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1

Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

Ayotamuno, M. J.

1993-01-01

2

Restoration of Failing On-Lot Sewage Disposal Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to evaluate two rehabilitative techniques-water conservation and absorption bed resting--for restoration of failing on-site sewage disposal areas. Eleven homes with failing absorption areas were characterized and baseline...

D. D. Fritton W. E. Sharpe A. R. Jarrett C. A. Cole G. W. Peterson

1984-01-01

3

Sewage Disposal at Point Barrow, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the Middle Salt Lagoon, Point Barrow, Alaska, the sewage depository of the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory, was initiated. Microbial analyses were carried out on runoff, lagoon water, and bottom sediments throughout the summer. The lagoon as a...

W. L. Boyd B. P. Klubek J. W. Boyd

1972-01-01

4

RESTORATION OF FAILING ON-LOT SEWAGE DISPOSAL AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to evaluate two rehabilitative techniques-water conservation and absorption bed resting--for restoration of failing on-site sewage disposal areas. Eleven homes with failing absorption areas were characterized and baseline water flow and septic ta...

5

Distribution of sewage indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-water disposal site after cessation of sewage disposal.  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens, a marker of domestic sewage contamination, was enumerated in sediment samples obtained from the vicinity of the 106-Mile Site 1 month and 1 year after cessation of sewage disposal at this site. C. perfringens counts in sediments collected at the disposal site and from stations 26 nautical miles (ca. 48 km) and 50 nautical miles (ca. 92 km) to the southwest of the site were, in general, more than 10-fold higher than counts from an uncontaminated reference site. C. perfringens counts at the disposal site were not significantly different between 1992 and 1993, suggesting that sewage sludge had remained in the benthic environment at this site. At stations where C. perfringens counts were elevated (i.e., stations other than the reference station), counts were generally higher in the top 1 cm and decreased down to 5 cm. In some cases, C. perfringens counts in the bottom 4 or 5 cm showed a trend of higher counts in 1993 than in 1992, suggesting bioturbation. We conclude that widespread sludge contamination of the benthic environment has persisted for at least 1 year after cessation of ocean sewage disposal at the 106-Mile Site.

Hill, R T; Straube, W L; Palmisano, A C; Gibson, S L; Colwell, R R

1996-01-01

6

SURFACE DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE (EPA/625/R-95/002)  

EPA Science Inventory

Sewage sludge and domestic septage may be applied to the land as a soil conditioner and partial fertilizer, incinerated, or placed on land (surface disposal). Placement refers to the act of putting sewage sludge on an active sewage sludge unit (land on which only sewage sludge is...

7

Preparing sewage sludge for land application or surface disposal: A guide for preparers of sewage sludge on the monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503  

SciTech Connect

The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general responsibilities. USEPA promulgated at 40 CFR Part 503 Phase 1 of the risk-based regulations that govern the final use or disposal of sewage sludge. The intent of the Federal program is to ensure that the use or disposal of sewage sludge occurs in a way that protects both human health and the environment. The Part 503 regulation establishes general requirements, pollutant limits, operational standards, and management practices, as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. These requirements apply to sewage sludge that is land applied, placed on a surface disposal site, or incinerated in a sewage sludge-only incinerator.

Not Available

1993-08-01

8

Supposed Sewage Disposal Lands Environmentally Aware Band in Trouble  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dave Matthews Band has delighted audiences around the world for the past 15 years with its Grateful Dead-inspired musical stylings, infused with a passion for vigorously supporting various environmental causes. According to a civil complaint filed this week by the Illinois Attorney General Lisa Madigan, the band's tour bus and its driver apparently shared a bit too much of the band several weeks ago as the bus passed over the Chicago River. The complaint, which was filed this week, states that on August 8, the Dave Matthews Band tour bus driver (Stefan A. Wohl) polluted the Chicago River by dumping liquid waste from the septic tank, effectively unleashing close to 800 pounds of human waste into the river as it passed over the Kinzie Street bridge. Additionally, a number of unsuspecting passengers riding on a vessel as part of a well-known architectural tour were sprayed with the raw sewage. While Chicago Police Superintendent Phil Cline says his department has videotape footage from nearby businesses showing the bus pass over the bridge at the time of the incident, the members of the Dave Matthews Band issued a statement this week noting "Our driver has stated that he was not involved in this incident".The first link leads to an article from this week's venerable Chicago Sun-Times that talks about the complaint filed by the Illinois Attorney General against the band and its tour bus driver. The second link leads to another news report from NBC5 in Chicago that talks about the evidence gathered by the Chicago Police Department that links the bus to the scene of the alleged illegal sewage disposal. The third link leads to a news article from April 2004 from the Virginian Pilot that discusses the many laudatory contributions the band has made to environmental causes through the group's charitable foundation, Bama Works. The fourth link will take visitors to the official press release issued August 24 by the Illinois Attorney General's Office that spells out the exact nature of the alleged sewage dump and its ramifications for public health and the Chicago River. On a somewhat related note, the fifth link leads to a rather interesting article from the Howstuffworks website that provides a detailed answer to the question of how a toilet functions in a commercial airliner. The sixth and final link whisks visitors away to the homepage of the Friends of the Chicago River organization, which works to create new recreational opportunities along the river and to share in the environmental stewardship of this waterway. Visitors may be keen to find out that the organization is opening a river museum at the Michigan Avenue Bridge Towers in 2006.

9

Guidance for Writing Permits for the Use or Disposal of Sewage Sludge, September 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document is structured for use as a textbook or reference manual by the permit writer. It presents the provisions in 40 CFR Part 503 relating to application of sewage sludge to the land, placement of sewage sludge on a surface disposal site, placement...

1994-01-01

10

NEAR-BOTTOM PELAGIC BACTERIA AT A DEEP-WATER SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. ixed cultures and bacterial...

11

25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project...171.420 Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? No. Sewage, trash, or other refuse are considered...

2010-04-01

12

25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project...171.420 Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? No. Sewage, trash, or other refuse are considered...

2009-04-01

13

An Integrated System for Disposal of Sludges Originating from Water Softening and Sewage Treatment in Municipalities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective was to explore the feasibility, both technically and economically, of developing an integrated system for the disposal of sludges originating from water softening and sewage treatment in municipalities. The proposed system consists of utiliz...

J. W. Moore

1971-01-01

14

Data-element dictionary 1988 sewage-sludge use and disposal: Questionnaire data base  

SciTech Connect

The National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS) is a questionnaire and analytical survey of Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) intended to produce national estimates of: (1) Concentrations of toxic contaminants in municipal sludge; (2) Sludge generation and treatment processes; (3) Sludge use and disposal practices and alternative use and disposal practices; and (4) Treatment and disposal costs. The survey will provide reliable, current data that can be used in the regulatory impact analysis (RIA) and aggregate risk analysis (ARA) to project impacts and benefits to support promulgation of the first round technical regulation for sewage sludge pollutants and use and disposal practices (40 CFR Part 503).

Not Available

1989-10-01

15

Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment and disposal of sewage sludges. Citations discuss sludge digestion, dewatering, disinfection, stabilization, chlorination, and desulfurization. Topics include pretreatment programs, land disposal, incineration, and waste utilization. Environmental monitoring and protection, federal regulations, and legal aspects are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-06-01

16

FUEL EFFICIENT INCINERATION FOR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, demonstrated that 34 to 70 percent of the fuel used for sewage sludge incineration could be saved. These savings were the result of study of how sewage sludge incineration in a multiple hearth incinerator works, adding instrumentation and contro...

17

Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment processes and disposal of sewage sludges. Topics include resource and energy recovery operations, land disposal, composting, ocean disposal, and incineration. Digestion, dewatering, and disinfection are among the pretreatment processes discussed. Environmental aspects, including the effects on soils, plants, and animals, are also presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-09-01

18

Guidance for writing permits for the use or disposal of sewage sludge. Draft report  

SciTech Connect

Section 405(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) directs the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop regulations containing guidelines for the use and disposal of sewage sludge. On February 19th, 1993, EPA published final regulations at 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 503 as the culmination of a major effort to develop technical standards in response to Section 405(d). These regulations govern three sewage sludge use and disposal practices: land application, surface disposal, and incineration. A key element in EPA's implementation of the Part 503 regulations is educating Agency and State personnel about these new requirements. Although the regulations are generally directly enforceable against all persons involved in the use and disposal of sewage sludge, they will also be implemented through permits issued to treatment works treating domestic sewage as defined in 40 CFR 122.22. Thus, the primary focus of the manual is to assist permit writers in incorporating the Part 503 requirements into permits; it serves as an update to the Guidance for Writing Case-by-Case Permit Conditions for Municipal Sewage Sludge (PB91-145508/HDM).

Not Available

1993-03-01

19

Near-bottom pelagic bacteria at a deep-water sewage sludge disposal site  

SciTech Connect

The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. Mixed cultures and bacterial isolates obtained from water overlying sediment core samples collected at the deep-water (2,500 m) municipal sewage disposal site were tested for the ability to grow under in situ conditions of temperature and pressure. The responses of cultures collected at a DWD-106 station heavily impacted by sewage sludge were compared with those of samples collected from a station at the same depth which was not contaminated by sewage sludge. Significant differences were observed in the ability of mixed bacterial cultures and isolates from the two sites to grow under deep-sea pressure and temperature conditions. The levels of sludge contamination were established by enumerating Clostridium perfringens, a sewage indicator bacterium, in sediment samples from the two sites. (Copyright (c) 1993, American Society for Microbiology.)

Takizawa, M.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.

1994-01-01

20

The capacitated distribution and waste disposal problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of the simultaneous design of a distribution network with plants and waste disposal units, and the coordination of product flows and waste flows within this network. The objective is to minimize the sum of fixed costs for opening plants and waste disposal units, and variable costs related to product and waste flows. The problem is complicated

Jacqueline M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard; Marc Salomon; Luk N. Van Wassenhove

1996-01-01

21

Class, race, and the disposal of urban waste: Locations of landfills, incinerators, and sewage treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the socioeconomic status, racial composition, and ethnic composition of 49 randomly selected U.S. cities with those of the census tracts containing the solid waste disposal facilities and sewage treatment plants for those cities. Contrary to the environmental racism and classism hypotheses, residents of tracts with landfills or incinerators had higher incomes and were less likely to be

William T. Markham; Eric Rufa

1997-01-01

22

Investigation of Oil-Transport-Medium Sewage Disposal System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was conducted investigating the applicability of an oil-transport-medium system for handling and disposing of human waste generated aboard Army watercraft. It was found that the system can effectively collect, transport, separate, and incinerate h...

D. C. Lindsten

1974-01-01

23

Survey of the home sewage disposal systems in northeast Ohio.  

PubMed

This article reports on failure rates in onsite sewage treatment systems (STS) that were found as part of a comprehensive seven-county survey that was performed under the auspices of the Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency (NOACA) during the summer of 2000. The goal was to determine the percentage of onsite, individual home wastewater systems that were "failing." A system was identified as "failing" if, upon inspection, it had observable surfacing of effluent from the treatment system. A certified soil scientist conducted each on-site investigation to ensure consistency in methodology and to provide verification of soil types for each installation. The survey revealed that between 12.7% and 19.7% of the onsite wastewater treatment systems are allowing wastewater to surface as opposed to infiltrate (at the 95% confidence interval). The rate of failure does not vary significantly between aerobic and septic systems or between systems with or without filters. PMID:19761004

Tumeo, Mark A; Newland, Juliet

2009-09-01

24

A comparative study of anaerobically digested and undigested sewage sludges in preparation of activated carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of sewage sludge is an increasingly expensive and environmentally sensitive problem throughout the world. Preparation of activated carbon from sewage sludge offers an attractive re-use alternative to the traditional disposal routes. The objective of this research work was to compare anaerobically digested sewage sludge (DS) and undigested sewage sludge (US) as source materials in the preparation of activated carbons.

J. H Tay; X. G Chen; S Jeyaseelan; N Graham

2001-01-01

25

Viral Tracer Studies Indicate Contamination of Marine Waters by Sewage Disposal Practices in Key Largo, Florida  

PubMed Central

Domestic wastewater disposal practices in the Florida Keys are primarily limited to on-site disposal systems such as septic tanks, injection wells, and illegal cesspits. Poorly treated sewage is thus released into the highly porous subsurface Key Largo limestone matrix. To investigate the fate and transport of sewage in the subsurface environment and the potential for contamination of marine surface waters, we employed bacteriophages as tracers in a domestic septic system and a simulated injection well in Key Largo, Florida. Transport of bacteriophage (Phi)HSIC-1 from the septic tank to adjacent surface canal waters and outstanding marine waters occurred in as little as 11 and 23 h, respectively. Transport of the Salmonella phage PRD1 from the simulated injection well to a canal adjacent to the injection site occurred in 11.2 h. Estimated rates of migration of viral tracers ranged from 0.57 to 24.2 m/h, over 500-fold greater than flow rates measured previously by subsurface flow meters in similar environments. These results suggest that current on-site disposal practices can lead to contamination of the subsurface and surface marine waters in the Keys.

Paul, J. H.; Rose, J. B.; Brown, J.; Shinn, E. A.; Miller, S.; Farrah, S. R.

1995-01-01

26

Challenge of urban sewage disposal in a karst region: Mérida, Yucátan, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four hydrogeologic factors influence urban sewage management on the northern Yucátan (Mexico) Peninsula: 1) lack of rivers capable of transporting and/or oxidizing sewage, 2) near-surface flat-lying, porous, permeable limestone and dolomite with shallow layers of variable permeability but without major subsurface aquitards, 3) rapid groundwater transmission, penetration of seawater inland beneath a fresh water lens, and a flat water table only a few meters below land surface and controlled by sea level, 4) near absence of soil cover. Mérida, Yucátan (population approaching one million, approximately the world's 450th most populous city) has no central sewage system. The water table beneath the city is consistently only 7-9 m below land surface, and the 40 m-thick fresh water lens, which is the sole source of municipal, industrial, and agricultural water, directly overlies a marine intrusion of modified seawater composition. The old city has an estimated 130,000 drains feeding untreated household waste directly into the permeable karst aquifer. Numerous storm drains send street runoff directly to the aquifer. In addition, industries, hotels, and some subdivisions have unmonitored injection wells that pump untreated wastewater into the underlying saline intrusion. Some injection wells have flow problems possibly because of low aquifer permeability within the saline intrusion. Deep injection is also problematic because density contrast with saline intrusion water can produce a gravity imbalance, and high sulfate water can react with organic waste to produce H2S. Some city water supply wells are reportedly affected by inflation of the water table beneath the city, by local upconing of saline water, and by nitrate contamination. Paradoxically, Mérida with an abundant, easily contaminated source of fresh water, lacks streams to transport sewage off-site, and thus shares some water supply/sewage treatment problems with cities in arid regions. Recently, compact, efficient systems that provide almost tertiary-level sewage treatment have been developed and installed in various localities worldwide. Fitting the old parts of Mérida with several such systems would be less disruptive than blasting a monolithic sewer network through the city's rocky base, and it would minimize the problem of pumping sewage in an almost completely flat-lying area. Appropriate reuse of water from such local treatment facilities would be more flexible than from a single central system. Furthermore, injecting water into the aquifer after secondary or tertiary treatment would be a huge improvement over pumping of untreated "aguas negras" into the saline intrusion. Finally, there is a renaissance of sorts in sewage treatment technology, and it would be much easier to upgrade a number of individual systems as they became obsolete than to replace a monolithic central system. Safe, effective operation and monitoring of the suggested of sewage system would be challenging. Yet, as more cities join those 500 world-wide that now have populations approaching or exceeding one million, use of streams to export pollution may become infeasible. Perhaps Mérida can become a model to demonstrate that people can safely process and reuse their own wastewater.

Perry, E. C.; Villasuso, M.

2013-05-01

27

Preparing Sewage Sludge for Land Application or Surface Disposal: A Guide for Preparers of Sewage Sludge on the Monitoring, Record Keeping, and Reporting Requirements of the Federal Standards for the Use of Disposal of Sewage Sludge, 40 CFR Part 503.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general resp...

1993-01-01

28

Experimental Study on the Treatment of low C/N ratio disposal of sewage with BAF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Biological Aerated Filter (BAF) is a simple, high-efficient, low-consumptive for new biological membrane method correspond to the situation of china, will be one of the main technical measures to solve the progressive deterioration of water environment problem faced china especially medium and small towns. This paper focuses on the experimental study and mechanism analysis in which the up flow, cocurrent gas-water, single-stage BAF was adopted on treatment domestic wastewater, the results showed that BAF has good performance in treating domestic sewage, and it had steady treatment effect with different pollution loads.

Wang, W. J.; Ma, T.; Cheng, W.

2010-03-01

29

Life cycle GHG emissions of sewage sludge treatment and disposal options in Tai Lake Watershed, China.  

PubMed

The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge generate considerable amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pose environmental and economic challenges to wastewater treatment in China. To achieve a more informed and sustainable sludge management, this study conducts a life cycle inventory to investigate the GHG performances of six scenarios involving various sludge treatment technologies and disposal strategies. These scenarios are landfilling (S1), mono-incineration (S2), co-incineration (S3), brick manufacturing (S4), cement manufacturing (S5), and fertilizer for urban greening (S6). In terms of GHG emissions, S2 demonstrates the best performance with its large offset from sludge incineration energy recovery, followed by S4 and S6, whereas S1 demonstrates the poorest performance primarily because of its large quantity of methane leaks. The scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. In most scenarios, GHG performance could be improved by using waste gas or steam from existing facilities for drying sludge. Furthermore, considering the GHG performance along with economic, health, and other concerns, S6 is recommended. We thus suggest that local governments promote the use of composted sludge as urban greening fertilizers. In addition, the use of sludge with 60% water content, in place of the current standard of 80%, in wastewater treatment plants is proposed to be the new standard for Tai Lake Watershed in China. PMID:23410857

Liu, Beibei; Wei, Qi; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun

2013-03-01

30

Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. January 1980-February 1992 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Feb 92  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment processes and disposal of sewage sludges. Topics include resource and energy recovery operations, land disposal, composting, ocean disposal, and incineration. Digestion, dewatering, and disinfection are among the pretreatment processes discussed. Environmental aspects, including the effects on soils, plants, and animals, are also presented. (Contains 181 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1992-02-01

31

Nutrient couplings between on-site sewage disposal systems, groundwaters, and nearshore surface waters of the Florida Keys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a one-year study to determine the effects of on-site sewage disposal systems (OSDS, septic tanks) on the nutrient\\u000a relations of limestone groundwaters and nearshore surface waters of the Florida Keys. Monitor wells were installed on canal\\u000a residences with OSDS and a control site in the Key Deer National Wildlife Refuge on Big Pine Key. Groundwater and surface\\u000a water

Brian E. Lapointe; Julie D. O'Connell; George S. Garrett

1999-01-01

32

Fate of individual sewage disposal system wastewater within regolith in mountainous terrain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve understanding of the fate of septic tank or individual sewage disposal system (ISDS) effluent in regolith overlying fractured-rock aquifers, effluent from an ISDS in such a setting was tracked via geophysical, hydrological, and geochemical methods. Under typical precipitation conditions, the effluent entered the fractured bedrock within 5 m of the boundary of the constructed infiltration area. During a period of unusually high spring recharge, the plume migrated between 50 and 100 m within the regolith before infiltrating the fractured bedrock. The chemical signature of the effluent is similar to that required to account for the decline in water quality, suggesting a causative relationship (as estimated from mass-balance models of the surface-water chemistry near the mouth of the basin). The elevated salt content of the effluent during periods of high natural recharge to the infiltration area correlates with elevated salt concentrations in surface and groundwater at the basin scale, suggesting that some of the effluent salt load may be stored in the unsaturated zone during dry periods and flushed during periods of elevated natural recharge.

Dano, Kathleen; Poeter, Eileen; Thyne, Geoff

2008-06-01

33

Evaluation of onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems in shallow karst terrain.  

PubMed

Two conventional onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems (OSTDSs) at Manatee Springs State Park, Florida, USA, were studied to assess their impact on groundwater quality in a shallow karst environment. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and fluorescein were used as tracers to establish connections between the drainfields and monitoring wells. Elevated nutrients were found in all wells where significant concentrations of both tracers were observed, with the mean of the highest nitrate (NO3) concentration observed at each well being 47.8+/-14.9 (n=11) mg/L NO3-N. The most elevated nutrient concentrations were found directly in the flow path of the effluent. Fecal coliform densities above 10 colony-forming units (cfu)/100 mL were observed in wells with the most rapid connection to the drainfield. The proximity and connectivity of the 0.4-4m thick sandy surficial soils and the underlying karst aquifer allow rapid contaminant transport and limit the ability of conventional OSTDSs to attenuate NO3. PMID:18329686

Harden, Harmon S; Roeder, Eberhard; Hooks, Mark; Chanton, Jeffrey P

2008-05-01

34

Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS.

NONE

1997-07-01

35

Land application of sewage sludge: A guide for land appliers on the requirements of the federal standards for the use or disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated a regulation at 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 503 to ensure that sewage sludge is used or disposed of in a way that protects human health and the environment. Part 503 imposes requirements for the land application, surface disposal, and incineration of sewage sludge. The manual focuses on land application, providing guidance to land appliers of sewage sludge. The purpose of the document is to provide the land applier with sufficient guidance to comply fully with all applicable Part 503 requirements. The guidance is structured to first provide a general understanding of the Rule and its underlying principles, including definitions of sewage sludge, land application, and an explanation of who under the Rule is considered a land applier.

NONE

1994-12-01

36

PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DISPOSAL OF PRE-AEA BYPRODUCT MATERIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current problems with disposal of legacy wastes from the Manhattan Engineer Dist rict, and concurrent problems with wastes of similar composition are discussed. Background is provided by tracing the evolution of regulatory authority over pre -Atomic Energy Act (AEA) byproduct materials. Processing wastes from the primary recovery of uranium or thorium are classified as 11e.(2) byproduct material under the AEA.

Philip V Egidi

2000-01-01

37

Pulverized fuel ash products solve the sewage sludge problems of the wastewater industry  

SciTech Connect

Sewage sludge recycling has become one of the predominant problems of the water industry. Not all types of sewage sludges are able to be recycled to farm land or into composting processes. Pulverized fuel ash is used as a major ingredient in a product called Rhenipal which is used to stabilize sewage sludge for recycling into a material for land reclamation, as a soil conditioner, as cover material for landfill and as a landfill engineering material. This article deals with the results achieved when applying rhenipal in a post-stabilization process to prepare landfill engineering material. The process is currently developed further and can be operated in a pre-stabilization mode, which will further improve the economical results shown for the post-stabilization method in this paper.

Dirk, G. [Rhenipal UK Ltd., Birkenhead (United Kingdom)] [Rhenipal UK Ltd., Birkenhead (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

38

Practical manual for determining settling rates of ocean-disposed sewage sludge. Technical memo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the manual is to describe a practical approach to the measurement of the size and settling velocity characteristics of sewage-sludge particles in seawater. Three measurement sequences are required for complete characterization, but each can be performed separately according to the goals or needs of the user. The first measurement sequence provides percent total solids and some size

D. A. Tennant; S. L. Walker; J. W. Lavelle; E. T. Baker

1987-01-01

39

Comparative study of the methods used for treatment and final disposal of sewage sludge in European countries.  

PubMed

Municipal wastewater treatment results to the production of large quantities of sewage sludge, which requires proper and environmentally accepted management before final disposal. In European Union, sludge management remains an open and challenging issue for the Member States as the relative European legislation is fragmentary and quite old, while the published data concerning sludge treatment and disposal in different European countries are often incomplete and inhomogeneous. The main objective of the current study was to outline the current situation and discuss future perspectives for sludge treatment and disposal in EU countries. According to the results, specific sludge production is differentiated significantly between European countries, ranging from 0.1 kg per population equivalent (p.e.) and year (Malta) to 30.8 kg per p.e. and year (Austria). More stringent legislations comparing to European Directive 86/278/EC have been adopted for sludge disposal in soil by several European countries, setting lower limit values for heavy metals as well as limit values for pathogens and organic micropollutants. A great variety of sludge treatment technologies are used in EU countries, while differences are observed between Member States. Anaerobic and aerobic digestion seems to be the most popular stabilization methods, applying in 24 and 20 countries, respectively. Mechanical sludge dewatering is preferred comparing to the use of drying beds, while thermal drying is mainly applied in EU-15 countries (old Member States) and especially in Germany, Italy, France and UK. Regarding sludge final disposal, sludge reuse (including direct agricultural application and composting) seems to be the predominant choice for sludge management in EU-15 (53% of produced sludge), following by incineration (21% of produced sludge). On the other hand, the most common disposal method in EU-12 countries (new Member States that joined EU after 2004) is still landfilling. Due to the obligations set by Directive 91/271/EC, a temporary increase of sludge amounts that are disposed in landfills is expected during the following years in EU-12 countries. Beside the above, sludge reuse in land and sludge incineration seem to be the main practices further adopted in EU-27 (all Member States) up to 2020. The reinforcement of these disposal practices will probably result to adoption of advanced sludge treatment technologies in order to achieve higher pathogens removal, odors control and removal of toxic compounds and ensure human health and environmental protection. PMID:22336390

Kelessidis, Alexandros; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

2012-06-01

40

Pretreatment technology for the beneficial biological reuse of municipal sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern municipal sewage waste treatment plants use conventional mechanical and biological processes to reclaim waste waters.\\u000a This process has the overall effect of converting a water pollution problem into a solid waste disposal problem (sludges).\\u000a The costs for conventional disposal of sewage sludges have risen dramatically because of increased environmental mandates,\\u000a which restrict their disposal, as well as a dwindling

Christopher J. Rivard; Nicholas J. Nagle

1996-01-01

41

Waste Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waste solids (dredge spoil, rubble, sewage sludge, and industrial sludge) are dumped at six major disposal sites in New York Bight. Amounts of waste solids discharged increased between 1968 and 1975 although the number of individual disposal operations de...

M. G. Gross

1976-01-01

42

Effects of leachate recirculation on biogas production from landfill co-disposal of municipal solid waste, sewage sludge and marine sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leachate recirculation is an emerging technology associated with the management of landfill. The impact of leachate recirculation on the co-disposal of three major wastes (municipal solid waste, sewage sludge and sediment dredgings) was investigated using a laboratory column study. Chemical parameters (pH, COD, ammoniacal-N, total-P) and gas production (total gas volume, production rates and concentrations of CH4 and CO2) were

G. Y. S. Chan; L. M. Chu; M. H. Wong

2002-01-01

43

National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS) (SAS Transport Version).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS) consists of two tapes: the Analytical Assessment of Sewage Sludge at Final Disposal and the 1988 Sewage Sludge Use and Disposal Questionnaire Survey. The Analytical Assessment tape contains data from samples collec...

C. White

1989-01-01

44

The Real World of Industrial Chemistry: The Use of Oxygen in the Treatment of Sewage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the events leading up to the establishment of oxygen (rather than air) as an important component in the second stage treatment of municipal wastewater in sewage-disposal plants. Advantages, problems, and costs of using oxygen are discussed. (CS)

Cook, Gerhard A.; And Others

1980-01-01

45

Subfertility Problems Leading to Disposal of Breeding Bulls  

PubMed Central

Subfertility problems are encountered frequently in the cattle and buffalo bulls commercially maintained for semen production in dairy farms and under field conditions for natural insemination. Reports are scarce on the incidence of subfertility in breeding bulls, especially in India. The objective of the present study was to assess the incidence of the male reproductive anomalies leading to disposal of bovine bulls at GADVASU dairy farm, Ludhiana, Punjab (India). Data on frequency of various subfertility and disposal pattern of bulls maintained at the dairy farm, GADVASU, were collected for 12 yrs (1999 to 2010) and compiled from different record registers. Percentage of bulls that produced freezable semen (out of reserved ones) was less in cattle (25.641%) as compared to that of buffalo (30.4%). Various subfertility traits like poor libido and unacceptable seminal profile were found to be the significant reasons (p<0.01) for culling of the breeding bulls. Inadequate sex drive and poor semen quality were the main contributing factors for bull disposal in cattle whereas poor semen freezability was most frequently observed in buffalo bulls. All the male reproductive traits were significantly different (p<0.05) for the periods of birth, except for semen volume, initial motility (IM), age at last semen collection (ALSC) and age at disposal. The ages at first and last semen collection as well as freezing (i.e. AFSC, ALSC and AFSF, ALSF, respectively) and age at disposal (AD) were higher in buffalo. The spermatological parameters and semen production period (SPP) were higher in cattle. The age at first semen donation and breeding period could be reduced by introducing the bulls to training at an early age. The results revealed an increasing trend in individual motility (IM) while semen volume, AFSC, AFSF, AD, FSPP, SPP, ALSC and ALSF showed a decreasing, however, not a definite trend, over the periods. The semen donation traits like, AFSF, of the cattle and buffalo bulls could be predicted from the AFSC, using prediction equation derived in the present study.

Khatun, Marzina; Kaur, Simarjeet; Kanchan; Mukhopadhyay, C. S.

2013-01-01

46

Characterization of Malaysian domestic sewage sludge for conversion into fuels for energy recovery plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge is one of the largest contributors of waste material in Malaysia, and it indirectly elevates local environmental problems. The use of this waste material as an alternative fuel can be an effective solution, as it not only contributes as an energy source but also solves environmental issues related to sewage sludge disposal. To support the development of a

A. H. Abbas; A. B. A. Ibrahim; M. F. M. Nor; M. S. Aris

2011-01-01

47

25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

2013-04-01

48

25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

2011-04-01

49

Effects of sewage and industrial effluent on the concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in water and sediments along Waterfalls stream and lower Mukuvisi River in Harare, Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal of sewage and industrial effluent is a problem confronting municipalities in most developing countries. A study was conducted to determine the effects of the disposal of sewage and industrial effluent into Mukuvisi River and Waterfalls stream, a tributary of Mukuvisi River in Harare, Zimbabwe. Water and sediment samples were collected over two seasons (October 2003 to November 2004).

J. Nyamangara; C. Bangira; T. Taruvinga; C. Masona; A. Nyemba; D. Ndlovu

2008-01-01

50

Sewage sludge combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current review paper, various issues related to the combustion of sewage sludge are discussed. After briefly explaining the formation and treatment of sewage sludge, current and future sludge production are discussed. Thereafter, the four sludge disposal methods which are currently used, i.e. recycling in agriculture, landfilling, dumping into sea and incineration, are examined, and the future trend presented

J. Werther; T. Ogada

1999-01-01

51

Sludge disposal problem converted into energy conservation advantage  

SciTech Connect

At the Abitibi-Price hardboard plant in Alpena, Michigan, sludge collected by dissolved air flotation (DAF) is dried and pelletized. The pellets are burned as supplemental fuel in combination with coal. This is expected to reduce the amount of coal used by about 15%. The system is not self-sustaining. The cost of equipment, labor, and chemicals for treatment balances off against the coal savings to make the new system break even. Elimination of a disposal problem and improvement of environmental conditions make the added investment worthwhile. The Btu content of the pelletized sludge is about 2/3 that of coal. The DAF equipment serves to remove biological solids from the water and prevent them from settling. In the DAF process, air is dissolved under pressure in the mixture of water and solids (the dead microbes). When this is released into a long trough, the air is expelled as tiny bubbles, which rise to the surface, carrying the suspended solids with them in a foamy mass. When the foam is skimmed, about 95% of the carcasses are captured. The collected solids go to a sludge dewatering machine, which squeezes off the water to create a relatively high (15-25%) solids content. The dewatered sludge is delivered to the dryer, where moisture content is reduced to about 7-8%, and the sludge is automatically pelletized (1/16 to 3/16 in diameter pellets). The pellets are delivered to a screw conveyor which transports them to the power house.

Not Available

1981-01-01

52

Waste paper and clinoptilolite as a bulking material with dewatered anaerobically stabilized primary sewage sludge (DASPSS) for compost production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental problems associated with sewage sludge disposal have prompted strict legislative actions over the past few years. At the same time, the upgrading and expansion of wastewater treatment plants have greatly increased the volume of sludge generated. The major limitation of land application of sewage sludge compost is the potential for high heavy metal content in relation to the metal

Antonis A Zorpas; Dimitris Arapoglou; Karlis Panagiotis

2003-01-01

53

The long-term and the short-term at a cropping municipal sewage sludge disposal facility  

SciTech Connect

The City of Raleigh, NC, chose land application of municipal sewage sludge as a means of reducing pollution to the Neuse River. The Neuse River Waste Water Treatment Plant (NRWWTP) is located in the Piedmont Province of North Carolina. The soils at the facility are derived largely from the Rolesville Granite. Sewage sludge is applied to over 640 acres of cropland, owned in fee or leased. In making the policy decision for use of the sludge land application method 20 or so years ago, the City had to evaluate the potential for heavy metal accumulation in the soils and plants as well as the potential for ground-water contamination from the nitrate-nitrogen. The city also had to make a policy decision about limiting the discharge of heavy metals to the sewer system. Study of data from monitoring wells demonstrate that well position is a key in determining whether or not nitrate-nitrogen contamination is detected. Data from a three-year study suggest that nitrate-nitrogen moves fairly rapidly t the water table, although significant buildup in nitrogen-nitrogen may take a number of years. Evidence exists suggesting that the time between application of sewage sludge and an increase of nitrate-nitrogen at the water table may be on the order of nine months to a year. It is apparent that in the case of municipal sewage sludge application one can anticipate some nitrate-nitrogen buildup and that the public policy on drinking water standards must recognize this fact.

Welby, C.W. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)

1994-03-01

54

Emission Characteristics of Granulated Fuel Produced from Sewage Sludge and Coal Slime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutralization of wastewater treatment residues is an issue for many countries. The European Union (EU) legal regulations have limited the use of the residues in agriculture and implemented a ban for their disposal. Therefore, urgent action should be taken to find solutions for the safe disposal of sewage sludge. The problem refers in particular to the new EU member

Ma?gorzata Wzorek; Micha? Kozio?; Waldemar ?cierski

2010-01-01

55

UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ASH (SSA) AS FINE AGGREGATE WITH LOCAL POZZOLANIC MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal of sewage sludge from waste water treatment presents highly complex problems to any municipality, due to increasingly stringent environment regulation and industrial growth that have markedly increased the disposal requirements the incineration only reduces the volume of the sludge and remaining the sludge ash. This study aims to investigate the effect of the substitution of cement and sand

S. R. Zeedan; Z. S. El Den-Houssien; A. M. Kandeel

56

MOVEMENT OF SELECTED METALS, ASBESTOS, AND CYANIDE IN SOIL: APPLICATIONS TO WASTE DISPOSAL PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents information on movement of selected hazardous substances in soil which can be applied to problems of selecting and operating land disposal sites for wastes containing arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, mercury, selen...

57

TYPES AND QUANTITIES OF LEFTOVER DRUGS ENTERING THE ENVIRONMENT VIA DISPOSAL TO SEWAGE - REVEALED BY CORONERS' RECORDS  

EPA Science Inventory

BACKGROUND: Pharmaceuticals designed for humans and animals often remain unused. Leftover and accumulated drugs represent suboptimal delivery of health care and environmentally unsound disposal, which can pose exposure risks for humans and wildlife. OBJECTIVES: A major unk...

58

Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91\\/271\\/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related

J. M. Soriano-Disla; S. Houot; M. Imhoff; N. Valentin; I. Gómez; J. Navarro-Pedreño

2009-01-01

59

Ridge station eases Florida's waste-disposal problems  

SciTech Connect

Two results of Florida's continuing population growth are (1) a critical need for electricity, and (2) a solid-waste disposal crisis. During a recent winter cold snap, electric demand in one service territory surged 25% over generating capacity and 10% over net system capability. Rolling blackouts ensued. At the same time, Florida's fragile wetlands environment is suffering from years of unfettered development. Groundwater sources are contaminated, landfill space is scarce, and illegal tire dumps blight the landscape. The recently constructed Ridge generating station in Polk County, Fla. is addressing both the state's electrical and environmental needs. Ridge, which entered commercial operation in May, burns a unique mix of urban woodwaste and scrap tires to provide 45 MW of critically needed electricity while keeping large quantities of solid waste out of landfills. When pipeline construction at an adjacent landfill is completed, the facility also will burn the methane gases produced when garbage decomposes.

Swanekamp, R.

1994-10-01

60

1988 NATIONAL SEWAGE SLUDGE SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Originally developed to support Phase I regulation for use or disposal of biosolids (sewage sludge). Data collected were used to estimate risks, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation. This is currently the only statistically designed surv...

61

The spatial variability of nitrogen and phosphorus concentration in a sand aquifer influenced by onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems: a case study on St. George Island, Florida.  

PubMed

Groundwater from a shallow freshwater lens on St. George Island, a barrier island located in the Panhandle of Florida, eventually discharges into Apalachicola Bay or the Gulf of Mexico. Nutrient concentrations in groundwaters were monitored downfield from three onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems (OSTDS) on the island. Estimates of natural groundwater nutrient concentrations were obtained from an adjacent uninhabited island. Silicate, which was significantly higher in the imported drinking water relative to the surficial aquifer on St. George Island (12.2+/-1.9 mg Si l(-1) and 2.9+/-0.2 mg Si l(-1), respectively), was used as a natural conservative tracer. Our observations showed that nitrogen concentrations were attenuated to a greater extent than that of phosphorus relative to the conservative tracer. At the current setback distance (23 m), both nitrogen and phosphate concentrations are still elevated above natural levels by as much as 2 and 7 times, respectively. Increasing the setback distance to 50 m and raising the drainfields 1 m above the ground surface could reduce nutrient levels to natural concentrations (1.1+/-0.1 mg N l(-1), 0.20+/-0.02 mg P l(-1)). PMID:11916049

Corbet, D Reide; Dillon, Kevin; Burnett, William; Schaefer, Geoff

2002-01-01

62

New PCB destruction processes ease contaminated transformer-oil-disposal problem for utilities  

SciTech Connect

Two approved incinerators and three approved chemical destruction processes as well as several demonstrations of burning transformer oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the technologies available for PCB disposal. Some are based on a Goodyear process which strips off chlorine atoms and leaves a harmless non-chlorinated biphenyl. No decision has been made on whether the cleaned oil is reusable. Summaries of each of the technologies indicate that PCB disposal is coming under control for contaminated liquids, although problems remain for PCB capacitors and other solids. 1 table. (DCK)

Smock, R.W.

