl, G; Haas, D; Kittinger, C; Leitner, E; Grisold, A J; Mascher, F; Posch, J; Pertschy, B; Marth, E; Reinthaler, F F

2012-11-29

399

Up from the beach: medical waste disposal rules!  

PubMed

The recent incidents of floating debris, garbage, wood, and medical waste on our nation's beaches have focused public attention on waste management problems. The handling and disposal of solid waste remains a major unresolved national dilemma. Increased use of disposables by all consumers, including the medical profession, and the increasing costs of solid waste disposal options have aggravated the solid waste situation. Medical waste found on beaches in the summer of 1988 could have been generated by a number of sources, including illegal dumping; sewer overflow; storm water runoff; illegal drug users; and inadequate handling of solid waste at landfills and coastal transfer facilities, which receive waste from doctors' offices, laboratories, and even legitimate home users of syringes. As officials from New Jersey have determined, the beach garbage is no mystery. It's coming from you and me. In response to the perceived medical waste disposal problem, various state and federal agencies have adopted rules to regulate and control the disposal of medical waste. This article outlines the more significant rules that apply to medical waste. PMID:2756492

Francisco, C J

1989-07-01

400

Identifying the source, transport path and sinks of sewage derived organic matter.  

PubMed

Since sewage discharges can significantly contribute to the contaminant loadings in coastal areas, it is important to identify sources, pathways and environmental sinks. Sterol and fatty alcohol biomarkers were quantified in source materials, suspended sediments and settling matter from the Ria Formosa Lagoon. Simple ratios between key biomarkers including 5beta-coprostanol, cholesterol and epi-coprostanol were able to identify the sewage sources and effected deposition sites. Multivariate methods (PCA) were used to identify co-varying sites. PLS analysis using the sewage discharge as the signature indicated approximately 25% of the variance in the sites could be predicted by the sewage signature. A new source of sewage derived organic matter was found with a high sewage predictable signature. The suspended sediments had relatively low sewage signatures as the material was diluted with other organic matter from in situ production. From a management viewpoint, PLS provides a useful tool in identifying the pathways and accumulation sites for such contaminants. PMID:15840529

Mudge, Stephen M; Duce, Caroline E

2005-07-01

401

Integrating disposable or planned replacement lenses into contact lens practice.  

PubMed

Disposable and planned replacement lenses have become increasingly popular options for contact lens wearers. Optometrists must devise management strategies to avoid the many problems that have emerged from the use of these lens modalities: inappropriate patient selection, reduced frequency of eye examination, oversupply of lenses, improper policies for the release of contact lens prescriptions, and inadequate documentation of service contracts. Suggestions are offered to avoid these common management problems. PMID:7812067

Farkas, P

1994-01-01

402

Liquid household hazardous wastes in the United States: Identification, disposal, and management plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present methods of disposal of today's hazardous household chemicals in the United States are frequently not acceptable because of pathways to groundwater, surface water, and the atmosphere. This report identifies potentially hazardous liquid waste in the household, notes current disposal practices, and recommends an improved management plan that utilizes consumer education, manufacturer cooperation, and governmental intervention. Laws requiring uniform disposal labeling on packaging are critical. Local, county, and state governments must be encouraged to coordinate the necessary infrastructure. Managing hazardous household wastes now will mitigate potential disposal problems.

Robertson, David K.; Akagha, Jude; Belasco, Jon; Bullis, Jane; Byrne, Gloria; di Patria, Joan; Fisher, Wayne; Fonzino, James; Hsu, Jeffrey; Merchan, Lucy; Oster, David; Rosenberg, Jon; von Aulock, Sabine; Vroeginday, Barry

1987-11-01

403

Application of MATLAB image processing technology in sewage monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper puts forward the application of Matlab image processing technology in sewage monitoring system. The percentage of the bubbles on the surface of the water can be got by using some functions in the image processing toolbox of MATLAB, such as binaryzation, dilating, erosion and so on. The automatic alarm will be raised when the percentage of the bubbles

Huidan Cao; Yuming Shen

2009-01-01

404

Co-digestion of grease trap sludge and sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Redirection of organic waste, from landfilling or incineration, to biological treatment such as anaerobic digestion is of current interest in the Malmö-Copenhagen region. One type of waste that is expected to be suitable for anaerobic digestion is sludge from grease traps. Separate anaerobic digestion of this waste type and co-digestion with sewage sludge were evaluated. The methane potential was measured

Å. Davidsson; C. Lövstedt; J. la Cour Jansen; C. Gruvberger; H. Aspegren

2008-01-01

405

Baghouse Efficiency on a Multiple Hearth Incinerator Burning Sewage Sludge,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot-scale fabric filter (baghouse) was evaluated for its removal performance for 23 metals and for sulfur as well as for total particles when fitted to a multiple hearth incinerator burning sewage sludge. The small scale baghouse was installed to take...

R. C. Adams L. E. Keller E. V. Robb M. C. Vancil J. B. Farrell

1989-01-01

406

Radiation processing of sewage and sludge. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the potential of using ionizing radiation to disinfect sewage and sludge, as well as the possibilities of recycling natural resources and their by-products. Presented here is a brief review on the development of radiolytic treatment of wastewaters with electron beam accelerators or 60Co gamma sources to eliminate organic and biological contaminants from liquid and solid wastes. Suitable

S. I. Borrely; A. C. Cruz; N. L. Del Mastro; M. H. O. Sampa; E. S. Somessari

1998-01-01

407

Ozonation for Control of Enteric Viruses in Sewage Effluent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object was to determine guidelines for dosage and contact time of ozone with respect to virus inactivation in various types of secondary sewage effluent. It was found that the demand of ozone for the inactivation of 5 human enteric viruses, namely pol...

P. W. Chang

1978-01-01

408

33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to which primary sludge has been added, as necessary, to create a test sewage with a minimum of 500 milligrams of suspended solids per liter. [CGD 73-83, 40 FR 4624, Jan. 30, 1975, as amended by USCG-2002-12471, 67 FR 41333,...

2013-07-01

409

Soil effects due to sewage sludge application in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials show that increased nutrients (mainly P) and heavy metals in soil due to agricultural use of sewage sludge have mainly to be expected when sludge is applied in too high amounts. The biological effects of heavy metals on plants are determined by their solubility which is increased by pH decrease and degradation of organic matter. Normally, it should

H. Häni; A. Siegenthaler; T. Candinas

1995-01-01

410

Chironomidae From a Sewage Treatment Station of Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the great number of insects living and reproducing at a municipal sewage treatment station located in Piracicaba City and the fear about how dangerous it could be for human healthy, a study was conduct to identify the taxa presented there and to analyze their community structure using stable isotopes. The Chironomidae identification was performed on specific level. The sewage treatment station is a man-made wetland system, situated 30m nearby the Piracicaba River. It treats the sewage from an urban area with 3000 inhabitants. The sewage discharge varies from 133 to 186L/s/ha. The samples were taken on the ending of the rainy season with a D-frame net. The material was washed (210mm mesh size), sorted and preserved in 70% alcohol. Chironomidae had a low participation in the community, with 14.9% of the specimens. Goeldichironomus serratus (47.8% from total Chironomidae), G. holoprasinus (43.5%) and Chironomus decorus (8.7%) were identified. Those species are worldwide recognized as pollution-resistant, used as indicators of environmental water quality. The wetland studied showed low dissolved oxygen (1.5mg/L) on the sampling period and the presence of those Chironomidae species should be expected. The low diversity and high dominance are common features for those impacted environments.

