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1

Hybrid disposal systems and nitrogen removal in individual sewage disposal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of individual disposal systems in ground-water basins that have adverse salt balance conditions and\\/or geologically unsuitable locations, has become a major problem in many areas of the world. There has been much research in design of systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid

Franks

1993-01-01

2

Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

Ayotamuno, M. J.

1993-01-01

3

Hybrid disposal systems and nitrogen removal in individual sewage disposal systems  

SciTech Connect

The use of individual disposal systems in ground-water basins that have adverse salt balance conditions and/or geologically unsuitable locations, has become a major problem in many areas of the world. There has been much research in design of systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of the treated waste in areas with adverse geologic conditions and systems for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus prior to percolation to the ground water. This paper outlines the history of development and rationale for design and construction of individual sewage disposal systems and describes the designs and limitations of the hybrid and denitrification units. The disposal systems described include Mounds, Evapotranspiration and Evapotranspiration/Infiltration systems. The denitrification units include those using methanol, sulfur and limestone, gray water and secondary treated wastewater for energy sources.

Franks, A.L.

1993-06-01

4

Home Sewage Disposal. Special Circular 212.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Site requirements, characteristics and preparation are outlined for a variety of alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches, and oversized absorption area. Diagrams indicating construction…

Wooding, N. Henry

5

RESTORATION OF FAILING ON-LOT SEWAGE DISPOSAL AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to evaluate two rehabilitative techniques-water conservation and absorption bed resting--for restoration of failing on-site sewage disposal areas. Eleven homes with failing absorption areas were characterized and baseline water flow and septic ta...

6

SEWAGE DISPOSAL BY EVAPORATION-TRANSPIRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the methods for on-site disposal of wastewater from individual homes is by evaporation. Two types of evaporative disposal systems have been investigated in this study; evapo-transpiration (ET) beds and mechanical evaporation units. Twenty nine test lysimeters of 0.22 cubic...

7

Distribution of sewage indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-water disposal site after cessation of sewage disposal.  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens, a marker of domestic sewage contamination, was enumerated in sediment samples obtained from the vicinity of the 106-Mile Site 1 month and 1 year after cessation of sewage disposal at this site. C. perfringens counts in sediments collected at the disposal site and from stations 26 nautical miles (ca. 48 km) and 50 nautical miles (ca. 92 km) to the southwest of the site were, in general, more than 10-fold higher than counts from an uncontaminated reference site. C. perfringens counts at the disposal site were not significantly different between 1992 and 1993, suggesting that sewage sludge had remained in the benthic environment at this site. At stations where C. perfringens counts were elevated (i.e., stations other than the reference station), counts were generally higher in the top 1 cm and decreased down to 5 cm. In some cases, C. perfringens counts in the bottom 4 or 5 cm showed a trend of higher counts in 1993 than in 1992, suggesting bioturbation. We conclude that widespread sludge contamination of the benthic environment has persisted for at least 1 year after cessation of ocean sewage disposal at the 106-Mile Site. PMID:8633872

Hill, R T; Straube, W L; Palmisano, A C; Gibson, S L; Colwell, R R

1996-01-01

8

SURFACE DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE (EPA/625/R-95/002)  

EPA Science Inventory

Sewage sludge and domestic septage may be applied to the land as a soil conditioner and partial fertilizer, incinerated, or placed on land (surface disposal). Placement refers to the act of putting sewage sludge on an active sewage sludge unit (land on which only sewage sludge is...

9

Preparing sewage sludge for land application or surface disposal: A guide for preparers of sewage sludge on the monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503  

SciTech Connect

The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general responsibilities. USEPA promulgated at 40 CFR Part 503 Phase 1 of the risk-based regulations that govern the final use or disposal of sewage sludge. The intent of the Federal program is to ensure that the use or disposal of sewage sludge occurs in a way that protects both human health and the environment. The Part 503 regulation establishes general requirements, pollutant limits, operational standards, and management practices, as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. These requirements apply to sewage sludge that is land applied, placed on a surface disposal site, or incinerated in a sewage sludge-only incinerator.

Not Available

1993-08-01

10

Solar assisted sludge and energy recycling disposal system utilizing the old Princeton sewage treatment and solid waste incineration facilities  

SciTech Connect

Princeton, New Jersey, a town of 30,000 people is in a unique position to utilize solid waste and sewage sludge as supplementary energy sources. The Stony Brook Sewage Authority recently constructed a new twenty million dollar sewage treatment plant next to the old sewage treatment plant which served the community of Princeton for forty years. On the site of the old plant is an abandoned incinerator plant which presently is being used as a transfer station. The new sewage treatment plant is disposing of its sludge by burning it in multiple hearth furnaces using sixty gallons of precious oil to do this. The proposed Princeton Energy Recycling Center is designed to be retrofitted with solar sludge dryers to dry the sewage sludge which would be transported by conveyer to the old incinerator plant where it would be mixed with garbage and be burned in rehabilitated furnaces which would be retrofitted for steam generators, a steam engine driven electric generator and air pollution control equipment. It is estimated that the proposed energy recycling center would fulfill all electrical needs of the new sewage treatment plant in addition to solving the solid waste and sludge disposal problems of the Princeton community. The paper presents a detailed discussion on the proposed Princeton Energy Recycling Center.

Slaby, S.M.

1980-12-01

11

Data-element dictionary 1988 sewage-sludge use and disposal: Questionnaire data base  

SciTech Connect

The National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS) is a questionnaire and analytical survey of Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) intended to produce national estimates of: (1) Concentrations of toxic contaminants in municipal sludge; (2) Sludge generation and treatment processes; (3) Sludge use and disposal practices and alternative use and disposal practices; and (4) Treatment and disposal costs. The survey will provide reliable, current data that can be used in the regulatory impact analysis (RIA) and aggregate risk analysis (ARA) to project impacts and benefits to support promulgation of the first round technical regulation for sewage sludge pollutants and use and disposal practices (40 CFR Part 503).

Not Available

1989-10-01

12

FUEL EFFICIENT INCINERATION FOR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, demonstrated that 34 to 70 percent of the fuel used for sewage sludge incineration could be saved. These savings were the result of study of how sewage sludge incineration in a multiple hearth incinerator works, adding instrumentation and contro...

13

Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment and disposal of sewage sludges. Citations discuss sludge digestion, dewatering, disinfection, stabilization, chlorination, and desulfurization. Topics include pretreatment programs, land disposal, incineration, and waste utilization. Environmental monitoring and protection, federal regulations, and legal aspects are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-06-01

14

Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment processes and disposal of sewage sludges. Topics include resource and energy recovery operations, land disposal, composting, ocean disposal, and incineration. Digestion, dewatering, and disinfection are among the pretreatment processes discussed. Environmental aspects, including the effects on soils, plants, and animals, are also presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-09-01

15

STRATEGY FOR MONITORING OF CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTIONS RESULTING FROM PROPOSED SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL AT THE 106-MILE OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

It has been proposed that future ocean disposal of sewage sludge from the US east coast be done at a site beyond the edge of the continental shelf. In anticipation of that, a monitoring strategy has been developed to determine the average spatial distribution of contamination. Th...

16

Guidance for writing permits for the use or disposal of sewage sludge. Draft report  

SciTech Connect

Section 405(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) directs the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop regulations containing guidelines for the use and disposal of sewage sludge. On February 19th, 1993, EPA published final regulations at 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 503 as the culmination of a major effort to develop technical standards in response to Section 405(d). These regulations govern three sewage sludge use and disposal practices: land application, surface disposal, and incineration. A key element in EPA's implementation of the Part 503 regulations is educating Agency and State personnel about these new requirements. Although the regulations are generally directly enforceable against all persons involved in the use and disposal of sewage sludge, they will also be implemented through permits issued to treatment works treating domestic sewage as defined in 40 CFR 122.22. Thus, the primary focus of the manual is to assist permit writers in incorporating the Part 503 requirements into permits; it serves as an update to the Guidance for Writing Case-by-Case Permit Conditions for Municipal Sewage Sludge (PB91-145508/HDM).

Not Available

1993-03-01

17

Disposal of Some Problem Chemicals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes procedures for the disposal of chemicals commonly used in secondary school chemistry laboratories. Special reference is given to inorganic salts. It is suggested that cyanides and other highly toxic salts should be disposed of by experts. (MA)

Journal of Chemical Education, 1978

1978-01-01

18

Near-bottom pelagic bacteria at a deep-water sewage sludge disposal site  

SciTech Connect

The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. Mixed cultures and bacterial isolates obtained from water overlying sediment core samples collected at the deep-water (2,500 m) municipal sewage disposal site were tested for the ability to grow under in situ conditions of temperature and pressure. The responses of cultures collected at a DWD-106 station heavily impacted by sewage sludge were compared with those of samples collected from a station at the same depth which was not contaminated by sewage sludge. Significant differences were observed in the ability of mixed bacterial cultures and isolates from the two sites to grow under deep-sea pressure and temperature conditions. The levels of sludge contamination were established by enumerating Clostridium perfringens, a sewage indicator bacterium, in sediment samples from the two sites. (Copyright (c) 1993, American Society for Microbiology.)

Takizawa, M.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.

1994-01-01

19

Alternate Methods of Effluent Disposal for On-Lot Home Sewage Systems. Special Circular 214.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Several alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches and oversized absorption areas are discussed. Site characteristics and preparation are outlined. Each alternative is accompanied by a diagram…

Wooding, N. Henry

20

SEWAGE DISPOSAL ON AGRICULTURAL SOILS: CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS. VOLUME II. MICROBIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The city of San Angelo, Texas, has been using agricultural land for decades as a means of disposing of all of its municipal sewage after primary treatment. Water applications have been high enough to satisfy crop requirements for a 600 ha farm even tough the farm consists of only...

21

Viral Tracer Studies Indicate Contamination of Marine Waters by Sewage Disposal Practices in Key Largo, Florida  

PubMed Central

Domestic wastewater disposal practices in the Florida Keys are primarily limited to on-site disposal systems such as septic tanks, injection wells, and illegal cesspits. Poorly treated sewage is thus released into the highly porous subsurface Key Largo limestone matrix. To investigate the fate and transport of sewage in the subsurface environment and the potential for contamination of marine surface waters, we employed bacteriophages as tracers in a domestic septic system and a simulated injection well in Key Largo, Florida. Transport of bacteriophage (Phi)HSIC-1 from the septic tank to adjacent surface canal waters and outstanding marine waters occurred in as little as 11 and 23 h, respectively. Transport of the Salmonella phage PRD1 from the simulated injection well to a canal adjacent to the injection site occurred in 11.2 h. Estimated rates of migration of viral tracers ranged from 0.57 to 24.2 m/h, over 500-fold greater than flow rates measured previously by subsurface flow meters in similar environments. These results suggest that current on-site disposal practices can lead to contamination of the subsurface and surface marine waters in the Keys. PMID:16535046

Paul, J. H.; Rose, J. B.; Brown, J.; Shinn, E. A.; Miller, S.; Farrah, S. R.

1995-01-01

22

Viral tracer studies indicate contamination of marine waters by sewage disposal practices in key largo, Florida.  

PubMed

Domestic wastewater disposal practices in the Florida Keys are primarily limited to on-site disposal systems such as septic tanks, injection wells, and illegal cesspits. Poorly treated sewage is thus released into the highly porous subsurface Key Largo limestone matrix. To investigate the fate and transport of sewage in the subsurface environment and the potential for contamination of marine surface waters, we employed bacteriophages as tracers in a domestic septic system and a simulated injection well in Key Largo, Florida. Transport of bacteriophage (Phi)HSIC-1 from the septic tank to adjacent surface canal waters and outstanding marine waters occurred in as little as 11 and 23 h, respectively. Transport of the Salmonella phage PRD1 from the simulated injection well to a canal adjacent to the injection site occurred in 11.2 h. Estimated rates of migration of viral tracers ranged from 0.57 to 24.2 m/h, over 500-fold greater than flow rates measured previously by subsurface flow meters in similar environments. These results suggest that current on-site disposal practices can lead to contamination of the subsurface and surface marine waters in the Keys. PMID:16535046

Paul, J H; Rose, J B; Brown, J; Shinn, E A; Miller, S; Farrah, S R

1995-06-01

23

Challenge of urban sewage disposal in a karst region: Mérida, Yucátan, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four hydrogeologic factors influence urban sewage management on the northern Yucátan (Mexico) Peninsula: 1) lack of rivers capable of transporting and/or oxidizing sewage, 2) near-surface flat-lying, porous, permeable limestone and dolomite with shallow layers of variable permeability but without major subsurface aquitards, 3) rapid groundwater transmission, penetration of seawater inland beneath a fresh water lens, and a flat water table only a few meters below land surface and controlled by sea level, 4) near absence of soil cover. Mérida, Yucátan (population approaching one million, approximately the world's 450th most populous city) has no central sewage system. The water table beneath the city is consistently only 7-9 m below land surface, and the 40 m-thick fresh water lens, which is the sole source of municipal, industrial, and agricultural water, directly overlies a marine intrusion of modified seawater composition. The old city has an estimated 130,000 drains feeding untreated household waste directly into the permeable karst aquifer. Numerous storm drains send street runoff directly to the aquifer. In addition, industries, hotels, and some subdivisions have unmonitored injection wells that pump untreated wastewater into the underlying saline intrusion. Some injection wells have flow problems possibly because of low aquifer permeability within the saline intrusion. Deep injection is also problematic because density contrast with saline intrusion water can produce a gravity imbalance, and high sulfate water can react with organic waste to produce H2S. Some city water supply wells are reportedly affected by inflation of the water table beneath the city, by local upconing of saline water, and by nitrate contamination. Paradoxically, Mérida with an abundant, easily contaminated source of fresh water, lacks streams to transport sewage off-site, and thus shares some water supply/sewage treatment problems with cities in arid regions. Recently, compact, efficient systems that provide almost tertiary-level sewage treatment have been developed and installed in various localities worldwide. Fitting the old parts of Mérida with several such systems would be less disruptive than blasting a monolithic sewer network through the city's rocky base, and it would minimize the problem of pumping sewage in an almost completely flat-lying area. Appropriate reuse of water from such local treatment facilities would be more flexible than from a single central system. Furthermore, injecting water into the aquifer after secondary or tertiary treatment would be a huge improvement over pumping of untreated "aguas negras" into the saline intrusion. Finally, there is a renaissance of sorts in sewage treatment technology, and it would be much easier to upgrade a number of individual systems as they became obsolete than to replace a monolithic central system. Safe, effective operation and monitoring of the suggested of sewage system would be challenging. Yet, as more cities join those 500 world-wide that now have populations approaching or exceeding one million, use of streams to export pollution may become infeasible. Perhaps Mérida can become a model to demonstrate that people can safely process and reuse their own wastewater.

Perry, E. C.; Villasuso, M.

2013-05-01

24

Trash overload on Spetses (Beach Pollution) Kathimerini, Athens, Sept. 23, 2006 The unchecked disposal of garbage, and sewage, on Spetses is turning the southernmost  

E-print Network

Trash overload on Spetses (Beach Pollution) Kathimerini, Athens, Sept. 23, 2006 The unchecked disposal of garbage, and sewage, on Spetses is turning the southernmost of the Saronic Gulf islands into an eyesore and a health risk, three distinguished Spetsiots have complained. Garbage trucks and sewage

Columbia University

25

Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS.

NONE

1997-07-01

26

Shigellosis on Indian reserves in Manitoba, Canada: its relationship to crowded housing, lack of running water, and inadequate sewage disposal.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study compares incidence and hospitalization rates for shigellosis between Indians and the rest of the population in Manitoba, Canada. It examines the relationship between shigellosis and environmental conditions on reserves. METHODS: Rates were calculated with surveillance data and a survey of environmental infrastructure was done. RESULTS: Indians had shigellosis incidence and hospitalization rates that were 29 and 12 times as high, respectively, as those of the rest of the population. Household crowding, lack of piped water, and inadequate sewage disposal were significantly associated with an increased incidence of shigellosis on reserves. CONCLUSIONS: Many cases of shigellosis may be prevented by improving living conditions on Indian reserves. PMID:9314814

Rosenberg, T; Kendall, O; Blanchard, J; Martel, S; Wakelin, C; Fast, M

1997-01-01

27

Chemical Changes and Heavy Metal Partitioning in an Oxisol Cultivated with Maize (Zea mays, L.) after 5 Years Disposal of a Domestic and an Industrial Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for solutions to minimize the negative environmental impacts of anthropogenic activities Fhas increased. Sewage sludge\\u000a is composed of predominantly organic matter and can be used to improve soil characteristics, such as fertility. Therefore,\\u000a its application in agriculture is an adequate alternative for its final disposal. However, there is a lack of information\\u000a on its long-term effects on soil

S. Alcantara; D. V. Pérez; M. R. A. Almeida; G. M. Silva; J. C. Polidoro; W. Bettiol

2009-01-01

28

Effects of leachate recirculation on biogas production from landfill co-disposal of municipal solid waste, sewage sludge and marine sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leachate recirculation is an emerging technology associated with the management of landfill. The impact of leachate recirculation on the co-disposal of three major wastes (municipal solid waste, sewage sludge and sediment dredgings) was investigated using a laboratory column study. Chemical parameters (pH, COD, ammoniacal-N, total-P) and gas production (total gas volume, production rates and concentrations of CH4 and CO2) were

G. Y. S. Chan; L. M. Chu; M. H. Wong

2002-01-01

29

The Real World of Industrial Chemistry: The Use of Oxygen in the Treatment of Sewage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the events leading up to the establishment of oxygen (rather than air) as an important component in the second stage treatment of municipal wastewater in sewage-disposal plants. Advantages, problems, and costs of using oxygen are discussed. (CS)

Cook, Gerhard A.; And Others

1980-01-01

30

The dissipation of phosphorus in sewage and sewage effluents.  

PubMed

Of the 41 kt of phosphorus reaching the sewage works in England and Wales 15 kt is removed in sewage sludge and the remainder is disposed of to rivers. 60% of the sewage sludge is now used as fertilizer and this proportion will no doubt increase in the future. The total use of sewage sludge, however, represents only about 5% of the current annual usage of artificial phosphorus fertilizer. At present there is no general economic incentive to make better use of the phosphorus in effluents. Phosphorus removal is expensive--about 2--3 pence/m3. If all the sewage effluents in England and Wales were to be so treated the cost would be about 100--150 million pounds annually, that is about 50% of the present costs of sewage treatment. In certain cases, but rarely in the UK, phosphate is removed, not to conserve phosphorus but to minimize the problems it creates in the environment. The phosphorus removed has little value as fertilizer. Alternative methods of using the phosphorus in effluents by the production and harvesting of crops of algae or aquatic plants have so far proved uneconomic. However, these methods need to be reviewed periodically as they may in the future become economically more attractive, especially in warmer climates where plant growth can be maintained throughout the year. PMID:357121

Collingwood, R W

31

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Comective Action Unit (CAU) 404. CAU 404 consists of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons (Corrective Action Site [CAS] TA-03-O01-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS TA-21-001-TA-RC). The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest ofLas Vegas, Nevada. . The sewage lagoons received ~quid sanitary waste horn the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp in 1963 and debris from subsequent range and construction cleanup activities. The debris and ordnance was subsequently removed and properly dispos~, however, pesticides were detected in soil samples born the bottom of the lagoons above the U,S. Environmental Protection Agency Region IX Prelimimuy Remediation Goals (EPA 1996). . The North Disposal Trench was excavated in 1963. Debris from the man camp and subsequent range and construction cleanup activities was placed in the trench. Investigation results indicated that no constituents of concern were detected in soil samples collected from the trench. Remedial alternative proposed in the Comctive Action Decision Document (CADD) fm the site was “Covering” (DOE, 1997a). The Nevada Division of”Enviromnental Protection (NDEP)-approved Correction Action Plan (CAP) proposed the “Covering” niethodology (1997b). The closure activities were completed in accorhce with the approwil CAP and consisted of baclctllling the sewage lagoons and disposal trench, constructing/planting an engineered/vegetative cover in the area of the sewage lagoons and dikposal trencQ installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on fi~e use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan. “ Since closure activities. for CAU 404 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved CAP (DOE, 1997b) as documented in this Closure Report, the U.S. Department of Energy, NevadaOperations Office (DOE/NV) requests: CAU 404 be moved from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. NDEP provide a Notice of Completion to the DOE/NV.

Lynn Kidman

1998-09-01

32

Disinfection and reduction of organic load of sewage water by electron beam radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of electron beam radiation for the disinfection and reduction of organic load of sewage water was assessed with\\u000a ILU-6 Accelerator at Radiation Technology Development Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai India. The current\\u000a problem on environmental health in relation to water pollution insists for the safe disposal of sewage water. In general,\\u000a sewage water comprises heterogeneous

Y. Avasn Maruthi; N. Lakshmana Das; Kaizar Hossain; K. S. S. Sarma; K. P. Rawat; S. Sabharwal

2011-01-01

33

Subfertility problems leading to disposal of breeding bulls.  

PubMed

Subfertility problems are encountered frequently in the cattle and buffalo bulls commercially maintained for semen production in dairy farms and under field conditions for natural insemination. Reports are scarce on the incidence of subfertility in breeding bulls, especially in India. The objective of the present study was to assess the incidence of the male reproductive anomalies leading to disposal of bovine bulls at GADVASU dairy farm, Ludhiana, Punjab (India). Data on frequency of various subfertility and disposal pattern of bulls maintained at the dairy farm, GADVASU, were collected for 12 yrs (1999 to 2010) and compiled from different record registers. Percentage of bulls that produced freezable semen (out of reserved ones) was less in cattle (25.641%) as compared to that of buffalo (30.4%). Various subfertility traits like poor libido and unacceptable seminal profile were found to be the significant reasons (p<0.01) for culling of the breeding bulls. Inadequate sex drive and poor semen quality were the main contributing factors for bull disposal in cattle whereas poor semen freezability was most frequently observed in buffalo bulls. All the male reproductive traits were significantly different (p<0.05) for the periods of birth, except for semen volume, initial motility (IM), age at last semen collection (ALSC) and age at disposal. The ages at first and last semen collection as well as freezing (i.e. AFSC, ALSC and AFSF, ALSF, respectively) and age at disposal (AD) were higher in buffalo. The spermatological parameters and semen production period (SPP) were higher in cattle. The age at first semen donation and breeding period could be reduced by introducing the bulls to training at an early age. The results revealed an increasing trend in individual motility (IM) while semen volume, AFSC, AFSF, AD, FSPP, SPP, ALSC and ALSF showed a decreasing, however, not a definite trend, over the periods. The semen donation traits like, AFSF, of the cattle and buffalo bulls could be predicted from the AFSC, using prediction equation derived in the present study. PMID:25049791

Khatun, Marzina; Kaur, Simarjeet; Kanchan; Mukhopadhyay, C S

2013-03-01

34

Subfertility Problems Leading to Disposal of Breeding Bulls  

PubMed Central

Subfertility problems are encountered frequently in the cattle and buffalo bulls commercially maintained for semen production in dairy farms and under field conditions for natural insemination. Reports are scarce on the incidence of subfertility in breeding bulls, especially in India. The objective of the present study was to assess the incidence of the male reproductive anomalies leading to disposal of bovine bulls at GADVASU dairy farm, Ludhiana, Punjab (India). Data on frequency of various subfertility and disposal pattern of bulls maintained at the dairy farm, GADVASU, were collected for 12 yrs (1999 to 2010) and compiled from different record registers. Percentage of bulls that produced freezable semen (out of reserved ones) was less in cattle (25.641%) as compared to that of buffalo (30.4%). Various subfertility traits like poor libido and unacceptable seminal profile were found to be the significant reasons (p<0.01) for culling of the breeding bulls. Inadequate sex drive and poor semen quality were the main contributing factors for bull disposal in cattle whereas poor semen freezability was most frequently observed in buffalo bulls. All the male reproductive traits were significantly different (p<0.05) for the periods of birth, except for semen volume, initial motility (IM), age at last semen collection (ALSC) and age at disposal. The ages at first and last semen collection as well as freezing (i.e. AFSC, ALSC and AFSF, ALSF, respectively) and age at disposal (AD) were higher in buffalo. The spermatological parameters and semen production period (SPP) were higher in cattle. The age at first semen donation and breeding period could be reduced by introducing the bulls to training at an early age. The results revealed an increasing trend in individual motility (IM) while semen volume, AFSC, AFSF, AD, FSPP, SPP, ALSC and ALSF showed a decreasing, however, not a definite trend, over the periods. The semen donation traits like, AFSF, of the cattle and buffalo bulls could be predicted from the AFSC, using prediction equation derived in the present study. PMID:25049791

Khatun, Marzina; Kaur, Simarjeet; Kanchan; Mukhopadhyay, C. S.

2013-01-01

35

25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

2011-04-01

36

25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

2012-04-01

37

25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

2013-04-01

38

25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

2010-04-01

39

25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?  

...of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I...

2014-04-01

40

Sewage sludge combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current review paper, various issues related to the combustion of sewage sludge are discussed. After briefly explaining the formation and treatment of sewage sludge, current and future sludge production are discussed. Thereafter, the four sludge disposal methods which are currently used, i.e. recycling in agriculture, landfilling, dumping into sea and incineration, are examined, and the future trend presented

J. Werther; T. Ogada

1999-01-01

41

Waste paper and clinoptilolite as a bulking material with dewatered anaerobically stabilized primary sewage sludge (DASPSS) for compost production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental problems associated with sewage sludge disposal have prompted strict legislative actions over the past few years. At the same time, the upgrading and expansion of wastewater treatment plants have greatly increased the volume of sludge generated. The major limitation of land application of sewage sludge compost is the potential for high heavy metal content in relation to the metal

Antonis A Zorpas; Dimitris Arapoglou; Karlis Panagiotis

2003-01-01

42

Sewage effects in marine and estuarine environments. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of disposal of sewage effluents and sludge on marine and estuarine environments. Citations discuss the effects on specific flora and fauna, ocean dumping problems, and pollutant distribution. Regional and site-specific studies regarding environmental effects of ocean waste disposal are presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

43

Two-phase anaerobic digestion of partially acidified sewage sludge: a pilot plant study for safe sludge disposal in developing countries.  

PubMed

The unsafe disposal of wastewater and sludge in different areas of developing countries results in significant environmental pollution, particularly for groundwater, thus increasing the risk of waterborne diseases spreading. In this work, a two-phase anaerobic digestion process for post-treatment of partially acidified sewage sludge was investigated to evaluate its feasibility as a safe sludge disposal system. Pilot tests showed that an effective sludge stabilization can be achieved (total volatile solids content <65%, organic acid concentration <200 mg/L at flow rate = 50 L/d and hydraulic residence time = 18 d) as well as a relative low faecal coliform density (<1000 most probable number per g total solids), showing that land application of the sludge without restrictions is possible according to US Environmental Protection Agency criteria for safe sludge disposal. A biogas production as high as 390 L/d with a 60% methane content by volume was achieved, showing that energy production from biogas may be achieved as well. PMID:23240203

Passio, Luca; Rizzoa, Luigi; Fuchs, Stephan

2012-09-01

44

The long-term and the short-term at a cropping municipal sewage sludge disposal facility  

SciTech Connect

The City of Raleigh, NC, chose land application of municipal sewage sludge as a means of reducing pollution to the Neuse River. The Neuse River Waste Water Treatment Plant (NRWWTP) is located in the Piedmont Province of North Carolina. The soils at the facility are derived largely from the Rolesville Granite. Sewage sludge is applied to over 640 acres of cropland, owned in fee or leased. In making the policy decision for use of the sludge land application method 20 or so years ago, the City had to evaluate the potential for heavy metal accumulation in the soils and plants as well as the potential for ground-water contamination from the nitrate-nitrogen. The city also had to make a policy decision about limiting the discharge of heavy metals to the sewer system. Study of data from monitoring wells demonstrate that well position is a key in determining whether or not nitrate-nitrogen contamination is detected. Data from a three-year study suggest that nitrate-nitrogen moves fairly rapidly t the water table, although significant buildup in nitrogen-nitrogen may take a number of years. Evidence exists suggesting that the time between application of sewage sludge and an increase of nitrate-nitrogen at the water table may be on the order of nine months to a year. It is apparent that in the case of municipal sewage sludge application one can anticipate some nitrate-nitrogen buildup and that the public policy on drinking water standards must recognize this fact.

Welby, C.W. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)

1994-03-01

45

Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2000  

SciTech Connect

Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench (Corrective Action Unit [CAW 404]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404, Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV--187. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on September 11, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 18, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 404 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. The site inspections were conducted after completion of the revegetation activities (October 30, 1997) and NDEP approval of the CR (May 18, 1999). All site inspections were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

K. B. Campbell

2001-06-01

46

Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91\\/271\\/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related

J. M. Soriano-Disla; S. Houot; M. Imhoff; N. Valentin; I. Gómez; J. Navarro-Pedreño

2009-01-01

47

Interim Control Strategy for the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond - Two-year Update  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Cleanup Project has prepared this interim control strategy for the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office pursuant to DOE Order 5400.5, Chapter 11.3e (1) to support continued discharges to the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond. In compliance with DOE Order 5400.5, a 2-year review of the Interim Control Strategy document has been completed. This submittal documents the required review of the April 2005 Interim Control Strategy. The Idaho Cleanup Project's recommendation is unchanged from the original recommendation. The Interim Control Strategy evaluates three alternatives: (1) re-route the discharge outlet to an uncontaminated area of the TSF-07; (2) construct a new discharge pond; or (3) no action based on justification for continued use. Evaluation of Alternatives 1 and 2 are based on the estimated cost and implementation timeframe weighed against either alternative's minimal increase in protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Evaluation of Alternative 3, continued use of the TSF-07 Disposal Pond under current effluent controls, is based on an analysis of four points: - Record of Decision controls will protect workers and the public - Risk of increased contamination is low - Discharge water will be eliminated in the foreseeable future - Risk of contamination spread is acceptable. The Idaho Cleanup Project recommends Alternative 3, no action other than continued implementation of existing controls and continued deactivation, decontamination, and dismantlement efforts at the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility.

L. V. Street

2007-04-01

48

MOVEMENT OF SELECTED METALS, ASBESTOS, AND CYANIDE IN SOIL: APPLICATIONS TO WASTE DISPOSAL PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents information on movement of selected hazardous substances in soil which can be applied to problems of selecting and operating land disposal sites for wastes containing arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, mercury, selen...

49

1988 NATIONAL SEWAGE SLUDGE SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Originally developed to support Phase I regulation for use or disposal of biosolids (sewage sludge). Data collected were used to estimate risks, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation. This is currently the only statistically designed surv...

50

Scoping survey of perceived concerns, issues, and problems for near-surface disposal of FUSRAP waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a scoping summary of concerns, issues, and perceived problems for near-surface disposal of radioactive waste, based on a survey of the current literature. Near-surface disposal means land burial in or within 15 to 20 m of the earth's surface. It includes shallow land burial (burial in trenches, typically about 6 m deep with a 2-m cap and

J. E. Robinson; T. L. Gilbert

1982-01-01

51

The spatial variability of nitrogen and phosphorus concentration in a sand aquifer influenced by onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems: a case study on St. George Island, Florida.  

PubMed

Groundwater from a shallow freshwater lens on St. George Island, a barrier island located in the Panhandle of Florida, eventually discharges into Apalachicola Bay or the Gulf of Mexico. Nutrient concentrations in groundwaters were monitored downfield from three onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems (OSTDS) on the island. Estimates of natural groundwater nutrient concentrations were obtained from an adjacent uninhabited island. Silicate, which was significantly higher in the imported drinking water relative to the surficial aquifer on St. George Island (12.2+/-1.9 mg Si l(-1) and 2.9+/-0.2 mg Si l(-1), respectively), was used as a natural conservative tracer. Our observations showed that nitrogen concentrations were attenuated to a greater extent than that of phosphorus relative to the conservative tracer. At the current setback distance (23 m), both nitrogen and phosphate concentrations are still elevated above natural levels by as much as 2 and 7 times, respectively. Increasing the setback distance to 50 m and raising the drainfields 1 m above the ground surface could reduce nutrient levels to natural concentrations (1.1+/-0.1 mg N l(-1), 0.20+/-0.02 mg P l(-1)). PMID:11916049

Corbet, D Reide; Dillon, Kevin; Burnett, William; Schaefer, Geoff

2002-01-01

52

300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

NONE

1995-05-01

53

Monitoring of Cd pollution in soils and plants irrigated with untreated sewage water in some industrialized cities of Punjab, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal of industrial and sewage water is a problem of increasing importance throughout the world. In India, and most\\u000a of the developing countries untreated sewage and industrial wastes are discharged on land or into the running water streams\\u000a which is used for irrigating crops. These wastes often contain high amount of trace elements which may accumulate in soils\\u000a in

R. Sikka; V. Nayyar; S. S. Sidhu

2009-01-01

54

The importance of pathogenic organisms in sewage and sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Deficient sanitation poses a serious threat to human and animal health, involving complex relationships between environments, animals, refuse, food, pathogens, parasites, and man. However, by sanitizing and stabilizing the organic matter of sewage sludge, agriculture can utilize it to maintain soil, water, and air quality. As ingredients in soil amendments, such bioresidues are a source of nutrients for plants. Stabilization and sanitation of sewage sludge safely couple its recycling and disposal. This coupling becomes increasingly important as economic and environmental constraints make strategies for waste disposal more difficult to apply. The occurrence of viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and zooparasites in sewage sludge is reviewed in this article, and consequential epidemiologic concerns that arise from sewage sludge recycling is also addressed. PMID:11417676

Dumontet, S; Scopa, A; Kerje, S; Krovacek, K

2001-06-01

55

Sewage Monitors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

1987-01-01

56

Examination of eastern oil shale disposal problems - the Hope Creek field study  

SciTech Connect

A field-based study of problems associated with the disposal of processed Eastern oil shale was initiated in mid-1983 at a private research site in Montgomery County, Kentucky. The study (known as the Hope Creek Spent Oil Shale Disposal Project) is designed to provide information on the geotechnical, revegetation/reclamation, and leachate generation and composition characteristics of processed Kentucky oil shales. The study utilizes processed oil shale materials (retorted oil shale and reject raw oil shale fines) obtained from a pilot plant run of Kentucky oil shale using the travelling grate retort technology. Approximately 1000 tons of processed oil shale were returned to Kentucky for the purpose of the study. The study, composed of three components, is described. The effort to date has concentrated on site preparation and the construction and implementation of the field study research facilities. These endeavors are described and the project direction in the future years is defined.

Koppenaal, D.W.; Kruspe, R.R.; Robl, T.L.; Cisler, K.; Allen, D.L.

1985-02-01

57

Effect of cofiring coal and biofuel with sewage sludge on alkali problems in a circulating fluidized bed boiler  

SciTech Connect

Cofiring experiments were performed in a 12 MW circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuel combinations were biofuel (wood+straw), coal+biofuel, coal+sewage sludge+biofuel, and sewage sludge+biofuel. Limestone or chlorine (PVC) was added in separate experiments. Effects of feed composition on bed ash and fly ash were examined. The composition of flue gas was measured, including on-line measurement of alkali chlorides. Deposits were collected on a probe simulating a superheater tube. It was found that the fuel combination, as well as addition of limestone, has little effect on the alkali fraction in bed ash, while chlorine decreases the alkali fraction in bed ash. Sewage sludge practically eliminates alkali chlorides in flue gas and deposits. Addition of enough limestone to coal and sludge for elimination of the SO{sub 2} emission does not change the effect of chlorine. Chlorine addition increases the alkali chloride in flue gas, but no chlorine was found in the deposits with sewage sludge as a cofuel. Cofiring of coal and biofuel lowers the alkali chloride concentration in the flue gas to about a third compared with that of pure biofuel. This is not affected by addition of lime or chlorine. It is concluded that aluminum compounds in coal and sludge are more important than sulfur to reduce the level of KCl in flue gas and deposits. 24 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

K.O. Davidsson; L.-E. Aamand; A.-L. Elled; B. Leckner [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Department of Energy and Environment

2007-12-15

58

Sewage Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

1984-01-01

59

Optimising the preparation of activated carbon from digested sewage sludge and coconut husk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation of activated carbon from sewage sludge is a promising way to dispose of sewage sludge as well as to produce a low-cost adsorbent for pollutant removal. This research work aimed to optimise the condition for activated carbon preparation from anaerobically digested sewage sludge with the additive coconut husk. The sewage sludge sample was mixed with the additive coconut husk.

