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Sample records for sewage samples collected

  1. Sampling procedures and protocols for the National Sewage Sludge Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Telliard, W.A.

    1989-08-01

    The objective of the sampling project is to visit and collect samples of sewage sludge from a variety of Publicly Owned Treatment Works in an effort to identify the presence and level of toxic pollutants contained in municipal sewage sludge.

  2. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sewage collection system. 35.925-13 Section 35.925-13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage collection system. That, if...

  3. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sewage collection system. 35.925-13 Section 35.925-13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage collection system. That, if...

  4. Cold Vacuum Drying facility sanitary sewage collection system design description (SYS 27)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-02

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) sanitary sewage collection system. The sanitary sewage collection system provides collection and storage of effluents and raw sewage from the CVDF to support the cold vacuum drying process. This system is comprised of a sanitary sewage holding tank and pipes for collection and transport of effluents to the sanitary sewage holding tank.

  5. Seawater sampling and collection.

    PubMed

    Zaikova, Elena; Hawley, Alyse; Walsh, David A; Hallam, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    This video documents methods for collecting coastal marine water samples and processing them for various downstream applications including biomass concentration. nucleic acid purification, cell abundance, nutrient and trace gas analyses. For today's demonstration samples were collected from the deck of the HMS John Strickland operating in Saanich Inlet. An A-frame derrick, with a multi-purpose winch and cable system, is used in combination with Niskin or Go-Flo water sampling bottles. A Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth (CTD) sensor is also be used to sample the underlying water mass. To minimize outgassing, trace gas samples are collected first. Then, nutrients, chemistry, and cell counts are determined. Finally, waters are collected for biomass filtration. The set-up and collection time for a single cast is approximately 1.5 hours at a maximum depth of 215 meters. Therefore, a total of 6 hours is generally needed to complete the four-part collection series described here. PMID:19536065

  6. Quantification of viable helminth eggs in samples of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Maria Carolina Vieira da; Barés, Monica Eboly; Braga, Maria Cristina Borba

    2016-10-15

    For the application of sewage sludge as fertilizer, it is of fundamental importance the absence of pathogenic organisms, such as viable helminth eggs. Thus, the quantification of these organisms has to be carried out by means of the application of reliable and accurate methodologies. Nevertheless, until the present date, there is no consensus with regard to the adoption of a universal methodology for the detection and quantification of viable helminth eggs. It is therefore necessary to instigate a debate on the different protocols currently in use, as well as to assemble relevant information in order to assist in the development of a more comprehensive and accurate method to quantify viable helminth eggs in samples of sewage sludge and its derivatives. PMID:27470467

  7. [Detection of astrovirus RNA from sewage works, seawater and native oysters samples in Chiba City, Japan using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction].

    PubMed

    Yokoi, H; Kitahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Utagawa, E

    2001-04-01

    Through a year from April, 1999 to March, 2000, 20 samples, which consisted of raw sewage (2), chlorine-treated sewage (2), seawater (10) and naturally grown oysters (6), were collected monthly both from the sewage works at Mihama-ku, Chiba City and at a yacht harbor in Chiba City Bay, Japan. Astrovirus RNA were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and was typed by direct sequencing. Astrovirus positive products were detected from 9 samples (raw sewage; 1/2, chlorine-treated sewage; 2/2, seawater; 5/10 and oysters; 1/6) collected in April, 1999. In May, positive products were detected from 4 samples (raw sewage; 2/2 and seawater; 2/10). In June, only 1 positive product was detected from raw sewage. The number of positive samples showed a tendency to decrease and no positive products were detected from samples collected in July, 1999 to January, 2000. After that period, positive products were again detected from 3 samples (raw sewage; 1/2, chlorine-treated sewage; 2/2) collected in February, 2000. In March, the number of positive samples showed the peak and positive products were detected from 12 samples (raw sewage; 2/2, chlorine-treated sewage; 2/2, seawater; 7/10 and oysters: 1/6). Astrovirus positive products detected in April, May, June, July, 1999 and February, 2000 were classified into type 1 or 2 by sequencing, whereas in March, 2000 were type 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7. PMID:11357315

  8. Molecular Characterization of Polio from Environmental Samples: ISSP, The Israeli Sewage Surveillance Protocol.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Lester M; Manor, Yossi; Hindiyeh, Musa; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-01-01

    Polioviruses are enteric viruses that cause paralytic poliomyelitis in less than 0.5 % of infections and are asymptomatic in >90 % infections of naïve hosts. Environmental surveillance monitors polio in populations rather than in individuals. When this very low morbidity to infection ratio, drops drastically in highly vaccinated populations, environmental surveillance employing manual or automatic sampling coupled with molecular analysis carried out in well-equipped central laboratories becomes the surveillance method of choice since polioviruses are excreted by infected individuals regardless of whether or not the infection is symptomatic. This chapter describes a high throughput rapid turn-around time method for molecular characterization of polioviruses from sewage. It is presented in five modules: (1) Sewage collection and concentration of the viruses in the sewage; (2) Cell cultures for identification of virus in the concentrated sewage; (3) Nucleic acid extractions directly from sewage and from tissue cultures infected with aliquots of concentrated sewage; (4) Nucleic Acid Amplification for poliovirus serotype identification and intratypic differentiation (discriminating wild and vaccine derived polioviruses form vaccine strains); and (5) Molecular characterization of viral RNA by qRT-PCR, TR-PCR, and Sequence analysis. Monitoring silent or symptomatic transmission of vaccine-derived polioviruses or wild polioviruses is critical for the endgame of poliovirus eradication. We present methods for adapting standard kits and validating the changes for this purpose based on experience gained during the recent introduction and sustained transmission of a wild type 1 poliovirus in Israel in 2013 in a population with an initial IPV vaccine coverage >90 %. PMID:26983731

  9. Determination of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates in sewage sludge: effect of sample pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sanjuan, María; Rigol, Anna; Sahuquillo, Angels; Rodríguez-Cruz, Sonia; Lacorte, Silvia

    2009-07-01

    A complete characterization of sewage sludge collected from five biological waste water treatment plants was done to determine physico-chemical parameters, heavy metals and alkylphenols, making special emphasis on sampling, homogenization, and sample pre-treatment. Ultrasonic extraction followed by gas chromatrography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to evaluate the effect of sample pre-treatment (untreated sample, freeze-drying, drying at 40 degrees C or drying at 100 degrees C) on the concentration of octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP1EO, NP2EO). Untreated samples and samples dried at 100 degrees C gave concentration levels up to 62% and 89% lower, respectively, than freeze-dried samples. In 50% of cases, freeze-dried samples led to significantly higher concentrations than those obtained by drying at 40 degrees C. Thus, freeze-drying is the recommended sample pre-treatment to prevent possible losses of OP, NP, and NP1EO. Using this methodology, concentrations detected were from 3.2 to 199 mg kg(-1) being NP followed by NP1EO found in highest concentration. The total concentration of NP and NP1EO exceeded the limit of 50 mg kg(-1) proposed by the draft European directive on sewage sludge in three out of five samples studied. Contrarily, heavy metals were below the legislated values. PMID:19305980

  10. Occurrence and behaviour of 105 active pharmaceutical ingredients in sewage waters of a municipal sewer collection system.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Richard H; Östman, Marcus; Olofsson, Ulrika; Grabic, Roman; Fick, Jerker

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations and behaviour of 105 different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the aqueous phase of sewage water within a municipal sewer collection system have been investigated. Sewage water samples were gathered from seven pump stations (one of which was located within a university hospital) and from sewage water treatment influent and effluent. The targeted APIs were quantified using a multi-residue method based on online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The method was thoroughly validated and complies with EU regulations on sample handling, limits of quantification, quality control and selectivity. 51 APIs, including antibiotics, antidepressants, hypertension drugs, analgesics, NSAIDs and psycholeptics, were found frequently within the sewer collection system. API concentrations and mass flows were evaluated in terms of their frequency of detection, daily variation, median/minimum/maximum/average concentrations, demographic dissimilarities, removal efficiencies, and mass flow profiles relative to municipal sales data. Our results suggest that some APIs are removed from, or introduced to, the aqueous phase of sewage waters within the studied municipal collection system. PMID:24768701

  11. Detection of norovirus genogroup IV, klassevirus, and pepper mild mottle virus in sewage samples in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Tae-Hee; Kim, Se-Cheol; Kim, Seong-Taek; Chung, Chang-Hyun; Chung, Ju-Young