Signoretti, R. P.; Sonoda, K. C.; Ferraz, E.

2005-05-01

411

COSTS OF AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYSTEMS FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air pollution control systems to municipal sewage sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment-wet scrubbers, fabric filters,...

412

The realization of report in Sewage Treatment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expounding the realization of two reports functions of automatic and manual in the application of INTELLUTION IFIX monitoring software by the establishment of dispatching events and the proceduring script in the controlling system of No.2 Sewage Treatment Plant in Changchun.

Meng Ya'nan

2010-01-01

413

Influence of sewage and pharmaceuticals on soil microbial function.  

PubMed

Although sewage effluent application to land is a common approach to recycle water and provide nutrients to plants, bioactive pharmaceuticals contained in sewage may change soil quality by affecting soil microbial communities. Establishing causal effects, however, is difficult, because trace levels of pharmaceuticals are confounded with other effluent constituents. Therefore, two originally similar soil microbial communities, one irrigated in situ with sewage effluent for 12 years and another nonirrigated, were exposed to high levels of acetaminophen, aspirin, carbamazepine, chlorpromazine, and tetracycline. The objectives of the current study were to determine the influence of high levels of pharmaceuticals on several soil microbial properties, the effect that prolonged effluent irrigation with ambient levels of pharmaceuticals had on soil microbial function, and how this effect would change in response to pharmaceutical exposure. Several pharmaceuticals, at high exposure levels, imposed stress on the soil microbial community as judged by increased CO(2) respiration, decreased biomass carbon, and altered substrate utilization affinities. Prolonged effluent irrigation, which altered the genetic fingerprint of the microbial community, also mitigated the response that exposure to pharmaceuticals had on the microbial community and enabled degradation of the antimicrobial salicylic acid after aspirin exposure. In conclusion, prolonged irrigation with sewage effluent containing pharmaceuticals at ambient levels influenced the microbial community so that they were able to better cope with sudden exposure to high levels of pharmaceuticals. PMID:21312249

Gielen, Gerty J H P; Clinton, Peter W; Van den Heuvel, Michael R; Kimberley, Mark O; Greenfield, Laurie G

2011-03-04

414

HELMINTH AND HEAVY METALS TRANSMISSION FROM ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses a study designed to determine the practical survival and transmission of the ova of the nematode worm Ascaris sp. through a modern sewage and sludge treatment process. Four large experiments and three smaller ones involving 178 specific pathogen free (SPF) p...

415

HEAVY METAL DISTRIBUTION IN SEWAGE SLUDGE-TREATED SOIL PROFILES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we studied the total content of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn) in a soil treated with different sewage sludges and the distribution of these metals in the soil profile (0-50 cm) as a func- tion of the type and dose of sludge added, of the residence time of the sludge in the soil,

M. J. Sánchez-Martín; M. García-Delgado; L. F. Lorenzo; M. Sánchez-Camazano

416

EVALUATION OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested using the Salmonella/microsomal activation assay, t...

417

SNG from refuse and sewage sludge by the BIOGAS process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory, small pilot, and field work on the development of a process for the gasification of municipal solid wastes and sewage sludge has had a number of objectives. These include increasing the production of methane and the solids destruction efficiency; cost reduction; evaluating, selecting, and integrating unit operations; and improving the overall process design. Out of this work has evolved

S. Ghosh; D. L. Klass

1976-01-01

418

Prevalence of Campylobacter in Dutch sewage purification plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in man. Although food of animal origin is the main source of human infection, a casecontrol study in the United States of America showed that 8% of all campylobacteriosis cases could be attributed to consumption of contaminated surface water. In this thesis the prevalence of Campylobacter in sewage purification plants was

P. M. F. J. Koenraad

1995-01-01

419

PRODUCTION OF NON-FOOD-CHAIN CROPS WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Feasibility and market potential were determined for non-food-chain crops cultivated using sewage sludge. Non-food-chain crops that are currently being sold on the open market or that have a good potential for marketability were selected. From a list of 20 crops, 3 were selected ...

420

EFFECTS OF USING SEWAGE SLUDGE ON AGRICULTURAL AND DISTURBED LANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The accumulative effects of annual use of sewage sludge on composition of soils, plants, water, and animals that consume the plants is presented. Plant yields were increased and no evidence of phototoxicity from trace elements was observed. Phosphorus toxicity in soybeans develop...

421

Removal of DEHP in composting and aeration of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of composting and aeration to remove bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from municipal sewage sludge was studied with two dewatered sludges: raw sludge and anaerobically digested sludge. Composting removed 58% of the DEHP content of the raw sludge and 34% of that of the anaerobically digested sludge during 85 days stabilisation in compost bins. A similar removal for the anaerobically

Sanna K Marttinen; Kari Hänninen; Jukka A Rintala

2004-01-01

422

Biodegradation of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in the production of polyvinyl chloride to impart flexibility to the product. Because of its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, the presence of DEHP in sludge limits the application of sludge as a soil fertilizer. In this study, sludges were collected from three sewage treatment plants and thirteen wastewater treatment plants of different

H. F. Cheng; S. Y. Chen; J. G. Lin

423

Measured variation in boron loads reaching European sewage treatment works  

Microsoft Academic Search

Per capita boron loads reaching 48 sewage treatment works (STWs) in The Netherlands, Germany, Italy, and the UK have been determined from monitoring data. These have been compared with the per capita input predicted from boron in detergents, as determined from detergent product sales data. The resulting distribution of the ratios of measured boron to boron predicted from consumer usage

K. K. Fox; G. Cassani; A. Facchi; F. R. Schröder; C. Poelloth; M. S. Holt

2002-01-01

424

FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION AND STABILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...