1982-04-01

63

21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the building and immediate premises shall be disposed of in a safe and sanitary...

2013-04-01

64

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix A to...

2009-01-01

65

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix A to...

2010-07-01

66

Examination of eastern oil shale disposal problems - the Hope Creek field study  

SciTech Connect

A field-based study of problems associated with the disposal of processed Eastern oil shale was initiated in mid-1983 at a private research site in Montgomery County, Kentucky. The study (known as the Hope Creek Spent Oil Shale Disposal Project) is designed to provide information on the geotechnical, revegetation/reclamation, and leachate generation and composition characteristics of processed Kentucky oil shales. The study utilizes processed oil shale materials (retorted oil shale and reject raw oil shale fines) obtained from a pilot plant run of Kentucky oil shale using the travelling grate retort technology. Approximately 1000 tons of processed oil shale were returned to Kentucky for the purpose of the study. The study, composed of three components, is described. The effort to date has concentrated on site preparation and the construction and implementation of the field study research facilities. These endeavors are described and the project direction in the future years is defined.

Koppenaal, D.W.; Kruspe, R.R.; Robl, T.L.; Cisler, K.; Allen, D.L.

1985-02-01

67

Sewage Monitors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

1987-01-01

68

Sewage Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

1976-01-01

69

Scoping survey of perceived concerns, issues, and problems for near-surface disposal of FUSRAP waste  

SciTech Connect

This report is a scoping summary of concerns, issues, and perceived problems for near-surface disposal of radioactive waste, based on a survey of the current literature. Near-surface disposal means land burial in or within 15 to 20 m of the earth's surface. It includes shallow land burial (burial in trenches, typically about 6 m deep with a 2-m cap and cover) and some intermediate-depth land burial (e.g., trenches and cap similar to shallow land burial, but placed below 10 to 15 m of clean soil). Proposed solutions to anticipated problems also are discussed. The purpose of the report is to provide a better basis for identifying and evaluating the environmental impacts and related factors that must be analyzed and compared in assessing candidate near-surface disposal sites for FUSRAP waste. FUSRAP wastes are of diverse types, and their classification for regulatory purposes is not yet fixed. Most of it may be characterized as low-activity bulk solid waste, and is similar to mill tailings, but with somewhat lower average specific activity. It may also qualify as Class A segregated waste under the proposed 10 CFR 61 rules, but the parent radionuclides of concern in FUSRAP (primarily U-238 and Th-232) have longer half-lives than do the radionuclides of concern in most low-level waste. Most of the references reviewed deal with low-level waste or mill tailings, since there is as yet very little literature in the public domain on FUSRAP per se.

Robinson, J.E.; Gilbert, T.L.

1982-12-01

70

Salt enrichment of municipal sewage: New prevention approaches in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the

Baruch Weber; Yoram Avnimelech; Marcelo Juanico

1996-01-01

71

Land Application of Sewage Sludge Landfill Leachate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This investigation evaluated the feasibility of the 'living filter' concept as an alternative method of heavy metal leachate disposal to prevent contamination of groundwaters. Leachate collected from a simulated sewage sludge landfill was applied at rates...

W. R. Wright H. J. Brown

1982-01-01

72

Oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Federal regulations banning ocean dumping of sewage sludge coupled with stricter regulations on the disposal of sewage sludge in landfills have forced municipalities, especially those in the northeast United States, to consider alternate methods for disposal of this solid waste. Coincineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) and sludge has proven to be economically attractive for both Europe and Japan, but has not yet proven to be a viable sludge disposal technology in the United States because of a history of operational problems in existing facilities. The most prevalent problem in coincinerating MSW and a dewatered sewage sludge (15 to 25% solids) is incomplete sludge combustion. Incomplete sludge combustion is primarily a function of sludge particle size, occurring when the surface of the sludge particle dries and hardens, while the inner mass is unaffected. This phenomenon is commonly referred to in the industry as the {open_quotes}hamburger effect.{close_quotes} In an effort to promote technology development in this area, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. teamed with the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate a new process being developed for the disposal of a dewatered sewage sludge, {open_quotes}Oxygen-Enriched Coincineration of MSW and Sewage Sludge.{close_quotes} This report provides a comprehensive summary of the pilot demonstration test program for oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge. This report describes the pilot test facility, instrumentation, and methods of data collection and data analyses; describes how the tests were executed; and discusses the test results. Recommendations for the future development of this technology in the current marketplace are also provided.

none,

1994-01-01

73

Evaluation of the co-application of fly ash and sewage sludge on soil biological and biochemical quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of sewage sludge (SS) and fly ash (FA) is a multifaceted problem, which can affect environmental quality. FA has the potential to stabilize SS by reducing metal availability and making the SS suitable for application in the agricultural sector. An experiment was performed to evaluate soil biological quality changes with the combined amendment of SS and FA (fluidized bed

Reginald E. Masto; Kapil K. Sunar; Taniya Sengupta; Lal C. Ram; T. K. Rout; Vetrivel A. Selvi; Joshy George; Awadhesh K. Sinha

2011-01-01

74

Evaluation of the co-application of fly ash and sewage sludge on soil biological and biochemical quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of sewage sludge (SS) and fly ash (FA) is a multifaceted problem, which can affect environmental quality. FA has the potential to stabilize SS by reducing metal availability and making the SS suitable for application in the agricultural sector. An experiment was performed to evaluate soil biological quality changes with the combined amendment of SS and FA (fluidized bed

Reginald E. Masto; Kapil K. Sunar; Taniya Sengupta; Lal C. Ram; T. K. Rout; Vetrivel A. Selvi; Joshy George; Awadhesh K. Sinha

2012-01-01

75

Sewage Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

1984-01-01

76

Organic Contaminants from Sewage Sludge Applied to Agricultural Soils. False Alarm Regarding Possible Problems for Food Safety? (8 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background   Sewage sludge produced in wastewater treatment contains large amounts of organic matter and nutrients and could, therefore,\\u000a be suitable as fertiliser. However, with the sludge, besides heavy metals and pathogenic bacteria, a variety of organic contaminants\\u000a can be added to agricultural fields. Whether the organic contaminants from the sludge can have adverse effects on human health

Christian Grøn; Karin von Arnold

2007-01-01

77

Interactions of aquaculture and waste disposal in the coastal zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the world, the coastal zones of many countries are used increasingly for aquaculture in addition to other activities such as waste disposal. These activities can cause environmental problems and health problems where they overlap. The interaction between aquaculture and waste disposal, and their relationship with eutrophication are the subjects of this paper. Sewage discharge without adequate dispersion can lead to nutrient elevation and hence eutrophication which has clearly negative effects on aquaculture with the potential for toxic blooms. Blooms may be either toxic or anoxia-causing through the decay process or simply clog the gills of filter-feeding animals in some cases. With the development of aquaculture, especially intensive aquaculture, many environmental problems appeared, and have resulted in eutrophication in some areas. Eutrophication may destroy the health of whole ecosystem which is important for sustainable aquaculture. Sewage discharge may also cause serious public health problems. Filter-feeding shellfish growing in sewage-polluted waters accumulate micro-organims, including human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, and heavy metal ion, presenting a significant health risk. Some farmed animals may also accumulate heavy metals from sewage. Bivalves growing in areas affected by toxic algae blooms may accumulate toxins (such as PSP, DSP) which can be harmful to human beings.

Xuemei, Zhai; Hawkins, S. J.

2002-04-01

78

Problems in shallow land disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste in the united states  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Disposal of solid low-level wastes containing radionuclides by burial in shallow trenches was initiated during World War II at several sites as a method of protecting personnel from radiation and isolating the radionuclides from the hydrosphere and biosphere. Today, there are 11 principal shallow-land burial sites in the United States that contain a total of more than 1.4 million cubic meters of solid wastes contaminated with a wide variety of radionuclides. Criteria for burial sites have been few and generalized and have contained only minimal hydrogeologic considerations. Waste-management practices have included the burial of small quantities of long-lived radionuclides with large volumes of wastes contaminated with shorter-lived nuclides at the same site, thereby requiring an assurance of extremely long-time containment for the entire disposal site. Studies at 4 of the 11 sites have documented the migration of radionuclides. Other sites are being studied for evidence of containment failure. Conditions at the 4 sites are summarized. In each documented instance of containment failure, ground water has probably been the medium of transport. Migrating radionuclides that have been identified include90Sr,137Cs,106Ru,239Pu,125Sb,60Co, and3H. Shallow land burial of solid wastes containing radionuclides can be a viable practice only if a specific site satisfies adequate hydrogeologic criteria. Suggested hydrogeologic criteria and the types of hydrogeologic data necessary for an adequate evaluation of proposed burial sites are given. It is mandatory that a concomitant inventory and classification be made of the longevity, and the physical and chemical form of the waste nuclides to be buried, in order that the anticipated waste types can be matched to the containment capability of the proposed sites. Ongoing field investigations at existing sites will provide data needed to improve containment at these sites and help develop hydrogeologic criteria for new sites. These studies have necessitated the development of special drilling, sampling, well construction, and testing techniques. A recent development in borehole geophysical techniques is downhole spectral gammaray analysis which not only locates but identifies specific radionuclides in the subsurface. Field investigations are being supplemented by laboratory studies of the hydrochemistry of the transuranic elements, the kinetics of solid-liquid phase interactions, and the potential complexing of radionuclides with organic compounds and solvents which mobilize normally highly sorbable nuclides. Theoretical studies of digital predictive solute transport models are being implemented to assure their availability for application to problems and processes identified in the field and laboratory. ?? 1976 International Association of Engineering Geology.

Stevens, P. R.; Debuchananne, G. D.

1976-01-01

79

Salt Enrichment of Municipal Sewage: New Prevention Approaches in Israel  

PubMed

Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the most immediately available solution. The body of initiatives presently structured by the Ministry of the Environment of Israel are herein described, with the aim to contribute to the search for a long-term solution of salinity problems in arid countries. The new initiatives are based on: (1) search for new technologies to reduce salt consumption and discharge into sewage; (2) different technologies to cope with different situations; (3) raising the awareness of the public and industry on the environmental implications of salinity pollution; and (4) an elastic legal approach expressed through new state-of-the-art regulations. The main contributor to the salinity of sewage in Israel is the water-softening process followed by the meat koshering process. Some of the adopted technical solutions are: the discharge of the brine into the sea, the substitution of sodium by potassium salts in the ion-exchangers, the construction of centralized systems for the supply of soft water in industrial areas, the precipitation of Ca and Mg in the effluents from ion-exchangers and recycling of the NaCl solution, a reduction of the discharge of salts by the meat koshering process, and new membrane technology for salt recovery. PMID:8661617

Weber; Avnimelech; Juanico

1996-07-01

80

Salt enrichment of municipal sewage: New prevention approaches in Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the most immediately available solution. The body of initiatives presently structured by the Ministry of the Environment of Israel are herein described, with the aim to contribute to the search for a long-term solution of salinity problems in arid countries. The new initiatives are based on: (1) search for new technologies to reduce salt consumption and discharge into sewage; (2) different technologies to cope with different situations; (3) raising the awareness of the public and industry on the environmental implications of salinity pollution; and (4) an elastic legal approach expressed through new state-of-the-art regulations. The main contributor to the salinity of sewage in Israel is the watersoftening process followed by the meat koshering process. Some of the adopted technical solutions are: the discharge of the brine into the sea, the substitution of sodium by potassium salts in the ion-exchangers, the construction of centralized systems for the supply of soft water in industrial areas, the precipitation of Ca and Mg in the effluents from ion-exchangers and recycling of the NaCI solution, a reduction of the discharge of salts by the meat koshering process, and new membrane technology for salt recovery.

Weber, Baruch; Avnimelech, Yoram; Juanico, Marcelo

1996-07-01

81

Cogasification of sewage sludge in an updraft gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge is the residue produced by the domestic or industrial wastewaters treatment plants. According to the principles of sustainability, several restrictions have been imposed on the conventional methods currently adopted for its disposal. The consequent need to develop alternative processes for the use of sewage sludge for energy purposes such as gasification requires experimental tests in order to quantify

M. Seggiani; S. Vitolo; M. Puccini; A. Bellini

82

Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification.  

PubMed

Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures--gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation--are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes. PMID:17919896

Gross, Bodo; Eder, Christian; Grziwa, Peter; Horst, Juri; Kimmerle, Klaus

2008-01-01

83

Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification  

SciTech Connect

Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures - gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation - are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes.

Gross, Bodo [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany); Eder, Christian [CET, Christian Eder Technology, Eduard-Didion Strasse, D-66539 Neunkirchen (Germany); Grziwa, Peter [BISANZ Anlagenbau GmbH, Scheidter Strasse 2, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Horst, Juri [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany)], E-mail: horst@izes.de; Kimmerle, Klaus [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany)

2008-07-01

84

Treatment of sewage sludge with lime and zeolite in relation to its application to agricultural soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progressive implementation of Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91\\/271\\/EEC results in increasing quantities of sewage sludge requiring safe disposal. Due to high content of nutrients, the use of sewage sludge in agriculture is encouraged, but only in a way which prevents its harmful effects on soil, vegetation, animals and man. The risks associated with agricultural use of sewage sludge

J. Venglovský

85

Physical and chemical properties study of the activated carbon made from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation of activated carbon from sewage sludge is a promising way to produce a useful adsorbent for pollutants removal as well as to dispose of sewage sludge. The objective of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical properties of the activated carbon made from sewage sludge so as to give a basic understanding of its structure. The activated

Xiaoge Chen; S Jeyaseelan; N Graham

2002-01-01

86

IDENTIFYING COMPOUNDS DESPITE CHROMATOGRAPHY LIMITATIONS: ORGANOPHOSPHATES IN TREATED SEWAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Highly concentrated extracts of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents contain detectable levels of dozens of compounds resulting from human activities. Recent concern over use and disposal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPS) (1) has stimulated interest ...

87

CONTROL OF PATHOGENS AND VECTORS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document describes the federal requirements concerning pathogens in sewage sludge and septage destined for land application or surface disposal. t also provides guidance for meeting those requirements. he chapters of this document discuss why pathogen control is necessary, t...

88

Sewage Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

1991-01-01

89

Pretreatment and Ultimate Disposal of Wastewater Solids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Overview of sludge handling and disposal; Elemental analysis of wastewater sludges from 33 wastewater treatment plants in the United States; Stabilization of municipal sewage sludge by high lime dose; Thermal degradation of sludges; Thickening c...

A. Freiberger

1974-01-01

90

Environmental problems in the coastal and wetlands ecosystems of Virginia Beach, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many of the city of Virginia Beach's beach stabilization and sewage disposal problems are the result of an inadequate understanding of the physical and biological systems. Influenced by population and economic pressures, natural systems were artificially stabilized by engineering projects that had to be constantly maintained. These same pressures continue to prevail today in spite of a new environmental awareness; changes are occurring very slowly. Furthermore, the lack of adequate sewage disposal facilities and the continued urbanization of inappropriate areas are threatening Virginia Beach's attractiveness as a resort area.

Buzzanell, Peter J.; McGinty, Herbert K., III

1975-01-01

91

Emission characteristics of granulated fuel produced from sewage sludge and coal slime.  

PubMed

The neutralization of wastewater treatment residues is an issue for many countries. The European Union (EU) legal regulations have limited the use of the residues in agriculture and implemented a ban for their disposal. Therefore, urgent action should be taken to find solutions for the safe disposal of sewage sludge. The problem refers in particular to the new EU member countries, including Poland, where one can now observe an intensive development of sewage system networks and new sewage treatment plants. At the same time, these countries have few installations for thermal sewage sludge utilization (e.g., there is only one installation of that type in Poland). Simultaneously, there are many coal-fired mechanical stoker-fired boilers in some of these countries. This paper presents suggestions for the production of granulated fuel from sewage sludge and coal slime. Additionally, among others, lime was added to the fuel to decrease the sulfur compounds emission. Results are presented of research on fuel with two average grain diameters (approximately 15 and 35 mm). The fuel with such diameters is adapted to the requirements of the combustion process taking place in a stoker-fired boiler. The research was aimed at identifying the behavior of the burning fuel, with special attention paid to its emission properties (e.g., to the emissions of oxides of nitrogen [NO(x)], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and carbon monoxide [CO], among others). The concentration and emission values were compared with similar results obtained while burning hard coal. The combustion process was carried out in a laboratory stand where realization of the large-scale tests is possible. The laboratory stand used made simulation possible for a wide range of burning processes in mechanical stoker-fired boilers. PMID:21243903

Wzorek, Ma?gorzata; Kozio?, Micha?; Scierski, Waldemar

2010-12-01

92

Federal register, Volume 60, No. 234, Wednesday, December 6, 1995 proposed rules. Part 2. 40 CFR part 122, et al. National pollutant discharge elimination system permit application requirements for publicly owned treatment works and other treatment works treating domestic sewage; proposed rule  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency proposes to amend permit application requirements and application forms for publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and other treatment works treating domestic sewage (TWTDS). TWTDS include facilities that generate sewage sludge, provide commercial treatment of sewage sludge, manufacture a product derived from sewage sludge, or provide disposal of sewage sludge.

NONE

1995-12-06

93

[Effects of sulphur compounds on the volatile characteristics of heavy metals in fly ash from the MSW and sewage sludge co-combustion plant during the disposal process with higher temperature].  

PubMed

Fly ash sample was collected from a MSW co-combustion with sewage sludge plant and the volatilization of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn was investigated before and after the water washing of fly ash, meanwhile, the influence of adding different sulphur compounds (S, NaS, Na2 SO3, Na2 SO4) on the volatilization of heavy metals was studied. The results showed that the contents of Zn, Pb and Mn were high, the Ni content was low and the Cd content reached 29.4 mg x kg(1). The contents of Pb, Cu, Zn increased, while that of Cd reduced in the fly ash after water washing. TG-DTG curves of fly ash showed highest weight loss in ranges of 579-732 degrees C and 949-1 200 degrees C, with 690 degrees C and 1 154 degrees C as the inflection point temperatures. The volatilization of different heavy metals showed great difference in the volatilization rate, following the order of Pb > Cd > Zn > Cu, in which the volatilization rate of Pb was more than 80% and that of Cu was less than 30%. After water washing, the volatilization of different heavy metals showed great difference in the volatilization rate, with the order of Zn > Pb > Cd > Cu, in which the volatilization rate of Zn was more than 20%. With the pretreatment of adding Na2 SO3 and Na2 SO4, the evaporation rates of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd) were significantly decreased. After adding S, the evaporation rate of Zn was reduced, whereas the addition of Na2S reduced the evaporation rates of Cd and Zn. The evaporation rates of the four heavy metals were all reduced after adding Na2S in the washed fly ash. The evaporation rates of Cu and Zn were reduced with addition of S and Na2SO3 and the evaporation rate of Cd was reduced by adding the four sulfides. The results can provide a basis for the harmless disposal and maximized resource utilization and recycling of fly ash. PMID:23323436

Liu, Jing-Yong; Sun, Shui-Yu

2012-11-01

94

Subduction zones: Not relevant to present-day problems of waste disposal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

SUBDUCTION zones are considered to be sites of disposal for vast areas of the Earth's surface1, while new surface is generated simultaneously at rise crests2. Bostrom and Sherif3 suggest that the world's industrial and domestic waste be dumped into subduction zones at deep sea trenches to allow nature to complete the recycling process at geologically rapid rates of 5 to 10 cm/yr. They also point out that trenches are often sites of rapid rates of deposition and suggest that the dumped wastes would, speaking geologically, soon be buried. Francis4 suggests that canisters of toxic chemical and radioactive wastes could be dumped onto trench sediments and be expected to sink at rates of 20 m/yr, assuming that the mass of turbidites in the trench fill often spontaneously liquefies on shaking by earthquakes. The assumption is based on the supposed lack of evidence for deformed sediment in trenches. I will argue that the suggestion of Bostrom and Sherif3 is not useful for the next few dozen generations of human populations and will point out observational evidence to show that Francis's4 assumption is incorrectly founded. ?? 1972 Nature Publishing Group.

Silver, E. A.

1972-01-01

95

Duluth co-disposal: Lessons learned  

SciTech Connect

The Western Lake Superior Sanitary District (WLSSD) was formed to combat water pollution, not handle waste disposal. In 1971, the newly formed district hired an engineering firm to design a wastewater treatment facility, which resulted in the design of a 44 million gallon per day treatment plant in Duluth, home of about 70% of the districts residents. Sewage sludge from the wastewater process would be dried and burned in multiple hearth incinerators fired with No. 2 fuel oil. Design work was well underway when the 1973 oil embargo occurred, causing oil prices to quadruple, and oil or natural gas fuel to become non-existant for this type of usage. The engineers considered such fuels as coal, wood chips, and solid waste, and recommended solid waste in the form of refuse-derived fuel (RDF). The district obtained legislative authority in 1974 to control the solid waste stream in the area. All of this delayed design and construction of the sludge disposal portion of the project, but the rest of the treatment plant remained on schedule and was completed in 1978. The co-disposal portion was designed in 1975 and construction was essentially completed by November 1979. The total co-disposal project cost was about $20 million. This paper discusses special features of this system, operating problems, initial modifications, explosion hazards, and later modifications.

Law, I.J. (Consoer, Townsend and Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL (USA))

1988-10-01

96

Bacteriological hazards of disposable bedpan systems  

PubMed Central

A system using disposable papier maché bedpans and urinals in hospital has advantages of ease of handling for the nurse and cleanliness for the patient. Disposal of the bedpans and their contents is by destruction and flushing to waste. Some bacteriological hazards of this process in the Haigh Sluicemaster and J.M.L. Clinimatic machines are assessed, particularly the dispersal of the contents in spray and aerosol during opening, closing, and running the machines. Various safety devices were tested and some deficiencies are discussed. A major defect in the system is the need at present for a bedpan carrier or support which is not disposable and requires cleaning and disinfection. Minor problems include ordering and storing bulky items, possibly the texture of the bedpans themselves, and perhaps the effect of the bulk of paper discharged into the sewage system. At present the system seems unsuitable for use in infectious disease hospitals and has some deficiencies in use in general wards. The improvements suggested would greatly increase its acceptability which should then be completely re-assessed. To this end the examination of improved models using totally disposable bedpans is proceeding. Images

Gibson, G. L.

1973-01-01

97

Leachate tests with sewage sludge contaminated by radioactive cesium.  

PubMed

The sewer systems of eastern Japan have transported radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to wastewater treatment plants, where the radioisotopes have accumulated. To better understand the potential problems associated with the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills, leachate tests were conducted with radioactive incinerator ash, cement solidification incinerator ash, and dewatered sludge cake. Radioactivity was undetectable in the eluate from incinerator ash and dewatered sludge cake, but about 30% of the radioactivity initially in cement solidification incinerator ash appeared in the eluate during the leaching experiments. Moreover, modification of test conditions revealed that the presence of Ca(2+) ions and strong alkali in the water that contacted the incinerator ash enhanced leaching of cesium. Lastly, the capacity of pit soil to absorb radioactive cesium was estimated to be at least 3.0 Bq/g (dry). PMID:23947711

Tsushima, Ikuo; Ogoshi, Masashi; Harada, Ichiro

2013-01-01

98

Archaeology and public perception of a trans-scientific problem; disposal of toxic wastes in the unsaturated zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Predicting the effects of toxic-waste disposal on the environment over periods of millenia to hundreds of millenia is a transscientific problem; that is, one not fully addressed by quantitative scientific and engineering endeavors. Archaeology is a pertinent adjunct to such predictions in several ways. First, and foremost, archaeological records demonstrate that delicate, as well as durable, objects buried in thick unsaturated zones of arid and semiarid environments may survive intact for millenia to tens of millenia. This successful preservation of Late Paleolithic to Iron Age artifacts provides independent support for the tentative favorable conclusions of earth scientists regarding the general utility of thick unsaturated zones for toxic-waste isolation. By analogy with the archaeological record, solidified toxic wastes of low solubility that are buried in arid unsaturated zones should remain isolated from the environment indefinitely; modern man presumably should be able to improve upon the techniques used by his ancestors to isolate and preserve their sacred and utilitarian objects. Second, archaeological evidence pertinent to the fate of objects buried in unsaturated zones-although qualitative in nature and subject to the limitations of arguments by analogy-is meaningful to the public and to the courts who, with some scientists and engineers, are reluctant to rely exclusively on computer-generated predictions of the effects of buried toxic wastes on the environment. Third, the archaeological record issues a warning that our descendants may intrude into our waste disposal sites and that we must therefore take special measures to minimize such entry and, if it occurs, to warn of the dangers by a variety of symbols. And fourth, archaeology provides a record of durable natural and manmade materials that may prove to be suitable for encapsulation of our wastes and from which we can construct warning markers that will last for millenia. For these four reasons, archaeologists must join with earth scientists, and other scientists and engineers, in addressing the likely fate of solidfied toxic wastes buried in the thick (200-600 m) unsaturated zones of arid and semiarid regions. Indeed, the input of archaeology might be crucial to public acceptance of even the most carefully chosen and technically sound waste repository.

Winograd, Isaac Judah

1986-01-01

99

[Environmental impacts of sewage treatment system based on emergy analysis].  

PubMed

"Integrated sewage treatment system" (ISTS) consists of sewage treatment plant system and their products (treated water and dewatered sludge) disposal facilities, which gives a holistic view of the whole sewage treatment process. During its construction and operation, ISTS has two main impacts on the environment, i.e., the consumption of resources and the damage of discharged pollutants on the environment, while the latter was usually ignored by the previous researchers when they assessed the impacts of wastewater treatment system. In order to more comprehensively understanding the impacts of sewage treatment on the environment, an analysis was made on the ISTS based on the theories of emergy analysis, and, in combining with ecological footprint theory, the sustainability of the ISTS was also analyzed. The results showed that the emergy of the impacts of water pollutants on the environment was far larger than that of the impacts of air pollutants, and NH3-N was the main responsible cause. The emergy consumption of ISTS mainly came from the emergy of wastewater and of local renewable resources. The "sewage treatment plant system + landfill system" had the highest emergy utilization efficiency, while the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + incineration system" had the lowest one. From the aspect of environmental sustainability, the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + landfill system" was the best ISTS, while the "sewage treatment plant system + incineration system" was the worst one. PMID:23705396

Li, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Min; Deng, Shi-Huai

2013-02-01

100

Subchronic toxicity evaluation of a treated urban sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Disposal of tons of sludge produced daily by sewage treatment plants in large cities is a serious problem. Because recycling and application in agriculture have been proposed, the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA, 2006) issued a legal norm that regulates the use of the sewage sludge (SS) in crops. Due to the complex chemical nature of such products, characterization by analytical methods for health and environmental risk assessment has severe limitations. To overcome such limitations, it is necessary to (1) assess the toxicological potential of SS and (2) identify possible adverse effects in vivo in order to provide critical information for future environmental regulations. The present study was conducted to determine the potential toxicity of SS obtained from a representative urban treatment plant located in the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Male and female Wistar rats were fed ad libitum a pelleted diet containing varying amounts of SS. No relevant clinical, hematological, urinary, or gross organ morphological alterations were observed in both genders of rats orally exposed to SS at up to 3.8 g/kg/d for 90 d. Sewage slude produced increased incidence of centrilobular hepatocyte hyperplasia at the high dose and significantly increased aspartate aminotransferease (AST) activities at all doses in both genders. Although the present data indicate some liver involvement, these alterations were considered adaptative and not toxicologically relevant, as the responses were relatively mild, not dose dependent, and no other parameters were markedly affected. The present results may contribute to the establishment of protocols for potential usage in SS agricultural soil application. PMID:20563925

Francisco Lozano Luvizutto, João; de Lourdes Marzo Solano, Marize; Passareli, Daniele; Adriene da Silva Franchi, Carla; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela; Lauro Viana de Camargo, João

2010-01-01

101

COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS AND EMISSION OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS IN COMMERCIAL FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTORS FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the disposal of sewage sludge in ocean has been prohibited recently according to London Dumping Convention, technological need for treating sewage sludge safely and efficiently are getting increased in Korea. FBC (Fluidized Bed Combustor) technology has been selected and utilized as one of the alternatives because of combustible content in sludge, on-going process development to maintain the best combustion

Ha-Na Jang; Seong-Bum Park; Jeong-Hun Kim; Yong-Chil Seo

2011-01-01

102

Sewage treatment costs and economics. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the costs and economics for developing technologies and the systems for sewage treatment, sludge disposal, and sewer lines. Most of the studies cover the overall construction and operating costs of sewage treatment plants. Other studies cover rate structures, financing, user charges, and benefits of regionalized plants. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-09-01

103

Heavy metals in sludge from the sewage treatment plant of Rio de Janeiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The final disposal of sewage sludge on soils as a compost for agriculture increases heavy metal contamination in soils. This demands controlled use to avoid hazardous situations. This work measures the heavy metals content in sludge and its potential as a fertilizer in agriculture. Samples were collected from the Penha urban sewage plant, the largest in Rio de Janeiro. Heavy

Tomaz Langenbach; Wolfgang Pfeifer; Luiz Rodrigues Freire; Michele Sarpa; Sueli Paim

1994-01-01

104

Sewage sludge additive  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (inventors)

1980-01-01

105

National Sewage-Sludge Survey facility analytical results. Volume 1-4  

SciTech Connect

The National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS) is a questionnaire and analytical survey of Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) intended to produce national estimates of: (1) Concentrations of toxic contaminants in municipal sludge; (2) Sludge generation and treatment processes; (3) Sludge use and disposal practices and alternative use and disposal practices; and (4) Treatment and disposal costs. The survey will provide reliable, current data that can be used in the regulatory impact analysis (RIA) and aggregate risk analysis (ARA) to project impacts and benefits to support promulgation of the first round technical regulation for sewage sludge pollutants and use and disposal practices (40 CFR Part 503).

Not Available

1989-10-01

106

SEWAGE SLUDGE ENTRENCHMENT SYSTEM FOR USE BY SMALL MUNICIPALITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A method of disposing of dewatered sewage sludge by entrenching it into soil was developed for small communities. Readily available and relatively inexpensive equipment was used. Included were a tractor equipped with a loader and backhoe, and dump truck or concrete mixer truck. A...

107

Is There Sewage in My Sample?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students investigate the relationship between sediment sampling and ocean pollution as they discover how scientists collect and study sediment on the bottom of the ocean. They will also find out if the sediment sampling methods used by scientists can be used to detect pollution. They will learn about the proximity of the Hudson Shelf Valley and the Hudson Canyon to the New York City metropolitan region, one of the most populated areas in the United States; and will learn that formerly two dumpsites in the Hudson Shelf Valley and Hudson Canyon were used to dispose of sewage sludge. Students will also learn how scientists collect and use core samples to study seafloor sediments and what are some of the impacts of dumping sewage in the ocean.

108

Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Sewage Sludge by Gamma Irradiation with Pasteurization as a Tool for Hygienization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research work, management of sewage sludge disposal on agricultural soils is addressed. The increasing amount of sewage sludge and more legislative regulation of its disposal have stimulated the need for developing new technologies to recycle sewage sludge efficiently. The research was structured along two main avenues, namely, the efficacy of the irradiation process for removing enteric pathogenic microorganisms and the potential of irradiated sludge as a soil amendment. This study investigated how application of irradiation with heat treatment reduced pathogens in sewage sludge. Raw and pasteurised Sewage sludge was treated at different dose treatment of 1.5, 3 and 5 kilogray (kGy) gamma irradiation individually and for 3 kGy sufficiency was achieved. Decrease in irradiation dose from 5 to 3 kGy was observed for pasteurised sludge resulting in saving of radiation energy. The presence of heavy metals in untreated sewage sludge has raised concerns, which decreases after irradiation.

Priyadarshini, J.; Roy, P. K.; Mazumdar, A.

2014-05-01

109

Collection, Underwater Storage and Disposal of Pleasurecraft Waste. Feasibility of Connecting Sewage Holding Tanks on Board Recreational Watercraft to a Dockside Collection System and Storage in an Underwater Tank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot plant was designed, constructed and operated to show the feasibility of providing a facility for the collection, storage and disposal of waste from recreational watercraft. An on-board holding tank was installed in each of ten boats for total impo...

1969-01-01

110

Partial oxidation of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for the partial oxidation of sewage sludge. It comprises: shearing without heating a concentrated aqueous slurry of sewage sludge obtained from sewage.; dewatering the sheared pumpable aqueous slurry of sewage sludge from (1) to a solids content in the rage of about 25 to 50 wt. %; mixing the pumpable sheared aqueous slurry of sewage sludge with a supplemental solid fuel and reacting the pumpable aqueous sewage sludge-coal and/or petroleum coke slurry in the reaction zone of a partial oxidation gas generator at a temperature in the range of about 1800{degrees} F. to 2800{degrees} F.

McMahon, M.A.; Suggitt, R.M.; McKeon, R.J.; Brent, A.

1990-06-12

111

Simulation of co-incineration of sewage sludge with municipal solid waste in a grate furnace incinerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incineration is one of the most important methods in the resource recovery disposal of sewage sludge. The combustion characteristics of sewage sludge and an increasing number of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants provide the possibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was used to verify the feasibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW, and

Hai Lin; Xiaoqian Ma

112

Preference of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae , for plants grown in sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since passage of the Clean Water Act in the 1970s, disposal of the millions of tonnes of sewage sludge generated annually has become a major concern of municipalities throughout the United States. With the range of other disposal options having narrowed in recent years, application of sludge to land is increasingly viewed as a practical and economical means to recycle

Thomas W. Culliney; David Pimentel

1987-01-01

113

Impact of Lead and Sewage Sludge on Soil Microbial Biomass and Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge disposal on arable land is viewed as a method to reduce waste accumulation and to enrich soil fertility. However, such disposal can degrade soil ecosystems due to the presence of potentially harmful substances, such as heavy metals. Pb has assumed greater significance because currently its dispersal through anthropogenic activities has exceeded the inputs from natural sources by about

G. H. Dar

1997-01-01

114

Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related to their high water content. One way to overcome these problems, in a cheap and clean way, is the drying of sludges using the energy of the sun under greenhouse conditions. This drying may affect sludge chemical characteristics including organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, parameters which have to be controlled for the proper management of dry sludge application onto soils. For this reason, the main aim of this work was to study the impact of greenhouse drying of different sewage sludges on their organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, assessed by biochemical fractionation and mineralization assays. Three sewage sludges were sampled before (dehydrated sludges) and after greenhouse drying (dried sludges). The analyses consisted of: humidity, organic matter, mineral and organic N contents, N and C mineralization during 91-day laboratory incubations in controlled conditions, and biochemical fractionation using the Van Soest procedure. Greenhouse drying decreased the water content from 70-80% to 10% and also the odours, both of which will improve the management of the final product from the perspective of application and transport. We also found that drying reduced the organic matter content of the sludges but not the biodegradability of the remaining carbon. Organic N mineralization occurred during greenhouse drying, explaining why mineral N content tended to increase and the potential mineralization of organic nitrogen decreased after greenhouse drying. The biochemical stability did not change so much except for the one of the sludges, which experienced an important reduction. According to the results, and from a point of view of future soil applications, the balance of the drying process could be considered as positive. It is using a free, renewable and clean energy, which reduces the water content and odours of sludge, thereby improving their management. Except for the water content, there was little modification of the behaviour in soil of greenhouse dried sludges compared to the dehydrated sludges, maintaining its large amount of available nitrogen after drying. Acknowledgements: Jose. M. Soriano-Disla gratefully acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Culture for a research fellowship (AP2005-0320).

Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Houot, S.; Imhoff, M.; Valentin, N.; Gómez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.

2009-04-01

115

Phosphate retention by soil in relation to waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal of large amounts of domestic sewage water and liquid manure, both containing dissolved phosphates, is often problematic. Discharge of these into (shallow and standing) surface waters is highly undesirable, as phosphate is considered to be one of the prime causes of eutrophication. If, on the other hand, these materials are disposed of onto land, losses of P from

J. Beek

1979-01-01

116

Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development of a project involving the application of approximately 265,000 cubic meters of lagooned sewage sludge from a metropolitan area on privately-owned farm land in an adjacent, rural county. The sludge application project was initiated to enable use of the land occupied by the lagoons for expansion of the sewage treatment plant. The procedures developed will be valuable to those proposing to practice land disposal of stabilized sludge as part of the Nation`s resource conservation program.

Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

1995-06-01

117

Amelioration of groundwater nitrate contamination following installation of a central sewage system in two Israeli villages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study traces both the long-term deterioration of the ground water supply in two neighboring villages that had relied upon cesspits/cesspools for waste disposal, as well as the subsequent progressive improvement to original water quality levels. The rapid improvement is attributed to the replacement of the cesspits by a central sewage disposal network. In each of the villages of Kefar Bara and Kefar Kassem, a single, relatively deep, community well supplies drinking water. These wells were drilled into the underlying carbonate Judea Group aquifer that initially provided very high quality potable water. Over time, large increases in the nitrate contamination, reaching to as high as 67 mg/L nitrate, paralleled the population growth. The higher dissolved nitrate concentrations were also marked by enrichments in the ?15 N (approximately +8 ‰(air)) values above those of the surrounding and regional uncontaminated background ?15 N values (in the range of +3 to +6 ‰ (air)). Within several years after the cesspit disposal was terminated the nitrate values declined to concentrations that were reported (approximately 25 mg/L-NO3) decades prior, when the water quality monitoring had just commenced. This study demonstrates not only how water quality can degrade but also how it can be restored once the problem is identified and countered. This simple method of ameliorating a water quality problem that was tending towards reaching serious proportions would seem to be quite efficacious for any area lacking economic alternative water resources.