    2014-03-01

    Norovirus (NoV) genogroup (G) IV has been infrequently isolated from patients suffering from acute gastroenteritis (AGE), although this virus has not been detected in Korea. Klassevirus, a novel virus belonging to the family Picornaviridae and a possible etiologic agent of AGE, and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), which originates from processed pepper products and is shed in human feces, are suggested to be new indicators of fecal pollution. We aimed to investigate the presence of NoV-GIV, klassevirus, and PMMoV in sewage samples collected in Korea. Between December 2010 and February 2012, influent sewage samples were collected every month from a wastewater treatment plant located in the eastern part of Seoul in Korea. The sewage samples were concentrated by the adsorption elution method using an HA (pore size of 0.45 μm with mixed cellulose ester) electronegative filter with an acid-rinse procedure. RT-PCR was performed using specific primers for the capsid gene of NoV-GII and NoV-GIV, the coat gene of PMMoV, and the VP0/VP1 gene of klassevirus. Among the 14 sewage samples tested, klassevirus was detected in eight (57.1 %), PMMoV in eight (57.1 %), NoV-GII in five (35.7 %), and NoV-GIV in three (21.4 %). NoV-GIV was detected in December 2010 and January and March 2011. PMMoV and klassevirus were frequently detected in winter. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the NoV-GIV detected in this study belonged to G-IV1 lineage. This is the first study to confirm the presence of NoV-GIV, klassevirus, and PMMoV in sewage samples in Korea. PMID:24052148

  12. Perchlorate in sewage sludge, rice, bottled water and milk collected from different areas in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yali; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Yawei; Shi, Jianbo; Cai, Yaqi; Mou, Shifen; Jiang, Guibin

    2007-10-01

    As a new emerging environmental contaminant, perchlorate has prompted people to pay more attention. The presence of perchlorate in the human body can result in improper regulation of metabolism for adults. Furthermore, it also causes developmental and behavioral problems for infants and children because it can interfere with iodide uptake into the thyroid tissue. In this paper, perchlorate in sewage sludge, rice, bottled drinking water and milk was detected for investigating the perchlorate pollution status in China. The places, where the samples were collected, cover most regions of China. Therefore, the final data on perchlorate levels will give an indication of the perchlorate pollution status in China. The final determination of perchlorate was performed by ion chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with negative mode. The concentration of perchlorate in sewage sludge, rice, bottled drinking water and milk was in the range of 0.56-379.9 microg/kg, 0.16-4.88 mug/kg, 0.037-2.013 microg/L and 0.30-9.1 microg/L, respectively. The results show that perchlorate has been widespread in China. PMID:17604836

  13. Environmental monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and insoluble soap in Spanish sewage sludge samples.

    PubMed

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Reis, Marco S; Saraiva, Pedro M; Vílchez, José L

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and insoluble soap performed on Spanish sewage sludge samples. This work focuses on finding statistical relations between LAS concentrations and insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples and variables related to wastewater treatment plants such as water hardness, population and treatment type. It is worth to mention that 38 samples, collected from different Spanish regions, were studied. The statistical tool we used was Principal Component Analysis (PC), in order to reduce the number of response variables. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and a non-parametric test such as the Kruskal-Wallis test were also studied through the estimation of the p-value (probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true) in order to study possible relations between the concentration of both analytes and the rest of variables. We also compared LAS and insoluble soap behaviors. In addition, the results obtained for LAS (mean value) were compared with the limit value proposed by the future Directive entitled "Working Document on Sludge". According to the results, the mean obtained for soap and LAS was 26.49 g kg(-1) and 6.15 g kg(-1) respectively. It is worth noting that LAS mean was significantly higher than the limit value (2.6 g kg(-1)). In addition, LAS and soap concentrations depend largely on water hardness. However, only LAS concentration depends on treatment type. PMID:21526451

  14. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  15. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  16. Micro-TLC Approach for Fast Screening of Environmental Samples Derived from Surface and Sewage Waters.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Slączka, Magdalena M; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J

    2013-01-01

    In this work we demonstrated analytical capability of micro-planar (micro-TLC) technique comprising one and two-dimensional (2D) separation modes to generate fingerprints of environmental samples originated from sewage and ecosystems waters. We showed that elaborated separation and detection protocols are complementary to previously invented HPLC method based on temperature-dependent inclusion chromatography and UV-DAD detection. Presented 1D and 2D micro-TLC chromatograms of SPE (solid-phase extraction) extracts were optimized for fast and low-cost screening of water samples collected from lakes and rivers located in the area of Middle Pomerania in northern part of Poland. Moreover, we studied highly organic compounds loaded in the treated and untreated sewage waters obtained from municipal wastewater treatment plant "Jamno" near Koszalin City (Poland). Analyzed environmental samples contained number of substances characterized by polarity range from estetrol to progesterone as well as chlorophyll-related dyes previously isolated and pre-purified by simple SPE protocol involving C18 cartridges. Optimization of micro-TLC separation and quantification protocols of such samples were discussed from the practical point of view using simple separation efficiency criteria including total peaks number, log(product ΔhR F), signal intensity and peak asymmetry. Outcomes of the presented analytical approach, especially using detection involving direct fluorescence (UV366/Vis) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) visualization are compared with UV-DAD HPLC-generated data reported previously. Chemometric investigation based on principal components analysis revealed that SPE extracts separated by micro-TLC and detected under fluorescence and PMA visualization modes can be used for robust sample fingerprinting even after long-term storage of the extracts (up to 4 years) at subambient temperature (-20 °C). Such approach allows characterization of wide range of sample components that

  17. Determination of clindamycin and its metabolite clindamycin sulfoxide in diverse sewage samples.

    PubMed

    Oertel, Reinhard; Schubert, Sara; Mühlbauer, Viktoria; Büttner, Bozena; Marx, Conrad; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2014-10-01

    In a research project on risk management of harmful substances in water cycles, clindamycin and 12 further antibiotics were determined in different sewage samples. In contrast to other antibiotics, an increase of the clindamycin concentration in the final effluent in comparison to the influent of the sewage treatment plant (STP) was observed. A back transformation from the main metabolite clindamycin sulfoxide to clindamycin during the denitrification process has been discussed. Therefore, the concentration of this metabolite was measured additionally. Clindamycin sulfoxide was stable in the STP and the assumption of back transformation of the metabolite to clindamycin was confuted. To explain the increasing clindamycin concentration in the STP, the ratio of clindamycin sulfoxide to clindamycin was observed. The ratio increased in dry spells with concentrated samples and with long dwell time in the sewer system. A short hydraulic retention in waste water system and diluted samples in periods of extreme rainfall lead to a lower ratio of clindamycin sulfoxide to clindamycin concentration. A plausible explanation of this behavior could be that clindamycin was adsorbed strongly to a component of the sewage during this long residence time and in the STP, clindamycin was released. In the common sample preparation in the lab, clindamycin was not released. Measurements of clindamycin and clindamycin sulfoxide in the influent and effluent of STP is advised for sewage monitoring. PMID:24310902

  18. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... design capacity equivalent to that of the existing system plus a reasonable amount for future growth. For... October 18, 1972; (b) The collection system is cost-effective; (c) The population density of the area...

  19. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... design capacity equivalent to that of the existing system plus a reasonable amount for future growth. For... October 18, 1972; (b) The collection system is cost-effective; (c) The population density of the area...

  20. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... design capacity equivalent to that of the existing system plus a reasonable amount for future growth. For purposes of this section, a community would include any area with substantial human habitation on October... October 18, 1972; (b) The collection system is cost-effective; (c) The population density of the area...

  1. Investigation of TL properties of sand collected from sewage sludge as an "in situ" dosimeter in radiation disinfection.

    PubMed

    Benny, P G; Bhatt, B C

    1996-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) properties of sand, collected from sewage sludge, were studied after extensive cleaning procedures. In the sand samples treated with either hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or hydrofluoric acid (HF), there was a prominent TL peak at about 220 degrees C after gamma-irradiation and 120 degrees C, 20 min post-irradiation annealing treatment. The dose vs TL response curves in hydrogen-peroxide-treated and HF-treated sand samples were found to be linear up to 30 and 100 Gy, respectively, beyond which they were supra-linear. The extent of post-irradiation fading in the sand sample, which was treated with H2O2 and post-irradiation annealed at 120 degrees C for 20 min, was observed to be 8% after 21 days, while no detectable fading was observed for the sample which was HF treated and annealed at 120 degrees C for 20 min after gamma-irradiation. Therefore, H2O2- as well as HF-treated sludge sand samples could be considered for use as in situ TL dosimeters for radiation disinfection of sewage sludge. PMID:8589671

  2. Determination of siloxanes and VOC in landfill gas and sewage gas by canister sampling and GC-MS/AES analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schweigkofler, M.; Niessner, R.

    1999-10-15

    Biogases such as landfill gas and sewage gas undergo a combustion process which is generating electric energy. Since several trace compounds such as siloxanes (also halogenated and sulfur compounds) are known to cause severe problems to these gas combustion engines, they are of particular interest. In this work, a new technique for sampling, identification, and quantification of siloxanes and volatile organic carbon (VOC) in landfill gas and sewage gas is presented. After sample collection using evacuated stainless steel canisters biogas was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/atomic emission spectroscopy (GC-MS/AES). Using gas canisters, the sampling process was simplified (no vacuum pump needed), and multiple analysis was possible. The simultaneous application of MSD and AED allowed a rapid screening of silicon compounds in the complex biogases. Individual substances were identified independently both by MSD analysis and by determination of their elemental constitution. Quantification of trace compounds was achieved using a 30 component external standard containing siloxanes, organochlorine and organosulfur compounds, alkanes, terpenes, and aromatic compounds. Precision, linearity, and detection limits have been studied. In real samples, concentrations of silicon containing compounds (trimethylsilanol, hexamethyldisiloxane, octamethyltrisiloxane, decamethyltetrasiloxane, hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane, octamethylcyclotetrasilioxane, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane) in the mg/m{sub 3} range have been observed.