425

Vermicomposting of sewage sludge: a new technology for Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Mexico 31% of the treatment plants have a flow less than 60 l\\/s. This study offers a simple and economical alternative through vermicomposting to resolve the management of sewage sludge and water hyacinth for these small treatment plants. This study was developed with laboratory and pilot scale systems. In the laboratory Eisenia foetida survival was quantified. They were fed

L. Cardosa Vigueros; E. Ramírez Camperos

426

Digested sewage sludge solidification by converter slag for landfill cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technology for solidification of digested sewage sludge referred to as converter slag solidification (CSS) has been developed using converter slag as the solidifying agent and quick lime as the solidifying aid. The CSS technology was investigated by analyzing the physicochemical properties of solidified sludge and determining its microstructural characteristics. The feasibility of using solidified sludge as a landfill

Eung-Ho Kim; Jin-Kyu Cho; Soobin Yim

2005-01-01

427

Use of Sewage Sludge Ash as Brick Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brick manufactured from incinerated sewage sludge ash and clay is investigated. The results of Atterberg limits tests of molded ash-clay mixtures indicated that both plastic index and dry shrinkage decrease with an increasing amount of ash in the mixture. Results of tests indicated that the ash proportion and firing temperature were the two key factors determining the quality of brick.

Deng-Fong Lin; Chih-Huang Weng

2001-01-01

428

SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION AT NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a report on the sewage sludge incineration fuel reduction program at the Nashville-Davidson County Metropolitan Government wastewater treatment plant in Nashville, Tennessee. Fuel usage was reduced over 40 percent by reprogramming the methods used for operating the incine...

429

Influence of bulking agent on sewage sludge composting process.  

PubMed

Four types of compost, consisting of mixtures of Acacia dealbata (A) with sewage sludge (SS) were studied in a laboratory reactor. Composting time was 80 days and parameters monitored over this period included temperature, organic matter, pH, CO(2), O(2), C/N ratio, Kjeldahl-N, as well as maturity indexes. All the studied parameters were influenced by the bulking amount used. The highest profile temperature measured was for the A/SS 1/2 (w/w) mixture that reached a maxima temperature of 67 degrees C and lower maximum temperatures of 52, 48 and 46 degrees C were observed for A/SS 1/3, 1/1 and 1/0 composts, respectively. The kinetic model used showed that a descent of sewage sludge in the composting mixtures favored the enzyme-substrate affinity. However, an increase in depending on the parameters of the process factors was observed when the sewage sludge ratio was increased in mixtures. The optimal amounts of sewage sludge for co-composting with Acacia indicate that moderate amounts of sludge (1/1) would be the best compromise. PMID:19560348

Yañez, R; Alonso, J L; Díaz, M J

2009-06-26

430

Characterization of iron and Zinc in Albuquerque sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical forms of Fe and Zn present in anaerobically digested sewage sludge from Albuquerque, NM were identified and quantified. Water-soluble Fe and Zn were speciated based on charged and stability of metal complexes, and on their degree of association with soluble organics. Chemical forms of Fe and Zn present in the solid phase of the sludge were characterized with a

K. Knudtsen; G. A. OConnor

2009-01-01

431

DEMONSTRATION PHYSICAL CHEMICAL SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT UTILIZING BIOLOGICAL NITRIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This demonstration project in a small residential community in Kentucky was initiated to show the feasibility of treating sewage with a physical-chemical type of wastewater treatment plant with a biological process for nitrification. The 50,000 gallon per day system had unit proc...

432

Sustainability life cycle comparison of biofuels: sewage the saviour?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this research is to conduct a holistic sustainability life cycle assessment (LCA) comparison of different kinds of biofuels, integrating environmental, social, cultural and economic sustainability. The feasibility of a vision that by year 2015 households, companies, and other organizations all over the world will turn their sewages into biofuels, instead of discharging them into the

Tarja Ketola; Tiina Salmi

2010-01-01

433

USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON AGRICULTURAL AND DISTURBED LANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Results of 8 field studies of long-term use of digested sewage on agricultural and disturbed lands are presented. The studies included: (1) response of corn grown on 3 soil types previously amended with annual sludge applications; (2) response of corn grown annually on Blount sil...

434

Effect of seeding during thermophilic composting of sewage sludge.  

PubMed Central

The effect of seeding on the thermophilic composting of sewage sludge was examined by measuring the changes in CO2 evolution rates and microbial numbers. Although the succession of thermophilic bacteria and thermophilic actinomycetes clearly reflected the effect of seeding, no clear difference was observed in the overall rate of composting or quality of the composted product.

Nakasaki, K; Sasaki, M; Shoda, M; Kubota, H

1985-01-01

435

Microbial Transformation of Nitroaromatic Compounds in Sewage Effluent  

PubMed Central

The transformation of mono- and dinitroaromatic compounds was measured in sewage effluent maintained under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Most of the nitrobenzene, 3- and 4-nitrobenzoic acids, and 3- and 4-nitrotoluenes and much of the 1,2- and 1,3-dinitrobenzenes disappeared both in the presence and absence of oxygen. Under anaerobiosis, 2,6-dinitrotoluene and 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid disappeared slowly, but no loss was evident in 28 days in aerated sewage. Aromatic amines did not accumulate during the aerobic decomposition of the mononitro compounds. They did appear in nonsterile, but not in sterile, sewage incubated aerobically with the dinitro compounds and anaerobically with all the chemicals. Analysis by gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that aniline was formed from nitrobenzene, toluidine was formed from 3- and 4-nitrotoluenes, and aminobenzoic acid was formed from 3- and 4-nitrobenzoic acids under anaerobiosis, and that nitroaniline was formed from 1,2- and 1,3-dinitrobenzenes, aminonitrotoluene resulted from 2,6-dinitrotoluene, and aminonitrobenzoic acid was a product of 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid under both conditions. The isomeric forms of the metabolites were not established. Aniline, 4-toluidine, and 4-aminobenzoic acid added to sewage disappeared from aerated nonsterile, but not from sterile, sewage or sewage in the absence of oxygen. 2-Nitroaniline, 2-amino-3-nitrotoluene, and 2-amino-5-nitrobenzoic acid added to sewage persisted for at least 60 days in aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Gas chromatographic and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses demonstrated that acetanilide and 2-methylquinoline were formed from aniline, 4-methylformanilide and 4-methylacetanilide were formed from 4-toluidine, 2-methylbenzimidazole was a product of 2-nitroaniline, and unidentified benzimidazoles were formed from 2-amino-3-nitrotoluene in the absence of oxygen, and that 2-nitroacetanilide and 2-methyl-6-nitroacetanilide were formed from 2-nitroaniline and 2-amino-3-nitrotoluene, respectively, in the presence or absence of oxygen. It is suggested that the transformations of widely used nitroaromatic compounds should be further studied because of the persistence and possible toxicity of products of their metabolism.