Avisar, Dror; Kronfeld, Joel; Siep Talma, A.

2009-08-01

118

Sewage Facilities Construction 1969.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The annual report of 'Sewage Facilities Construction 1969' is published as one part of the basic data program required and authorized in Public Law 680. The data published in the report provide a continuing and ready source of information and reference as...

K. H. Jenkins J. L. Lewis T. Pandolfi

1974-01-01

119

PHOSPHORUS RECOVERY FROM SEWAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Phosphorus is a growth limiting nutrient that is mined from rock ore, refined, used in fertilizers, and discharged to the environment through municipal sewage. The impacts of phosphorus discharge include severe eutrophication of fresh water bodies. The future sustainable use of...

120

TRANSPORT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This project was initiated with the overall objective of developing organized information pertaining to the costs of various sewage sludge transport systems. Transport of liquid and dewatered sludge by truck and rail and liquid sludge by barge and pipeline is included. The report...

121

Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

122

Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility.

Silva, M.K.

1996-08-01

123

Sewage treatment costs and economics. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the costs and economics for developing technologies and the systems for sewage treatment, sludge disposal, and sewer lines. Most of the studies cover the overall construction and operating costs of sewage treatment plants. Other studies cover rate structures, financing, user charges, and benefits of regionalized plants.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

124

Rheological measurements on different types of sewage sludge for pumping design.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge pumping could represent an optimal solution to assure adequate treatment of sludge in centralized plants, with a consequent reduction of the environmental impact of sludge disposal (volume, odour, putrescence), because small wastewater treatment plants usually do not provide an adequate treatment due to high costs. An accurate knowledge of rheological parameters is required to compute head loss for pipeline design, but only few data are available. In order to circumvent the problem of the scarcity of sludge rheological data, we have performed tests on different types of sludge, with solids concentration and temperature in the typical range of a conventional wastewater treatment plant. Bingham rheological parameters and sludge thixotropy values have been processed by regression analysis to identify their dependence on solids concentration or temperature. The results of this study allow the definition of guidelines and optimal strategies for designers in order to reduce pumping costs. PMID:24681323

Lotito, Vincenzo; Lotito, Adriana Maria

2014-05-01

125

CFD based combustion model for sewage sludge gasification in a fluidized bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification is one potential way to use sewage sludge as renewable energy and solve the environmental problems caused by\\u000a the huge amount of sewage sludge. In this paper, a three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model has been developed\\u000a to simulate the sewage sludge gasification process in a fluidized bed. The model describes the complex physical and chemical\\u000a phenomena in the

Yiqun Wang; Lifeng Yan

2009-01-01

126

Bulk Transport of Waste Slurries to Inland and Ocean Disposal Sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the summary report of a three volume study principally concerned with the development of regional land and ocean pipeline disposal systems for digested sewage sludge and maintenance dredgings.

E. J. Wasp T. L. Thompson P. E. Snoek J. P. Kenny J. C. Carney

1969-01-01

127

Bioconversion: A New Technology for Waste and Sludge Disposal. Workshop Proceedings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anaerobic digestion of biomass offers a solution to the disposal of sewage sludge, municipal wastes, and other organic materials (agricultural and industrial residue, as well as terrestrial and marine energy crops) and produces a methane-rich gas. These p...

C. Brooks

1986-01-01

128

Sludge Production and Disposal for Small, Cold Climate Bio-Treatment Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A sludge disposal process consisting of modified sand drying beds in combination with the freeze-thaw technique utilizing natural refrigeration was evaluated. The purpose of freeze-thawing of sewage sludge is principally to condition the sludge such that ...

T. Tilsworth

1972-01-01

129

Retrofitting for Co-combustion of MSW and sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have demonstrated in a pilot-scale test a new technology for co-combusting sewage sludge with MSW in existing WTE combustors. The technology offers municipalities a cost-competitive alternative to land disposal and ocean-dumping of sludge. The key to the new technology is the selective enrichment of the combustion air with oxygen. Oxygen-enrichment enables the combustion of a higher ratio of sludge

D. M. DeVincentis; D. P. Bucci; S. P. Goff; G. H. Shahani

2009-01-01

130

Sewage sludge treatment system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

1976-01-01

131

Disposable polymer \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent development of an innovative disposable polymer smart lab-on-a-chip, which includes smart passive microfluidics, embedded on-chip power sources, and integrated biosensor array, has opened a new era for the point-of-care testing in clinical diagnostics. Several challenging issues in the development of the disposable polymer smart lab-on-a-chip have been explored and addressed in this work. A new disposable polymer \\

Chong H. Ahn

2005-01-01

132

Process for utilizing a pumpable fuel from highly dewatered sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for disposing of sewage sludge comprising: (1) dewatering an aqueous slurry of sewage sludge having a solids content of at least about 3 wt. % to produce an aqueous slurry of sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 5 to 20 wt. %; (2) pressing and/or centrifuging the dewatered slurry of sewage sludge from (1) to produce amorphous sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 28 to 50 wt. %; (3) heating the amorphous sewage sludge from (2) in a closed pressure vessel at a temperature in the range of about 150 F to 510 F in the absence of air for a period in the range of about 3 seconds to 60 minutes and shearing the sewage sludge by a rotor/mixer operating at a speed in the range of about 15 to 100 rpm, thereby producing a pumpable slurry of sewage sludge having a viscosity in the range of about 400 to 1,500 centipoise when a measured at 200 F and a higher heating value in the range of about 5,000 to 9,500 Btu/lb, dry basis; and (4) burning said pumpable slurry from (3) in a partial oxidation gasifier, furnace, boiler, or incinerator to produce an effluent gas stream.

Khan, M.R.

1993-08-10

133

Application of magnetically modified sewage sludge ash (SSA) in ionic dye adsorption.  

PubMed

Incineration is a traditional method of treating sewage sludge and the disposal of derived ash is a problem of secondary waste treatment. In this study, sewage sludge ash (SSA) was coated with ferrite through a ferrite process and then used as an adsorbent for ionic dyes (methylene blue [MB] and Procion Red MX-5B [PR]). The modified SSA possessed surface potential that provided electrostatic attraction toward MB and PR. Adsorbent FA10 (named on the basis of being produced from 10 g of SSA in the ferrite process) was used for the adsorption of MB. Ideal pH for adsorption was 9.0 and maximum adsorption capacity based on Langmuir isotherm equation was 22.03 mg/g. Adsorbent FA2.5 (named on the basis of being produced from 2.5 g of SSA in the ferrite process) was used for PR adsorption. Ideal pH for adsorption was 3.0 and the maximum adsorption capacity (calculated as above) was 28.82 mg/g. Kinetic results reveal that both MB and PR adsorption fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model better than the pseudo-first-order model. The values of activation energy calculated from rate constants were 61.71 and 9.07 kJ/mol for MB and PR, respectively. PMID:24654383

Hu, Shao-Hua; Hu, Shen-Chih

2014-02-01

134

Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220sp°C) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This shows the fundamental importance of rapid processing. Rapid thermal conditioning may be incorporated into a wastewater treatment plant where biological treatment is used. For purposes of a concrete example, flow-sheets for the incorporation of the RTC process into the New York City Wards Island WPCP were prepared, and experimental data from the laboratory scale RTC test facility were used to set design parameters. A design incorporating nitrogen removal into the RTC flow sheet was also examined. ASPEN software was used to design the proposed processes and perform economic analyses. Cost estimates for these alternatives show a substantial advantage to implement RTC in comparison to present plant operation. About one third of the current sludge processing cost can be saved by incorporation of RTC into the Wards Island Plant. With nitrogen removal, the economics are even more attractive.

Zheng, Jianhong

135

Long-term changes in sewage sludge stored in a reed bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of the utilization and management of sewage sludge originating from small wastewater treatment plants is still unsolved. A common approach is to store the sludge in plots which in time turn into grassland. This investigation was aimed at evaluating the influence of the storage time in plots on the chemical properties of sewage sludge deposited there. Tests were

Janusz Pempkowiak; Hanna Obarska-Pempkowiak

2002-01-01

136

In-line Pretreatment of Sewage Through a New Green and Economical Technique: the DRAUSY Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The quality of sewage has a large impact on the operation of treatment plants. In general most sewage pipelines tend to develop anaerobic conditions at some stage. These are associated with a large number of problems. They favour the growth of filamentous bacteria, which easily clog filters in treatment plants. It is also conducive to hydrogen sulfide (H2S)

Grace F. Tjandraatmadja; L. Stewart Burn; CSIRO BCE

137

Organic chemicals in sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludges are residues resulting from the treatment of wastewater released from various sources including homes, industries, medical facilities, street runoff and businesses. Sewage sludges contain nutrients and organic matter that can provide soil benefits and are widely used as soil amendments. They also, however, contain contaminants including metals, pathogens, and organic pollutants. Although current regulations require pathogen reduction and

Ellen Z. Harrison; Summer Rayne Oakes; Matthew Hysell; Anthony Hay

2006-01-01

138

Sewage treatment works odour measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public concern over odours from sewage treatment works is increasing. More people are being exposed to odours, due to development around existing works or the construction of new works. Raised awareness of both the environment and individual rights has meant people are now more likely to complain. Odour abatement and control is a major issue for sewage works operators. To

P. Gostelow; S. A. Parsons

139

Reductive hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The United States and the European Union each generate around 6900 million dry tons of sewage sludge annually. This is disposed of by land application, landfilling, incineration and other approaches. Reductive hydrothermal (HT) treatment refers here to simple aqueous systems heated and pressurized above 300 degrees C/100 bar under anoxic and/or reducing conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the HT treatment of municipal sewage sludge and infectious fecal microbial cultures with respect to waste volume reduction, biological sterilization, and the generation of usable hydrocarbon product mixtures. These endpoints from HT treatment also were compared to those from pyrolysis. HT at 400 degrees C/150 bar transformed sewage sludge solids into complex gas phase (4%) and liquid (6%) hydrocarbon mixtures (approximately 11% combined yield), along with similar amounts (5%) of solid residues. HT products in the aqueous phase (e.g., alcohols) were present but not analysed. Viable mixed fecal cultures (10(9) colony forming units/mL) were completely sterilized by HT treatment, and a hydrocarbon mixture also was generated from the cells, but it was markedly different from that resulting from HT of the sludge. The hydrocarbon assemblage generated from the sludge included n-hydrocarbons (C9-C20) and alkyl substituted benzenes, phenols, and related compound series of higher mass (e.g., indanes, naphthalenes). Light aromatic parent compounds were significantly less abundant than their substituted C1-C5 alkyl series and there was a paucity of N-, O- and S-heterocycles and polycyclic systems with more than three fused rings. This was different from the products of pyrolysis which were dominated by a relatively simple mixture of linear and branched hydrocarbons and their oxidized homologues (e.g., aldehydes). PMID:18065219

Catallo, W J; Comeaux, J L

2008-11-01

140

Sewage treatment method  

DOEpatents

The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating the solids from the liquid and producing an aqueous stream containing a high concentration of ammonia. The third step is removal of ammonia from the aqueous stream using a hydrothermal process.

Fassbender, Alex G. (4407 Laurel Dr., West Richland, WA 99352)

1995-01-01

141

Disposal Rabbit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation ...

L. C. Lewis D. R. Trammell

1983-01-01

142

Effect of Magnesium Oxychloride Cement on Stabilization\\/Solidification of Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solidification\\/stabilization (S\\/S) is considered to be a well-established disposal technique to reduce sludge handling and disposal obstacles. In this work, the sewage sludge was solidified at variable proportions with magnesium oxychloride cement (denoted as MOC therinafter) as reagent. The mortar prism samples of 40 times 40 times 160 mm in dimension were prepared and hardened for 24 hours at room

Ma Jianli; Zhao Youcai; Wang Li; Wang Jinmei

2009-01-01

143

Influence of sewage waste on the abundance of earthworms in pastures in south-eastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of biosolids in pasture-based livestock production is being considered for disposal of human sewage waste in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. An experiment was commenced in 1992 near Goulburn to assess some of the risks associated with the application of dewatered biosolids (DWB) to pastures. DWB was applied to infertile, acidic soils at the rates of 30, 60

Geoff Baker; David Michalk; Wendy Whitby; Sue O’Grady

2002-01-01

144

Characterization of humic acids extracted from sewage sludge-amended oxisols by electron paramagnetic resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tropical soils, the high turnover rate and mineralization of organic matter (OM) associated with intensive agricultural use, generally leads to faster soil degradation than that observed in temperate climatic zones. The application of sewage sludge to the soils is one proposed method of maintaining soil organic matter, and is also an alternative method of disposing of this waste product.

Martha González-Pérez; Ladislau Martin-Neto; Luiz Alberto Colnago; Débora M. B. P. Milori; Otávio Antonio de Camargo; Ronaldo Berton; Wagner Bettiol

2006-01-01

145

INVESTIGATION OF ALLEGED HEALTH INCIDENTS ASSOCIATED WITH LAND APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of U.S. sewage sludges are disposed by application to land for use as a soil amendment. Class B sludges, containing a complex mix of chemical and biological contaminants, comprise the majority. Residents near land application sites report illness. Symptoms of more than 328 people involved in 39 incidents in 15 states are described. Investigation and tracking of the

ELLEN Z. HARRISON; SUMMER RAYNE OAKES

2002-01-01

146

DISPERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE DISCHARGED INTO NEW YORK BIGHT. PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA - DECEMBER 1974  

EPA Science Inventory

This volume contains physical oceanographic data collected at the sewage sludge disposal site near the apex of the New York Bight December 18 through 21, 1974. An optical tracer method was used to measure the water column distribution of waste material with time after discharge. ...

147

Trace metal concentration in durum wheat from application of sewage sludge and commercial fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive application of commercial fertilizer continually introduces potentially toxic trace metals to the soil. Such metallic elements are not biodegradable, accumulate in the soil, and are subsequently taken up by food crops. Sewage sludge, often disposed of in landfills, contains high nutrient and organic contents and is now being recycled and beneficially applied to agricultural land worldwide in increasing amounts.

Heather L Frost; Lloyd H Ketchum

2000-01-01

148

Factors affecting nitrate leaching from sewage sludges applied to a sandy soil in arable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of sewage sludge to agricultural land is an increasingly popular disposal route and can be a valuable source of nitrogen (N) for crops. However, inappropriate application times or rates may lead to poor utilisation by crops and, thus, to nitrate leaching and contamination of water supplies. The effects on nitrate leaching of sludge type (raw liquid, digested liquid or

M. A. Shepherd

1996-01-01

149

Exposure Analysis for Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In February 1993, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the Standards for the Use or Disposal of Sewage Sludge (40 CFR Part 503). This regulation lists management practices and pollutant limits that protect public health and the environ...

2001-01-01

150

Dispersion of Sewage Sludge Discharged into New York Bight. Physical Oceanographic Data - December 1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains physical oceanographic data collected at the sewage sludge disposal site near the apex of the New York Bight December 18 through 21, 1974. An optical tracer method was used to measure the water column distribution of waste material wi...

A. M. Teeter R. J. Callaway D. W. Denbo

1978-01-01

151

Dispersion of Sewage Sludge Discharged into New York Bight. Physical Oceanographic Data and Laboratory Analyses - 1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains data on the dispersion of sewage sludge subsequent to its disposal at a site near the apex of the New York Bight. Cruises were made in May, July, and October, 1975. An optical tracer method was used to measure the water column distrib...

A. M. Teeter R. J. Callaway G. R. Ditsworth D. W. Denbo D. W. Browne

1978-01-01

152

Sewage Sludge Management Program. Volume 5: Dedicated Land Disposal Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The three-year study evaluated alternate methods of sludge spreading and soil incorporation from an engineering, economical, and environmental basis. Precise design and operational criteria for the recommended system, subsurface injection, were developed....

D. C. Baier A. K. Wolfenden

1979-01-01

153

Water Purification, Distribution, and Sewage Disposal for Peace Corps Volunteers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume aids both the technical instructor as a training manual and the extension worker as a field reference. The volume is divided into instruction units on: Water supply sources; water treatment; planning the distribution system; characteristics of...

1969-01-01

154

DEMONSTRATION OF ACCEPTABLE SYSTEMS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective was to demonstrate sludge application systems for farmland that would minimize any adverse effects on the environment and public health, achieve both urban and rural acceptance, and be generally beneficial for producer and receptor of the sludge. A comprehensive hea...

155

County develops beneficial use program for sludge disposal  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a program of sewage sludge disposal that is beneficial and deals with contract services necessary for the hauling and marketing of sludge products. The topics of the article include dealing with insurance, obtaining the best price, quality of sludge, beneficial uses of sludge, and future plans for new methods of beneficial use.

Palmer, D.W. (Camden County Municipal Utilities Authority, Camden, NJ (United States)); Jepson, C.B. (BCM Engineers, Plymouth Meeting, PA (United States))

1993-08-01

156

Chemical Disposal for a High School Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method of disposal is suggested that is superior to the dilution method. The proceudres are based on the conversion of the wastes to less toxic or harmless forms or neutralization, so that they won't be a shock to the sewage system, and then excess dilution. (Author/DF)

Mento, Mary Ann

1973-01-01

157

Partial oxidation of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

A process is described comprising: (1) splitting a stream of dewatered sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 17-40 wt.% into a first stream and a second stream; (2) drying the first stream of dewatered sewage sludge to produce a stream of dried sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 75-99 wt.%: (3) grinding the dried sewage sludge from (2) to a particle size so that 100 wt% passes through ASTM E11 Standard Sieve Designation 1.40 mm; (4) mixing about 2-8 parts by dry weight aqueous slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel having a solids content of about 50-70 wt. % with each part by weight of said second stream of dewatered sewage sludge from (1); (5) heating the solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage slurry from (4) to a temperature of about 140-212 F; and mixing together 3-9 parts by dry weight of the solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage sludge slurry from (4) with each part by weight of dried sewage sludge from (2) to produce a pumpable fuel slurry comprising sewage sludge and solid carbonaceous fuel and having a solids content in the range of about 45-70 wt. %; and (6) reacting the fuel slurry from (5) in the reaction zone of a partial oxidation gas generator at a temperature in the range of about 1800-3500 F and a pressure in the range of about 1-35 atmospheres, and in the presence of free-oxygen containing gas, thereby producing a hot raw effluent gas stream of synthesis gas, reducing gas or fuel gas; (7) cooling, cleaning and purifying said raw effluent gas stream to produce a stream of fuel gas; (8) burning the fuel gas from (7) with air in a combustor of a gas turbine, and passing the hot exhaust gas through an expansion turbine which drives an electric generator; and (9) passing the hot exhaust gas from (8) in indirect heat exchange with water to produce steam for use in drying said first stream of dewatered sewage sludge in (2) and/or for heating said solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage slurry is (5) by indirect heat exchange.

McMahon, M.A.; Martin, M.C.; McKenzie, K.W.

1993-07-27

158

Combustible gas production from sewage sludge with a downdraft gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, sewage sludge has particularly become an important problem all over the world because of its harmful impacts on the environment and living beings. It should be converted to combustible gas or useful energy in order to remove all its negative effects and to contribute to a significant portion of the power generation. In this study, combustible gas production from

Adnan Midilli; Murat Dogru; Colin R. Howarth; Mike J. Ling; Teoman Ayhan

2001-01-01

159

Polish experience with sewage sludge utilization in reed beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of utilization and management of sewage sludge originating from small wastewater treatment plants is still unsolved in Poland. One of the waste-free technologies of sludge utilization is the reed bed method. Two experimental facilities of this type have been operating for four years in the Gdansk Region: a reed bed in Darzlubie and a reed lagoon in Swarzewo.

W. Zwara; H. Obarska-Pempkowiak

160

Minimization Method for Combined Sewage Overflow of Urban Drainage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the overflow of combined sewage is concerned with in this paper. The sewer's discrete state-space model of the hydraulics and predictive model are established to predict the future output at sampling time. Firstly, the model is corrected by the errors between value of observation and prediction. Secondly a quadratic function by comparing the predicted output with the reference trajectory is introduced to calculate the best flow rate. Finally, the minimal overflow of combined sewage is obtained in urban hydraulic system.

Liqun, Cao; Jianzhong, Wang; Renquan, Lu

2009-09-01

161

Disposable Scholarship?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The digital materials that faculty produce for their classrooms often are saved only to storage devices that might become obsolete in a few years. Without an institutional effort to provide access systems, storage, and services for their digital media, are campuses in danger of creating "Disposable Scholarship"? In this article, the author…

Miller, Fredrick

2004-01-01

162

Disposal rabbit  

DOEpatents

A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

1983-10-12

163

Disposable rabbit  

DOEpatents

A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

Lewis, Leroy C. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Trammell, David R. (Rigby, ID) [Rigby, ID

1986-01-01

164

UNITED STATES PRACTICE IN SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Sludge treatment and disposal problems and costs grow with increased concern about the quality of wastewater treatment. As standards for effluent quality in the United States have become stricter, the problems of sludge treatment and disposal have grown disproportionately. Today ...

165

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF STEELMAKING FURNACE DUST DISPOSAL METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to examine the nature of steelmaking furnace residues and disposal techniques, and to assess potential problems associated with residue disposal, a potential multimedia environmental problem. Solubilization tests of 18 furnace residue samples s...

166

Anaerobic co-digestion of mechanically biologically treated municipal waste with primary sewage sludge – A feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This bench scale study investigated the suitability of MBT material for treatment by anaerobic digestion and the impacts of co-digestion of these wastes with sewage sludge. The results suggest that MBT material is amenable to anaerobic digestion with sewage sludge. The main problems for scale-up are related to the physical composition of the MBT material, the accumulation of heavy metals

Ole Pahl; Anna Firth; Iain MacLeod; Jim Baird

2008-01-01

167

The Impact of Zeolites During Co-Combustion of Municipal Sewage Sludge with Alkali and Chlorine Rich Fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Municipal sewage sludge has proven to eliminate alkali metals and chlorine related problems during combustion of straw and refuse derived fuels (RDF). However, the mechanisms involved have not been clarified. The aim of this work was to gain more knowledge about the behaviour of sewage sludge and detergent zeolites in combustion and about their effects on alkali metal chemistry.

Pettersson, A.; Elledt, A.-L.; Moöler, A.; Steenari, B.-M.; Åmand, L.-E.

168

FINE PARTICAL AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE\\/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and pulverized coal. The objective was to determine potential tradeoffs between COâ mitigation through using a COâ neutral fuel, such as municipal sewage sludge, and the emergence of other potential problems such as the emission of toxic fly ash particles. The work led

Jost O. L. Wendt; Wayne S. Seames; Art Fernandez

2003-01-01

169

Agronomic value of sewage sludge and corn cob biochar in an infertile Oxisol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disposal of sewage sludge and other agricultural waste materials has become increasingly difficult in urban environments with limited land space. Carbonization of the hazardous waste produces biochar as a soil amendment with potential to improve soil quality and productivity. A series of greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to assess the agrnomic value of two biochars made from domestic wastewater sludge and corn cob waste. The ash component of the sewage sludge biochar was very high (65.5%) and high for the corn cob (11.4%) biochars. Both biochars contained low concentrations of heavy metals and met EPA land application criteria. The sewage sludge biochar was a better liming material and source of mineral nutrients than the corn cob biochar, but the corn cob biochar showed the greatest increase in soil carbon and total nitrogen. Both biochar materials increased soil pH compared with soils not receiving biochar, but the sewage sludge biochar was a more effective liming material maintaining elevated soil pH throughout the 3 planting cycles. The sewage sludge biochar also showed the greatest increase in extractable soil P and base cations. In the first planting cycle, both biochars in combination with conventional fertilizers produced significantly higher corn seedling growth than the fertilized control. However, the sewage sludge biochar maintained beneficial effects corn seedling growth through the third planting cycle showing 3-fold increases in biomass production compared with the control in the third planting. The high ash content and associated liming properties and mineral nutrient contributions in the sewage sludge biochar explain benefits to plant growth. Conversion of sewage sludge waste into biochar has the potential to effectively address several environmental issues: 1) convert a hazardous waste into a valuable soil amendment, 2) reduce land and water contamination, and 3) improve soil quality and productivity.

Deenik, J. L.; Cooney, M. J.; Antal, M. J., Jr.

2013-12-01

170

Dewatering behavior of sewage screenings.  

PubMed

Screenings from municipal sewage treatment plants have increased in importance in recent years, particularly in Germany, where laws prohibit depositing of screenings in landfill. This paper presents basic investigations of sewage screenings, especially the structure and dewatering behavior. Two standard experiments are conducted. First, the relationship between pressure and water content is determined. Secondly the flow resistance as a function of pressure is evaluated. The results help to derive simulation models in order to understand how the material behaves inside a wash press. PMID:23374399

Gregor, H; Rupp, W; Janoske, U; Kuhn, M

2013-04-01

171

Sewage and Water Works Construction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This annual report of 'Sewage and Water Works Construction 1966' is published to provide a continuing and ready source of information and reference as to how successfully the national needs in municipal water supply and pollution control are being met thr...

1966-01-01

172

Use of Sewage in Agriculture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research has shown that industrial sewage, as a rule, can be used for irrigation and that the limits to its use are dictated not so much by its content as by the absence of the necessary treatment as well as by natural-geographic and organizational-techni...

V. M. Novikov K. K. Bityukov V. T. Dodolina L. B. Doliva-Dobrovolskii A. I. Efimova

1975-01-01

173

Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

Robson, Stanley G.

1977-01-01

174

Landfill disposal systems  

PubMed Central

The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated. A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual inspections and any repairs can be made without disturbing the waste. The surface seal landfill does not employ a subsurface barrier. The surface seal landfill successfully addresses each of the four environmental problems listed above, provided that this landfill design is utilized for dry wastes only and is located at a site which provides protection from groundwater and temporary perched water tables. ImagesFIGURE 3.FIGURE 4.FIGURE 7.FIGURE 7.

Slimak, Karen M.

1978-01-01

175

Organic chemicals in sewage sludges.  

PubMed

Sewage sludges are residues resulting from the treatment of wastewater released from various sources including homes, industries, medical facilities, street runoff and businesses. Sewage sludges contain nutrients and organic matter that can provide soil benefits and are widely used as soil amendments. They also, however, contain contaminants including metals, pathogens, and organic pollutants. Although current regulations require pathogen reduction and periodic monitoring for some metals prior to land application, there is no requirement to test sewage sludges for the presence of organic chemicals in the U. S. To help fill the gaps in knowledge regarding the presence and concentration of organic chemicals in sewage sludges, the peer-reviewed literature and official governmental reports were examined. Data were found for 516 organic compounds which were grouped into 15 classes. Concentrations were compared to EPA risk-based soil screening limits (SSLs) where available. For 6 of the 15 classes of chemicals identified, there were no SSLs. For the 79 reported chemicals which had SSLs, the maximum reported concentration of 86% exceeded at least one SSL. Eighty-three percent of the 516 chemicals were not on the EPA established list of priority pollutants and 80% were not on the EPA's list of target compounds. Thus analyses targeting these lists will detect only a small fraction of the organic chemicals in sludges. Analysis of the reported data shows that more data has been collected for certain chemical classes such as pesticides, PAHs and PCBs than for others that may pose greater risk such as nitrosamines. The concentration in soil resulting from land application of sludge will be a function of initial concentration in the sludge and soil, the rate of application, management practices and losses. Even for chemicals that degrade readily, if present in high concentrations and applied repeatedly, the soil concentrations may be significantly elevated. The results of this work reinforce the need for a survey of organic chemical contaminants in sewage sludges and for further assessment of the risks they pose. PMID:16750559

Harrison, Ellen Z; Oakes, Summer Rayne; Hysell, Matthew; Hay, Anthony

2006-08-31

176

REPORT OF PYROLYSIS OF SEWAGE SLUDGES IN THE NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY METROPOLITAN AREA (PHASE I)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this work was to reduce the volume of municipal wastewater (sewage) sludge in a multiple-hearth furnance via starved air combustion (pyrolysis) to determine how it compared with incineration as an environmentally acceptable method of sludge disposal. Sludge was fir...

177

Benthic distribution of sewage sludge indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-ocean dump site  

SciTech Connect

Since 1986, sewage sludge from New York and northern New Jersey has been dumped 196 km off the coast of New Jersey at the Deep Water Municipal Sewage Sludge Disposal Site. This study determines the distribution of sludge contamination of the benthic environment in the area, by using Clostridium perfringens as an indicator. The counts of C. perfringens confirm a previous report that sewage sludge is reaching the ocean floor at the disposal site as a result of the sludge dumping. C. perfringes counts within the dump site and to the south and west of the dump site are considerably elevated compared to counts east of the site. The distribution pattern of C. perfringes is broadly consistent with the estimates of the sea floor area impacted in the most recent computer model. However, the area of maximum desposition of sludge may be slightly further north than predicted. Use of C. perfringens has proven to be an efficient and reliable method for tracing sewage contamination of deep ocean sediments. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Hill, R.T.; Anikis, M.S.; Colwell, R.R. (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (United States)); Knight, I.T. (James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States))

1993-01-01

178

Assessment of groundwater pollution in Tokyo using PPCPs as sewage markers.  

PubMed

While the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in groundwater has typically been reported in bank filtration sites, irrigated fields, septic tanks, and sewage disposal practices, fewer studies have been conducted in highly urbanized areas, where infiltration of treated or untreated sewage is not supposed to be a source of groundwater recharge. Furthermore, little is known about the occurrence of various kinds of PPCPs in relation to microbial indicators in groundwater from different types of aquifers. Thus, we examined the city-wide occurrence of selected PPCPs (diethyltoluamide, crotamiton, ethenzamide, propyphenazone, carbamazepine, and caffeine) and E. coli in 50 groundwaters from unconfined aquifers (<30 m in depth) and confined aquifers (up to 500 m in depth) in Tokyo, where unintended groundwater contamination could take place due to decrepit sewer networks. PPCPs were detected in unconfined aquifers and springs (23/34 samples, 68%), and in confined aquifers (7/16 samples, 44%). Compared with published results for sewage influents, concentrations of PPCPs, excluding caffeine, were generally 1-2 orders of magnitude lower, while in some samples concentrations were quite comparable. The high occurrence rate of PPCPs, even in confined aquifers, indicated that such aquifers are not always protected from pollution by sewage near the land surface. Among the PPCPs analyzed, carbamazepine and crotamiton were most frequently detected, which would appear to be owing to their high persistence, combined with the high concentration of crotamiton in sewage. Crotamiton was detected in all four E. coli-positive groundwaters, and thus may potentially serve as a precautionary indicator of E. coli contamination. Using carbamazepine as a sewage marker, we estimated that 0.8%-1.7% of the dry-weather flow of sewage was leaking out into the unconfined aquifers. PMID:22191375

Kuroda, Keisuke; Murakami, Michio; Oguma, Kumiko; Muramatsu, Yuki; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

2012-02-01

179

Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge with a hybrid process of low pressure wet oxidation and nanofiltration.  

PubMed

Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge will become increasingly important within the next decades due to depletion of mineral phosphorus resources. In this work a new process concept was investigated, which aims at realising phosphorus recovery in a synergistic way with the overall sewage sludge treatment scheme. This process combines a low pressure wet oxidation for sewage sludge decomposition as well as phosphorus dissolution and a nanofiltration process to separate phosphorus from heavy metals and obtain a clean diluted phosphoric acid, from which phosphorus can be recovered as clean fertiliser. It was shown that this process concept is feasible for sewage sludge for wastewater treatment plants that apply enhanced biological removal or precipitation with alumina salts for phosphorus removal. The critical parameter for phosphorus dissolution in the low pressure wet oxidation process is the iron concentration, while in the nanofiltration multi-valent cations play a predominant role. In total, a phosphorus recovery of 54% was obtained for an exemplary wastewater treatment plant. Costs of the entire process are in the same range as conventional sewage sludge disposal, with the benefit being phosphorus recovery and reduced emission of greenhouse gases due to avoidance of sludge incineration. PMID:22325934

Blöcher, Christoph; Niewersch, Claudia; Melin, Thomas

2012-04-15

180

Sewage effluent as a source of Campylobacter sp. in a surface water catchment.  

PubMed

Campylobacter sp. can regularly be found in wastewater-affected surface waters. The occurrence of Campylobacter sp. in rivers, treated sewage and combined sewer overflows was analysed in a catchment with sparse annual precipitation. During regular treatment the reduction efficacy for Campylobacter sp. varies between 1.75 and 3.5 log(10). However, Campylobacter sp. concentrations do not increase downstream in the river as more sewage treatment plants discharge into it. During rain events, the Campylobacter sp. concentration in the river upstream of any sewage plant rises and in the sewer overflow water it is more than 150-fold higher than the average concentration in the river water at the river mouth. The highest Campylobacter sp. loads and the highest risk of infection occur during summertime after heavy rainfall. Risk management strategies should focus on problems regarding water scarcity, reuse of sewage effluent and the impact of heavy rain events. PMID:20183194

Rechenburg, Andrea; Kistemann, Thomas

2009-08-01

181

A review of methods for the thermal utilization of sewage sludge: The Polish perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of demographic projections, it is estimated that the quantity of sewage sludge which will be produced in Poland between 2010 and 2018 will increase from 612.8 thousand tons (dry basis, d.b.) to 706.6 thousand tons (d.b.). Currently, the predominant method for the disposal of this sludge is its storage and agricultural application. However, the legislation taking effect

Sebastian Werle; Ryszard K. Wilk

2010-01-01

182

Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants  

MedlinePLUS

Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants Hazard Alert During construction and maintenance of sewage and ... Careful work habits can help protect you. Some Biological Hazards That May Be in Sewage Or Wastewater ...

183

1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF STORAGE SHED (BLDG 773). SECURITY FENCE EAST OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Sewage Treatment Plant, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

184

Activated carbons from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbons of different characteristics have been prepared from dried sewage sludge using CO2, air and KOH as activating agents. The adsorption capacity of the resulting materials has been checked using 4-chlorophenol as a target compound in aqueous solution. CO2 and air-activation led to carbons of low BET area which increased with the activation temperature but did not reach 100m2\\/g

Victor Manuel Monsalvo; Angel Fernandez Mohedano; Juan Jose Rodriguez

2011-01-01

185

Nonionic surfactants in municipal sewage in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonionic surfactants are a significant factor in the municipal sewages profile, which, in turn, affects the efficiency of\\u000a sewage-treatment processes and determines the possibility of sewage-water reuse. Hard (nonbiodegradable), nonionic surfactants\\u000a are the most commonly used nonionics in Israel, which probably has no parallel in other western industrial countries. In view\\u000a of the increased share of nonionic surfactants at the

U. Zoller; R. Romano

1984-01-01

186

Utilization and Conversion of Sewage Sludge as Metal Sorbent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most biosolids are disposed on land. With improvements in wastewater treatment processes and upgrading of treatment plants across Canada, biosolids generation will increase dramatically. These biosolids will need to be dealt with because they contain various contaminants, including heavy metals and several classes of emerging contaminants. A number of researchers have recently focused on preparation of sewage sludge-based adsorbents by carbonation, physical activation and chemical activation for decontamination of air and wastewater. These previous studies have indicated that sludge-based activated carbon can have good adsorption performance for organic substances in dye wastewater. The overall results suggest that activated carbon from sewage sludge can produce a useful adsorbent, while also reducing the amount of sewage sludge to be disposed. However, sludge-derived activated carbon has not been extensively studied, especially for adsorption of heavy metal ions in wastewater and for its capacity to remove emerging contaminants, such as poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs). Previous research has indicated that commercial activated carbons adsorb organic compounds more efficiently than heavy metal ions. 45 Activated carbon can be modified to enhance its adsorption capacity for special heavy metal ions,46 e.g. by addition of inorganic and organic reagents. The modifications which are successful for commercial activated carbon should also be effective for sludge-derived activated carbon, but this needs to be confirmed. Our research focuses on (a) investigation of techniques for converting sewage sludge (SS) to activated carbon (AC) as sorbents; (b) exploration of possible modification of the activated carbon (MAC) to improve its sorption capacity; (c) examination of the chemical stability of the activated carbon and the leachability of contaminants from activated carbon,; (d) comparison of adsorptivity with that of other sorbents. Based on XRD and FT-IR, we successfully converted SS to AC and further modified it to improve absorption. SSMAC has large specific surface areas based on the BET technique. Batch adsorption results indicate that metal adsorption for SSMAC > SSAC, with adsorption occurring within the first 5 minutes of contact. Comparison of the adsorptivity of various sorbents such as commercial activated carbon (CAC), mineral sorbents such as perlite, clinoptilolite and illite indicates that SSMAC × CAC × clinoptilolite > kaolite.

Gong, Xu Dong; Li, Loretta Y.

2013-04-01

187

Feasibility Study of The Disposal of Polyethylene Plastic Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Synthetic plastics as polyethylene do not decompose when disposed of in landfills and can cause air pollution problems if burned. An efficient, safe, and economical method for the disposal of wastes as polyethylene is needed. A feasibility study directed ...