J. H Tay; X. G Chen; S Jeyaseelan; N Graham

2001-01-01

60

Linear alkylbenzenes as tracers of sewage-sludge-derived inputs of organic matter, PCBs, and PAHs to sediments at the 106-mile deep water disposal site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) are sensitive source-specific tracers of sewage inputs to the marine environment. Because they are highly particle reactive and nonspecifically sorbed to organic matter, LABs are potential tracers of the transport of both sludge-derived organic matter and other low solubility hydrophobic contaminants (e.g., PCBs and PAHs); sediment trap studies at the 106-Mile Site have shown LABs to be valuable in testing models of sludge deposition to the sea floor. In this study we report on the distributions of LABs, PCBs, PAHs, and Ag in surface sediments collected within a month of the complete cessation of dumping (July, 1992) in the vicinity of the dump site. Total LAB concentrations were lower than those measured by Takada and coworkers in samples from nearby sites collected in 1989. LABs from both studies appear to be significantly depleted (6 to 25-fold) in surface sediments relative to excess Ag (another sludge tracer) when compared to sewage sludge and sediment trap compositions. Comparison of LAB sediment inventories to model predictions of sludge particle fluxes supports the contention that LABs have been lost from the bed. The use of LABs to examine the short-or long-term fate of sludge derived materials in deep-sea sediments should be questioned. The causes of this LAB depletion are unclear at this point, and we discuss several hypotheses. The concentrations of total PCBs and PAHs are both correlated with sludge tracers, suggesting that there may be a measurable contribution of sludge-derived inputs on top of other nonpoint sources of these contaminant classes. This possibility is consistent with the composition of these contaminants determined in recent and historical analyses of sewage sludge.

Lamoureux, E.M.; Brownawell, B.J.; Bothner, M.H.

1996-01-01

61

Interactions of aquaculture and waste disposal in the coastal zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the world, the coastal zones of many countries are used increasingly for aquaculture in addition to other activities such as waste disposal. These activities can cause environmental problems and health problems where they overlap. The interaction between aquaculture and waste disposal, and their relationship with eutrophication are the subjects of this paper. Sewage discharge without adequate dispersion can lead to nutrient elevation and hence eutrophication which has clearly negative effects on aquaculture with the potential for toxic blooms. Blooms may be either toxic or anoxia-causing through the decay process or simply clog the gills of filter-feeding animals in some cases. With the development of aquaculture, especially intensive aquaculture, many environmental problems appeared, and have resulted in eutrophication in some areas. Eutrophication may destroy the health of whole ecosystem which is important for sustainable aquaculture. Sewage discharge may also cause serious public health problems. Filter-feeding shellfish growing in sewage-polluted waters accumulate micro-organims, including human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, and heavy metal ion, presenting a significant health risk. Some farmed animals may also accumulate heavy metals from sewage. Bivalves growing in areas affected by toxic algae blooms may accumulate toxins (such as PSP, DSP) which can be harmful to human beings.

Xuemei, Zhai; Hawkins, S. J.

2002-04-01

62

The agricultural use of municipal sewage.  

PubMed

The reuse of municipal sewage for agricultural purposes is becoming more prevalent. The literature concerning the impact of this practice is reviewed. It is readily apparent that agricultural reuse of municipal sewage is preferable to other common methods of disposal both from the point of view of ecological influence and economical waste utilization. There is a need to establish guidelines for the agricultural use of municipal sewage which will serve the variable conditions found in Canada and meet the public health concerns associated with an extensive agricultural use. PMID:6091855

Hamilton, D L; Brockman, R P; Knipfel, J E

1984-08-01

63

Problems in shallow land disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste in the united states  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Disposal of solid low-level wastes containing radionuclides by burial in shallow trenches was initiated during World War II at several sites as a method of protecting personnel from radiation and isolating the radionuclides from the hydrosphere and biosphere. Today, there are 11 principal shallow-land burial sites in the United States that contain a total of more than 1.4 million cubic meters of solid wastes contaminated with a wide variety of radionuclides. Criteria for burial sites have been few and generalized and have contained only minimal hydrogeologic considerations. Waste-management practices have included the burial of small quantities of long-lived radionuclides with large volumes of wastes contaminated with shorter-lived nuclides at the same site, thereby requiring an assurance of extremely long-time containment for the entire disposal site. Studies at 4 of the 11 sites have documented the migration of radionuclides. Other sites are being studied for evidence of containment failure. Conditions at the 4 sites are summarized. In each documented instance of containment failure, ground water has probably been the medium of transport. Migrating radionuclides that have been identified include90Sr,137Cs,106Ru,239Pu,125Sb,60Co, and3H. Shallow land burial of solid wastes containing radionuclides can be a viable practice only if a specific site satisfies adequate hydrogeologic criteria. Suggested hydrogeologic criteria and the types of hydrogeologic data necessary for an adequate evaluation of proposed burial sites are given. It is mandatory that a concomitant inventory and classification be made of the longevity, and the physical and chemical form of the waste nuclides to be buried, in order that the anticipated waste types can be matched to the containment capability of the proposed sites. Ongoing field investigations at existing sites will provide data needed to improve containment at these sites and help develop hydrogeologic criteria for new sites. These studies have necessitated the development of special drilling, sampling, well construction, and testing techniques. A recent development in borehole geophysical techniques is downhole spectral gammaray analysis which not only locates but identifies specific radionuclides in the subsurface. Field investigations are being supplemented by laboratory studies of the hydrochemistry of the transuranic elements, the kinetics of solid-liquid phase interactions, and the potential complexing of radionuclides with organic compounds and solvents which mobilize normally highly sorbable nuclides. Theoretical studies of digital predictive solute transport models are being implemented to assure their availability for application to problems and processes identified in the field and laboratory. ?? 1976 International Association of Engineering Geology.

Stevens, P. R.; Debuchananne, G. D.

1976-01-01

64

HANFORD CANYON DISPOSITION INITIATIVE (CDI). A BETTER SOLUTION TO AN EXPENSIVE WASTE DISPOSAL PROBLEM  

SciTech Connect

Environmental cleanup that is occurring at most U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is going to be long and expensive. How expensive can really only be answered when cleanup paths forward have been identified, agreed to, and planned. In addition, all the major issues must have been identified. This also means being able to answer the question ''What about the waste?'' Where the waste goes and how it will be handled greatly affects the cost. However, within the mandatory safety and legal envelope, ingenuity can play a huge role in keeping the cost down, getting necessary decisions made earlier in the process, and being protective of the worker, public, and the environment. This paper examines how ingenuity addressed a cleanup action that had no agreed to and identified path forward and resulted in a decision made early that has spurred thinking on what to do with the other similar waste cleanup situations. The Canyon Disposition Initiative (CDI) is an example of finding a better way to address a specific problem, getting agreement on a path forward, opening the options for waste disposal, and reducing the time line for final disposition. For the CDI, the challenge was whether an old inactive building designed for reprocessing and used for multiple missions during its lifetime could be economically and sufficiently characterized to satisfy and bring consensus among groups with vastly different view points. The CDI has actively involved members of various DOE offices (i.e., Waste Management, Science and Technology, Environmental Restoration, and Facility Transition), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), Hanford Advisory Board (HAB), and the three affected Tribal Nations. The ability to partner between these diverse groups has allowed the CDI to go from a concept, to a funded priority project, to a complete review of various alternatives, and finally to a proposed plan to demonstrate the wisdom of finding a better way.

McGuire, J.J.; MacFarlan, G.M.; Jacques, I.D.; Goodenough, James D.

2003-02-27

65

Sewage Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

1991-01-01

66

Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification  

SciTech Connect

Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures - gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation - are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes.

Gross, Bodo [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany); Eder, Christian [CET, Christian Eder Technology, Eduard-Didion Strasse, D-66539 Neunkirchen (Germany); Grziwa, Peter [BISANZ Anlagenbau GmbH, Scheidter Strasse 2, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Horst, Juri [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany)], E-mail: horst@izes.de; Kimmerle, Klaus [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany)

2008-07-01

67

Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. (Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil))

1993-01-01

68

Effects of sewage and industrial effluent on the concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in water and sediments along Waterfalls stream and lower Mukuvisi River in Harare, Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disposal of sewage and industrial effluent is a problem confronting municipalities in most developing countries. A study was conducted to determine the effects of the disposal of sewage and industrial effluent into Mukuvisi River and Waterfalls stream, a tributary of Mukuvisi River in Harare, Zimbabwe. Water and sediment samples were collected over two seasons (October 2003 to November 2004). Sampling sites were located before and after Firle Sewage Treatment Works (FSTW) along Mukuvisi River and before and after Prospect Industrial Area (PIA) along the Waterfalls stream. The water and sediment samples were analysed for pH, and total Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd. The FSTW had no effect on water and sediment pH in Mukuvisi River, which ranged 6.8-7.0 and 5.0-5.6, respectively. The heavy metal concentration upstream of the sewage processing plant was higher than down stream implying that the effluent disposed into the river had lower metal concentrations compared to the river water. Metal concentrations in water and sediment samples along the Waterfalls stream showed an increase just after the PIA, and were more significant in sediment samples. It was concluded that the metal pollution of the two streams was due to industrial pollution rather than sewage effluent disposal. Accumulation of heavy metals in streams is better monitored using sediments where they accumulate rather than water. Continued dumping of industrial effluent into Mukuvisi River and its tributaries will cause further damage to the ecosystem and the food chain.

Nyamangara, J.; Bangira, C.; Taruvinga, T.; Masona, C.; Nyemba, A.; Ndlovu, D.

69

Marine Pollution Monitoring Management Group The Group Co-ordinating Sea Disposal Monitoring  

E-print Network

Marine Pollution Monitoring Management Group The Group Co-ordinating Sea Disposal Monitoring MONITORING REPORT Number 49 Marine Pollution Monitoring Management Group The Group Co-ordinating Sea Disposal ............................................................................................................................... 9 2. Sampling and analysis at sewage-sludge disposal sites

70

Particle size effects on uptake of heavy metals from sewage sludge compost using natural zeolite clinoptilolite.  

PubMed

Land application of sewage sludge may be the least energy consuming and the most cost-effective means of sludge disposal or utilization. However, the major technical problem with land application of sludge concerns the high concentrations of heavy metals. These metals may be leached and enter the ecosystem, the food chain, and eventually the human population. This paper deals with the removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge compost using natural zeolite clinoptilolite, in respect to the particle size. The final results indicate that heavy metals can be sufficiently removed by using 25% w/w of zeolite with particle size of 3.3-4.0 mm. Pore clogging and structural damage in smaller particle sizes is probably the reason for lower uptake of metals by the latter. PMID:16290628

Zorpas, Antonis A; Vassilis, Inglezakis; Loizidou, Maria; Grigoropoulou, Helen

2002-06-01

71

Leachate tests with sewage sludge contaminated by radioactive cesium.  

PubMed

The sewer systems of eastern Japan have transported radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to wastewater treatment plants, where the radioisotopes have accumulated. To better understand the potential problems associated with the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills, leachate tests were conducted with radioactive incinerator ash, cement solidification incinerator ash, and dewatered sludge cake. Radioactivity was undetectable in the eluate from incinerator ash and dewatered sludge cake, but about 30% of the radioactivity initially in cement solidification incinerator ash appeared in the eluate during the leaching experiments. Moreover, modification of test conditions revealed that the presence of Ca(2+) ions and strong alkali in the water that contacted the incinerator ash enhanced leaching of cesium. Lastly, the capacity of pit soil to absorb radioactive cesium was estimated to be at least 3.0 Bq/g (dry). PMID:23947711

Tsushima, Ikuo; Ogoshi, Masashi; Harada, Ichiro

2013-01-01

72

Study Into Combustion of Sewage Sludge as Energetic Fuel / Badania Spalania OSADÓW ?CIEKOWYCH Jako Paliwa Energetycznego  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with the development of civilisation, it can be observed that the amount of waste of different type is growing and the preparation process for further usage of the waste or the utilization process differs. What is to be focused on is municipal sewage sludge which, due to its energetic properties, constitutes a valuable fuel. The problem of usage of municipal sewage sludge remains still unsolved, which stems both from the increasing amount of such waste, and from the lack of properly adjusted systems for thermal processing thereof. What is of an additional obstacle are the increasingly stricter legal regulations regarding disposal of sewage sludge after the year 2013; hence, it is necessary to consider various benefits resulting from thermal processing of such waste. This work presents an overview of methods of disposal of sewage sludge, taking into consideration, in particular, thermal methods including the process of combustion and co-combustion as a means of successful utilization. The research section of the work presents the results of study into the mechanism and kinetics of combustion of sewage sludge in various conditions of the process carried out in air flow. Combustion of sewage sludge has been compared against combustion of coal and biomass. Wraz z rozwojem cywilizacji zaobserwowa? mo?na post?puj?ce powstawanie ró?nego rodzaju odpadów ró?ni?cych si?, m.in. sposobem przygotowania do dalszego wykorzystania, czy procesem utylizacji. Na szczególn? uwag? zas?uguj? komunalne osady ?ciekowe, które z uwagi na w?a?ciwo?ci energetyczne stanowi? cenne paliwo. Problem wykorzystania komunalnych osadów ?ciekowych jest nadal otwarty, a wynika to zarówno z rosn?cej produkcji tych odpadów, jak i braku odpowiednio przystosowanych instalacji do termicznego ich przekszta?cania. Dodatkowym utrudnieniem s? zaostrzaj?ce si? przepisy prawne dotycz?ce sk?adowania osadów ?ciekowych po 2013 r. sk?aniaj?ce tym samym do rozwa?a? nad korzy?ciami p?yn?cymi z termicznej obróbki tych odpadów. W pracy przedstawiono przegl?d sposobów unieszkodliwiania osadów ?ciekowych ze szczególnym uwzgl?dnieniem metod termicznych, g?ównie spalania i wspó?spalania jako drogi do ich sukcesywnej utylizacji. W cz??ci badawczej pracy zaprezentowano wyniki bada? mechanizmu i kinetyki spalania osadów ?ciekowych w ró?nych warunkach procesu prowadzonego w strumieniu powietrza. Spalanie osadów ?ciekowych porównano ze spalaniem w?gla oraz biomasy.

Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka; ?roda, Katarzyna; Otwinowski, Henryk

2013-12-01

73

Numerical zoom for multiscale problems with an application to nuclear waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

We analyse here a computational technique and error estimates for the numerical solution of some problems with multiple scales when the small scale is confined to geometrically small regions such as jumps of coefficients on curves and surfaces or complex variations of coefficients in small regions where numerical zooms can be made. The method is an adaptation of the Hilbert Subspace Decomposition Method studied by the second author in a different context so the method is restated with all known results. Combined with the layer decomposition of [S. Delpino, O. Pironneau, Asymptotic analysis and layer decomposition for the Couplex exercise, in: Alain Bourgeat, Michel Kern (Eds.), Computational Geosciences, vol. 8. No. 2, Kluwer Academics Publishers, 2004, pp. 149-162] the method is applied to the numerical assessment of a nuclear waste repository site.

Apoung Kamga, Jean-Baptiste [Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions and IUF, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)]. E-mail: apoung@ann.jussieu.fr; Pironneau, Olivier [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie and IUF (France)]. E-mail: Olivier.Pironneau@upmc.fr

2007-05-20

74

[Environmental impacts of sewage treatment system based on emergy analysis].  

PubMed

"Integrated sewage treatment system" (ISTS) consists of sewage treatment plant system and their products (treated water and dewatered sludge) disposal facilities, which gives a holistic view of the whole sewage treatment process. During its construction and operation, ISTS has two main impacts on the environment, i.e., the consumption of resources and the damage of discharged pollutants on the environment, while the latter was usually ignored by the previous researchers when they assessed the impacts of wastewater treatment system. In order to more comprehensively understanding the impacts of sewage treatment on the environment, an analysis was made on the ISTS based on the theories of emergy analysis, and, in combining with ecological footprint theory, the sustainability of the ISTS was also analyzed. The results showed that the emergy of the impacts of water pollutants on the environment was far larger than that of the impacts of air pollutants, and NH3-N was the main responsible cause. The emergy consumption of ISTS mainly came from the emergy of wastewater and of local renewable resources. The "sewage treatment plant system + landfill system" had the highest emergy utilization efficiency, while the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + incineration system" had the lowest one. From the aspect of environmental sustainability, the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + landfill system" was the best ISTS, while the "sewage treatment plant system + incineration system" was the worst one. PMID:23705396

Li, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Min; Deng, Shi-Huai

2013-02-01

75

Bacteriological hazards of disposable bedpan systems  

PubMed Central

A system using disposable papier maché bedpans and urinals in hospital has advantages of ease of handling for the nurse and cleanliness for the patient. Disposal of the bedpans and their contents is by destruction and flushing to waste. Some bacteriological hazards of this process in the Haigh Sluicemaster and J.M.L. Clinimatic machines are assessed, particularly the dispersal of the contents in spray and aerosol during opening, closing, and running the machines. Various safety devices were tested and some deficiencies are discussed. A major defect in the system is the need at present for a bedpan carrier or support which is not disposable and requires cleaning and disinfection. Minor problems include ordering and storing bulky items, possibly the texture of the bedpans themselves, and perhaps the effect of the bulk of paper discharged into the sewage system. At present the system seems unsuitable for use in infectious disease hospitals and has some deficiencies in use in general wards. The improvements suggested would greatly increase its acceptability which should then be completely re-assessed. To this end the examination of improved models using totally disposable bedpans is proceeding. Images PMID:4696834

Gibson, G. L.

1973-01-01

76

Methane from partially digested sewage sludge using a steam-injection rapid thermal reactor. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each day, a fleet of barges hauls 300,000 cubic feet of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment facilities in New York City, to an ocean dumping site 106 miles offshore. On January 1, 1992, this ocean dumping site will be officially closed by federal mandate, forcing the city to find alternative disposal methods for its sewage sludge. Researchers at Dynatech and

A. P. Leuschner; M. J. Laquidara

1988-01-01

77

CONNECTICUT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of sewage treatment plants in Connecticut. It is a point Shapefile that includes the locations of sewage treatment plants, but not their discharge locations to surface or groundater. The National Pollution Discharge Elimintation Discharge Syste...

78

National Sewage-Sludge Survey facility analytical results. Volume 1-4  

SciTech Connect

The National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS) is a questionnaire and analytical survey of Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) intended to produce national estimates of: (1) Concentrations of toxic contaminants in municipal sludge; (2) Sludge generation and treatment processes; (3) Sludge use and disposal practices and alternative use and disposal practices; and (4) Treatment and disposal costs. The survey will provide reliable, current data that can be used in the regulatory impact analysis (RIA) and aggregate risk analysis (ARA) to project impacts and benefits to support promulgation of the first round technical regulation for sewage sludge pollutants and use and disposal practices (40 CFR Part 503).

Not Available

1989-10-01

79

Sewage impacts coral reefs at multiple levels of ecological organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against a backdrop of rising sea temperatures and ocean acidification which pose global threats to coral reefs, excess nutrients and turbidity continue to be significant stressors at regional and local scales. Because interventions usually require local data on pollution impacts, we measured ecological responses to sewage discharges in Surin Marine Park, Thailand. Wastewater disposal significantly increased inorganic nutrients and turbidity

Pasinee Reopanichkul; Thomas A. Schlacher; R. W. Carter; Suchai Worachananant

2009-01-01

80

DIRECT THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE TO FUEL OIL  

EPA Science Inventory

A disposal method for primary sewage sludge and industrial sludges which generates boiler fuel as a product and is energy self sufficient or energy-generating is described. The method involves direct liquefaction in a mild aqueous alkali above 250 degs. C and was demonstrated for...

81

Is There Sewage in My Sample?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students investigate the relationship between sediment sampling and ocean pollution as they discover how scientists collect and study sediment on the bottom of the ocean. They will also find out if the sediment sampling methods used by scientists can be used to detect pollution. They will learn about the proximity of the Hudson Shelf Valley and the Hudson Canyon to the New York City metropolitan region, one of the most populated areas in the United States; and will learn that formerly two dumpsites in the Hudson Shelf Valley and Hudson Canyon were used to dispose of sewage sludge. Students will also learn how scientists collect and use core samples to study seafloor sediments and what are some of the impacts of dumping sewage in the ocean.

82

Preparation of biochar from sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass waste materials appropriate for biochar production include crop residues (both field residues and processing residues such as nut shells, fruit pits, bagasse, etc), as well as yard, food and forestry wastes, and animal manures. Biochar can and should be made from biomass waste materials and must not contain unacceptable levels of toxins such as heavy metals which can be found in sewage sludge and industrial or landfill waste. Making biochar from biomass waste materials should create no competition for land with any other land use option—such as food production or leaving the land in its pristine state. Large amounts of agricultural, municipal and forestry biomass are currently burned or left to decompose and release CO2 and methane back into the atmosphere. They also can pollute local ground and surface waters—a large issue for livestock wastes. Using these materials to make biochar not only removes them from a pollution cycle, but biochar can be obtained as a by-product of producing energy from this biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product from wastewater treatment plants, and contains significant amounts of heavy metals, organic toxins and pathogenic microorganisms, which are considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Agricultural use, land filling and incineration are commonly used as disposal methods. It was, however, reported that sewage sludge applications in agriculture gives rise to an accumulation of harmful components (heavy metals and organic compounds) in soil. For this reason, pyrolysis can be considered as a promising technique to treat the sewage sludge including the production of fuels. The objective of this work is to study the advantages of the biochar prepared from sewage sludge.

Nieto, Aurora; María Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel

2013-04-01

83

Impact of Lead and Sewage Sludge on Soil Microbial Biomass and Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge disposal on arable land is viewed as a method to reduce waste accumulation and to enrich soil fertility. However, such disposal can degrade soil ecosystems due to the presence of potentially harmful substances, such as heavy metals. Pb has assumed greater significance because currently its dispersal through anthropogenic activities has exceeded the inputs from natural sources by about

G. H. Dar

1997-01-01

84

Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related to their high water content. One way to overcome these problems, in a cheap and clean way, is the drying of sludges using the energy of the sun under greenhouse conditions. This drying may affect sludge chemical characteristics including organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, parameters which have to be controlled for the proper management of dry sludge application onto soils. For this reason, the main aim of this work was to study the impact of greenhouse drying of different sewage sludges on their organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, assessed by biochemical fractionation and mineralization assays. Three sewage sludges were sampled before (dehydrated sludges) and after greenhouse drying (dried sludges). The analyses consisted of: humidity, organic matter, mineral and organic N contents, N and C mineralization during 91-day laboratory incubations in controlled conditions, and biochemical fractionation using the Van Soest procedure. Greenhouse drying decreased the water content from 70-80% to 10% and also the odours, both of which will improve the management of the final product from the perspective of application and transport. We also found that drying reduced the organic matter content of the sludges but not the biodegradability of the remaining carbon. Organic N mineralization occurred during greenhouse drying, explaining why mineral N content tended to increase and the potential mineralization of organic nitrogen decreased after greenhouse drying. The biochemical stability did not change so much except for the one of the sludges, which experienced an important reduction. According to the results, and from a point of view of future soil applications, the balance of the drying process could be considered as positive. It is using a free, renewable and clean energy, which reduces the water content and odours of sludge, thereby improving their management. Except for the water content, there was little modification of the behaviour in soil of greenhouse dried sludges compared to the dehydrated sludges, maintaining its large amount of available nitrogen after drying. Acknowledgements: Jose. M. Soriano-Disla gratefully acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Culture for a research fellowship (AP2005-0320).

Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Houot, S.; Imhoff, M.; Valentin, N.; Gómez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.

2009-04-01

85

Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

86

TRANSPORT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This project was initiated with the overall objective of developing organized information pertaining to the costs of various sewage sludge transport systems. Transport of liquid and dewatered sludge by truck and rail and liquid sludge by barge and pipeline is included. The report...

87

Technical and philosophical aspects of ocean disposal  

E-print Network

Chemical Composition of Raw and Digested Sludge 2. 3 Vessel Discharge Ocean Disposal: Types and Amounts, 1968, 1973, 1974 , Dredged Material Dumped in Ocean? 1974 and 1973 Explosives and Chemical Munitions, 1964-1970 22 24 27 33 2. 6 Radioactive... of Haste Materials Materials disposed of in the ocean are divided into seven major categories: dredged material, industrial wastes, domestic sewage wastes, refuse, radioactive wastes, construction and demolition debris, and military wastes. Most...

Zapatka, Marchi Charisse

2012-06-07

88

33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES... § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel...

2012-07-01

89

33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES... § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel...

2010-07-01

90

33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.  

...2014-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES... § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel...

2014-07-01

91

33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES... § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel...

2011-07-01

92

33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES... § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel...

2013-07-01

93

Sewage-sludge incineration: An overview of the technology  

SciTech Connect

Incineration is becoming more attractive as a way to dispose of sewage sludge. Technological advances make it possible to reduce sludge volume, maintain air quality, and often generate electricity to offset the cost of treatment. Both are described. The paper also describes auxiliary equipment: input subsystems, heat recovery, air emissions control, and ash handling. Recent advances which are described include feed sludge preparation, design improvements, air distribution systems, and pyrolysis technology.

Brinkmann, W.K.; Forbess, R.G.

1988-10-01

94

Predicting Water Quality Problems Associated with Coal Fly Ash Disposal Facilities Using a Trace Element Partitioning Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For much of the U.S., coal-fired power plants are the most important source of electricity for domestic and industrial use. Large quantities of fly ash and other coal combustion by-products are produced every year, the majority of which is impounded in lagoons and landfills located throughout the country. Many older fly ash disposal facilities are unlined and have been closed for decades. Fly ash often contains high concentrations of toxic trace elements such as arsenic, boron, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, lead, strontium and vanadium. Trace elements present in coal fly ash are of potential concern due to their toxicity, high mobility in the environment and low drinking water MCL values. Concern about the potential release of these toxic elements into the environment due to leaching of fly ash by acid rain, groundwater or acid mine drainage has prompted the EPA to develop national standards under the subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to regulate ash disposal in landfills and surface impoundments. An attempt is made to predict the leaching of toxic elements into the environment by studying trace element partitioning in coal fly ash. A seven step sequential chemical extraction procedure (SCEP) modified from Filgueiras et al. (2002) is used to determine the trace element partitioning in seven coal fly ash samples collected directly from electric power plants. Five fly ash samples were derived from Eastern Bituminous coal, one derived from Western Sub-bituminous coal and the other derived from Northern Lignite. The sequential chemical extraction procedure gives valuable information on the association of trace elements: 1) soluble fraction, 2) exchangeable fraction, 3) acid soluble fraction, 4) easily reducible fraction, 5) moderately reducible fraction, 6) poorly reducible fraction and 7) oxidizable organics/sulfide fraction. The trace element partitioning varies with the composition of coal fly ash which is influenced by the type of coal burned. Preliminary studies show that in some fly ash samples, significant amounts of As, B, Mo, Se, Sr and V are associated with the soluble and exchangeable fraction, and thus would be highly mobile in the environment. Lead, on the other hand, is mainly associated with the amorphous Fe and Mn oxide fractions and would be highly immobile in oxidizing conditions, but mobile in reducing conditions. Ni and Cr show different associations in different fly ash samples. In most fly ash samples, significant amounts of the trace elements are associated with more stable fractions that do not threaten the environment. The study of trace element partitioning in coal fly ash thus helps us to predict their leaching behavior under various conditions.

Bhattacharyya, S.; Donahoe, R. J.; Graham, E. Y.

2006-12-01

95

Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility.

Silva, M.K.

1996-08-01

96

Disposal methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of disposal options for space nuclear reactors and the associated risks, mostly in the long term, based on probabilities of Earth reentry are discussed. The results are based on a five year study that was conducted between 1978 and 1983 on the space disposal of high level nuclear waste. The study provided assessment of disposal options, stability of disposal or storage orbits, and assessment of the long term risks of Earth reentry of the nuclear waste.

Friedlander, Alan

1991-01-01

97

Sewage treatment method  

DOEpatents

The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating the solids from the liquid and producing an aqueous stream containing a high concentration of ammonia. The third step is removal of ammonia from the aqueous stream using a hydrothermal process.

Fassbender, Alex G. (4407 Laurel Dr., West Richland, WA 99352)

1995-01-01

98

Complete survey of german sewage sludge ash.  

PubMed

The amount of sewage sludge produced worldwide is expected to further increase due to rising efforts in wastewater treatment. There is a growing concern against its direct use as fertilizer due to contamination of the sludge with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Incinerating the sludge degrades organic compounds almost completely and concentrates heavy metals and phosphorus. However, the sewage sludge ash (SSA) is almost completely disposed of and with it all resources are removed from the economic cycle. Comprehensive knowledge of the composition of SSA is crucial to assess the resource recovery potentials. We conducted a survey of all SSA emerging in Germany and determined the respective mass fractions of 57 elements over a period of one year. The median content of phosphorus was 7.9%, indicating an important recovery potential. Important trace elements were Zn (2.5 g/kg), Mn (1.3 g/kg), and Cu (0.9 g/kg). Mass fractions of technology metals such as V, Cr, Ga, Nb, and rare earths were comparatively low. Considering the possible use of SSA as secondary raw material for fertilizer production it should be noted that its Cd and U content (2.7 mg/kg and 4.9 mg/kg respectively) is significantly lower than that of rock phosphate based mineral fertilizers. PMID:25265150

Krüger, Oliver; Grabner, Angela; Adam, Christian

2014-10-21

99

Low biodegradability of fluoxetine HCl, diazepam and their human metabolites in sewage sludge-amended soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  The European Union banned disposal of sewage sludge (SS) at sea in Europe in 1998. Since that time, the application rate of\\u000a SS to land has risen significantly and is set to rise further. Fifty-two percent of SS was disposed to land in the UK in 2000.\\u000a Land application is, thus, possibly an important transport route for

Clare H. Redshaw; Martin P. Cooke; Helen M. Talbot; Steve McGrath; Steven J. Rowland

2008-01-01

100

APPLICATION OF SEDIMENTARY FECAL STANOLS AND STEROLS IN TRACING SEWAGE POLLUTION IN COASTAL WATERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coastal water disposal site for municipal wastewater sludge was established in the southeastern waters of Hong Kong in 1991. Although the assimilating capacity of such a disposal site was expected to be high, some accumulation of dumped sewage sludge on the nearby bottom sediments was considered inevitable. In this study, sedimentary fecal stanols and sterols, such as coprostanol (5?(H)-cholestan-3?-ol),

KIT-HUNG CHAN; MICHAEL H. W. LAM; KA-FAI POON; HUNG-YUI YEUNG; TONY K. T. CHIU

1998-01-01

101

Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge management: a review.  

PubMed

In this article, 35 published studies on life cycle assessment (LCA) of sewage sludge were reviewed for their methodological and technological assumptions. Overall, LCA has been providing a flexible framework to quantify environmental impacts of wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and disposal processes for multiple scales, ranging from process selection to policy evaluation. The results of LCA are, in principle, unique to the goal and scope of each study, reflecting its local conditions and comparison between different LCAs is not intended. Furthermore, the assessments are limited by the methodological development of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) and the advancement of research in quantifying environmental emissions associated with wastewater and sewage sludge treatment processes. Thus, large discrepancies were found in the selection of the environmental emissions to be included and how they were estimated in the analysis. In order to reduce these choice uncertainties, consolidation of the modelling approach in the following area are recommended: quantification of fugitive gas emissions and modelling of disposal practices. Besides harmonization of the key technical assumptions, clear documentation of the modelling approach and the uncertainties associating with each assumption is encouraged so as to improve the integrity and robustness of assessment. PMID:24061046

Yoshida, Hiroko; Christensen, Thomas H; Scheutz, Charlotte

2013-11-01

102

Enzyme treatment to decrease solids and improve digestion of primary sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of anaerobic digestion of primary sewage sludge is to convert the carbonaceous material contained in the solids into methane and carbon dioxide. The products of digestion are therefore gases, stabilised sludge solids which are subsequently dewatered and disposed of, and sludge liquor which is generally further treated. This investigation assessed the impact of addition of hydrolytic enzymes to

H. J. Roman; J. E. Burgess; B. I. Pletschke

103

College of Agricultural Sciences Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension Land Application of Sewage  

E-print Network

of Sewage Sludge in Pennsylvania Effects of Biosolids on Soil and Crop Quality ENVIRONME NTAL� ISSUES � The use of biosolids on Pennsylvania cropland has been a common practice since the mid-1970s. Biosolids land application of biosolids represents a beneficial reuse alternative to landfill disposal

Kaye, Jason P.

104

BENTHIC DISTRIBUTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE INDICATED BY CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRIGENS AT A DEEP-OCEAN DUMP SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

Clostridium perfrigens in sediment samples collected at the Deep Water Municipal Sewage Sludge Disposal Site (also called the 106-Mile Site), off the coast of New Jersey, was enumerated. he counts of C. perfrigens found in sediment samples collected within and to the southwest of...

105

Post treatment of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket based sewage treatment plant effluents: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological processes are aerobic and anaerobic commonly used for wastewater treatment. Treated sewage from various wastewater treatment plants is mostly used for irrigation purposes or simply discharged into rivers. However, major drawbacks of this disposal are the input of contaminants like organics (high BOD, COD), pathogens and suspended solids into the aquatic ecosystem. This paper presents a critical review on

Arvind Kumar Mungray; Z. V. P. Murthy; Ashwin J. Tirpude

2010-01-01

106

MANUAL FOR COMPOSTING SEWAGE SLUDGE BY THE BELTSVILLE AERATED-PILE METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

In producing clean water from sewage, wastewater treatment plants also produce sludge. Most of the commonly used methods to dispose of this material are now considered to be either environmentally unacceptable, wasteful of energy, or very expensive. To ease this situation, a rela...

107

Sewage treatment level and flow rates affect polychaete assemblages.  

PubMed

The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive (UWWTD) aim to improve water quality and reduce the environmental impact of wastewater, by requiring member states to introduce better treatment levels. This study was carried out in order to detect the most suitable treatment type or flow level for reducing benthic environmental impact. Therefore, soft-bottom polychaete assemblages affected by discharges of six treatment plants, with different treatment technologies and flow rates, were analysed over three consecutive years. Polychaete assemblages changed as a result of sewage discharge. These changes were related to treatment level and flow rates. Both disposal quality and quantity are important since changes in soft-bottom assemblages in stations affected by pre-treated sewage with medium and high flow rates are observed. However, the location with a low-flow pre-treated effluent has similar polychaete assemblages with regard to locations with biological treatment or controls. PMID:20863533

Del-Pilar-Ruso, Yoana; de-la-Ossa-Carretero, Jose Antonio; Giménez-Casalduero, Francisca; Sánchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis

2010-11-01

108

25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section...RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within...

2012-04-01

109

25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section...RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within...

2010-04-01

110

25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section...RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within...

2013-04-01

111

25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section...RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within...

2014-04-01

112

25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section...RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within...

2011-04-01

113

33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction...Sewage removal. The device must be designed for...solids in the sewage retention...

2013-07-01

114

33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.  