Hallas, Laurence E.; Alexander, Martin

1983-01-01

436

Effects of calcined aluminum salts on the advanced dewatering and solidification/stabilization of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The high moisture content (80%) in the sewage dewatered sludge is the main obstacle to disposal and recycling. A chemical dewatering and stabilization/solidification (S/S) alternative for the sludge was developed, using calcined aluminum salts (AS) as solidifier, and CaCl2, Na2SO4 and CaSO4 as accelerators, to enhance the mechanical compressibility making the landfill operation possible. The properties of the resultant matrixes were determined in terms of moisture contents, unconfined compressive strength, products of hydration, and toxicity characteristics. The results showed that AS exhibited a moderate pozzolanic activity, and the mortar AS(0) obtained with 5% AS and 10% CaSO4 of AS by weight presented a moisture contents below 50%-60% and a compressive strength of (51.32 +/- 2.9) kPa after 5-7 days of curing time, meeting the minimum requirement for sanitary landfill. The use of CaSO4 obviously improved the S/S performance, causing higher strength level. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry investigations revealed that a large amount of hydrates (viz., gismondine and CaCO3) were present in solidified sludge, leading to the depletion of evaporable water and the enhancement of the strength. In addition, the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and horizontal vibration (HJ 557-2009) leaching test were conducted to evaluate their environmental compatibility. It was found that the solidified products conformed to the toxicity characteristic criteria in China and could be safely disposed of in a sanitary landfill. PMID:22125919

Zhen, Guangyin; Yan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Haiyan; Chen, Hua; Zhao, Tiantao; Zhao, Youcai

2011-01-01

437

Report on the Oak Ridge sewage sludge land-farming experience. Part 1. Data presentation  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of sludge from the City of Oak Ridge's sewage treatment facility on a 65-acre site on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation was initiated in November 1983. On March 22, 1984, DOE and the City determined that the sludge contained radioactive materials. Application of sludge on the Reservation was suspended on March 25 and a comprehensive survey and sampling plan was instituted to radiologically characterize the disposal site. By April 1, a radiation walkover survey had been completed on the site and samples of air, water, and soil had been collected to be analyzed for the presence of radionuclides. The mean air dose rate, one meter above the ground surface, was found to be 13 ..mu..R/h with a range from about 8 ..mu..R/h, which is the usual background level in the area, to 21 ..mu..R/h. Concentrations of Cs-137 and Co-60, the principle contaminants in the soil, were essentially below the analytical detection limits in the air and water. About 350 soil samples were collected by extracting cores to a depth of 12 to 15 inches according to a systematic random sampling design. Each core was separated into three sections; the top 3 inches, a middle section, and the bottom 3 inches to represent layers on the site. The majority of the radioactivity was determined to be in the upper 3 inches of soil. A statistical treatment of the analytical results provided an estimate of the total activity at the site, the vertical distribution of the gamma activity, and the areal distribution of the primary radionuclides. A total of 170 mCi of activity was estimated as present in the top 3-inch layer of the 65-acre site, 69% of which was contributed by Co-60 and Cs-137, 23% by U-234 and Sr-90, and 8% by other minor radionuclides. 4 references, 12 figures, 43 tables.

Oakes, T.W.; Braunstein, H.M.; Daniels, K.L.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Kitchings, J.T.; Alexander, W.A.

1984-08-01

438

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in selected sewage sludge in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Levels of seven major perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and three perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) were analyzed for the first time in sludge from wastewater treatment plants from Nigeria. Measurements were performed using an analytical methodology using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS). The method detection limit and method quantification limit was 3pg/g and 9.5pg/g for both analytes (PFCAs and PFSAs) respectively. Typical recoveries ranged from 50% to 104% for spiked mass labeled internal standards of 1ng (absolute value) to 1g of sample. All sludge samples taken from industrial, domestic and hospital wastewater treatment plants contained measurable levels of PFASs. Levels of the quantified perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates concentrations ranged from 10 to 597 and 14 to 540pg/g, respectively. The concentrations were therefore lower compared to sewage sludge samples reported in other regions in the world. Perfluoroalkyl carboxylates with carbon chain having ?8 fluorinated carbons were detected in the analyzed sewage sludge samples at higher levels compared to carboxylates with <8 fluorinated carbon chain. The measured concentrations indicate that no PFAS point source for the 10 investigated sewage treatment plants existed. Furthermore the low levels in the four municipal sewage treatment plants in Lagos is a first indication that even in an African megacity like Lagos the PFASs release from households are low until now. The highest PFOS level was found in a hospital sewage sludge (539.6pg/g) possibly indicating (minor) release from medical equipment where some are known to contain PFOS. The PFASs in waste water sludge from a brewery warrant further investigations. PMID:23648329

Sindiku, Omotayo; Orata, Francis; Weber, Roland; Osibanjo, Oladele

2013-05-03

439

Electron beam pretreatment of sewage sludge before anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

The pretreatment of waste-activated sludge (WAS) by electron beam irradiation was studied in order to improve anaerobic sludge digestion. The irradiation dose of the electron beam was varied from 0.5 to 10 kGy. Batch and continuous-flow stirred tank reactors (CFSTRs) were operated to evaluate the effect of the electron beam pretreatment on anaerobic sludge digestion. Approximately 30-52% of the total chemical oxygen demand (COD) content of the WAS was solubilized within 24 h after electron beam irradiation. A large quantity of soluble COD, protein, and carbohydrates leached out from cell ruptures caused by the electron beam irradiation. Volatile fatty acids production from the irradiated sludge was approx 90% higher than that of the unirradiated sludge. The degradation of irradiated sewage sludge was described by two distinct first-order decay rates (k1 and k2). Most initial decay reaction accelerated within 10 d, with an average k1 of 0.06/d for sewage sludge irradiated at all dosages. The mean values for the long-term batch first-order decay coefficient (k2) were 0.025/d for irradiated sewage sludge and 0.007/d for unirradiated sludge. Volatile solids removal efficiency of the control reactor fed with unirradiated sewage sludge at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 d was almost the same as that of the CFSTRs fed with irradiated sludge at an HRT of 10 d. Therefore, disintegration of sewage sludge cells using electron beam pretreatment could reduce the reactor solid retention time by half. PMID:12794296

Shin, Kyung-Sook; Kang, Ho

440

State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

Not Available

1994-06-01

441

Mucosal and Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses Detected in Raw Sewages  

PubMed Central

Epitheliotropic viruses can find their way into sewage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and genetic diversity of Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) in urban wastewaters. Sewage samples were collected from treatment plants distributed throughout Italy. The DNA extracted from these samples was analyzed by PCR using five PV-specific sets of primers targeting the L1 (GP5/GP6, MY09/MY11, FAP59/64, SKF/SKR) and E1 regions (PM-A/PM-B), according to the protocols previously validated for the detection of mucosal and cutaneous HPV genotypes. PCR products underwent sequencing analysis and the sequences were aligned to reference genomes from the Papillomavirus Episteme database. Phylogenetic analysis was then performed to assess the genetic relationships among the different sequences and between the sequences of the samples and those of the prototype strains. A broad spectrum of sequences related to mucosal and cutaneous HPV types was detected in 81% of the sewage samples analyzed. Surprisingly, sequences related to the anogenital HPV6 and 11 were detected in 19% of the samples, and sequences related to the “high risk” oncogenic HPV16 were identified in two samples. Sequences related to HPV9, HPV20, HPV25, HPV76, HPV80, HPV104, HPV110, HPV111, HPV120 and HPV145 beta Papillomaviruses were detected in 76% of the samples. In addition, similarity searches and phylogenetic analysis of some sequences suggest that they could belong to putative new genotypes of the beta genus. In this study, for the first time, the presence of HPV viruses strongly related to human cancer is reported in sewage samples. Our data increases the knowledge of HPV genomic diversity and suggests that virological analysis of urban sewage can provide key information useful in supporting epidemiological studies.