K. Gutfreund

1971-01-01

188

Radioactive waste disposal in the marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to find the optimal solution to waste disposal problems, it is necessary to make comparisons between disposal media. It has become obvious to many within the scientific community that the single medium approach leads to over protection of one medium at the expense of the others. Cross media comparisons are being conducted in the Department of Energy ocean

D. R. Anderson

1981-01-01

189

Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of

Yoshizo Suzuki; Tomoyuki Nojima; Akihiko Kakuta; Hiroshi Moritomi

2004-01-01

190

Assessment of sewage sludge quality in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of sewage sludge produced by two Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (Sparta and Kavala) was studied during the dry (summer?autumn) and wet (winter) periods. Sewage sludge had considerable nitrogen and phosphorus content that enable them to be used as additives to improve soil quality. On the other hand, the concentrations of harmful metals were lower than the limits imposed

M. O. Angelidis; M. Aloupi

1999-01-01

191

Treatment and reuse of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge was treated using composting, fixed-bed and stirred anaerobic digesters. The treatment performance in terms of the physico chemical parameters, bacterial indicators and pathogenic forms were assessed. In addition, the biogas production rate was recorded in the case of anaerobic digesters. Composting of the sewage sludge increased its total solids from 39 to 93% after 6 weeks, while the

Fayza A. Nasr

1997-01-01

192

My Town, My Creek, My Sewage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After summarizing the ecology of polluted streams as well as the technology and biology of sewage treatment methods, and considering the economic and social aspects of introducing advanced sewage treatment, comments on the role of biology teachers in providing public information are made. (AL)

Woodburn, John H.

1972-01-01

193

Virological Investigations on Irradiated Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The virusinactivating activity of a Co sub 60 -irradiation pilot plant at Geiselbullach/Munich was to be examined. We investigated 16 impure sewage water, 15 purified sewage water, 32 raw sladge samples, 62 digested sludge samples before irradiation, 52 d...

C. Epp

1980-01-01

194

Stabilization of primary sewage sludge during vermicomposting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, over the last few decades, there has been a remarkable increase in sewage sludge production due to population increase and unplanned urbanization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform primary sewage sludge (PSS) amended with cow dung (CD) into value added product, i.e., vermicompost in laboratory

Renuka Gupta; V. K. Garg

2008-01-01

195

Boston Harbor sewage stack (for microcomputers). Software  

SciTech Connect

The Boston Harbor Sewage Stack is interactive educational computer program about how municipalities deal with sewage, how sewage systems work, non point pollution, and what citizens can do to help - focusing on Boston Harbor and the Boston Harbor Cleanup. The program is written at a level accessible to middle-school students, but with enough depth for adults. Schools and environmental organizations, especially in coastal areas, will find this program a useful addition to their environmental education offerings. The program shows what happens to sewage - from the moment of flush to its passage through the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority's sewage system and into Boston Harbor - now and as the cleanup proceeds. Users encounter topics for exploration, including storm sewers and combined sewer overflows (CSOs); non point pollution from pets, spilled waste oil, lawn and garden chemicals, and other sources; what not to flush and why; how officials can tell if water is polluted; and why it all matters.

Not Available

1992-12-01

196

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1986-01-01

197

Biogas production from Sludge of Sewage Treatment Plant at Haridwar (Uttarakhand)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas, a source of non-conventional energy is produced by fermentation of sludges. The sewage have collected through sewage pumping stations and treated in the primary and secondary treatment steps in sewage treatment plant at Jagjitpur, Hardwar. The Sewage Treatment Plant receives approximately 40 mld sewage from different pumping stations and 18 mld sewage is used for treatment at sewage treatment

D. S. Malik; Umesh Bharti

198

ENERGETYCZNE WYKORZYSTANIE OSADÓWCIEKOWYCH THERMAL UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work explores thermal methods to sewage sludge utilization. Author prepares review of existing thermal methods of sewage sludge utilization. Nowadays, the most popular way to sewage sludge utilization is neutralization by storage and agriculture utilization. European Union legislation is going to limit this way of sewage sludge neutralization. Thermal methods are going to be the best alternative way

Sebastian Werle; Ryszard K. Wilk

199

Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

200

Onsite alternatives for treatment and disposal. [Wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of onsite technologies for treatment and disposal of wastewater is presented with emphasis on the manipulation of wastewater generation events in the home as a means to enhance onsite treatment and disposal, the design and performance of subsurface disposal systems, alternative systems to solve wastewater management problems in small communities, and sanitation in developing countries. (KRM)

W. Boyle; R. J. Otis

1982-01-01

201

Onsite alternatives for treatment and disposal. [Wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

A review of onsite technologies for treatment and disposal of wastewater is presented with emphasis on the manipulation of wastewater generation events in the home as a means to enhance onsite treatment and disposal, the design and performance of subsurface disposal systems, alternative systems to solve wastewater management problems in small communities, and sanitation in developing countries. (KRM)

Boyle, W.; Otis, R.J.

1982-06-01

202

On-site low-level waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

According to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations, low-level radioactive waste (LLW) may be disposed of in various ways. These include: (a) transfer to an LLW disposal site, (b) effluents to air and water, (c) release to a sanitary sewage system, (d) storage for decay, (e) incineration, (f) disposal of certain specific waste without regard to its radioactivity, and (g) specifically approved disposals that are not otherwise authorized in the regulations. This presentation addresses on-site disposal primarily by burial in soil. In addition, discussions focus primarily on considerations of on-site burials of radioactive waste generated by institutional (medical and academic) and industrial licensees. Radiological assessments are strongly dependent on site-specific information. This information is required from the licensee when submitting a request for disposal authorization. The estimated radiation dose equivalent will be the primary factor in determining whether the licensee's proposed disposal will or will not be authorized. Often, burials by the licensee under prescribed conditions along with imposed restrictions as to the proximity of water wells will ensure that the projected dose to an individual on or near the site will be within acceptable limits.

Neuder, S.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Fasano, C.

1985-11-01

203

Regional Refuse Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document presents a regional refuse disposal report which basically sets forth the existing refuse disposal situation in the region. Discussed are approaches to sanitary landfill, state laws and regulations, and a proposal for cooperative approaches t...

1969-01-01

204

Flow Characteristics of the Raw Sewage for the Design of Sewage-Source Heat Pump Systems  

PubMed Central

The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems.

Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

2014-01-01

205

Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.  

PubMed

The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems. PMID:24987735

Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

2014-01-01

206

Assessment of compost application to coal ash disposal sites to promote the rapid vegetation establishment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the city of Tuzla, located in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a coal fired thermo electric power plant is operated by the company JP ELEKTROPRIVERDA BIH TERMOELEKTRANA "TUZLA". High amounts of ash are produced by the power plant, which are currently disposed into settlement ponds bordered by dams in natural valleys. A total of four ash disposal sites covering an area of approx. 170 ha have been established during the last decades. Due to the fact that residual ash from coal combustion was found to contain a variety of trace elements (Ni, Cr, As, B), it must be assumed that ash disposal of that magnitude constitutes an environmental problem which is investigated within the EU-FP6 / STREP project "Reintegration of Coal Ash Disposal Sites and Mitigation of Pollution in the West Balkan Area" RECOAL. The main hazards relate to soil and groundwater contamination due to leaching toxins, dust dispersion, and toxins entering the food chain as these disposal sites are used for agricultural purposes. In order to rapidly establish a vegetation cover on barren ash dumps that particularly would prevent dust erosion we assessed the applicability of compost, produced from locally available municipal and industrial organic residues as an amendment to ash to improve substrate fertility. The envisaged remediation technology was considered to be a low cost, easy applicable and rapid method capable of substantially enhancing living conditions of residents in the vicinity of the abandoned disposal sites. Various compost application rates were evaluated in the field on experimental site Divkovici I in Tuzla and additionally in the greenhouse environment at Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus. Field and laboratory tests revealed that plant growth and cover rate can substantially be improved by mixing compost into the upper ash layer to a maximum depth of approx. 20 cm. Besides direct growth observations in the field analysis of soil parameters gave evidence that the fertility of ashy substrates amended with compost produced from locally available sewage sludge and saw dust can be improved. The metal content of grass grown in the various treatments was considered to be elevated compared to normal contents. However, metal uptake in compost treatments was lower than in untreated plots. A preliminary cost assessment, comparing the remediation technology tested on site Divkovici with a standard soil covering technique revealed financial benefits for the compost method due to significant lower application rates.

Repmann, F.; Slazak, A.; Babic, M.; Schneider, B. U.; Schaaf, W.; Hüttl, R. F.

2009-04-01

207

Sewage and the fuel cell  

SciTech Connect

This article very briefly describes a phosphoric-acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant installed by the New York Power Authority at a wastewater treatment plant. The facility is the first in the world to use anaerobic digester gas (ADG), a natural byproduct of sewage treatment, as fuel. ADG is partially utilized and partially flared at the plant. The PAFC captures a portion of the otherwise flared ADG and uses it as fuel to produce approximately 200kW of electricity and heat for plant use. The U.S. Department of Energy, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Electric Power Research Institute are helping the power authority finance the project.

Zelingher, S. [New York Power Authority`s Energy Efficiency Unit, NY (United States); Kishinevsky, Y.

1998-01-01

208

Actinomycetes of Sewage-Treatment Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In some activated sludge sewage treatment plants a thick foam rich in Nocardia may be formed at the surface of the secondary aeration and settling tanks. It had previously been observed that the supernatant from anaerobic digesters contained suspended sol...

H. A. Lechevalier M. P. Lechevalier P. E. Wyszkowski

1977-01-01

209

Lightweight aggregate from flyash and sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of treating flyash and sewage sludge. It comprises: mixing flyash with sewage sludge having a high fuel value; agglomerating the mixture; drying the agglomerated mixture; heating the agglomerated mixture to a temperature less than the melting point of the mixture in a rotary kiln using the agglomerated mixture as the principal source of fuel in the kiln to form a porous nodular product; and recovering the nodular product from the kiln.

Nechvatal, T.M.; Heian, G.A.

1991-10-15

210

Clean and Efficient Utilization of Sewage Sludge  

SciTech Connect

This is the Final Report for the DOE SBIR Phase II project (Grant No. DE-FG03-98ER82573). This report summarizes accomplishments and results for the entire program. In this program an innovative technology has been devised for transforming sewage sludge into a high quality fuel and recovering its energy content. The technology being developed is generally applicable to nearly all municipal sewage sludge management facilities and coal-fired boilers. It will provide economic and environmental benefits.

Zamansky, Vladimir; Rizeq, George

2002-09-12

211

A Family Physician's Guide to Sewage Sludge  

PubMed Central

The potential environmental and personal health effects from the agricultural uses of domestic sewage sludge may increasingly require the guidance of the family physician, especially in farming communities. This article summarizes the potential health hazards and outlines the tripartite risk phenomenon—hazard identification, risk assessment, and social evaluation. For the agricultural use of dewatered sewage sludge, strict adherence to regulated procedures should not increase risk beyond that of agriculture generally. Confirmation by prospective epidemiological studies is recommended.

Connop, Peter J.

1983-01-01

212

PHOSPHORUS RECOVERY FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE - IDEAS FOR FURTHER STUDIES TO IMPROVE LEACHING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of methods to recover phosphorus will make handling of sewage sludge more sustainable. In earlier studies sludge incineration ash and SCWO-residues have been leached with acid and base. Acid leaching gives a high degree of recovery but releases besides phosphate also the main part of other metals (including heavy metals). This gives a large separation problem and gives a

E. Levlin; B. Hultman

213

A spatial multicriteria decision making tool to define the best agricultural areas for sewage sludge amendment.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge amendment on agricultural soils has recently become a practice of heightened interest, as a consequence of sewage sludge production increase. This practice has benefits to soil and crops, however it may also lead to environmental contamination, depending on the characteristics of the fields. In order to define the suitability of the different agricultural fields to receive sewage sludge, a spatial tool is proposed. This tool, elaborated in GIS platform, aggregates different criteria regarding human exposure and environmental contamination. The spatial tool was applied to a case study in the region of Catalonia (NE of Spain). Within the case study, each step of the tool development is detailed. The results show that the studied region has different suitability degrees, being the appropriate areas sufficient for receiving the total amount of sewage sludge produced. The sensitivity analysis showed that "groundwater contamination", "distance to urban areas", "metals concentration in soil" and "crop type" are the most important criteria of the evaluation. The developed tool successfully tackled the problem, providing a comprehensive procedure to evaluate agricultural land suitability to receive sewage sludge as an organic fertilizer. Also, the tool implementation gives insights to decision makers, guiding them to more confident decisions, based on an extensive group of criteria. PMID:21982027

Passuello, Ana; Cadiach, Oda; Perez, Yolanda; Schuhmacher, Marta

2012-01-01

214

Geotechnical Engineering Issues in Ocean Waste Disposal: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine pollution has received considerable attention during the past few years as the news media has focused on such topics as contaminated seafoods, algae blooms, fish and mammal kills, and dirty beaches. The source of these pollution problems are many and include: sewage outfalls, industrial discharges, storm runoff from agricultural lands and metropolitan areas, waste sludges, dredge materials, and highly

Kenneth R. Demars; Ronald C. Chaney

2006-01-01

215

Characterization of Malaysian sewage sludge and nitrogen mineralization in three soils treated with sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies to determine the chemical composition of sewage sludges produced in Malaysia and the potentially mineralizable nitogen (No) and mineralization rate constant (k) of sewage sludge in three Malaysian soils are reported. Analyses of the sludges collected from 10 wastewater treatment plants in Malaysia are acidic in nature and the N. P, Ca, K and Mg contents is variable. The

A. B. Rosenani; D. R. Kala; C. I. Fauziah

216

Occurrence of selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) in sewage sludge and effluent samples of a wastewater-treatment plant in Cape Town, South Africa.  

PubMed

The reuse of treated effluent from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as alternative water source for sport-field or landscape irrigation, agricultural, and other industrial purposes is growing significantly. Similarly, the application of treated sludge (biosolid) to agricultural soils is now being considered globally as the most economic means of sludge disposal. However, the presence of emerging organic contaminants in these matrices, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are potential endocrine disruptors, portends a high health risk to humans and the environment in general. In this study, effluent and sewage sludge samples collected from a WWTP were analysed for some selected PBDE congeners (BDE congeners 28, 47, 99 100 153 154 183, and 209) as well as BB-153 using a high-capillary gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. The sum of the eight PBDE congeners ranged from 369 to 4370, 19.2 to 2640, and 90.4 to 15,100 ng/l for raw water, secondary effluent, and final effluent, respectively. A similar result was observed for sewage sludge samples, which ranged between 13.1 and 652 ng/g dry weight (dw). The results obtained for BB-153 were generally lower compared with those found for most PBDE congeners. These ranged from ND to 18.4 ng/l and ND to 9.97 ng/g dw for effluents and sewage sludge, respectively. In both matrices, BDE 47 and 209 congeners were found to contribute significantly to the overall sum of PBDEs. The reuse of the treated effluent, particularly for agricultural purposes, could enhance the possibility of these contaminants entering into the food chain, thus causing undesirable health problems in exposed subjects. PMID:22002787

Daso, Adegbenro P; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Odendaal, James P; Olujimi, Olanrewaju O

2012-04-01

217

Disposal of solid waste in Istanbul and along the Black Sea coast of Turkey  

SciTech Connect

The increasing amount of solid waste arising from municipalities and other sources and its consequent disposal has been one of the major environmental problems in Turkey. Istanbul is a metropolitan city with a current population of around 14 million, and produces about 9000 ton of solid waste every day. The waste composition for Istanbul has changed markedly from 1981 to 1996 with large decreases in waste density, much of which is related to decreased amounts of ash collected in winter. In recent years, the Istanbul region has implemented a new solid waste management system with transfer stations, sanitary landfills, and methane recovery, which has led to major improvements. In the Black Sea region of Turkey, most of the municipal and industrial solid wastes, mixed with hospital and hazardous wastes, are dumped on the nearest lowlands and river valleys or into the sea. The impact of riverside and seashore dumping of solid wastes adds significantly to problems arising from sewage and industry on the Black Sea coast. Appropriate integrated solid waste management systems are needed here as well; however, they have been more difficult to implement than in Istanbul because of more difficult topography, weaker administrative structures, and the lower incomes of the inhabitants.

Berkun, Mehmet [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)]. E-mail: berkun@ktu.edu.tr; Aras, Egemen [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Nemlioglu, Semih [Istanbul University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 34850 Avcilar-Istanbul (Turkey)

2005-10-15

218

Chlorinated Sewage Effluents and Avoidance of Stream Fish.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The behavioral responses of the blacknose dace to domestic sewage effluents and their toxic constituents, free chlorine, chloramine, and ammonia were investigated. The degrees of the fish avoidance to chlorinated sewage effluents were identical with those...

C. Tsai J. A. Fava

1975-01-01

219

Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

2007-01-01

220

JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

1976-01-01

221

Sanitary and bacteriological aspects of sewage treatment.  

PubMed

A study into the removal of contamination load and indicator bacteria was carried out in 1992-1996 in the mechanical, biological and chemical waste-water treatment plant WTP in Lezany, in the County of Reszel, in the Province of Warmia and Mazury in Poland. The results of chemical analyses found a high efficiency of removal of carbon compounds, COD (90%) and BOD (98%), in the process of purification of household sewage. In addition, a high effectiveness of total nitrogen, on average 71%, and unsatisfactory removal of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus compounds were found. The results of microbiological analyses confirmed the high efficiency of removal of indicator bacteria in the process of sewage treatment from 94 to 97%. In the sewage after the final phase of purification in stabilization ponds, the following pathogenic bacteria were identified with the use of the EPL 21tests: Escherichia coli, Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter georgoriae, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pnemoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella ozaenae, Ervinia herbicola, Edwardsiella tarda, Serratia odoriefra, Serratia marcescens, Providencia alcalifaciens, Hafnia alvei, Yersina pestis, Yersina pseudotuberculosis, Yersinia fredericksenii, Salmonella spp., Shigella dysenteriae, Aeromons hydrophila, Pseudomonas aerulginosa. The obtained results show that although the sewage purification system is efficient and reduces the contamination load to the level required by the regulations (Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry from 20 September 1991) and removes a great percentage of indicator bacteria, the purified sewage may be a source of pathogenic bacteria in inland waters. PMID:15058814

Filipkowska, Zofia

2003-01-01

222

Geochemical and hydrologic controls on phosphorus transport in a sewage-contaminated sand and gravel aquifer near Ashumet Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Currently (1993), about 170 kg/yr of phosphorus discharges into Ashumet Pond on Cape Cod from a plume of sewage-contaminated ground water. Phosphorus in the plume is mobile in two distinct geochemical environments--an anoxic zone containing dissolved iron and a suboxic zone containing dissolved oxygen. Phosphorus mobility in the suboxic zone is due to saturation of available sorption sites. Phosphorus loading to Ashumet Pond may increase significantly after sewage disposal is stopped due to phosphorus desorption from sediment surfaces.

Walter, Donald A.; Rea, Brigid A.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Savoie, Jennifer

1996-01-01

223

NHD INDEXED LOCATIONS FOR SEWAGE NO DISCHARGE ZONES  

EPA Science Inventory

Locations where vessel sewage discharge is prohibited. Sewage no discharge zone (NDZ) locations are coded onto route.drain (Transport and Coastline Reach) feature of NHD to create Point Events and Linear Events. Sewage no discharge zone locations are coded onto region.rch (Wat...

224

Wastes to Resources: Appropriate Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Conversion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appropriate technology options for sewage management systems are explained in this four-chapter report. The use of appropriate technologies is advocated for its health, environmental, and economic benefits. Chapter 1 presents background information on sewage treatment in the United States and the key issues facing municipal sewage managers.…

Anderson, Stephen P.

225

Agronomic characterisation of different types of sewage sludge: Policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spain is one of the main municipal sewage sludge producers of Europe. This paper aims to agronomically characterise different types of sewage sludge stabilised by different methods (anaerobically digested, composted, and pelletised) and deliver policy recommendations from the results of this characterisation. Anaerobic sewage sludge quality is found to be better in plants with a lower volume of water processing.

M. R. Mosquera-Losada; N. Muñoz-Ferreiro; A. Rigueiro-Rodríguez

2010-01-01

226

Study of the pyrolysis liquids obtained from different sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis of sewage sludge in fluidized bed to produce bio-oil is under study as a useful way to valorise this waste. Sewage sludge is the waste produced in the wastewater treatment plants. Its composition may change due to the origin and to the non-standardized treatments in the wastewater treatment plants. The pyrolysis of three samples of anaerobically digested sewage sludge

I. Fonts; M. Azuara; G. Gea; M. B. Murillo

2009-01-01

227

Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants.

Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

2012-01-01

228

Improvement of salinity in sewage sludge compost prior to its utilization as nursery substrate.  

PubMed

Soluble salts are enriched in sewage sludge compost because of their inherent derivation. Accordingly, the content of soluble salt in sludge compost is usually much higher than most seedlings can tolerate. To determine whether sludge compost is suitable for use as a nursery substrate, some experiments were conducted. Reduction of the electrical conductivity (EC) value could improve seed germination in saturated extract from sludge compost. In addition, water elution and mixing dilution with raw soil were all shown to be able to alleviate saline inhibition on seed germination and seedling growth, including stem diameter, seedling height, and above-ground weight. Overall, salinity is a crucial problem when sewage sludge compost is reused as a nursery substrate, and some effective and convenient approaches to reduce salt should be served prior to its reuse. Implications: Sewage sludge after being composted is usually reused as organic fertilizer or plant substrate. However, salt is the main problem during its reclamation. What is the highest salt level the seedling can tolerate? Which types of salts are effective in salinity of sludge-amended substrate? Meanwhile, can the salinity be reduced through water elution or soil mixing dilution? This paper is the first to investigate the salinity and its reduction of sewage sludge compost prior to its use in the development of nursery substrate. PMID:24941702

Liu, Hong-Tao; Gao, Ding; Chen, Tong-Bin; Cai, Hong; Zheng, Guo-Di

2014-05-01

229

DISPOSAL OF CARBONDIOXIDE IN MINERAL FORM  

SciTech Connect

Progress in developing methods of disposing carbon dioxide in a safe and stable manners are discussed here. We are focusing on the use of mineral sepentenites as the starting materials for CO{sub 2} absorption. There are several advantages to our proposed method of permanent CO{sub 2} disposal. The disposal waste products are safe and thermodynamically stable, and are common in nature. They are known to be environmentally benign and non-hazardous. The disposal does not pose any legacy problems for future generations, and does not require monitoring (unlike underground injection disposal methods). By confining waste disposal to a mining site, we minimize the environmental impact. Our solution is permanent and complete. The availability of this technology guarantees the continued use of fossil fuels as an energy source for centuries to come. The most important advantage of our proposed disposal method is its low cost as compared to other techniques. Preliminary experiments and analysis have indicated that we would be able to realize a cost of $15US/tonne of CO{sub 2}.

R. VAIDYA; D. BYLER; D. GALLEGOS

2001-02-01

230

Overview of extraction, clean-up and detection techniques for the determination of organic pollutants in sewage sludge: a review.  

PubMed

Priority pollutants constitute only a part of the large chemical pollution puzzle where the number of potentially hazardous chemicals that reaches the environment is very wide and new substances are constantly being developed and released. Among them, a diverse group of unregulated pollutants, many times called "emerging" contaminants, including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), is found. This group of emerging contaminants constitutes a broad class of chemicals widely used in daily life, such as synthetic fragrances, UV filters, antiseptics, antioxidants and insect repellents. The large amount of them and other emerging contaminants consumed in modern society contribute as well to a wide range of contamination in the aquatic environment, introduced mainly through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The agricultural application of sewage sludge has become the most widespread method for its disposal, since it is the most economical outlet for sludge and offers the opportunity to recycle plant nutrients and organic matter to soil for crop production. However, due to the presence of metals, organic contaminants and pathogenic bacteria in sewage sludge, concern has increased about the human exposure to priority and emerging pollutants via crops cultivated in sewage/compost-amended soils. Because of the potentially dangerous consequences of the presence of those contaminants in the environment, data concerning the concentration, fate and behavior of those pollutants is urgently necessary. With this purpose in mind, sensitive and robust analytical methods for complex matrices such as sewage sludge are necessary in order to obtain reliable data that help us to understand the risk of agricultural use of sewage sludge. The present manuscript reviews the different approaches present in the literature for determining organic pollutants (priority and emerging) in sewage sludge. A review of the last ten years has been performed and the three main steps of an analytical procedure (extraction, clean-up and analysis) have been reviewed. PMID:22769001

Zuloaga, O; Navarro, P; Bizkarguenaga, E; Iparraguirre, A; Vallejo, A; Olivares, M; Prieto, A

2012-07-29

231

Effect of experimental conditions on gas quality and solids produced by sewage sludge cogasification. 1. Sewage sludge mixed with coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cogasification of sewage sludge mixed with coal showed that the amount of sewage sludge supplied to the gasifier, depending on its availability, could vary without affecting the gasifier performance; however, it had an influence on the syngas composition. The use of sewage sludge during coal gasification gave rise to an increasing gas yield and energy conversion, mainly because the gas

Filomena Pinto; Helena Lopes; Mario Dias; I. Gulyurtlu; I. Cabrita

2007-01-01

232

Characterization and lytic activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens phages from sewage  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas fluorescens phages from sewage were tested against P. fluorescens isolates of soil and sewage. The phages were characterized as to host range, morphology, structural proteins and genome fingerprint. Of the seven phages isolated, one was found to be abundant in sewage (5.9×107 pfu/mL), having broad host range, and distinct protein and DNA profile when compared to the other six phages. DNA restriction and protein profiles of the phages and their morphology indicate the diversity in the sewage environment. None of the isolates from the rhizosphere regions of various cultivated soils were susceptible to phages isolated from sewage.

Radhakrishnan, Ananthi; Ananthasubramanian, M.

2012-01-01

233

Managing the uncertainties of low-level radioactive waste disposal.  

PubMed

The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) entails financial and safety risks not common to most market commodities. This manifests debilitating uncertainty regarding future waste volume and disposal technology performance in the market for waste disposal services. Dealing with the publicly perceived risks of LLRW disposal increases the total cost of the technology by an order of magnitude, relative to traditional shallow land burial. Therefore, this analysis first examines five proposed disposal facility designs and quantifies the costs associated with these two important sources of uncertainty. Based upon this analysis, a marketable disposal permit mechanism is proposed and analyzed for the purpose of reducing market uncertainty and thereby facilitating a market solution to the waste disposal problem. In addition to quantifying the costs, the results illustrate the ways in which the design of a technology is influenced by its institutional environment, and vice versa. PMID:9739624

Bullard, C W; Weger, H T; Wagner, J

1998-08-01

234

Microwave-induced pyrolysis of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new method for pyrolyzing sewage sludge using a microwave furnace. It was found that if just the raw wet sludge is treated in the microwave, only drying of the sample takes place. However, if the sludge is mixed with a small amount of a suitable microwave absorber (such as the char produced in the pyrolysis itself)

J. A Menéndez; M Inguanzo; J. J Pis

2002-01-01

235

COMPARISON OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF SEWAGE SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested by using the Salmonella/microsome reverse mutation ...

236

Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water.  

PubMed

Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water was studied. Influences of main reaction parameters, including temperature (623-698 K), pressure (25-35 Mpa), residence time (10-15 min) and dry matter content (5-25 wt%), were investigated to optimize the gasification process. The main gas products were methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and traces of ethene, etc. Results showed that 10 wt% dry matter content digested sewage sludge at a temperature of 698 K and residence time of 50 min, with a pressure of 25 MPa, were the most favorable conditions for the sewage sludge gasification and carbon gasification efficiencies. In addition, potassium carbonate (K2CO3) was also employed as the catalyst to make a comparison between gasification with and without catalyst. When 2.6 g K2CO3 was added, a gasification efficiency of 25.26% and a carbon gasification efficiency of 20.02% were achieved, which were almost four times as much as the efficiencies without catalyst. K2CO3 has been proved to be effective in sewage sludge gasification. PMID:23315366

Zhai, Yunbo; Wang, Chang; Chen, Hongmei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Pang, Daoxiong; Lu, Pei

2013-04-01

237

HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An epidemiology study which included environmental samples and clinical specimens within a three mile radius of a new sewage treatment plant near Chicago, Illinois was carried out. Evaluations were made before and after plant start-up to determine if operations resulted in any ad...

238

Water recovery from sewage using forward osmosis.  

PubMed

This research is part of the Sewer Mining project aimed at developing a new technological concept by extracting water from sewage by means of forward osmosis (FO). FO, in combination with a reconcentration system, e.g. reverse osmosis (RO) is used to recover high-quality water. Furthermore, the subsequent concentrated sewage (containing an inherent energy content) can be converted into a renewable energy (RE) source (i.e. biogas). The effectiveness of FO membranes in the recovery of water from sewage has been evaluated. Stable FO water flux values (>4.3 LMH) were obtained with primary effluent (screened, not treated) used as the feed solution. Fouling of the membrane was also induced and further investigated. Accumulated fouling was found to be apparent, but not irreversible. Sewer Mining could lead to a more economical and sustainable treatment of wastewater, facilitating the extraction of water and energy from sewage and changing the way it is perceived: not as waste, but as a resource. PMID:22179641

Lutchmiah, Kerusha; Cornelissen, Emile R; Harmsen, Danny J H; Post, Jan W; Lampi, Keith; Ramaekers, Hans; Rietveld, Luuk C; Roest, Kees

2011-01-01

239

Desinfeccion de efluentes residuales. (Disinfection of sewage).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory studies at IPEN and SEDAPAL have shown the effectiveness disinfection of sewage by means of ionizing radiations. A dose of 1 Kilo Gray reduces the coliforms and salmonella under the permissible levels. This method should allow to use again the ...

J. Arenas

1984-01-01

240

Fresh Water from Sewage on Long Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small sewage purification systems adequate for about 250 homes are being tested for the return of drinking quality fresh water to the local water table. One system consists of a grass meadow which slopes into a planted marsh which merges into a pond which...

M. M. Small

1976-01-01

241

SEWAGE SLUDGE PATHOGEN TRANSPORT MODEL PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, raw or anaerobically digest...

242

SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION, HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT  

EPA Science Inventory

A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel ef...

243

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOEpatents

This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

Carlson, L.W.

1985-08-30

244

Environmental effectiveness of swine sewage management: a multicriteria AHP-based model for a reliable quick assessment.  

PubMed

Environmental issues related to swine production are still a major concern for the general public and represent a key challenge for the swine industry. The environmental impact of higher livestock concentration is particularly significant where it coincides with weaker policy standards and poor manure management. Effective tools for environmental monitoring of the swine sewage management process become essential for verifying the environmental compatibility of farming facilities and for defining suitable policies aimed at increasing swine production sustainability. This research aims at the development and application of a model for a quick assessment of the environmental effectiveness of the pig farming sewage management process. In order to define the model, multicriteria techniques, and in particular, Saaty's analytic hierarchy process, were used to develop an iterative process in which the various key factors influencing the process under investigation were analyzed. The model, named EASE (Environmental Assessment of Sewages management Effectiveness), was optimized and applied to the Lake Trasimeno basin (Umbria, Italy), an area of high natural, environmental and aesthetic value. In this context, inadequate disposal of pig sewage represents a potential source of very considerable pollution. The results have demonstrated how the multicriteria model can represent a very effective and adaptable tool also in those decision-making processes aimed at the sustainable management of livestock production. PMID:23974904

Vizzari, Marco; Modica, Giuseppe

2013-10-01

245

Environmental Effectiveness of Swine Sewage Management: A Multicriteria AHP-Based Model for a Reliable Quick Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental issues related to swine production are still a major concern for the general public and represent a key challenge for the swine industry. The environmental impact of higher livestock concentration is particularly significant where it coincides with weaker policy standards and poor manure management. Effective tools for environmental monitoring of the swine sewage management process become essential for verifying the environmental compatibility of farming facilities and for defining suitable policies aimed at increasing swine production sustainability. This research aims at the development and application of a model for a quick assessment of the environmental effectiveness of the pig farming sewage management process. In order to define the model, multicriteria techniques, and in particular, Saaty's analytic hierarchy process, were used to develop an iterative process in which the various key factors influencing the process under investigation were analyzed. The model, named EASE (Environmental Assessment of Sewages management Effectiveness), was optimized and applied to the Lake Trasimeno basin (Umbria, Italy), an area of high natural, environmental and aesthetic value. In this context, inadequate disposal of pig sewage represents a potential source of very considerable pollution. The results have demonstrated how the multicriteria model can represent a very effective and adaptable tool also in those decision-making processes aimed at the sustainable management of livestock production.

Vizzari, Marco; Modica, Giuseppe

2013-10-01

246

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of CAS 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Area 25 Sewage Lagoons (Figure 1-2) (IT, 1999b) are located approximately 0.3 mi south of the Test Cell 'C' (TCC) Facility and were used for the discharge of sanitary effluent from the TCC facility. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 232 or the sewage lagoons.

DOE /NV Operations Office

1999-05-01

247

History of Inuit Community Exposure to Lead, Cadmium, and Mercury in Sewage Lake Sediments  

PubMed Central

Exposure to lead, cadmium, and mercury is known to be high in many arctic Inuit communities. These metals are emitted from industrial and urban sources, are distributed by long-range atmospheric transport to remote regions, and are found in Inuit country foods. Current community exposure to these metals can be measured in food, but feces and urine are also excellent indicators of total exposure from ingestion and inhalation because a high percentage of each metal is excreted. Bulk domestic sewage or its residue in a waste treatment system is a good substitute measure. Domestic waste treatment systems that accumulate metals in sediment provide an accurate historical record of changes in ingestion or inhalation. We collected sediment cores from an arctic lake used for facultative domestic sewage treatment to identify the history of community exposure to Pb, Cd, and Hg. Cores were dated and fluxes were measured for each metal. A nearby lake was sampled to measure combined background and atmospheric inputs, which were subtracted from sewage lake data. Pb, Cd, and Hg inputs from sewage grew rapidly after the onset of waste disposal in the late 1960s and exceeded the rate of population growth in the contributing community from 1970 to 1990. The daily per-person Pb input in 1990 (720,000 ng/person per day) exceeded the tolerable daily intake level. The Cd input (48,000 ng/person per day) and Hg input (19,000 ng/person per day) were below the respective TDI levels at the time.

Hermanson, Mark H.; Brozowski, James R.

2005-01-01

248

Impact of lead and sewage sludge on soil microbial biomass and carbon and nitrogen mineralization  

SciTech Connect

Sewage sludge disposal on arable land is viewed as a method to reduce waste accumulation and to enrich soil fertility. However, such disposal can degrade soil ecosystems due to the presence of potentially harmful substances, such as heavy metals. Pb has assumed greater significance because currently its dispersal through anthropogenic activities has exceeded the inputs from natural sources by about 17 fold. Several soil variables such as texture, organic matter content, clay, cation exchange capacity, soil pH, and CaCO{sub 3} content influence the toxic effects of heavy metals on sol microbes and their activities. Microbes have an essential function in cycling of nutrients through mineralization activities. However, the addition of 375 and 1500 {mu}g Pb g{sup -1} soil in sandy loam and clay loam has been reported to cause a 15% decrease in soil microbial respiration. Contrarily, in an organic soil microbial respiration and enzyme activities were observed to remain unaltered by the addition of 1000 {mu}g Pb g{sup -1} soil. While the nitrification process in a sandy loam soil has been reported to be significantly inhibited at 100 {mu}g Pb g{sup -1} soil, the addition of similar amount of Pb to alluvial and clay loam had no effect on nitrification and ammonifying and nitrifying bacteria. This study assesses the effects of lead and sewages sludge on microbial biomass and mineralization processes in soils of varied texture and organic matter content. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

Dar, G.H. [Haryana Agricultural Univ., Hisar (India)] [Haryana Agricultural Univ., Hisar (India)

1997-02-01

249

Leaching of heavy metals and alkylphenolic compounds from fresh and dried sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Reusing sewage sludge as a soil fertiliser has become a common alternative to disposal. Although this practice has a few benefits, it may contribute to the medium- and long-term contamination of the trophic chain because sewage sludge may contain heavy metals and organic contaminants. As the leaching of contaminants may depend on the sludge pre-treatment, the leaching of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cr) and alkylphenolic compounds (APCs) (octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol-mono-ethoxylate (NP1EO)) was investigated in five fresh and 40 °C dried sewage sludge samples from north-eastern Spain. FT-IR analyses and full-scan GC-MS chromatograms showed that sludge drying changed the nature of organic compounds leading to changes in their solubility. Moreover, sludge drying led to a higher relative contribution of dissolved organic carbon than the particulate organic carbon in the leachates. Leaching of Pb, Zn and Cr was below 5 % in both fresh and dried sludge samples, whereas Cu and Ni leached at rates up to 12 and 43 %, respectively, in some of the dried sludge samples. The leaching yields of OP, NP and NP1EO ranged from 1.3 to 35 % for fresh samples, but they decreased from 0.8 to 3.4 % in dried samples. The decrease in the leachability of APCs observed in dried sludge samples might be attributed to the fact that these compounds are associated with particulate organic matter, with significantly lower concentration or even absent in dried sludge than in fresh sludge samples. Therefore, it is recommended to dry the sludge before its disposal. PMID:24019139

Milinovic, Jelena; Vidal, Miquel; Lacorte, Silvia; Rigol, Anna

2014-02-01

250

The use of delta(15)N in assessing sewage stress on coral reefs.  