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction...Sewage removal. The device must be designed for...solids in the sewage retention...

2014-07-01

115

33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction...Sewage removal. The device must be designed for...solids in the sewage retention...

2010-07-01

116

33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction...Sewage removal. The device must be designed for...solids in the sewage retention...

2011-07-01

117

33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction...Sewage removal. The device must be designed for...solids in the sewage retention...

2012-07-01

118

Soil Microbial Functional and Fungal Diversity as Influenced by Municipal Sewage Sludge Accumulation  

PubMed Central

Safe disposal of municipal sewage sludge is a challenging global environmental concern. The aim of this study was to assess the response of soil microbial functional diversity to the accumulation of municipal sewage sludge during landfill storage. Soil samples of a municipal sewage sludge (SS) and from a sewage sludge landfill that was 3 m from a SS landfill (SS3) were analyzed relative to an undisturbed reference soil. Biolog EcoPlatesTM were inoculated with a soil suspension, and the Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon-Weaver index (H) were calculated to interpret the results. The fungi isolated from the sewage sludge were identified using comparative rDNA sequencing of the LSU D2 region. The MicroSEQ® ID software was used to assess the raw sequence files, perform sequence matching to the MicroSEQ® ID-validated reference database and create Neighbor-Joining trees. Moreover, the genera of fungi isolated from the soil were identified using microscopic methods. Municipal sewage sludge can serve as a habitat for plant pathogens and as a source of pathogen strains for biotechnological applications. PMID:25170681

Frac, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Nwaichi, Eucharia Oluchi

2014-01-01

119

Agronomic value of sewage sludge and corn cob biochar in an infertile Oxisol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disposal of sewage sludge and other agricultural waste materials has become increasingly difficult in urban environments with limited land space. Carbonization of the hazardous waste produces biochar as a soil amendment with potential to improve soil quality and productivity. A series of greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to assess the agrnomic value of two biochars made from domestic wastewater sludge and corn cob waste. The ash component of the sewage sludge biochar was very high (65.5%) and high for the corn cob (11.4%) biochars. Both biochars contained low concentrations of heavy metals and met EPA land application criteria. The sewage sludge biochar was a better liming material and source of mineral nutrients than the corn cob biochar, but the corn cob biochar showed the greatest increase in soil carbon and total nitrogen. Both biochar materials increased soil pH compared with soils not receiving biochar, but the sewage sludge biochar was a more effective liming material maintaining elevated soil pH throughout the 3 planting cycles. The sewage sludge biochar also showed the greatest increase in extractable soil P and base cations. In the first planting cycle, both biochars in combination with conventional fertilizers produced significantly higher corn seedling growth than the fertilized control. However, the sewage sludge biochar maintained beneficial effects corn seedling growth through the third planting cycle showing 3-fold increases in biomass production compared with the control in the third planting. The high ash content and associated liming properties and mineral nutrient contributions in the sewage sludge biochar explain benefits to plant growth. Conversion of sewage sludge waste into biochar has the potential to effectively address several environmental issues: 1) convert a hazardous waste into a valuable soil amendment, 2) reduce land and water contamination, and 3) improve soil quality and productivity.

Deenik, J. L.; Cooney, M. J.; Antal, M. J., Jr.

2013-12-01

120

ELECTROMAGNETIC TECHNOLOGY ON SEWAGE TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic treatments for water and wastewater attract a special attention due to their safety, ecological purity, simplicity and low operating costs. Thus this study was carried out in order to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of applying magnetic technology for a better understanding of the sewage characteristics. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the feasibility of magnetic

Fadhil Othman; Johan Sohaili

121

Disposal rabbit  

DOEpatents

A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

1983-10-12

122

Domestic source of phosphorus to sewage treatment works.  

PubMed

Phosphorus is an element essential for life. Concerns regarding long-term security of supply and issues related to eutrophication of surface waters once released into the aquatic environment have led governments to consider and apply measures for reducing the use and discharge of phosphorus. Examples of source control include legislation to reduce phosphorus use in domestic detergents. This research shows that other domestic sources of phosphorus also contribute significantly to the domestic load to sewer and that overall, domestic sources dominate loads to sewage treatment works. Estimates provided here show that although the natural diet contributes 40% of the domestic phosphorus load, other potentially preventable sources contribute significantly to the estimated 44,000 tonnes of phosphorus entering UK sewage treatment works each year. In the UK, food additives are estimated to contribute 29% of the domestic load; automatic dishwashing detergents contribute 9% and potentially increasing; domestic laundry 14%, including contributions from phosphonates, but decreasing; phosphorus dosing to reduce lead levels in tap water 6%; food waste disposed of down the drain 1%; and personal care products 1%. Although UK data is presented here, it is anticipated that similar impacts would be expected for other developed economies. Consideration of alternatives to all preventable sources of phosphorus from these sources would therefore offer potentially significant reductions in phosphorus loads to sewage treatment works and hence to the aquatic environment. Combining all source control measures and applying them to their maximum extent could potentially lead to the prevention of over 22,000 tonnes-P/year entering sewage treatment works. PMID:24191467

Comber, Sean; Gardner, Michael; Georges, Karyn; Blackwood, David; Gilmour, Daniel

2013-01-01

123

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF STEELMAKING FURNACE DUST DISPOSAL METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to examine the nature of steelmaking furnace residues and disposal techniques, and to assess potential problems associated with residue disposal, a potential multimedia environmental problem. Solubilization tests of 18 furnace residue samples s...

124

Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

Robson, Stanley G.

1977-01-01

125

Ecological risks associated with the application of sewage sludge to non-agricultural ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Water Act of 1977 directed EPA to establish standards for use and disposal of sewage sludge (biosolids). The application of biosolids to non-agricultural lands is becoming increasingly important as a method of waste disposal. Ecological endpoints at the population, community, and/or ecosystem level have not previously been emphasized in the development of regulatory standards for municipal sewage sludge. This risk assessment focuses on terrestrial endpoints in four ecosystem types to which substantial quantities of sludge have been applied or are expected to be applied in the future: northwest Douglas-fir forest, southeastern loblolly pine plantation, eastern deciduous forest, and semi-arid rangeland. Conceptual models suitable for all ecosystems were developed that depict the links among assessment endpoints. Estimates of risks to wildlife from contaminants and simulations of impacts of nitrogen in sewage sludge on the structure and function of forest communities are presented in detail elsewhere at this conference. This project overview integrates these two assessment components and adds contaminant risks to plants, soil invertebrates, and microbial processes and risk of leaching and erosion altered by biosolids application. Management practices and empirical measures of bioavailability are considered for each ecosystem. Concentrations of constitutents of sewage sludge used for the analyses have been obtained from the 1988 USEPA National Sewage Sludge Survey. Existing regulatory standards that are primarily human health-based are also evaluated for the adequacy of protection of ecological systems and populations. Predicted impacts of sewage sludge applications are presented, even if they may be regarded as benefits rather than risks.

Efroymson, R.A.; Sample, B.E.; Luxmoore, R.J.; Tharp, M.L.; Barnthouse, L.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Daniel, F.B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

126

Some of the Effects of Domestic Sewage Discharged into Hickman and Jessamine Creeks in Jessamine County, Kentucky.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A six-week study was made in the summer of 1971 as an initial effort to determine the extent of pollution that the three sewage disposal plants in Jessamine County, Kentucky, are contributing to its streams. With the rapid population increase in Lexington...

H. H. Howell, M. W. Jones

1976-01-01

127

BARNSTABLE COUNTY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT DATABASE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM FOR INNOVATIVE\\/ALTERNATIVE ON-SITE SEWAGE TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barnstable County Department of Health and Environment serves the fifteen towns comprising Cape Cod. Cape Cod has experienced rapid development over the last 30 years, but wastewater treatment infrastructure was not developed concurrently, and approximately 85 % of our sewage is disposed of in conventional on-site septic systems. Wastewater from septic systems is increasingly causing nitrogen impacts in many of

Susan G. Rask; George R. Heufelder; Holly Everson; Christopher Burt

128

Land-Sourced Pollution with an Emphasis on Domestic Sewage: Lessons from the Caribbean and Implications for Coastal Development on Indian Ocean and Pacific Coral Reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses land-sourced pollution with an emphasis on domestic sewage in the Caribbean in relation to similar issues in the Indian Ocean and Pacific. Starting on a large-scale in the 1980s, tropical Atlantic coastlines of Florida and Caribbean islands were over-developed to the point that traditional sewage treatment and disposal were inadequate to protect fragile coral reefs from eutrophication

Andre DeGeorges; Thomas J. Goreau; Brian Reilly

2010-01-01

129

Benthic distribution of sewage sludge indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-ocean dump site  

SciTech Connect

Since 1986, sewage sludge from New York and northern New Jersey has been dumped 196 km off the coast of New Jersey at the Deep Water Municipal Sewage Sludge Disposal Site. This study determines the distribution of sludge contamination of the benthic environment in the area, by using Clostridium perfringens as an indicator. The counts of C. perfringens confirm a previous report that sewage sludge is reaching the ocean floor at the disposal site as a result of the sludge dumping. C. perfringes counts within the dump site and to the south and west of the dump site are considerably elevated compared to counts east of the site. The distribution pattern of C. perfringes is broadly consistent with the estimates of the sea floor area impacted in the most recent computer model. However, the area of maximum desposition of sludge may be slightly further north than predicted. Use of C. perfringens has proven to be an efficient and reliable method for tracing sewage contamination of deep ocean sediments. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Hill, R.T.; Anikis, M.S.; Colwell, R.R. (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (United States)); Knight, I.T. (James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States))

1993-01-01

130

Fate and risk assessment of heavy metals in residue from co-liquefaction of Camellia oleifera cake and sewage sludge in supercritical ethanol.  

PubMed

The fate and risk assessment of heavy metals (HMs) in solid residue from co-liquefaction of sewage sludge (SS) and Camellia oleifera cake (COC) in supercritical ethanol (SCE) were investigated. SCE effectively stabilized HMs in solid residues and a better stabilization was presented on Zn than Cd. Moreover, SCE significantly transformed Cd, Cu and Zn into F4, which reduced the risk to the environment. Furthermore, risk assessments of Igeo, Er(i), RI and RAC demonstrated that the addition of COC was beneficial to the contamination decrement of HMs since pollution levels of HMs all decreased after treatment, and the lowest pollution level was obtained with SC-350. Therefore, SS treated by SCE with the addition of COC could be a promising technology for disposal of SS, especially considering the safety of COC as regards HMs problem. PMID:25024099

Chen, Hongmei; Zhai, Yunbo; Xu, Bibo; Xiang, Bobin; Zhu, Lu; Qiu, Lei; Liu, Xiaoting; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming

2014-09-01

131

Assessment of groundwater pollution in Tokyo using PPCPs as sewage markers.  

PubMed

While the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in groundwater has typically been reported in bank filtration sites, irrigated fields, septic tanks, and sewage disposal practices, fewer studies have been conducted in highly urbanized areas, where infiltration of treated or untreated sewage is not supposed to be a source of groundwater recharge. Furthermore, little is known about the occurrence of various kinds of PPCPs in relation to microbial indicators in groundwater from different types of aquifers. Thus, we examined the city-wide occurrence of selected PPCPs (diethyltoluamide, crotamiton, ethenzamide, propyphenazone, carbamazepine, and caffeine) and E. coli in 50 groundwaters from unconfined aquifers (<30 m in depth) and confined aquifers (up to 500 m in depth) in Tokyo, where unintended groundwater contamination could take place due to decrepit sewer networks. PPCPs were detected in unconfined aquifers and springs (23/34 samples, 68%), and in confined aquifers (7/16 samples, 44%). Compared with published results for sewage influents, concentrations of PPCPs, excluding caffeine, were generally 1-2 orders of magnitude lower, while in some samples concentrations were quite comparable. The high occurrence rate of PPCPs, even in confined aquifers, indicated that such aquifers are not always protected from pollution by sewage near the land surface. Among the PPCPs analyzed, carbamazepine and crotamiton were most frequently detected, which would appear to be owing to their high persistence, combined with the high concentration of crotamiton in sewage. Crotamiton was detected in all four E. coli-positive groundwaters, and thus may potentially serve as a precautionary indicator of E. coli contamination. Using carbamazepine as a sewage marker, we estimated that 0.8%-1.7% of the dry-weather flow of sewage was leaking out into the unconfined aquifers. PMID:22191375

Kuroda, Keisuke; Murakami, Michio; Oguma, Kumiko; Muramatsu, Yuki; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

2012-02-01

132

Evaluation of sludge characteristics and metals emissions from municipal sewage sludge incinerators  

SciTech Connect

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has promulgated regulations affecting the disposal of municipal sewage sludge under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) Part 503. The paper addresses emissions requirements for sewage sludge incineration under 40 CFR Part 503, Subpart E. The paper focuses on factors that may influence sewage sludge characteristics, sewage sludge metals feed rates, and the corresponding metals emission rates. Emissions test programs were conducted at three municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), City of Auburn WWTP. City of Glens Falls WWTP, and Saratoga County Sewer District No. 1 WWTP, to determine mass emissions of multiple metals (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Hg, Se, and Zn). The influent incinerator sludge was sampled in conjunction with each test program to determine the sludge metals content. The sewage sludge was analyzed in accordance with USEPA Method SW846. Multiple metals emissions were determined in accordance with USEPA 40 CFR 60, Appendix A, Method 29 sampling and analytical procedures. The results from these test programs were analyzed to identify the factors that influence the metals emission rates. The resulting metals removal efficiencies from each of the three pollution control systems are quantified. Unique analytical issues encountered during these test programs are also addressed. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

Hart, R.S.; Conklin, J.A.; Munn, B.G. [Stearns & Wheler, LLC, Cazenovia, NY (United States)

1996-12-31

133

Sewage effluent as a source of Campylobacter sp. in a surface water catchment.  

PubMed

Campylobacter sp. can regularly be found in wastewater-affected surface waters. The occurrence of Campylobacter sp. in rivers, treated sewage and combined sewer overflows was analysed in a catchment with sparse annual precipitation. During regular treatment the reduction efficacy for Campylobacter sp. varies between 1.75 and 3.5 log(10). However, Campylobacter sp. concentrations do not increase downstream in the river as more sewage treatment plants discharge into it. During rain events, the Campylobacter sp. concentration in the river upstream of any sewage plant rises and in the sewer overflow water it is more than 150-fold higher than the average concentration in the river water at the river mouth. The highest Campylobacter sp. loads and the highest risk of infection occur during summertime after heavy rainfall. Risk management strategies should focus on problems regarding water scarcity, reuse of sewage effluent and the impact of heavy rain events. PMID:20183194

Rechenburg, Andrea; Kistemann, Thomas

2009-08-01

134

1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF STORAGE SHED (BLDG 773). SECURITY FENCE EAST OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Sewage Treatment Plant, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

135

33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test. (a) The device must process human sewage in the manner for which...

2012-07-01

136

33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test. (a) The device must process human sewage in the manner for which...

2013-07-01

137

33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test. (a) The device must process human sewage in the manner for which...

2010-07-01

138

33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test. (a) The device must process human sewage in the manner for which...

2011-07-01

139

Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants  

MedlinePLUS

Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants Hazard Alert During construction and maintenance of sewage and ... Careful work habits can help protect you. Some Biological Hazards That May Be in Sewage Or Wastewater ...

140

Reducing sewage pollution in the Antarctic marine environment using a sewage treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite Antarctica being the largest pristine wilderness on Earth, many coastal Antarctic research stations release untreated sewage waste into the marine environment, which may have negative effects on local wildlife. In February 2003 a sewage treatment plant was installed at Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula). After one year of operation the sewage treatment plant had dramatically reduced the

Kevin A. Hughes

2004-01-01

141

Utilization and Conversion of Sewage Sludge as Metal Sorbent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most biosolids are disposed on land. With improvements in wastewater treatment processes and upgrading of treatment plants across Canada, biosolids generation will increase dramatically. These biosolids will need to be dealt with because they contain various contaminants, including heavy metals and several classes of emerging contaminants. A number of researchers have recently focused on preparation of sewage sludge-based adsorbents by carbonation, physical activation and chemical activation for decontamination of air and wastewater. These previous studies have indicated that sludge-based activated carbon can have good adsorption performance for organic substances in dye wastewater. The overall results suggest that activated carbon from sewage sludge can produce a useful adsorbent, while also reducing the amount of sewage sludge to be disposed. However, sludge-derived activated carbon has not been extensively studied, especially for adsorption of heavy metal ions in wastewater and for its capacity to remove emerging contaminants, such as poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs). Previous research has indicated that commercial activated carbons adsorb organic compounds more efficiently than heavy metal ions. 45 Activated carbon can be modified to enhance its adsorption capacity for special heavy metal ions,46 e.g. by addition of inorganic and organic reagents. The modifications which are successful for commercial activated carbon should also be effective for sludge-derived activated carbon, but this needs to be confirmed. Our research focuses on (a) investigation of techniques for converting sewage sludge (SS) to activated carbon (AC) as sorbents; (b) exploration of possible modification of the activated carbon (MAC) to improve its sorption capacity; (c) examination of the chemical stability of the activated carbon and the leachability of contaminants from activated carbon,; (d) comparison of adsorptivity with that of other sorbents. Based on XRD and FT-IR, we successfully converted SS to AC and further modified it to improve absorption. SSMAC has large specific surface areas based on the BET technique. Batch adsorption results indicate that metal adsorption for SSMAC > SSAC, with adsorption occurring within the first 5 minutes of contact. Comparison of the adsorptivity of various sorbents such as commercial activated carbon (CAC), mineral sorbents such as perlite, clinoptilolite and illite indicates that SSMAC × CAC × clinoptilolite > kaolite.

Gong, Xu Dong; Li, Loretta Y.

2013-04-01

142

Heavy Metal Speciation in Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge is a rich source of organic matter and nutrients, so there is a possibility of their broader agricultural utilization. However, agricultural utilization of this material is limited by excessive quantities of heavy metals. In accordance with this, the current paper presents the results of investigations referring to the speci- ation of heavy metals in selected sewage sludge. It

M. Jakubus; J. Czeka?a

143

Sensitivity of amphipods to sewage pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphipods are considered a sensitive group to pollution but here different levels of sensitivity were detected among species, by analysing the impact of five sewage outfalls, with different flow and treatment levels, on amphipod assemblages from the Castellon coast (NE Spain). Sewage pollution produced a decrease in the abundance and richness of amphipods close to the outfalls. Most of the

J. A. De-la-Ossa-Carretero; Y. del-Pilar-Ruso; F. Giménez-Casalduero; J. L. Sánchez-Lizaso; J.-C. Dauvin

144

My Town, My Creek, My Sewage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After summarizing the ecology of polluted streams as well as the technology and biology of sewage treatment methods, and considering the economic and social aspects of introducing advanced sewage treatment, comments on the role of biology teachers in providing public information are made. (AL)

Woodburn, John H.

1972-01-01

145

Stabilization of primary sewage sludge during vermicomposting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, over the last few decades, there has been a remarkable increase in sewage sludge production due to population increase and unplanned urbanization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform primary sewage sludge (PSS) amended with cow dung (CD) into value added product, i.e., vermicompost in laboratory

Renuka Gupta; V. K. Garg

2008-01-01

146

Boston Harbor sewage stack (for microcomputers). Software  

SciTech Connect

The Boston Harbor Sewage Stack is interactive educational computer program about how municipalities deal with sewage, how sewage systems work, non point pollution, and what citizens can do to help - focusing on Boston Harbor and the Boston Harbor Cleanup. The program is written at a level accessible to middle-school students, but with enough depth for adults. Schools and environmental organizations, especially in coastal areas, will find this program a useful addition to their environmental education offerings. The program shows what happens to sewage - from the moment of flush to its passage through the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority's sewage system and into Boston Harbor - now and as the cleanup proceeds. Users encounter topics for exploration, including storm sewers and combined sewer overflows (CSOs); non point pollution from pets, spilled waste oil, lawn and garden chemicals, and other sources; what not to flush and why; how officials can tell if water is polluted; and why it all matters.

Not Available

1992-12-01

147

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1986-01-01

148

Commerce clause limitations on a state's regulation of waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The courts, in striking down the New Jersey Waste Control Act, determined that waste disposal sites are a natural resource and must be shared by the states. The court was more impressed by the common problem of waste disposal than by New Jersey's claims of health hazards. Future problems could lead to states banning all nuclear waste disposal rather than

McElwee

1978-01-01

149

Sewage in ground water in the Florida Keys  

SciTech Connect

More than 24,000 septic tanks, 5,000 cesspools, and greater than 600 shallow disposal wells introduce sewage effluents into porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To assess the fate of sewage nutrients, 21 2- to 20-m-deep wells were core drilled and completed as water-monitoring wells. The wells were sampled quarterly and analyzed for 17 parameters. including nutrients and bacteria. Nutrients (mainly NH4, - which is 30 to 40 times higher than in surface sea water) were detected in ground water beneath the Keys and offshore coral reefs. Highest levels were beneath reefs 5 to 8 km offshore. Ground waters were generally hypersaline and fecal bacteria (fecal coliform and streptococci) were detected in ground water beneath living coral reefs. Higher sea level on the Florida Bay side of the Keys is proposed as the mechanism for forcing ground water toward offshore coral reefs. Tidal pumping, which is more pronounced near the Keys, causes leakage of ground water where the sediment is thin. Areas lacking sediment cover consist of bare limestone bedrock or permeable coral reefs. These are the areas where coral diseases and algal growth have increased in recent years. Pollutants entering the ground water beneath the Florida Keys are likely to be transported seaward beneath impermeable Holocene sediments and may be upwelling through coral reefs and other hardbottom communities.

Shinn, E.A.

1995-12-31

150

Sewage impacts coral reefs at multiple levels of ecological organization.  

PubMed

Against a backdrop of rising sea temperatures and ocean acidification which pose global threats to coral reefs, excess nutrients and turbidity continue to be significant stressors at regional and local scales. Because interventions usually require local data on pollution impacts, we measured ecological responses to sewage discharges in Surin Marine Park, Thailand. Wastewater disposal significantly increased inorganic nutrients and turbidity levels, and this degradation in water quality resulted in substantial ecological shifts in the form of (i) increased macroalgal density and species richness, (ii) lower cover of hard corals, and (iii) significant declines in fish abundance. Thus, the effects of nutrient pollution and turbidity can cascade across several levels of ecological organization to change key properties of the benthos and fish on coral reefs. Maintenance or restoration of ecological reef health requires improved wastewater management and run-off control for reefs to deliver their valuable ecosystems services. PMID:19515390

Reopanichkul, Pasinee; Schlacher, Thomas A; Carter, R W; Worachananant, Suchai

2009-09-01

151

Sewage and Waste Technologies Department of Civil Engineering  

E-print Network

calculation and pollution load controlling · Ability, improvement and extension of local sewage facilitiesSewage and Waste Technologies Department of Civil Engineering Section Sewage and Waste Technologies Research Institute for Water and Environment Section Sewage and Waste Technologies EFFICIENT practical

Siegen, Universität

152

Gille-STPA 35 1 Sewage on San Diego Beaches  

E-print Network

Gille-STPA 35 1 Sewage on San Diego Beaches For a casual reader of the San Diego Union treatment standards, so that San Diego could dump less seriously treated sewage into the ocean. Then he. As a result, sewage from Tijuana will be held to a higher treatment standard than sewage from San Diego. Why

Gille, Sarah T.

153

Anaerobic Treatment of Domestic Sewage at Low Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this thesis was to asses the anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature and the possibilities to optimize the performance of high-rate anaerobic systems treating domestic sewage at low temperature.The anaerobic biodegradability of domestic sewage and its fractions was investigated in batch experiments. The results showed a high potential of anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage

T. A. Elmitwalli; G. Zeeman; G. Lettinga

2000-01-01

154

Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

155

Policy, law, and public opposition: the prospects for abyssal ocean waste disposal in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean is one of several media available for the disposal of society's wastes. Recently, its use for this purpose has been curtailed sharply. In this paper, we describe the potential role of the ocean in an economically optimal multimedia waste disposal framework, review international agreements and U.S. laws regulating ocean disposal, and discuss the role of public perceptions and environmental agendas in present policies governing ocean disposal. Our focus is on the disposal in the abyssal ocean of wastes such as sewage sludge. We conclude that while the U.S. ban on ocean waste disposal may be reasonable in view of uncertainties about environmental costs, the effective ban on limited disposal for research purposes is more difficult to justify. A restoration of public trust in government institutions and in the waste management industry is a likely prerequisite for the relaxation of public opposition to any change in the present prohibitions.

Kite-Powell, Hauke L.; Hoagland, Porter; Jin, Di

1998-05-01

156

Hydrodynamic assessment of sewage impact on water quality of Malad Creek, Mumbai, India.  

PubMed

The rapid population growth and uncontrolled development in the coastal zone have led to major pollution impacts on creeks, estuarine, and coastal environment. Water quality models are valuable tools to understand the environmental processes for prediction of pollution impacts and evaluate future trends for management. Presently, the Malad creek in west coast of Mumbai receives wastewater and sewage from open drains and partially treated sewage from Malad and Versova treatment plants. The objective of the paper is to assess the environmental quality and estimate the extent of improvement in different parts of the creek by enhancing the collection efficiency and adequate treatment of sewage as well as disposal through ocean outfall. A hydrodynamic and water quality simulation has been carried out for the present condition in the creek and calibrated and validated with two different season data for better representation of the system. Calibrated model has been used to generate future scenarios based on various options. Among scenarios, option of treated effluent diverted to propose outfall and improvement in collection of unorganized flow through sewage up to 40% and 60% are found most significant for biochemical oxygen demand reduction and increase in dissolved oxygen. Fecal coliform reduction is also found drastically but still very high against standard. To improve the environmental quality of the creek, still upper stretch requires more dilution and flushing due to narrow width and contribution of heavy pollution from open drains. PMID:19424815

Vijay, Ritesh; Sardar, Veena K; Dhage, Shivani S; Kelkar, Prakash S; Gupta, Apurba

2010-06-01

157

Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.  

PubMed

The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems. PMID:24987735

Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

2014-01-01

158

The occurrence and significance to animal health of salmonellas in sewage and sewage sludges.  

PubMed Central

A total of 882 samples of settled sewage, sewage sludges and final effluents from eight sewage treatment plants were examined for the presence of salmonellas. Of these samples 68% were positive, isolations being made most frequently from settled sewage (85%), raw sludge (87%) and anaerobically digested sludge (96%). Fewer isolations were made from final effluent (24%) and processed sludges (58%). Samples usually contained less than 200 salmonellas/100 ml and arguments are presented that such concentrations should not lead to disease in animals if suitable grazing restrictions are followed. PMID:6985928

Jones, P. W.; Rennison, L. M.; Lewin, V. H.; Redhead, D. L.

1980-01-01

159

Flow Characteristics of the Raw Sewage for the Design of Sewage-Source Heat Pump Systems  

PubMed Central

The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems. PMID:24987735

Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

2014-01-01

160

Sewage Pollution Risk Assessment for Environmental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tremendous potential for Geographic Information Systems to benefit the management of environmental health is progressively being realised. This paper summarises a new approach to mapping the risks associated with on-site sewage facilities. One of the many intended applications is to help predict and thereby manage sources of pathogens contributing to health issues. Over 284,000 on-site sewage facilities exist in

Steven Kenway; Robert Irvine

2001-01-01

161

Work related symptoms among sewage workers.  

PubMed Central

Employees at six sewage treatment plants and three drinking water plants were interviewed for the presence of specific medical symptoms. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations, white blood cell counts and fibrinogen degradation product concentrations (FDP) in urine were determined as were the number and species of airborne Gram negative rods in order to characterise exposure to aerosols of sewage water. The highest number of bacteria was found in areas where the sewage water was agitated. A significantly higher proportion of employees at sewage treatment plants reported skin disorders, diarrhoea, and other gastrointestinal symptoms than the control group. No significant differences were found between the groups for white blood cell count or serum immunoglobulin concentrations, except that IgM concentrations were slightly higher in the sewage workers. Some workers had serum transaminase concentrations in excess of normal; some of these returned to normal after the summer holiday. Among non-smokers a higher proportion of sewage treatment workers had increased amounts of FDP in urine. It is conceivable that the symptoms observed were caused by toxins from Gram negative bacteria. PMID:6871122

Lundholm, M; Rylander, R

1983-01-01

162

Perchlorate in sewage sludge, rice, bottled water and milk collected from different areas in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a new emerging environmental contaminant, perchlorate has prompted people to pay more attention. The presence of perchlorate in the human body can result in improper regulation of metabolism for adults. Furthermore, it also causes developmental and behavioral problems for infants and children because it can interfere with iodide uptake into the thyroid tissue. In this paper, perchlorate in sewage

Yali Shi; Ping Zhang; Yawei Wang; Jianbo Shi; Yaqi Cai; Shifen Mou; Guibin Jiang

2007-01-01

163

Mixing in large-scale municipal solid waste-sewage sludge anaerobic digesters  

SciTech Connect

Operational problems were encountered in the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste and municipal sewage sludge in a 10.7-m-diam. digester. Use on increased mixing power would probably improve the operability of the system, but at the expense of increased energy costs.

James, S.C. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH); Wiles, C.C.; Swartzbaugh, J.T.; Smith, R.B.

1980-01-01

164

A spatial multicriteria decision making tool to define the best agricultural areas for sewage sludge amendment.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge amendment on agricultural soils has recently become a practice of heightened interest, as a consequence of sewage sludge production increase. This practice has benefits to soil and crops, however it may also lead to environmental contamination, depending on the characteristics of the fields. In order to define the suitability of the different agricultural fields to receive sewage sludge, a spatial tool is proposed. This tool, elaborated in GIS platform, aggregates different criteria regarding human exposure and environmental contamination. The spatial tool was applied to a case study in the region of Catalonia (NE of Spain). Within the case study, each step of the tool development is detailed. The results show that the studied region has different suitability degrees, being the appropriate areas sufficient for receiving the total amount of sewage sludge produced. The sensitivity analysis showed that "groundwater contamination", "distance to urban areas", "metals concentration in soil" and "crop type" are the most important criteria of the evaluation. The developed tool successfully tackled the problem, providing a comprehensive procedure to evaluate agricultural land suitability to receive sewage sludge as an organic fertilizer. Also, the tool implementation gives insights to decision makers, guiding them to more confident decisions, based on an extensive group of criteria. PMID:21982027

Passuello, Ana; Cadiach, Oda; Perez, Yolanda; Schuhmacher, Marta

2012-01-01

165

Prevention of Sewage Pollution by Stabilization Ponds Sewage Pollution & Stabilization Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is polluted when it constitutes a health hazard or when its usefulness is impaired. The major sources of water pollution are municipal, manufacturing, mining, steam, electric power, cooling and agricultural. Municipal or sewage pollution forms a greater part of the man's activity and it is the immediate need of even smaller communities of today to combat sewage pollution. It

J. S. S. Lakshminarayana

1975-01-01

166

Synthetic Fibers as Indicators of Municipal Sewage Sludge, Sludge Products, and Sewage Treatment Plant Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of concerns regarding health, safety, and aesthetics, a test that identifies the presence of sewage sludge or its products (biosolids) in commercial materials such as soil conditioners and composts would be useful. This test could also trace the effluent plume from a sewage treatment plant. We have discovered that synthetic fibers serve as such an indicator. Synthetic fibers are

Daniel Habib; David C. Locke; Leonard J. Cannone

1998-01-01

167

Disposal of water treatment wastes containing arsenic — A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid waste management in developing countries is often unsustainable, relying on uncontrolled disposal in waste dumps. Particular problems arise from the disposal of treatment residues generated by removing arsenic (As) from drinking water because As can be highly mobile and has the potential to leach back to ground and surface waters. This paper reviews the disposal of water treatment wastes

Colin Sullivan; Mark Tyrer; Christopher R. Cheeseman; Nigel J. D. Graham

2010-01-01

168

Underground storage tank disposal: alternatives, economics, and environmental costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative technologies are examined for the disposal of disused underground storage tanks (UST) that once contained petroleum products or other hazardous chemicals and the effects of hazardous-waste laws on disposal are discussed. Disposal options for the large population of old vessels are considered in terms of currently required and available technologies, the benefits and problems associated with various strategies, and

Janet E. Robinson; Denise W. Scott; William R. Knocke; W. David Conn

1988-01-01

169

Impact of hardening conditions on to stabilized\\/solidified products of cement–sewage sludge–jarosite\\/alunite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this work is to investigate a viable alternative for the final disposal of sewage sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants using a mixture with cement and jarosite\\/alunite (J\\/A) precipitate to develop new construction materials. J\\/A precipitate is a waste product of a new hydrometallurgical process, which was developed in order to treat economically low-grade nickel oxide

A. Cheilas; M. Katsioti; A. Georgiades; O. Malliou; C. Teas; E. Haniotakis

2007-01-01

170

Vermistabilization of primary sewage sludge.  

PubMed

An integrated composting-vermicomposting process has been developed for utilization of primary sewage sludge (PSS). Matured vermicompost was used as bulking material and a source of active microbial culture during aerobic activated composting (AAC). AAC resulted in sufficient enrichment of bulking material with organic matter after 20 cycles of recycling and mixing with PSS and produced materials acceptable for vermicomposting. Vermicomposting caused significant reduction in pH, volatile solids (VS), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), total organic carbon (TOC), C/N ratio and pathogens and substantial increase in electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) as compared to compost. Environmental conditions and stocking density have profound effects on vermicomposting. Temperature of 20°C with high humidity is favorable environmental condition for vermicomposting employing Eisenia fetida. Favorable stocking density range for vermiculture is 0.5-2.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 0.5 kg m(-2)) and for vermicomposting is 2.0-4.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 3.0 kg m(-2)), respectively. PMID:21036608

Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod

2011-02-01

171

Assessment of compost application to coal ash disposal sites to promote the rapid vegetation establishment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the city of Tuzla, located in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a coal fired thermo electric power plant is operated by the company JP ELEKTROPRIVERDA BIH TERMOELEKTRANA "TUZLA". High amounts of ash are produced by the power plant, which are currently disposed into settlement ponds bordered by dams in natural valleys. A total of four ash disposal sites covering an area of approx. 170 ha have been established during the last decades. Due to the fact that residual ash from coal combustion was found to contain a variety of trace elements (Ni, Cr, As, B), it must be assumed that ash disposal of that magnitude constitutes an environmental problem which is investigated within the EU-FP6 / STREP project "Reintegration of Coal Ash Disposal Sites and Mitigation of Pollution in the West Balkan Area" RECOAL. The main hazards relate to soil and groundwater contamination due to leaching toxins, dust dispersion, and toxins entering the food chain as these disposal sites are used for agricultural purposes. In order to rapidly establish a vegetation cover on barren ash dumps that particularly would prevent dust erosion we assessed the applicability of compost, produced from locally available municipal and industrial organic residues as an amendment to ash to improve substrate fertility. The envisaged remediation technology was considered to be a low cost, easy applicable and rapid method capable of substantially enhancing living conditions of residents in the vicinity of the abandoned disposal sites. Various compost application rates were evaluated in the field on experimental site Divkovici I in Tuzla and additionally in the greenhouse environment at Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus. Field and laboratory tests revealed that plant growth and cover rate can substantially be improved by mixing compost into the upper ash layer to a maximum depth of approx. 20 cm. Besides direct growth observations in the field analysis of soil parameters gave evidence that the fertility of ashy substrates amended with compost produced from locally available sewage sludge and saw dust can be improved. The metal content of grass grown in the various treatments was considered to be elevated compared to normal contents. However, metal uptake in compost treatments was lower than in untreated plots. A preliminary cost assessment, comparing the remediation technology tested on site Divkovici with a standard soil covering technique revealed financial benefits for the compost method due to significant lower application rates.