La Rosa, Giuseppina; Fratini, Marta; Accardi, Luisa; D'Oro, Graziana; Della Libera, Simonetta; Muscillo, Michele; Di Bonito, Paola

2013-01-01

442

Cyanobacteria as a biosorbent of heavy metals in sewage water.  

PubMed

The effect of sewage water on some physiological activities of cyanobacteria was studied. Metal-tolerant cyanobacterium (Nostoc linckia) and metal-sensitive (Nostoc rivularis) were grown at three levels of sewage water (25, 50 and 75%). The growth rate showed significant stimulation in low and moderate levels (50% for N. linckia and 25% for N. rivularis). Not only the number of cells was elevated but also, the time required to reach the exponential and the stationary phases was reduced. Also, low levels of sewage water increased chl.a content, photosynthetic O(2)-evolution, respiration and protein content. Similarly, heterocyst frequency as well as nitrogenase activity were increased in cyanobacteria grown at low and moderate levels (25 and 50% sewage). On the other hand, the high level of waste (75%) reduced growth and metabolic activities of the two species. N. linckia accumulated about 30-fold of Zn and ten-fold of Cd than those of growth medium (50% sewage water). Also, N. rivularis accumulated about ten-fold of Zn and two-fold of Cd. The distribution of Cd and Zn in cells were investigated. About 65-60% of Cd or Zn were found in pellets (sediment) as insoluble form in the two species. The soluble form (cytosolic fraction) after being fractionated on sephadex G-(75-100) revealed two peaks with molecular weights of 70-75 and 40-45 kDa. These peaks were in coincidence with Cd and Zn maxima. Nostoc rivulais showed more sensitivity to heavy metals than N. linckia, and accumulated less amount of metal-binding proteins. Nostoc linckia seems to be tolerant to heavy metals (Zn and Cd) and is able to accumulate this metal by adsorption on the pellets (cell surface) and/or through sequestration via metal-binding protein. Therefore it can be recommended it to be employed in the purification of waste contaminated with these heavy metals. PMID:10867368

El-Enany; Issa

2000-01-01

443

Wood waste disposal in illinois  

SciTech Connect

The state of Illinois is actively involved in preserving the state's natural resources and protecting the health of Illinois citizens by planning for the most environmentally acceptable solid waste management procedures possible. The Illinois Solid Waste Management Act establishes a preferred hierarchy of methods for dealing with solid waste: volume reduction at the source, recycling and reuse, combustion with energy recovery, combustion for volume reduction, and disposal in landfills. Effective July 1, 1990, the state of Illinois banned the landfill disposal of landscape waste (grass, leaves, brush, tree trimmings, etc.). Composting has become the preferred method to dispose of these wastes and at the same time return valuable organic material to the Illinois soils from which it came. Alternatives to landfill disposal are certainly possible for many other components of Illinois' waste stream. The report from the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources is in response to Public Act 86-207 effective January 1, 1991, which requires the department to study the feasibility of requiring that wood and sawdust from construction waste, demolition projects, sawmills, or other projects or industries where wood is used in a large amount be shredded and composted, and that such wood be prohibited from being disposed of in a landfill.

Not Available

1991-03-01

444

Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition  

SciTech Connect

The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-10-01

445

Removal mechanisms and kinetics of trace tetracycline by two types of activated sludge treating freshwater sewage and saline sewage.  

PubMed

Understanding the removal mechanisms and kinetics of trace tetracycline by activated sludge is critical to both evaluation of tetracycline elimination in sewage treatment plants and risk assessment/management of tetracycline released to soil environment due to the application of biosolids as fertilizer. Adsorption is found to be the primary removal mechanism while biodegradation, volatilization, and hydrolysis can be ignored in this study. Adsorption kinetics was well described by pseudo-second-order model. Faster adsorption rate (k? = 2.04 × 10(-2)?g min(-1) ?g(-1)) and greater adsorption capacity (qe = 38.8 ?g g(-1)) were found in activated sludge treating freshwater sewage. Different adsorption rate and adsorption capacity resulted from chemical properties of sewage matrix rather than activated sludge surface characteristics. The decrease of tetracycline adsorption in saline sewage was mainly due to Mg(2+) which significantly reduced adsorption distribution coefficient (Kd) from 12,990 ± 260 to 4,690 ± 180 L kg(-1). Species-specific adsorption distribution coefficients followed the order of Kd???>Kd???>Kd???. Contribution of zwitterionic tetracycline to the overall adsorption was >90 % in the actual pH range in aeration tank. Adsorption of tetracycline in a wide range of temperature (10 to 35 °C) followed the Freundlich adsorption isotherm well. PMID:23054779

Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

2012-10-02

446

The residuals analysis project: Evaluating disposal options for treated mixed low-level waste  

SciTech Connect

For almost four years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Federal Facility Compliance Act Disposal Workgroup has been working with state regulators and governors` offices to develop an acceptable configuration for disposal of its mixed low-level waste (MLLW). These interactions have resulted in screening the universe of potential disposal sites from 49 to 15 and conducting ``performance evaluations`` for those fifteen sites to estimate their technical capabilities for disposal of MLLW. In the residuals analysis project, we estimated the volume of DOE`s MLLW that will require disposal after treatment and the concentrations of radionuclides in the treated waste. We then compared the radionuclide concentrations with the disposal limits determined in the performance evaluation project for each of the fifteen sites. The results are a scoping-level estimate of the required volumetric capacity for MLLW disposal and the identification of waste streams that may pose problems for disposal based on current treatment plans. The analysis provides technical information for continued discussions between the DOE and affected States about disposal of MLLW and systematic input to waste treatment developers on disposal issues.

Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Case, J.T.; Letourneau, M.J.

1997-03-01

447

Recommended Procedures for Measuring Radon Fluxes from Disposal Sites of Residual Radioactive Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report recommends instrumentation and methods suitable for measuring radon fluxes emanating from covered disposal sites of residual radioactive materials such as uranium mill tailings. Problems of spatial and temporal variations in radon flux are dis...