PubMed

While coral reefs decline, scientists argue, and effective strategies to manage land-based pollution lag behind the extent of the problem. There is need for objective, cost-effective, assessment methods. The measurement of stable nitrogen isotope ratios, delta(15)N, in tissues of reef organisms shows promise as an indicator of sewage stress. The choice of target organism will depend upon study purpose, availability, and other considerations such as conservation. Algae are usually plentiful and have been shown faithfully to track sewage input. The organic matrix of bivalve shells can provide time series spanning, perhaps, decades. Gorgonians have been shown to track sewage, and can provide records potentially centuries-long. In areas where baseline data are lacking, which is almost everywhere, delta(15)N in gorgonians can provide information on status and trends. In coral tissue, delta(15)N combined with insoluble residue determination can provide information on both sewage and sediment stress in areas lacking baseline data. In the developed world, delta(15)N provides objective assessment in a field complicated by conflicting opinions. Sample handling and processing are simple and analysis costs are low. This is a method deserving widespread application. PMID:19286230

Risk, Michael J; Lapointe, Brian E; Sherwood, Owen A; Bedford, Bradley J

2009-06-01

251

Heavy metal balances of an Italian soil as affected by sewage sludge and Bordeaux mixture applications  

SciTech Connect

Applications of sewage sludge and Bordeaux mixture (Bm) (a mixture of copper sulfate and lime) add heavy metals to the soil. At an experimental farm in the Cremona district (Italy), the authors measured current heavy metal contents in soil and their removal via harvested products. They also measured heavy metal adsorption by soil from this farm. With these data, projections were made of the long-term development of heavy metal (Cd, Cu, and Zn) contents in soil, crop removal, and leaching at different application rates of sewage sludge and Bm. These projections were compared with existing quality standards of the European Union (EU) and Italy with regard to soil and groundwater. The calculations reveal that the permitted annual application rates of sewage sludge and Bm are likely to result in exceedance of groundwater and soil standards. Sewage sludge applications, complying with the Italian legal limits, may pose problems for Cd, Cu, and Zn within 30, 70, and 100 yr, respectively. Furthermore, severe Cu pollution of integrated and especially organic (Bm only) vineyards is unavoidable with the currently allowed application rates of Bm. The results suggest that the current Italian soil protection policy as well as the EU policy are not conducive of a sustainable heavy metal management in agroecosystems.

Moolenaar, S.W. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands); Beltrami, P. [Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza (Italy)

1998-07-01

252

Magnesium Battery Disposal Characteristics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Ag...

L. Soffer T. Atwater

1994-01-01

253

Cold Vacuum Drying facility sanitary sewage collection system design description (SYS 27)  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) sanitary sewage collection system. The sanitary sewage collection system provides collection and storage of effluents and raw sewage from the CVDF to support the cold vacuum drying process. This system is comprised of a sanitary sewage holding tank and pipes for collection and transport of effluents to the sanitary sewage holding tank.

PITKOFF, C.C.

1999-07-02

254

Current legislation governing clinical waste disposal.  

PubMed

The paper considers UK and EC Legislation regulating clinical waste disposal. The legal definition of clinical waste is distinguished from both 'health care waste' and 'infectious waste'. Waste can be pre-treated so as to enable it to be disposed of through the normal waste stream. The legislation is looked at by reference to (i) production and storage; (ii) handling and transportation; and (iii) disposal. It is vitally important to draw up a waste management strategy. Effective segregation at source is a key factor in the waste management strategy and it will enable hospital authorities to make economic savings in waste disposal costs. The Paper considers the Duty of Care under the Environmental Protection Act 1990 and stresses the obligation on each person in the waste disposal chain to discharge the Duty. Landfilling as a method of disposal is discouraged except for waste where no possibility of infection arises. There are problems with hospital incinerators meeting modern emission standards. Requirements for licensing new incinerators are examined. The new Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994 require applications for Waste Management Licenses to demonstrate technical and financial competence as 'fit and proper persons'. The Paper concludes by examining penalties for breach of regulatory provisions. PMID:7560993

Moritz, J M

1995-06-01

255

High Prevalence of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Swedish Sewage  

PubMed Central

In Europe the use of the growth promoter avoparcin is considered to have selected for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Sweden ceased using avoparcin in 1986, and only occasional cases of VRE from hospitals have been reported since 1995. Within the framework of a European study, samples from urban raw sewage, treated sewage, surface water, and hospital sewage in Sweden (n = 118) were screened for VRE. Surprisingly, VRE were isolated from 21 of 35 untreated sewage samples (60%), from 5 of 14 hospital sewage samples (36%), from 6 of 32 treated sewage samples (19%), and from 1 of 37 surface water samples. Thirty-five isolates from 33 samples were further characterized by geno- and phenotyping, MIC determination, and PCR analysis. Most isolates (30 of 35) carried the vanA gene, and the majority (24 of 35) of the isolates were Enterococcus faecium. Most of the VRE were multiresistant. The typing revealed high diversity of the isolates. However, one major cluster with seven identical or similar isolates was found. These isolates came from three different sewage treatment plants and were collected at different occasions during 1 year. All VRE from hospital sewage originated from one of the two hospitals studied. That hospital also had vancomycin consumption that was 10-fold that of the other. We conclude that VRE were commonly found in sewage samples in Sweden. The origin might be both healthy individuals and individuals in hospitals. Possibly, antimicrobial drugs or chemicals released into the sewage system may sustain VRE in the system.

Iversen, Aina; Kuhn, Inger; Franklin, Anders; Mollby, Roland

2002-01-01

256

Solid waste disposal in district health facilities.  

PubMed

Hospital waste is not necessarily difficult to dispose of. In most cases it can be safely dumped in a properly designed waste pit. Waste management problems at district hospitals in developing countries are usually caused more by lack of information than by financial or technical difficulties. PMID:7999223

Halbwachs, H

1994-01-01

257

COMPREHENSIVE SUMMARY OF SLUDGE DISPOSAL RECYCLING HISTORY  

EPA Science Inventory

Since 1971 the only mode of sludge disposal used by Denver District No. 1 has been land application. A number of different application procedures have been tried over the intervening years. The development of methodology and problems associated with each procedure are discussed i...

258

Participatory management of waste disposal.  

PubMed

The general objective of this study was to develop a sustainable waste disposal management model in Yom riverside communities by creating a sense of ownership in the project among the villagers and encourage the community to identify problems based on their socio-cultural background. The participatory approach was applied in developing a continual learning process between the researcher and stakeholders. The Tub Phueng community of Si Samrong, Sukhothai Province was selected as the location for this study. From the population of 240 households in the area, 40 stakeholders were selected to be on the research team. The team found that the waste in this community was comprised of 4 categories: 1. Occupation: discarded insecticide containers used for farming activities; 2. Consumption: plastic bags and wrappers form pre-packed foods; 3. Traditional activities: after holding ceremonies and festivities, the waste was dumped in the river; and 4. Environmental hygiene: waste water from washing, bathing, toileting, cooking and cleaning was directly drained into the Yom River. The sustainable waste disposal model developed to manage these problems included building simple waste-water treatment wells, digging garbage holes, prosecuting people who throw garbage into the river, withdrawing privileges from people who throw garbage into the river, and establishing a garbage center. Most of the villagers were satisfied with the proposed model, looked forward to the expected positive changes, and thought this kind of solution would be easy to put into practice. PMID:16124458

Noosorn, Narongsak

2005-05-01

259

Sustainable sewage management and the inertia to change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing economic costs and environmental concerns have led to that planners around the world are progressively questioning the prevailing sewage management paradigm, calling for a shift in the hydrosocial contract to embrace more sustainable solutions, to be based on closed-loops rather than linear end-of-pipe solutions. Despite considerable attention to the technical possibilities for delivering sewage services in a more integrated and sustainable fashion, shifts in planning and management have been slow. Based on an extensive study of Australian cities, Brown et al (2009) have developed a model with six transitional stages and argue that "while there may be cognitive changes (best practice thinking such as water sustainable urban design), there has not been sufficient normative and regulative change to support new practice." They contrast three historic transition stages with three successive sustainable stages. Unfortunately, the study ends in a rather vague outline of "the Water Sensitive City", with little sign-posts indicating how one might transition to this seemingly utopian last stage. In the present paper, we discuss the normative tensions created between the different actors in this increasingly complex playing field, who represent different and often competing values. We suggest that cities have difficulties transitioning from the old contract to one of the newer ones because the hydro-social contract promised by these new stages create normative tensions not only between the new and the old, but also between what one might call different types of environmentalists: naturalists and pragmatists. The naturalists, who for example are very voiced in several cities along the North American west coast, tend to embrace the perception of Nature described by environmental historians as Untouched Wilderness, where technology is pinpointed as the root of the problems. In contrast, the other side lean more on the idea of modernity, with a more pragmatic approach to nature, which first and foremost is seen as a provider of material resources and technology is a tool that aids solving the problem with the limited supply. The naturalists' cognitive response points to solutions that are perceived as 'natural' such as composting and constructed wetlands, but do to not easily embrace solutions that are perceived as 'technical', such as smart metering, biogas reactors, and recovery of pelleted phosphorous compounds. We suggest that transition to the 'Water Sensitive City' requires explicit recognition that sewage management is a context-dependent multi-dimensional, multi-objective challenge in which competing objectives must be identified and trade-offs made, which includes recognizing and finding ways to manage the tacit tensions caused by competing normative underpinnings among different types of environmentalism.

Öberg, G.

2012-12-01

260

Magnesite disposal of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we report our progress on developing a method for carbon dioxide disposal whose purpose it is to maintain coal energy competitive even is environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other methods, our approach is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, its purpose is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. A successful development of this technology would guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth the most optimistic estimates that have been put forward. Our approach differs from all others in that we are developing an industrial process which chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Wendt, C.H.

1997-08-01

261

Microbial-Plant Filters (artificial Marshes) for Treating Domestic Sewage and Industrial Wastewater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wastewater treatment is an integral part of the water crisis that is emerging throughout the world. Even areas of the U.S. and other parts of the world with a plentiful supply of water are facing problems because the water is becoming contaminated with sewage and/or hazardous chemicals. Therefore, one of the most urgent environmental needs in the world today is a simple, low cost means of wastewater treatment and water reuse.

Wolverton, B. C.

1986-01-01

262

Determination of siloxanes and VOC in landfill gas and sewage gas by canister sampling and GC-MS\\/AES analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogases such as landfill gas and sewage gas undergo a combustion process which is generating electric energy. Since several trace compounds such as siloxanes (also halogenated and sulfur compounds) are known to cause severe problems to these gas combustion engines, they are of particular interest. In this work, a new technique for sampling, identification, and quantification of siloxanes and volatile

Martin Schweigkofler; Reinhard Niessner

1999-01-01

263

Geochemical and hydrologic controls on phosphorus transport in a sewage-contaminated sand and gravel aquifer near Ashumet Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The disposal of secondarily treated sewage onto rapid infiltration sand beds at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, has created a sewage plume in the underlying sand and gravel aquifer; the part of the\\x11sewage plume that contains dissolved phosphorus extends about 2,500 feet downgradient of the sewage-disposal beds. A part of the plume that\\x11contains nearly 2 milligrams per liter of phosphorus currently (1993) discharges into Ashumet Pond along about 700 feet of shoreline. The sewage plume discharges from about 59 to about 76 kilograms of phosphorus per year into the pond. Hydraulic-head measurements indicate that the north end of Ashumet Pond is a ground-water sink and an increased component of ground-water discharge and phosphorus flux into\\x11the pond occurs at higher water levels. Phosphorus was mobile in ground water in two distinct geochemical environments-an anoxic zone that contains no dissolved oxygen and as much as 25\\x11milligrams per liter of dissolved iron, and a more areally extensive suboxic zone that contains little or no iron, low but detectable dissolved oxygen, and as much as 12 milligrams per liter of dissolved manganese. Dissolved phosphorus is mobile in the suboxic geochemical environment because continued phosphorus loading has filled available sorption sites in the aquifer. Continued disposal of sewage since 1936 has created a large reservoir of sorbed phosphorus that is much greater than the mass of dissolved phosphorus in the ground water; the average ratio of sorbed to dissolved phosphorus in the anoxic and suboxic parts of the sewage plume were 31:1 and 155:1, respectively. Column experiments indicate that phosphorus in the anoxic core of the plume containing dissolved iron may be immobilized within 17 years by sorption and coprecipitation with new iron oxyhydroxides following the cessation of sewage disposal and the introduction of uncontaminated oxygenated ground water into the aquifer in December 1995. Residual oxygen demand associated with sorbed organic compounds and ammonia could retard the movement of oxygenated water into the aquifer. Sorbed phosphorus in the suboxic zone of the aquifer will continue to desorb into the ground water and will remain mobile in the ground water for perhaps hundreds of years. Also, the introduction of uncontaminated water into the aquifer may cause dissolved-phosphorus concentrations in the suboxic zone of the aquifer to increase sharply and remain higher than precessation levels for many years due to the desorption of loosely bound phosphorus. Data from three sampling sites, located along the eastern and western boundaries of the sewage plume and downgradient of abandoned sewage-disposal beds, indicate that ground-water mixing and phosphorus desorption may already be occurring in the aquifer in response to the introduction of uncontaminated recharge water into previously contaminated parts of the aquifer.

Walter, D. A.; Rea, B. A.; Stollenwerk, K. G.; Savoie, Jennifer

1995-01-01

264

Disposal of radioactive waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of radioactive and non-radioactive waste management is to protect man and the environment from unacceptable risks. Protection criteria for both should therefore be based on similar considerations. From overall protection criteria, performance criteria for subsystems in waste management can be derived, for example for waste disposal. International developments in this field are summarized. A brief overview of radioactive waste sorts and disposal concepts is given. Currently being implemented are trench disposal and engineered near-surface facilities for low-level wastes. For low-and intermediate-level waste underground facilities are under construction. For high-level waste site selection and investigation is being carried out in several countries. In all countries with nuclear programmes, the predicted performance of waste disposal systems is being assessed in scenario and consequence analyses. The influences of variability and uncertainty of parameter values are increasingly being treated by probabilistic methods. Results of selected performance assessments show that radioactive waste disposal sites can be found and suitable repositories can be designed so that defined radioprotection limits are not exceeded.

Van Dorp, Frits; Grogan, Helen; McCombie, Charles

265

Bacterial removal of mercury from sewage  

SciTech Connect

Mercury-resistant bacteria, which are able to reduce mercuric ion (Hg/sup 2 +/) to metallic mercury (Hg/sup 0/), were examined for their ability to remove mercury from wastewater aerobically. Growth studies in artificial medium indicated that mercury increases the lag phase, but does not effect the growth rate of these bacteria. Further studies demonstrated that growth was minimal during a phase of rapid mercury removal, after which growth resumed. Small but significant amounts of carbohydrates are required for the mercuric ion reduction. Prolonged periods of bacterial growth under nonsterile conditions was accomplished without the loss of the mercuric reducing ability of the culture. A continuous culture of the resistant organism was maintained on raw sewage for two weeks, during which time relatively high concentrations of mercury (70 mg/L) were removed from the sewage at a rate of 2.5 mg/L h and at efficiencies exceeding 98%.

Hansen, C.L.; Zwolinski, G.; Martin, D.; Williams, J.W.

1984-11-01

266

TG-MS as a technique for a better monitoring of the pyrolysis, gasification and combustion of two kinds of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge disposal is a difficult task owing to increasingly restrictive re-use policies. Its final destination will obviously\\u000a depend on its nature and composition but the generation of energy is a significant option. The thermochemical conversion requires\\u000a exhaustive gas emission controls. In this regard, this paper offers the results of the use of mass spectrometry together with\\u000a a thermogravimetric analysis

L. F. Calvo; M. E. Sánchez; A. Morán; A. I. García

2004-01-01

267

Laboratory studies of methods for the treatment and disposal of the waste stream from the silver-recovery facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Studies have shown that the waste stream, resulting from the process used to recover silver from spent photographic solutions at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Y-12 Plant facilities can be disposed of via ORNL's sewage treatment plant. The results of laboratory studies of alternative treatment methods are discussed. 3 refs., 3 tabs.

Parrott, J.R. Jr.; Strandberg, G.W.

1988-05-01

268

40 CFR 60.4775 - What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit? 60.4775...Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability... § 60.4775 What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?...

2013-07-01

269

40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt...Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability...Authority § 60.4780 What sewage sludge incineration units are...

2013-07-01

270

40 CFR 60.4770 - Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit? 60.4770...Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability... Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?...

2013-07-01

271

78 FR 34918 - Direct Final Approval of Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9821-1] Direct Final Approval of Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated...control air pollutants from ``Sewage Sludge Incinerators'' (SSI). The...as any device that combusts sewage sludge for the purpose of reducing...

2013-06-11

272

33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...graywater mixture. (c) Each entry in the Sewage and Graywater Discharge Record Book shall...Whether the effluent is treated or untreated sewage, graywater, or a sewage and graywater mixture and type of treatment used; (4) Time...

2010-07-01

273

33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...graywater mixture. (c) Each entry in the Sewage and Graywater Discharge Record Book shall...Whether the effluent is treated or untreated sewage, graywater, or a sewage and graywater mixture and type of treatment used; (4) Time...

2009-07-01

274

Production of long ceramic sewage pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

shaped from the plastic bodies using screw presses of high capacity (rigid construction) which permit one to obtain pipes from the bodies having a low moisture content (13-14%). At the Soviet ceramic plants, sewage pipes are made from the bodies having a moisture content of 17.5-18.5% which restricts the possibility of increasing the length of the pipes. The studies conducted

V. S. Radyukhin; B. V. Lebedev; V. M. Kraev; Yu. F. Mikhailov

1986-01-01

275

Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

1976-01-01

276

Toxicity Evaluation of Sewage Sludge Before and After Composting Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge and the compost were evaluated through chemical characterization and toxicity testing to determine their suitability for land application. The application of sewage sludge\\/compost, slightly acidic with pH rang of 6.4-6.5, decreased the soil pH. The higher the sewage sludge\\/compost rates, the higher the mixed soil contents of electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P),

Qiang Liu; Ling Chen; You Huang; Wuliang Cheng; Jianfu Zhao

2008-01-01

277

Ecophysiological Responses of Plants After Sewage Sludge Compost Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composting is one of the most appropriate methods to recycle sewage sludge. Sewage sludge compost is a suitable solution for\\u000a improving the quality of barren soil at landfill. Therefore, it is important to investigate the effects of sewage sludge compost\\u000a on plants. Different compost application methods (mixing and scattering over reclaimed soil) on sawtooth oak (Quercus acutissima) and Japanese red

Uhram Song; Eun Ju Lee

2010-01-01

278

[The hygienic evaluation of a local unit for sewage treatment].  

PubMed

A complex of hygienic criteria was proposed to assess a Bioclere local unit for sewage treatment. These included: the effects of the organoleptic properties of sewage, better sanitary and chemical parameters, lower levels of inorganic and organic chemicals, surfactants, microbiological parameters, stability of treatment regimens. The Bioclere unit has some advantages over the similar ones and may be useful when an object cannot be connected to the sewage network. PMID:9190350

Zholdakova, Z I; Kustova, E V; Sinitsyna, O O; Nedachin, A E; Sidorenko, S G

1997-01-01

279

Ammonia sanitisation of sewage sludge using urea.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to develop a simple, low-cost treatment for sewage sludge using urea as a sanitising agent. Sewage sludge was spiked with Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella typhimurium, treated with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% w/w urea at laboratory scale, and the viability was monitored during 4 months of storage at 4, 10 and 22 °C (only 0.5%). A linear relationship was identified between Salmonella spp. inactivation rate and ammonia (NH3) concentration. Temperature had a positive impact on Salmonella spp. inactivation at higher temperatures, but in the range 4-10 °C temperature influenced this inactivation merely by its impact on the ammonia equilibrium. Enterococcus spp. was more persistent and a lag phase of up to 11 weeks was observed. Higher temperature and ammonia concentration reduced the lag phase duration significantly, and also had a clear effect on the inactivation rate for the treatments with 0.5% urea at 22 °C and 2% urea at 4 and 10 °C. Urea sanitisation of sewage sludge can give a 2 log10 reduction of Enterococcus spp. and more than a 5 log10 reduction of Salmonella spp. within 6 weeks with either 0.5% w/w urea at 22 °C or 2% urea at 10 °C. PMID:24185072

Fidjeland, Jørgen; Lalander, Cecilia; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

2013-01-01

280

Disposal Techniques with Energy Recovery for Scrapped Vehicle Tires.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scrap tire disposal problem is serious and widespread. However there are a number of promising management options, especially using the rubber as a supplemental fuel for existing combustors. The most cost-effective approach to dealing with Denver's ti...

T. A. Sladek E. K. Demos

1987-01-01

281

[Cholera update and vaccination problems].  

PubMed

Cholera remains an important public health problem. The long-term control of cholera depends on good personal hygiene, uncontaminated water supply and appropriate sewage disposal. However, the improvement of hygiene is distant goal for many countries. Thus the availability of an effective cholera vaccine is important for the prevention of cholera in these countries. Research on new cholera vaccines has mainly focused on oral formulations that stimulate the mucosal secretory immune system. Two oral cholera vaccines were experimented on large scale in human. The first vaccine, containing inactivated bacterial cells and B-subunit of cholera toxin, has been tested in Bangladesh from 1985 to 1989. This vaccine, according to WHO, may prove useful in the stable phase of refugee/displaced person crises, especially when given preventively. The second vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine containing the genetically manipulated Vibrio cholerae O1 strain CVD 103-HgR. Despite its efficacy in adult volunteers, results of a large-scale field trial carried-out in Indonesia for 4 years have shown a surprisingly low protection. Moreover, one of the safety concerns associated with live cholera vaccine is a possible horizontal gene transfer and recombination event leading to reversion to virulence. A new vaccine development program for cholera is based upon the hypothesis that immunoglobulins G directed to the O-specific polysaccharide of Vibrio cholerae O1 could confer protective immunity to cholera by inactivating the inoculum on intestinal mucosal surface. This program may lead to the development of cholera conjugate vaccines to elicit protection in infants. PMID:9812307

Fournier, J M; Villeneuve, S

1998-01-01

282

Characteristics of sewage sludge and distribution of heavy metal in plants with amendment of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

In order to better understand land application of sewage sludge, the characterization of heavy metals and organic pollutants were investigated in three different sewage sludges in Shanghai City, China. It was found that the total concentrations of Cd in all of sewage sludge and total concentrations of Zn in Jinshan sewage sludge, as well as those of Zn, Cu, and Ni in Taopu sludge are higher than Chinese regulation limit of pollutants for sludge to be used in agriculture. Leachability of Hg in all of studied samples and that of Cd in Taopu sewage sludge exceed the limit values of waste solid extraction standard in China legislation. Based on the characteristics for three kinds of sewage sludge, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amended with Quyang sewage sludge on the accumulation of heavy metal by Begonia semperflorens-hybr; Ophiopogon japonicus (L.F.) Ker-Gaw; Loropetalum chindense-var. rubrum; Dendranthema morifolium; Viola tricolor; A ntirrhinum majus; Buxus radicans Sieb; Viburnum macrocephalum; Osmanthus fragrans Lour; Cinnamomum camphora siebold and Ligustrum lucidum ait. Results showed that 8 species of plant survived in the amended soil, and moreover they flourished as well as those cultivated in the control soil. The heavy metal concentration in plants varied with species, As, Pb, Cd and Cr concentration being the highest in the four herbaceous species studied, particularly in the roots of D. morifolium. These plants, however, did not show accumulator of As, Pb, Cd and Cr. The highest concentration of Ni and Hg was found in the roots of D. morifolium, followed by the leaves of B. semperflorens-hybr. Levels of Zn and Cu were much higher in D. morifolium than in the other plant species. D. morifolium accumulated Ni, Hg, Cu and Zn, which may contribute to the decrease of heavy metal contents in the amended soil. Treatment with sewage sludge did not significantly affect the uptake of heavy metals by the L. chindense-var. rubrum, however, it significantly affected the uptake of heavy metals by D. morifolium. PMID:17294948

Dai, Jia-yin; Chen, Ling; Zhao, Jian-fu; Ma, Na

2006-01-01

283

Magnesium battery disposal characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge

Louis Soffer; Terrill Atwater

1994-01-01

284

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

1990-10-01

285

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

1990-10-01

286

DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of radioactive wastes from isotope users in the Federai ; Republic of Germany is rather small. Adequate provisions of the First Radiation ; Protection Ordinance deal with the waste disposal by the deposition into soil or ; ordinary wastes, and the discharge into sewers or surface waters. (auth) O H7655 ; Research progress is reported on biologicai and

Straimer

1962-01-01

287

DISPOSAL OF WASTES FROM WATER TREATMENT PLANTS—PART 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to provide current information on the nature of the water treatment plant waste disposal problem, and to assist water utilities in solving the problem. The report describes technology presently available, defines new approaches to the problem, and suggests future directions for the coordination and dissemination of information.

R. I. Dick; R. B. Dean; D. D. Adrian; A. P. Black; R. N. Kinman; K. E. Shull; G. Tchobanoglous; W. K. Neubauer; D. P. Proudfit; W. W. Aultman; S. L. Bishop; P. W. Doe; J. C. Nebiker; W. H. Plautz; J. W. Krasauskas; Lee Streicher; C. M. Bach; H. Hartung; C. E. Johnson; H. R. Peters; J. C. Webber; J. C. Lamb III; E. C. Weber; J. B. Coulter; G. H. Eagle; Vern Fahy; Edgar Henry; H. B. Russelmann

1970-01-01

288

Chemical composition of sewage-grown Spirulina platensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Spirulina platensis has been grown in an outdoor pilot production unit, with an exposed surface area of 450 m2, on a medium consisting of raw domestic sewage supplemented with sodium bicarbonate and nitrate or urea fertilizer. The chemical composition and yield of the biomass grown on sewage-nitrate was comparable to that grown on synthetic medium. The protein content was

P. N. Saxena; M. R. Ahmad; R. Shyam; P. S. Misra

1982-01-01

289

Survival and Activity of Sewage Micoorganisms in Acid Mine Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numbers and types of bacteria decrease if the pH of sewage is lowered by addition of acid mine water. A rapid decrease occurs at 4 C and 22 C, but at 22 C microbial numbers increese after the initial decrease. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of sewage...

R. C. Kralovic H. A. Wilson

1969-01-01

290

Antibiotic resistance of E. coli in sewage and sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is the evaluation of resistance patterns of E. coli in wastewater treatment plants without an evaluation of basic antibiotic resistance mechanisms.Investigations have been done in sewage, sludge and receiving waters from three different sewage treatment plants in southern Austria. A total of 767 E. coli isolates were tested regarding their resistance to 24 different antibiotics.

F. F Reinthaler; J Posch; G Feierl; G Wüst; D Haas; G Ruckenbauer; F Mascher; E Marth

2003-01-01

291

Study on the characteristics and utilization of urban sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to propose an effective method for the reclamation of sewage sludge, sewage sludge from three waste water treatment plants were sampled and analyzed. The results show that the digested sludge samples are alkalescent, and the undigested sludge samples are acidic. The moisture content ranged from 78% to 83%. The samples have plenty of organic matter, N, P, K,

Niu Junling; Liu Lei; Zheng Binguo

2011-01-01

292

Tracking persistent pharmaceutical residues from municipal sewage to drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In urban areas such as Berlin (Germany) with high municipal sewage water discharges and low surface water flows there is a potential risk of drinking water contamination by polar organic compounds when groundwater recharge is used in drinking water production. Thus, some pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are not eliminated completely in the municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they are

Thomas Heberer

2002-01-01

293

Influence of sewage sludge addition on coal ash fusion temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ash fusion characteristics of three types of bituminous coal (A, B, and C), one type of sewage sludge (W), and the corresponding coal-sewage sludge blends (10 and 50 wt % of sludge) were studied. The ash fusibility temperatures of samples in oxidizing atmosphere were measured, and their chemical and mineralogical compositions were determined. The addition of sludge to coal

M. Belen Folgueras; R. Maria Diaz; Jorge Xiberta; M. Purificacion Garcia; J. Juan Pis

2005-01-01

294

Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few health concerns because sufficient decay occurs before it can reach the public however, incineration, which is done in winter months, directly releases the 131I from sewage sludge to the atmosphere, and even though exposures to both workers and the public were found to be considerably lower than 1% of natural background, incineration of sludge in a pathway for public exposure. Although 131I was readily measurable in sewage sludge, only about 1% of the radioione administered to patients was found in the sludge. The fate of the remaining radioactivity has not been established; some may be in secondary and tertiary residuals, but it is quite likely that most passed through the plant and was discharged in dilute concentrations in plant emissions. The behavior of radioiodine and other radioactive materials released into municipal seweage systems, such as those from large medical facilities, is not yet well understood.

Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

1997-01-01

295

Fuel-Efficient Sewage Sludge Incineration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. The energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilit...

A. B. Pincince M. J. Walsh W. R. Niessen

1990-01-01

296

Assessment of a potential agricultural application of Bangkok-digested sewage sludge and finished compost products.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to investigate the levels of plant nutrients, heavy metals, parasites and fecal coliform bacteria in Bangkok-produced sewage sludge and finished compost products for potential agricultural application, as well as to compare the quality of compost under different composting conditions. The results indicated that digested sewage sludge had high fertilizing values for organic matter (19.01 ± 0.09%), total nitrogen (2.17 ± 0.07%), total phosphorus (2.06 ± 0.06%) and total potassium (1.16 ± 0.22%), but it was contaminated with human pathogens, including fecal coliform bacteria, viable helminthes egg and active forms of parasite cysts. Thus, fresh sewage sludge should not be disposed on land unless it has undergone pathogen reduction. It is proven that the quality of the sludge mixed with grass clippings at a ratio of 6:1 volume/volume after having passed a windrow composting process for 8 weeks can be classified as class A biosolids as the levels of remaining fecal coliforms were < 3 most probable number g(-1) dry solid and all human parasites were destroyed. Concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium in the finished compost were 16.53 ± 1.25%, 1.39 ± 0.06%, 0.42 ± 0.10% and 1.53 ± 0.05% respectively. The total copper concentration was rather high (2291.31 ± 121.77 mg kg(-1)), but all heavy metal concentrations were also well below the United States Environmental Protection Agency pollutant limits for land application. The finished compost products can be considered as a soil conditioner as they have relatively low essential plant nutrient concentrations. It is recommended to be initially used for gardening and landscaping to ensure safety utilization. PMID:23836101

Sreesai, Siranee; Peapueng, Panadda; Tippayamongkonkun, Taninporn; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

2013-09-01

297

[Characteristics of speciation and evaluation of ecological risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge of Guangzhou].  

PubMed

Contents of heavy metals in different sewage sludges were analyzed and the speciation distribution and bioavailability of heavy metals were investigated, and the risk assessment code (RAC) and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure for solid waste were used to evaluate the potential ecological risk and leaching toxicity risk of heavy metals in sludge samples, respectively. The results showed that contents of Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn were high and presented a great difference by different sources in sewage sludges. Most of heavy metals existed in non-residual fractions and percentages of the mobile fraction (acid soluble fraction) of heavy metals in acidic sludge were higher. According to the results of single extraction, 1 mol x L(-1) NaOAc solution (pH 5.0) and 0.02 mol x L(-1) EDTA + 0.5 mol x L(-1) NH4OAc solution (pH 4.6) were suitable for evaluating bioavailable heavy metals in acidic and alkaline sludge, respectively. Percentages of bioavailable heavy metals were higher with the stronger of sludge acidity. The mobile ability of heavy metals resulted in the high ecological risk of sludge samples, and the bioavailability of heavy metals caused acidic sludges with a very high ecological risk but alkaline sludges with the middle ecological risk. Leaching toxicity risk was very high in sludge samples except domestic sewage sludge. After the removal of bioavailable heavy metals, leaching toxicity risk of sludge samples was still high in spite of its decrease; however, part type of sludges could be implemented landfill disposal. PMID:24812965

Guo, Peng-Ran; Lei, Yong-Qian; Cai, Da-Chuan; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Rui; Pan, Jia-Chuan

2014-02-01

298

Diaper area and disposable diapers.  

PubMed

Since the 1960s, cloth diapers have been replaced by disposable diapers. The evolution of healthier skin in the diaper area has been demonstrated in parallel to that of disposable diapers. The improvements of disposable diapers--fit, dryness, comfort--have been based on the understanding of factors playing a role in the development of diaper dermatitis. PMID:21325842

Erasala, G N; Romain, C; Merlay, I

2011-01-01

299

Water Purification, Distribution and Sewage Disposal. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-29.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, designed to serve as a training manual for technical instructors and as a field resource reference for Peace Corps volunteers, consists of nine units. Unit topics focus on: (1) water supply sources; (2) water treatment; (3) planning water distribution systems; (4) characteristics of an adequate system; (5) construction techniques;…

1979

300

Shore Disposal of Ship Generated Sewage at Activities in the Eastern Area. Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains maps and drawings showing existing conditions, ship berthing and proposed sewerage facilities for 40 activities under the study. There are two berthing plans shown for most of these activities. They are designated, 'Design Maximum Load...

C. I. Harding D. K. Ruckman

1969-01-01

301

Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) biomass production in a calcareous soil amended with sewage sludge compost and irrigated with sewage water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy use is one of the most important current global issues. Traditional energetic resources are limited and its use generates environmental problems, i.e. Global Warming, thus it is necessary to find alternative ways to produce energy. Energy crops represent one step towards sustainability but it must be coupled with appropriate land use and management adapted to local conditions. Moreover, positive effects like soil conservation; economical improvement of rural areas and CO2 storage could be achieved. Treated sewage water and sewage sludge compost were used as low-cost inputs for nutrition and irrigation, to cultivate cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) a perennial Mediterranean crop. The aim of the present field experiment was to ascertain the optimum dose of compost application to obtain maximum biomass production. Four compost treatments were applied by triplicate (D1=0; D2=30; D3=50; D4=70 ton/ha) and forty eight cardoon plants were placed in each plot, 12 per treatment, in a calcareous soil (CLfv; WRB, 2006) plot, located in the South East of Spain, in semi-arid conditions. The experiment was developed for one cardoon productive cycle (one year); soil was sampled three times (October, April and July). Soil, compost and treated sewage irrigation water were analyzed (physical and chemical properties). Stalk, capitula and leave weight as well as height and total biomass production were the parameters determined for cardoon samples. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) at p=0,05 significance level were performed to detect differences among treatments for each sampling/plot and to study soil parameters evolution and biomass production for each plot/dose. Several statistical differences in soil were found between treatments for extractable zinc, magnesium and phosphorus; as well as Kjeldahl nitrogen and organic carbon due to compost application, showing a gradual increase of nutrients from D1 to D4. However, considering the evolution of soil parameters along time, pH was the only with marked and significant decreasing trend from the first to the last sampling period. Mean cardoon biomass production in D1subplot was 13 ton/ha which differed significantly from D4 production, which was about 20 ton/ha. Hence, the maximum biomass production was obtained with the maximum compost dose. The results show that compost amendment increased cardoon biomass production, probably due to the improvement of soil properties, especially plant nutrient availability. No significant differences were found in soil parameters along time, with the exception of pH. However, longer test time is needed to evaluate long term effects in soil and to check the maintenance of biomass productivity. References Fernadez J., Curt, M.D., Aguado P.L. Industrial applications of Cynara cardunculus for energy and other uses. Industrial Crops and Product 24 (2006) pp 222-229. WRB (2006). World Reference Base for Soil Resources (2nd ed.). World Soil Resources Report 103, FAO, Rome, Italy (2006) 133 pp. Casado, J.; Sellés, S.; Navarro, J.; Bustamante, M.A.; Mataix, J.; Guerrero, C.; Gomez, I. Evaluation of composted sewage sludge as nutricional source for horticulturals soils. Waste Management 26 (2006). pp 946-952. Acknowledgements: The author gratefully acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Science for a research fellowship (AP2007-01641).

Lag, A.; Gomez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Melendez, I.; Perez Gimeno, A.; Soriano-Disla, J. M.

2010-05-01

302

Growth, chemical composition and soil properties of Tipuana speciosa (Benth.) Kuntze seedlings irrigated with sewage effluent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was carried out at a greenhouse of Sabahia Horticulture Research Station, Alexandria, Egypt, to study the effect of sewage effluent on the growth and chemical composition of Tipuana speciosa (Benth.) Kuntze seedlings as well as on soil properties for three stages. The irrigation treatments were primary-treated wastewater and secondary-treated wastewater, in addition to tap water as control. Therefore, the treated wastewater was taken from oxidation ponds of New Borg El-Arab City. Results of these study revealed that the primary effluent treatment explored the highest significant values for vegetative growth and biomass, compared to the other treatments. In addition, the higher significant concentration and uptake of chemical composition in different plant parts were obtained from the primary effluent treatment during the three stages of irrigation. It was found that the concentration of heavy metals in either plant or soil was below as compared to the world-recommended levels. These findings suggested that the use of sewage effluent in irrigating T. speciosa seedlings grown in calcareous soil was beneficial for the improvement of soil properties and production of timber trees, and also important for the safe manner of disposal of wastewater.

Ali, Hayssam M.; Khamis, Mohamed H.; Hassan, Fatma A.

2012-06-01

303

Assessment of anaerobic sewage sludge quality for agricultural application after metal bioleaching.  