  3. Volatile organic compounds in an urban airborne environment adjacent to a municipal incinerator, waste collection centre and sewage treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, J.; Blanch, A.; Bianchi, A. C.

    The occurrence and temporal distribution of airborne volatile organic compounds (VOC) at nine closely grouped locations in a suburban environment on the edge of the coastline of the Southampton Water estuary, located on the coastline of central southern England, was studied over six monthly periods spanning 1996-1997. The sampling sites circumscribed a juxtaposed municipal incinerator, waste collection and processing centre and sewage treatment plant. Three sets of airborne samples being taken before and after the closure of the municipal incinerator. VOC with volatilities of low to medium polarity ranging broadly from those of n-butane to n-octadecane were the major focus of interest. Over 100 individual compounds were routinely found in localised samples taken during the period of study. The types and concentrations of VOC identified partly reflect the imprint of the various waste processing operations on atmospheric VOC within the local environment. The most abundant VOC classes consisted of aromatic, chlorinated and organosulphide compounds, with smaller proportions of alkanes, alkenes and cycloalkane compounds. Compounds produced by sewage-processing and waste management operations, including volatile organosulphides and various oxygenated compounds, may occasionally exceed olfactory detection thresholds and represent a source of potential odour complaints in the local urban environment.

  4. Performance of PCR-based assays targeting Bacteroidales genetic markers of human fecal pollution in sewage and fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Orin C; White, Karen; Kelty, Catherine A; Sivaganesan, Mano; Blannon, Janet; Meckes, Mark; Varma, Manju; Haugland, Richard A

    2010-08-15

    There are numerous PCR-based assays available to characterize human fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each assay employs distinct oligonucleotides and many target different genes and microorganisms leading to potential variations in assay performance. Performance comparisons utilizing feces and raw sewage samples are needed to determine which assays are best suited for expensive and time-consuming field validation, fate, transport, and epidemiology studies. We report the assessment of five end-point PCR and 10 real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays that target genes from presumptive Bacteroidales microorganisms reported to be associated with human feces. Each assay was tested against a reference collection of 54 primary influent sewage samples collected from different geographical locations across the United States and 174 fecal DNA extracts from 23 different animal sources. Experiments indicate that human-associated genetic markers are distributed across a broad range of human populations but show substantial differences in specificity for human feces suggesting that particular assays may be more suitable than others depending on the abundance of genetic marker required for detection and the animal sources impacting a particular watershed or beach of interest. PMID:20704227

  5. Target and suspect screening of psychoactive substances in sewage-based samples by UHPLC-QTOF.

    PubMed

    Baz-Lomba, J A; Reid, Malcolm J; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-03-31

    The quantification of illicit drug and pharmaceutical residues in sewage has been shown to be a valuable tool that complements existing approaches in monitoring the patterns and trends of drug use. The present work delineates the development of a novel analytical tool and dynamic workflow for the analysis of a wide range of substances in sewage-based samples. The validated method can simultaneously quantify 51 target psychoactive substances and pharmaceuticals in sewage-based samples using an off-line automated solid phase extraction (SPE-DEX) method, using Oasis HLB disks, followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF) in MS(e). Quantification and matrix effect corrections were overcome with the use of 25 isotopic labeled internal standards (ILIS). Recoveries were generally greater than 60% and the limits of quantification were in the low nanogram-per-liter range (0.4-187 ng L(-1)). The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) on the drug scene poses a specific analytical challenge since their market is highly dynamic with new compounds continuously entering the market. Suspect screening using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) simultaneously allowed the unequivocal identification of NPS based on a mass accuracy criteria of 5 ppm (of the molecular ion and at least two fragments) and retention time (2.5% tolerance) using the UNIFI screening platform. Applying MS(e) data against a suspect screening database of over 1000 drugs and metabolites, this method becomes a broad and reliable tool to detect and confirm NPS occurrence. This was demonstrated through the HRMS analysis of three different sewage-based sample types; influent wastewater, passive sampler extracts and pooled urine samples resulting in the concurrent quantification of known psychoactive substances and the identification of NPS and pharmaceuticals. PMID:26965330

  6. Comparison of methods for the preparation of sewage sludge samples prior to the spectrophotometric determination of phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, S.A.; Jenniss, S.W.; Ciuffo, M.; Alberts, R.

    1986-01-01

    Three procedures for the preparation of sewage sludge samples prior to the colorimetric determination of phosphorus as molybdenum blue were evaluated. Using samples of the US EPA's municipal digested sludge as a reference material, sulfuric acid/ammonium persulfate digestion, muffle furnace ignition followed by extraction of the ash with hydrochloric acid, and direct extraction of the sewage sludge with sodium bicarbonate solution were compared in terms of phosphorus recovery as determined by colorimetric measurements. On the basis of phosphorus recovery, the samples prepared by muffle furnace ignition/hydrochloric acid extraction of the ash showed the best accuracy and precision. This procedure was also superior in terms of the time and effort expended in the preparation of the sewage sludge samples.

  7. Influence of seasons and sampling strategy on assessment of bioaerosols in sewage treatment plants in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Oppliger, Anne; Hilfiker, Silvia; Vu Duc, Trinh

    2005-07-01

    An assessment of sewage workers' exposure to airborne cultivable bacteria, fungi and inhaled endotoxins was performed at 11 sewage treatment plants. We sampled the enclosed and unenclosed treatment areas in each plant and evaluated the influence of seasons (summer and winter) on bioaerosol levels. We also measured personal exposure to endotoxins of workers during special operation where a higher risk of bioaerosol inhalation was assumed. Results show that only fungi are present in significantly higher concentrations in summer than in winter (2331 +/- 858 versus 329 +/- 95 CFU m(-3)). We also found that there are significantly more bacteria in the enclosed area, near the particle grids for incoming water, than in the unenclosed area near the aeration basins (9455 +/- 2661 versus 2435 +/- 985 CFU m(-3) in summer and 11 081 +/- 2299 versus 2002 +/- 839 CFU m(-3) in winter). All bioaerosols were frequently above the recommended values of occupational exposure. Workers carrying out special tasks such as cleaning tanks were exposed to very high levels of endotoxins (up to 500 EU m(-3)) compared to routine work. The species composition and concentration of airborne Gram-negative bacteria were also studied. A broad spectrum of different species within the Pseudomonadaceae and the Enterobacteriaceae families were predominant in nearly all plants investigated. PMID:15703283

  8. A statistical comparison of protein and carbohydrate characterisation methodology applied on sewage sludge samples.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Julie; Vedrenne, Fabien; Denis, Cécile; Mottet, Alexis; Déléris, Stephane; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Cacho Rivero, Jesús Andrés

    2013-04-01

    Biochemical characterization of organic matter is becoming of key importance in wastewater treatment. The main objectives are to predict organic matter properties, such as granulation or flocculation, and hence treatment performance. Although standardized methods do exist for some organic molecules, such as volatile fatty acids or lipids, there are no standard methods to measure proteins and carbohydrates content, both biochemical families being the main components of sewage sludge. Consequently, the aim of the present work is to investigate the efficiency of several colorimetric methods to determine proteins and carbohydrates content as well as their compatibility with the sludge matrices. The different methods have been evaluated based on statistical criteria such as sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, rightness, and specificity using standard molecules such as Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), glucose, cellulose and a certified reference product. The Lowry and the Dubois methods have been shown to be the best compromise for the considered criteria after having been tested on sewage sludge samples obtained from different locations in a wastewater treatment plant. In average, the measured volatile fatty acids, lipids, proteins and carbohydrates contents represented 80 ± 7% (% volatile solids) of the organic matter. Proteins and carbohydrates represented in average 69 ± 3%. This study underlined that the choice of a relevant methodology is of great importance for organic matter measurement. PMID:23357791

  9. Dynamic Method for Identifying Collected Sample Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John

    2008-01-01

    G-Sample is designed for sample collection missions to identify the presence and quantity of sample material gathered by spacecraft equipped with end effectors. The software method uses a maximum-likelihood estimator to identify the collected sample's mass based on onboard force-sensor measurements, thruster firings, and a dynamics model of the spacecraft. This makes sample mass identification a computation rather than a process requiring additional hardware. Simulation examples of G-Sample are provided for spacecraft model configurations with a sample collection device mounted on the end of an extended boom. In the absence of thrust knowledge errors, the results indicate that G-Sample can identify the amount of collected sample mass to within 10 grams (with 95-percent confidence) by using a force sensor with a noise and quantization floor of 50 micrometers. These results hold even in the presence of realistic parametric uncertainty in actual spacecraft inertia, center-of-mass offset, and first flexibility modes. Thrust profile knowledge is shown to be a dominant sensitivity for G-Sample, entering in a nearly one-to-one relationship with the final mass estimation error. This means thrust profiles should be well characterized with onboard accelerometers prior to sample collection. An overall sample-mass estimation error budget has been developed to approximate the effect of model uncertainty, sensor noise, data rate, and thrust profile error on the expected estimate of collected sample mass.