J. A. Young V. W. Thomas P. O. Jackson

1983-01-01

448

Long-term fate of organic micropollutants in sewage-contaminated groundwater  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of secondary sewage effluent by rapid infiltration has produced a plume of contaminated groundwater over 3500 m long near Falmouth, MA. Approximately 50 volatile organic compounds were detected and identified in the plume, at concentrations ranging from 10 ng/L to 500 {mu}g/L, by closed-loop stripping and purge-and-trap in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The dominant contaminants were di-, tri- and tetrachloroethene, o- and p-dichlorobenzene, C{sub 1} to C{sub 6} alkylbenzenes, 2,6-di-tert-butylbenzoquinone, and several isomers of p-nonylphenol. The chloroethenes and chlorobenzenes had the same general distribution as chloride and boron and appear to be transported with little retardation. Less soluble compounds, such as nonylphenol and di-tert-butylbenzoquinone, appear to be retarded during subsurface transport by sorption processes. Although biodegradation of labile organic compounds occurs near the infiltration beds, many trace compounds, including chlorinated benzenes, alkylbenzenes, and aliphatic hydrocarbons, have persisted for more than 30 years in the aquifer.

Barber, L.B. II.; Thurman, E.M.; Schroeder, M.P.; LeBlanc, D.R. (Geological Survey, Lakewood, CO (USA))

1988-02-01

449

Long-Term Fate of Organic Micropollutants in Sewage-Contaminated Groundwater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Disposal of secondary sewage effluent by rapid infiltration has produced a plume of contaminated groundwater over 3500 m long near Falmouth, MA. Approximately 50 volatile organic compounds were detected and identified in the plume, at concentrations ranging from 10 ng/L to 500 ??g/L, by closed-loop stripping and purge- and-trap in conjuction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The dominant contaminants were di-, tri- and tetrachloroethene, o- and p-dichlorobenzene, C1 to C6 alkylbenzenes, 2,6-di-tert-butylbenzoquinone, and several isomers of p-nonylphenol. The chloroethenes and chlorobenzenes had the same general distribution as chloride and boron and appear to be transported with little retardation. Less soluble compounds, such as nonylphenol and di-tert-butylbenzoquinone, appear to be retarded during subsurface transport by sorption processes. Although biodegradation of labile organic compounds occurs near the infiltration beds, many trace compounds, including chlorinated benzenes, alkylbenzenes, and aliphatic hydrocarbons, have persisted for more than 30 years in the aquifer.

Barber, II, L. B.; Schroeder, M. P.; Leblanc, D. R.

1988-01-01

450

41 CFR 102-75.250 - What general policy must the disposal agency follow concerning the disposal of surplus property?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...agency follow concerning the disposal of surplus property? 102-75.250 Section...PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal § 102-75...agency follow concerning the disposal of surplus property? The disposal agency...

2013-01-01

451

41 CFR 102-75.255 - What are disposal agencies' specific responsibilities concerning the disposal of surplus property?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...responsibilities concerning the disposal of surplus property? 102-75.255 Section...PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal § 102-75...responsibilities concerning the disposal of surplus property? The disposal agency...

2013-01-01

452

Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

1994-05-01

453

Disposal concepts and characteristics of existing and potential low-waste repositories - 9076  

SciTech Connect

The closure of the Barnwell low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility to non-Atlantic Compact users poses significant problems for organizations seeking to remove waste material from public circulation. Beta-gamma sources such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in particular create problems because in 36 states no path forward exists for disposal. Furthermore, several other countries are considering disposition of sealed sources in a variety of facilities. Like much of the United States, many of these countries currently have no means of disposal. Consequently, there is a greater tendency for sources to be misplaced or stored in insufficient facilities, resulting in an increased likelihood of unwitting exposure of nearby people to radioactive materials. This paper provides an overview of the various disposal concepts that have been employed or attempted in the United States. From these concepts, a general overview of characteristics necessary for long-term disposal is synthesized.

Johnson, Peter J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zarling, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

454

Salt formations offer disposal alternative  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses how three U.S. firms are spending millions to permit and build underground disposal sites in salt formations. These companies claim salt is the ideal geological medium for holding hazardous wastes. Two Texas locations and one in Michigan have been targeted as future sites for hazardous waste disposal. The Michigan site, outside Detroit, is a former salt mine 2,000 feet beneath the Ford Motor Co. (Detroit) assembly works in Dearborn. Both Texas sites are atop salt domes---one east and one west of Houston.

Funderburk, R. (IM-Tech Immobilization Technologes, Fairfield, TX (US))

1990-06-01

455

Final disposal of radioactive waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

Freiesleben, H.

2013-06-01

456

Disposable telemetry cable deployment system  

DOEpatents

A disposable telemetry cable deployment system for facilitating information retrieval while drilling a well includes a cable spool adapted for insertion into a drill string and an unarmored fiber optic cable spooled onto the spool cable and having a downhole end and a stinger end. Connected to the cable spool is a rigid stinger which extends through a kelly of the drilling apparatus. A data transmission device for transmitting data to a data acquisition system is disposed either within or on the upper end of the rigid stinger.

Holcomb, David Joseph (Sandia Park, NM)

2000-01-01

457

A high-level disinfection standard for land applying sewage sludges (biosolids).  

PubMed Central

Complaints associated with land-applied sewage sludges primarily involve irritation of the skin, mucous membranes, and the respiratory tract accompanied by opportunistic infections. Volatile emissions and organic dusts appear to be the main source of irritation. Occasionally, chronic gastrointestinal problems are reported by affected residents who have private wells. To prevent acute health effects, we recommend that the current system of classifying sludges based on indicator pathogen levels (Class A and Class B) be replaced with a single high-level disinfection standard and that methods used to treat sludges be improved to reduce levels of irritant chemicals, especially endotoxins. A national opinion survey of individuals impacted by or concerned about the safety of land-application practices indicated that most did not consider the practice inherently unsafe but that they lacked confidence in research supported by federal and state agencies.

Gattie, David K; McLaughlin, Tara J

2004-01-01

458

Characterization summary report for pond waste commercial disposal project  

SciTech Connect

This report is prepared to summarize information on the existing sampling and analysis results for the K-1407B and K-1407C ponds holding basins for wastes received from the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant. The purpose of the document is to compare the existing data to commercial disposal facility criteria so that off-site disposal options for pond waste drums can be examined. There are [approximately]45,795 drums of stabilized sludge and [approximately]31,954 drums of raw sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. There have been corrosion and storage problems associated with these drums. The US Department of Energy would like to transport all waste drums that meet regulatory requirements to a commercial disposal facility. This report describes waste characterization and classifications.

Barkenbus, B.D.; Grumski, J.T.; Sams, T.L.

1992-08-01

459

10 CFR 61.50 - Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal. 61.50 Section 61.50 Energy ...CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical...

2009-01-01

460

10 CFR 61.50 - Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal. 61.50 Section 61.50 Energy ...CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical...