Repmann, F.; Slazak, A.; Babic, M.; Schneider, B. U.; Schaaf, W.; Hüttl, R. F.

2009-04-01

172

Environmental response to sewage treatment strategies: Hong Kong's experience in long term water quality monitoring.  

PubMed

In many coastal cities around the world, marine outfalls are used for disposal of partially treated wastewater effluent. The combined use of land-based treatment and marine discharge can be a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable sewage strategy. Before 2001, screened sewage was discharged into Victoria Harbour through many small outfalls. After 2001, the Hong Kong Harbour Area Treatment Scheme (HATS) was implemented to improve the water quality in Victoria Harbour and surrounding waters. Stage I of HATS involved the construction of a 24 km long deep tunnel sewerage system to collect sewage from the densely populated urban areas of Hong Kong to a centralized sewage treatment plant at Stonecutters Island. A sewage flow of 1.4 million m3 d(-1) receives Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment (CEPT) followed by discharge via a 1.2 km long outfall 2 km west of the harbor. The ecosystem recovery in Victoria Harbour and the environmental response to sewage abatement after the implementation of HATS was studied using a 21-year data set from long term monthly water quality monitoring. Overall, the pollution control scheme has achieved the intended objectives. The sewage abatement has resulted in improved water quality in terms of a significant reduction in nutrients and an increase in bottom DO levels. Furthermore, due to the efficient tidal mixing and flushing, the impact of the HATS discharge on water quality in the vicinity of the outfall location is relatively limited. However, Chl a concentrations have not been reduced in Victoria Harbour where algal growth is limited by hydrodynamic mixing and water clarity rather than nutrient concentrations. Phosphorus removal in the summer is suggested to reduce the risk of algal blooms in the more weakly-flushed and stratified southern waters, while nutrient removal is less important in other seasons due to the pronounced role played by hydrodynamic mixing. The need for disinfection of the effluent to reduce bacterial (E. coli) concentrations to acceptable levels is also confirmed and has recently been implemented. PMID:21871638

Xu, Jie; Lee, Joseph H W; Yin, Kedong; Liu, Hongbin; Harrison, Paul J

2011-11-01

173

Reduction in NO{sub x} emissions from an industrial sewage sludge incineration plant by employing primary measures in a fluidized bed furnace  

SciTech Connect

The results of an inquiry in 1997 show that the percentage of sewage sludge disposed of by incineration in Germany is 19%. Legal developments in Germany clearly show that this percentage amount is expected to increase in the next few years. According to legislation, the treatment of the sewage sludge will have to achieve a result of {le}5% combustible (according to TA-Siedlungsabfall, i.e., Technical guideline for handling and disposal of urban waste). Sewage sludge incineration will therefore become a preferred treatment process. Fluidized bed combustion is especially suitable in relation to the burn-up results. Around 19 sewage sludge incineration plants are operating in Germany, 17 of which have stationary fluidized bed furnaces, the others are multiple hearth roasters. The German statutory law affecting emissions from sewage sludge incineration plants is 17.BlmSchV (i.e., Paragraph 17 of the Federal Emissions Control Regulations). These regulations stipulate mandatory compliance with limit values as a daily average value figured in standard conditions. The intention is to build up an overview of the various possibilities to reduce the NO{sub x} emissions from one problematic industrial sludge by using primary measures, and if possible, to avoid expensive secondary measures, like the SNCR (selective non catalytic reduction) or SCR (selective catalytic reduction) processes.

Ludwig, P.; Stamer, F.

1999-07-01

174

21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from...

2010-04-01

175

A mangrove stand under sewage pollution stress: Red Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mangrove stand of Avicennia marina located at the South Corniche of Jeddah city receives about 100 000 m3 of sewage per day. The sewage has high values of BOD, COD, nutrient concentrations, heavy metals and faecal coliform counts.

A. S. Mandura

1997-01-01

176

JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

1976-01-01

177

Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-05-01

178

Geotechnical Engineering Issues in Ocean Waste Disposal: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine pollution has received considerable attention during the past few years as the news media has focused on such topics as contaminated seafoods, algae blooms, fish and mammal kills, and dirty beaches. The source of these pollution problems are many and include: sewage outfalls, industrial discharges, storm runoff from agricultural lands and metropolitan areas, waste sludges, dredge materials, and highly

Kenneth R. Demars; Ronald C. Chaney

2006-01-01

179

Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

2012-01-01

180

Biodegradation of sewage wastewater using autochthonous bacteria.  

PubMed

The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

2012-01-01

181

Reactive-transport simulation of phosphorus in the sewage plume at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The subsurface transport of phosphorus introduced by the disposal of treated sewage effluent to ground-infiltration disposal beds at the Massachusetts Military Reservation on western Cape Cod was simulated with a three-dimensional reactive-transport model. The simulations were used to estimate the load of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond during operation of the sewage-treatment plant?from 1936 to 1995?and for 60 years following cessation of sewage disposal. The model accounted for spatial and temporal changes in water discharge from the sewage-treatment plant, ground-water flow, transport of associated chemical constituents, and a set of chemical reactions, including phosphorus sorption on aquifer materials, dissolution and precipitation of iron- and manganese-oxyhydroxide and iron phosphate minerals, organic carbon sorption and decomposition, cation sorption, and irreversible denitrification. The flow and transport in the aquifer were simulated by using parameters consistent with those used in previous flow models of this area of Cape Cod, except that numerical dispersion was much larger than the physical dispersion estimated in previous studies. Sorption parameters were fit to data derived from phosphorus sorption and desorption laboratory column experiments. Rates of organic carbon decomposition were adjusted to match the location of iron concentrations in an anoxic iron zone within the sewage plume. The sensitivity of the simulated load of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond was calculated for a variety of processes and input parameters. Model limitations included large uncertainties associated with the loading of the sewage beds, the flow system, and the chemistry and sorption characteristics in the aquifer. The results of current model simulations indicate a small load of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond during 1965?85, but this small load was particularly sensitive to model parameters that specify flow conditions and the chemical process by which non-desorbable phosphorus is incorporated in the sediments. The uncertainties were large enough to make it difficult to determine whether loads of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond in the 1990s were greater or less than loads during the previous two decades. The model simulations indicate substantial discharge of phosphorus to Ashumet Pond after about 1965. After the period 2000?10 the simulations indicate that the load of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond decreases continuously, but the load of phosphorus remains substantial for many decades. The current simulations indicate a peak in phosphorus discharge to Ashumet Pond of about 1,000 kilograms per year during the 1990s; however, comparisons of simulated phosphorus concentrations with measured concentrations in 1993 indicate that the peak in phosphorus load transported to Ashumet Pond may be larger and moving more quickly in the model simulations than in the aquifer. The results of the three-dimensional reactive-transport simulations are consistent with the loading history, experimental laboratory data, and field measurements. The results of the simulations adequately reproduce the spatial distribution of phosphorus concentrations measured in 1993, the magnitude of changes in phosphorus concentration with time in a profile near the disposal beds following cessation of sewage disposal, the observed iron zone in the sewage plume, the approximate flow of treated sewage effluent into Ashumet Valley, and laboratory-column data for phosphorus sorption and desorption.

Parkhurst, David L.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Colman, John A.

2003-01-01

182

High Prevalence of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Swedish Sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe the use of the growth promoter avoparcin is considered to have selected for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Sweden ceased using avoparcin in 1986, and only occasional cases of VRE from hospitals have been reported since 1995. Within the framework of a European study, samples from urban raw sewage, treated sewage, surface water, and hospital sewage in Sweden (n 118)

Aina Iversen; I. Kuhn; Anders Franklin; R. Mollby

2002-01-01

183

Estrogenic Effects of Effluents from Sewage Treatment Works  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of hermaphrodite fish in the lagoons of sewage treatment works led us to hypothesize that sewage effluent might contain a substance, or substances, estrogenic to fish. to test this hypothesis, we placed cages containing rainbow trout in the effluent from sewage-treatment works, and one to three weeks later measured the vitellogenin concentration in the plasma of the fish.

C. E. Purdom; P. A. Hardiman; V. V. J. Bye; N. C. Eno; C. R. Tyler; J. P. Sumpter

1994-01-01

184

Geotechnical engineering for ocean waste disposal. An introduction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As members of multidisciplinary teams, geotechnical engineers apply quantitative knowledge about the behavior of earth materials toward designing systems for disposing of wastes in the oceans and monitoring waste disposal sites. In dredge material disposal, geotechnical engineers assist in selecting disposal equipment, predict stable characteristics of dredge mounds, design mound caps, and predict erodibility of the material. In canister disposal, geotechnical engineers assist in specifying canister configurations, predict penetration depths into the seafloor, and predict and monitor canister performance following emplacement. With sewage outfalls, geotechnical engineers design foundation and anchor elements, estimate scour potential around the outfalls, and determine the stability of deposits made up of discharged material. With landfills, geotechnical engineers evaluate the stability and erodibility of margins and estimate settlement and cracking of the landfill mass. Geotechnical engineers also consider the influence that pollutants have on the engineering behavior of marine sediment and the extent to which changes in behavior affect the performance of structures founded on the sediment. In each of these roles, careful application of geotechnical engineering principles can contribute toward more efficient and environmentally safe waste disposal operations.

Lee, Homa, J.; Demars, Kenneth, R.; Chaney, Ronald, C.

1990-01-01

185

Impact of feedstock properties and operating conditions on sewage sludge gasification in a fixed bed gasifier.  

PubMed

This work presents results of experimental studies on the gasification process of granulated sewage sludge in a laboratory fixed bed gasifier. Nowadays, there is a large and pressing need for the development of thermal methods for sewage sludge disposal. Gasification is an example of thermal method that has several advantages over the traditional combustion. Gasification leads to a combustible gas, which can be used for the generation of useful forms of final energy. It can also be used in processes, such as the drying of sewage sludge directly in waste treatment plant. In the present work, the operating parameters were varied over a wide range. Parameters, such as air ratio ? = 0.12 to 0.27 and the temperature of air preheating t = 50 °C to 250 °C, were found to influence temperature distribution and syngas properties. The results indicate that the syngas heating value decreases with rising air ratio for all analysed cases: i.e. for both cold and preheated air. The increase in the concentration of the main combustible components was accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of carbon dioxide. Preheating of the gasification agent supports the endothermic gasification and increases hydrogen and carbon monoxide production. PMID:24938298

Werle, Sebastian

2014-10-01

186

Environmental application for GIS: Assessing Iskandar Malaysia's (IM) sewage sludge for potential biomass resource  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low carbon scenario could be achieved through the identification of major sectors contributing to the emission of high greenhouse gases (GHG) into the atmosphere. Sewage treatment plant (STP) was ranked as one of the major sectors that emits methane gas (CH4) during treatment processes, including sludge treatment. Sludge treatment is also capital extensive with high operational cost. Thus, sewage sludge has been accepted as a nuisance in STP. However, many has claimed that, sludge produced contain organic matter that has the potential for biomass resource. Thus, it would be such a Žwaste? if sludge are directly disposed of into the landfill without utilizing them at its full potential. In order to do so, it is vital to be able to determine the amount of sludge production. This research was implemented in Iskandar Malaysia regions in the state of Johor. By using GIS tool, the regions that produced the most sewage sludge can be determined, and can be group as critical area. Result shows that Nusajaya produces the most, compared to other regions, which indicated Nusajaya as a densely populated region.

Salim, M. R.; Shaharuddin, N.; Abdullah Halim, K.

2014-02-01

187

Disposal of solid waste in Istanbul and along the Black Sea coast of Turkey  

SciTech Connect

The increasing amount of solid waste arising from municipalities and other sources and its consequent disposal has been one of the major environmental problems in Turkey. Istanbul is a metropolitan city with a current population of around 14 million, and produces about 9000 ton of solid waste every day. The waste composition for Istanbul has changed markedly from 1981 to 1996 with large decreases in waste density, much of which is related to decreased amounts of ash collected in winter. In recent years, the Istanbul region has implemented a new solid waste management system with transfer stations, sanitary landfills, and methane recovery, which has led to major improvements. In the Black Sea region of Turkey, most of the municipal and industrial solid wastes, mixed with hospital and hazardous wastes, are dumped on the nearest lowlands and river valleys or into the sea. The impact of riverside and seashore dumping of solid wastes adds significantly to problems arising from sewage and industry on the Black Sea coast. Appropriate integrated solid waste management systems are needed here as well; however, they have been more difficult to implement than in Istanbul because of more difficult topography, weaker administrative structures, and the lower incomes of the inhabitants.

Berkun, Mehmet [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)]. E-mail: berkun@ktu.edu.tr; Aras, Egemen [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Nemlioglu, Semih [Istanbul University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 34850 Avcilar-Istanbul (Turkey)

2005-10-15

188

Future trends which will influence waste disposal.  

PubMed Central

The disposal and management of solid wastes are ancient problems. The evolution of practices naturally changed as populations grew and sites for disposal became less acceptable. The central search was for easy disposal at minimum costs. The methods changed from indiscriminate dumping to sanitary landfill, feeding to swine, reduction, incineration, and various forms of re-use and recycling. Virtually all procedures have disabilities and rising costs. Many methods once abandoned are being rediscovered. Promises for so-called innovations outstrip accomplishments. Markets for salvage vary widely or disappear completely. The search for conserving materials and energy at minimum cost must go on forever. PMID:570105

Wolman, A

1978-01-01

189

Evaluation of multiple sewage-associated Bacteroides PCR markers for sewage pollution tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The host specificity of the five published sewage-associated Bacteroides markers (i.e., HF183, BacHum, HuBac, BacH and Human-Bac) was evaluated in Southeast Queensland, Australia by testing fecal DNA samples (n=186) from 11 animal species including human fecal samples collected via influent to a sewage treatment plant (STP). All human fecal samples (n=50) were positive for all five markers indicating 100% sensitivity

W. Ahmed; A. Goonetilleke; D. Powell; T. Gardner

2009-01-01

190

Privacy Recovery with Disposable Email Addresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposable e-mail address (DEA) services are a privacy recovery mechanism for the growing spam problem. However, this problem is clearly more complex than simply closing DEA; as the rolling e-mail address protocols (REAP) system demonstrates, recovery approaches must accommodate different normal states.

Jean-marc Seigneur; Christian Damsgaard Jensen

2003-01-01

191

Planning for the Disposal of the Dead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Concurrent with the dramatic increase in the nation's elderly population expected in coming decades will be a need to dispose of larger numbers of our dead. This issue has religious, cultural, and economic salience, but is not typically considered a planning problem. Although cremation rates are rising, burial is projected to remain the preferred alternative for the majority of

Carlton Basmajian; Christopher Coutts

2010-01-01

192

Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture  

PubMed Central

The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary. Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds. More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation. PMID:13160760

Petrik, Milivoj

1954-01-01

193

Are Sewage Treatment Plants Promoting Antibiotic Resistance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is widespread speculation that sewage treatment plants (STPs) and aquatic environments in general may be breeding grounds for antibiotic resistant bacteria. We examine the question of whether low concentrations of antibiotics in STPs can provide or contribute to a selective pressure facilitating the acquisition or proliferation of antibiotic resistance among bacteria in the receiving environment. Examination of available literature

Karen L. Jury; Stuart J. Khan; Tony Vancov; Richard M. Stuetz; Nicholas J. Ashbolt

2011-01-01

194

Seasonal occurrence of rotavirus in sewage.  

PubMed Central

A seasonal distribution was observed for rotaviruses in sewage by using indirect immunofluorescence. Levels were low from May through September and generally higher during winter and spring. In contrast, no seasonal pattern was observed for total enteroviruses. Limitations of the indirect immunofluorescence assay and enzyme immunoassay for environmental samples are discussed. PMID:6324678

Hejkal, T W; Smith, E M; Gerba, C P

1984-01-01

195

HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An epidemiology study which included environmental samples and clinical specimens within a three mile radius of a new sewage treatment plant near Chicago, Illinois was carried out. Evaluations were made before and after plant start-up to determine if operations resulted in any ad...

196

FUEL SAVINGS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of a demonstration project partly sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the Indianapolis Center for Advanced Research, the City of Indianapolis, Indiana, realized a 34% fuel savings for sewage sludge incineration. At the sa...

197

DISTRICT OF HOPE SEWAGE TREATMENT STUDY  

E-print Network

Discharge Permit 2.4 Effluent Monitoring Results Figure 1 1992 BOI) & TSS Figure 2 1993 BOD & TSS discharges to raw sewage is as follows: Total Suspended SOlidS(TSS) 200 ppm 15,000 ppm 75:1 BOD6 200 ppm 10 is equivalent to a daily BOD loading of 500 people. This loading is received over a relatively s

198

SEWAGE SLUDGE PATHOGEN TRANSPORT MODEL PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, raw or anaerobically digest...

199

SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION, HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT  

EPA Science Inventory

A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel ef...

200

Treatment of the biodegradable fraction of used disposable diapers by co-digestion with waste activated sludge.  

PubMed

The results presented in this paper are part of a project aimed at designing an original solution for the treatment of used disposable diapers permitting the recycling of materials and the recovery of energy. Diapers must be collected separately at source and transported to an industrial facility to undergo special treatment which makes it possible to separate plastics and to recover a biodegradable fraction (BFD) made up mainly of cellulose. The methane yield of BFD was measured and found to be 280 ml CH4/g VSfed on average. 150 kg of dry BFD can be retrieved from the treatment of one ton of used disposable diapers, representing an energy potential of about 400 kW h of total energy or 130 kW h of electricity. As the treatment process for used diapers requires very high volumes of water, the setting up of the diaper treatment facility at a wastewater treatment plant already equipped with an anaerobic digester offers the advantages of optimizing water use as well as its further treatment and, also, the anaerobic digestion of BFD. The lab-scale experiments in a SBR showed that BFD co-digestion with sewage sludge (38% BFD and 62% waste activated sludge on volatile solids basis) was feasible. However, special attention should be paid to problems that might arise from the addition of BFD to a digester treating WAS such as insufficient mixing or floating particles leading to the accumulation of untreated solids in the digester. PMID:24380632

Torrijos, M; Sousbie, P; Rouez, M; Lemunier, M; Lessard, Y; Galtier, L; Simao, A; Steyer, J P

2014-03-01

201

History of Inuit Community Exposure to Lead, Cadmium, and Mercury in Sewage Lake Sediments  

PubMed Central

Exposure to lead, cadmium, and mercury is known to be high in many arctic Inuit communities. These metals are emitted from industrial and urban sources, are distributed by long-range atmospheric transport to remote regions, and are found in Inuit country foods. Current community exposure to these metals can be measured in food, but feces and urine are also excellent indicators of total exposure from ingestion and inhalation because a high percentage of each metal is excreted. Bulk domestic sewage or its residue in a waste treatment system is a good substitute measure. Domestic waste treatment systems that accumulate metals in sediment provide an accurate historical record of changes in ingestion or inhalation. We collected sediment cores from an arctic lake used for facultative domestic sewage treatment to identify the history of community exposure to Pb, Cd, and Hg. Cores were dated and fluxes were measured for each metal. A nearby lake was sampled to measure combined background and atmospheric inputs, which were subtracted from sewage lake data. Pb, Cd, and Hg inputs from sewage grew rapidly after the onset of waste disposal in the late 1960s and exceeded the rate of population growth in the contributing community from 1970 to 1990. The daily per-person Pb input in 1990 (720,000 ng/person per day) exceeded the tolerable daily intake level. The Cd input (48,000 ng/person per day) and Hg input (19,000 ng/person per day) were below the respective TDI levels at the time. PMID:16203239

Hermanson, Mark H.; Brozowski, James R.

2005-01-01

202

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of CAS 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Area 25 Sewage Lagoons (Figure 1-2) (IT, 1999b) are located approximately 0.3 mi south of the Test Cell 'C' (TCC) Facility and were used for the discharge of sanitary effluent from the TCC facility. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 232 or the sewage lagoons.

DOE /NV Operations Office

1999-05-01

203

Environmental Effectiveness of Swine Sewage Management: A Multicriteria AHP-Based Model for a Reliable Quick Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental issues related to swine production are still a major concern for the general public and represent a key challenge for the swine industry. The environmental impact of higher livestock concentration is particularly significant where it coincides with weaker policy standards and poor manure management. Effective tools for environmental monitoring of the swine sewage management process become essential for verifying the environmental compatibility of farming facilities and for defining suitable policies aimed at increasing swine production sustainability. This research aims at the development and application of a model for a quick assessment of the environmental effectiveness of the pig farming sewage management process. In order to define the model, multicriteria techniques, and in particular, Saaty's analytic hierarchy process, were used to develop an iterative process in which the various key factors influencing the process under investigation were analyzed. The model, named EASE (Environmental Assessment of Sewages management Effectiveness), was optimized and applied to the Lake Trasimeno basin (Umbria, Italy), an area of high natural, environmental and aesthetic value. In this context, inadequate disposal of pig sewage represents a potential source of very considerable pollution. The results have demonstrated how the multicriteria model can represent a very effective and adaptable tool also in those decision-making processes aimed at the sustainable management of livestock production.

Vizzari, Marco; Modica, Giuseppe

2013-10-01

204

The use of delta(15)N in assessing sewage stress on coral reefs.  

PubMed

While coral reefs decline, scientists argue, and effective strategies to manage land-based pollution lag behind the extent of the problem. There is need for objective, cost-effective, assessment methods. The measurement of stable nitrogen isotope ratios, delta(15)N, in tissues of reef organisms shows promise as an indicator of sewage stress. The choice of target organism will depend upon study purpose, availability, and other considerations such as conservation. Algae are usually plentiful and have been shown faithfully to track sewage input. The organic matrix of bivalve shells can provide time series spanning, perhaps, decades. Gorgonians have been shown to track sewage, and can provide records potentially centuries-long. In areas where baseline data are lacking, which is almost everywhere, delta(15)N in gorgonians can provide information on status and trends. In coral tissue, delta(15)N combined with insoluble residue determination can provide information on both sewage and sediment stress in areas lacking baseline data. In the developed world, delta(15)N provides objective assessment in a field complicated by conflicting opinions. Sample handling and processing are simple and analysis costs are low. This is a method deserving widespread application. PMID:19286230

Risk, Michael J; Lapointe, Brian E; Sherwood, Owen A; Bedford, Bradley J

2009-06-01

205

Heavy metal balances of an Italian soil as affected by sewage sludge and Bordeaux mixture applications  

SciTech Connect

Applications of sewage sludge and Bordeaux mixture (Bm) (a mixture of copper sulfate and lime) add heavy metals to the soil. At an experimental farm in the Cremona district (Italy), the authors measured current heavy metal contents in soil and their removal via harvested products. They also measured heavy metal adsorption by soil from this farm. With these data, projections were made of the long-term development of heavy metal (Cd, Cu, and Zn) contents in soil, crop removal, and leaching at different application rates of sewage sludge and Bm. These projections were compared with existing quality standards of the European Union (EU) and Italy with regard to soil and groundwater. The calculations reveal that the permitted annual application rates of sewage sludge and Bm are likely to result in exceedance of groundwater and soil standards. Sewage sludge applications, complying with the Italian legal limits, may pose problems for Cd, Cu, and Zn within 30, 70, and 100 yr, respectively. Furthermore, severe Cu pollution of integrated and especially organic (Bm only) vineyards is unavoidable with the currently allowed application rates of Bm. The results suggest that the current Italian soil protection policy as well as the EU policy are not conducive of a sustainable heavy metal management in agroecosystems.

Moolenaar, S.W. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands); Beltrami, P. [Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza (Italy)

1998-07-01

206

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Poultry Farm Daily Disposal Methods 0;Disposal: Science and Theory First Composter in Delaware · Delmarva was of the first daily composting · 120 in USA over next 10 years #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Composting Procedure · Mixture ­ 1 ½ to 2

Benson, Eric R.

207

Tracking human sewage microbiome in a municipal wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

Human sewage pollution is a major threat to public health because sewage always comes with pathogens. Human sewage is usually received and treated by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to control pathogenic risks and ameliorate environmental health. However, untreated sewage that flows into water environments may cause serious waterborne diseases, as reported in India and Bangladesh. To examine the fate of the human sewage microbiome in a local municipal WWTP of Hong Kong, we used massively parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA gene to systematically profile microbial communities in samples from three sections (i.e., influent, activated sludge, and effluent) obtained monthly throughout 1 year. The results indicated that: (1) influent sewage bacterial profile reflected the human microbiome; (2) human gut bacterial community was the dominant force shaping influent sewage bacterial profile; (3) most human sewage bacteria could be effectively removed by the WWTP; (4) a total of 75 genera were profiled as potentially pathogenic bacteria, most of which were still present in the effluent although at a very low level; (5) a grouped pattern of bacterial community was observed among the same section samples but a dispersed pattern was found among the different section samples; and (6) activated sludge was less affected by the influent sewage bacteria, but it showed a significant impact on the effluent bacteria. All of these findings provide novel insights toward a mechanistic understanding of the fate of human sewage microbiome in the WWTP. PMID:24305737

Cai, Lin; Ju, Feng; Zhang, Tong

2014-04-01

208

Sustainable sewage management and the inertia to change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing economic costs and environmental concerns have led to that planners around the world are progressively questioning the prevailing sewage management paradigm, calling for a shift in the hydrosocial contract to embrace more sustainable solutions, to be based on closed-loops rather than linear end-of-pipe solutions. Despite considerable attention to the technical possibilities for delivering sewage services in a more integrated and sustainable fashion, shifts in planning and management have been slow. Based on an extensive study of Australian cities, Brown et al (2009) have developed a model with six transitional stages and argue that "while there may be cognitive changes (best practice thinking such as water sustainable urban design), there has not been sufficient normative and regulative change to support new practice." They contrast three historic transition stages with three successive sustainable stages. Unfortunately, the study ends in a rather vague outline of "the Water Sensitive City", with little sign-posts indicating how one might transition to this seemingly utopian last stage. In the present paper, we discuss the normative tensions created between the different actors in this increasingly complex playing field, who represent different and often competing values. We suggest that cities have difficulties transitioning from the old contract to one of the newer ones because the hydro-social contract promised by these new stages create normative tensions not only between the new and the old, but also between what one might call different types of environmentalists: naturalists and pragmatists. The naturalists, who for example are very voiced in several cities along the North American west coast, tend to embrace the perception of Nature described by environmental historians as Untouched Wilderness, where technology is pinpointed as the root of the problems. In contrast, the other side lean more on the idea of modernity, with a more pragmatic approach to nature, which first and foremost is seen as a provider of material resources and technology is a tool that aids solving the problem with the limited supply. The naturalists' cognitive response points to solutions that are perceived as 'natural' such as composting and constructed wetlands, but do to not easily embrace solutions that are perceived as 'technical', such as smart metering, biogas reactors, and recovery of pelleted phosphorous compounds. We suggest that transition to the 'Water Sensitive City' requires explicit recognition that sewage management is a context-dependent multi-dimensional, multi-objective challenge in which competing objectives must be identified and trade-offs made, which includes recognizing and finding ways to manage the tacit tensions caused by competing normative underpinnings among different types of environmentalism.

Öberg, G.

2012-12-01

209

Nearshore waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on the marine disposal of wastes. Topics considered include the impact of waste disposal in nearshore environments, bioavailability and the effects of heavy metals in marine deposits, bioaccumulation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons dams, hydrocarbons in Southern California municipal wastes and their input to coastal waters, geochemical processes, and physical processes.

Ketchum, B.H.; Capuzzo, J.M.; Burt, W.V.; Duedall, I.W.; Park, P.K.; Kester, D.R.

1985-01-01

210

Deep sea waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

The book presents papers on the marine disposal of wastes. Topics considered include incineration at sea, the modelling and biological effects of industrial wastes, microbial studies of ocean dumping, deep-sea mining wastes, the chemical analysis of ferromanganese nodules, and economic aspects of deep-sea disposal.

Kester, D.R.; Burt, W.V.; Capuzzo, J.M.; Park, P.K.; Ketchum, B.W.; Duedall, I.W.

1985-01-01

211

Microbial-Plant Filters (artificial Marshes) for Treating Domestic Sewage and Industrial Wastewater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wastewater treatment is an integral part of the water crisis that is emerging throughout the world. Even areas of the U.S. and other parts of the world with a plentiful supply of water are facing problems because the water is becoming contaminated with sewage and/or hazardous chemicals. Therefore, one of the most urgent environmental needs in the world today is a simple, low cost means of wastewater treatment and water reuse.

Wolverton, B. C.

1986-01-01

212

Nuclear and coal waste disposal hampered by legal, regulatory, and technical uncertainties. [Coal wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous legal, regulatory, and technical problems and uncertainties are hampering disposal of nuclear and coal fuel cycle wastes. Although federal agencies are working on these problems, progress has been slow and many uncertainties still need to be resolved. While available information indicates that coal waste disposal costs are roughly three times higher than nuclear waste disposal costs, this cost comparison

1982-01-01

213

Feasibility study for the City of Twin Falls Sewage Hydroelectric Project in Twin Falls County, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The City of Twin Falls, Idaho authorized J-U-B Engineers, Inc., to assess the feasibility of installing a small hydropower plant on the discharge of the City's Grandview sewage trunk line. The concept of developing hydropower from sewage flow is novel and may have applications in other areas of the nation if its technical feasibility can be established. No conventional turbine would be suitable in this application without extensively screening the influent. Therefore, finding a turbine which would work satisfactorily, was one of the major aspects of the study. A solution to this problem was found in a staged, non-clog, hydraulic turbine manufactured by Cornell Pump Co. A preliminary design configuration is presented using these turbines. The economical feasibility of the project depends on future sewage flows from Idaho Frozen Foods Company, a large contributor to the present Twin Falls sewage flows. The yearly revenue, would decrease by about one-third, if Idaho Frozen Foods disconnects from the City's sewage system. Therefore, the project is less feasible, economically, without the flow contributed by Idaho Frozen Foods. The cost of energy production is 47 mils per kilowatt-hour (kWh) with this flow, and about 60 mils/kWh without this flow. At the higher flow rate (5 cfs) the total capital investment is estimated to be $270,200 or approximately $2250 per installed kW capacity. Estimated annual energy production at 5.0 cfs is 440,650 kWh with a subsequent first year annual revenue of $59,460. Power could be put on line within nine months of the time the Twin Falls City Council makes a decision to develop the project.

None

1981-08-01

214

Engineering Properties of Sewage Sludge in Trinidad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some physical and engineering properties of five sewage sludges collected from different locations in Trinidad were measured in the laboratory. The properties assessed were dry bulk density, fibrosity, water content, solids content, the Atterberg limits, saturated hydraulic conductivity, density–water relations, penetration resistance, shear strength and compressibility. Air–dry bulk density of the sludges ranged from 0·37 to 0·83 Mg\\/m3while the solids

R. J Stone; E. I Ekwue; R. O Clarke

1998-01-01

215

Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.  

PubMed

Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

2003-04-01

216

Sensitivity of amphipods to sewage pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amphipods are considered a sensitive group to pollution but here different levels of sensitivity were detected among species, by analysing the impact of five sewage outfalls, with different flow and treatment levels, on amphipod assemblages from the Castellon coast (NE Spain). Sewage pollution produced a decrease in the abundance and richness of amphipods close to the outfalls. Most of the species showed high sensitivity, particularly species such as Bathyporeia borgi, Perioculodes longimanus and Autonoe spiniventris, whereas other species appeared to be more tolerant to the sewage input, such as Ampelisca brevicornis. These different responses could be related to burrowing behaviour, with fossorial species being more sensitive and domicolous species being less affected. Benthic amphipods, which live in direct contact with sediment, are widely used for bioassay and numerous species are usually employed in ecotoxicology tests for diverse contaminants. In order to consider amphipods for monitoring and biodiversity programmes, it is important to establish the degree of sensitivity of each species to different sources of pollution.

de-la-Ossa-Carretero, J. A.; Del-Pilar-Ruso, Y.; Giménez-Casalduero, F.; Sánchez-Lizaso, J. L.; Dauvin, J.-C.

2012-01-01

217

Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

1976-01-01

218

Bioeconomic assessment of a poultry sewage and tilapia aquaculture system  

E-print Network

waste disposal system for 10, 000 laying hens may produce over one million gallons of waste water annually. The effects of poultry wastes on the environment have received considerable attention in recent years. There does not seem to be any best... requirements can, if continued annually, contribute to increased nitrite levels in surface or ground water supplies. Manure may also create other problems such as nitrate toxicity, grass tetany and fat necrosis in grazing animals. The buildup of copper...

Anderson, Robert Gordon

2012-06-07

219

NORM disposal options, costs vary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum producers have various options with different associated costs for disposing of oil field waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). NORM can be disposed of both on the lease site and at offsite commercial disposal facilities.

J. A. Veil; K. Smith

1999-01-01

220

78 FR 34918 - Direct Final Approval of Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Administrative practice...recordkeeping requirements, Sewage sludge incinerators. Dated...Control of Air Emissions From Sewage Sludge Incinerators Sec. 62...the emission guidelines for Sewage Sludge Incinerators...

2013-06-11

221

33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. 159.309...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a...

2011-07-01

222

33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. 159.309...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a...

2012-07-01

223

33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. 159.309...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a...

2014-07-01

224

33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. 159.309...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a...

2010-07-01

225

33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. 159.309...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a...

2013-07-01

226

33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.  

... 2014-07-01 false Sewage and graywater discharge record...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...Operations § 159.315 Sewage and graywater discharge record...maintain, in English, a legible Sewage and Graywater Discharge...

2014-07-01

227

Evaluation of the co-application of fly ash and sewage sludge on soil biological and biochemical quality.  

PubMed

Disposal of sewage sludge (SS) and fly ash (FA) is a multifaceted problem, which can affect environmental quality. FA has the potential to stabilize SS by reducing metal availability and making the SS suitable for application in the agricultural sector. An experiment was performed to evaluate soil biological quality changes with the combined amendment of SS and FA (fluidized bed combustion ash (FBCA) and lignite fly ash (LFA)). SS was amended with 0, 10, 30, 50 and 100%, (w/w) of FA, and then the FA-SS mixtures were incubated with red soil at 1:1 (v/v). Soil quality parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, N, soil enzyme activities such as dehydrogenase (DHA), urease (URE), and catalase (CAT), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) were evaluated at 20, 30, and 60 days of incubation, pH and EC increased with FA-SS dose; however, N decreased. DHA and URE were found to be increased with 10% LFA amendment; thereafter it decreased. However, URE increased up to 30% of FBCA. CAT and MBC increased with both FA amendments, even up to addition of 50% FA. Bioavailable Zn, Cu, and Co contents were decreased by the addition of FA. Principal component analysis showed that pH is the most influential factor. MBC appears to be a sensitive soil indicator for the effects that result from the addition of FA-SS. Phytotoxicity studies with Zea mays showed optimum performance at 30% FA. Addition of 10-30% FBCA or LFA to SS has a positive advantage on soil biological quality. PMID:22720414

Masto, Reginald E; Sunar, Kapil K; Sengupta, Taniya; Ram, Lal C; Rout, T K; Selvi, Vetrivel A; George, Joshy; Sinha, Awadhesh K

2012-01-01

228

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Procedimiento básico ­ Desarrollar una pila de carcasas y lecho. Compostaje masivo de emergencia #12;Disposal: Science and Theory de emergencia #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Desarrollar planes antes de que ocurra una

Benson, Eric R.

229

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Summary · Foam is currently a viable ­ Foam application directly to cage #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Legal Status of Foam · Procedure depopulation, culling, and euthanasia #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Acknowledgements · USDA AICAP2 · USDA

Benson, Eric R.

230

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Field recommendations based of Foam #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Cessation Time · Multiple bird species can be depopulated ­ Multiple tests ­ Birds depopulated individually #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Cessation Time · Within

Benson, Eric R.