PubMed

The effects of metal bioleaching on nutrient solubilization, especially nitrogen and phosphorous, from anaerobically-digested sewage sludge were investigated in this work. The assessment of the sanitary quality of the anaerobic sludge after bioleaching was also carried out by enumerating indicator (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci) and total heterotrophic bacteria. The experiments of bioleaching were performed using indigenous sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus spp.) as inoculum and samples of anaerobically-digested sludge. Nitrogen and phosphorous solubilization from sewage sludge was assessed by measuring, respectively, the concentration of Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen, ammonia, nitrate/nitrite, and soluble and total phosphorous before and after the bioleaching assays. At the end of the experiment, after 4 days of incubation (final pH of 1.4), the following metal solubilization yields were obtained: zinc, 91%; nickel, 87%; copper, 79%; lead, 52%; and chromium, 42%. As a result of sludge acidification, the viable counts of selected indicator bacteria were decreased to below the detection limit (4 x 10(3) cfu 100 ml(-1)), followed by an increase in the mineral fraction of nitrogen (from 6 to 10%) and in the soluble fraction of phosphorous (from 15 to 30%). Although some loss of sludge nutrients can occur during solid-liquid separation following bioleaching, its beneficial effects as metal removal and reduction of pathogenic bacteria are sufficient to consider the potential of this treatment before sludge disposal onto agricultural fields. PMID:14977151

Villar, L D; Garcia, O

2003-12-01

304

Benthic Distribution of Sewage Sludge Indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a Deep-Ocean Dump Site †  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens in sediment samples collected at the Deep Water Municipal Sewage Sludge Disposal Site (also called the 106-Mile Site), off the coast of New Jersey, was enumerated. The counts of C. perfringens found in sediment samples collected within and to the southwest of the 106-Mile Site were significantly elevated (P < 0.01) compared with counts of samples from reference stations of similar depth (2,400 to 2,700 m), topography, and distance from the continental shelf, indicating that the benthic environment was contaminated by sewage dumping at this site. Low counts of C. perfringens in sediment samples collected at stations between the base of the continental shelf and the 106-Mile Site indicated that coastal runoff was not a significant source of contamination. Elevated counts were observed for samples up to 92 km to the southwest, whereas low counts were obtained for samples from stations to the east of the 106-Mile Site. This distribution is consistent with previous model predictions of sludge deposition. In areas heavily impacted by sludge dumping, C. perfringens counts were generally highest in the top 1 cm of sediment and exceeded 9,000 CFU g (dry weight) of sediment-1. The patterns of C. perfringens dispersal observed in this study have proved useful for selection of heavily impacted areas and control stations for further ecological evaluation by a multidisciplinary research team.

Hill, Russell T.; Knight, Ivor T.; Anikis, Michael S.; Colwell, Rita R.

1993-01-01

305

Environmental assessment of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production--a case study in China.  

PubMed

A life cycle assessment was carried out to estimate the environmental impact of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production. To confirm and add credibility to the study, uncertainty analysis was conducted. Results showed the impact generated from respiratory inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, global warming, and non-renewable energy categories had an important contribution to overall environmental impact, due to energy, clinker, and limestone production stages. Also, uncertainty analysis results showed the technology of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production had little or no effect on changing the overall environmental potential impact generated from general cement production. Accordingly, using the technology of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production is a good choice for reducing the pressure on the environment from dramatically increased sludge disposal. In addition, increasing electricity recovery rate, choosing natural gas fired electricity generation technology, and optimizing the raw material consumption in clinker production are highly recommended to reduce the adverse effects on the environment. PMID:21288709

Hong, Jinglan; Li, Xiangzhi

2011-06-01

306

Accelerated simulation of the migration of solutes in sandy soils amended by sewage sludge: Transport and retardation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common way to dispose of sewage sludge is to spead it on agricultural land because of its high nutrient (P, N) and org C contents. However, in addition to these beneficial components, sewage sludge can contain toxic chemicals such as heavy metals. This farming technique is relatively recent (several decades, at most) and there is still a need for information concerning the processes controlling the fate of the heavy metals in the sludge. To study how fast they migrate in the soil profile, the transfer of water and associated solutes in both unsaturated and unsaturated conditions can be accelerated by centrifugation according to the equation: tsimulated = treal * g2. (t: time). In a lysimeter study (diameter 30 cm, depth 60 cm) carried out using the CEA-CESTA Silat 265 centrifuge, we simulated, at 20 g, several months of percolation in one day. Experiments were done on cores of sandy forest soil (podzol) to which various sewage sludges (containing 2 to 12 mg/kg Cd, 20 to 120 mg/kg Ni, 50 to 465 mg/kg Pb) and simulated rain were applied. Major ions migrated at an estimated rate of 6-8.5 mm/simulated day (2-3 m/simulated year), while heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb) were retarded by a factor of 1.5 to 2. The retention of these heavy metals is associated with the organic C content of the soil profile (rich in the upper horizon).

Etchebers, O.; Kedziorek, M. A.; Chossat, J.; Riou, C.; Bourg, A. C.

2003-12-01

307

Phytotreatment of sewage sludge contaminated by heavy metals and PAHs by co-planting Sedum alfredii and Alocasia marorrhiza.  

PubMed

High concentrations of heavy metals and organic pollutants in municipal sewage sludge are key factors limiting its use in agriculture. The objectives of this study were to decrease the heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sewage sludge by phytotreatment and to determine, in a field experiment, whether co-planting is more effective than using a mono-crop of Sedum alfredii. Four treatments were used in the plot experiment: no sludge, no plants, S. alfredii and co-planting S. alfredii and Alocasia marorrhiza. The results showed that co-planting produced tubers and shoots of A. marorrhiza that were suitable as a safe animal feed and good organic K fertilizer, respectively. Co-planting was more effective than mono-planting at reducing concentrations of total Zn and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn, Cd, and Cu in the sludge. Co-planting decreased the concentrations of DTPA-extractable heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in the sludge significantly compared with the unplanted sludge. Decreases of 87, 75, 85, 31, and 64% were obtained for B[a]P and DTPA-extractable Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb, respectively, compared with the fresh sludge. These results indicate that co-planting can reduce significantly the environmental risks associated with heavy metals and B[a]P in sewage sludge for further disposal. PMID:24912211

Qiu, J R; Guo, X F; Cai, Q Y; Liu, W; Zhang, M W; Wei, Z B; Wu, Q T

2014-01-01

308

Water and sewage systems, socio-demographics, and duration of residence associated with endemic intestinal infectious diseases: A cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of water-related gastrointestinal infections are usually directed at outbreaks. Few have examined endemic illness or compared rates across different water supply and sewage disposal systems. We conducted a cohort study of physician visits and hospitalizations for endemic intestinal infectious diseases in a mixed rural and urban community near Vancouver, Canada, with varied and well-characterized water and sewage systems. Methods Cohort members and their disease events were defined via universal health insurance data from 1995 through 2003. Environmental data were derived from municipal, provincial, and federal government sources. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between disease events and water and sewage systems, socio-demographic characteristics, and temporal factors. Results The cohort included 126,499 individuals and approximately 190,000,000 person-days. Crude incidence rates were 1,353 physician visits and 33.8 hospitalizations for intestinal infectious diseases per 100,000 person-years. Water supply chlorination was associated with reduced physician visit incidence (OR: 0.92, 95% CI 0.85-1.0). Two water systems with the highest proportions of surface water had increased incidence (ORs: 1.57, 95% CI 1.39-1.78; and 1.45, 95% CI 1.28-1.64). Private well water and well depth were not associated with increased risk, likely because of residents' awareness of and attention to water quality. There was increased crude incidence with increasing precipitation in the population served by surface water supplies, but this trend did not remain with adjustment for other variables. Municipal sewer systems were associated with increased risk (OR: 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.38). Most socio-demographic variables had predicted associations with risk: higher rates in females, in the very young and the elderly, and in residents of low income areas. Increased duration of area residence was associated with reduced risk (OR, duration ? 6 years: 0.69, 95% CI 0.60-0.80 vs. < 1 year: 1.16, 95% CI 1.03-1.30). Conclusions This large cohort study, with objective data on exposures and outcomes, demonstrated associations between endemic infectious intestinal diseases and factors related to water supply, sewage disposal, socio-demographics, and duration of residency. The results did not always follow prior expectations based on studies examining outbreaks and single systems, and underscore the importance of studying factors associated with endemic disease across water and sewage system types.

2010-01-01

309

Quality requirements for irrigation with sewage water  

SciTech Connect

Irrigation is an excellent use for sewage effluent because it is mostly water with nutrients. For small flows, the effluent can be used on special, well-supervised sewage farms, where forage, fiber, or seed crops are grown that can be irrigated with standard primary or secondary effluent. Large-scale use of the effluent requires special treatment so that it meets the public health, agronomic, and aesthetic requirements for unrestricted use. Crops in the unrestricted-use category include those that are consumed raw or brought raw into the kitchen. Most state or government standards deal only with public health aspects, and prescribe the treatment processes or the quality parameters that the effluent must meet before it can be used to irrigate a certain category of crops. However, agronomic aspects related to crops and soils must also be taken into account. Quality parameters to be considered include bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens; total salt content and sodium adsorption ratio of the water; nitrogen; phosphorus; chloride and chlorine; bicarbonate; heavy metals, boron, and other trace elements; pH; and synthetic organics. 23 refs., 9 tabs.

Bouwer, H.; Idelovitch, E. (Agricultural Research Service, Phoenix, AZ (USA))

1987-11-01

310

[Molecular epidemiological analysis of ECHO7 virus isolated from sewage water in Yunnan Province, China].  

PubMed

To investigate the epidemic and evolutionary trends of enterovirus (EV) in the external environment of Yunnan Province, China, molecular typing was performed on 4 EV strains that were isolated from environmental sewage in Yunnan. The VP1 region of isolates was amplified by RT-PCR using universal enterovirus primers, and the amplified VP1 region was sequenced for GenBank BLAST search and genotype analysis. The 4 EV strains were identified as ECHO7. Their nucleotide and amino acid homologies with the VP1 sequences of 68 ECHO7 strains retrieved from GenBank were measured by Mega software analysis. Our findings showed that ECHO7 strains from environmental sewage and population samples were in different evolutionary branches. These strains showed typical geographical and temporal differences; In addition, there were different transmission chains at the same time and in the same area. ECHO7 strains isolated from sewage water and patients with acute flaccid paralysis during the same period in Yunnan belonged to different clusters and evolved at different speeds. Special concerns are needed for this problem. Continuous molecular biological surveillance of human EV in the external environment of Yunnan will provide strong support for early warning of EV diseases. PMID:24772901

Zhao, Zhi-Xian; Ding, Zheng-Rong; Zhang, Jie; Tang, Jing-Jing; Tian, Bing-Jun

2014-01-01

311

Sampling of tar from sewage sludge gasification using solid phase adsorption.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge is a residue from wastewater treatment plants which is considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Gasification technology is a potential source of renewable energy that converts the sewage sludge into gases that can be used to generate energy or as raw material in chemical synthesis processes. But tar produced during gasification is one of the problems for the implementation of the gasification technology. Tar can condense on pipes and filters and may cause blockage and corrosion in the engines and turbines. Consequently, to minimize tar content in syngas, the ability to quantify tar levels in process streams is essential. The aim of this work was to develop an accurate tar sampling and analysis methodology using solid phase adsorption (SPA) in order to apply it to tar sampling from sewage sludge gasification gases. Four types of commercial SPA cartridges have been tested to determine the most suitable one for the sampling of individual tar compounds in such streams. Afterwards, the capacity, breakthrough volume and sample stability of the Supelclean™ ENVI-Carb/NH(2), which is identified as the most suitable, have been determined. Basically, no significant influences from water, H(2)S or NH(3) were detected. The cartridge was used in sampling real samples, and comparable results were obtained with the present and traditional methods. PMID:22526666

Ortiz González, Isabel; Pérez Pastor, Rosa Ma; Sánchez Hervás, José Ma

2012-06-01

312

Suitability of Public Records for Evaluating Health Effects of Treated Sewage Sludge in North Carolina  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Exposure to potentially harmful agents because of waste disposal practices is receiving increased attention. Treated sewage sludge (TSS), or biosolid material, is the solid waste generated during domestic sewage treatment after it has undergone processes to reduce the number of pathogens and vector attractants. Application of TSS to land, which is the most common method for disposal, is promoted as a soil amendment and fertilizer. Few studies have examined the effects of land application on the health and quality of life of neighboring populations. We describe and summarize publicly available records that could be used to study the public health impact of practices associated with land application in North Carolina. METHODS We abstracted public records from the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources Division of Water Quality, to determine the following activities associated with land application of TSS in 8 counties in central North Carolina: the process for obtaining permits, reported applications, violations, documented concerns of residents, and penalties assessed. RESULTS The Division of Water Quality routinely collects records of permits and approvals for land application of TSS, amounts applied, and reported pollutant levels. Documentation was useful in summarizing land application practices, but lack of standardization in reporting was a concern. Research into the public health impacts of the land application program is hindered by inconsistency in documenting inspections and resident concerns. LIMITATIONS We were not able to validate state records with direct observation of land application of TSS. CONCLUSIONS Records from the Division of Water Quality would be of limited use in epidemiologic studies of the health effects of land application of biosolids. Information about locations, amounts, and dates of application are relevant to exposure potential, but additional information is needed for health investigations.

Keil, Alexander; Wing, Steven; Lowman, Amy

2011-01-01

313

Medically-derived 131I in municipal sewage effluent.  

PubMed

This work presents (131)I (t(½) = 8.04 d) concentrations in sewage effluent from the Stony Brook Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP), a small plant serving a regional thyroid cancer treatment facility in Stony Brook, NY, USA. The concentrations detected in sewage effluent ranged from 1.8 ± 0.3 to 227 ± 2 Bq L(-1). The primary source of (131)I is excreta from thyroid cancer inpatients treated at the Stony Brook University Medical Center. Based on several time series measurements following known inpatient treatments, the mean sewage half-life (T(s)) of iodine is 3 d in this plant. The T(s), analogous to a radioactive half-life, describes the time it takes for half of a wastewater component to be removed from a WPCP. Flow recycling, or activated sludge, used to maintain bacterial populations necessary for sewage treatment causes iodine to remain in this plant far longer than its hydraulic retention time. The experimental results suggest that most (131)I entering the Stony Brook WPCP leaves in sewage effluent, not in sewage sludge. Patient treatments can result in continuous discharges of (131)I to surface waters where it can be used as a tracer of sewage-derived material and to understand the behavior of (131)I in aquatic environments. PMID:22925394

Rose, Paula S; Swanson, R Lawrence; Cochran, J Kirk

2012-11-01

314

Lessons Learned from Radioactive Waste Storage and Disposal Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The safety of radioactive waste disposal facilities and the decommissioning of complex sites may be predicated on the performance of engineered and natural barriers. For assessing the safety of a waste disposal facility or a decommissioned site, a performance assessment or similar analysis is often completed. The analysis is typically based on a site conceptual model that is developed from site characterization information, observations, and, in many cases, expert judgment. Because waste disposal facilities are sited, constructed, monitored, and maintained, a fair amount of data has been generated at a variety of sites in a variety of natural systems. This paper provides select examples of lessons learned from the observations developed from the monitoring of various radioactive waste facilities (storage and disposal), and discusses the implications for modeling of future waste disposal facilities that are yet to be constructed or for the development of dose assessments for the release of decommissioning sites. Monitoring has been and continues to be performed at a variety of different facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. These include facilities for the disposal of commercial low-level waste (LLW), reprocessing wastes, and uranium mill tailings. Many of the lessons learned and problems encountered provide a unique opportunity to improve future designs of waste disposal facilities, to improve dose modeling for decommissioning sites, and to be proactive in identifying future problems. Typically, an initial conceptual model was developed and the siting and design of the disposal facility was based on the conceptual model. After facility construction and operation, monitoring data was collected and evaluated. In many cases the monitoring data did not comport with the original site conceptual model, leading to additional investigation and changes to the site conceptual model and modifications to the design of the facility. The following cases are discussed: commercial LLW disposal facilities; uranium mill tailings disposal facilities; and reprocessing waste storage and disposal facilities. The observations developed from the monitoring and maintenance of waste disposal and storage facilities provide valuable lessons learned for the design and modeling of future waste disposal facilities and the decommissioning of complex sites.

Esh, David W.; Bradford, Anna H. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Two White Flint North, MS T7J8, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

2008-01-15

315

Occurrence and removal of organic pollutants in sewages and landfill leachates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewages of different composition and the effluents of four sewage treatment plants (STPs), plus sewage sludges were analysed for semivolatile organic priority pollutants. Furthermore, 11 landfill leachates were analysed to evaluate their contribution to sewage pollutants when co-treated. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the pollutant occurring at highest concentrations (up to 122 ?g\\/l) and it was present in all sewages and

Sanna K Marttinen; Riitta H Kettunen; Jukka A Rintala

2003-01-01

316

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

1995-10-24

317

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

Forsberg, Charles W. (155 Newport Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Beahm, Edward C. (106 Cooper Cir., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Parker, George W. (321 Dominion Cir., Knoxville, TN 37922)

1995-01-01

318

Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate  

SciTech Connect

Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14{+-}1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85{+-}0.19 million t representing 37.22{+-}6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait.

Al Yaqout, Anwar F

2003-07-01

319

Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate.  

PubMed

Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14+/-1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85+/-0.19 million t representing 37.22+/-6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait. PMID:14583244

Al Yaqout, Anwar F

2003-01-01

320

Spectroscopic study of the humification process during sewage sludge treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to study the free radical transition of organic materials during the sewage treatment process. Investigations of sludge from biologic-mechanical sewage treatment plant in Sosnowiec Zagórze were carried out. The course of the humification processes during sewage treatment was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. The concentration of free radicals at each process stage and the value g were determined. Sludge samples and extracted fractions of humic acids were examined. Humic acids were extracted from sludge by means of conventional methods elaborated by Stevenson. For study of humic acids structures, besides EPR, the UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy were used.

Paj?czkowska, J.; Su?kowska, A.; Su?kowski, W. W.; J?drzejczyk, M.

2003-06-01

321

Humic Substances in Municipal Refuse Disposed of in a Landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of municipal waste in a landfill can create environmental and hygienic problems due to leakage water, odour and other\\u000a nuisances until the disposed material becomes biologically and chemically stabilized. The stabilization process includes both\\u000a mineralization and transformation of the waste organic matter, which may include humification of organic substances. Humic-like\\u000a substances (HS) have been isolated from fresh municipal waste,

Zdenek Filip; Katerina Demnerov

322

DISPOSAL OF LIQUID WASTE IN THE DURANGO-TYPE URANIUM MILLING FLOWSHEET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible modifications were studied in conventional uraniuum ore-; processing steps to confine and permit controlled disposal of radioactive wastes. ; Surveys of Ra²²⁶ contamination of liquid wastes from uranium mills ; indicated that the Vanadium Corporation of America plant at Durango, Colo., had ; one of the more urgent problems. A possible procedure for minimizing the waste ; disposal problem

K. E. Tame; E. G. Valdez; J. B. Rosenbaum

1961-01-01

323

Plasma chemical gasification of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The possibility for plasma gasification of sewage sludge is investigated. Water steam is used as the plasma generating gas and as a chemical reagent. The experiments are carried out at a sludge to water steam ratio of 1 to 1.5 by weight, and at a plasma torch temperature of up to 2600 degrees C. The calculated average temperature in the reactor after mixing with the sludge particles is up to 1700 degrees C. Proximate and ultimate analyses of the sludge are given. The resulting gases are analysed by gas chromatography. High calorific gas containing mainly carbon monoxide (48% volume) and hydrogen (46% volume), as well as glass-like slag, is obtained. No water-soluble substances are detected within it. The amount of carbon dioxide produced is under 4% mass. No hydrocarbons are observed within the gas. The investigated process is environmentally safe, compact and shows a high rate of conversion. PMID:12667017

Balgaranova, Janetta

2003-02-01

324

Silver nanoparticles tolerant bacteria from sewage environment.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticle (SNP) is a threat to soil, water and human health. Protection of environment from silver nanoparticles is a major concern. A sewage isolate, Bacillus pumilus treated with SNPs showed similar growth kinetics to that without nanoparticles. A reduction in the amount of exopolysaccharides was observed after SNPs--B. pumilus culture supernatant interaction. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) peaks for the exopolysaccharides extracted from the bacterial culture supernatant and the interacted SNPs were almost similar. The exopolysaccharide capping of the SNPs was confirmed by UV-Visible, FT-IR and X-ray diffraction analysis. The study of bacterial exopolysaccharides capped SNPs with E. coli, S. aureus and M. luteus showed less toxicity compared to uncoated SNPs. Our studies suggested that the capping of nanoparticles by bacterially produced exopolysaccharides serve as the probable mechanism of tolerance. PMID:21517011

Khan, Sudheer; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

2011-01-01

325

Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge  

PubMed Central

The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model.

2014-01-01

326

Application of microwaves for sewage sludge conditioning.  

PubMed

The article focuses on the effect of microwave treatment on the de-waterability of sewage sludge. The specific resistance to filtration, capillary suction time, and dry matter content in centrifuged sludge cake were measured. The quality of sludge liquor obtained after microwave processing was also analysed. It was found out that microwaves improve sludge de-waterability. The quantitative improvement depends on sludge type-better effect of microwave processing were observed in the primary sludge compared to mixed or digested sludges. If microwave treatment is followed by polyelectrolyte conditioning, the effects are considerably better than while these conditioning methods are used separately. Microwave conditioning increased burden of organic matter (BOD(5), COD) in the sludge liquor. PMID:16278005

Wojciechowska, Ewa

2005-11-01

327

Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

Trávní?ek, Petr; Junga, Petr

2014-01-01

328

Hammering away at waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

The waterhammer piledriver is described. The use of the piledriver in hazardous waste disposal is discussed. One of the safest methods for the disposal of radioactive and other long-term toxic wastes is the deep-ocean bottom. The piledriver drills holes in the ocean floor for safe disposal of these wastes. This puts the wastes away from currents like the Gulf Stream, in water that has no circulation, no oxygen, no nutrients and, consequently, no life.

Wisotsky, S.

1985-07-01

329

FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. he energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. hese f...

330

FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. The energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. These...

331

Identification of asbestos and glass fibers in municipal sewage sludges  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the results of the analysis of municipal sewage sludges from five large American cities for the presence of asbestos fibers. The possible toxicologic significance of the findings for specific occupational groups is discussed.

Bishop, K.; Ring, S.J.; Zoltai, T.; Manos, C.G.; Ahrens, D.V.; Lisk, D.J.

1985-03-01

332

13. Sewage treatment lagoon, drainage control at center left, looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Sewage treatment lagoon, drainage control at center left, looking south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

333

Use of Coal to Enhance Metabolic Treatment of Sewage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A newly proposed sewage treatment process in which coal particulates are suspended in mixed liquor and recirculated with activated sludge has been investigated. The premise that the suspended coal particles concentrate nutrients and organic matter by phys...

1969-01-01

334

TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI  

EPA Science Inventory

Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

335

First Report on the WRC Sewage Sludge Pumping Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes experiments carried out over a two year period to investigate the effect of sewage sludge on rotodynamic pump and pipeline performance. Pump performance has been correlated with sludge rheology, and ragging up and gas bubbles within ...

M. Johnson

1981-01-01

336

Onshore Treatment System for Sewage from Watercraft Retention Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the program an evaporative waste treatment system for onshore treatment of sewage from watercraft retention systems was developed and demonstrated. Wastes and chemical additives associated with recreational watercraft holding tanks were characteriz...

A. J. Glueckert P. A. Saigh

1975-01-01

337

Irradiation Effects on the Physical Characteristics of Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, i...

M. J. Lee J. K. Lee D. H. Yoo

2005-01-01

338

40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage collection system...habitations) from the collection system will be for waste waters originating from the community (habitations) in...

2013-07-01

339

Costs of Air Pollution Abatement Systems for Sewage Sludge Incinerators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air pollution control systems to municipal sewage sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment-wet s...

G. Annamraju Y. M. Shah M. L. Arora

1986-01-01

340

USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FOR FOREST-TREE SEEDLING PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...

341

The safe disposal of radioactive wastes  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive review is given of the principles and problems involved in the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to a study of the basic facts of radioactivity and of nuclear fission, the characteristics of radioisotopes, the effects of ionizing radiations, and the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity for workers and for the general public. In the second part, the author describes the different types of radioactive waste—reactor wastes and wastes arising from the use of radioisotopes in hospitals and in industry—and discusses the application of the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity to their disposal and treatment, illustrating his discussion with an account of the methods practised at the principal atomic energy establishments.

Kenny, A. W.

1956-01-01

342

Absence of asbestos in municipal sewage sludge ashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In earlier studies, asbestos was found in sewage sludges in several cities in the United States using x-ray diffraction, high power light optical microscopy, polarized light microscopy or electron microscopy. In a number of cities in the United States, sewage sludge is incinerated at temperatures up to 1,000°C. Temperatures of 550°C or higher dehydroxylate the asbestos lattice resulting in alteration

Kusum J. Patel-Mandlik; Charles G. Manos; Donald J. Lisk

1988-01-01

343

Combustion kinetics of sewage sludge and combustible wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimated the kinetics of the mono- and co-combustion of sewage sludge pellets and combustible wastes such as municipal\\u000a solid waste (MSW) and refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Sewage sludge was manufactured into pellets with a diameter of 8, 12, or\\u000a 16 mm and a length of 30 mm. The RDF was composed of paper and plastics and was formed into

Ho-Soo Lee; Sung-Keun Bae

2009-01-01

344

Effect of Antarctic solar radiation on sewage bacteria viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of coastal Antarctic research stations discard untreated sewage waste into the near-shore marine environment. However, Antarctic solar conditions are unique, with ozone depletion increasing the proportion of potentially damaging ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the marine environment. This study assessed the influence of Antarctic solar radiation on the viability of Escherichia coli and sewage microorganisms at Rothera Research Station,

Kevin A. Hughes

2005-01-01

345

Monitoring sewage sludge using heterotrophic nitrogen fixing microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge was studied using free-living N2-fixing bacteria in two types of soil amended with six types of municipal sewage sludges and cow and pig manures, respectively. Sludge and manure treatments were as follows: no addition, Swedish recommended rates of 5 t dry wt ha?1, twice the standard rate of addition (2RR), and 10 times the standard rate (10RR). The

A. M. Mårtensson; L. Torstensson

1996-01-01

346

Aerobic thermophilic treatment of sewage sludge contaminated with 4-nonylphenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) occurs in sewage sludge as a result of the breakdown of detergents which contains nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs). 4-NP is of environmental concern because of its toxicity to biological systems. The present paper reports results of aerobic treatment under thermophilic conditions of sewage sludge artificially contaminated with 4-NP. Experiments were carried out using three parallel laboratory-scale batch reactors operating

Fawzi A Banat; Stephan Prechtl; Franz Bischof

2000-01-01

347

Preference of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, for plants grown in sewage sludges  

SciTech Connect

Since passage of the Clean Water Act in the 1970s, disposal of the millions of tonnes of sewage sludge generated annually has become a major concern of municipalities throughout the United States. With the range of other disposal options having narrowed in recent years, application of sludge to land is increasingly viewed as a practical and economical means to recycle this waste material. However, sludges from large cities with industries may be contaminated with various toxic chemicals, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), other organic chemicals, such as pesticides, and heavy metals. Sludge application to land thus has the potential adversely to affect biota and the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. The authors previously demonstrated marked reductions in fecundity and survival of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, on collard plants, Brassica oleracea var. sabellica, growing in soil treated with chemically contaminated sludge as compared to aphids on plants growing either in soil treated with uncontaminated sludge of soil conventionally fertilized. Reduced plant growth and increased restlessness in aphids in the contaminated sludge treatment were also observed. The purpose of the present study was to examine more closely the influence of sludge contaminants on aphid settling behavior as indicated by differential preference of M. persicae for leaves of its collard host grown under different soil conditions.

Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

1987-08-01

348

Gasification of dried sewage sludge: status of the demonstration and the pilot plant.  

PubMed

The disposal of sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plants is suffering from raising costs. The gasification is an alternative way of treatment, which can reduce the amount of solid residues that must be disposed from a water treatment plant. The produced gas can be used very flexible to produce electrical energy, to burn it very cleanly or to use it for upgrading. The gasification in the fluidised bed and the gas cleaning with the granular bed filter has shown successful operation. A demonstration plant in Balingen was set up in 2002 and rebuilt to a larger throughput in 2010. As a next step a demonstration plant was built in Mannheim and is now at the end of the commissioning phase. Nowadays the product gas is blended with biogas from sludge fermentation and utilized in a gas engine or combustion chamber to produce heat. In the future the process control for a maximized efficiency and the removal of organic and inorganic impurities in the gas will be further improved. PMID:22284442

Judex, Johannes W; Gaiffi, Michael; Burgbacher, H Christian

2012-04-01

349

NASA Personal Property Disposal Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Personal Property Disposal Manual is issued pursuant to Subchapters E and H of the Federal Property Management Regulations and the Space Act of 1958, as amended. It sets forth policy and procedural guidance for NASA personnel for the reporting, utilization, redistribution, and disposal of installation and contractor-held NASA excess and surplus personal property.

1988-01-01

350

Nuclear waste disposal in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

1978-01-01

351

Hanford Site Mixed Waste Disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant volumes of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) will be generated as part of the management and remediation of the Hanford Site. The MLLW that is generated as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) process will largely be managed as part of that remediation effort, with disposal likely in the centralized Environmental Restoration Disposal

2001-01-01

352

Report: management problems of solid waste landfills in Kuwait.  

PubMed

This paper evaluates current operational practices in municipal solid waste landfills in Kuwait to provide existing knowledge on uncontrolled landfilling and associated problems of solid waste disposal in developing countries. The current landfilling practices are safe neither for humans nor for the environment. The landfill sites receive all kinds of wastes such as food wastes, oil products, debris, dead animals, agricultural wastes, chemical wastes, wastewater and sewage sludge. The wastes are dumped, spread and compacted in an uncontrolled manner and cover material is not applied regularly. Dust created within the landfill site and gas emissions cause a public nuisance. The characteristics of leachate formed indicate high organic content and presence of heavy metals, salts and nutrients. There are no provisions for leachate or landfill gas collection at the landfill sites. Recommendations for adjustment in landfill operation have been made in recognition of the transition period that is experienced in proceeding from the past and present to the future management of landfills in Kuwait to safeguard the public health and protect the environment. PMID:12363092

Al-Yaqout, Anwar F; Hamoda, Mohamed F

2002-08-01

353

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Llll of... - Summary of Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a 5 Table...Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60...Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a...

2013-07-01

354

Health effects of hazardous chemical waste disposal sites in New Jersey and in the United States: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hazardous chemical waste disposal issue is a widespread problem. Large quantities of chemical wastes have been produced by the chemical industries in the past forty years. Estimates now number disposal sites in the United States at least 30,000. The public and scientists have grown increasingly concerned about the effects of these waste disposal sites not only on the environment,

G. R. Najem; J. L. Cappadona

1991-01-01

355

NORM scale safely disposed of by fracturing well  

SciTech Connect

Fracturing technology has helped operators, offshore Louisiana, to pump naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) contaminated wastes into nonproducing wells. Louisiana is one of the few states that currently have specific regulations that govern disposal of NORM. A clearly designed disposal method is required because NORM contamination is a potential health hazard, a waste management problem, and a possible public relations problem for the industry. When gas and oil are produced, NORM traces are also produced. Over time, NORM is deposited in scale and sludges, which then contaminate equipment, production tubulars, production vessels, and other industry facilities. The contaminated waste is usually collected in drums and stored for future disposal. A planning team of operating and service company engineers was formed to plan and carry out a disposal operation in an offshore well. The team planned to fracture a formation and then pump NORM into it. Before start-up, the operator had to secure approval from the Mineral Management Service (MMS). MMS approved the procedures, but only after the team demonstrated that: The disposal fracture would be short; NORM-contaminated particles would into migrate within the disposal sand; and Below-ground accumulation of NORM-contaminated solids would not pose a health hazard at the platform.

Gardiner, N.H. (Halliburton Energy Services, New Orleans, LA (United States))

1994-05-23

356

Northeast Regional environmental impact study: Waste disposal technical report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for cumulative and interactive environmental impacts associated with the conversion of multiple generating stations in the Northeast is assessed. The estimated quantities and composition of wastes resulting from coal conversion, including ash and SO2 scrubber sludge, are presented. Regulations governing the use of ash and scrubber sludge are identified. Currently available waste disposal schemes are described. The location, capacity, and projected life of present and potential disposal sites in the region are identified. Waste disposal problems, both hazardous and nonhazardous, are evaluated. Environmental regulations within the region as they pertain to coal conversion and as they affect the choice of conversion alternatives are discussed. A regional waste management strategy for solid waste disposal is developed.

Saguinsin, J. L. S.

1981-04-01

357

Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3  

SciTech Connect

Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

2013-07-29

358

Nanomaterial disposal by incineration.  

PubMed

As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which nanomaterials may enter incinerator waste streams and the fate of these nanomaterials during the incineration process. Although the literature on incineration of nanomaterials is scarce, results from studies of their behavior at high temperature or in combustion environments for other applications can help predict their fate within an incinerator. Preliminary evidence suggests nanomaterials may catalyze the formation or destruction of combustion by-products. Depending on their composition, nanomaterials may undergo physical and chemical transformations within the incinerator, impacting their partitioning within the incineration system (e.g., bottom ash, fly ash) and the effectiveness of control technology for removing them. These transformations may also drastically affect nanomaterial transport and impacts in the environment. Current regulations on incinerator emissions do not specifically address nanomaterials, but limits on particle and metal emissions may prove somewhat effective at reducing the release of nanomaterials in incinerator effluent. Control technology used to meet these regulations, such as fabric filters, electrostatic precipitators, and wet electrostatic scrubbers, are expected to be at least partially effective at removing nanomaterials from incinerator flue gas. PMID:23880913

Holder, Amara L; Vejerano, Eric P; Zhou, Xinzhe; Marr, Linsey C

2013-09-01

359

Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

Mark R. Cole

2013-12-01

360

Enhanced compositing of radiation disinfected sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on isothermal composting of radiation disinfected sewage sludge and liquid chromatography of water extracts of the products were carried out. The optimum temperature and pH were around 50 °C and 7-8, respectively. The repeated use of products as seeds increased the rate of CO 2 evolution. The rate reached a maximum within 10 hours and decreased rapidly, and the CO 2 evolution ceased after about 3 days. The conversion of organic carbon to carbon dioxide attained to about 40% for the repeated use of products as seeds at the optimum conditions. As long as seeds in available were used, no remarkable difference was found in the composting of unirradiated and irradiated sludges. The composting process using radiation, however, can be carried out at the optimum conditions and is expected to shorten the composting period, because it is not necessary to keep fermentation temperature higher to reduce pathogen in sludge. Liquid chromatographic studies of the products showed that low molecular components decreased and higher molecular ones increased with fermentation. An index expressing the degree of reduction of easily decomposable organics was presented. The index also showed that the optimum temperature for fermentation was 50 °C, and that the easily decomposable organics disappeared above 30% of the conversion of organic carbon.

Kawakami, W.; Hashimoto, S.

361

Hanford Site Mixed Waste Disposal  

SciTech Connect

Significant volumes of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) will be generated as part of the management and remediation of the Hanford Site. The MLLW that is generated as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) process will largely be managed as part of that remediation effort, with disposal likely in the centralized Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Other unique MLLW streams will be produced as part of the Hanford program to disposition tank wastes, and will include failed equipment (melters) and immobilized low-activity wastes. These disposal operations are in the early planning stages and will likely require development of specialized disposal facilities. This paper will focus on disposal of the more ''routine'' waste streams, those currently stored onsite in permitted Resource Conservation and Recover Act (RCRA) facilities, or those newly-generated MLLW streams requiring management in permitted RCRA facilities. These waste streams typically include RCRA regulated MLLW debris, sludges, soils and solidified liquids. In September 1999, the United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and Fluor Hanford began disposing of Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) compliant MLLW in a RCRA mixed waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site. This facility, one of two at Hanford, is an integral part of a comprehensive program to treat and dispose of the Hanford inventory of stored MLLW, and may aid the DOE Complex in disposing of its legacy of MLLW. The Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) record-of-decision (ROD) for MLLW identifies Hanford as one of the disposal sites for much of the DOE complex MLLW. A few actions remain to be completed before waste from offsite generators can be shipped to the Hanford Mixed Waste Facilities for disposal. These actions include, but are not limited to, completion of the Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement (SW EIS), resolving equity issues associated with the receipt of offsite MLLW, and verification that the candidate waste streams meet the Hanford Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The ROD for the SW EIS is expected in 2002, equity discussions are ongoing, and waste acceptance criteria are already established and can be used to determine acceptability.

MCKENNEY, D.E.

2001-01-01

362

Hospital waste disposal by incineration.  

PubMed

Hospital waste is becoming increasingly complex due to changing technologies and increase in the services that the hospitals perform for the community. Out of the available technology for the final disposal of solid wastes, incineration is best suited for hospital waste as it renders the waste nontoxic, non hazardous, non putrescible and reduces the volume of material for ultimate disposal. Present study was carried out in a service hospital to analyze the requirement of incinerator considering the state of art available in this country. Multi chambered oil fired incinerator installation as an on site facility for hospital solid waste disposal has been recommended as more environment. friendly option. PMID:10537997

Rao, S K; Garg, R K

1994-07-01

363

Occurrence of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) and their application as a tracer for sewage derived pollution in urban estuarine sediments.  