2010-01-01

461

Assessment of an Enterovirus Sewage Surveillance System by Comparison of Clinical Isolates with Sewage Isolates from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Collected August 1994 to December 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantity and serotypes of enteroviruses (EVs) in the influent of a local sewage treatment plant were compared to local clinical EV cases to determine if testing of sewage is adequate for an EV surveillance system. The study was carried out from August 1994 to December 2002. Monthly influent specimens were processed by organic flocculation, and dilutions of concentrate were

Gerald Sedmak; David Bina; Jeffrey MacDonald

2003-01-01

462

DISPOSAL OF WASTES FROM WATER TREATMENT PLANTS—PART 3 [with Discussion of Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to provide current information on the nature of the water treatment plant waste disposal problem, and to assist water utilities in solving the problem. The report describes technology presently available, defines new approaches to the problem, and suggests future directions for the coordination and dissemination of information.

John H. Nebiker; Donald D. Adrian; William W. Aultman; George Tchobanoglous; Peter W. Doe; Curtis E. Johnson; Robert B. Dean; Richard I. Dick; John W. Krasauskas; Joseph C. Webber; A. P. Black; Herbert O. Hartung

1969-01-01

463

Reactor Pressure Vessel Head Packaging & Disposal  

SciTech Connect

Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Head replacements have come to the forefront due to erosion/corrosion and wastage problems resulting from the susceptibility of the RPV Head alloy steel material to water/boric acid corrosion from reactor coolant leakage through the various RPV Head penetrations. A case in point is the recent Davis-Besse RPV Head project, where detailed inspections in early 2002 revealed significant wastage of head material adjacent to one of the Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) nozzles. In lieu of making ASME weld repairs to the damaged head, Davis-Besse made the decision to replace the RPV Head. The decision was made on the basis that the required weld repair would be too extensive and almost impractical. This paper presents the packaging, transport, and disposal considerations for the damaged Davis-Besse RPV Head. It addresses the requirements necessary to meet Davis Besse needs, as well as the regulatory criteria, for shipping and burial of the head. It focuses on the radiological characterization, shipping/disposal package design, site preparation and packaging, and the transportation and emergency response plans that were developed for the Davis-Besse RPV Head project.

Wheeler, D. M.; Posivak, E.; Freitag, A.; Geddes, B.

2003-02-26

464

Institutional storage and disposal of radioactive materials.  

PubMed

Storage and disposal of radioactive materials from nuclear medicine operations must be considered in the overall program design. The storage of materials from daily operation, materials in transit, and long-term storage represent sources of exposure. The design of storage facilities must include consideration of available space, choice of material, occupancy of surrounding areas, and amount of radioactivity anticipated. Neglect of any of these factors will lead to exposure problems. The ultimate product of any manipulation of radioactive material will be some form of radioactive waste. This waste may be discharged into the environment or placed within a storage area for packaging and transfer to a broker for ultimate disposal. Personnel must be keenly aware of packaging regulations of the burial site as well as applicable federal and local codes. Fire codes should be reviewed if there is to be storage of flammable materials in any area. Radiation protection personnel should be aware of community attitudes when considering the design of the waste program. PMID:3749915

St Germain, J

1986-07-01

465

Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal.  

PubMed

In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day. PMID:16713239

Magrinho, Alexandre; Didelet, Filipe; Semiao, Viriato

2006-05-19

466

Disposal of Radioactive Waste at Hanford Creates Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Radioactive storage tanks at the Hanford facility have developed leaks. The situation is presently considered safe, but serious. A report from the National Academy of Science has recommended that the wastes be converted to stable solids and stored at another site on the Hanford Reservation. (Author/MA)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

1978-01-01

467

Disposal of Radioactive Waste at Hanford Creates Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Radioactive storage tanks at the Hanford facility have developed leaks. The situation is presently considered safe, but serious. A report from the National Academy of Science has recommended that the wastes be converted to stable solids and stored at another site on the Hanford Reservation. (Author/MA)|

Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

1978-01-01

468

Clay-sewage sludge co-pyrolysis. A TG-MS and Py-GC study on potential advantages afforded by the presence of clay in the pyrolysis of wastewater sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

Wastewater sewage sludge was co-pyrolyzed with a well characterized clay sample, in order to evaluate possible advantages in the thermal disposal process of solid waste. Characterization of the co-pyrolysis process was carried out both by thermogravimetric-mass spectrometric (TG-MS) analysis, and by reactor tests, using a lab-scale batch reactor equipped with a gas chromatograph for analysis of the evolved gas phase (Py-GC). Due to the presence of clay, two main effects were observed in the instrumental characterization of the process. Firstly, the clay surface catalyzed the pyrolysis reaction of the sludge, and secondly, the release of water from the clay, at temperatures of approx. 450-500 deg. C, enhanced gasification of part of carbon residue of the organic component of sludge following pyrolysis. Moreover, the solid residue remaining after pyrolysis process, composed of the inorganic component of sludge blended with clay, is characterized by good features for possible disposal by vitrification, yielding a vitreous matrix that immobilizes the hazardous heavy metals present in the sludge.

Ischia, Marco, E-mail: marco.ischia@ing.unitn.it [Department of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies, University of Trento, via Mesiano 77, 38100 Trento (Italy); Maschio, Roberto Dal [Department of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies, University of Trento, via Mesiano 77, 38100 Trento (Italy); Grigiante, Maurizio [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano 77, 38100 Trento (Italy); Baratieri, Marco [Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bolzano, Piazza Universita 5, 39100 Bolzano (Italy)

2011-01-15

469

Science and technology for disposal of radioactive tank wastes  

SciTech Connect

One of the legacies of the Cold War is a huge stockpile of radioactive wastes generated by over 40 years of nuclear weapons production. Safe treatment and disposal of these wastes, together with the associated problems of facility decommissioning and site clean-up, represents one of the largest and most complex environmental challenges of the present-day. Amongst these nuclear wastes is a wide variety of radioactive liquids, sludges and slurries created as waste by-products from the processing of spent nuclear fuel to extract enriched uranium and plutonium for bomb manufacture. Their liquid state, high level of radioactivity and the fact that they generally are stored in underground tanks (hence the term tank wastes), many of which are known to be leaking, makes their treatment and disposal all the more urgent. Despite its name, the book does not really discuss in any detail the final disposal of tank wastes. Of all the papers, only a few explicitly mention disposal of the wastes to a geological repository. The vast majority of the papers actually discuss pre-disposal treatment and solidification issues. What happens to the waste after they have been processed, minimized and solidified is an equally important issue and one that the book sadly fails to address.

Schulz, W.W.; Lombardo, N.J. [eds.

1998-07-01

470

Shape Charge Agent Disposing Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A system and method of disseminating lethal and non-lethal agent within a target to cause respiratory and ocular irritation to animals therein by the use of an agent carrying shaped charge munition. Agent is located in a disposer of special truncated cone...