  10. Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of Sewage Samples to Determine Oral Polio Vaccine Circulation Duration and Mutation After Mexican National Immunization Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Troy, Stephanie B.; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Canizales-Quintero, Sergio; Huang, ChunHong; Lee, Yu-Jin; Báez-Saldaña, Renata; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; García-García, Lourdes; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    Background. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) can mutate and cause outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis with prolonged replication. After poliovirus eradication, global use of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) may be needed until all OPV stops circulating. Mexico, where children receive routine IPV but where OPV is given only during biannual national immunization weeks (NIWs), provides a natural setting to study duration of OPV circulation in a community primarily vaccinated with IPV. Methods. One-liter sewage samples from four separate arroyos (creeks) near Orizaba, Mexico, were collected monthly for 12 months. Concentrated sewage underwent RNA extraction, reverse transcription, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect OPV serotypes 1, 2, and 3 and their variants containing the serotype-specific point mutation in the 5′ untranslated region associated with neurovirulence. Results. OPV was detected 3, 4, 5, and 7 months after the May 2010 NIW, but was not detected at 6 or 8 months. A second and third NIW occurred in February 2011 and May 2011, and OPV was detected in the sewage monthly after both of these NIW through July 2011 when collection stopped. The OPV detected was primarily serotype 2 and predominantly contained the point mutations in the 5′ untranslated region associated with increased neurovirulence. Conclusions. OPV was detected in sewage as late as 7 months after an NIW in a Mexican community primarily vaccinated with IPV, but was not detected at 8 months, suggesting that OPV circulation may have ceased. These data suggest that in communities with high vaccination rates, 1 or 2 years of IPV administration after OPV cessation could be sufficient to prevent outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis from vaccine-derived strains. PMID:23667738

  11. Sample collection system for gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares, Jose A.; Stark, Peter C.; Dunbar, John M.; Hill, Karen K.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Roybal, Gustavo

    2004-09-21

    An automatic sample collection system for use with an electrophoretic slab gel system is presented. The collection system can be used with a slab gel have one or more lanes. A detector is used to detect particle bands on the slab gel within a detection zone. Such detectors may use a laser to excite fluorescently labeled particles. The fluorescent light emitted from the excited particles is transmitted to low-level light detection electronics. Upon the detection of a particle of interest within the detection zone, a syringe pump is activated, sending a stream of buffer solution across the lane of the slab gel. The buffer solution collects the sample of interest and carries it through a collection port into a sample collection vial.

  12. Chapter A4. Collection of Water Samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By)

    1999-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data that are used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter addresses preparations and appropriate methods for the collection of surface-water, groundwater, and associated quality-control samples. Among the topics covered are considerations and procedures to prevent sample contamination; establishing site files; instructions for collecting depth-integrated isokinetic and nonisokinetic samples at flowing- and still-water sites; and guidelines for collecting formation water from wells having various types of construction and hydraulic and aquifer characteristics.

  13. Asteroid Redirect Mission: EVA and Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Stich, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) Overview (1) Notional Development Schedule, (2) ARV Crewed Mission Accommodations; Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) Mission Summary; ARCM Accomplishments; Sample collection/curation plan (1) CAPTEM Requirements; SBAG Engagement Plan

  14. Use of a Novel Real-Time PCR Assay To Detect Oral Polio Vaccine Shedding and Reversion in Stool and Sewage Samples after a Mexican National Immunization Day▿

    PubMed Central

    Troy, Stephanie B.; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Huang, ChunHong; Mahmud, Nadim; Lee, Yu-Jin; Canizales-Quintero, Sergio; Flaster, Harry; Báez-Saldaña, Renata; García-García, Lourdes; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    During replication, oral polio vaccine (OPV) can revert to neurovirulence and cause paralytic poliomyelitis. In individual vaccinees, it can acquire specific revertant point mutations, leading to vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). With longer replication, OPV can mutate into vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV), which causes poliomyelitis outbreaks similar to those caused by wild poliovirus. After wild poliovirus eradication, safely phasing out vaccination will likely require global use of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) until cessation of OPV circulation. Mexico, where children receive routine IPV but where OPV is given biannually during national immunization days (NIDs), provides a natural setting to study the duration of OPV circulation in a population primarily vaccinated with IPV. We developed a real-time PCR assay to detect and distinguish revertant and nonrevertant OPV serotype 1 (OPV-1), OPV-2, and OPV-3 from RNA extracted directly from stool and sewage. Stool samples from 124 children and 8 1-liter sewage samples from Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico, collected 6 to 13 weeks after a NID were analyzed. Revertant OPV-1 was found in stool at 7 and 9 weeks, and nonrevertant OPV-2 and OPV-3 were found in stool from two children 10 weeks after the NID. Revertant OPV-1 and nonrevertant OPV-2 and -3 were detected in sewage at 6 and 13 weeks after the NID. Our real-time PCR assay was able to detect small amounts of OPV in both stool and sewage and to distinguish nonrevertant and revertant serotypes and demonstrated that OPV continues to circulate at least 13 weeks after a NID in a Mexican population routinely immunized with IPV. PMID:21411577

  15. Species-Specific Identification of Human Adenoviruses in Sewage.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Magdalena; Krzysztoszek, Arleta; Witek, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Human adenovirus (HAdV) diversity in sewage was assessed by species-specific molecular methods. Samples of raw sewage were collected in 14 sewage disposal systems from January to December 2011, in Poland. HAdVs were detected in 92.1% of the analysed sewage samples and was significantly higher at cities of over 100 000 inhabitants. HAdV DNA was detected in sewage during all seasons. The most abundant species identified were HAdV-F (average 89.6%) and -A (average 19.6%), which are associated with intestine infections. Adenoviruses from B species were not detected. The result of the present study demonstrate that human adenoviruses are consistently present in sewage in Poland, demonstrating the importance of an adequate treatment before the disposal in the environment. Multiple HAdV species identified in raw sewage provide new information about HAdV circulation in the Polish population. PMID:26094312

  16. Final Report BW Sample Collection& Preparation Device

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, R P; Belgrader, P; Meyer, G; Benett, W J; Richards, J B; Hadley, D R; Stratton, P L; Milanovich, F P

    2002-01-31

    The objective of this project was to develop the technique needed to prepare a field collected sample for laboratory analysis and build a portable integrated biological detection instrument with new miniaturized and automated sample purification capabilities. The device will prepare bacterial spores, bacterial vegetative cells, and viral particles for PCR amplification.

  17. 75 FR 43989 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection Plan for Dogs Treated With SLENTROL AGENCY: Food and Drug... response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on the sample collection plan for dogs treated with... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Sample Collection Plan for Dogs Treated With...

  18. Estimating the biodegradability of treated sewage samples using synchronous fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Lai, Tien M; Shin, Jae-Ki; Hur, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) and the first derivative spectra of the influent versus the effluent wastewater samples were compared and the use of fluorescence indices is suggested as a means to estimate the biodegradability of the effluent wastewater. Three distinct peaks were identified from the SFS of the effluent wastewater samples. Protein-like fluorescence (PLF) was reduced, whereas fulvic and/or humic-like fluorescence (HLF) were enhanced, suggesting that the two fluorescence characteristics may represent biodegradable and refractory components, respectively. Five fluorescence indices were selected for the biodegradability estimation based on the spectral features changing from the influent to the effluent. Among the selected indices, the relative distribution of PLF to the total fluorescence area of SFS (Index II) exhibited the highest correlation coefficient with total organic carbon (TOC)-based biodegradability, which was even higher than those obtained with the traditional oxygen demand-based parameters. A multiple regression analysis using Index II and the area ratio of PLF to HLF (Index III) demonstrated the enhancement of the correlations from 0.558 to 0.711 for TOC-based biodegradability. The multiple regression equation finally obtained was 0.148 × Index II - 4.964 × Index III - 0.001 and 0.046 × Index II - 1.128 × Index III + 0.026. The fluorescence indices proposed here are expected to be utilized for successful development of real-time monitoring using a simple fluorescence sensing device for the biodegradability of treated sewage. PMID:22164023

  19. Collection of Samples for DNA Analysis.

    PubMed

    van Oorschot, Roland A H; Verdon, Timothy J; Ballantyne, Kaye N

    2016-01-01

    Effective sampling of biological material is critical to the ability to acquire DNA profiles of probative value. The main methods of collection are swabbing, tapelifting, or direct excision. This chapter describes the key aspects to consider when applying these methods, in addition to suggested procedures for swabbing and tapelifting. Important issues to be considered, such as exhibit triaging, pre-examination preparation, contamination risk reduction, sample localization, sample identification, and sample prioritization as well as aspects of record keeping, packaging, and storage, are also raised. PMID:27259727

  20. Automated Sample collection and Analysis unit

    SciTech Connect

    Latner, Norman; Sanderson, Colin G.; Negro, Vincent C.