PubMed

Particle reactive organic contaminants in estuarine sediments can lead to various environmental problems affecting ecosystem and public health. In this study, the occurrence and homologous distribution pattern of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in the surficial sediments collected from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), China were examined along with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). The composition pattern of the QACs was found to be uniform in most of the sediments analyzed throughout the PRE, and the average composition pattern was identical to that determined in the sewage sludge from Guangzhou, the biggest city in the PRE. Dialkyldimethylammonium compounds, the most abundant type of QACs, positively correlated to the total concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs in most of the sediments with similar composition patterns. Therefore, the QACs are proposed as potential tracers to evaluate the transport of sewage-derived pollution in estuarine environments. PMID:24270101

Li, Xiaolin; Luo, Xiaojun; Mai, Bixian; Liu, Jingqin; Chen, Li; Lin, Shanshan

2014-02-01

364

Sewage sludge as a supplementary utility boiler fuel. Volume I. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Use of dried sewage sludge as a supplementary fuel up to 30% (wt) of fuel input in utility boilers appears feasible. Only coal-fired utility boilers 600 MW(e) and larger, and oil-fired boilers 300 MW(e) or larger originally designed for future coal capability were found practicable candidates for conversion to burn dried sludge as a supplementary fuel. Boilers designed for coal and converted to oil could be added to this latter category, but these comprise only 3% of US utility boiler capacity. Derating of the boilers would be necessary. Increased slagging and fouling would increase flue gas temperature by 20 to 40/sup 0/F with a consequent 1/2% to 1% loss in boiler efficiency. To minimize high-temperature corrosion, outside tube metal temperatures should be limited to 1200/sup 0/F when sludge is fired with coal and to 1125/sup 0/F when sludge is fired with oil. The impact of burning sludge on coal-fired boiler reliability is expected to be minimal. The impact on oil-fired boiler reliability is expected to be greater but difficult to predict. Air quality impacts are predicted to be well below the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and well below the allowable deterioration (PSD) increments. Only the charging of a ''tipping fee'' can make this sludge disposal option economically viable. At least 54,760 MW(e) of US utility boiler capacity meet the criteria developed for convertibility to burn sludge. Retrofitting 17% of this total could accommodate the estimated 7 million dry tons/y sewage sludge production of the US.

Not Available

1986-05-01

365

Effects of three sewage sludges on slash pine seedlings grown in three acid sandy soils  

SciTech Connect

Vast areas of pine forest are grown on acid sandy soils of low native fertility, located near urban areas in the southeastern States. Such soils may offer suitable land disposal for sewage sludge. The present study evaluated effects of three municipal sewage sludges on the growth and nutrient uptake by slash pine seedlings (Pinus elliottii var. elliotti Engelm) grown for 6 months in pot cultures consisting of one Quartzipsamment and two Haplaquod soils amended with four rates of each sludge. Plant tissue was sectioned as new tops, old tops, and roots. Plant dry weight responded linearly to increase in sludge rate. Root to shoot ratios decreased slightly with sludge rate. Total weight response to sludge amendments was greater for the two soils of high organic matter content than for a soil with low organic matter content. Seedling N uptake also increased with sludge rate. Root N concentration changed more with sludge rate than did new tops. Absolute N uptake ranged from 8 to 88 percent of N applied in the sludge. These net N recoveries decreased with sludge rate. Uptake of P by the seedlings was proportional to rate of sludge applied. Cadmium uptake was increased linearly with sludge rates from 1.26 to 10 g/kg soil. The sludge with the highest Cd content had the lowest net Cd recovery at all sludge rates. Ratio of N:Cd uptake ranged from 8690 to 896, which is indicative of the degree of sludge mineralization and of the amount of Cd released into a form available to the seedling. 10 references.

Fiskell, J.G.A.; Pritchett, W.L.; Maftoun, M.

1984-01-01

366

Response of benthic foraminifers to sewage discharge and remediation in Santa Monica Bay, California.  

PubMed

Examination of a time series of foraminiferal assemblage distributions on the continental shelf and slope of Santa Monica Bay from 1955 to 1997-1998 suggests that the benthic microfauna have been greatly affected by the quality and character of the municipal sludge and wastewater discharged into the bay over the last half-century by the Hyperion Treatment Plant serving the greater Los Angeles area. Five species dominate both the living and dead foraminiferal assemblages of the 1997-1998 surface samples, including Eggerella advena, Trochammina pacifica, Bulimina denudata, Buliminella elegantissima, and Epistominella bradyana. Temporal patterns of relative species abundances for both living and dead assemblages, as well as toxicity tests measuring amphipod survival and sea urchin fertilization success, show improvement since the sewage treatment program was enhanced in 1986. None of these trends are evident 10 years earlier, coincident with the onset of a Pacific Decadal Oscillation warming trend. This fact suggests that remediation, and not climate change, is responsible for the faunal changes observed. Even with remediation, however, all foraminiferal faunal trends have not returned to early-outfall levels. The organic-waste indicating species T. pacifica shows a slow decline in abundance as sewage treatment and sludge disposal activities have improved, whereas a dramatic increase in the abundance of the pioneer colonizer of impacted regions, E. advena, has occurred, often with a reciprocal response by B. denudata. Also evident is a dramatic shift in the abundance of the once-dominant species Nonionella basispinata and Nonionella stella, which were unable to recolonize Santa Monica Bay since the two major outfalls (5- and 7-mile) began discharging. Temporal variations in species abundances, as well as range expansions, contractions, and the inability to recolonize areas previously, or presently, impacted, suggests that foraminifers are a useful tool in defining areas affected by waste discharge. PMID:12648961

McGann, Mary; Alexander, Clark R; Bay, Steven M

2003-01-01

367

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2013-01-01 true Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780.63 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning...1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners entering...

2014-01-01

368

33 CFR 151.79 - Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. 151.79 Section 151.79 Navigation and Navigable...79 Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. (a) A vessel certified to carry more than 10...

2010-07-01

369

33 CFR 151.79 - Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. 151.79 Section 151.79 Navigation and Navigable...79 Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. (a) A vessel certified to carry more than 10...

2013-07-01

370

33 CFR 151.79 - Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. 151.79 Section 151.79 Navigation and Navigable...79 Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. (a) A vessel certified to carry more than 10...

2009-07-01

371

78 FR 34973 - Proposal for Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; Indiana  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-R05-OAR-2013-0372; FRL-9820-9] Proposal for Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and...Indiana's State Plan to control air pollutants from Sewage Sludge Incinerators (SSI). The Indiana Department of...

2013-06-11

372

Volatilization, Plant Uptake and Mineralization of Nitrogen in Soils Treated with Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify the amount of ammonia volatilization taking place after application of sewage sludge to the soil surface, evaluate the movement of nitrogen and plant uptake from soils treated with sewage sludge,...

L. E. Sommers C. F. Parker G. J. Meyers

1981-01-01

373

33 CFR 151.79 - Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. 151.79 Section 151.79 Navigation and Navigable...79 Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. (a) A vessel certified to carry more than 10...

2012-07-01

374

33 CFR 151.79 - Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. 151.79 Section 151.79 Navigation and Navigable...79 Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. (a) A vessel certified to carry more than 10...

2011-07-01

375

Energy Production and Pollution Prevention at Sewage Treatment Plants Using Fuel Cell Power Plants  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses energy production and pollution prevention at sewage treatment plants using fuel cell power plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at waste water treatment plants during the anaerobic treatment of sewage to reduce solids. Fue...

R. J. Spiegel, J. L. Preston

1999-01-01

376

26 CFR 1.142(a)(5)-1 - Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...stage in sewage treatment in which a bacterial process (or an equivalent process) consumes the organic parts of wastes, usually by trickling filters or an activated sludge process. (viii) Sewage sludge is defined...

2009-04-01

377

26 CFR 1.142(a)(5)-1 - Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...stage in sewage treatment in which a bacterial process (or an equivalent process) consumes the organic parts of wastes, usually by trickling filters or an activated sludge process. (viii) Sewage sludge is defined...

2010-04-01

378

Field Verification Program (Upland Disposal): Prediction of Surface Runoff Water Quality from Black Rock Harbor Dredged Material Placed in an Upland Disposal Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some of the sediment dredged from waterways is contaminated and must be tested to predict problems that might occur after disposal. Laboratory tests showed that as dredged material dried and oxidized, physicochemical changes occurred which changed the con...

J. G. Skogerboe C. R. Lee R. A. Price D. Brandon G. Hollins

1987-01-01

379

Macrobenthos response to sewage pollution in a tropical inshore area.  

PubMed

Organic sewage pollution is the major stressor that affects benthic communities in the coastal waters. In the present study involving a once-off sampling (July-August 2003) of a sewage treatment plant (STP) outfall and areas 6 km farther into the sea, we tried to estimate the severity of organic pollution on marine macrobenthos over a pollution gradient in the inshore waters (station depths, 5-30 m) off a heavily urbanized tropical city, on the east coast of India. Multivariate ordination analyses revealed two different groups of faunal assemblages. Group I is associated with sites impacted by the sewage outfall and group II with the locations 3-6 km away in the open sea. Polychaetes and amphipods were the predominant fauna with significant taxonomic differences between the assemblages. Despite the homogeneity in sediment texture, the two-fold increase in sediment organic matter near the sewage outfall area supported r-strategists, while group II locations favoured K-strategists. Approximation through benthic opportunistic polychaetes amphipods (BOPA) index and information on the key taxa responsible for the observed assemblage patterns corroborated these findings. Thus, the present findings revealed how organic sewage pollution influences benthic diversity in coastal waters by supporting communities of opportunistic characteristics. We advocate inclusion of community traits and compatible analytical tools (statistical approaches) in studies of similar nature so that the observations could be compared and broad remedial measures could be evolved. PMID:24464401

Ganesh, T; Rakhesh, M; Raman, A V; Nanduri, Sateesh; Moore, Shonda; Rajanna, B

2014-06-01

380

Enhanced soil sorption of methidathion using sewage sludge and surfactants.  

PubMed

Batch experiments were carried out to examine the partitioning of an organophosphorus insecticide, methidathion, in non-amended agricultural soil and soil amended with urban sewage sludge and/or different types of surfactant. Kinetic data showed that sewage sludge significantly reduced adsorption rate, whereas amendment of the soil with the cationic surfactant tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TDTMA) at 10 x CMC (critical micellar concentration) increased the adsorption rate by a factor of 10. The adsorption isotherms were evaluated using the Freundlich model. The soil adsorption capacity for methidathion was enhanced by amendment with sewage sludge and even more significantly with TDTMA at 10 x CMC or combined with sewage sludge. TDTMA conferred a high hydrophobic character to the soil, enhancing the adsorption capacity of the rather hydrophobic methidathion. The amendment of soil both with sewage sludge and TDTMA combines the increased hydrophobicity with a higher surfactant retention by organic matter, due to an increase in cation exchange capacity, which promotes even more the adsorption capacity for the insecticide. An anionic surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, and the non-ionic Tween 80 only induced a slight modification in the kinetics and adsorption of methidathion. PMID:12916766

Sánchez, Lourdes; Romero, Esperanza; Sánchez-Rasero, Francisco; Dios, Gonzalo; Peña, Aránzazu

2003-08-01

381

Biological degradation of cyclophosphamide and its occurrence in sewage water.  

PubMed

The mutagenic and cancerogenic antineoplastic agent cyclophosphamide (CP) is released into sewage water by cancer patient excretion. To assess the biological degradability of CP two standardized test systems, the Zahn-Wellens/EMPA test (OECD 302B) and a laboratory scale sewage treatment plant, were used. In both test systems the agent exhibited only poor degradability. To verify the expected occurrence of CP in hospital sewage, water samples were analyzed for CP with GC/MS after enrichment by solid-phase extraction. CP could be detected in concentrations ranging from 20 ng/L to 4.5 micrograms/L. The occurrence of the agent could also be proved in samples from the influent and the effluent of the communal sewage treatment plant into which the hospital's sewage water is shed. Concentrations ranged from 7 to 143 ng/L. In an attempt to assess the contribution of CP to the genotoxicity detected in hospital waste water in a recent study, the effects of CP in the umuC test, a bacterial genotoxicity assay, were investigated. However, no genotoxic effects of CP were found up to concentrations of 1 g/L. PMID:9126435

Steger-Hartmann, T; Kümmerer, K; Hartmann, A

1997-03-01

382

Risk of hepatitis A infection in sewage workers  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection among sewage workers from occupational exposure to raw sewage. METHODS: An analytical cross sectional study of 241 company employees with possible occupational exposure to sewage in a large water and sewerage company was carried out. Previous exposure to hepatitis A virus infection was assessed, as were its associations with possible risk factors. RESULTS: Frequent occupational exposure to raw sewage was a significant risk factor for HAV infection, independently of other known risk factors (odds ratio 3.73, 95% confidence interval 1.48 to 9.37). Of 50 employees who reported occupational exposure to raw sewage most of the time, 30 (60%) had had HAV infection. CONCLUSION: Employees who are likely to be at risk of frequent exposure should have their immunity ensured. The salivary assay for IgG anti-HAV used in the study was highly specific and would be suitable for prevaccination testing of older employees, who are more likely to be immune.  

Brugha, R.; Heptonstall, J.; Farrington, P.; Andren, S.; Perry, K.; Parry, J.

1998-01-01

383

Sewage reflects the distribution of human faecal Lachnospiraceae  

PubMed Central

Summary Faecal pollution contains a rich and diverse community of bacteria derived from animals and humans, many of which might serve as alternatives to the traditional enterococci and Escherichia coli faecal indicators. We used massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize microbial communities from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent sewage from 12 cities geographically distributed across the USA. We examined members of the Clostridiales, which included the families Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae for their potential as sewage indicators. Lachnospiraceae was one of the most abundant groups of faecal bacteria in sewage, and several Lachnospiraceae high-abundance sewage pyrotags occurred in at least 46 of 48 human faecal samples. Clone libraries targeting Clostridium coccoides (C. coccoides) in sewage samples demonstrated that Lachnospiraceae-annotated V6 pyrotags encompassed the previously reported C. coccoides group. We used oligotyping to profile the genus Blautia within Lachnospiraceae and found oligotypes comprised of 24 entropy components that showed patterns of host specificity. These findings suggest that indicators based on Blautia might have the capacity to discriminate between different faecal pollution sources. Development of source-specific alternative indicators would enhance water quality assessments, which leads to improved ecosystem health and reduced human health risk due to waterborne disease.

McLellan, Sandra L.; Newton, Ryan J.; Vandewalle, Jessica L.; Shanks, Orin C.; Huse, Susan M.; Eren, A. Murat; Sogin, Mitchell L.

2014-01-01

384

Sewage sludge dumping and contamination of Liverpool Bay sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of four MAFF surveys (1975-1980) of the sediments in and around the sewage sludge dumping site in Liverpool Bay are presented. Sediments were analysed for particle size distribution, organic carbon concentrations and concentrations of Hg, Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cr. Concentrations of organic carbon and metals were found to be elevated in the fine ( < 90 ?m) fraction in areas associated with the major inputs of these substances to the bay—near the mouth of the Mersey, near the sewage sludge dumping site and at the dredged spoil dumping site. In an attempt to determine any temporal trends between surveys, stations were grouped into four 8×8 km areas from offshore of the dumping ground to the mouth of the Mersey. Changes in the metal concentrations in sediments in the square nearest the sewage sludge dumping site were larger than in the other squares including that nearest the Mersey. Comparison of temporal trends near the sewage sludge site with the quantities actually dumped showed a correlation between the two, consistent with sewage sludge dumping being a major contributor to the metal levels in fine sediments near the dumping ground.

Norton, M. G.; Rowlatt, S. M.; Nunny, R. S.

1984-07-01

385

Hepatitis A in workers exposed to sewage: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To assess whether the scientific literature supports the hypothesis that workers exposed to sewage are at higher risk of hepatitis A (HA).?METHODS—All original papers reporting epidemiological studies published in English, French, or German which reported on the risk of HA infection in workers exposed to sewage were eligible. They were identified by several methods and each original paper was assessed independently with a checklist by two people. Studies were classified according to the strength of their design. Non-eligible studies were also examined to assess the impact of publication bias. If the risk estimates diverged widely, causes for heterogeneity were assessed. A distinction was made between seroprevalence studies based on subclinical HA (defined only by the presence of anti-HA antibodies) and clinical HA.?RESULTS—17 eligible studies were identified. No indication of an increased risk of clinical HA could be found. For seroprevalence the studies with the strongest design suggested a slightly increased risk of subclinical HA with an odds ratio (OR) <2.5. Heterogeneity was considerable and precluded a meta-analysis. Considering non-eligible studies would still decrease the OR.?CONCLUSIONS—The systematic review does not confirm an increased risk of clinical HA in workers exposed to sewage. An increased risk of subclinical HA cannot be excluded but the association between seropositivity and exposure to sewage was not strong and became still weaker if publication bias was taken into account.???Keywords: hepatitis A; sewage; systematic review

Glas, C; Hotz, P; Steffen, R

2001-01-01

386

Factors impacting on pharmaceutical leaching following sewage application to land.  

PubMed

Sewage effluent application to land is a treatment technology that requires appropriate consideration of various design factors. Soil type, level of sewage pre-treatment and irrigation rate were assessed for their influence on the success of soil treatment in removing pharmaceuticals remaining after conventional sewage treatment. A large scale experimental site was built to assess treatment performance in a realistic environment. Of the factors investigated, soil type had the biggest impact on treatment performance. In particular, carbamazepine was very efficiently removed (>99%) when irrigated onto a volcanic sandy loam soil. This was in contrast to irrigation onto a sandy soil where no carbamazepine removal occurred after irrigation. Differences were likely caused by the presence of allophane in the volcanic soil which is able to accumulate a high level of organic matter. Carbamazepine apparent adsorption distribution coefficients (K(d)) for both soils when irrigated with treated sewage effluent were determined as 25 L kg(-1) for the volcanic soil and 0.08 L kg(-1) for the sandy soil. Overall, a volcanic soil was reasonably efficient in removing carbamazepine while soil type was not a major factor for caffeine removal. Removal of caffeine, however, was more efficient when a partially treated rather than fully treated effluent was applied. Based on the investigated pharmaceuticals and given an appropriate design, effluent irrigation onto land, in conjunction with conventional sewage treatment may be considered a beneficial treatment for pharmaceutical removal. PMID:18996568

Gielen, Gerty J H P; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Clinton, Peter W; Greenfield, Laurie G

2009-01-01

387

Pharmaceuticals as indictors of sewage-influenced groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of human pharmaceuticals enables identification of groundwater that is influenced by sewage and provides information on the time of recharge. As the consumption rates of the investigated pharmaceuticals have changed over time, so too has the composition of the sewage. At the study area, south of Berlin (Germany), irrigation was performed as a method of wastewater clean-up at sewage irrigation farms until the early 1990s. Today, treated wastewater is discharged into the surface-water-stream Nuthegraben. Groundwater and surface-water samples were analyzed for the pharmaceutical substances clofibric acid, bezafibrate, diclofenac, carbamazepine and primidone, the main ions and organic carbon. The pharmaceutical substances were detected at concentrations up to microgram-per-liter level in groundwater and surface-water samples from the Nuthegraben Lowland area and from the former irrigation farms. Concentrations detected in groundwater are generally much lower than in surface water and there is significant variation in the distribution of pharmaceutical concentrations in groundwater. Groundwater influenced by the irrigation of sewage water shows higher primidone and clofibric-acid concentrations. Groundwater influenced by recent discharge of treated sewage water into the surface water shows high carbamazepine concentrations while concentrations of primidone and clofibric acid are low.

Müller, Beate; Scheytt, Traugott; Asbrand, Martin; de Casas, Andrea Mross

2012-09-01

388

Transportation of Radioactive Waste Materials into Space. The Final Solution for Inexpensive and Safe Disposal Atommuell-Lagerung im Weltraum. Die Endgueltige Loesung fuer Billige und Sichere Entsorgung.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Technical problems and costs are outlined for the disposal of radioactive waste. Options discussed include : (1) Storage on the surface of a celestial body (Earth, planets, Sun, Moon), (2) undirected disposal (in the sea, random escape from the solar syst...

D. Hayn H. O. Ruppe R. H. Schmucker

1980-01-01

389

Packages for Radiactive Waste Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of multi-stage type package for sea disposal of compactable nuclear wastes, is presented. The basic requirements for the project followed the NEA and IAEA recommendations and observations of the solutions adopted by others countries. The p...

R. Oliveira

1983-01-01

390

Disposable biosensors for clinical diagnosis.  

PubMed

We present an overview on the use of disposable electrochemical biosensors for diagnostics, focusing on the applications of these devices as immunosensors and DNA sensors in the point-of-care diagnostics. Analytical biosensors have emerged as efficient alternatives for the detection of innumerous diseases, because of their high specificity and the convenience of detecting the electrochemical signals produced by the presence of an analyte using a portable equipment. This review highlights the recently developed strategies toward immobilization of different biological molecules on disposable electrodes such as carbon nanotubes and metal nanoparticles. In the course of the review, we first introduced the disposable biosensors, followed by an overview of the immunosensors, and discussed the applications of DNA sensors and disposable biosensors in point-of-care diagnostics. We also have evaluated the prospects and future applications of these devices in the field of biomedical research. PMID:24730269

Janegitz, Bruno Campos; Cancino, Juliana; Zucolotto, Valtencir

2014-01-01

391

Disposal of Hazardous Wastes - Organization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Hazardous waste management in the participating countries -- (Management principles and state of the art, Regulations on waste stream control and practise of control, Planning, limitation of disposal districts, Waste exchange systems, Liability,...

1977-01-01

392

Prevalence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in raw and treated municipal sewage.  

PubMed Central

Municipal sewage was screened for DNA encoding Shiga-like Toxin (SLT) II, a key protein involved in the virulence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. PCR analysis of sewage concentrates showed that DNA encoding SLT II was present in a single sample of untreated sewage and absent in all other samples tested (n = 6). Thermotolerant E. coli cultured from the sewage (n = 1,520) also tested negative for SLT II by colony hybridization.

Grant, S B; Pendroy, C P; Mayer, C L; Bellin, J K; Palmer, C J

1996-01-01

393

Residual and cumulative effects of soil application of sewage sludge on corn productivity.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of frequent and periodic applications of sewage sludge to the soil, on corn productivity. The experiment was carried out as part of an experiment that has been underway since 1999, using two types of sludge. One came from the Barueri Sewage Treatment Station (BS, which receives both household and industrial sludge) and the other came from the Franca Sewage Treatment Station (FS, which receives only household sludge). The Barueri sludge was applied from 1999 up to the agricultural year of 2003/2004. With the exception of the agricultural years of 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, the Franca sludge was applied up to 2008/2009. All the applications were made in November, with the exception of the first one which was made in April 1999. After harvesting the corn, the soil remained fallow until the next cultivation. The experiment was set up as a completely randomized block design with three replications and the following treatments: control without chemical fertilization or sludge application, mineral fertilization, and dose 1 and dose 2 of sludge (Franca and Barueri). The sludges were applied individually. Dose 1 was calculated by considering the recommended N application for corn. Dose 2 was twice dose 1. It was evident from this work that the successive application of sludge to the soil in doses sufficient to reach the productivity desired with the use of nitrogen fertilizers could cause environmental problems due to N losses to the environment and that the residual and cumulative effects should be considered when calculating the application of sludge to soil. PMID:24584586

Vieira, Rosana Faria; Moriconi, Waldemore; Pazianotto, Ricardo Antônio Almeida

2014-05-01

394

Disposable diapers : A hygienic alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of disposable diapers has offered improved health care benefits. Urine and fecal matter leakage from the cloth nappies\\u000a and the hand —to —mouth behavior in infants leads to many illnesses with a feco-oral mode of transmission. Also, the tender\\u000a skin of the infant is more prone to nappy rash. The modern age disposable diapers, when compared to cloth

Maithili Kamat; Ram Malkani

2003-01-01

395

The Necessity of Geologic Disposal  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear wastes are the radioactive byproducts of nuclear power generation, nuclear weapons production, and other uses of nuclear material. Experts from around the world agree that deep geologic disposal of nuclear waste in a mined repository is the most environmentally sound means of removing these potential sources of radiation from interaction with the biosphere. Of the 360 millirem of background radiation received annually by the average American, from both natural and man-made sources, less than 1 millirem results from the nuclear fuel cycle. Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, destined for geologic disposal, are located at 126 sites in 39 states. The proposed repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is far more isolated from the general population than any sites where these radioactive materials are presently located. Only solid forms of high-level wastes will be transported for disposal in a geologic repository. For more than 50 years, nuclear materials have been safely transported in North America, Europe, and Asia, without a single significant radiation release. Since the 1950s, select panels from the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council and interagency advisory groups, and international experts selected by the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency, have examined the environmental, ethical, and intergenerational aspects of nuclear waste disposal, plus alternatives to geologic disposal. All have concluded that deep geologic disposal in a mined repository is clearly the preferred option. The concept of deep geologic disposal is based on the analogy to ore deposits, which are formed deep within the Earth's crust, commonly remain isolated from the biosphere for millions to billions of years, and are, generally, extremely difficult to detect. Before selecting the unsaturated tuffs at Yucca Mountain, DOE evaluated salt formations, basalts, and both crystalline and sedimentary rocks. Other nations generating nuclear power also plan to use deep geologic disposal, and are evaluating sites in granites, argillaceous rocks, and salt formations.

R. Linden

2004-07-01

396

Disposal phase experimental program plan  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility comprises surface and subsurface facilities, including a repository mined in a bedded salt formation at a depth of 2,150 feet. It has been developed to safely and permanently isolate transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes in a deep geological disposal site. On April 12, 1996, the DOE submitted a revised Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The DOE anticipates receiving an operating permit from the NMED; this permit is required prior to the start of disposal operations. On October 29, 1996, the DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in accordance with the WIPP land Withdrawal Act (LWA) of 1992 (Public Law 102-579) as amended, and the requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Parts 191 and 194. The DOE plans to begin disposal operations at the WIPP in November 1997 following receipt of certification by the EPA. The disposal phase is expected to last for 35 years, and will include recertification activities no less than once every five years. This Disposal Phase Experimental Program (DPEP) Plan outlines the experimental program to be conducted during the first 5-year recertification period. It also forms the basis for longer-term activities to be carried out throughout the 35-year disposal phase. Once the WIPP has been shown to be in compliance with regulatory requirements, the disposal phase gives an opportunity to affirm the compliance status of the WIPP, enhance the operations of the WIPP and the national TRU system, and contribute to the resolution of national and international nuclear waste management technical needs. The WIPP is the first facility of its kind in the world. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to advance the technical state of the art for permanent disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes.

NONE

1997-01-31

397

THE LOADS OF PAHS IN WASTEWATER AND SEWAGE SLUDGE OF MUNICIPAL TREATMENT PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage and sewage sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant were analyzed for 16 EPA-PAHs. This plant is a classic mechanical-biological treatment plant, consisting of activated sludge technology with additional chemical treatment for the removal of phosphorus compounds. The process of sewage sludge treatment is carried out in closed as well as open sludge digesters. Primary and mechanically thickened sludge

Maria Wlodarczyk-Makula

2005-01-01

398

Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 247 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-12-01

399

Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 226 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-08-01

400

Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 230 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

401

Performance of Biological-Ecological Process for Rural Domestic Sewage Treatment in Taihu Lake Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural domestic sewage is one of the main pollution sources of Taihu Lake. To seek suitable sewage treatment technology, investigation and pilot research was conducted in rural places in Taihu Lake region. Field investigation was done by questionnaire and sewage sampling analysis. Demonstration project was built with a biological-ecological process consisting of anaerobic hydrolysis, waterfall aeration contact oxidation and constructed

Zhaoqian Jing; Zheng Wang; Xiwu Lu; Xianning Li

2009-01-01

402

The effects of sewage discharge on shallow hard substrate sessile assemblages  

Microsoft Academic Search

On rocky shores, sewage discharges can modify natural distribution patterns of sessile organisms. The impact of sewage on shallow hard substrate assemblages has been assessed along SW Apulian coast (Ionian Sea, Italy), providing a framework to evaluate the benefits of future sewage displacement to deeper waters. Four locations (three controls and one putatively impacted) were selected and three sites were

A Terlizzi; S Fraschetti; P Guidetti; F Boero

2002-01-01

403

Effectiveness of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy in the Quick Evaluation of Nitrogen Content in Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main uses of sewage sludge is the incorporation into agricultural soils, the application dose being based on the specific composition of the waste according to the established normative. However, a full analytical characterization of sewage sludge is time?consuming and expensive. Thus, many times, sewage sludge is applied to soils without this information. Therefore, the use of near

Raul Moral; Maria Angeles Bustamante; Concepcion Paredes

2009-01-01

404

Work-related Helicobacter pylori infection among sewage workers in municipal wastewater treatment plants in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionMost studies among sewage workers of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have found a higher prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms than among non-sewage exposed workers. Waterborne transmission of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) has been hypothesised, as the bacteria can survive into an aqueous environment and has been detected in sewage. A health and hygiene questionnaire has demonstrated a higher prevalence of peptic

Wim Van Hooste; Anne-Marie Charlier; Paul Rotsaert; Simon Bulterys; Guido Moens; Marc van Sprundel; Antoon De Schryver

2010-01-01

405

PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage treatment is performed in an environmentally safe and cost?effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by sp...

406

Energy Disposal in Cyanide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy disposal in the CN(X) product of the H + HCN reaction has been studied by the method of time-resolved laser induced fluorescence. Translationally "hot" hydrogen atoms were generated by the photodissociation of H _2S or HBr at 193.3 nm resulting in c.m. collision energies of 53 and 58 kcal mole^{-1 }, respectively. Rotational and vibrational distributions and reaction cross sections were measured at the two collision energies and the results are compared with measurements made at a collision energy of 43 kcal mole^{-1} (G. Johnston and R. Bersohn (1989), J. Chem. Phys., 90, 7096). The rotational distributions for CN(X,v = 0,1) can be well described by single Boltzmann temperatures of 1400 and 1600K, respectively, and correspond to 12% of the available energy above an apparent threshold of approximately 30 kcal mole^{-1}. Between 3 and 5% of the available energy above the 30 kcal mole ^{-1} threshold is found in CN(X) vibration. Cross sections for production of CN(X) at the two H atom energies have been measured as 0.007 +/- 0.002 and 0.009 +/- 0.002 A^2, respectively. Stimulated emission pumping using an optical double resonance technique was used to prepare population in a single rotational level of vibrationally excited CN in a four laser, five photon experiment. CN was produced in the photolysis of C_2N _2 at 193.3 nm by the first laser. The second and third lasers served as the pump and dump in the stimulated emission pumping scheme. The loss of the initially prepared population in CN(X,v = 2, N = 14) by rotationally inelastic collisions with a large excess of He was monitored by the method of time-resolved laser induced fluorescence with the fourth laser. The resulting fluorescence (fifth photon) was observed through an interference filter which discriminated against the strong radiation excited in the pump step. By tuning the fourth laser, the population growth of neighbouring states by rotational energy transfer was detected at a variety of pressure times delay values within the single collision regime. State-to-state rate constants for the transitions N = 14 to N = 6 to N = 20 were extracted from the population growth curves and revealed a propensity for even Delta N transitions. The rate constants for up and down transitions were well-described by the exponential energy gap fitting function.

Lambert, Harold Mark

407

Absence of asbestos in municipal sewage sludge ashes  

SciTech Connect

In earlier studies, asbestos was found in sewage sludges in several cities in the United States using x-ray diffraction, high power light optical microscopy, polarized light microscopy or electron microscopy. In a number of cities in the United States, sewage sludge is incinerated at temperatures up to 1,000{degree}C. Temperatures of 550{degree}C or higher dehydroxylate the asbestos lattice resulting in alteration or even destruction of the mineral. Since refractive index and other key parameters used to identify asbestos minerals change above 550{degree}C, it was of interest to analyze for the presence of asbestos in typically produced municipal sludge ashes. In the work reported here, sewage sludge ashes from 10 American cities were obtained and analyzed for the presence of asbestos.

Patel-Mandlik, K.J.; Manos, C.G. (Environmental Science and Engineering, Inc., Gainesville, FL (USA)); Lisk, D.J. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

1988-06-01

408

Work-related symptoms and inflammation among sewage plant operatives.  

PubMed

Sewage operatives at five sewage treatment plants (n = 59) and controls not exposed to sewage (n = 55) were examined to determine work-related symptoms and inflammatory responses. Symptoms were elicited using a questionnaire, and spirometry was performed. Inflammatory markers were determined in blood and nasal lavage. Workplace endotoxin and hydrogen sulfide were measured and adeno- and enterovirus antibodies were evaluated in blood. Gastrointestinal and airway symptoms, joint pains, unusual tiredness, and toxic pneumonitis were more common among operatives, and the proportion of blood neutrophils was higher among operatives as compared with controls. A relationship was found between several reported symptoms and the inflammatory markers. Hydrogen sulfide levels were very low. Endotoxin levels were generally low, but high at some work sites. PMID:15070030

Thorn, Jörgen; Beijer, Lena

2004-01-01

409

Neurotoxic effects of solvent exposure on sewage treatment workers  

SciTech Connect

Nineteen Sewage Treatment Workers (STWs) exposed to industrial sewage that contained benzene, toluene, and other organic solvents at a primary sewage treatment plant in New York City (Plant A) were examined for evidence of solvent toxicity. Fourteen (74%) complained of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms consistent with solvent exposure, including lightheadedness, fatigue, increased sleep requirement, and headache. The majority of these symptoms resolved with transfer from the plant. Men working less than 1 yr at Plant A were more likely to complain of two or more CNS symptoms than men who were working there longer than 1 yr (p = .055). Objective abnormalities in neurobehavioral testing were found in all 4 men working longer than 9 yr at this plant, but in only 5 of 15 employed there for a shorter period (p = .03). These results are consistent with the known effects of solvent exposure. Occupational health personnel must be aware that STWs can be exposed to solvents and other industrial wastes.

Kraut, A.; Lilis, R.; Marcus, M.; Valciukas, J.A.; Wolff, M.S.; Landrigan, P.J.

1988-07-01

410

Health among municipal sewage and water treatment workers.  

PubMed

Municipal sewage treatment plant workers are potentially exposed to a multitude of industrial chemicals and pathogenic microorganisms. A questionnaire survey of working habits, lifestyle and symptoms of illness was conducted among 189 municipal sewage treatment plant workers processing between three and ten million gallons of wastewater daily in 16 plants in New York State between March and July of 1984. Water treatment plant workers in the same cities comprised the comparison group. Sewage workers reported a significantly higher frequency of headache, dizziness, sore throat, skin irritation and diarrhea within the month immediately preceding receipt of the questionnaire, after controlling for various possible confounders. Eye and skin irritation were significantly associated with exposure to mutagens. The health significance of these findings and possible sources of error in assessing risk are discussed. PMID:3686535

Scarlett-Kranz, J M; Babish, J G; Strickland, D; Lisk, D J

1987-09-01

411

Bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was isolated from sewage sludge using the incubation in the Waksman liquor medium and the inoculation in Waksman solid plate. It was found that the optimum conditions of the bioleaching included solid concentration 2%, sulfur concentration 5 g.L-1 and cell concentration 10%. The removal efficiency of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zh in sewage sludge, which was obtained from waste treatment plant, Jinshan, Fuzhou, was 43.65%, 96.24%, 41.61% and 96.50% in the period of 4~10 days under the optimum conditions, respectively. After processing using the proposed techniques, the heavy metals in sewage sludge did meet the requirement the standards of nation.

Wen, Ye-Ming; Lin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Qing-Ping; Chen, Zu-Liang

2010-11-01

412

Mechanical properties of dewatered sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of dewatered, anaerobically digested sewage sludge were determined from soil laboratory tests. The sludge material is largely composed of organic clay sized-particles, a sizable fraction of which is in an active state of biological digestion which can continue over many years under field conditions. Moderately digested sludge material was found to have a typical specific gravity of solids value of 1.55, and loss on ignition (LOI) value of 70% dry mass. Strongly digested sludge, produced by digesting the liquid sludge further at 35 degrees C in the laboratory, was found to have a lower LOI value of 55% dry mass, and a higher specific gravity of solids value of about 1.72. The maximum dry density of 0.56 tonne/m3 for the dried sludge material was produced using standard Proctor compaction at roughly 85% moisture content (54% solids content). Air-dried, compacted sludge material was tested in quick-undrained triaxial compression and vane shear. Undrained shear strength-moisture content plots are presented. Shear strength values measured in triaxial compression and vane shear were consistent. The effective angle of shearing resistance (phi') was determined from consolidated-undrained, triaxial compression tests on pasteurized, normally consolidated samples of the sludge material. The mechanical properties of the sludge material changed with the level of sludge digestion. The phi' value increased from 32 degrees for moderately digested sludge, to 37 degrees for strongly digested sludge. The effective cohesion of the sludge material remained zero throughout. The shrinkage, swelling and adhesion properties of the sludge material were also studied. Significant shrinkage occurred as the compacted material dried. The sludge material lost its adhesion below about 95% moisture content (51% solids content). Re-hydration of the dry material caused the bulk volume to double. PMID:15681178

O'Kelly, Brendan C

2005-01-01

413

Variovorax defluvii sp. nov., isolated from sewage.  