231

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Foam Generator Setup · Drop off foam generator cart at one end of house #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Foam Generator Setup · Trailer parked generator attached to hose #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Foam Generation Begins · Team of two to operate

Benson, Eric R.

232

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Gassing is a preferred #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Carbon Dioxide Gassing · Carbon dioxide (CO2) one of the standard sensitivity time #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Argon-CO2 gas depopulation evaluated under laboratory

Benson, Eric R.

233

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Use of Composting · Composting has ­ British Columbia 2009 #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Initial farm linked to NY LBM · Two additional and pile procedure Delmarva 2004 #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Delmarva 2004 · Composting used

Benson, Eric R.

234

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Table of Contents · Why Depopulate Depopulation · Use of Foam in the Field · Conclusions #12;Disposal: Science and Theory "When HPAI outbreaks flocks. " USDA APHIS VS EMD, 2007 Outbreak Control #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Avian Influenza

Benson, Eric R.

235

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Composting · Composting is defined drop #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Composting · Optimal composting ­ Carbon to nitrogen ratio (C;Disposal: Science and Theory Compost Composition · A variety of supplemental carbon materials have been

Benson, Eric R.

236

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Opciones para la eliminación · ¿Qué compostaje durante brotes de enfermedades Lista de contenido #12;Disposal: Science and Theory "Ante un brote brotes de IIAP #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · En 2004, se despoblaron 100 millones de aves en todo el

Benson, Eric R.

237

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Foaming Options · Compressed Air Foam Systems (CAFS) · Foam Blower · Foam Generator · Nozzle Systems #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Compressed ­ Industry owned response team #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Commercial CAFS for Poultry · Poultry

Benson, Eric R.

238

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory 0 20 40 60 80 100 Compostaje #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Delmarva fue de las primeras granjas en realizar el compostaje de en EE.UU. en los próximos 10 años. Pionera en compostaje en Delaware #12;Disposal: Science and Theory

Benson, Eric R.

239

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Table of Contents · Disposal options and Theory HPAI Outbreak Control "When HPAI outbreaks occur in poultry, the preferred eradication and control and Theory Disposal Numbers · 100 million birds depopulated worldwide in 2004 due to LPAIV or HPAIV (Clark

Benson, Eric R.

240

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Mass Emergency Composting · Basic ­ Create carcass and litter windrow #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Mass Emergency Composting · Basic cover ­ Clean and disinfect house ­ Sample for virus again #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Mass

Benson, Eric R.

241

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Foam Used in Actual Outbreak � Water #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Water Based Foam Culling Demo � First large scale comparison � Two:46 (m:s) #12;Disposal: Science and Theory WV H5N2 AIV 2007 � AIV positive turkeys � 25,000 turkey farm

Benson, Eric R.

242

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Compostaje de aves de corralRouchey et al., 2005) Investigación previa #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Se ha evaluado y documentado el, bovino Investigación previa #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Experimento nro. 1 Impacto de la espuma en

Benson, Eric R.

243

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · El compostaje se ha usado como Virginia (2007) ­ British Columbia (2009) Uso del compostaje #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Primera apilamiento Delmarva (2004) #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · El compostaje se usó para proteger una densa

Benson, Eric R.

244

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Las recomendaciones de campo se la espuma #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Múltiples especies de aves pueden despoblarse con espuma cesación #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Dentro de una especie, pueden existir variaciones ­ Los ánades

Benson, Eric R.

245

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Brief History of Foam 2004 ­ Bud and foam 2009 ­ No advantage for gas #12;Disposal: Science and Theory What is foam? · What is fire fighting system. #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Foam Composition · Foam can include ­ Mixture of surfactants

Benson, Eric R.

246

Waste Management and Disposal for Artists and Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Artists, art teachers, and students need to understand the problems associated with disposing of waste materials, some of which may be hazardous. The waste products of art projects, even if non-hazardous, also use up space in overloaded landfills. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets forth guidelines for disposing of hazardous wastes.…

Babin, Angela; McCann, Michael

247

[Cholera update and vaccination problems].  

PubMed

Cholera remains an important public health problem. The long-term control of cholera depends on good personal hygiene, uncontaminated water supply and appropriate sewage disposal. However, the improvement of hygiene is distant goal for many countries. Thus the availability of an effective cholera vaccine is important for the prevention of cholera in these countries. Research on new cholera vaccines has mainly focused on oral formulations that stimulate the mucosal secretory immune system. Two oral cholera vaccines were experimented on large scale in human. The first vaccine, containing inactivated bacterial cells and B-subunit of cholera toxin, has been tested in Bangladesh from 1985 to 1989. This vaccine, according to WHO, may prove useful in the stable phase of refugee/displaced person crises, especially when given preventively. The second vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine containing the genetically manipulated Vibrio cholerae O1 strain CVD 103-HgR. Despite its efficacy in adult volunteers, results of a large-scale field trial carried-out in Indonesia for 4 years have shown a surprisingly low protection. Moreover, one of the safety concerns associated with live cholera vaccine is a possible horizontal gene transfer and recombination event leading to reversion to virulence. A new vaccine development program for cholera is based upon the hypothesis that immunoglobulins G directed to the O-specific polysaccharide of Vibrio cholerae O1 could confer protective immunity to cholera by inactivating the inoculum on intestinal mucosal surface. This program may lead to the development of cholera conjugate vaccines to elicit protection in infants. PMID:9812307

Fournier, J M; Villeneuve, S

1998-01-01

248

COMPREHENSIVE SUMMARY OF SLUDGE DISPOSAL RECYCLING HISTORY  

EPA Science Inventory

Since 1971 the only mode of sludge disposal used by Denver District No. 1 has been land application. A number of different application procedures have been tried over the intervening years. The development of methodology and problems associated with each procedure are discussed i...

249

Magnesite disposal of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we report our progress on developing a method for carbon dioxide disposal whose purpose it is to maintain coal energy competitive even is environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other methods, our approach is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, its purpose is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. A successful development of this technology would guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth the most optimistic estimates that have been put forward. Our approach differs from all others in that we are developing an industrial process which chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Wendt, C.H.

1997-08-01

250

Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few health concerns because sufficient decay occurs before it can reach the public however, incineration, which is done in winter months, directly releases the 131I from sewage sludge to the atmosphere, and even though exposures to both workers and the public were found to be considerably lower than 1% of natural background, incineration of sludge in a pathway for public exposure. Although 131I was readily measurable in sewage sludge, only about 1% of the radioione administered to patients was found in the sludge. The fate of the remaining radioactivity has not been established; some may be in secondary and tertiary residuals, but it is quite likely that most passed through the plant and was discharged in dilute concentrations in plant emissions. The behavior of radioiodine and other radioactive materials released into municipal seweage systems, such as those from large medical facilities, is not yet well understood. PMID:9258296

Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

1997-01-01

251

Microbial activities in soil amended with sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial populations and enzyme activities in a Light-colored Andosol amended with sewage sludges were studied in relation to the decomposition of the sludges. Six kinds of sewage sludges were mixed with the soil at rates of 5 and 1%. Subsequently, the mineralization of C and N, numbers of soil microorganisms, and activities of soil enzymes were determined during an 8-week

Hiroyuki Hattori

1988-01-01

252

Plant availability of phosphorus in sewage sludge compost  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to compare the effectiveness of Blue Plains sewage sludge compost (BLU), Parkway sewage sludge compost (PAR), and triple superphosphate (TSP) as sources of P for corn. These amendments were applied to a Sassafras sandy loam in a field study and to the Sassafras soil and a Christian silty clay loam in a greenhouse study.

J. L. McCoy; L. J. Sikora; R. R. Weil

2009-01-01

253

Antibiotic resistance of E. coli in sewage and sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is the evaluation of resistance patterns of E. coli in wastewater treatment plants without an evaluation of basic antibiotic resistance mechanisms.Investigations have been done in sewage, sludge and receiving waters from three different sewage treatment plants in southern Austria. A total of 767 E. coli isolates were tested regarding their resistance to 24 different antibiotics.

F. F Reinthaler; J Posch; G Feierl; G Wüst; D Haas; G Ruckenbauer; F Mascher; E Marth

2003-01-01

254

ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADABILITY AND TREATMENT OF EGYPTIAN DOMESTIC SEWAGE  

E-print Network

The anaerobic biodegradability of domestic sewage for four Egyptian villages and four Egyptian cities was determined. The sewage of the Egyptian villages and cities represented a very strong sewage with an average total COD of 1100 and 570 mg/l, respectively. The biodegradability of the Egyptian-villages sewage (73%) was higher than that of the cities (66%). The results of a mathematical-model indicates that at applying a UASB reactor for the treatment of Egyptian villages and cities sewage, an optimum HRT of, respectively, 16 and 8 h is required. At these HRTs, a total COD removal and a conversion to methane of, respectively, 62-70 % and 59-64 % can be achieved for the sewage of Egyptian cities and, respectively, 71-77 % and 67-69 % will be obtained for the villages sewage. The model results show also that at a treatment of villages sewage in a two-step (anaerobic filter + UASB reactor) system a higher total COD removal can be achieved (77-81%) at a short HRT of 10 h (4+6 h).

T. A. Elmitwalli; A. Al-sarawey; M. F. El-sherbiny; G. Zeeman

255

Isolation of Burkholderia cenocepacia and Burkholderia vietnamiensis from human sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh human sewage was examined from a sewage treatment plant for the presence of members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) of bacterial organisms and confirmed the presence of viable B. cenocepacia and B. vietnamiensis, by a combination of cultural, phenotypic and genotypic techniques. Both these organisms are important respiratory pathogens for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Presently, the survival

Damian McNeely; John E. Moore; J. Stuart Elborn; B. Cherie Millar; Jackie Rendall; James S. G. Dooley

2009-01-01

256

Use of composted sewage sludge in growth media for broccoli  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the use of composted sewage sludge (CSS) as a binary component with peat (P) in growth media for a horticultural crop, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Botryti cv. Marathon), was evaluated. Four treatments were established, based on the addition of increasing quantities of composted sewage sludge to peat (0%, 15%, 30% and 50%, v\\/v). Physical, physico-chemical and chemical

M. D. Perez-Murcia; R. Moral; J. Moreno-Caselles; A. Perez-Espinosa; C. Paredes

2006-01-01

257

CAUSES OF PAPILLOMAS ON FISH EXPOSED TO CHLORINATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This research was initiated to determine the cause of oral papillomas in black bullheads (Ictalurus melas) from the final oxidation pond of the Tuskegee, Alabama, sewage treatment plant. The water in this pond was chlorinated effluent from the sewage treatment plant. The presence...

258

Analysing of industrial sewages of an oil desalinaion unit in  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oil contains salt water and solid materials at the time of extraction, more percentage of the materiales less quality of oil . so oil is transferred to desalination factory, to extract saltwater. The process produces indusrial sewages which contain a lot of water, salt, oil and some heavy metals. To understand rate of reservoir sewage pollution in the studied

Faramarz Tarkian; Masumeh Bostani; Ali Akbar Azimi

259

Effect of flooding with sewage water on three wetland sedges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants of three wetland sedges, Carex vesicaria, C. rostrata, and C. gracilis, were subjected to flooding with diluted pig farm sewage water in a sand-culture experiment lasting for one growing season (20 weeks). Sewage water application altered growth dynamics and accumulation of dry matter in all three species; it shifted the distribution of dry matter in favor of above-ground parts;

Hana Kon?alová; Jan Kv?t; Jan Pokorný; Václav Hauser

1993-01-01

260

Who regulates the disposal of low-level radioactive waste under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present existence of immense quantities of low-level nuclear waste, a federal law providing for state or regional control of such waste disposal, and a number of state disposal laws challenged on a variety of constitutional grounds underscore what currently may be the most serious problem in nuclear waste disposal: who is to regulate the disposal of low-level nuclear wastes.

Mostaghel

1988-01-01

261

Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) biomass production in a calcareous soil amended with sewage sludge compost and irrigated with sewage water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy use is one of the most important current global issues. Traditional energetic resources are limited and its use generates environmental problems, i.e. Global Warming, thus it is necessary to find alternative ways to produce energy. Energy crops represent one step towards sustainability but it must be coupled with appropriate land use and management adapted to local conditions. Moreover, positive effects like soil conservation; economical improvement of rural areas and CO2 storage could be achieved. Treated sewage water and sewage sludge compost were used as low-cost inputs for nutrition and irrigation, to cultivate cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) a perennial Mediterranean crop. The aim of the present field experiment was to ascertain the optimum dose of compost application to obtain maximum biomass production. Four compost treatments were applied by triplicate (D1=0; D2=30; D3=50; D4=70 ton/ha) and forty eight cardoon plants were placed in each plot, 12 per treatment, in a calcareous soil (CLfv; WRB, 2006) plot, located in the South East of Spain, in semi-arid conditions. The experiment was developed for one cardoon productive cycle (one year); soil was sampled three times (October, April and July). Soil, compost and treated sewage irrigation water were analyzed (physical and chemical properties). Stalk, capitula and leave weight as well as height and total biomass production were the parameters determined for cardoon samples. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) at p=0,05 significance level were performed to detect differences among treatments for each sampling/plot and to study soil parameters evolution and biomass production for each plot/dose. Several statistical differences in soil were found between treatments for extractable zinc, magnesium and phosphorus; as well as Kjeldahl nitrogen and organic carbon due to compost application, showing a gradual increase of nutrients from D1 to D4. However, considering the evolution of soil parameters along time, pH was the only with marked and significant decreasing trend from the first to the last sampling period. Mean cardoon biomass production in D1subplot was 13 ton/ha which differed significantly from D4 production, which was about 20 ton/ha. Hence, the maximum biomass production was obtained with the maximum compost dose. The results show that compost amendment increased cardoon biomass production, probably due to the improvement of soil properties, especially plant nutrient availability. No significant differences were found in soil parameters along time, with the exception of pH. However, longer test time is needed to evaluate long term effects in soil and to check the maintenance of biomass productivity. References Fernadez J., Curt, M.D., Aguado P.L. Industrial applications of Cynara cardunculus for energy and other uses. Industrial Crops and Product 24 (2006) pp 222-229. WRB (2006). World Reference Base for Soil Resources (2nd ed.). World Soil Resources Report 103, FAO, Rome, Italy (2006) 133 pp. Casado, J.; Sellés, S.; Navarro, J.; Bustamante, M.A.; Mataix, J.; Guerrero, C.; Gomez, I. Evaluation of composted sewage sludge as nutricional source for horticulturals soils. Waste Management 26 (2006). pp 946-952. Acknowledgements: The author gratefully acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Science for a research fellowship (AP2007-01641).

Lag, A.; Gomez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Melendez, I.; Perez Gimeno, A.; Soriano-Disla, J. M.

2010-05-01

262

Quantification of metals in sewage sludges by X-ray spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of sewage sludge on soils is a common practice, but the heavy metals should be determined before disposal. Sewage sludges composition is mainly organic and the amount of heavy metals is variable. Usual methods for heavy metals determination are based on dissolution of the sample. The results depend, partially, on the efficiency of the dissolution of the heavy metals, which may vary from sample to sample. We studied the feasibility of analyzing pressed pellets of sludges by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WD-XRF), with fumdamental parameters matrix effects correction. Several ways of introducing the carbon content in the corrections were tested. Accuracy was evaluated by analysis of four international certificate reference materials. Results were within or very close to the confidence interval of the available certified values for most elements (Al, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Se, Si, V, Zn). Other metals, like Cd and Hg were below the detection limits (15 and 9 mg kg^{-l}, respectively). Despite the limitation concerning the proper matrix correction, the uncertainty of the XRF results is probably similar to the methods normally used in sludge analysis, with the advantage that sample preparation is much faster.

Enzweiler, J.; de Moraes, M. P. G.; Mincato, R. L.

2003-05-01

263

Application of sewage sludge to non-agricultural ecosystems: Impacts of nitrogen on forests  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977 directed EPA to establish standards for use and disposal of sewage sludge (biosolids). This report is part of a larger study evaluating nutrient and contaminant impacts associated with the land application of biosolids in non-agricultural ecosystems. Ecological risk assessments rarely focus on nutrients as stressors. The nutrient components of municipal sewage sludge may impact tree community composition, growth and production, habitat and forage quality for wildlife, and nutrient cycling. The focus here is on three forest ecosystems: northwestern Douglas-fir forest (Pack Forest, WA), southeastern loblolly pine plantation (Athens, GA), and eastern deciduous forest (Hubbard Brook, NH). A model called LINKAGES has been developed at ORNL to examine the relationships between nitrogen cycling and long-term forest stand dynamics, limited by climate and soil water status. Plant-available nitrogen from biosolids is added in several application scenarios and compared to the no-amendment case. All changes are noted, even if they may be viewed as benefits rather than risks. Model outputs include: above-ground biomass, individual species biomass, net above-ground production, leaf litter, evapotranspiration, available nitrogen, and dead trunks. The changes in plant community composition and production are dependent on the rate, frequency, and duration of sludge application and on the age of the stand at the time of application. Model outputs are compared to empirical studies of forests where biosolids have been applied.

Efroymson, R.A.; Tharp, M.L.; Luxmoore, R.J.; Sample, B.E.; Barnthouse, L.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Daniel, F.B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

264

Benthic Distribution of Sewage Sludge Indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a Deep-Ocean Dump Site †  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens in sediment samples collected at the Deep Water Municipal Sewage Sludge Disposal Site (also called the 106-Mile Site), off the coast of New Jersey, was enumerated. The counts of C. perfringens found in sediment samples collected within and to the southwest of the 106-Mile Site were significantly elevated (P < 0.01) compared with counts of samples from reference stations of similar depth (2,400 to 2,700 m), topography, and distance from the continental shelf, indicating that the benthic environment was contaminated by sewage dumping at this site. Low counts of C. perfringens in sediment samples collected at stations between the base of the continental shelf and the 106-Mile Site indicated that coastal runoff was not a significant source of contamination. Elevated counts were observed for samples up to 92 km to the southwest, whereas low counts were obtained for samples from stations to the east of the 106-Mile Site. This distribution is consistent with previous model predictions of sludge deposition. In areas heavily impacted by sludge dumping, C. perfringens counts were generally highest in the top 1 cm of sediment and exceeded 9,000 CFU g (dry weight) of sediment-1. The patterns of C. perfringens dispersal observed in this study have proved useful for selection of heavily impacted areas and control stations for further ecological evaluation by a multidisciplinary research team. PMID:16348859

Hill, Russell T.; Knight, Ivor T.; Anikis, Michael S.; Colwell, Rita R.

1993-01-01

265

Benthic distribution of sewage sludge indicated by clostridium perfringens at a deep-ocean dump site  

SciTech Connect

Clostridium perfringens in sediment samples collected at the Deep Water Municipal Sewage Sludge Disposal Site (also called the 106-Mile Site), off the coast of New Jersey, was enumerated. The counts of C. perfringens found in sediment samples collected within and to the southwest of the 106-Mile Site were significantly elevated (P. < 0.01) compared with counts of samples from reference stations of similar depth (2,400 to 2,700 m), topography, and distance from the continental shelf, indicating that the benthic environment was contaminated by sewage dumping at the site. Low counts of C. perfringens in sediment samples collected at stations between the base of the continental shelf and the 106-Mile Site indicated that coastal runoff was not a significant source of contamination. Elevated counts were observed for samples up to 92 km to the southwest, whereas low counts were obtained for samples from stations to the east of the 106-Mile Site. The distribution is consistent with previous model predictions of sludge deposition. In areas heavily impacted by sludge dumping, C. perfringens counts were generally highest in the top 1 cm of sediment and exceeded 9,000 CFU g (dry weight) of sediment. The patterns of C. perfringens dispersal observed in the study have proved useful for selection of heavily impacted areas and control stations for further ecological evaluation by a multidisciplinary research team.

Hill, R.T.; Knight, I.T.; Anikis, M.S.; Colwell, R.R.

1993-01-01

266

Accelerated simulation of the migration of solutes in sandy soils amended by sewage sludge: Transport and retardation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common way to dispose of sewage sludge is to spead it on agricultural land because of its high nutrient (P, N) and org C contents. However, in addition to these beneficial components, sewage sludge can contain toxic chemicals such as heavy metals. This farming technique is relatively recent (several decades, at most) and there is still a need for information concerning the processes controlling the fate of the heavy metals in the sludge. To study how fast they migrate in the soil profile, the transfer of water and associated solutes in both unsaturated and unsaturated conditions can be accelerated by centrifugation according to the equation: tsimulated = treal * g2. (t: time). In a lysimeter study (diameter 30 cm, depth 60 cm) carried out using the CEA-CESTA Silat 265 centrifuge, we simulated, at 20 g, several months of percolation in one day. Experiments were done on cores of sandy forest soil (podzol) to which various sewage sludges (containing 2 to 12 mg/kg Cd, 20 to 120 mg/kg Ni, 50 to 465 mg/kg Pb) and simulated rain were applied. Major ions migrated at an estimated rate of 6-8.5 mm/simulated day (2-3 m/simulated year), while heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb) were retarded by a factor of 1.5 to 2. The retention of these heavy metals is associated with the organic C content of the soil profile (rich in the upper horizon).

Etchebers, O.; Kedziorek, M. A.; Chossat, J.; Riou, C.; Bourg, A. C.

2003-12-01

267

Phytotreatment of sewage sludge contaminated by heavy metals and PAHs by co-planting Sedum alfredii and Alocasia marorrhiza.  

PubMed

High concentrations of heavy metals and organic pollutants in municipal sewage sludge are key factors limiting its use in agriculture. The objectives of this study were to decrease the heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sewage sludge by phytotreatment and to determine, in a field experiment, whether co-planting is more effective than using a mono-crop of Sedum alfredii. Four treatments were used in the plot experiment: no sludge, no plants, S. alfredii and co-planting S. alfredii and Alocasia marorrhiza. The results showed that co-planting produced tubers and shoots of A. marorrhiza that were suitable as a safe animal feed and good organic K fertilizer, respectively. Co-planting was more effective than mono-planting at reducing concentrations of total Zn and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn, Cd, and Cu in the sludge. Co-planting decreased the concentrations of DTPA-extractable heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in the sludge significantly compared with the unplanted sludge. Decreases of 87, 75, 85, 31, and 64% were obtained for B[a]P and DTPA-extractable Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb, respectively, compared with the fresh sludge. These results indicate that co-planting can reduce significantly the environmental risks associated with heavy metals and B[a]P in sewage sludge for further disposal. PMID:24912211

Qiu, J R; Guo, X F; Cai, Q Y; Liu, W; Zhang, M W; Wei, Z B; Wu, Q T

2014-01-01

268

Chesapeake Bay nutrient pollution: contribution from the land application of sewage sludge in Virginia.  

PubMed

Human health concerns and the dissemination of anthropogenic substances with unknown consequences are the reasons most often given why disposal of municipal sewage sludge in landfills or using the organic waste as biofuel is preferable to land application. But no "fertilizer" causes more nitrogen pollution than sludge when applied according to Virginia law. Poultry litter is the only other "fertilizer" that causes more phosphorus pollution than sludge. Cost savings by the few farmers in Virginia who use sludge are far less than the costs of the nitrogen pollution they cause. A ban on the land application of all forms of animal waste is very cost-effective and would reduce Chesapeake Bay nutrient pollution by 25%. PMID:22831861

Land, Lynton S

2012-11-01

269

Physical and chemical characteristics of synthetic asphalt produced from liquefaction of sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct thermochemical liquefaction of primary undigested municipal sewage sludge was carried out to produce a low molecular weight steam volatile oil, a high molecular weight synthetic asphalt, and a residual char cake. The latter product is capable of supplying the thermal energy requirements of the conversion process. The steam volatile oil has immediate value as a synthetic fuel oil. The synthetic asphalt may prove to be a useful cement for paving or for fuel or coking stock. The thermochemical liquefaction process should be capable of operating technically and in an environmentally acceptable manner in conjunction with many existing waste water treatment facilities. The overall feasibility of the process depends on the value of the oil and synthetic asphalt products as petroleum replacements, and on the costs associated with disposal of sludge.

Donovan, J. M.; Batter, T. R.; Miller, R. K.; Lottman, R. P.

1981-10-01

270

Monitoring and modeling nearshore dredge disposal for indirect beach nourishment, Ocean Beach, San Francisco  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nearshore dredge disposal was performed during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA, a high energy tidal and wave environment. This trial run was an attempt to provide a buffer to a reach of coastline where wave attack during the winter months has had a severe impact on existing sewage infrastructure. Although the subsequent beach response was inconclusive, after one year the peak of the disposal mound had migrated ~100 m toward the shore, providing evidence that annual dredge disposal at this site could be beneficial over the long-term by at the very least providing: 1) additional wave dissipation during storms 2) compatible sediment to feed nearshore bars, 3) sediment cover on an exposed sewage outfall pipe, and 4) a viable alternative to the shoaling offshore disposal site. Numerical modeling suggests that despite the strong tidal currents in the region, wave forcing is the dominant factor moving the sediment slowly toward shore, and placing sediment at just slightly shallower depths (e.g. 9 m) in the future would have a more immediate impact.

Barnard, Patrick L.; Hanes, Daniel M.; Lescinski, Jamie; Elias, Edwin

2007-01-01

271

33 CFR 401.19 - Disposal and discharge systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...compliance with the Canadian Garbage Pollution Prevention Regulations, the Canadian Great Lakes Sewage Pollution Prevention Regulations, the...Regulations, the Canadian Great Lakes Sewage Pollution Prevention Regulations,...

2011-07-01

272

33 CFR 401.19 - Disposal and discharge systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...compliance with the Canadian Garbage Pollution Prevention Regulations, the Canadian Great Lakes Sewage Pollution Prevention Regulations, the...Regulations, the Canadian Great Lakes Sewage Pollution Prevention Regulations,...

2010-07-01

273

33 CFR 401.19 - Disposal and discharge systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...compliance with the Canadian Garbage Pollution Prevention Regulations, the Canadian Great Lakes Sewage Pollution Prevention Regulations, the...Regulations, the Canadian Great Lakes Sewage Pollution Prevention Regulations,...

2013-07-01

274

33 CFR 401.19 - Disposal and discharge systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...compliance with the Canadian Garbage Pollution Prevention Regulations, the Canadian Great Lakes Sewage Pollution Prevention Regulations, the...Regulations, the Canadian Great Lakes Sewage Pollution Prevention Regulations,...

2012-07-01

275

The determination of settling velocities for sewage sludge disposed at 106-Mile Site  

E-print Network

is driven by temperature and causes collisions based on molecular movement. Typically, particles of less an 1 )(m in diameter in size are governed by perikinetic flocculation. Smoluchowski (1917) assumed that two particles are independent, so... is driven by temperature and causes collisions based on molecular movement. Typically, particles of less an 1 )(m in diameter in size are governed by perikinetic flocculation. Smoluchowski (1917) assumed that two particles are independent, so...

Hernandez, Daniel Saul

2012-06-07

276

PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: SURFACE DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Human domestic activities generate wastewater that is piped into municipal sewer systems, underground septic tanks, or portable sanitation devices. Wastewater in municipal systems is treated before being discharged into the environment, as required under the Clean Water Act. This...

277

Water Purification, Distribution and Sewage Disposal. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-29.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, designed to serve as a training manual for technical instructors and as a field resource reference for Peace Corps volunteers, consists of nine units. Unit topics focus on: (1) water supply sources; (2) water treatment; (3) planning water distribution systems; (4) characteristics of an adequate system; (5) construction techniques;…

1979

278

Brazilian policy on battery disposal and its practical effects on battery recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal of batteries is a problem that has grown in the last few years, due to the increase in the use of portable devices. Batteries may contain toxic metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead, so their disposal must be controlled. Brazil was the first country in Latin America to regulate the disposal and treatment of batteries. Limits were

Denise Crocce Romano Espinosa; Andréa Moura Bernardes; Jorge Alberto Soares Tenório

2004-01-01

279

A study of disposed fly ash from landfill to replace Portland cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The landfills of fly ash are the problem of all power plants because this disposed fly ash is not used in any work. This research studies the potential of using disposed fly ashes which have disposal time of 6–24 months from the landfill of Mae Moh power plants in Thailand to replace Portland cement type I. Median particle sizes of

Raungrut Cheerarot; Chai Jaturapitakkul

2004-01-01

280

Radioactive waste disposal package  

DOEpatents

A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

1986-01-01

281

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

1990-10-01

282

Garbage + sewage water + coal = electricity. [Lakeland, Fla. 364MW unit cooled by sewage-water effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lakeland, Florida is building a power-generating unit that will burn 80% Kentucky high-sulfur coal and 20% garbage and will be cooled by sewage water effluent. The plant was designed when a proposed new oil-fired unit was rejected in the mid-1970s, although additional capacity was anticipated to keep pace with the area's population and development growth. A coal\\/garbage fuel mixture has

Lesnett

1979-01-01

283

Spectroscopic study of the humification process during sewage sludge treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to study the free radical transition of organic materials during the sewage treatment process. Investigations of sludge from biologic-mechanical sewage treatment plant in Sosnowiec Zagórze were carried out. The course of the humification processes during sewage treatment was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. The concentration of free radicals at each process stage and the value g were determined. Sludge samples and extracted fractions of humic acids were examined. Humic acids were extracted from sludge by means of conventional methods elaborated by Stevenson. For study of humic acids structures, besides EPR, the UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy were used.

Paj?czkowska, J.; Su?kowska, A.; Su?kowski, W. W.; J?drzejczyk, M.

2003-06-01

284

Growth of chrysanthemums in sewage sludge amended media  

E-print Network

(Trifolium r~e ens, L. ) when grown on soil amended with sewage sludge. Reports indicate that sewage sludge applications increased the dry matter yield of several container grown agricultural crops. Giordano et al. (35 ) reported that corn (Zea ~ma s, L... dry matter yield of turnips (Brassica ~ra a, L. ) and white clover (Trifolium r~e ens, L. ) increased with increasing rates of sewage sludge. Kirkham (tg) f d th t th d'ff f h 1 y (H d ~1 L. ) height and final dry weight among four different rates...

Schlutt, Edward Frederick

2012-06-07

285

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Opciones para la producción de espuma espuma · Sistemas de boquilla #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Requisitos estimados: · Tiempo: 2 a 3 and Theory · CAFS específicos para aves de corral ­ Rowe ­ Compresor de 70 pies3/min. ­ Bomba de 150 gal

Benson, Eric R.

286

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · El compostaje se define como la: Science and Theory · Compostaje óptimo ­ Relación carbono/nitrógeno (C:N): 20:1 a 35:1 ­ Contenido de Compostaje #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Se ha utilizado satisfactoriamente una variedad de materiales

Benson, Eric R.

287

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Previous Research · Composting, et.al. 2005; Bendfeldt et al., 2006; DeRouchey et al., 2005) #12;Disposal: Science and Theory: Science and Theory Scientific Validation of Composting · Experiment 1 Impact of foam on composting

Benson, Eric R.

288

Cryptosporidium and Giardia in tropical recreational marine waters contaminated with domestic sewage: estimation of bathing-associated disease risks.  

PubMed

Sewage is a major contributor to pollution problems involving human pathogens in tropical coastal areas. This study investigated the occurrence of intestinal protozoan parasites (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) in tropical recreational marine waters contaminated with sewage. The potential risks of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection from recreational water exposure were estimated from the levels of viable (oo) cysts (DIC+, DAPI+, PI-) found in near-shore swimming areas using an exponential dose response model. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis was performed in order to determine the probability distribution of risks. Microbial indicators of recreational water quality (enterococci, Clostridium perfringens) and genetic markers of sewage pollution (human-specific Bacteroidales marker [HF183] and Clostridium coccoides) were simultaneously evaluated in order to estimate the extent of water quality deterioration associated with human wastes. The study revealed the potential risk of parasite infections via primary contact with tropical marine waters contaminated with sewage; higher risk estimates for Giardia than for Cryptosporidium were found. Mean risks estimated by Monte Carlo were below the U.S. EPA upper bound on recreational risk of 0.036 for cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis for both children and adults. However, 95th percentile estimates for giardiasis for children exceeded the 0.036 level. Environmental surveillance of microbial pathogens is crucial in order to control and eradicate the effects that increasing anthropogenic impacts have on marine ecosystems and human health. PMID:24975093

Betancourt, Walter Q; Duarte, Diana C; Vásquez, Rosa C; Gurian, Patrick L

2014-08-15

289

Plasma chemical gasification of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The possibility for plasma gasification of sewage sludge is investigated. Water steam is used as the plasma generating gas and as a chemical reagent. The experiments are carried out at a sludge to water steam ratio of 1 to 1.5 by weight, and at a plasma torch temperature of up to 2600 degrees C. The calculated average temperature in the reactor after mixing with the sludge particles is up to 1700 degrees C. Proximate and ultimate analyses of the sludge are given. The resulting gases are analysed by gas chromatography. High calorific gas containing mainly carbon monoxide (48% volume) and hydrogen (46% volume), as well as glass-like slag, is obtained. No water-soluble substances are detected within it. The amount of carbon dioxide produced is under 4% mass. No hydrocarbons are observed within the gas. The investigated process is environmentally safe, compact and shows a high rate of conversion. PMID:12667017

Balgaranova, Janetta

2003-02-01

290

Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge  

PubMed Central

The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

2014-01-01

291

Hazardous Waste Disposal Damage Reports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication is the first in a series of reports to document incidents of improper land disposal of hazardous wastes. Studies include: Arsenic poisoning in Minnesota; Industrial waste disposal on farmland in Illinois; Fatality at a New Jersey Industri...

1975-01-01

292

FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. he energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. hese f...

293

FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. The energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. These...

294

Pesticide Disposal Pick Up Program  

E-print Network

Pesticide Disposal Pick Up Program Amnesty for disposal of unwanted and outdated pesticides This program is for the disposal of un- wanted and outdated pesticides currently stored by agricultural producers, home- owners and golf courses Acceptable Agriculture Pesticides Commercial Pesticides Homeowner

Liskiewicz, Maciej

295

High congruence of isotope sewage signals in multiple marine taxa.  

PubMed

Assessments of sewage pollution routinely employ stable nitrogen isotope analysis (?(15)N) in biota, but multiple taxa are rarely used. This single species focus leads to underreporting of whether derived spatial N patterns are consistent. Here we test the question of 'reproducibility', incorporating 'taxonomic replication' in the measurement of ?(15)N gradients in algae, seagrasses, crabs and fish with distance from a sewage outfall on the Adelaide coast (southern Australia). Isotopic sewage signals were equally strong in all taxa and declined at the same rate. This congruence amongst taxa has not been reported previously. It implies that sewage-N propagates to fish via a tight spatial coupling between production and consumption processes, resulting from limited animal movement that closely preserves the spatial pollution imprint. In situations such as this where consumers mirror pollution signals of primary producers, analyses of higher trophic levels will capture a broader ambit of ecological effects. PMID:23602260

Connolly, Rod M; Gorman, Daniel; Hindell, Jeremy S; Kildea, Timothy N; Schlacher, Thomas A

2013-06-15

296

Second review of standards of performance for sewage sludge incinerators  

SciTech Connect

Standards to control emissions from new and existing sewage-sludge incinerators are reviewed. Information on the background and authority regulatory alternatives considered and the economic impacts of the proposed regulations is presented.

Not Available

1984-03-01

297

TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI  

EPA Science Inventory

Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

298

40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage collection system. That...habitations) from the collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...1972; (b) The collection system is...

2010-07-01

299

40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage collection system. That...habitations) from the collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...1972; (b) The collection system is...

2011-07-01

300

40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage collection system. That...habitations) from the collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...1972; (b) The collection system is...

2012-07-01

301

40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage collection system. That...habitations) from the collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...1972; (b) The collection system is...