    1999-03-31

    Autoramp is an atmospheric radionuclide collection and analysis unit designed for unattended operation. A large volume of air passes through one of 31 filter cartridges which is then moved from a sampling chamber and past a bar code reader, to a shielded enclosure. The collected dust-borne radionuclides are counted with a high resolution germanium gamma-ray detector. An analysis is made and the results are transmitted to a central station that can also remotely control the unit.

  1. Automated collection and processing of environmental samples

    DOEpatents

    Troyer, Gary L.; McNeece, Susan G.; Brayton, Darryl D.; Panesar, Amardip K.

    1997-01-01

    For monitoring an environmental parameter such as the level of nuclear radiation, at distributed sites, bar coded sample collectors are deployed and their codes are read using a portable data entry unit that also records the time of deployment. The time and collector identity are cross referenced in memory in the portable unit. Similarly, when later recovering the collector for testing, the code is again read and the time of collection is stored as indexed to the sample collector, or to a further bar code, for example as provided on a container for the sample. The identity of the operator can also be encoded and stored. After deploying and/or recovering the sample collectors, the data is transmitted to a base processor. The samples are tested, preferably using a test unit coupled to the base processor, and again the time is recorded. The base processor computes the level of radiation at the site during exposure of the sample collector, using the detected radiation level of the sample, the delay between recovery and testing, the duration of exposure and the half life of the isotopes collected. In one embodiment, an identity code and a site code are optically read by an image grabber coupled to the portable data entry unit.

  2. Firearms discharge residue sample collection techniques.

    PubMed

    Goleb, J A; Midkiff, C R

    1975-10-01

    Critical comparisons of Ba and Sb in firearms discharge residue were made on samples collected by three independent collection technqiues. Collection materials studied were transparent adhesive tape, (Scotch Brand), a solution of cellulose acetate in acetone ("Film Lift"), and plastic-shafted cotton swabs wetted with dilute nitric acid. Flameless atomic absorption analyses were performed with a Jarrell-Ash Model 810 instrument equipped with a tantalum strip atomizer. Tape and cotton swabs gave comparable positive indications of residue, with frequencies of 90 and 80%, respectively. The plastic Film Lift gave fewer positives, with a frequency of 50%. With the transparent tape lift, gunshot residue particles are discernible, making nondestructive microscopic identification possible prior to destructive elemental analysis. PMID:1176924

  3. Astronaut John Young photographed collecting lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, is photographed collecting lunar samples near North Ray crater during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This picture was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Young is using the lunar surface rake and a set of tongs. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked in the field of large boulders in the background.

  4. Hollow-fibre supported liquid membrane extraction for determination of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine concentration at ultra trace level in sewage samples.

    PubMed

    Zorita, Saioa; Mårtensson, Lennart; Mathiasson, Lennart

    2007-10-01

    In this study, a method was developed for determining the concentration of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine and its metabolite, norfluoxetine, in sewage water samples. Sample preparation was performed by hollow-fibre supported liquid membrane (HF-SLM) extraction with final analysis using liquid chromatography with UV detection. Several parameters were studied including type of organic solvent, sample and acceptor pH, and salt and humic acid content. The optimised method allowed determination of the analyte at the ng/L level in sewage water. A linear plot gave a correlation coefficient better than 0.991 for both analytes and resulted in limits of detection in sewage water of 11 and 12 ng/L, for fluoxetine and norfluoxetine, respectively. The enrichment factor was over 1700 for both analytes in sewage water. The repeatability and reproducibility were better than 8% and 17%, respectively. The developed methodology was used to study daily variations of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in municipal sewage streams. Norfluoxetine has been detected for the first time in sewage water and a preliminary analysis gave average concentrations of 150 and 225 ng/L for norfluoxetine and fluoxetine, respectively. PMID:17763523

  5. Sewage: waste or resource

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlin, C.

    1980-10-01

    This article contains a historical review of sewage, its collection and disposal, its treatment and its application. It was not until the second half of the 19th Century that it was realized, that sewage should be returned to the soil where its immense fertilizer value would prove a source of prosperity. The production of biogas and/or alcohol has been largely overlooked and the utilization of sewage as a renewable resource is urged.

  6. Carbonaceous nanomaterials immobilised mixed matrix membrane microextraction for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sewage pond water samples.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, Nurul Hazirah; See, Hong Heng

    2016-08-10

    In this study, the potential for carbonaceous nanomaterials to be used as adsorbents for the mixed matrix membrane (MMM) microextraction and preconcentration of organic pollutants was demonstrated. For this method, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and single layer graphene (SLG) nanoparticles were individually incorporated through dispersion in a cellulose triacetate (CTA) polymer matrix to form a MWCNT-MMM and SLG-MMM, respectively. The prepared membranes were evaluated for the extraction of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in sewage pond water samples. The extraction was performed by dipping a small piece of membrane (7 mm × 7 mm) in a stirred 7.5 mL sample solution to initiate the analyte adsorption. This step was followed by an analyte desorption into 60 μL of methanol prior to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. When the optimum SLG-MMM microextraction technique was applied to spiked sewage pond water samples, the detection limit of the method for the PAHs were in the range of 0.02-0.09 ng/mL, with relative standard deviations of between 1.4% and 7.8%. Enrichment factors of 54-100 were achieved with relative recoveries of 99%-101%. A comparison was also made between the proposed approach and standard solid phase extraction using polymeric bonded octadecyl (C18) cartridges. PMID:27282751

  7. Analysis of quinolone antibiotic derivatives in sewage sludge samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: comparison of the efficiency of three extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Dorival-García, N; Zafra-Gómez, A; Camino-Sánchez, F J; Navalón, A; Vílchez, J L

    2013-03-15

    This work presents a comparison of three extraction techniques -ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) - and evaluates their efficiency in the determination of quinolone antibiotics in sewage sludge samples. Extraction parameters for each technique were optimized using design of experiments, and the compounds were detected and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), operating in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. The use of two selected reaction monitoring transitions for each compound allowed simultaneous quantification and identification in one run. Analytes were separated in less than 10 min. Marbofloxacin and cincophen were used as surrogates for amphoteric and acid quinolones, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) were between 2 and 5 ng g(-1), and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 4 and 18 ng g(-1) for the various analytes. The inter- and intra-day variability was <7%. Due to the absence of certified reference materials (CRMs), the method was validated using matrix-matched calibration and a recovery assay with spiked samples. Recovery rates were between 97.9% and 104.8%. Statistical comparison demonstrated no significant differences between the three extraction techniques. The methods were successfully applied for the determination of quinolones in sewage sludge samples collected from different wastewater treatments plants (WWTPs) located in the province of Granada (Spain). The analytical methods developed here may be useful for the development of more in-depth studies on the occurrence and fate of these commonly used pharmaceuticals in WWTPs and in the environment. PMID:23598102

  8. Fabric phase sorptive extraction followed by UHPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of benzotriazole UV stabilizers in sewage samples.

    PubMed

    Montesdeoca-Esponda, Sarah; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2015-10-01

    A fast and sensitive sample preparation strategy using fabric phase sorptive extraction followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry detection has been developed to analyse benzotriazole UV stabilizer compounds in aqueous samples. Benzotriazole UV stabilizer compounds are a group of compounds added to sunscreens and other personal care products which may present detrimental effects to aquatic ecosystems. Fabric phase sorptive extraction is a novel solvent minimized sample preparation approach that integrates the advantages of sol-gel derived hybrid inorganic-organic nanocomposite sorbents and the flexible, permeable and hydrophobic surface chemistry of polyester fabric. It is a highly sensitive, fast, efficient and inexpensive device that can be reused and does not suffer from coating damage, unlike SPME fibres or stir bars. In this paper, we optimized the extraction of seven benzotriazole UV filters evaluating the majority of the parameters involved in the extraction process, such as sorbent chemistry selection, extraction time, back-extraction solvent, back-extraction time and the impact of ionic strength. Under the optimized conditions, fabric phase sorptive extraction allows enrichment factors of 10 times with detection limits ranging from 6.01 to 60.7 ng L(-1) and intra- and inter-day % RSDs lower than 11 and 30 % for all compounds, respectively. The optimized sample preparation technique followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry detection was applied to determine the target analytes in sewage samples from wastewater treatment plants with different purification processes of Gran Canaria Island (Spain). Two UV stabilizer compounds were measured in ranges 17.0-60.5 ng mL(-1) (UV 328) and 69.3-99.2 ng mL(-1) (UV 360) in the three sewage water samples analysed. PMID:26345441

  9. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction.