J. R. Krauch T. W. Tranberg

1979-01-01

471

Process for waste water disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for waste water disposal is herein disclosed, in which waste water of high BOD concentration is subjected to an aeration treatment in an aeration vessel so as to reduce the BOD concentration thereof by circulating within said aeration vessel a quantity of coal or active carbon of which 80% or higher is of particle size between 2 and

Suzuki

1983-01-01

472

Spent fuel characteristics & disposal considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuel used in commercial nuclear power reactors is uranium, generally in the form of an oxide. The gas-cooled reactors developed in England use metallic uranium enclosed in a thin layer of Magnox. Since this fuel must be processed into a more stable form before disposal, we will not consider the characteristics of the Magnox spent fuel. The vast majority

Oversby

1996-01-01

473

Explosive Ordnance Disposal Protective Suit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An explosive ordnance disposal protective suit which includes trousers, a coat with collar, a protective helmet and a combination face shield-chest plate. The face shield-chest plate is supported and held in place by a pocket on the front of the coat. The...

R. Martone

1984-01-01

474

HANDBOOK: SEPTAGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The principal purpose of the handbook is to present an up-to-date review of available design, performance, operation and maintenance, cost, and energy information pertaining to the receiving, treatment, and disposal of septage. Septage is the liquid and solid material pumped from...

475

DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL MANAGEMENT MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

US Army Corps of Engineers public web site with computer models, available for download, used in evaluating various aspects of dredging and dredged material disposal. (landfill and water Quality models are also available at this site.) The site includes the following dredged mate...

476

Evaluation of Proposed New LLW Disposal Activity: Disposal of Aqueous PUREX Waste Stream in the Saltstone Disposal Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Aqueous PUREX waste stream from Tanks 33 and 35, which have been blended in Tank 34, has been identified for possible processing through the Saltstone Processing Facility for disposal in the Saltstone Disposal Facility. Other options include blending ...

J. R. Cook

2003-01-01

477

On geoengineering and the CO 2 problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of CO2 control in the atmosphere is tackled by proposing a kind of ‘fuel cycle’ for fossil fuels where CO2 is partially or totally collected at certain transformation points and properly disposed of.

Cesare Marchetti

1977-01-01

478

Wastewater Management Problems in Rural Communities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The knowledge, experience, and attitudes of wastewater treatment on-site disposal systems users were examined in order to identify possible problems confronting institutional management of on-site systems in Wisconsin. The major source of homeowner servic...

J. Y. C. Huang

1982-01-01

479

Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal  

SciTech Connect

If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being evaluated at Idaho National Laboratory and the facilities we’ve designed to evaluate options and support optimization.

Dirk Gombert

2005-09-01

480

Evaluation of food waste disposal options by LCC analysis from the perspective of global warming: Jungnang case, South Korea  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: > Various food waste disposal options were evaluated from the perspective of global warming. > Costs of the options were compared by the methodology of life cycle assessment and life cycle cost analysis. > Carbon price and valuable by-products were used for analyzing environmental credits. > The benefit-cost ratio of wet feeding scenario was the highest. - Abstract: The costs associated with eight food waste disposal options, dry feeding, wet feeding, composting, anaerobic digestion, co-digestion with sewage sludge, food waste disposer, incineration, and landfilling, were evaluated in the perspective of global warming and energy and/or resource recovery. An expanded system boundary was employed to compare by-products. Life cycle cost was analyzed through the entire disposal process, which included discharge, separate collection, transportation, treatment, and final disposal stages, all of which were included in the system boundary. Costs and benefits were estimated by an avoided impact. Environmental benefits of each system per 1 tonne of food waste management were estimated using carbon prices resulting from CO{sub 2} reduction by avoided impact, as well as the prices of by-products such as animal feed, compost, and electricity. We found that the cost of landfilling was the lowest, followed by co-digestion. The benefits of wet feeding systems were the highest and landfilling the lowest.

Kim, Mi-Hyung, E-mail: mhkim9@snu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Planning, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Yul-Eum, E-mail: yesong0724@dongguk.edu [Department of Philosophy, Dongguk University, Pil-Dong 3-Ga, Jung-Gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Life Science, Dongguk University, Pil-Dong 3-Ga, Jung-Gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Han-Byul, E-mail: kuackyang@ssu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Soongsil University, Sangdo-Ro 369, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Wk, E-mail: kimjw@snu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Planning, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sun-Jin, E-mail: sjhwang@khu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Center for Environmental Studies, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon-Dong, Giheung-Gu, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-09-15

481

The toxicity to plants of the sewage sludges containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of sewage sludges containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with an outer diameter <10 nm (CNT10) or 40-60 nm (CNT60) to Lepidium sativum (cress), Sorghum saccharatum (sorgo), Solanum lycopersicon (tomato), Raphanus sativus (radish) and Cucumis sativus (cucumber). CNTs were also incubated in sewage sludge for 7 or 31 days to determine the effect of CNT aging on sewage sludge phytotoxicity. The influence of CNTs on 4 different sewage sludges was tested. The CNTs' influence on sludge toxicity varied with respect to the CNTs' outer diameter, type of sewage sludges and the plants tested. No significant influence of CNT concentration on phytotoxicity was noted. In the case of two sludges, a positive influence of CNTs on seed germination and root growth was observed. Depending on the CNTs' outer diameter, CNT aging decreased (CNT10) or increased (CNT60) sewage sludge phytotoxicity. PMID:21145166

Oleszczuk, Patryk; Jo?ko, Izabela; Xing, Baoshan

2010-11-12

482

Phosphine production potential of various wastewater and sewage sludge sources  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory incubation procedure followed by gas chromatographic detection was used to measure phosphine production potential in representative wastewater and sewage sludge sources. Phosphine production potential was determined by measuring the rate of phosphine formation in samples incubated under laboratory conditions over a seven day period when both electron donors and the targeted electron acceptor were not limiting factors. Results of their experiments showed that except the primary effluent and secondary effluent wastewater samples all other samples studied (influent wastewater, various type of sludge and sediment sources) produced phosphine. The minimum phosphine production potential value (0.39 pg/ml wastewater/day) was measured in composite influent wastewater samples while the maximum (268 pg/g wet sludge/day) was measured in sediment samples collected from an open-air sewage treatment plant.

Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.; Patrick, W.H. Jr. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Wetland Biogeochemistry Inst.; Devai, G.; Czegeny, I. [Lajos Kossuth Univ., Debrecen (Hungary). Dept. of Ecology

1999-05-01

483

Financial management of Kashima Rinkai Specified Sewage Works.  

PubMed

The Kashima Rinkai Specified Sewage Works (KRSSW) is located at the northern side of the Kashima Coastal Industrial Zone, facing the Sea of Kashimanada (Pacific Ocean). It straddles one city and