2013-07-01

302

USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FOR FOREST-TREE SEEDLING PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...

303

Managing vegetation on peat-sand filter beds for wastewater disposal. Forest Service research note  

SciTech Connect

Five species of grass, one sedge, and cattail were grown on a peat-sand filter bed irrigated with sewage effluent. Yields, uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus, and lodging problems were determined for all species when grown to various heights ranging from 5 to 75 cm.

Elling, A.E.

1985-01-01

304

Behavior of fluorescent whitening agents during sewage treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) are contained in most modern laundry detergents and are thus discharged in substantial quantities with household wastewater. To determine the mass flows and fate of the predominant detergent FWAs, a field study was conducted at a full-scale mechanical–biological sewage treatment plant at Zürich-Glatt, Switzerland. Samples of wastewater (raw sewage, and primary and secondary effluent) and sludge

Thomas Poiger; Jennifer A. Field; Thomas M. Field; Hansruedi Siegrist; Walter Giger

1998-01-01

305

Mechanism of wet sewage sludge pyrolysis in a tubular furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this work was to develop a preliminary mechanistic understanding of wet sewage sludge decomposition from starting constituents to final products, including intermediates formed during the pyrolysis process. Sewage sludge with a moisture content of 84.2 wt% was pyrolyzed at different temperatures in a tubular furnace, the pyrolysis products (hydrogen-rich fuel gas, tar and solid char) were detected

Beiping Zhang; Sijiang Xiong; Bo Xiao; Dongke Yu; Xiaoyuan Jia

2011-01-01

306

Disposable pressure transducers.  

PubMed

We evaluated 12 disposable pressure transducers from 11 manufacturers. All are rated Acceptable and are ranked in four groups. The first two groups have similar performance characteristics. Groups three and four are ranked primarily according to the effect of fluid spills and the ease of achieving accurate dynamic response. Although list prices are somewhat high, negotiated prices are usually lower. Users should weigh advantages and disadvantages against clinical preference and price. PMID:3273951

1988-03-01

307

SOME PROBLEMS IN ENGINEERING GEOLOGY CAUSED BY PERMAFROST IN THE ARCTIC COASTAL PLAIN, NORTHERN ALASKA  

Microsoft Academic Search

URING field studies of permafrost from 1945 to 19511, especially at a U.S. Navy camp near Barrow, Alaska, the writer was impressed with the controlling influence of permafrost on certain engineering projects. Permafrost has direct and indirect effects on transportation, surface and underground exploration, construction and durability of structures in or on permafrost, water supply, sewage disposal, and petroleum resources.

Robert F. Black

308

[National survey of urban sewage reuse in China].  

PubMed

On the basis of the national survey of the urban sewage treatment, the survey of 2007 national urban sewage reuse was conducted under the charge of the Ministry of Water Resources. The survey results indicated that the amount of urban sewage reuse was 17.9 x 10(8) m3 x a(-1), mainly used for industry, landscape, agriculture forestry, animal husbandry, urban non-potable water, and groundwater recharge. The urban sewage reuse rate was 5.23%. There were 127 sewage reclaiming plants in China, of which the production capacity of reclaimed water reached 347.75 x 10(4) m3 x d(-1), which produced 5.74 x 10(8) m3 reclaimed water in 2007. The total investment of sewage reclaiming plants was 56.44 x 10(8) Yuan, in which the central government investment, local fiscal investment and other investments accounted for 16%, 26% and 58%, respectively. The reclaimed water price varied greatly with the purposes or areas. PMID:23323420

Guo, Yu-Jie; Wang, Xue-Chao; Zhou, Zhen-Min

2012-11-01

309

Oceanographic effects of the 1992 Point Loma sewage pipe spill  

SciTech Connect

Early in early 1992, 180 million gallons of advanced primarily treated sewage emptied into 10 meters of water from the broken Point Loma sewage pipe, San Diego. For about two months a sewage boil about the size of a football field existed at the surface and within the Point Loma kelp bed. Sampling and observations taken during the spill indicated the surface waters at the spill site were grayish and smelling of sewage. The sewage water had mixed with the marine waters reducing salinity to about one-half normal (or 15 ppt.). The sediment load of the sewage coated the blades of the giant kelp and the kelp was limp and withdrawn from the surface. At the site of the main boil the kelp appeared to have dropped to the bottom. Sediments on the bottom in the boil area were mainly coarse sands as compared to the surrounding sandy-muds. Preliminary results using laboratory analysis suggest: one month into the spill no infauna were observed in the sediments or planktons in the water of the boil area, but were in the surrounding sediments and water; the observed phytoplankton were dominated by dinoflagellates and suggested red tide conditions surrounding the boil. The site has been monitored monthly since the spill to observe further impact and recovery.

Casey, R.; Ciccateri, A.; Dougherty, K.; Gacek, L.; Lane, S.; Liponi, K.; Leeds, R.; Walsh, F. (Ocean Research Inst., San Diego, CA (United States))

1992-01-01

310

Space disposal of nuclear wastes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.

1980-01-01

311

Geotechnical engineering of ocean waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

This book report is on shallow ocean disposal and deals primarily with dredge material disposal. It is concerned with deep ocean disposal and deals primarily with both subseabed disposal of nuclear wastes and concentrated chemical wastes.

Demars, K.R.; Chaney, R.C.

1990-01-01

312

Preference of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, for plants grown in sewage sludges  

SciTech Connect

Since passage of the Clean Water Act in the 1970s, disposal of the millions of tonnes of sewage sludge generated annually has become a major concern of municipalities throughout the United States. With the range of other disposal options having narrowed in recent years, application of sludge to land is increasingly viewed as a practical and economical means to recycle this waste material. However, sludges from large cities with industries may be contaminated with various toxic chemicals, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), other organic chemicals, such as pesticides, and heavy metals. Sludge application to land thus has the potential adversely to affect biota and the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. The authors previously demonstrated marked reductions in fecundity and survival of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, on collard plants, Brassica oleracea var. sabellica, growing in soil treated with chemically contaminated sludge as compared to aphids on plants growing either in soil treated with uncontaminated sludge of soil conventionally fertilized. Reduced plant growth and increased restlessness in aphids in the contaminated sludge treatment were also observed. The purpose of the present study was to examine more closely the influence of sludge contaminants on aphid settling behavior as indicated by differential preference of M. persicae for leaves of its collard host grown under different soil conditions.

Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

1987-08-01

313

Gasification of dried sewage sludge: status of the demonstration and the pilot plant.  

PubMed

The disposal of sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plants is suffering from raising costs. The gasification is an alternative way of treatment, which can reduce the amount of solid residues that must be disposed from a water treatment plant. The produced gas can be used very flexible to produce electrical energy, to burn it very cleanly or to use it for upgrading. The gasification in the fluidised bed and the gas cleaning with the granular bed filter has shown successful operation. A demonstration plant in Balingen was set up in 2002 and rebuilt to a larger throughput in 2010. As a next step a demonstration plant was built in Mannheim and is now at the end of the commissioning phase. Nowadays the product gas is blended with biogas from sludge fermentation and utilized in a gas engine or combustion chamber to produce heat. In the future the process control for a maximized efficiency and the removal of organic and inorganic impurities in the gas will be further improved. PMID:22284442

Judex, Johannes W; Gaiffi, Michael; Burgbacher, H Christian

2012-04-01

314

Testing BOPA index in sewage affected soft-bottom communities in the north-western Mediterranean.  

PubMed

The implementation of the European directive (ELD) 2000/60/EC has produced the development of several biotic indices based in benthic communities. These indices try to summarise ecological quality status of different communities. However, a universal index that works in all situations is difficult to establish, because there are several sources of variation. Therefore, there is the need for testing and validation of these indices which is required for making management decisions on different scales, and in different regions and communities. In this study we test one of these indices, BOPA index, developed by Dauvin and Ruellet [Dauvin, J.C., Ruellet, T., 2007. Polychaete/amphipod ratio revisited. Marine Pollution Bulletin 55, 215-224] in five locations affected by sewage disposal. These disposals are often released via outfall into shallow subtidal habitats, leading to a common source of pollution in coastal marine environments. BOPA index provides a valuable overview of the gradient status of a benthic environment, discriminating between stations more affected by discharge. Nevertheless, BOPA index, used to establish the ecological quality status, seemed to overestimate the status and hence there is the need to calibrate the thresholds between EcoQs classes as defined for these medium-to-fine sand communities, which are characteristics of shallow sublittoral soft-bottoms of the north-western Mediterranean Sea. PMID:19095270

de-la-Ossa-Carretero, J A; del-Pilar-Ruso, Y; Giménez-Casalduero, F; Sánchez-Lizaso, J L

2009-08-01

315

Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate  

SciTech Connect

Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14{+-}1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85{+-}0.19 million t representing 37.22{+-}6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait.

Al Yaqout, Anwar F

2003-07-01

316

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Llll of... - Summary of Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units...Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a...startup 1. Maximum design dry sewage sludge burning capacity2... 8. Results of initial air pollution control device...

2013-07-01

317

First molecular detection of group A rotavirus in urban and hospital sewage systems by nested-RT PCR in Shiraz, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Group A rotaviruses are the most significant cause of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. Rotaviruses are shed in high numbers and dispersed widely throughout bodies of water in the environment. This represents a significant health hazard for humans, mainly due to the stability of the viruses during wastewater treatment processes. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of rotaviruses, to determine G genotypes of circulating rotaviruses and to assess the efficiency of rotavirus removal in urban and hospital sewage treatment plants in Shiraz, Iran. Materials and methods During the period from October 2010 to June 2011, a total of sixty sewage samples from urban and hospital sewage disposal systems were collected by Grab Sampling in Shiraz, Iran. All the samples were concentrated in pellet form and two-phase methods and then group A rotaviruses were investigated with enzyme immunoassays (EIA). Rotavirus-positive specimens were genotyped by the nested RT-PCR and by using different types of specific primers. Results In total, rotaviruses were identified in 25% (15 cases) of sewage samples, representing 73.33% (11 cases) of influent and 26.67% (4 cases) of effluent systems. The frequency of rotavirus detection in autumn, winter and spring was 46.67%, 33.33% and 20%, respectively (P= 0.004). The most common circulating genotype was G1 (73.33%), followed by G1G4 (20%) and non-typeable (6.67%), respectively. Conclusions The high prevalence of rotaviruses in urban and hospital sewage systems highlights the importance of environmental surveillance as a tool to detect new genotypes and to investigate the epidemiology of rotaviruses circulating in the community. PMID:24499551

2013-01-01

318

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

Forsberg, Charles W. (155 Newport Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Beahm, Edward C. (106 Cooper Cir., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Parker, George W. (321 Dominion Cir., Knoxville, TN 37922)

1995-01-01

319

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

1995-10-24

320

Biotests for environmental quality assessment of composted sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The quality of sewage sludge-based products, such as composts and growth media, is affected by the contamination of sewage sludge with, potentially, hundreds of different substances. Therefore, it is difficult to achieve the reliable environmental quality assessment of sewage sludge-based products solely based on chemical analysis. In the present work, we demonstrate the use of the kinetic luminescent bacteria test (ISO 21338) to evaluate acute toxicity and the Vitotox™ test to monitor genotoxicity of sewage sludge and composted sewages sludge. In addition, endocrine-disrupting and dioxin-like activity was studied using yeast-cell-based assays. The relative contribution of industrial waste water treated at the Waste Water Treatment Plants led to elevated concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F) in sewage sludge. The effect of elevated amounts of organic contaminants could also be identified with biotests able to demonstrate higher acute toxicity, genotoxicity, and potential for endocrine-disruptive properties. Additional extraction steps in kinetic luminescent bacteria test with DMSO and hexane increased the level of toxicity detected. Composting in a pilot-scale efficiently reduced the amounts of linear alkylbenzensulphonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenolethoxylates (NPE/NPs) and PAH with relative removal efficiencies of 84%, 61% and 56%. In addition, decrease in acute toxicity, genotoxicity and endocrorine-disrupting and dioxin-like activity during composting could be detected. However, the biotests did have limitations in accessing the ecotoxicity of test media rich with organic matter, such as sewage sludge and compost, and effects of sample characteristics on biotest organisms must be acknowledged. The compost matrix itself, however, which contained a high amount of nutrients, bark, and peat, reduced the sensitivity of the genotoxicity tests and yeast bioreporter assays. PMID:23540356

Kapanen, Anu; Vikman, Minna; Rajasärkkä, Johanna; Virta, Marko; Itävaara, Merja

2013-06-01

321

The Phytotoxicity Changes of Sewage Sludge-Amended Soils.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was the estimation of changes in the phytotoxicity of soils amended with sewage sludge with relation to Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba and Sorghum saccharatum. The study was realised in the system of a plot experiment for a period of 29 months. Samples for analyses were taken at the beginning of the experiment, and then after 5, 17 and 29 months. Two kinds of sewage sludge, with varying properties, were added to a sandy soil (soil S) or a loamy soil (soil L) at the dose of 90 t/ha. The addition of sewage sludge to the soils at the start of the experiment caused a significant reduction of both seed germination capacity and root length of the test plants, the toxic effect being distinctly related to the test plant species. With the passage of time the negative effect of sewage sludge weakened, the extent of its reduction depending both of the kind of sewage sludge applied and on the type of soil. Phytotoxicity of the soils amended with the sewage sludges was significantly lower at the end of the experiment than at the beginning. The species of the plants grown on the soils also had a significant effect on their phytotoxicity. The greatest reduction of toxicity was observed in the soil on which no plants were grown (sandy soil) and in the soil under a culture of willow (loamy soil). Solid phase of sewage sludge-amended soils was characterised by higher toxicity than their extracts. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11270-012-1248-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:23002312

Oleszczuk, Patryk; Malara, Anna; Jo?ko, Izabela; Lesiuk, Adam

2012-09-01

322

Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

Mark R. Cole

2013-12-01

323

Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: preliminary feasibility evaluation.  

PubMed

In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications. PMID:24656467

Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano; Torretta, Vincenzo

2014-05-01

324

Macrobenthos response to sewage pollution in a tropical inshore area.  

PubMed

Organic sewage pollution is the major stressor that affects benthic communities in the coastal waters. In the present study involving a once-off sampling (July-August 2003) of a sewage treatment plant (STP) outfall and areas 6 km farther into the sea, we tried to estimate the severity of organic pollution on marine macrobenthos over a pollution gradient in the inshore waters (station depths, 5-30 m) off a heavily urbanized tropical city, on the east coast of India. Multivariate ordination analyses revealed two different groups of faunal assemblages. Group I is associated with sites impacted by the sewage outfall and group II with the locations 3-6 km away in the open sea. Polychaetes and amphipods were the predominant fauna with significant taxonomic differences between the assemblages. Despite the homogeneity in sediment texture, the two-fold increase in sediment organic matter near the sewage outfall area supported r-strategists, while group II locations favoured K-strategists. Approximation through benthic opportunistic polychaetes amphipods (BOPA) index and information on the key taxa responsible for the observed assemblage patterns corroborated these findings. Thus, the present findings revealed how organic sewage pollution influences benthic diversity in coastal waters by supporting communities of opportunistic characteristics. We advocate inclusion of community traits and compatible analytical tools (statistical approaches) in studies of similar nature so that the observations could be compared and broad remedial measures could be evolved. PMID:24464401

Ganesh, T; Rakhesh, M; Raman, A V; Nanduri, Sateesh; Moore, Shonda; Rajanna, B

2014-06-01

325

Water/Wastewater Engineering Report (Storm Sewer/Infiltration Sanitary Sewage Separation-M1 Model)  

E-print Network

In some cities, the municipal sewer system collects both storm water and sanitary sewage in the same pipes. During dry weather these sewers carry all the sanitary sewage to the wastewater treatment plant for treatment. However, when rainstorms...

Liu, Z.; Brumbelow, K.; Haberl, J. S.

2006-10-30

326

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780.63 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing...63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners...

2011-01-01

327

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780.63 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing...63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners...

2013-01-01

328

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780.63 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing...63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners...

2012-01-01

329

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

...2013-01-01 true Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780.63 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning...1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners entering...

2014-01-01

330

Organic carbon cycling in abyssal benthic food chains: numerical simulations of bioenhancement by sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypothetical bioenhancement of the endemic benthic biota on an oligotrophic abyssal plain by organic carbon has been investigated with mathematical simulation experiments. First, the responses of the biomass and respiration to seasonal variations in the rain of organic carbon (POC) have been simulated in a simplified benthic assemblage (sediment organic carbon, sediment-dwelling heterotrophs (bacteria, meiofauna, macrofauna and detritus feeding megafauna) and predatory megafauna), with no added organic matter. These calculations were based on measured standing stocks and respiration in the central North Pacific (5.8 km depth, 31°N Lat.×159°W Long.). The dynamic relationships in this natural "oligotrophic" food chain were then subjected to added inputs of organic carbon presumed to be in sewage sludge. Two examples are presented: a modest but continuous input of organic carbon (100 mg C m -2 d -1) and a year-long pulse of the same intensity. The continuous input forced the biomass and community respiration to steadily increase until they reached steady state in 15 years at values similar to those found on a typical continental shelf. The pulse exhibited the same pattern, but biomass and respiration returned to levels found under natural oligotrophic conditions several years after cessation of intensified carbon loading. The responses of the sediment community to added organic matter were validated using information from a deep-ocean sewage disposal site (DWD106) off the coast of New Jersey. The models are also used to illustrate an approach for estimating possible transfers of potentially toxic contaminants, such as total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (tPAHs), in lipid-rich eggs. In the future it will be necessary to validate model results with deep-ocean in situ experiments.

Rowe, Gilbert T.

1998-05-01

331

Impact of an industrial and urban sewage off a coral fringing reef at Mauritius (Indian Ocean): modeling of plumes, distribution of trace metals in sediments and effects of the eutrophisation on coral reef communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of industrial and urban sewage outflows off tropical high islands is an important environmental problem. This problem is yet more acute when there are coral reefs. For Mauritius Island the effects of the main sewer outflow was studied. Dispersion of the plume was modelized using a bidimensional code. Seawater physical and chemical classic parameters, plus fecal bacteriological ones,

B. A. Thomassin; Ph. Gourbesville; B. Gout; A. Arnoux

1998-01-01

332

Disposable Electrochemical Immunosensors for Pcb Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We realised an electrochemical enzyme immunoassay for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) using carbon-based screen-printed disposable electrodes as solid-phase for reagent immobilisation and as signal transducer. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugate with Ag or Ab as enzyme label was used; hydrogen peroxide and ferrocenemonocarboxylic acid (FCA) as mediator were employed in order to evaluate the HRP activity in the range 10-8-10-10 M. Indirect and direct competitive assays for PCB were performed and a detection limit of 0.01 ?g/mL was obtained in direct competitive format. The advantage of this approach is the relatively fast analysis (30 min) in comparison with a test based on microtiter assay plates (14h); moreover, the use of disposable screen-printed electrodes eliminates the problems of fouling and surface regeneration of electrochemical device.

Laschi, S.; Mascini, M.; Fránek, M.

2000-12-01

333

The disposal of nuclear waste in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The important problem of disposal of nuclear waste in space is addressed. A prior study proposed carrying only actinide wastes to space, but the present study assumes that all actinides and all fission products are to be carried to space. It is shown that nuclear waste in the calcine (oxide) form can be packaged in a container designed to provide thermal control, radiation shielding, mechanical containment, and an abort reentry thermal protection system. This package can be transported to orbit via the Space Shuttle. A second Space Shuttle delivers an oxygen-hydrogen orbit transfer vehicle to a rendezvous compatible orbit and the mated OTV and waste package are sent to the preferred destination. Preferred locations are either a lunar crater or a solar orbit. Shuttle traffic densities (which vary in time) are given and the safety of space disposal of wastes discussed.

Burns, R. E.

1978-01-01

334

The safe disposal of radioactive wastes  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive review is given of the principles and problems involved in the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to a study of the basic facts of radioactivity and of nuclear fission, the characteristics of radioisotopes, the effects of ionizing radiations, and the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity for workers and for the general public. In the second part, the author describes the different types of radioactive waste—reactor wastes and wastes arising from the use of radioisotopes in hospitals and in industry—and discusses the application of the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity to their disposal and treatment, illustrating his discussion with an account of the methods practised at the principal atomic energy establishments. PMID:13374534

Kenny, A. W.

1956-01-01

335

Waste Disposal Guide HOW TO PROPERLY DISPOSE OF WASTE MATERIALS  

E-print Network

Waste Disposal Guide HOW TO PROPERLY DISPOSE OF WASTE MATERIALS GENERATED AT DEPAUL UNIVERSITY chemical and radioactive waste, and Biohazardous waste. This document contains university procedures.4 Hazardous Waste Defined p.5 Chemical Waste Procedure for Generating Departments p.6 o A

Schaefer, Marcus

336

Treatability study of industrial waste using sanitary sewage to supply nutrients  

E-print Network

and settling Trickling filters degree of treating the waste. In 1951, Helmers, Frame, Greenberg and Sawyer (14) used sanitary sewage to supply nutrients to cotton kiering waste, rag rope pulping waste and brewery waste. The joint treatment of the sewage... and settling Trickling filters degree of treating the waste. In 1951, Helmers, Frame, Greenberg and Sawyer (14) used sanitary sewage to supply nutrients to cotton kiering waste, rag rope pulping waste and brewery waste. The joint treatment of the sewage...

Ferguson, James Ritchie

2012-06-07

337

Mechanical properties of dewatered sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of dewatered, anaerobically digested sewage sludge were determined from soil laboratory tests. The sludge material is largely composed of organic clay sized-particles, a sizable fraction of which is in an active state of biological digestion which can continue over many years under field conditions. Moderately digested sludge material was found to have a typical specific gravity of solids value of 1.55, and loss on ignition (LOI) value of 70% dry mass. Strongly digested sludge, produced by digesting the liquid sludge further at 35 degrees C in the laboratory, was found to have a lower LOI value of 55% dry mass, and a higher specific gravity of solids value of about 1.72. The maximum dry density of 0.56 tonne/m3 for the dried sludge material was produced using standard Proctor compaction at roughly 85% moisture content (54% solids content). Air-dried, compacted sludge material was tested in quick-undrained triaxial compression and vane shear. Undrained shear strength-moisture content plots are presented. Shear strength values measured in triaxial compression and vane shear were consistent. The effective angle of shearing resistance (phi') was determined from consolidated-undrained, triaxial compression tests on pasteurized, normally consolidated samples of the sludge material. The mechanical properties of the sludge material changed with the level of sludge digestion. The phi' value increased from 32 degrees for moderately digested sludge, to 37 degrees for strongly digested sludge. The effective cohesion of the sludge material remained zero throughout. The shrinkage, swelling and adhesion properties of the sludge material were also studied. Significant shrinkage occurred as the compacted material dried. The sludge material lost its adhesion below about 95% moisture content (51% solids content). Re-hydration of the dry material caused the bulk volume to double. PMID:15681178

O'Kelly, Brendan C

2005-01-01

338

Metal partitioning and toxicity in sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

Over 20 years of research has failed to provide an unequivocal correlation between chemically extracted metals in sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil and either metal toxicity to soil organisms or crop uptake. Partitioning of metals between phases and species can provide a better estimation of mobility and potential bioavailability. Partition coefficients, K{sub D} for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sludge/water solution were determined considering the sludge/water solution as a three-phase system (particulate, colloidal and electrochemically available) over a range of pH values, ionic strengths, contact times and sludge/water ratios and compared with the KD values for sludge/water solution as a two-phase system (aqueous phase and particulate phase). Partitioning results were interpreted in terms of metal mobility from sludge to colloids and in terms of potential bioavailability from colloids to electrochemically available. The results show that both mobility and potential bioavailability are high for Zn, while Cu partitions into the mobile colloidal phase which is relatively non-bioavailable. Lead is almost completely bound to the solid phase, and is neither mobile nor bioavailable. A comparison between K, values and toxicity shows that Zn in sludge is more toxic than can be accounted for in the aqueous phase, which can be due to synergistic effects between sludge organics and Zn. Copper demonstrates clear synergism which can be attributed to the formation of lipid-soluble Cu complexes with known sludge components such as LAS, caffeine, myristic acid and nonylphenol.

Carlson-Ekvall, C.E.A.; Morrison, G.M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Sanitary Engineering

1995-12-31

339

Residual and cumulative effects of soil application of sewage sludge on corn productivity.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of frequent and periodic applications of sewage sludge to the soil, on corn productivity. The experiment was carried out as part of an experiment that has been underway since 1999, using two types of sludge. One came from the Barueri Sewage Treatment Station (BS, which receives both household and industrial sludge) and the other came from the Franca Sewage Treatment Station (FS, which receives only household sludge). The Barueri sludge was applied from 1999 up to the agricultural year of 2003/2004. With the exception of the agricultural years of 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, the Franca sludge was applied up to 2008/2009. All the applications were made in November, with the exception of the first one which was made in April 1999. After harvesting the corn, the soil remained fallow until the next cultivation. The experiment was set up as a completely randomized block design with three replications and the following treatments: control without chemical fertilization or sludge application, mineral fertilization, and dose 1 and dose 2 of sludge (Franca and Barueri). The sludges were applied individually. Dose 1 was calculated by considering the recommended N application for corn. Dose 2 was twice dose 1. It was evident from this work that the successive application of sludge to the soil in doses sufficient to reach the productivity desired with the use of nitrogen fertilizers could cause environmental problems due to N losses to the environment and that the residual and cumulative effects should be considered when calculating the application of sludge to soil. PMID:24584586

Vieira, Rosana Faria; Moriconi, Waldemore; Pazianotto, Ricardo Antônio Almeida

2014-05-01

340

Concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in tropical soils amended with sewage sludge and composted sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge may be used as an agricultural fertilizer, but the practice has been criticized because sludge may contain trace elements and pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of total and pseudototal extractants of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn, and to compare the results with the bioavailable concentrations of these elements to maize and sugarcane in a soil that was amended with sewage sludge for 13 consecutive years and in a separate soil that was amended a single time with sewage sludge and composted sewage sludge. The 13-year amendment experiment involved 3 rates of sludge (5, 10, and 20 t ha(-1)). The one-time amendment experiment involved treatments reflecting 50, 100, and 200 % of values stipulated by current legislation. The metal concentrations extracted by aqua regia (AR) were more similar to those obtained by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 3052 than to those obtained by EPA3051, and the strongest correlation was observed between pseudo(total) concentrations extracted by AR and EPA3052 and bioavailable concentrations obtained by Mehlich III. An effect of sewage sludge amendment on the concentrations of heavy metals was only observed in samples from the 13-year experiment. PMID:22810380

Nogueirol, Roberta Corrêa; de Melo, Wanderley José; Bertoncini, Edna Ivani; Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú

2013-04-01

341

Drug Resistance of Coliform Bacteria in Hospital and City Sewage  

PubMed Central

The number and properties of drug-resistant coliform bacteria in hospital and city sewage were compared. There was little difference in the counts of organisms with nontransferable resistance to one or more of 13 commonly used drugs. An average of 26% of coliforms in hospital waste water had transferable resistance to at least one of the drugs ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamide, or tetracycline as compared to an average of 4% in city sewage. R+ bacteria in the hospital discharge were also resistant to a broader spectrum of drugs than those in city sewage. In both effluents, the occurrence of fecal Escherichia coli among R+ coliforms was twice as high as among coliforms with nontransferable resistance. Resistance was transferable to Salmonella typhi, and such drug-resistant pathogens in the water environment could be of particular concern. The significance of the results with regard to environmental pollution with R+ bacteria and the dissemination of these organisms is discussed. PMID:4597713

Grabow, W. O. K.; Prozesky, O. W.

1973-01-01

342

Bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was isolated from sewage sludge using the incubation in the Waksman liquor medium and the inoculation in Waksman solid plate. It was found that the optimum conditions of the bioleaching included solid concentration 2%, sulfur concentration 5 g?L-1 and cell concentration 10%. The removal efficiency of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zh in sewage sludge, which was obtained from waste treatment plant, Jinshan, Fuzhou, was 43.65%, 96.24%, 41.61% and 96.50% in the period of 4˜10 days under the optimum conditions, respectively. After processing using the proposed techniques, the heavy metals in sewage sludge did meet the requirement the standards of nation.

Wen, Ye-Ming; Lin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Qing-Ping; Chen, Zu-Liang

2010-11-01

343

Isotopic and microbial indicators of sewage pollution from Stone Town, Zanzibar, Tanzania  

E-print Network

the health risks to humans, sewage pollution also threatens community structure, biodiversity, and services, 1985). Such deleterious effects of sewage pollution on coral reefs can have a strong impactIsotopic and microbial indicators of sewage pollution from Stone Town, Zanzibar, Tanzania Molly A

Harvell, Catherine Drew

344

Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 247 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-12-01

345

Changes in Macroalgal Communities in the Vicinity of a Mediterranean Sewage  

E-print Network

of pollution (Table 1). The sewage ¯owing into the sea is mainly carried westwards along the coast by currentsChanges in Macroalgal Communities in the Vicinity of a Mediterranean Sewage Outfall After of the Marseille (Mediterranean, France) sewage outfall, 8 years after the setting up of a wastewater treatment

Boudouresque, Charles F.

346

Sewage and industrial pollution in and around Thane Creek, Mumbai using high resolution IRS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution in the coastal waters of the Mumbai, India was analyzed the spectral signature with high resolution IRS?L3 data at the sewage discharge points in the Thane creek. The sewage distribution pattern was studied with reference to local tide on 21 February 2002 and 29 October 2002. The sewage plumes were identified off the discharge points in Thane Creek, Mumbai

S. K. Sasamal; K. H. Rao; U. M. Suryavansi

2007-01-01

347

The response of estuarine fish and benthos to an increasing discharge of sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tyne Estuary is one of the most anthropogenically impacted estuaries on the east coast of England. Since 1974, some 200 major sewage discharges to the estuary have been intercepted and redirected to Howdon Sewage Treatment Works for primary treatment. This study examines trends in the benthic fauna and fish populations in the vicinity of the sewage works discharge in

J. A. Hall; C. L. J. Frid; M. E. Gill

1997-01-01

348

Fish bile used to detect estrogenic substances in treated sewage water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine disrupting effects on fish associated with sewage treatment effluents have been demonstrated in several studies. To investigate if the effluents from two modern Swedish sewage treatment plants contained estrogenic substances, juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to sewage water before and after the last treatment step which is a sand filter. As a biomarker for estrogenic effect, vitellogenin was analysed

Maria Pettersson; Margaretha Adolfsson-Erici; Jari Parkkonen; Lars Förlin; Lillemor Asplund

2006-01-01

349

Work-related Helicobacter pylori infection among sewage workers in municipal wastewater treatment plants in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionMost studies among sewage workers of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have found a higher prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms than among non-sewage exposed workers. Waterborne transmission of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) has been hypothesised, as the bacteria can survive into an aqueous environment and has been detected in sewage. A health and hygiene questionnaire has demonstrated a higher prevalence of peptic

Wim Van Hooste; Anne-Marie Charlier; Paul Rotsaert; Simon Bulterys; Guido Moens; Marc van Sprundel; Antoon De Schryver

2010-01-01

350

RADIOTRACER EXPERIMENTS IN THE MOHAWK RIVER, NEW YORK, TO STUDY SEWAGE PATH AND DILUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage from the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory near Schenectady, N. Y., ; was dosed with 4.53 curies of P³² prior to discharge into the Mohawk River. ; Its pattern of diffusion was measured in the river with immersible GM-tubes and ; by sampling. The initial path of sewage was strongly influenced by dlfferences ; in density betveen sewage and river

E. S. Simpson; W. A. Beetem; F. H. Ruggles

1958-01-01

351

Presence and destruction of tubercle bacilli in sewage.  

PubMed

The author examined the sewage from 5 towns with tuberculosis sanatoria and from one institution for the care of the feeble-minded, which had a tuberculosis ward, for the presence of tubercle bacilli. The 6 effluents were treated in biological-purification plants and average samples taken. These were centrifuged, and the sediment treated for 1 hour at 37 degrees C with 4% NaOH before inoculation into guinea-pigs. Tubercle bacilli were demonstrated in the influent to all the plants and in the digested sludge of all those operating on sewage where the ratio of infective patients to all persons connected with the plant was up to 1:600. Experiments with cultivated tubercle bacilli showed that centrifuging of sewage resulted in only an insignificant loss of bacilli, but that NaOH treatment caused a loss of over 99%.After consideration of the risk of infection to both man and cattle from the sewage of tuberculosis institutions, the author reports on his own studies on the killing of tubercle bacilli in sewage. It took about 11(1/2)-15 months before tubercle bacilli could no longer be demonstrated in sludge that had been kept on the drying beds. The addition of 10 mg of chlorine per litre of biologically purified effluent from an activated-sludge plant was found effectively to destroy tubercle bacilli. Disinfection of sludge was also carried out with 0.5% lysol and 0.1%-0.2% formol; 3.1% copper sulfate proved ineffective.The author concludes that the disinfection of sewage from tuberculosis institutions presents no special difficulties, but that work on this subject in different countries should be co-ordinated in an effort to improve plant and reduce costs. PMID:13160757

JENSEN, K E

1954-01-01

352

Household Disposal of Pharmaceuticals as a Pathway for Aquatic Contamination in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Pharmaceuticals are produced and used in increasingly large volumes every year. With this growth comes concern about the fate and effects of these compounds in the environment. The discovery of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has stimulated research in the last decade. A wide range of pharmaceuticals has been found in fresh and marine waters, and it has recently been shown that even in small quantities, some of these compounds have the potential to cause harm to aquatic life. The primary pathway into the environment is the use and disposal of medicines; although much of the research in the area currently focuses on the removal of pharmaceuticals during sewage treatment processes, disposal via household waste might be a significant pathway requiring further research. To investigate the household disposal of unused and expired pharmaceuticals as a source of pharmaceutical compounds in the environment, we carried out a survey and interviewed members of 400 households, predominantly from southeastern England. We used the information on when and how they disposed of unfinished pharmaceuticals to construct a conceptual model to assess the pathways of human pharmaceuticals into the environment. The model demonstrated that disposal of unused pharmaceuticals, either by household waste or via the sink or toilet, may be a prominent route that requires greater attention. PMID:16330351

Bound, Jonathan P.; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

2005-01-01

353

WASTE DISPOSAL SECTION CORNELL UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

2/07 WASTE DISPOSAL SECTION CORNELL UNIVERSITY PROCEDURE for DISPOSAL of RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS This procedure has been developed to ensure the safety of those individuals who handle radioactive waste and to comply with University, New York State and Federal requirements. The importance of strict adherence

Pawlowski, Wojtek

354

University Equipment EQUIPMENT DISPOSAL FORM  

E-print Network

University Equipment EQUIPMENT DISPOSAL FORM Please return form to Financial Services Attn: Debt Asset (Tag) Number (please remove tag and attach) Description Original Cost (estimated) Acquisition Date Equipment Purchased on Federal Funds: By checking this box, I confirm this disposal complies

He, Chuan

355

Nuclear waste disposal in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

1978-01-01

356

NASA Personal Property Disposal Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Personal Property Disposal Manual is issued pursuant to Subchapters E and H of the Federal Property Management Regulations and the Space Act of 1958, as amended. It sets forth policy and procedural guidance for NASA personnel for the reporting, utilization, redistribution, and disposal of installation and contractor-held NASA excess and surplus personal property.

1988-01-01

357

Salmonellosis in wild birds feeding at sewage treatment works.  

PubMed Central

Between June 1976 and August 1977 faeces were collected from 599 wild British birds caught during ringing operations at two sewage treatment works in south-east England. Samples were incubated with selenite-F broth to detect the presence of Salmonella. Salm. anatum was isolated from one bird, a Dunnock Prunella modularis an incidence of 0.17% of the total birds examined and 3.23% of the Dunnocks. Comparisons are drawn with previously reported studies and it is suggested that sewage treatment works play little part in the transmission of Salmonella infections to wild birds feeding there. PMID:690424

Plant, C. W.