    PubMed

    Pena, M Teresa; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M Carmen; Mejuto, M Carmen; Cela, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 microg kg(-1) dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials. PMID:17268774

  10. Collecting live ant specimens (colony sampling).

    PubMed

    Smith, Chris R; Tschinkel, Walter R

    2009-07-01

    Because of the great diversity of ants, it is difficult to give a single protocol for the collection of live specimens. Ant body size can be very small or extremely large; the ants can be hard or soft, sting or spray toxic chemicals, live in the open or in hard-to-reach places; and colony size can range from tens of individuals to millions. Thus, collection techniques must be tailored to each particular species. In particular, caution must always be taken when dealing with stinging species, and symptoms and basic first-aid measures, especially for the treatment of anaphylactic shock, should be reviewed before beginning fieldwork. Nonetheless, many species are collectable as whole colonies. This protocol reviews some basic techniques for collecting ground-nesting species and describes how to collect whole live colonies (with queens), which are necessary for long-term laboratory studies and addressing questions of social organization and ecology. PMID:20147204

  11. Pattern of multiresistant to antimicrobials and heavy metal tolerance in bacteria isolated from sewage sludge samples from a composting process at a recycling plant in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Heck, Karina; De Marco, Évilin Giordana; Duarte, Mariana Wanderlei; Salamoni, Sabrina Pinto; Van Der Sand, Sueli

    2015-06-01

    The composting process is a viable alternative for the recycling of household organic waste and sewage sludge generated during wastewater treatment. However, this technique can select microorganisms resistant to antimicrobials and heavy metals as a result of excess chemicals present in compost windrow. This study evaluates the antimicrobial multiresistant and tolerance to heavy metals in bacteria isolated from the composting process with sewage sludge. Fourteen antimicrobials were used in 344 strains for the resistance profile and four heavy metals (chromium, copper, zinc, and lead) for the minimum biocide concentration assay. The strains used were from the sewage sludge sample (beginning of the process) and the compost sample (end of the process). Strains with higher antimicrobial and heavy metal profile were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results showed a multiresistant profile in 48 % of the strains, with the highest percentage of strains resistant to nitrofurantoin (65 %) and β-lactams (58 %). The strains isolated from the sewage sludge and the end of the composting process were more tolerant to copper, with a lethal dose of approximately 900 mg L(-1) for about 50 % of the strains. The genera that showed the highest multiresistant profile and increased tolerance to the metals tested were Pseudomonas and Ochrobactrum. The results of this study may contribute to future research and the revision and regulation of legislation on sewage sludge reuse in soils. PMID:25944755

  12. Total airborne mold particle sampling: evaluation of sample collection, preparation and counting procedures, and collection devices.

    PubMed

    Godish, Diana; Godish, Thad

    2008-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate (i) procedures used to collect, prepare, and count total airborne mold spore/particle concentrations, and (ii) the relative field performance of three commercially available total airborne mold spore/particle sampling devices. Differences between factory and laboratory airflow calibration values of axial fan-driven sampling instruments (used in the study) indicated a need for laboratory calibration using a mass flow meter to ensure that sample results were accurately calculated. An aniline blue-amended Calberla's solution adjusted to a pH of 4.2-4.4 provided good sample mounting/counting results using Dow Corning high vacuum grease, Dow Corning 280A adhesive, and Dow Corning 316 silicone release spray for samples collected using mini-Burkard and Allergenco samplers. Count variability among analysts was most pronounced in 5% counts of relatively low mold particle deposition density samples and trended downward with increased count percentage and particle deposition density. No significant differences were observed among means of 5, 10, and 20% counts and among analysts; a significant interaction effect was observed between analysts' counts and particle deposition densities. Significantly higher mini-Burkard and Air-O-Cell total mold spore/particle counts for 600x vs. 400x (1.9 and 2.3 x higher, respectively), 1000x vs. 600x (1.9 and 2.2 x higher, respectively) and 1000x vs. 400x (3.6 and 4.6 x higher, respectively) comparisons indicated that 1000x magnification counts best quantified total airborne mold spore/particles using light microscopy, and that lower magnification counts may result in unacceptable underreporting of airborne mold spore/particle concentrations. Modest but significantly higher (1.2x) total mold spore concentrations were observed with Allergenco vs. mini-Burkard samples collected in co-located, concurrently operated sampler studies; moderate but significantly higher mini-Burkard count values (1.4x) were

  13. [Concentration and emission fluxes of halogenated flame retardants in sewage from sewage outlet in Dongjiang River].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Yu-Xin; Yu, Le-Huan; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2011-10-01

    Fourteen sewage samples from sewage outlets in Dongjiang River were collected. Halogented flame retardants were extracted and purified using dichloromethane and alumina/silica-gel column, respectively. The concentrations of halogenated flame retardants were measured utilizing GC/MS, and the emission fluxes were estimated. Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) was the predominant halogenated pollutant (accounting for 64%) in sewage with the concentration ranging from 9.1 ng/L to 990 ng/L. The concentrations of polybrominated biphenyl ether (PBDEs), dominated by BDE209, in the sewage ranged from 6.9 ng/L to 470 ng/L, accounting for 30% of total halogenated flame retardants. The concentrations of other flame retardants, such as dechlorane plus (DP), 1, 2-bis(2, 4, 6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), and pentabromotoluene (PBT), were ranged within 0.17-23.6, nd-26.3, nd-1.45 and nd-0.45 ng/L, respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs in sewage of Dongjiang River were comparable to those in influent wastewater of sewage treatment plants of Guangzhou, suggesting that the wastewater was discharged directly into Dongjiang River without any treatment. The emission flux of halogenated flame retardants from sewage was 191 kg. Emission from industrial wastewater, contributed to 48%-91% of total emission, was the main source of halogenated flame retardants. PMID:22279897

  14. Drugs of abuse and their metabolites in the Ebro River basin: occurrence in sewage and surface water, sewage treatment plants removal efficiency, and collective drug usage estimation.

    PubMed

    Postigo, Cristina; López de Alda, María José; Barceló, Damià

    2010-01-01

    Drugs of abuse and their metabolites have been recently recognized as environmental emerging organic contaminants. Assessment of their concentration in different environmental compartments is essential to evaluate their potential ecotoxicological effects. It also constitutes an indirect tool to estimate drug abuse by the population at the community level. The present work reports for the first time the occurrence of drugs of abuse and metabolites residues along the Ebro River basin (NE Spain) and also evaluates the contribution of sewage treatment plants (STPs) effluents to the presence of these chemicals in natural surface waters. Concentrations measured in influent sewage waters were used to back calculate drug usage at the community level in the main urban areas of the investigated river basin. The most ubiquitous and abundant compounds in the studied aqueous matrices were cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ephedrine and ecstasy. Lysergic compounds, heroin, its metabolite 6-monoacetyl morphine, and Delta(9)-tetradhydrocannabinol were the substances less frequently detected. Overall, total levels of the studied illicit drugs and metabolites observed in surface water (in the low ng/L range) were one and two orders of magnitude lower than those determined in effluent (in the ng/L range) and influent sewage water (microg/L range), respectively. The investigated STPs showed overall removal efficiencies between 45 and 95%. Some compounds, such as cocaine and amphetamine, were very efficiently eliminated (>90%) whereas others, such as ecstasy, methamphetamine, nor-LSD, and THC-COOH where occasionally not eliminated at all. Drug consumption estimates pointed out cocaine as the most abused drug, followed by cannabis, amphetamine, heroin, ecstasy and methamphetamine, which slightly differs from national official estimates (cannabis, followed by cocaine, ecstasy, amphetamine and heroin). Extrapolation of the consumption data obtained for the studied area to Spain points out a total

  15. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schalla, R.

    1994-10-01

    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples.

  16. Sewage Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  17. 7 CFR 160.22 - Collecting samples; issuing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... analysis, classification, or grading shall be limited to official inspectors and to such other personnel of... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Methods of Analysis, Inspection, Sampling and Grading § 160.22 Collecting samples; issuing certificates. The collection of official samples for the purpose of putting...

  18. 7 CFR 160.22 - Collecting samples; issuing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... analysis, classification, or grading shall be limited to official inspectors and to such other personnel of... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Methods of Analysis, Inspection, Sampling and Grading § 160.22 Collecting samples; issuing certificates. The collection of official samples for the purpose of putting...

  19. Detection of Small Numbers of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Cells in Environmental Water, Sewage, and Food Samples by a Seminested PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Waage, Astrid S.; Vardund, Traute; Lund, Vidar; Kapperud, Georg

    1999-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive assay was developed for detection of small numbers of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli cells in environmental water, sewage, and food samples. Water and sewage samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched overnight in a nonselective medium. The enrichment cultures were prepared for PCR by a rapid and simple procedure consisting of centrifugation, proteinase K treatment, and boiling. A seminested PCR based on specific amplification of the intergenic sequence between the two Campylobacter flagellin genes, flaA and flaB, was performed, and the PCR products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. The assay allowed us to detect 3 to 15 CFU of C. jejuni per 100 ml in water samples containing a background flora consisting of up to 8,700 heterotrophic organisms per ml and 10,000 CFU of coliform bacteria per 100 ml. Dilution of the enriched cultures 1:10 with sterile broth prior to the PCR was sometimes necessary to obtain positive results. The assay was also conducted with food samples analyzed with or without overnight enrichment. As few as ≤3 CFU per g of food could be detected with samples subjected to overnight enrichment, while variable results were obtained for samples analyzed without prior enrichment. This rapid and sensitive nested PCR assay provides a useful tool for specific detection of C. jejuni or C. coli in drinking water, as well as environmental water, sewage, and food samples containing high levels of background organisms. PMID:10103261

  20. Snow White Trench Prepared for Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The informally named 'Snow White' trench is the source for the next sample to be acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander for analysis by the wet chemistry lab.