PubMed

A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out on 2C1-b(T) and 2C-21, two strains isolated from sewage flowing into River Geumho in Korea. Cells of the two strains were Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, motile and oval or rod-shaped. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies showed a clear affiliation of these two isolates with members of the Betaproteobacteria; they were most closely related to Variovorax boronicumulans KCTC 22010(T), Variovorax dokdonensis KCTC 12544(T), Variovorax ginsengisoli KCTC 12583(T), Variovorax paradoxus ATCC 17713(T) and Variovorax soli KACC 11579(T) showing 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 97.4-98.8% with these strains and shared 100% similarity with each other. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains 2C1-b(T) and 2C1-21 were 65.5 and 65.2 mol%, respectively. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data [Q-8 as the major ubiquinone; C(16:0), summed feature 4 (C(16:1)?7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH), C(17:0) cyclo and summed feature 7 (C(18:1)?7c and/or ?9t and/or ?12t) as major fatty acids] supported the affiliation of strains 2C1-b(T) and 2C-21 to the genus Variovorax. Based on evidence derived from this polyphasic analysis, it is proposed that strains 2C1-b(T) and 2C1-21 represent a novel species for which the name Variovorax defluvii sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 2C1-b(T) (?=?KCTC 12768(T)?=?JCM 17804(T)). PMID:21948092

Jin, Long; Kim, Kwang Kyu; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock

2012-08-01

414

Microbial hydrogen production with immobilized sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Municipal sewage sludge was immobilized to produce hydrogen gas under anaerobic conditions. Cell immobilization was essentially achieved by gel entrapment approaches, which were physically or chemically modified by addition of activated carbon (AC), polyurethane (PU), and acrylic latex plus silicone (ALSC). The performance of hydrogen fermentation with a variety of immobilized-cell systems was assessed to identify the optimal type of immobilized cells for practical uses. With sucrose as the limiting carbon source, hydrogen production was more efficient with the immobilized-cell system than with the suspended-cell system, and in both cases the predominant soluble metabolites were butyric acid and acetic acid. Addition of activated carbon into alginate gel (denoted as CA/AC cells) enhanced the hydrogen production rate (v(H2)) and substrate-based yield (Y((H2)/sucrose)) by 70% and 52%, respectively, over the conventional alginate-immobilized cells. Further supplementation of polyurethane or acrylic latex/silicone increased the mechanical strength and operation stability of the immobilized cells but caused a decrease in the hydrogen production rate. Kinetic studies show that the dependence of specific hydrogen production rates on the concentration of limiting substrate (sucrose) can be described by Michaelis-Menten model with good agreement. The kinetic analysis suggests that CA/AC cells may contain higher concentration of active biocatalysts for hydrogen production, while PU and ALSC cells had better affinity to the substrate. Acclimation of the immobilized cells led to a remarkable enhancement in v(H2) with a 25-fold increase for CA/AC and ca. 10- to 15-fold increases for PU and ALSC cells. However, the ALSC cells were found to have better durability than PU and CA/AC cells as they allowed stable hydrogen production for over 24 repeated runs. PMID:12363341

Wu, Shu-Yii; Lin, Chi-Num; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lee, Kuo-Shing; Lin, Ping-Jei

2002-01-01

415

Virus movement in soil columns flooded with secondary sewage effluent.  

PubMed

Secondary sewage effluent containing about 3 X 10(4) plaque-forming units of polio virus type 1 (LSc) per ml was passed through columns 250 cm in length packed with calcareous sand from an area in the Salt River bed used for ground-water recharge of secondary sewage effluent. Viruses were not detected in 1-ml samples extracted from the columns below the 160-cm level. However, viruses were detected in 5 of 43 100-ml samples of the column drainage water. Most of the viruses were adsorbed in the top 5 cm of soil. Virus removal was not affected by the infiltration rate, which varied between 15 and 55 cm/day. Flooding a column continuosly for 27 days with the sewage water virus mixture did not saturate the top few centimeters of soil with viruses and did not seem to affect virus movement. Flooding with deionized water caused virus desorption from the soil and increased their movement through the columns. Adding CaCl2 to the deionized water prevented most of the virus desorption. Adding a pulse of deionized water followed by sewage water started a virus front moving through the columns, but the viruses were readsorbed and none was detected in outflow samples. Drying the soil for 1 day between applying the virus and flooding with deionized water greatly reduced desorption, and drying for 5 days prevented desorption. Large reductions (99.99% or more) of virus would be expected after passage of secondary sewage effluent through 250 cm of the calcareous sand similar to that used in our laboratory columns unless heavy rains fell within 1 day after the application of sewage stopped. Such virus movement could be minimized by the proper management of flooding and drying cycles. PMID:185960

Lance, J C; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

1976-10-01

416

Virus movement in soil columns flooded with secondary sewage effluent.  

PubMed Central

Secondary sewage effluent containing about 3 X 10(4) plaque-forming units of polio virus type 1 (LSc) per ml was passed through columns 250 cm in length packed with calcareous sand from an area in the Salt River bed used for ground-water recharge of secondary sewage effluent. Viruses were not detected in 1-ml samples extracted from the columns below the 160-cm level. However, viruses were detected in 5 of 43 100-ml samples of the column drainage water. Most of the viruses were adsorbed in the top 5 cm of soil. Virus removal was not affected by the infiltration rate, which varied between 15 and 55 cm/day. Flooding a column continuosly for 27 days with the sewage water virus mixture did not saturate the top few centimeters of soil with viruses and did not seem to affect virus movement. Flooding with deionized water caused virus desorption from the soil and increased their movement through the columns. Adding CaCl2 to the deionized water prevented most of the virus desorption. Adding a pulse of deionized water followed by sewage water started a virus front moving through the columns, but the viruses were readsorbed and none was detected in outflow samples. Drying the soil for 1 day between applying the virus and flooding with deionized water greatly reduced desorption, and drying for 5 days prevented desorption. Large reductions (99.99% or more) of virus would be expected after passage of secondary sewage effluent through 250 cm of the calcareous sand similar to that used in our laboratory columns unless heavy rains fell within 1 day after the application of sewage stopped. Such virus movement could be minimized by the proper management of flooding and drying cycles.

Lance, J C; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

1976-01-01

417

Anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature.  

PubMed

The results of research concerning the feasibility of anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature are summarized in this article. The batch tests demonstrated a high biodegradability of domestic sewage at 20 degrees C (74%). Both batch and continuous experiments for the treatment of domestic sewage showed that the removal of SS prior to anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage not only provides a stable reactor performance but also improves the removal of both colloidal (CODcol) and dissolved COD (CODdis). The results of the pre-treatment of domestic sewage in an anaerobic filter (AF) and an anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor showed that the AF reactor is an efficient process for the removal of suspended COD (CODss), viz. 82%, at an HRT of 4 h and 13 degrees C. The novel AF reactor consists of vertical sheets of reticulated polyurethane foam with knobs, where the biomass was only in attached form. For the treatment of pre-settled sewage at 13 degrees C, the AH reactor, with granular sludge, showed a higher total COD (CODt) removal than the UASB reactor as a result of higher CODcol removal. Therefore, the performance of a two-step system, AF + AH (with granular sludge) reactor, was investigated with different HRTs at 13 degrees C. For optimization of CODss and CODdis an HRT of 4 + 4 h is needed, while for optimization of CODcol removal an HRT of 4 + 8 h is required. A CODt removal of 71% was achieved with 60% conversion to methane from the removed CODt when the AF + AH system was operated at an HRT of 4 + 8 h at 13 degrees C. PMID:11575098

Elmitwalli, T; Zeenan, G; Lettinga, G

2001-01-01

418

An E.E.C. Viewpoint on Animal Waste Disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livestock management practices have evolved considerably in the E.E.C. during the last two decades. The development of intensive confined rearing without using litter results in the production of vast quantities of animal waste slurries, which create serious disposal problems. Yet these wastes possess a fertilizing value that should be used as much as possible to replace increasingly expensive chemical fertilizers.

P. Bourdeau; P. L'Hermite

1982-01-01

419

Progress on developing expert systems in waste management and disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of artificial intelligence (AI) represents a challenging opportunity in expanding the potential benefits from computer technology in waste management and disposal. The potential of this concept lies in facilitating the development of intelligent computer system to help analysts, decision makers, and operators in waste and technology problem solving similar to the way that machines support the laborer. Because

A. L. Rivera; J. J. Ferrada

1990-01-01

420

Multicriteria Ranking Wastewater Disposal Alternatives For Coastal Towns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main economic activity of the Poljicha Riviera in Yugoslavia as well as otherparts of the Adriatic coast is tourism. This activity can be successfully developed if numerous conditions are satisfied among which one of the most important is a clear sea. The region of the Poljicha Riviera has unique characteristics with regard to the problem of waste water disposal.

Jure Margeta; Darrell G. Fontane; Seok-Ku Ko

1990-01-01

421

Science and technology for disposal of radioactive tank wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the legacies of the Cold War is a huge stockpile of radioactive wastes generated by over 40 years of nuclear weapons production. Safe treatment and disposal of these wastes, together with the associated problems of facility decommissioning and site clean-up, represents one of the largest and most complex environmental challenges of the present-day. Amongst these nuclear wastes is

W. W. Schulz; N. J. Lombardo

1998-01-01

422

Iraq nuclear facility dismantlement and disposal project  

SciTech Connect

The Al Tuwaitha nuclear complex near Baghdad contains a significant number of nuclear facilities from Saddam Hussein's dictatorship. Because of past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting there is now an enormous radioactive waste problem at Al Tuwaitha. Al Tuwaitha contains uncharacterised radioactive wastes, yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, and contaminated metals. The current security situation in Iraq hampers all aspects of radioactive waste management. Further, Iraq has never had a radioactive waste disposal facility, which means that ever increasing quantities of radioactive waste and material must be held in guarded storage. The Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) has been initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials, while building human capacities so that the GOI can manage other environmental cleanups in their country. The DOS has funded the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to provide technical assistance to the GOI via a Technical Cooperation Project. Program coordination will be provided by the DOS, consistent with U.S. and GOI policies, and Sandia National Laboratories will be responsible for coordination of participants and for providing waste management support. Texas Tech University will continue to provide in-country assistance, including radioactive waste characterization and the stand-up of the Iraq Nuclear Services Company. The GOI owns the problems in Iraq and will be responsible for the vast majority of the implementation of the NDs Program. (authors)

Cochran, J.R.; Danneels, J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kenagy, W.D. [U.S. Department of State, Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation, Office of Nuclear Energy, Safety and Security, Washington, DC (United States); Phillips, C.J.; Chesser, R.K. [Center for Environmental Radiation Studies, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States)

2007-07-01

423

DISPOSAL OF MBT WASTE - CONSEQUENCES ON CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF LANDFILLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The final disposal of MSW on landfill causes in many cases long term problems in view of the liquid and gaseous emissions. The environmental policy of the European Community requires therefore that the amount of biodegradable waste to be disposed has to be reduced. This goal can only reached by a treat- ment of waste. In some parts treatment will

Kai Münnich; Jan Bauer; Klaus Fricke

424

Lessons from Natural Analog Studies for Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over fifty years natural analog studies have provided lessons addressing scientific, technical, and social problems concerning geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Idealized concepts for permanent disposal environments evolved from an understanding of the geological, geochemical and hydrological characteristics of analogous rocks including natural salt deposits (as advocated by the US National Academy of Sciences in 1957), ancient cratonic

W. M. Murphy

2009-01-01

425

Trash Conflicts: A Science and Social Studies Curriculum on the Ethics of Disposal. An Interdisciplinary Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for middle school science and social studies classes, this document is a curriculum on waste disposal. Mathematics and language skills also are incorporated into many of the activities. In the study of trash disposal, science students benefit from understanding the social issues related to the problem. Social studies students need…

Ballin, Amy; And Others

426

Radioactive Waste Disposal Implications of Extending Part IIA to cover Radioactively Contaminated Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA to address radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of the radioactive wastes arising from remediation.

DJ Nancarrow

427

The application of potassium ferrate for sewage treatment.  

PubMed

The comparative performance of potassium ferrate(VI), ferric sulphate and aluminium sulphate for the removal of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour (as Vis400-abs) and bacteria in sewage treatment was evaluated. For coagulation and disinfection of sewage, potassium ferrate(VI) can remove more organic contaminants, COD and bacteria in comparison with the other two coagulants for the same doses used. Also, potassium ferrate(VI) produces less sludge volume and removes more contaminants, which should make subsequent sludge treatment easier. PMID:16182439

Jiang, Jia-Qian; Panagoulopoulos, Alex; Bauer, Mike; Pearce, Pete

2006-04-01

428

The detection of enteroviruses in sewage using Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

The work presented here demonstrates the utility of Caco-2 cells to detect enteroviruses in sewage. Viruses were concentrated by beef extract elution and organic flocculation prior to analysis by cell culture assays and RT-PCR. Enteroviruses were detected in all sewage samples, but only one sample was positive solely in RT-PCR assay. We proved that Caco-2 cells were more effective than RD and L20B cells in enterovirus isolation, depending on procedures used in the inoculation process. PMID:23829085

Wieczorek, Magdalena; Kuryk, ?ukasz; Witek, Agnieszka; Diuwe, Anna; Litwi?ska, Bogumi?a

2013-01-01

429

Co-composting as an oxygen stabilization of an organic fraction of municipal solid waste and industrial sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to study the characteristics of the co-composting of municipal solid waste (MSW), sewage sludge, grass and sawdust. Differing proportions of biodegradable waste were investigated through changes of temperature, oxygen consumption, organic matters, moisture content, carbon, nitrogen, C/N ratio as well as heavy metals and pathogen microorganisms content. The present study has shown that addition of MSW above 10% had a negative impact on the composting process. The initial C/N of the mixtures with a higher MSW content was below 18. Lower losses of organic matter occurred during composting for the mixture with the highest addition of MSW. Although studies have shown that composting is a good method for the disposal of organic waste additional research is required in order to optimize the organic and nitrogen compounds degradation during the co-composting process. In conclusion, a 1:4:4:1 mixture of MSW:sewage sludge:grass:sawdust is recommended because it can achieve high temperature as well as the highest organic matter degradation and highest N content in the final composting product. The concentration of heavy and light metals in all composts was within the limits of regulation of the Polish Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development. PMID:24185049

Milczarek, M; Neczaj, E; Parkitna, K

2013-01-01

430

Tritium waste disposal technology in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tritium waste disposal methods in the US range from disposal of low specific activity waste along with other low-level waste in shallow land burial facilities, to disposal of kilocurie amounts in specially designed triple containers in 65' deep augered holes located in an aird region of the US. Total estimated curies disposed of are 500,000 in commercial burial sites and

E. L. Albenesius; O. A. Towler

1983-01-01

431

From sewage water treatment to wastewater reuse. One century of Paris sewage farms history.  

PubMed

The irrigation fields of Paris have been used for 100 years. Their soils mainly contain heavy metals in the topmost layer. Metals come from raw sewage as well as from digested sludge of biological treatment plants which have been diluted for years in raw water. Vegetables that are cultivated in the irrigation fields concentrate metals but their average contents, however, are lower than the recommended limit values. Some vegetables concentrate more specifically one type of metal. Corn seeds accumulate less metal than green vegetables. The SIAAP keeps operating irrigation fields by delivering clariflocculated water with a low metal content from the new Seine Centre plant, with the purpose of keeping some 2,000 ha of green zone in an otherwise heavily constructed area and to prevent a metal release from the soil should irrigation be interrupted. Maintaining irrigation fields also relieves the biological treatment plant and then contributes to preserve the quality of the Seine river, especially in summer. PMID:11436768

Védry, B; Gousailles, M; Affholder, M; Lefaux, A; Bontoux, J

2001-01-01

432

Synergistic effect of rice husk addition on hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge: fate and environmental risk of heavy metals.  

PubMed

Hydrothermal treatment (HTT) at 200°C was applied to immobilize heavy metals (HMs) and the effect of rice husk (RH) addition was investigated based on total HMs concentration, fractionation and leaching tests. The results indicated that a synergistic effect of RH addition and HTT could be achieved on reducing the risk of HMs from medium and low risk to no risk. Metals were redistributed and transformed from weakly bounded state to stable state during the HTT process under RH addition. Notably at a RH/sludge ratio of 1/1.75 (d.w.), all the HMs showed no eco-toxicity and no leaching toxicity, with the concentrations of leachable Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd decreased by 17%, 89%, 95% and 93%, respectively. This synergistic effect of RH addition and HTT on the risk reduction of HMs implies that HTT process with RH addition could be a promising and safe disposal technology for sewage sludge treatment in practice. PMID:24140855

Shi, Wansheng; Liu, Chunguang; Shu, Youju; Feng, Chuanping; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya

2013-12-01

433

Activated carbons obtained from sewage sludge by chemical activation: gas-phase environmental applications.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity for toluene and SO2 of low cost activated carbons prepared from sewage sludge by chemical activation at different impregnation ratios. Samples were characterized by proximate and ultimate analyses, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption. Because of the low carbon content of the raw material, the development of porosity in the activated carbons was mainly of a mesoporous nature, with surface areas lower than 300 m(2)/g. The study of gas-phase applications for activated carbons from sewage sludge was carried out using both an organic and an inorganic compound in order to screen for possible applications. Toluene adsorption capacity at saturation was around 280 mg/g, which is a good level of performance given the high ash content of the activated carbons. However, dynamic experiments at low toluene concentration presented diffusion problems resulting from low porosity development. SO2 adsorption capacity is associated with average micropore size, which can be controlled by the impregnation ratio used to prepare the activated carbons. PMID:24747937

Boualem, T; Debab, A; Martínez de Yuso, A; Izquierdo, M T

2014-07-01

434

Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition  

SciTech Connect

The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-10-01

435

The kinetics of combustion of chars derived from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments have been conducted to determine the combustion characteristics of sewage sludge chars in electrically heated beds of silica sand fluidised by air. The effects of the initial size of the char particles, the temperature of the bed and [O2] in the fluidising gas were investigated. Also, the temperatures of burning particles were measured with embedded thermocouples. The kinetics of

J. S. Dennis; R. J. Lambert; A. J. Milne; S. A. Scott; A. N. Hayhurst

2005-01-01

436

Exergy analysis of methanol from the sewage sludge process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns a new method of sewage sludge treatment that contributes more than traditional methods to the sustainable technology by achieving a higher rational efficiency of sludge processing. This is obtained by preserving the chemical exergy present in the sludge and transforming it into a chemical one––methanol. The proposed method combines a sludge gasification process and a modified methanol

K. J. Ptasinski; C. Hamelinck; P. J. A. M. Kerkhof

2002-01-01

437

Plantago Psyllium Mucilage For Sewage and Tannery Effluent Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

he ability of low cost flocculating material, plantago psyllium mucilage, for removal of suspended solid (SS) from sewage and tannery has been successfully investi- gated. Jar test method has been used for flocculation studies. The effects of poly- mer dose, pH and contact time on percent removal of solid wastes are reported. Increase in solid wastes removal was observed with

A. Mishra; M. Agarwal; M. Bajpai; S. Rajani; R. P. Mishra

438

Less-costly activated carbon for sewage treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lignite-aided sewage treatment is based on absorption of dissolved pollutants by activated carbon. Settling sludge is removed and dried into cakes that are pyrolyzed with lignites to yield activated carbon. Lignite is less expensive than activated carbon previously used to supplement pyrolysis yield.

Ingham, J. D.; Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.

1977-01-01

439

Natural Wetlands Utilization for Un-Collected Village Sewage Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pre-research was conducted to validate the availability of using nuatral wetland to control village sewage and improving water quallity in reservior. Removal of COD, TP, TN, NH4-N, As, Cd and Hg by tested natural wetland both in growing period and decaying period was tested. Characteristics of soil and plant in tested wetland were also analyzed. The results showed that

Zheng Lei; Ding Ai-zhong; Wang Jin-sheng; Teng Yan-guo; Hao Fang-hua

2008-01-01

440

Surface area development of sewage sludge during pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies on surface area and pore structure development during pyrolysis of digested sewage sludge were carried out. Surface area and pore structure characterization of the resultant chars was evaluated using an accelerated surface area and porosimetry system (ASAP 2000). The effects of process parameters, temperature and hold time were found to be significant. Generally, the surface area of the

G. Q. Lu; J. C. F. Low; C. Y. Liu; A. C. Lua

1995-01-01

441

Characterization of sewage sludges by primary and secondary pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus formed by the combination of a primary pyrolyzer (Pyroprobe 1000) and a secondary reactor was used to study the thermal decomposition of three different chemical sewage sludges, using temperatures in the secondary reactor between 290 and 650°C and 700°C in the primary pyrolzer. Yields of 12 pyrolysis products were determined (methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, methanol, acetic acid,

J. A. Caballero; R. Front; A. Marcilla; J. A. Conesa

1997-01-01

442

USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON AGRICULTURAL AND DISTURBED LANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Results of 8 field studies of long-term use of digested sewage on agricultural and disturbed lands are presented. The studies included: (1) response of corn grown on 3 soil types previously amended with annual sludge applications; (2) response of corn grown annually on Blount sil...

443

COSTS OF AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYSTEMS FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air pollution control systems to municipal sewage sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment-wet scrubbers, fabric filters,...

444

Frost Protection of Buried Water and Sewage Pipes. Three Articles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two of the articles in this report discuss frost prevention for privately owned water and sewage pipes laid shallow (above the frost penetration level) in bedrock type terrain. The third article contains frost load data in tabular form for all communities...

P. Gunderson

1978-01-01

445

Baghouse Efficiency on a Multiple Hearth Incinerator Burning Sewage Sludge,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot-scale fabric filter (baghouse) was evaluated for its removal performance for 23 metals and for sulfur as well as for total particles when fitted to a multiple hearth incinerator burning sewage sludge. The small scale baghouse was installed to take...

R. C. Adams L. E. Keller E. V. Robb M. C. Vancil J. B. Farrell

1989-01-01

446

Plasma gasification of sewage sludge: Process development and energy optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma gasification process has been demonstrated in many of the most recent studies as one of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods for solid waste treatment and energy utilization. This method is applied here to the treatment of sewage sludge. Results are presented for a case study concerning the Athens’ Central Wastewater Treatment Plant, at Psittalia Island. An

A. Mountouris; E. Voutsas; D. Tassios

2008-01-01

447

TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI  

EPA Science Inventory

The increase in resistance rates to trimehtoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) in isolates of Escherichia coli has become a matter of increasing concern. This has been particularly true in reference to community acquired urinary tract infections (UTI). This study utilized sewage i...

448

Isolation of Candida albicans from freshwater and sewage.  

PubMed Central

The isolation and identification of Candida albicans from polluted aquatic environments were facilitated by the inclusion of a selective medium and a differential screening medium to detect the reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. C. albicans occurred commonly in low numbers in sewage influents, rivers, and streams.

Cook, W L; Schlitzer, R L

1981-01-01

449

The Effects of Sewage on a Lake Champlain Wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stevens Brook wetland is presently receiving partially treated sewage from the City of St. Albans, Vermont. The water quality in St. Albans Bay is deteriorating. There is conflicting evidence for the theory that wetlands act as a nutrient sink or as a biotic nutrient filter. This research is an investigation into the productivity and trophic food chain relationships of Stevens

Larry N. Schwartz; Gerhard K. Gruendling

1985-01-01

450

EFFECTS OF USING SEWAGE SLUDGE ON AGRICULTURAL AND DISTURBED LANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The accumulative effects of annual use of sewage sludge on composition of soils, plants, water, and animals that consume the plants is presented. Plant yields were increased and no evidence of phototoxicity from trace elements was observed. Phosphorus toxicity in soybeans develop...

451

Possibilities of using sewage sludge as nitrogen fertilizer for maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of nitrogen fertilizer sources of ammonium sulphate and municipal sewage sludge on yield, N content and uptake of the maize (Zea mays L.). Nutrient and heavy metals were determined in soil and plant. The experiment with three sludge rates (256, 513 and 1026 kg total N ha or 9.5, 18.0

Mehmet Ali Bozkurt; Hakki Akdeniz; Bilal Keskin; Ibrahim Hakki Yilmaz

2006-01-01

452

Sewage sludge effects on soybean growth and nitrogen fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sewage sludge application, as a source of phosphorus, on dinitrogen symbiotic fixation in soybean was evaluated. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse and included eight different treatments: (1) no fertilization, (2) complete fertilization, (3) inoculation with rhizobia plus phosphate fertilization (IS+P), (4) inoculation with rhizobia without phosphate fertilization (IS-P), (5) inoculation plus dose 1 of

R. F. Vieira

2001-01-01

453

Organic markers in the lipidic fraction of sewage sludges.  

PubMed

The lipidic organic fraction of 48 sewage sludges that originated from food-processing, paper-mill and domestic (urban, small urban, and rural) wastewater-treatment plants of the Lorraine region (Northeast of France) was characterised by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (GC-MS). This study enables us to define an average organic composition typical of each group of sewage sludges. Linear alkyl benzenes (LABs) are only present in domestic sludges, sterols in food-processing and domestic sludges. Paper-mill sludges are characterised by the specific distribution of n-alkanes. Besides, all the domestic sludges, whatever the size of the wastewater catchment, are characterised by the same distribution of polar compounds. Differences can be evidenced in the distribution of the aliphatic compounds of some domestic sewage sludges and are attributed to the important contribution of petroleum products in their sewer system. Moreover, this study highlights the correlation between abundance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aromatic fraction of some sewage sludges and a distribution of n-alkanes characteristic of heavy petroleum products into the corresponding aliphatic fraction. This might be a clue for the determination of punctual sources of PAHs. PMID:15862322

Jardé, Emilie; Mansuy, Laurence; Faure, Pierre

2005-04-01

454

Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge with high solids content.  

PubMed

The treatment performance of thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of sewage sludge with high solids content was investigated with two laboratory-scale thermophilic anaerobic reactors (R1 and R2) with a feeding of pre-centrifuged sewage sludge. Reactor R1 was fed with sludge of 3.7% total solids (TS). The volatile solids (VS) removal ratio and methane yield in the stable state were 54.9% and 0.29 NL CH(4)/g VS(added), respectively. For reactor R2, when the TS content of fed sludge was 7.4%, the VS removal ratio and methane yield in the stable state were 73.2% and 0.38 NL CH(4)/g VS(added), respectively. When the TS content was increased to 9.5%, the VS removal ratio and methane yield slightly decreased to 69.3% and 0.32 NL CH(4)/g VS(added), respectively, but the reactor was stably operated. An increase of ammonia concentration was observed, but it was in the safe range without severe inhibition on the methane production. The result indicated that thermophilic AD could support sewage sludge with high TS content (9.5%) without abrupt deterioration of the treatment performance. The high-solids AD process is an economical method for centralized sewage sludge treatment with lower transport cost. PMID:24804672

Wang, Feng; Hidaka, Taira; Uchida, Tsutomu; Tsumori, Jun

2014-01-01

455

DEMONSTRATION PHYSICAL CHEMICAL SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT UTILIZING BIOLOGICAL NITRIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This demonstration project in a small residential community in Kentucky was initiated to show the feasibility of treating sewage with a physical-chemical type of wastewater treatment plant with a biological process for nitrification. The 50,000 gallon per day system had unit proc...

456

Ultrafiltration of Raw Sewage Using an Immobilized Enzyme Membrane.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ultrafiltration of raw sewage was performed using multiple-enzymes immobilized on non-cellulosic, ultrafiltration membranes. An increase of 12% in the permeate flux rate at quasi-steady state was observed due to the action of the immobilized enzymes. Enzy...

S. S. Wang B. Davidson C. Y. Jeng

1979-01-01

457

FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION AND STABILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...

458

SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION AT NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a report on the sewage sludge incineration fuel reduction program at the Nashville-Davidson County Metropolitan Government wastewater treatment plant in Nashville, Tennessee. Fuel usage was reduced over 40 percent by reprogramming the methods used for operating the incine...

459

Dried, Irradiated Sewage Solids as Supplemental Feed for Cattle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sewage solids were collected as primary settled solids and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using exp 60 Co or exp 137 Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one megarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays wi...

G. S. Smith H. E. Kiesling E. E. Ray R. Orcasberro P. Trujillo

1979-01-01

460

BAGHOUSE EFFICIENCY ON A MULTIPLE HEARTH INCINERATOR BURNING SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot-scale fabric filter (baghouse) was evaluated for its removal performance for 23 metals and for sulfur as well as for total particles when fitted to a multiple hearth incinerator burning sewage sludge. The small scale baghouse was installed to take a slipstream of about th...

461

The dirty work of promoting "recycling" of America's sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Serious illnesses, including deaths, and adverse environmental impacts have been linked to land application of sewage sludge. EPA and the wastewater treatment industry have worked with Congress to fund wastewater trade associations to promote land application, supporting industry-friendly scientists and discouraging independent research, to prevent local governments from restricting land application and to thwart litigation against municipalities and the industry. PMID:16350476

Snyder, Caroline

2005-01-01

462

EVALUATION OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested using the Salmonella/microsomal activation assay, t...

463

HANDLING AND DISPOSAL OF SLUDGES AND RESIDUALS FROM COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper summarizes the results of a three phases U.S. EPA project to define the problems and establish treatment procedures for handling and disposal of residual sludges and solids from combined sewer overflow treatment....

464

Handling and Disposal of Sludges and Residuals from Combined Sewer Overflow Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper summarizes the results of a three phases US EPA project to define the problems and establish treatment procedures for handling and disposal of residual sludges and solids from combined sewer overflow treatment.

R. Field Y. Iwasa T. Sueishi

1990-01-01

465

Effects of calcined aluminum salts on the advanced dewatering and solidification/stabilization of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The high moisture content (80%) in the sewage dewatered sludge is the main obstacle to disposal and recycling. A chemical dewatering and stabilization/solidification (S/S) alternative for the sludge was developed, using calcined aluminum salts (AS) as solidifier, and CaCl2, Na2SO4 and CaSO4 as accelerators, to enhance the mechanical compressibility making the landfill operation possible. The properties of the resultant matrixes were determined in terms of moisture contents, unconfined compressive strength, products of hydration, and toxicity characteristics. The results showed that AS exhibited a moderate pozzolanic activity, and the mortar AS(0) obtained with 5% AS and 10% CaSO4 of AS by weight presented a moisture contents below 50%-60% and a compressive strength of (51.32 +/- 2.9) kPa after 5-7 days of curing time, meeting the minimum requirement for sanitary landfill. The use of CaSO4 obviously improved the S/S performance, causing higher strength level. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry investigations revealed that a large amount of hydrates (viz., gismondine and CaCO3) were present in solidified sludge, leading to the depletion of evaporable water and the enhancement of the strength. In addition, the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and horizontal vibration (HJ 557-2009) leaching test were conducted to evaluate their environmental compatibility. It was found that the solidified products conformed to the toxicity characteristic criteria in China and could be safely disposed of in a sanitary landfill. PMID:22125919

Zhen, Guangyin; Yan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Haiyan; Chen, Hua; Zhao, Tiantao; Zhao, Youcai

2011-01-01

466

Report on the Oak Ridge sewage sludge land-farming experience. Part 1. Data presentation  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of sludge from the City of Oak Ridge's sewage treatment facility on a 65-acre site on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation was initiated in November 1983. On March 22, 1984, DOE and the City determined that the sludge contained radioactive materials. Application of sludge on the Reservation was suspended on March 25 and a comprehensive survey and sampling plan was instituted to radiologically characterize the disposal site. By April 1, a radiation walkover survey had been completed on the site and samples of air, water, and soil had been collected to be analyzed for the presence of radionuclides. The mean air dose rate, one meter above the ground surface, was found to be 13 ..mu..R/h with a range from about 8 ..mu..R/h, which is the usual background level in the area, to 21 ..mu..R/h. Concentrations of Cs-137 and Co-60, the principle contaminants in the soil, were essentially below the analytical detection limits in the air and water. About 350 soil samples were collected by extracting cores to a depth of 12 to 15 inches according to a systematic random sampling design. Each core was separated into three sections; the top 3 inches, a middle section, and the bottom 3 inches to represent layers on the site. The majority of the radioactivity was determined to be in the upper 3 inches of soil. A statistical treatment of the analytical results provided an estimate of the total activity at the site, the vertical distribution of the gamma activity, and the areal distribution of the primary radionuclides. A total of 170 mCi of activity was estimated as present in the top 3-inch layer of the 65-acre site, 69% of which was contributed by Co-60 and Cs-137, 23% by U-234 and Sr-90, and 8% by other minor radionuclides. 4 references, 12 figures, 43 tables.

Oakes, T.W.; Braunstein, H.M.; Daniels, K.L.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Kitchings, J.T.; Alexander, W.A.

1984-08-01

467

Disposal concepts and characteristics of existing and potential low-waste repositories - 9076  

SciTech Connect

The closure of the Barnwell low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility to non-Atlantic Compact users poses significant problems for organizations seeking to remove waste material from public circulation. Beta-gamma sources such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in particular create problems because in 36 states no path forward exists for disposal. Furthermore, several other countries are considering disposition of sealed sources in a variety of facilities. Like much of the United States, many of these countries currently have no means of disposal. Consequently, there is a greater tendency for sources to be misplaced or stored in insufficient facilities, resulting in an increased likelihood of unwitting exposure of nearby people to radioactive materials. This paper provides an overview of the various disposal concepts that have been employed or attempted in the United States. From these concepts, a general overview of characteristics necessary for long-term disposal is synthesized.

Johnson, Peter J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zarling, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

468

41 CFR 102-75.10 - What basic real property disposal policy governs disposal agencies?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...General Provisions § 102-75.10 What basic real property disposal policy governs disposal agencies...and cost effective manner, the full range of real estate services necessary to support their real property utilization and disposal needs....

2013-07-01

469

Mucosal and cutaneous human papillomaviruses detected in raw sewages.  

PubMed

Epitheliotropic viruses can find their way into sewage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and genetic diversity of Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) in urban wastewaters. Sewage samples were collected from treatment plants distributed throughout Italy. The DNA extracted from these samples was analyzed by PCR using five PV-specific sets of primers targeting the L1 (GP5/GP6, MY09/MY11, FAP59/64, SKF/SKR) and E1 regions (PM-A/PM-B), according to the protocols previously validated for the detection of mucosal and cutaneous HPV genotypes. PCR products underwent sequencing analysis and the sequences were aligned to reference genomes from the Papillomavirus Episteme database. Phylogenetic analysis was then performed to assess the genetic relationships among the different sequences and between the sequences of the samples and those of the prototype strains. A broad spectrum of sequences related to mucosal and cutaneous HPV types was detected in 81% of the sewage samples analyzed. Surprisingly, sequences related to the anogenital HPV6 and 11 were detected in 19% of the samples, and sequences related to the "high risk" oncogenic HPV16 were identified in two samples. Sequences related to HPV9, HPV20, HPV25, HPV76, HPV80, HPV104, HPV110, HPV111, HPV120 and HPV145 beta Papillomaviruses were detected in 76% of the samples. In addition, similarity searches and phylogenetic analysis of some sequences suggest that they could belong to putative new genotypes of the beta genus. In this study, for the first time, the presence of HPV viruses strongly related to human cancer is reported in sewage samples. Our data increases the knowledge of HPV genomic diversity and suggests that virological analysis of urban sewage can provide key information useful in supporting epidemiological studies. PMID:23341898

La Rosa, Giuseppina; Fratini, Marta; Accardi, Luisa; D'Oro, Graziana; Della Libera, Simonetta; Muscillo, Michele; Di Bonito, Paola

2013-01-01

470

Removal of viruses from sewage, effluents, and waters  

PubMed Central

All sewage and water treatment processes remove or destroy viruses. Some treatment methods are better than others, but none is likely to remove all of the viruses present in sewage or in raw water. Primary settling of solids probably removes a great many of the viruses in sewage because viruses are largely associated with the solids. Long storage of effluents or water is destructive to viruses. Activated sludge is the best biological method for removing viruses from sewage. Trickling filters and oxidation ponds are erratic, the latter probably because of short-circuiting. Coagulation with metal ions is the most effective single treatment method for removing viruses from sewage and from raw waters, according to laboratory studies at least. Lime is the best coagulant for these purposes in the rapidly virucidal high pH range. Polyelectrolytes also can sediment viruses. Rapid filtration through clean sand does not remove viruses, but filtration of coagulated effluents does, probably because the layering floc itself adsorbs viruses. Clays and carbon adsorb viruses to some extent, but the process is not efficient. Ultimately, disinfection should help to produce virus-free waters for drinking and virus-free effluents for discharge into waters with which man may come into contact. Because disinfection is not a simple matter, disinfectants must be selected according to need. Effluents and waters containing solids can probably be disinfected only by heat or by penetrating radiation, waters discharged into streams should not be disinfected with anything that will injure or kill aquatic life (unless the toxic products can be neutralized), and drinking-waters should carry a disinfecting residue.

Berg, Gerald

1973-01-01

471

Removal mechanisms and kinetics of trace tetracycline by two types of activated sludge treating freshwater sewage and saline sewage.  

PubMed

Understanding the removal mechanisms and kinetics of trace tetracycline by activated sludge is critical to both evaluation of tetracycline elimination in sewage treatment plants and risk assessment/management of tetracycline released to soil environment due to the application of biosolids as fertilizer. Adsorption is found to be the primary removal mechanism while biodegradation, volatilization, and hydrolysis can be ignored in this study. Adsorption kinetics was well described by pseudo-second-order model. Faster adsorption rate (k? = 2.04 × 10(-2)?g min(-1) ?g(-1)) and greater adsorption capacity (qe = 38.8 ?g g(-1)) were found in activated sludge treating freshwater sewage. Different adsorption rate and adsorption capacity resulted from chemical properties of sewage matrix rather than activated sludge surface characteristics. The decrease of tetracycline adsorption in saline sewage was mainly due to Mg(2+) which significantly reduced adsorption distribution coefficient (Kd) from 12,990 ± 260 to 4,690 ± 180 L kg(-1). Species-specific adsorption distribution coefficients followed the order of Kd???>Kd???>Kd???. Contribution of zwitterionic tetracycline to the overall adsorption was >90 % in the actual pH range in aeration tank. Adsorption of tetracycline in a wide range of temperature (10 to 35 °C) followed the Freundlich adsorption isotherm well. PMID:23054779

Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

2013-05-01

472

Performance of sequential anaerobic/aerobic digestion applied to municipal sewage sludge.  

PubMed

A promising alternative to conventional single phase processing, the use of sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion, was extensively investigated on municipal sewage sludge from a full scale wastewater treatment plant. The objective of the work was to evaluate sequential digestion performance by testing the characteristics of the digested sludge in terms of volatile solids (VS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and nitrogen reduction, biogas production, dewaterability and the content of proteins and polysaccharides. VS removal efficiencies of 32% in the anaerobic phase and 17% in the aerobic one were obtained, and similar COD removal efficiencies (29% anaerobic and 21% aerobic) were also observed. The aerobic stage was also efficient in nitrogen removal providing a decrease of the nitrogen content in the supernatant attributable to nitrification and simultaneous denitrification. Moreover, in the aerobic phase an additional marked removal of proteins and polysaccharides produced in the anaerobic phase was achieved. The sludge dewate