1978-01-01

358

Technical support for the incineration of sewage sludge. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The document provides the technical background and justification for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's final regulation (40 CFR Part 503) covering the incineration of sewage sludge. The document summarizes current practices in incineration and presents data supporting the risk assessment methodology used to derive human health and environmental risk-based limits for contaminants in incinerated sewage sludge. The management practices associated with incineration are outlined and the different pathways by which contaminants reach highly-exposed individuals through incineration are discussed.

Not Available

1992-11-01

359

The Composition of Fertilizing Value of Sewage Sludge.  

E-print Network

., 1930. English and German sewage . t. Eng. -Tews Record 105, 162-5. 9. Lipman, J. G. & Blair, A. W., 1918. Twenty years' work on the availability of nitrogen in nitrate of soda, ammonium sulphate, dried blood, and farm manures. Soil Sci. 5:291. 10...., 1930. English and German sewage . t. Eng. -Tews Record 105, 162-5. 9. Lipman, J. G. & Blair, A. W., 1918. Twenty years' work on the availability of nitrogen in nitrate of soda, ammonium sulphate, dried blood, and farm manures. Soil Sci. 5:291. 10...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1932-01-01

360

The application of potassium ferrate for sewage treatment.  

PubMed

The comparative performance of potassium ferrate(VI), ferric sulphate and aluminium sulphate for the removal of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour (as Vis400-abs) and bacteria in sewage treatment was evaluated. For coagulation and disinfection of sewage, potassium ferrate(VI) can remove more organic contaminants, COD and bacteria in comparison with the other two coagulants for the same doses used. Also, potassium ferrate(VI) produces less sludge volume and removes more contaminants, which should make subsequent sludge treatment easier. PMID:16182439

Jiang, Jia-Qian; Panagoulopoulos, Alex; Bauer, Mike; Pearce, Pete

2006-04-01

361

Engineered structures for use in disposable incontinence products.  

PubMed

The background and evolution of absorbent disposable hygiene products is discussed. The current technology used to produce disposable hygiene products such as baby diapers, feminine hygiene products and adult incontinence management products is shown to have a number of manufacturing and in-use problems. Alternative technologies, such as multilayer composite webs offer the opportunity to achieve better product weight control, and therefore better control over the other related properties, reduced raw material waste and improved functional characteristics. There are still problems to be resolved when using such composite materials, but the potential of these new technologies has now been established. PMID:12885194

White, C F

2003-01-01

362

Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3  

SciTech Connect

Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

2013-07-29

363

Synergistic effect of rice husk addition on hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge: fate and environmental risk of heavy metals.  

PubMed

Hydrothermal treatment (HTT) at 200°C was applied to immobilize heavy metals (HMs) and the effect of rice husk (RH) addition was investigated based on total HMs concentration, fractionation and leaching tests. The results indicated that a synergistic effect of RH addition and HTT could be achieved on reducing the risk of HMs from medium and low risk to no risk. Metals were redistributed and transformed from weakly bounded state to stable state during the HTT process under RH addition. Notably at a RH/sludge ratio of 1/1.75 (d.w.), all the HMs showed no eco-toxicity and no leaching toxicity, with the concentrations of leachable Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd decreased by 17%, 89%, 95% and 93%, respectively. This synergistic effect of RH addition and HTT on the risk reduction of HMs implies that HTT process with RH addition could be a promising and safe disposal technology for sewage sludge treatment in practice. PMID:24140855

Shi, Wansheng; Liu, Chunguang; Shu, Youju; Feng, Chuanping; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya

2013-12-01

364

Feeding of benthic foraminifera on diatoms and sewage-derived organic matter: an experimental application of lipid biomarker techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraminiferal ecology at sewage outfalls has been investigated in numerous field studies over the last 30 years. Foraminifera have been frequently used as biomonitors of sewage pollution since they are both abundant and ubiquitous. Sewage outfalls have been demonstrated to have both positive and negative effects on adjacent foraminiferal populations, but it has never been shown conclusively why sewage affects

Juliette N Ward; David W Pond; John W Murray

2003-01-01

365

7 CFR 3200.10 - Disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PERSONAL PROPERTY § 3200.10 Disposal. Once the requirements...accordance with the Institution's disposal practices. Regardless of...health or safety. Also, any costs incurred during the disposal process are the...

2010-01-01

366

7 CFR 3200.10 - Disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PERSONAL PROPERTY § 3200.10 Disposal. Once the requirements...accordance with the Institution's disposal practices. Regardless of...health or safety. Also, any costs incurred during the disposal process are the...

2011-01-01

367

7 CFR 3200.10 - Disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PERSONAL PROPERTY § 3200.10 Disposal. Once the requirements...accordance with the Institution's disposal practices. Regardless of...health or safety. Also, any costs incurred during the disposal process are the...

2012-01-01

368

7 CFR 3200.10 - Disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PERSONAL PROPERTY § 3200.10 Disposal. Once the requirements...accordance with the Institution's disposal practices. Regardless of...health or safety. Also, any costs incurred during the disposal process are the...

2013-01-01

369

7 CFR 3200.10 - Disposal.  

...PERSONAL PROPERTY § 3200.10 Disposal. Once the requirements...accordance with the Institution's disposal practices. Regardless of...health or safety. Also, any costs incurred during the disposal process are the...

2014-01-01

370

Nanomaterial disposal by incineration.  

PubMed

As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which nanomaterials may enter incinerator waste streams and the fate of these nanomaterials during the incineration process. Although the literature on incineration of nanomaterials is scarce, results from studies of their behavior at high temperature or in combustion environments for other applications can help predict their fate within an incinerator. Preliminary evidence suggests nanomaterials may catalyze the formation or destruction of combustion by-products. Depending on their composition, nanomaterials may undergo physical and chemical transformations within the incinerator, impacting their partitioning within the incineration system (e.g., bottom ash, fly ash) and the effectiveness of control technology for removing them. These transformations may also drastically affect nanomaterial transport and impacts in the environment. Current regulations on incinerator emissions do not specifically address nanomaterials, but limits on particle and metal emissions may prove somewhat effective at reducing the release of nanomaterials in incinerator effluent. Control technology used to meet these regulations, such as fabric filters, electrostatic precipitators, and wet electrostatic scrubbers, are expected to be at least partially effective at removing nanomaterials from incinerator flue gas. PMID:23880913

Holder, Amara L; Vejerano, Eric P; Zhou, Xinzhe; Marr, Linsey C

2013-09-01

371

Solid waste disposal costs, product prices, and incentives for waste reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a standard input-output technique to examine the impact of solid waste disposal costs on product prices for\\u000a the years 1977, 1982, and 1985. Unlike air and water pollution, solid waste disposal is an example where markets, at least\\u000a partially, deal with externality problems. As the cost of using land as a disposal site rises, firms are encouraged

Yehuda L. Klein; H. David Robison

1993-01-01

372

CAUSES OF PAPILLOMAS ON FISH LIVING IN CHLORINATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This research was initiated to determine the cause of the oral papillomas on black bullheads (Ictalurus melas) from the final oxidation pond of the Tuskegee, Alabama, sewage treatment plant. Ames-test mutagenicity of a pond-water concentrate indicated the presence of a chemical c...

373

Diatom distribution and status of organic pollution in sewage drains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the limnology of various sewage drains meeting the River Yamuna in Delhi suggest that diatom distribution, seasonal\\u000a and total, and concentration of nitrate nitrogen vary with the degree of organic pollution. The significance of such a relationship\\u000a for identifying certain diatoms as water quality indicators is discussed.

K. M. M. Dakshini; J. K. Soni

1982-01-01

374

Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (2): Heat Transfer  

E-print Network

The thimble delivery heat-transfer (TDHT) system is one of the primary modes to utilize the energy of urban sewage. Using the efficiency-number of transfer units method ( ), the heat-transfer efficiencies of the parallel-flow and reverse-flow TDTH...

Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Zhuang, Z.; Sun, D.

2006-01-01

375

Treatment efficacy of algae-based sewage treatment plants.  

PubMed

Lagoons have been traditionally used in India for decentralized treatment of domestic sewage. These are cost effective as they depend mainly on natural processes without any external energy inputs. This study focuses on the treatment efficiency of algae-based sewage treatment plant (STP) of 67.65 million liters per day (MLD) capacity considering the characteristics of domestic wastewater (sewage) and functioning of the treatment plant, while attempting to understand the role of algae in the treatment. STP performance was assessed by diurnal as well as periodic investigations of key water quality parameters and algal biota. STP with a residence time of 14.3 days perform moderately, which is evident from the removal of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) (60 %), filterable COD (50 %), total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (82 %), and filterable BOD (70 %) as sewage travels from the inlet to the outlet. Furthermore, nitrogen content showed sharp variations with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal of 36 %; ammonium N (NH4-N) removal efficiency of 18 %, nitrate (NO3-N) removal efficiency of 22 %, and nitrite (NO2-N) removal efficiency of 57.8 %. The predominant algae are euglenoides (in facultative lagoons) and chlorophycean members (maturation ponds). The drastic decrease of particulates and suspended matter highlights heterotrophy of euglenoides in removing particulates. PMID:23404546

Mahapatra, Durga Madhab; Chanakya, H N; Ramachandra, T V

2013-09-01

376

EVALUATION OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested using the Salmonella/microsomal activation assay, t...

377

SEWAGE LAGOON DESIGN USING WETLANDS AND OTHER UPGRADING TECHNOLOGIES  

E-print Network

#12;L L llF L L L SEWAGE LAGOON DESIGN USING WETLANDS AND OTHER UPGRADING TECHNOLOGIES TO ACHIEVE Environmental Protection Fraser Pollution Abatement Office 224 West Esplanade North Vancouver, B.C. V7M 3H7 under the Fraser River Action Plan through its Fraser Pollution Abatement Office. Environment Canada

378

Sewage pollution impact on Mediterranean rocky-reef fish assemblages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sewage outfalls on subtidal fish assemblages were studied along the NW coasts of Malta (Sicily channel, Mediterranean Sea) by means of underwater visual census. The presence of two spatially distinct outfalls discharging untreated wastewaters allowed to use a balanced symmetrical after control\\/impact (ACI) design that consisted of two putatively impacted locations and two controls, with four sites

Ernesto Azzurro; Marco Matiddi; Emanuela Fanelli; Paolo Guidetti; Gabriele La Mesa; Alfonso Scarpato; Victor Axiak

2010-01-01

379

Land Application of Sewage Effluents and Sludges: Selected Abstracts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains 568 selected abstracts concerned with the land application of sewage effluents and sludges. The abstracts are arranged in chronological groupings of ten-year periods from the l940's to the mid-l970's. The report also includes an author index and a subject matter index to facilitate reference to specific abstracts or narrower…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

380

OVERLAND FLOW TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE AT EASLEY, SOUTH CAROLINA  

EPA Science Inventory

Overland flow has been demonstrated to be a feasible method for treatment of either comminuted raw sewage or effluent from a facultative lagoon in piedmont South Carolina where mild winters prevail in a region of high rainfall. An overland flow system was operated for three years...

381

CFD simulation of anaerobic digester with variable sewage sludge rheology.  

PubMed

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that evaluates mechanical mixing in a full-scale anaerobic digester was developed to investigate the influence of sewage sludge rheology on the steady-state digester performance. Mechanical mixing is provided through an impeller located in a draft tube. Use is made of the Multiple Reference Frame model to incorporate the rotating impeller. The non-Newtonian sludge is modeled using the Hershel-Bulkley law because of the yield stress present in the fluid. Water is also used as modeling fluid to illustrate the significant non-Newtonian effects of sewage sludge on mixing patterns. The variation of the sewage sludge rheology as a result of the digestion process is considered to determine its influence on both the required impeller torque and digester mixing patterns. It was found that when modeling the fluid with the Hershel-Bulkley law, the high slope of the sewage stress-strain curve at high shear rates causes significant viscous torque on the impeller surface. Although the overall fluid shear stress property is reduced during digestion, this slope is increased with sludge age, causing an increase in impeller torque for digested sludge due to the high strain rates caused by the pumping impeller. Consideration should be given to using the Bingham law to deal with high strain rates. The overall mixing flow patterns of the digested sludge do however improve slightly. PMID:23764598

Craig, K J; Nieuwoudt, M N; Niemand, L J

2013-09-01

382

DEMONSTRATION PHYSICAL CHEMICAL SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT UTILIZING BIOLOGICAL NITRIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This demonstration project in a small residential community in Kentucky was initiated to show the feasibility of treating sewage with a physical-chemical type of wastewater treatment plant with a biological process for nitrification. The 50,000 gallon per day system had unit proc...

383

Removal of DEHP in composting and aeration of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of composting and aeration to remove bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from municipal sewage sludge was studied with two dewatered sludges: raw sludge and anaerobically digested sludge. Composting removed 58% of the DEHP content of the raw sludge and 34% of that of the anaerobically digested sludge during 85 days stabilisation in compost bins. A similar removal for the anaerobically

Sanna K Marttinen; Kari Hänninen; Jukka A Rintala

2004-01-01

384

Biodegradation of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in the production of polyvinyl chloride to impart flexibility to the product. Because of its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, the presence of DEHP in sludge limits the application of sludge as a soil fertilizer. In this study, sludges were collected from three sewage treatment plants and thirteen wastewater treatment plants of different

H. F. Cheng; S. Y. Chen; J. G. Lin

385

SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION AT NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a report on the sewage sludge incineration fuel reduction program at the Nashville-Davidson County Metropolitan Government wastewater treatment plant in Nashville, Tennessee. Fuel usage was reduced over 40 percent by reprogramming the methods used for operating the incine...

386

HELMINTH AND HEAVY METALS TRANSMISSION FROM ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses a study designed to determine the practical survival and transmission of the ova of the nematode worm Ascaris sp. through a modern sewage and sludge treatment process. Four large experiments and three smaller ones involving 178 specific pathogen free (SPF) p...

387

Salmonella aberdeen infection in cattle associated with human sewage  

PubMed Central

Salmonella aberdeen was established as the cause of illness in 30 out of a herd of 90 milking cows. The illness was only moderately severe, and all animals responded to treatment. The source of infection was considered to be human sewage effluent overflowing onto grazing land. There was no report of human infection in the area from which the effluent came. PMID:4501833

Bicknell, S. R.

1972-01-01

388

Use of Composted Sewage Sludge on Roadside Vegetation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Composted sewage sludge was evaluated as a surface application for fertiliztion and renovation of deteriorated turfgrass, for incorporation into low-grade soils prior to seeding, and as a mulch and backfill in the planting of shrubs and trees. A one-half ...

R. C. Wakefield, C. D. Sawyer

1986-01-01

389

TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI  

EPA Science Inventory

The increase in resistance rates to trimehtoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) in isolates of Escherichia coli has become a matter of increasing concern. This has been particularly true in reference to community acquired urinary tract infections (UTI). This study utilized sewage i...

390

SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL. VOLUME 2. SLUDGE DISPOSAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This two volume set presents in detail technical design information for the following sludge treatment and disposal processes: incineration, pyrolysis, composting, land utilization, and landfilling. The discussion of each process includes, where possible, a presentation of perfor...

391

FFTF disposable solid waste cask  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper.

Thomson, J. D.; Goetsch, S. D.

1983-01-01

392

Oil field waste disposal costs at commercial disposal facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exploration and production segment of the U.S. oil and gas industry generates millions of barrels of nonhazardous oil field wastes annually. In most cases, operators can dispose of their oil fields wastes at a lower cost on-site than off site and, thus, will choose on-site disposal. However, a significant quantity of oil field wastes are still sent to off-site

Veil

1997-01-01

393

A study of disposed fly ash from landfill to replace Portland cement.  

PubMed

The landfills of fly ash are the problem of all power plants because this disposed fly ash is not used in any work. This research studies the potential of using disposed fly ashes which have disposal time of 6-24 months from the landfill of Mae Moh power plants in Thailand to replace Portland cement type I. Median particle sizes of disposed fly ashes between 55.4 and 99.3 microm were ground to reduce the sizes to about 7.1-8.4 microm. Both original and ground disposed fly ashes were investigated on physical and chemical properties. Compressive strengths of disposed fly ash mortars were determined when Portland cement type I was replaced by disposed fly ashes at the rate of 10%, 20%, and 30% by weight of cementitious material (Portland cement type I and disposed fly ash). The results presented that most particles of original disposed fly ashes were solid and sphere with some irregular shape while those of ground disposed fly ashes were solid and irregular shape. CaO and LOI contents of disposed fly ashes with different disposal times had high variation. The compressive strengths of original disposed fly ash mortars were low but those of ground disposed fly ash mortars at the age of 7 days were higher than 75% of the standard mortar and increased to be higher than 100% after 60 days. From the results, it could be concluded that ground disposed fly ashes were excellent pozzolanic materials and could be used as a partial replacement of cement in concrete, even though they were exposed to the weather for 24 months. PMID:15288302

Cheerarot, Raungrut; Jaturapitakkul, Chai

2004-01-01

394

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in selected sewage sludge in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Levels of seven major perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and three perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) were analyzed for the first time in sludge from wastewater treatment plants from Nigeria. Measurements were performed using an analytical methodology using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS). The method detection limit and method quantification limit was 3pg/g and 9.5pg/g for both analytes (PFCAs and PFSAs) respectively. Typical recoveries ranged from 50% to 104% for spiked mass labeled internal standards of 1ng (absolute value) to 1g of sample. All sludge samples taken from industrial, domestic and hospital wastewater treatment plants contained measurable levels of PFASs. Levels of the quantified perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates concentrations ranged from 10 to 597 and 14 to 540pg/g, respectively. The concentrations were therefore lower compared to sewage sludge samples reported in other regions in the world. Perfluoroalkyl carboxylates with carbon chain having ?8 fluorinated carbons were detected in the analyzed sewage sludge samples at higher levels compared to carboxylates with <8 fluorinated carbon chain. The measured concentrations indicate that no PFAS point source for the 10 investigated sewage treatment plants existed. Furthermore the low levels in the four municipal sewage treatment plants in Lagos is a first indication that even in an African megacity like Lagos the PFASs release from households are low until now. The highest PFOS level was found in a hospital sewage sludge (539.6pg/g) possibly indicating (minor) release from medical equipment where some are known to contain PFOS. The PFASs in waste water sludge from a brewery warrant further investigations. PMID:23648329

Sindiku, Omotayo; Orata, Francis; Weber, Roland; Osibanjo, Oladele

2013-07-01

395

Mucosal and Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses Detected in Raw Sewages  

PubMed Central

Epitheliotropic viruses can find their way into sewage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and genetic diversity of Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) in urban wastewaters. Sewage samples were collected from treatment plants distributed throughout Italy. The DNA extracted from these samples was analyzed by PCR using five PV-specific sets of primers targeting the L1 (GP5/GP6, MY09/MY11, FAP59/64, SKF/SKR) and E1 regions (PM-A/PM-B), according to the protocols previously validated for the detection of mucosal and cutaneous HPV genotypes. PCR products underwent sequencing analysis and the sequences were aligned to reference genomes from the Papillomavirus Episteme database. Phylogenetic analysis was then performed to assess the genetic relationships among the different sequences and between the sequences of the samples and those of the prototype strains. A broad spectrum of sequences related to mucosal and cutaneous HPV types was detected in 81% of the sewage samples analyzed. Surprisingly, sequences related to the anogenital HPV6 and 11 were detected in 19% of the samples, and sequences related to the “high risk” oncogenic HPV16 were identified in two samples. Sequences related to HPV9, HPV20, HPV25, HPV76, HPV80, HPV104, HPV110, HPV111, HPV120 and HPV145 beta Papillomaviruses were detected in 76% of the samples. In addition, similarity searches and phylogenetic analysis of some sequences suggest that they could belong to putative new genotypes of the beta genus. In this study, for the first time, the presence of HPV viruses strongly related to human cancer is reported in sewage samples. Our data increases the knowledge of HPV genomic diversity and suggests that virological analysis of urban sewage can provide key information useful in supporting epidemiological studies. PMID:23341898

La Rosa, Giuseppina; Fratini, Marta; Accardi, Luisa; D'Oro, Graziana; Della Libera, Simonetta; Muscillo, Michele; Di Bonito, Paola

2013-01-01

396

Site Selection for the Disposal of LLW in Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the implementation status of the low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal program in Taiwan, including the disposal facility regulations, status of waste management, final disposal program, licensing procedures, waste acceptance criteria, site selection criteria and processes and preliminary disposal concepts. The first phase of site selection for low-level radioactive waste final disposal in Taiwan was implemented between 1992 and 2002. The site selection process adopted a Geographic Information System (GIS), Hierarchical Analysis System, Expert Evaluation System, and site reconnaissance. An incentive program for voluntary sites was also initiated. After a series of evaluations and discussion of 30 potential candidate sites, including 8 recommended sites, 5 qualified voluntary townships, and several remote uninhabited small islets, Hsiao-chiou islet was selected as the first priority candidate site in February 1998. The geological investigation work in Hsiao-chiou was conducted from March 1999 through October 2000. An Environmental Impact Statement Report (EIS) and the Investment Feasibility Study Report (IFS) were submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in November 2000 and to the Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) in June 2001, respectively. Unfortunately, the site investigation was discontinued in 2002 due to political and public acceptance consideration. After years of planning, the second phase of the site selection process was launched in August 2004 and will be conducted through 2008. It is planned that a repository will be constructed in early 2009 and start to operate in 2014. The site selection process for the second phase is based on the earlier work and four potential candidate sites were selected for evaluation until 2005. A near surface disposal concept is proposed for a site located in the Taiwan strait, and cavern disposal concepts are proposed for three other sites located on the main island. This paper presents the implementation status of the LLW disposal program in Taiwan, including the disposal facility regulations, status of waste management, final disposal program, licensing procedures, waste acceptance criteria, site selection criteria and processes, and preliminary disposal concepts 'NIMBY' (Not in my backyard) is a critical problem for implementation of the final disposal project. Resistance from local communities has been continuously received during site characterization. To overcome this, an incentive program to encourage community acceptance has been approved by the Government. Programs for community promotion are being proposed and negotiations are also underway. (authors)

Chuang, W.S.; Chi, L.M.; Tien, N.C.; Chang, F.L. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, P.O. Box 3-7, Lung-Tan 32500, Taiwan (China)

2006-07-01

397

No Disposable Kids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current educational and juvenile justice systems rely greatly on punishment and power over strategies-- especially when faced with youth whose severe behaviors escalate to violence. This book attempts to go beyond the typical problem-focused book, offering field-tested, concrete prevention and intervention strategies that can be used to help even…

Brendtro, Larry K.; Ness, Arlin; Mitchell, Martin

398

Quantitative PCR assay of sewage-associated Bacteroides markers to assess sewage pollution in an urban lake in Dhaka, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This paper aimed to assess the magnitude of sewage pollution in an urban lake in Dhaka, Bangladesh, by using quantitative PCR of sewage-associated Bacteroides HF183 markers. PCR was also used for the quantitative detection of ruminant wastewater-associated CF128 markers along with the enumeration of traditional fecal indicator bacteria, namely enterococci. The number of enterococci in lake water samples ranged from 1.1 × 10? to 1.9 × 10? colony-forming units/100 mL water. From the 20 water samples tested, 14 (70%) and 7 (35%) were PCR positive for HF183 and CF128 markers, respectively. The numbers of HF183 and CF128 markers in lake water samples were 3.9 × 10? to 6.3 × 10? and 9.3 × 10³ to 6.3 × 10? genomic units/100 mL water, respectively. The high numbers of enterococci and HF183 markers are indicative of sewage pollution and potential health risks to those who use the lake water for nonpotable purposes such as bathing and washing clothes. This is the first study that investigated the presence of microbial source tracking markers in Dhaka, Bangladesh, where diarrhoeal disease is one of the major causes of childhood mortality. The molecular assay used in this study can provide valuable information on the extent of sewage pollution, thus facilitating the development of robust strategies to minimize potential health risks. PMID:20962907

Ahmed, Warish; Yusuf, Rita; Hasan, Imtiaj; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Gardner, Ted

2010-10-01

399

Human intrusion in geologic disposal  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the possibility of human intrusion into the WIPP facility, an undergound disposal facility for alpha-bearing wastes. The probability of exploratory drilling occurring at the site is described.

Not Available

1993-12-31

400

Disposal phase experimental program plan  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility comprises surface and subsurface facilities, including a repository mined in a bedded salt formation at a depth of 2,150 feet. It has been developed to safely and permanently isolate transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes in a deep geological disposal site. On April 12, 1996, the DOE submitted a revised Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The DOE anticipates receiving an operating permit from the NMED; this permit is required prior to the start of disposal operations. On October 29, 1996, the DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in accordance with the WIPP land Withdrawal Act (LWA) of 1992 (Public Law 102-579) as amended, and the requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Parts 191 and 194. The DOE plans to begin disposal operations at the WIPP in November 1997 following receipt of certification by the EPA. The disposal phase is expected to last for 35 years, and will include recertification activities no less than once every five years. This Disposal Phase Experimental Program (DPEP) Plan outlines the experimental program to be conducted during the first 5-year recertification period. It also forms the basis for longer-term activities to be carried out throughout the 35-year disposal phase. Once the WIPP has been shown to be in compliance with regulatory requirements, the disposal phase gives an opportunity to affirm the compliance status of the WIPP, enhance the operations of the WIPP and the national TRU system, and contribute to the resolution of national and international nuclear waste management technical needs. The WIPP is the first facility of its kind in the world. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to advance the technical state of the art for permanent disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes.

NONE

1997-01-31

401

Air emissions assessment and air quality permitting for a municipal waste landfill treating municipal sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a case study into the air quality permitting of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in the San Francisco Bay Area undergoing a proposed expansion in operations to increase the life of the landfill. The operations of this facility include MSW landfilling, the treatment and disposal of municipal sewage sludge, the aeration of petroleum-contaminated soils, the construction of a new on-site plant to manufacture soil amendment products from waste wood and other organic material diverted from the landfill, and the installation of a vaporator to create steam from leachate for injection into the landfill gas flare. The emissions assessment for each project component relied upon interpretation of source tests from similar operations, incorporation of on-site measurements into emissions models and mass balances, and use of AP-42 procedures for emissions sources such as wind-blown dust, material handling and transfer operations, and fugitive landfill gas. Air permitting issues included best available control technology (BACT), emission offset thresholds, new source performance standards (NSPS), potential air toxics health risk impacts, and compliance with federal Title V operating permit requirements. With the increasing difficulties of siting new landfills, increasing pressures to reduce the rate of waste placement into existing landfills, and expanding regulatory requirements on landfill operations, experiences similar to those described in this paper are likely to increase in the future as permitting scenarios become more complex.

Koehler, J. [Woodward-Clyde International -- Americas, Oakland, CA (United States)

1998-12-31

402

Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sewage sludge aerobic compost in China.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge is an important contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the carbon budget of organic solid waste treatment and disposal. In this case study, total GHG emissions from an auto-control sludge compost system, including direct and indirect emissions and replaceable reduction due to sludge compost being reused as fertilizer, were quantified. The results indicated that no methane generation needed to be considered in the carbon debit because of the advantages of auto-control for monitoring and maintenance of appropriate conditions during the composting process. Indirect emissions were mainly from electricity and fossil fuel consumption, including sludge transportation and mechanical equipment use. Overall, the total carbon replaceable emission reduction owing to sludge being treated by composting rather than landfill, and reuse of its compost as fertilizer instead of chemical fertilizer, were calculated to be 0.6204 tCO2e t(-1) relative to baseline. Auto-control compost can facilitate obtaining certified emission reduction warrants, which are essential to accessing financial support with the authentication by the Clean Development Mechanism. PMID:24647175

Liu, H-t; Zheng, H-x; Chen, T-b; Zheng, G-d; Gao, D

2014-01-01

403

Radioactive Waste Disposal Implications of Extending Part IIA to cover Radioactively Contaminated Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA to address radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of the radioactive wastes arising from remediation.

DJ Nancarrow

404

Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project. Summary Report. Metro Toxicant Program Report No. 1A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project was established as an interagency effort to reduce the level of toxicants entering the environment by developing a control plan for the safe disposal of small quantities of household chemicals. This summary report provides an overview of the aspects of this problem that were examined, and the steps…

Ridgley, Susan M.; Galvin, David V.

405

Site Selection and Geological Research Connected with High Level Waste Disposal Programme in the Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to solve the problem of high-level waste disposal including the spent fuel from nuclear power plants have been made in the Czech Republic for over the 10 years. Already in 1991 the Ministry of Environment entitled The Czech Geological Survey to deal with the siting of the locality for HLW disposal and the project No. 3308 ''The geological research

Tomas

2003-01-01

406

The production, remanufacture and waste disposal model with lost sales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inventory management in reverse logistics has been receiving increasing attention in recent years. One of the inventory problems that has been of interest to researchers is the production, remanufacture (repair) and waste disposal model, where used items are collected and remanufactured to “as-good-as new” state. The available models in the literature assume that customers’ demand is satisfied from newly manufactured

Mohamad Y. Jaber; Ahmed M. A. El Saadany

2009-01-01

407

Dynamic lot sizing with returning items and disposals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze a version of the Dynamic Lot Size (DLS) model where demands can be positive and negative and disposals of excess inventory are allowed. Such problems arise naturally in several applications areas, including retailing where previously sold items are returned to the point of sale and re-enter the inventory stream (such returns can be viewed as negative demands), and

JOSE LUIS BELTRAN; DMITRY KRASS

2002-01-01

408

An Experimental Investigation of Sewage Sludge Gasification in a Fluidized Bed Reactor  

PubMed Central

The gasification of sewage sludge was carried out in a simple atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. Flow and fuel feed rate were adjusted for experimentally obtaining an air mass?:?fuel mass ratio (A/F) of 0.2 < A/F < 0.4. Fuel characterization, mass and power balances, produced gas composition, gas phase alkali and ammonia, tar concentration, agglomeration tendencies, and gas efficiencies were assessed. Although accumulation of material inside the reactor was a main problem, this was avoided by removing and adding bed media along gasification. This allowed improving the process heat transfer and, therefore, gasification efficiency. The heating value of the produced gas was 8.4?MJ/Nm, attaining a hot gas efficiency of 70% and a cold gas efficiency of 57%. PMID:24453863

Calvo, L. F.; Garcia, A. I.; Otero, M.

2013-01-01

409

A high-level disinfection standard for land applying sewage sludges (biosolids).  

PubMed Central

Complaints associated with land-applied sewage sludges primarily involve irritation of the skin, mucous membranes, and the respiratory tract accompanied by opportunistic infections. Volatile emissions and organic dusts appear to be the main source of irritation. Occasionally, chronic gastrointestinal problems are reported by affected residents who have private wells. To prevent acute health effects, we recommend that the current system of classifying sludges based on indicator pathogen levels (Class A and Class B) be replaced with a single high-level disinfection standard and that methods used to treat sludges be improved to reduce levels of irritant chemicals, especially endotoxins. A national opinion survey of individuals impacted by or concerned about the safety of land-application practices indicated that most did not consider the practice inherently unsafe but that they lacked confidence in research supported by federal and state agencies. PMID:14754565

Gattie, David K; McLaughlin, Tara J

2004-01-01

410

Design of sewage treatment system by applying fuzzy adaptive PID controller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the sewage treatment system, the dissolved oxygen concentration control, due to its nonlinear, time-varying, large time delay and uncertainty, is difficult to establish the exact mathematical model. While the conventional PID controller only works with good linear not far from its operating point, it is difficult to realize the system control when the operating point far off. In order to solve the above problems, the paper proposed a method which combine fuzzy control with PID methods and designed a fuzzy adaptive PID controller based on S7-300 PLC .It employs fuzzy inference method to achieve the online tuning for PID parameters. The control algorithm by simulation and practical application show that the system has stronger robustness and better adaptability.

Jin, Liang-Ping; Li, Hong-Chan

2013-03-01

411

An experimental investigation of sewage sludge gasification in a fluidized bed reactor.  

PubMed

The gasification of sewage sludge was carried out in a simple atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. Flow and fuel feed rate were adjusted for experimentally obtaining an air mass : fuel mass ratio (A/F) of 0.2 < A/F < 0.4. Fuel characterization, mass and power balances, produced gas composition, gas phase alkali and ammonia, tar concentration, agglomeration tendencies, and gas efficiencies were assessed. Although accumulation of material inside the reactor was a main problem, this was avoided by removing and adding bed media along gasification. This allowed improving the process heat transfer and, therefore, gasification efficiency. The heating value of the produced gas was 8.4 MJ/Nm, attaining a hot gas efficiency of 70% and a cold gas efficiency of 57%. PMID:24453863

Calvo, L F; García, A I; Otero, M

2013-01-01

412

[Artifical improvement of soil fertility in a regraded forest ecosystem by using municipal sewage sludge].  

PubMed

The increasing occurrence of forest ecosystem degradation is a serious problem in tropical and subtropical regions. Field experiments showed that the application of sludge from a sewage treatment plant could not only promote the growth and reproduction of trees, including the increase in the height and diameter of trees and thus being advantageous to the growth of shrub and herb of trees, but also improve soil fertility such as increasing soil organic matter and available nitrogen and phosphorus. The test of residual heavy metals of soil indicated that the application of sludge increased the content of Pb in the soil and the increment of Pb was varied with the increase of sludge usage. There was no significant increase in other heavy metals. PMID:11993117

Li, Guibao; Yin, Chengqing; Lin, Yongbiao; Li, Zhian

2002-02-01

413

Liquid household hazardous wastes in the United States: Identification, disposal, and management plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present methods of disposal of today's hazardous household chemicals in the United States are frequently not acceptable because of pathways to groundwater, surface water, and the atmosphere. This report identifies potentially hazardous liquid waste in the household, notes current disposal practices, and recommends an improved management plan that utilizes consumer education, manufacturer cooperation, and governmental intervention. Laws requiring uniform disposal labeling on packaging are critical. Local, county, and state governments must be encouraged to coordinate the necessary infrastructure. Managing hazardous household wastes now will mitigate potential disposal problems.

Robertson, David K.; Akagha, Jude; Belasco, Jon; Bullis, Jane; Byrne, Gloria; di Patria, Joan; Fisher, Wayne; Fonzino, James; Hsu, Jeffrey; Merchan, Lucy; Oster, David; Rosenberg, Jon; von Aulock, Sabine; Vroeginday, Barry

1987-11-01

414

Assessment of an Enterovirus Sewage Surveillance System by Comparison of Clinical Isolates with Sewage Isolates from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Collected August 1994 to December 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantity and serotypes of enteroviruses (EVs) in the influent of a local sewage treatment plant were compared to local clinical EV cases to determine if testing of sewage is adequate for an EV surveillance system. The study was carried out from August 1994 to December 2002. Monthly influent specimens were processed by organic flocculation, and dilutions of concentrate were

Gerald Sedmak; David Bina; Jeffrey MacDonald

2003-01-01

415

Counting cytopathogenic virus adsorbed to cellulose nitrate membrane filters as a simple method for counting viruses in raw sewage and sewage effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the VIRMETADEN (acronym derived from virus adsorption enumeration) method to count cytopathogenic viruses adsorbed to cellulose nitrate membrane filters from prefiltered and decontaminated sewage samples was shown to be feasible. The numbers of naturally occurring enteroviruses recovered by the VIRMETADEN method were significantly higher than those obtained by standard plaque assay. For prefiltration of sewage samples, low protein binding

Laura Mocé-Llivina; Juan Jofre; Xavier Méndez; Dina Akkelidou; Francisco Lucena; Georgios T Papageorgiou

2002-01-01

416

Clay-sewage sludge co-pyrolysis. A TG-MS and Py-GC study on potential advantages afforded by the presence of clay in the pyrolysis of wastewater sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

Wastewater sewage sludge was co-pyrolyzed with a well characterized clay sample, in order to evaluate possible advantages in the thermal disposal process of solid waste. Characterization of the co-pyrolysis process was carried out both by thermogravimetric-mass spectrometric (TG-MS) analysis, and by reactor tests, using a lab-scale batch reactor equipped with a gas chromatograph for analysis of the evolved gas phase (Py-GC). Due to the presence of clay, two main effects were observed in the instrumental characterization of the process. Firstly, the clay surface catalyzed the pyrolysis reaction of the sludge, and secondly, the release of water from the clay, at temperatures of approx. 450-500 deg. C, enhanced gasification of part of carbon residue of the organic component of sludge following pyrolysis. Moreover, the solid residue remaining after pyrolysis process, composed of the inorganic component of sludge blended with clay, is characterized by good features for possible disposal by vitrification, yielding a vitreous matrix that immobilizes the hazardous heavy metals present in the sludge.