    The Surface Stereo Imager on Phoenix took this shadow-enhanced image of the trench, on the eastern end of Phoenix's work area, on Sol 103, or the 103rd day of the mission, Sept. 8, 2008. The trench is about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide.

    The wet chemistry lab is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. The development of a Martian atmospheric Sample collection canister

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulczycki, E.; Galey, C.; Kennedy, B.; Budney, C.; Bame, D.; Van Schilfgaarde, R.; Aisen, N.; Townsend, J.; Younse, P.; Piacentine, J.

    The collection of an atmospheric sample from Mars would provide significant insight to the understanding of the elemental composition and sub-surface out-gassing rates of noble gases. A team of engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology have developed an atmospheric sample collection canister for Martian application. The engineering strategy has two basic elements: first, to collect two separately sealed 50 cubic centimeter unpressurized atmospheric samples with minimal sensing and actuation in a self contained pressure vessel; and second, to package this atmospheric sample canister in such a way that it can be easily integrated into the orbiting sample capsule for collection and return to Earth. Sample collection and integrity are demonstrated by emulating the atmospheric collection portion of the Mars Sample Return mission on a compressed timeline. The test results achieved by varying the pressure inside of a thermal vacuum chamber while opening and closing the valve on the sample canister at Mars ambient pressure. A commercial off-the-shelf medical grade micro-valve is utilized in the first iteration of this design to enable rapid testing of the system. The valve has been independently leak tested at JPL to quantify and separate the leak rates associated with the canister. The results are factored in to an overall system design that quantifies mass, power, and sensing requirements for a Martian atmospheric Sample Collection (MASC) canister as outlined in the Mars Sample Return mission profile. Qualitative results include the selection of materials to minimize sample contamination, preliminary science requirements, priorities in sample composition, flight valve selection criteria, a storyboard from sample collection to loading in the orbiting sample capsule, and contributions to maintaining “ Earth” clean exterior surfaces on the orbiting sample capsule.

  2. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  3. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  4. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  5. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  6. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  7. Effect of fuel type and deposition surface temperature on the growth and structure of an ash deposit collected during co-firing of coal with sewage sludge and sawdust

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasz Kupka; Krzysztof Zajac; Roman Weber

    2009-07-15

    Blends of a South African bituminous 'Middleburg' coal, a municipal sewage sludge, and a sawdust have been fired in the slagging reactor to examine the effect of the added fuel on the slagging propensity of the mixtures. Uncooled ceramic probes and air-cooled metal probes were used to examine the influence of the deposition surface temperature on the growth and structureof the deposits. The initial stages of slagging were in a high-temperature range of 1100-1300{sup o}C and a low-temperature range of 550-700{sup o}C. Laboratory ash, ash sampled on the deposition probes, and ash collected in the cyclone have been analyzed using the X-ray fluorescence technique. The electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of the embedded resin deposit probes have been performed to determine the thickness, structure, porosity, and chemical composition in different layers of the deposit. Distinct differences in structures of the deposits collected using the uncooled ceramic probes and air-cooled steal probes were observed. Glassy, easily molten deposits collected on uncooled ceramic deposition probes are characteristic for co-firing of municipal sewage sludge with coal. Porous, sintered, but easily removable deposits of the same fuel blend have been collected on the air-cooled metal deposition probes. The addition of sawdust does not negatively influence the deposition behavior. Loose, easy removable deposits have been sampled on air-cooled metal deposition probes during co-firing of coal-sawdust blends. The mass of the deposit sampled at lower deposition surface temperatures (550-700{sup o}C) was always larger than the mass sampled at higher surface temperatures (1100-1300{sup o}C). 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Scientific guidelines for preservation of samples collected from Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, James L. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The maximum scientific value of Martian geologic and atmospheric samples is retained when the samples are preserved in the conditions that applied prior to their collection. Any sample degradation equates to loss of information. Based on detailed review of pertinent scientific literature, and advice from experts in planetary sample analysis, number values are recommended for key parameters in the environmental control of collected samples with respect to material contamination, temperature, head-space gas pressure, ionizing radiation, magnetic fields, and acceleration/shock. Parametric values recommended for the most sensitive geologic samples should also be adequate to preserve any biogenic compounds or exobiological relics.

  9. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.; Duncan, A.

    2010-01-28

    During the month of September 2008, grout core samples were collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility, Vault 4, cell E. This grout was placed during processing campaigns in December 2007 from Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment Batch 2 salt solution. The 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria sample collected on 11/16/07 represents the salt solution in the core samples. Core samples were retrieved to initiate the historical database of properties of emplaced Saltstone and to demonstrate the correlation between field collected and laboratory prepared samples. Three samples were collected from three different locations. Samples were collected using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit. In April 2009, the core samples were removed from the evacuated sample container, inspected, transferred to PVC containers, and backfilled with nitrogen. Samples furthest from the wall were the most intact cylindrically shaped cored samples. The shade of the core samples darkened as the depth of coring increased. Based on the visual inspection, sample 3-3 was selected for all subsequent analysis. The density and porosity of the Vault 4 core sample, 1.90 g/cm{sup 3} and 59.90% respectively, were comparable to values achieved for laboratory prepared samples. X-ray diffraction analysis identified phases consistent with the expectations for hydrated Saltstone. Microscopic analysis revealed morphology features characteristic of cementitious materials with fly ash and calcium silicate hydrate gel. When taken together, the results of the density, porosity, x-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic analysis support the conclusion that the Vault 4, Cell E core sample is representative of the expected waste form.

  11. Matrix isolation apparatus with extended sample collection capability

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Gerald T.

    1987-01-01

    A gas-sample collection device provides for the matrix isolation of increased amounts of a sample material for spectrographic analysis from a gas chromatographic separation. The device includes an evacuated sample collection chamber containing a disc-like specular carousel having a generally circular lateral surface upon which the sample is deposited in an inert gas matrix for infrared (IR) spectral analysis. The evacuated sample chamber is mounted in a fixed manner and is coupled to and supports a rotating cryostatic coupler which, in turn, supports the specular carousel within the collection chamber. A rotational drive system connected to the cryostatic coupler provides for its rotational displacement as well as that of the sample collecting carousel. In addition, rotation of the cryostatic coupler effects vertical displacement of the carousel to permit the collection of an extended sample band in a helical configuration on the entire lateral surface of the carousel. The various components of the carousel's angular/linear displacement drive system are located exterior to the cryostatic coupler for easy access and improved operation. The cryostatic coupler includes a 360.degree. rotary union assembly for permitting the delivery of a high pressure working fluid to the cryostatic coupler in a continuous flow manner for maintaining the specular carousel at a low temperature, e.g., 10.degree.-20.degree. K., for improved uninterrupted gas sample collection and analysis.

  12. A perception and manipulation system for collecting rock samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, T.; Delingette, H.; Deluise, M.; Hsin, Y.; Hebert, M.; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    1991-01-01

    An important part of a planetary exploration mission is to collect and analyze surface samples. As part of the Carnegie Mellon University Ambler Project, researchers are investigating techniques for collecting samples using a robot arm and a range sensor. The aim of this work is to make the sample collection operation fully autonomous. Described here are the components of the experimental system, including a perception module that extracts objects of interest from range images and produces models of their shapes, and a manipulation module that enables the system to pick up the objects identified by the perception module. The system was tested on a small testbed using natural terrain.

  13. Collecting Ground Samples for Balloon-Borne Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Zimmerman, Wayne; Wu, Jiunn Jenq

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system in a gondola containing scientific instruments suspended by a balloon over the surface of the Saturn moon Titan would quickly acquire samples of rock or ice from the ground below. Prototypes of a sample-collecting device that would be a major part of the system have been tested under cryogenic and non-cryogenic conditions on Earth. Systems like this one could also be used in non-cryogenic environments on Earth to collect samples of rock, soil, ice, mud, or other ground material from such inaccessible or hazardous locations as sites of suspected chemical spills or biological contamination. The sample-collecting device would be a harpoonlike device that would be connected to the balloon-borne gondola by a tether long enough to reach the ground. The device would be dropped from the gondola to acquire a sample, then would be reeled back up to the gondola, where the sample would be analyzed by the onboard instruments. Each prototype of the sample-collecting device has a sharp front (lower) end, a hollow core for retaining a sample, a spring for holding the sample in the hollow core, and a rear (upper) annular cavity for retaining liquid sample material. Aerodynamic fins at the rear help to keep the front end pointed downward. In tests, these prototype devices were dropped from various heights and used to gather samples of dry sand, moist sand, cryogenic water ice, and warmer water ice.