Ischia, Marco, E-mail: marco.ischia@ing.unitn.it [Department of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies, University of Trento, via Mesiano 77, 38100 Trento (Italy); Maschio, Roberto Dal [Department of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies, University of Trento, via Mesiano 77, 38100 Trento (Italy); Grigiante, Maurizio [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano 77, 38100 Trento (Italy); Baratieri, Marco [Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bolzano, Piazza Universita 5, 39100 Bolzano (Italy)

2011-01-15

417

The residuals analysis project: Evaluating disposal options for treated mixed low-level waste  

SciTech Connect

For almost four years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Federal Facility Compliance Act Disposal Workgroup has been working with state regulators and governors` offices to develop an acceptable configuration for disposal of its mixed low-level waste (MLLW). These interactions have resulted in screening the universe of potential disposal sites from 49 to 15 and conducting ``performance evaluations`` for those fifteen sites to estimate their technical capabilities for disposal of MLLW. In the residuals analysis project, we estimated the volume of DOE`s MLLW that will require disposal after treatment and the concentrations of radionuclides in the treated waste. We then compared the radionuclide concentrations with the disposal limits determined in the performance evaluation project for each of the fifteen sites. The results are a scoping-level estimate of the required volumetric capacity for MLLW disposal and the identification of waste streams that may pose problems for disposal based on current treatment plans. The analysis provides technical information for continued discussions between the DOE and affected States about disposal of MLLW and systematic input to waste treatment developers on disposal issues.

Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Case, J.T.; Letourneau, M.J.

1997-03-01

418

Effects of chemically contaminated sewage sludge on an aphid population  

SciTech Connect

Survival and fecundity of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, were markedly reduced when they were fed on collard plants grown in pots of soil treated with chemically contaminated sewage sludge, as compared to populations on potted plants grown in uncontaminated sludge or on fertilized soil (control). Calculated demographic parameters differed significantly between the contaminated sludge and uncontaminated sludge populations and between the contaminated sludge and control populations. No significant differences were detected between the uncontaminated sludge and control populations. The ecological effects on the aphids suggest that plant uptake and translocation of chemicals from the contaminated sludge affected aphid fitness through direct toxicity and/or reduced nutritional value of the plant. These results indicate that phytophagous insects may be affected by chemical contaminants in sewage sludge used in agriculture.

Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

1986-12-01

419

Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition  

SciTech Connect

The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-10-01

420

HANDLING AND DISPOSAL OF SLUDGES AND RESIDUALS FROM COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper summarizes the results of a three phases U.S. EPA project to define the problems and establish treatment procedures for handling and disposal of residual sludges and solids from combined sewer overflow treatment....

421

Co-digestion of cultivated microalgae and sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment.  

PubMed

In this study two wet microalgae cultures and one dried microalgae culture were co-digested in different proportions with sewage sludge in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The aim was to evaluate if the co-digestion could lead to an increased efficiency of methane production compared to digestion of sewage sludge alone. The results showed that co-digestion with both wet and dried microalgae, in certain proportions, increased the biochemical methane potential (BMP) compared with digestion of sewage sludge alone in mesophilic conditions. The BMP was significantly higher than the calculated BMP in many of the mixtures. This synergetic effect was statistically significant in a mixture containing 63% (w/w VS based) undigested sewage sludge and 37% (w/w VS based) wet algae slurry, which produced 23% more methane than observed with undigested sewage sludge alone. The trend was that thermophilic co-digestion of microalgae and undigested sewage sludge did not give the same synergy. PMID:25203227

Olsson, Jesper; Feng, Xin Mei; Ascue, Johnny; Gentili, Francesco G; Shabiimam, M A; Nehrenheim, Emma; Thorin, Eva

2014-11-01

422

Effect of Ultrasound on Dewaterability of Sewage Sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigate the effect of ultrasound on the dewaterability of sewage sludge. The investigation involves laboratory experiments, which were conducted under a broad range of conditions, including energy levels of ultrasonic waves, treatment time, and pH. Results of the study show that ultrasound enhances dewaterability significantly. The degree of enhancement varies with sonication energy, treatment time, and the amount of treated sludge.

Kim, Young-Uk; Kim, Byoung-Il

2003-09-01

423

Seasonal microbial community shift in a saline sewage treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated sludge was monthly sampled from a saline sewage treatment plant of Hong Kong (China) during June 2007 to May 2008\\u000a to analyze the microbial community shift along with environmental variations using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis\\u000a of polymerase chain reaction amplified 16S rDNA fragments. Environmental changes resulted into a seasonal microbial community\\u000a shift characterized by alterations in species number and

Qingmei Yan; Xuxiang Zhang; Tong Zhang; Herbert H. P. Fang

2011-01-01

424

Distribution and levels of brominated flame retardants in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and sixteen sewage sludge samples from 22 municipal wastewater treatment plants in Sweden were analysed for brominated flame retardants. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were in the range n.d.–450 ng\\/g wet weight, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) varied between n.d. and 220 ng\\/g wet weight, 2,4,6-tribromophenol was in the range n.d.–0.9 ng\\/g wet weight and polybrominated biphenyls were not detected (except

Karin Öberg; Kristofer Warman; Tomas Öberg

2002-01-01

425

Pathway of radioisotopes from land surface to sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive surface contaminations will only partially remain at the original location - a fraction of the inventory will take part in (mainly terrestrial and aquatic) environmental transport processes. The probably best known and most important process comprises the food chain. Besides, the translocation of dissolved and particle-bound radioisotopes with surface waters plays an important role. These processes can have the effect of displacing large radioisotope amounts over considerable distances and of creating new sinks and hot spots, as it is already known for sewage sludge. We are reporting on a combined modeling and experimental project concerning the transport of I-131 and Cs-134/Cs-137 FDNPP 2011 depositions in the Fukushima Prefecture. Well-documented experimental data sets are available for surface deposition and sewage sludge concentrations. The goal is to model the pathway in between, involving surface runoff, transport in the sewer system and processes in the sewage treatment plant. Watershed runoff and sewer transport will be treated with models developed recently by us in other projects. For sewage treatment processes a new model is currently being constructed. For comparison and further validation, historical data from Chernobyl depositions and tracer data from natural and artificial, e.g. medical, isotopes will be used. First results for 2011 data from Fukushima Prefecture will be presented. The benefits of the study are expected to be two-fold: on one hand, the abundant recent and historical data will help to develop and improve environmental transport models; on the other hand, both data and models will help in identifying the most critical points in the envisaged transport pathways in terms of radiation protection and waste management.

Fischer, Helmut W.; Yokoo, Yoshiyuki

2014-05-01

426

IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

2004-10-05

427

41 CFR 102-75.280 - What information concerning a proposed disposal must a disposal agency provide to the Attorney...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...disposal must a disposal agency provide to the Attorney...applicability of antitrust laws? 102-75.280 Section...disposal must a disposal agency provide to the Attorney...applicability of antitrust laws? The disposal agency must promptly...

2010-07-01

428

Disposal concepts and characteristics of existing and potential low-waste repositories - 9076  

SciTech Connect

The closure of the Barnwell low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility to non-Atlantic Compact users poses significant problems for organizations seeking to remove waste material from public circulation. Beta-gamma sources such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in particular create problems because in 36 states no path forward exists for disposal. Furthermore, several other countries are considering disposition of sealed sources in a variety of facilities. Like much of the United States, many of these countries currently have no means of disposal. Consequently, there is a greater tendency for sources to be misplaced or stored in insufficient facilities, resulting in an increased likelihood of unwitting exposure of nearby people to radioactive materials. This paper provides an overview of the various disposal concepts that have been employed or attempted in the United States. From these concepts, a general overview of characteristics necessary for long-term disposal is synthesized.

Johnson, Peter J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zarling, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

429

Potentials of using nanofiltration to recover phosphorus from sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Due to the depletion of mineral phosphorus resources there is an increasing demand for efficient phosphorus recovery technologies. In this study the potential of nanofiltration to recover phosphorus from pre-treated sewage sludge is investigated. The efficiency of three commercial nanofiltration membranes (Desal 5DK, NP030; MPF34) was tested using model solutions. Desal 5DK showed the best selectivity for phosphorus. A pH of lower than 1.5 was found to be most suitable. Desal 5DK was used on four different sewage sludge ash eluates and on one sewage sludge. In these experiments it was shown that a separation of phosphorus from undesired components such as heavy metals was possible with significant variations in the efficiency for the different ash and sludge types. Additionally the achievable product recovery was investigated with model solutions. A product recovery of 57.1% was attained for pH 1 and 41.4% for pH 1.5. PMID:18401142

Niewersch, C; Koh, C N; Wintgens, T; Melin, T; Schaum, C; Cornel, P

2008-01-01

430

Incinerated Sewage Sludge Products as Amendments for Agricultural Soils: Leaching and Plant Uptake of Trace Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary leaching column and greenhouse plant uptake studies were conducted in two soils with contrasting characteristics\\u000a amended with varying rates (0 to 148.3 Mg ha?1) of incinerated sewage sludge (ISS) and weathered sewage sludge (WISS) to estimate the leaching losses of trace elements\\u000a from the soils amended with incinerated sewage sludge by products and to evaluate the uptake and accumulation

S. Paramasivam; K. S. Sajwan; A. K. Alva

2006-01-01

431

Changes in physical, chemical and microbial parameters during the composting of municipal sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in physical, chemical and microbial parameters were investigated during the composting of municipal sewage sludge.\\u000a Raw sewage sludge (30% dry matter) was mixed with compost from sewage sludge (85% dry matter) in 3:1 ratio (v\\/v). The mixture\\u000a was divided into 4 windrows which were composted under the same conditions except the turning factor. The turning was every\\u000a 7, 10,

A. I. Khalil; M. S. Hassouna; H. M. A. El-Ashqar; M. Fawzi

432

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FREE LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS CONTENT FOR SEWAGE SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA guidelines for disposal of solid waste to landfills require that the waste contain no "free liquids", where the absence of free liquids is demonstrated by the EPA-prescribed pain filter liquids test (PFLT). his requirement applies to wastewater treatment sludges disposed to l...

433

EFFECTS ON CATTLE FROM EXPOSURE TO SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Soils, forages, and cattle grazing on a sludge disposal site were examined for trace metals and persistent organics. Soils at the disposal site had increased concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, and Pb. Forages from sludge applied soils had higher levels of Zn, Cd, Cu, and Ni and lo...

434

Disposable telemetry cable deployment system  

DOEpatents

A disposable telemetry cable deployment system for facilitating information retrieval while drilling a well includes a cable spool adapted for insertion into a drill string and an unarmored fiber optic cable spooled onto the spool cable and having a downhole end and a stinger end. Connected to the cable spool is a rigid stinger which extends through a kelly of the drilling apparatus. A data transmission device for transmitting data to a data acquisition system is disposed either within or on the upper end of the rigid stinger.

Holcomb, David Joseph (Sandia Park, NM)

2000-01-01

435

RSSC RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL 08/2011 7-1 RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL  

E-print Network

options for mixed waste and the University's storage capacity for this material is limited. CarefullyRSSC RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL 08/2011 7-1 CHAPTER 7 RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL PAGE I. Radioactive Waste Disposal

Slatton, Clint

436

41 CFR 102-75.10 - What basic real property disposal policy governs disposal agencies?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... General Provisions § 102-75.10 What basic real property disposal policy governs disposal agencies? Disposal agencies must provide, in a timely, efficient, and cost effective manner, the full range of real estate services...

2010-07-01

437

41 CFR 102-75.10 - What basic real property disposal policy governs disposal agencies?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... General Provisions § 102-75.10 What basic real property disposal policy governs disposal agencies? Disposal agencies must provide, in a timely, efficient, and cost effective manner, the full range of real estate services...

2011-01-01

438

41 CFR 102-75.10 - What basic real property disposal policy governs disposal agencies?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... General Provisions § 102-75.10 What basic real property disposal policy governs disposal agencies? Disposal agencies must provide, in a timely, efficient, and cost effective manner, the full range of real estate services...

2012-01-01

439

41 CFR 102-75.10 - What basic real property disposal policy governs disposal agencies?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... General Provisions § 102-75.10 What basic real property disposal policy governs disposal agencies? Disposal agencies must provide, in a timely, efficient, and cost effective manner, the full range of real estate services...

2013-07-01

440

K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring reports, second quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

During second quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13, 173. This report includes the results of those analyses. None of the analyzed constituents exceeded the Primary Drinking Water Standard or the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria at either the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site or the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site.

Not Available

1992-10-01

441

Sewage contamination in the new york bight. Coprostanol as an indicator  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediments of the New York Bight are analyzed for coprostanol, a fecal steroid, to determine the degree of sewage contamination. Coprostanol, when reported as a percentage of total steroids (% coprostanol), can be quantitatively related to the amount of sewage-derived organic matter. Furthermore, coprostanol is quite persistent in anoxic silts of the Bight and, thus, can be used to delineate historical contamination in these silts. Based on the sediments analyzed, the New York Bight is shown to be highly contaminated with sewage (most likely ocean-dumped sewage sludge), especially in the topographically low areas near the dump site, where black silts have been known to accumulate.

Hatcher, P.G.; McGillivary, P.A.

1979-01-01

442

Disposable Time and Disposable Income: Problem Casino Gambling Behavior in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing numbers of retirees spend their leisure time in the ever-growing number of gambling casinos in this country. For most older adults, casino gambling is a new form of excitement and entertainment. However, for some retirees, especially those vulnerable to depression from the changes and losses that can occur in aging, casino gambling can become disordered, problematic, and\\/or an addiction.

Dennis P. McNeilly; William J. Burke

2002-01-01

443

On geoengineering and the CO 2 problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of CO2 control in the atmosphere is tackled by proposing a kind of ‘fuel cycle’ for fossil fuels where CO2 is partially or totally collected at certain transformation points and properly disposed of.

Cesare Marchetti

1977-01-01

444

Disposal of Radioactive Waste at Hanford Creates Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Radioactive storage tanks at the Hanford facility have developed leaks. The situation is presently considered safe, but serious. A report from the National Academy of Science has recommended that the wastes be converted to stable solids and stored at another site on the Hanford Reservation. (Author/MA)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

1978-01-01

445

Resilience of sewage services to climate change uncertainty: analysis of the management of sewer overflows in two Parisian suburban areas.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the resilience perspective as an approach for understanding social and political vulnerabilities of urban services. The authors examine to what extend uncertainty due to climate change may affect the resilience of these urban services. The resilience perspective is increasingly used for analysing social groups' capacities to adapt to and live with disturbances. A lot of work on resilience has focused on the capacity to absorb shocks and still maintain functions. But there is also another aspect of resilience, which leads to take into account systems vulnerabilities and to aim at understanding their equilibrium and re-organization capacity. The purpose with this paper is to assess sewage systems capacities to adapt to climate change. Indeed, climate change could cause an increase of extreme rain events and, as a matter of consequence, an increase of sewer overflows and flooding of urbanised areas. Sewer systems have to cope with this change that may gravely affect urban planning. In recent studies of political science, risk management has been considered as a public policy involving and resulting from complex social, political and technical processes (Gilbert et al. 2003). From this point of view, the management of wastewaters and storm waters has to be considered not only as a technical but also as a political and a social system. Therefore, political science can be a fruitful perspective to understand the stakeholders perceptions of uncertainty and the way they are going to integrate this issue in their practices. The authors analyse the adaptive capacities of two sewer systems located in the Parisian suburban area. The chosen areas are highly populated. Each network is managed within a political and administrative unit called "Département". Both authorities of these "Départements" implement a public sewage service. Nonetheless these networks are connected and part of the greater Paris sewage policy. In both areas a real time control of urban wastewater systems has been developed. At last, both sewage services have make flood management their prior objective. Both "Départements" have developed retention capacities. One of them has implemented a source control strategy including daywatering while the other one has intent on building up a "culture of risk" on the territory. In this paper we compare how these social and technical systems cope with risks and face to climate change. Relying on interviews conducted with engineers and technical agents of water and sewage services and with a few residents in the concerned areas, we define three types of actors who take part to the social and technical systems. There are, on the one hand, the technical actors, including the agents currently managing the sewer network. On the other hand, there are the political actors in charge of elaborating and implementing a policy of risk prevention and managing the security force. Last but not least, there are the inhabitants who take an important part in the crisis management and in the mobilisations against the existing risk policy. The first part of the paper describes the sewage systems while there is no crisis. We explicit the actors' perceptions of risk and the risk management strategies they develop. The risk perceptions of technicians are truly different than the citizens' ones. For the technicians, floods, and their possible worsening, could be controlled. The problem is generated by the increasing impervious areas but it can be solved with technologies (real time control, best management practices and compensatory measures). In the technicians' perceptions, the risk is inherent to technical failures and can be reduced. For citizens, the concern is more for economics and personal goods losses. However both types of actors deal with the matter of submerged territories as a problem of institutional inertia (lack of financial resource, problem of governance). The second part presents the crisis management in these areas. We explain how various actors cope with flood when t

Rioust, E.; Deroubaix, J. F.; Barroca, B.; Bonierbale, T.; de Gouvello, B.; Deutsch, J. C.; Hubert, G.

2009-04-01

446

Reactor Pressure Vessel Head Packaging & Disposal  

SciTech Connect

Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Head replacements have come to the forefront due to erosion/corrosion and wastage problems resulting from the susceptibility of the RPV Head alloy steel material to water/boric acid corrosion from reactor coolant leakage through the various RPV Head penetrations. A case in point is the recent Davis-Besse RPV Head project, where detailed inspections in early 2002 revealed significant wastage of head material adjacent to one of the Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) nozzles. In lieu of making ASME weld repairs to the damaged head, Davis-Besse made the decision to replace the RPV Head. The decision was made on the basis that the required weld repair would be too extensive and almost impractical. This paper presents the packaging, transport, and disposal considerations for the damaged Davis-Besse RPV Head. It addresses the requirements necessary to meet Davis Besse needs, as well as the regulatory criteria, for shipping and burial of the head. It focuses on the radiological characterization, shipping/disposal package design, site preparation and packaging, and the transportation and emergency response plans that were developed for the Davis-Besse RPV Head project.

Wheeler, D. M.; Posivak, E.; Freitag, A.; Geddes, B.

2003-02-26

447

Research on atmospheric pressure plasma processing sewage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water pollution has become more and more serious with the industrial progress and social development, so it become a worldwide leading environmental management problem to human survival and personal health, therefore, countries are looking for the best solution. Generally speaking, in this paper the work has the following main achievements and innovation: (1) Developed a new plasma device--Plasma Water Bed. (2) At atmospheric pressure condition, use oxygen, nitrogen, argon and helium as work gas respectively, use fiber spectrometer to atmospheric pressure plasma discharge the emission spectrum of measurement, due to the different work gas producing active particle is different, so can understand discharge, different particle activity, in the treatment of wastewater, has the different degradation effects. (3) Methyl violet solution treatment by plasma water bed. Using plasma drafting make active particles and waste leachate role, observe the decolorization, measurement of ammonia nitrogen removal.

Song, Gui-cai; Na, Yan-xiang; Dong, Xiao-long; Sun, Xiao-liang

2013-08-01

448

Evaluation of food waste disposal options by LCC analysis from the perspective of global warming: Jungnang case, South Korea  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: > Various food waste disposal options were evaluated from the perspective of global warming. > Costs of the options were compared by the methodology of life cycle assessment and life cycle cost analysis. > Carbon price and valuable by-products were used for analyzing environmental credits. > The benefit-cost ratio of wet feeding scenario was the highest. - Abstract: The costs associated with eight food waste disposal options, dry feeding, wet feeding, composting, anaerobic digestion, co-digestion with sewage sludge, food waste disposer, incineration, and landfilling, were evaluated in the perspective of global warming and energy and/or resource recovery. An expanded system boundary was employed to compare by-products. Life cycle cost was analyzed through the entire disposal process, which included discharge, separate collection, transportation, treatment, and final disposal stages, all of which were included in the system boundary. Costs and benefits were estimated by an avoided impact. Environmental benefits of each system per 1 tonne of food waste management were estimated using carbon prices resulting from CO{sub 2} reduction by avoided impact, as well as the prices of by-products such as animal feed, compost, and electricity. We found that the cost of landfilling was the lowest, followed by co-digestion. The benefits of wet feeding systems were the highest and landfilling the lowest.

Kim, Mi-Hyung, E-mail: mhkim9@snu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Planning, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Yul-Eum, E-mail: yesong0724@dongguk.edu [Department of Philosophy, Dongguk University, Pil-Dong 3-Ga, Jung-Gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Life Science, Dongguk University, Pil-Dong 3-Ga, Jung-Gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Han-Byul, E-mail: kuackyang@ssu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Soongsil University, Sangdo-Ro 369, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Wk, E-mail: kimjw@snu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Planning, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sun-Jin, E-mail: sjhwang@khu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Center for Environmental Studies, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon-Dong, Giheung-Gu, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-09-15

449

Land application of sewage sludge (biosolids) in Australia: risks to the environment and food crops.  

PubMed

Australia is a large exporter of agricultural products, with producers responsible for a range of quality assurance programs to ensure that food crops are free from various contaminants of detriment to human health. Large volumes of treated sewage sludge (biosolids), although low by world standards, are increasingly being recycled to land, primarily to replace plant nutrients and to improve soil properties; they are used in agriculture, forestry, and composted. The Australian National Biosolids Research Program (NBRP) has linked researchers to a collective goal to investigate nutrients and benchmark safe concentrations of metals nationally using a common methodology, with various other research programs conducted in a number of states specific to regional problems and priorities. The use of biosolids in Australia is strictly regulated by state guidelines, some of which are under review following recent research outcomes. Communication and research between the water industry, regulators and researchers specific to the regulation of biosolids is further enhanced by the Australian and New Zealand Biosolids Partnership (ANZBP). This paper summarises the major issues and constraints related to biosolids use in Australia using specific case examples from Western Australia, a member of the Australian NBRP, and highlights several research projects conducted over the last decade to ensure that biosolids are used beneficially and safely in the environment. Attention is given to research relating to plant nutrient uptake, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus (including that of reduced phosphorus uptake in alum sludge-amended soil); the risk of heavy metal uptake by plants, specifically cadmium, copper and zinc; the risk of pathogen contamination in soil and grain products; change to soil pH (particularly following lime-amended biosolids); and the monitoring of faecal contamination by biosolids in waterbodies using DNA techniques. Examples of products that are currently produced in Western Australia from sewage sludge include mesophilic anaerobically digested and dewatered biosolids cake, lime-amended biosolids, alum sludge and compost. PMID:20595753

Pritchard, D L; Penney, N; McLaughlin, M J; Rigby, H; Schwarz, K

2010-01-01

450

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unless carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion is captured and disposed of safely and permanently, the concerns over climate change will eventually lead to the demise of fossil fuels. Because of their importance in today's energy market the phasing out of fossil fuels would likely precipitate a major energy crisis. Mineral sequestration and extraction of carbon dioxide from the air

K. S. Lackner

2002-01-01

451

TMI abnormal wastes disposal options  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial quantity of high beta-gamma\\/high-TRU contaminated wastes are expected from cleanup activities of Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station. Those wastes are not disposable because of present regulatory constraints. Therefore, they must be stored temporarily. This paper discusses three options for storage of those wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: (1) storage in temporary

Ayers; A. L. Jr

1984-01-01

452

Regional gross disposable household income  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents estimates published in May 2008, an overview of methodology used and future plans for regional economic dataThis article looks at estimates for regional gross disposable household income (GDHI) at current basic prices, published in May 2008. These data are published using the European Union Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics (NUTS) regions. Data are published for the NUTS1, NUTS2

Eddie Holmes

2008-01-01

453

Regional Gross Disposable Household Income  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at estimates for Regional Gross Disposable Household Income (GDHI) at current basic prices, published in April 2009 by the Office for National Statistics (ONS). These data are published using the European Union Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics (NUTS) regions. Data are published for the NUTS1, NUTS2 and NUTS3 levels for the period 1995 to 2007. The

Charlotte Richards; Wayne Roberts

2009-01-01

454

Reduce drilling waste disposal costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews various ways to reduce volume of wastes generated during oil and gas well drilling operations. The primary method of reducing costs of disposal is to reduce the volume of waste generated. The paper discusses methods to reduce this volume by using different, non-toxic additives such as ground limestone or dolomite to control mud densities. This would result

1993-01-01

455

Laboratory Waste Disposal HAZARDOUS GLASS  

E-print Network

Laboratory Waste Disposal HAZARDOUS GLASS Items that could cut or puncture skin or trash- can of in normal trash containers. Pasteur pipettes Other pipettes and tips (glass or plastic) Slides and cover HAZARDOUS TRASH Items that are neither sharp nor contaminated. Thiswastestreamishandleddirectlybycustodians

Sheridan, Jennifer

456

Evaluation of Proposed New LLW Disposal Activity: Disposal of Aqueous PUREX Waste Stream in the Saltstone Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Aqueous PUREX waste stream from Tanks 33 and 35, which have been blended in Tank 34, has been identified for possible processing through the Saltstone Processing Facility for disposal in the Saltstone Disposal Facility.

Cook, J.R.

2003-10-09

457

Biomass production and nutrient removal potential of water hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent  

SciTech Connect

Growth and nutrient uptake of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart Solms)) cultured in sewage effluent were measured over a period of one year in a prototype wastewater treatment system which has been in operation at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida. Annual productivity of water hyacinth cultured in primary sewage effluent (Channel II) was found to be in the range of 5 to 27 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ day (23.6 dry tons/acre yr). Average growth rate during the months of May through October 1982 for hyacinth cultured in Channel II (primary sewage effluent) and Channel I (treated primary sewage effluent leaving Channel II) was about 16 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (27 dry tons/acre yr), compared to the growth rate of 13 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (22 dry tons/acre yr) for hyacinths cultured in secondary sewage effluent. Plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent generally had longer roots than the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent. A significant relationship was observed between the growth rate of hyacinth and the solar radiation. N and P concentration of the plant tissue were higher in the hyacinths cultured during winter months compared to the plants grown in summer months. Average N and P concentration of the plants cultured im primary sewage effluent were found to be 3.7% N and 0.94% P, respectively, while the plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent had a total N and P content of 2.8% N and 0.79% P. Nutrient ratios of the major plant nurtrients were found to be approximately the same as the nutrient ratios in the sewage effluent. Annual N and P uptake rates of hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent were found to be in the range of 1176 to 1193 kg N/ha yr and 321 to 387 kg P/ha yr, respectively.

Reddy, K.R.; Hueston, F.M.; McKinn, T.

1985-05-01

458

Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

NONE

1996-08-01

459

Sludge disposal from acid mine drainage treatment. Report of investigations/1982  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines conducted a study of current trends in methods employed by the coal industry to dispose of acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment sludge. Thirty-three AMD treatment plants, operated by 11 Pennsylvania coal companies, were randomly surveyed. These plants provided data for calculating sludge volumes, as well as information on sludge settling, transportation, and disposal. Onsite visits allowed observation of problems associated with the various methods of sludge disposal: (1) disposal into a deep mine, (2) permanent retention in ponds, (3) disposal at an active coal refuse area, and (4) onsite burial. Method 1 is the most frequently used and the most environmentally sound. It is apparent, based on this representative sampling of AMD treatment plants, that the magnitude of sludge production is such that an aggressive and directed effort in reduction of sludge volume is seriously needed. The areas of major concern are (1) the amount of surface land required for sludge storage and disposal, (2) reclamation of these disturbed surface areas, and (3) effective and efficient means of removing, transporting, and disposing of AMD sludge. In this report, an engineering approach to the practical problems associated with the existing disposal methods is presented, together with recommendations for future research.

Ackman, T.E.

1982-06-01

460

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE...

2013-07-01

461

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE...

2010-07-01

462

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE...

2012-07-01

463

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE...

2011-07-01

464

Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

1998-07-01

465

Worldwide low-level waste disposal practices  

SciTech Connect

Low-level waste disposal practices will be described for ten or more countries. These practices will be compared with expectations for disposal designs for low-level waste regional compacts in the US.

Towler, O A

1985-01-01

466

LINERS FOR WASTE IMPOUNDMENTS AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An overview is presented of the current technology related to liners of waste disposal and impoundment facilities. Information is summarized on the characteristics, selection, performance and installation of liners for various disposal situations. Some cost estimates are also inc...

467

Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory  

E-print Network

irritaciones leves de los ojos y la piel. · Las hojas de datos de seguridad de los materiales (MSDS, por sus ­ Objetivos contradictorios ­ Si la tasa de expansión aumenta, la espuma se seca. ­ Si la tasa de expansión intermedia #12;Disposal: Science and Theory Mayor expansión, espuma seca . Menor expansión, espuma húmeda

Benson, Eric R.

468

Pediatric Emergency Department Visits for Diarrheal Illness Increased After Release of Undertreated Sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONTEXT. Contamination of local waterways may occur through release of partially treated sewage. The Environmental Protection Agency has recently reviewed regulatory standards for this practice. However, the health effects of these events have not been well studied. OBJECTIVE. Our goal was to identify any increase in visits to a pediatric emergency department for diarrheal illness after sewage bypass into Lake

Ryan L. Redman; Cheryl A. Nenn; Marc H. Gorelick

469

Cold Climate Phosphorus Uptake by Submerged Aquatic Plants in a Sewage Treatment Free Water Surface Wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November 2002, biomass phosphorus (P) of submerged aquatic plants with associated epiphyton was measured using P-32 tracer addition in a treatment wetland receiving tertiary treated municipal sewage. The wetland is situated 120 km west of Stockholm, Sweden receiving tertiary treated municipal sewage. During the experiment, inflow water had a total P concentration of 0.3 and an iron concentration of

BARBRO ULÉN; KARINW S. TONDERSKI

2005-01-01

470

Environmental Contamination with Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci from Hospital Sewage in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were detected in samples of sewage obtained downstream of hos- pitals of the Porto area in Portugal, and in samples from the Douro Estuary. Clonal analysis, Tn1546 typing, and presence of putative virulence traits indicate the clinical origin of these isolates. This observation highlights the importance of hospital sewage in the VRE contamination of the environment.

Carla Novais; Teresa M. Coque; Helena Ferreira; Joao Carlos Sousa; Luisa Peixe

2005-01-01

471

Sustainable Use of Resources Recycling of Sewage Treatment Plant Water in Concrete  

E-print Network

Sustainable Use of Resources ­ Recycling of Sewage Treatment Plant Water in Concrete Marcia Silva1, especially partially processed sewage treatment plant water in concrete. On the basis of identified knowledge. The concrete industry is a significant contributor to air pollution and also a consumer of vast quantities

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

472

Environmental Contamination with Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci from Hospital Sewage in Portugal  

PubMed Central

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were detected in samples of sewage obtained downstream of hospitals of the Porto area in Portugal, and in samples from the Douro Estuary. Clonal analysis, Tn1546 typing, and presence of putative virulence traits indicate the clinical origin of these isolates. This observation highlights the importance of hospital sewage in the VRE contamination of the environment. PMID:15933043

Novais, Carla; Coque, Teresa M.; Ferreira, Helena; Sousa, Joao Carlos; Peixe, Luisa

2005-01-01

473

Analysis of Energy and Soft Dirt in an Urban Untreated Sewage Source Heat Pump System  

E-print Network

When using urban untreated sewage as a cool and heat source of heat pump, it is unavoidable to form soft dirt. Based on the method of exergy, an analysis is given of the impact the dirt growth of a tube-shell sewage heat exchanger will have...

Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, X.

2006-01-01

474

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in sewage treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in the biological units of various full-scale municipal sewage treatment plants were measured. Samples of influent, primary effluent, aeration tank effluent, final effluent and grab samples of primary, activated, secondary and anaerobically digested sludge were collected by 5 sampling events over one year. The two sewage treatment plants (STPs) selected for

Jing Yu; Jiangyong Hu; Shuhei Tanaka; Shigeo Fujii

2009-01-01

475

Prevalence of Respiratory Adenovirus Species B and C in Sewage Sludge  

PubMed Central

Human adenovirus diversity in sewage sludge was assessed by Ion Torrent sequencing and annotation of partial adenovirus hexon genes. The most abundant species identified were HAdV-C (average 78%) and -B (average 20%), which are associated with respiratory infections. These findings reinforce the necessity to consider aerosol exposure to sewage-derived pathogens. PMID:25208697

Bibby, Kyle; Peccia, Jordan

2013-01-01

476

The cost of municipal sewage treatment - structure, origin, minimization - methods of fair cost comparison and allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost comparison in the field of wastewater treatment is a difficult task, particularly concerning sewages charges in different countries. German wastewater management is, for one thing, known to be very efficient, yet, for another, comparatively costly on an international scale. In this context, the marginal conditions typically prevailing in the field of sewage treatment in Germany should be mentioned: dense

H. Bode; T. Grünebaum

477

The use of Collembola avoidance tests to characterize sewage sludges as soil amendments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecotoxicological characterization of sewage sludge takes into account the additive, antagonistic and synergistic effects that occur as a result of multi-chemical interactions. Such an evaluation therefore is essential to complement the chemical analysis that, although required by law, is clearly insufficient. Using a tiered approach in the toxic evaluation of sewage sludge allows for characterization of toxicity in a

T. Natal-da-luz; S. Tidona; C. A. M. Van Gestel; P. V. Morais; J. P. Sousa

2009-01-01

478

Root Penetration of Sealing Layers Made of Fly Ash and Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash and sewage sludge are suggested materials for constructing sealing layers covering mine tailings impoundments. Little is known, however, of their effect on vegetation or resistance to root penetration. We investigate: (i) the ability of different plant species to grow in seal- ing layers comprising fly ash and sewage sludge, (ii) the impact on plant growth of freshly hardened

Clara Neuschütz; Eva Stoltz; Maria Greger

2006-01-01

479

Fate of pharmaceuticals and cosmetic ingredients during the operation of a MBR treating sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal wastewaters contain many organic compounds, among them active ingredients as pharmaceuticals and cosmetic products, which are used in large quantities throughout the world. Most of these compounds come either from domestic sewage or from hospital or industrial discharges and enter municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). Modern STPs can effectively accomplish carbon and nitrogen removal, as well as microbial pollution

R. Reif; S. Suárez; F. Omil; J. M. Lema

2008-01-01

480

Research papers Tracing the influence of sewage discharge on coastal bays of Southern  

E-print Network

: Eutrophication Dinoflagellate cysts Toxic species Sewage Estuaries British Columbia a b s t r a c t The impact/schwartzii and Dubridinium species, known to reflect areas affected by eutrophication, occur directly adjacent to all three sewage outfalls, as well as in the more stagnant waters of Esquimalt and Victoria Harbours

Pedersen, Tom