  14. SAMPLE COLLECTION AND HANDLING FOR MICROBIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this presentation is to discuss sample collection and handling methods currently in use for detection and enumeration of microorganisms in biosolids and municipal wastewater sludges. Untreated sludges and biosolids are rarely homogeneous and present a challenge ...

  15. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

  16. Hydrodynamic effects in buccal cell DNA sample collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidun, C. K.; Sozer, A. C.

    2003-11-01

    Many different methods can be used for collection of biological samples from individuals for DNA profiling purposes. However, blood and buccal cells are the two most popular sources of DNA. In situations where large numbers of samples have to be collected, buccal cell collection methods are the preferred choice because of minimized health risks and ease of collection, transportation, and storage. The normal practice in buccal cell collection is to rub a cotton swab or a piece of paper through the inner check of the subject in order to release the cells and to attach and collect the cells on the cotton or paper fibers. The problem with the current forms of sample collection and storage is that in some cases up to 20% of the samples collected do not result in a DNA profile of adequate quality to be reported by the laboratory without repeated testing. In this study, we consider the mechanics of a small sheet of paper being rubbed on the surface of the inner check. The process is not too different from coating a paper substrate with highly deformable material. The shear field developed between the paper and the fluid adjacent to the cells are estimated based on the available data. The action of the cell release and the cell adherence to the surface will be outlined.

  17. Analyses of coal samples collected 1975-1977

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, J.A. Jr.; Oman, C.S.; Coleman, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    In late 1975 the Virginia Division of Mineral Resources began a sampling program of coal beds in Virginia in cooperation with the US Geological Survey and the US Bureau of Mines. A total of 134 samples were collected from coal beds of Pennsylvanian Age in five of the seven counties in the southwest Virginia coal field. Channel samples were collected at each of the sampling sites. In addition, supplemental samples of the roof- and floor-rock and major partings were collected at many sample sites, but were not analyzed. The samples are from most of the major coal beds in southwest Virginia, and are from fresh exposures in active surface and underground mines. Chemical analyses were made by the US Bureau of Mines and the US Geological Survey. The US Bureau of Mines analyses include the proximate and ultimate analyses, forms of sulfur, heat value, fusibility of ash, and the free, swelling index. The US Geological Survey analyses include the major-, minor-, and trace-element concentrations in both ash and whole coal. Statistical tables contain arithmetic and geometric means, observed range, and the standard deviation for samples collected in Virginia and are compared with samples in the National Coal Resources Data System for Tennessee, Kentucky and West Virginia.

  18. Spatial assessment of the sewage contamination of Kuwait's marine areas.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Talat; Al-Shimmari, Fatima; Al-Mutairi, Ahmad; Abdullah, Hameeda

    2015-05-15

    Discharge of sewage to the coastal areas resulting in the deteriorating quality of seawater and polluted sediments has been one of important stressor in Kuwait. The objective of this study was to conduct spatial assessment of sewage contamination of coastal areas. The assessment was carried out by measuring fecal sterols as indicator of sewage contamination, in the marine sediments collected from 112 locations throughout the Kuwait's marine areas. The samples were extracted and sterols separated. Derivatized sterols were analyzed by GC/MS in selected ion monitoring mode. The results showed that areas in the vicinity of the sewage outfalls were heavily contaminated. The western part of Kuwait Bay was worst in terms of contamination level. Two off-shore sites in Kuwait Bay were also classified as contaminated. Coprostanol levels in Kuwait Bay ranged from 0 to 39,428 ng/g. Southern coastal areas were less severely contaminated. PMID:25691339

  19. Determination of alkylphenol polyethoxylates, bisphenol-A, 17α-ethynylestradiol and 17β-estradiol and its metabolites in sewage samples by SPE and LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Vega-Morales, T; Sosa-Ferrera, Z; Santana-Rodríguez, J J

    2010-11-15

    Recently, many chemicals released into the environment have been shown to mimic endogenous hormones such as estradiol. It has been demonstrated that these compounds cause several adverse effects on wildlife and humans, such as the feminization of animal species, development of physical abnormalities and birth defects, and reproductive failure. In an effort to model the behaviour of some endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and to establish the level of contamination in sewage samples, a quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of nonylphenol, octylphenol and corresponding ethoxylates (1-12), 17α-ethynylestradiol, bisphenol-A, and 17β-estradiol and two of its metabolites have been developed. Identification and quantification were achieved by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Satisfactory detection limits (between 0.5-6 ng L(-1) in the dissolved phase and 1.4-12.7 ng g(-1) in the particulate phase) and analyte recoveries (between 60% and 108%) were achieved for target compounds. The optimised method was applied to the determination of EDCs in liquid sewage samples collected from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain). Concentrations of EDCs ranged from <10 ng L(-1) to nearly 1200 ng L(-1) in the dissolved phase, and from 0.005 μg g(-1) to 2.8 μg g(-1) in the suspended particulate matter. PMID:20724070

  20. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lawfully admitted for permanent residence as defined in 8 CFR 1.1(p). Unless otherwise directed by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample...

  1. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lawfully admitted for permanent residence as defined in 8 CFR 1.1(p). Unless otherwise directed by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample...

  2. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lawfully admitted for permanent residence as defined in 8 CFR 1.1(p). Unless otherwise directed by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample...

  3. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lawfully admitted for permanent residence as defined in 8 CFR 1.1(p). Unless otherwise directed by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample...

  4. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lawfully admitted for permanent residence as defined in 8 CFR 1.1(p). Unless otherwise directed by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample...

  5. A direct method for e-cigarette aerosol sample collection.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Pablo; Navas-Acien, Ana; Hess, Catherine; Jarmul, Stephanie; Rule, Ana

    2016-08-01

    E-cigarette use is increasing in populations around the world. Recent evidence has shown that the aerosol produced by e-cigarettes can contain a variety of toxicants. Published studies characterizing toxicants in e-cigarette aerosol have relied on filters, impingers or sorbent tubes, which are methods that require diluting or extracting the sample in a solution during collection. We have developed a collection system that directly condenses e-cigarette aerosol samples for chemical and toxicological analyses. The collection system consists of several cut pipette tips connected with short pieces of tubing. The pipette tip-based collection system can be connected to a peristaltic pump, a vacuum pump, or directly to an e-cigarette user for the e-cigarette aerosol to flow through the system. The pipette tip-based system condenses the aerosol produced by the e-cigarette and collects a liquid sample that is ready for analysis without the need of intermediate extraction solutions. We tested a total of 20 e-cigarettes from 5 different brands commercially available in Maryland. The pipette tip-based collection system condensed between 0.23 and 0.53mL of post-vaped e-liquid after 150 puffs. The proposed method is highly adaptable, can be used during field work and in experimental settings, and allows collecting aerosol samples from a wide variety of e-cigarette devices, yielding a condensate of the likely exact substance that is being delivered to the lungs. PMID:27200479

  6. Collection requirements for trace-element analyses of extraterrestrial samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George J.; Sutton, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Trace-element abundances have proven important in understanding the evolution of and interrelationships between different meteorites. Preliminary investigations of the trace-element contents of interplanetary dust particles indicate that trace-element abundances will prove equally important in distinguishing between micrometeorites of different types, comparing the interplanetary dust to the meteorites, and assessing the degree of thermal alteration experienced either on the parent body or during the collection process. Sample collection, delivery, and curation must be accomplished in a manner to avoid contamination with even trace amounts of the elements to be analyzed. The present SXRF sensitivity for micrometeorite analysis is of order 1 femtogram, but anticipated improvements in sensitivity will require sample contamination substantially below this level. Sample collection and handling equipment should be constructed from materials selected for ultrahigh purity, and serious consideration should be given in selecting the particular set of elements from which the collection apparatus is composed so as not to compromise useful information.

  7. Methods for collection and analysis of water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rainwater, Frank Hays; Thatcher, Leland Lincoln

    1960-01-01

    This manual contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze water samples. Throughout, the emphasis is on obtaining analytical results that accurately describe the chemical composition of the water in situ. Among the topics discussed are selection of sampling sites, frequency of sampling, field equipment, preservatives and fixatives, analytical techniques of water analysis, and instruments. Seventy-seven laboratory and field procedures are given for determining fifty-three water properties.

  8. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

  9. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. Methods A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. Results The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. Conclusions The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem. PMID:24406140

  10. Development of a Sampling Collection Device with Diagnostic Procedures.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jhih-Yan; Feng, Mow-Jung; Wu, Chia-Chi; Wang, Jane; Chang, Ting-Chang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-08-01

    Cervicovaginal fluid plays an important role in the detection of many female genital diseases, but the lack of suitable collection devices in the market severely challenges test success rate. Appropriate clinical sampling devices for cervicovaginal fluid collection would help physicians detect diseases and disease states more rapidly, efficiently, and accurately. The objective of this study was to develop a readily usable sampling collection device that would eliminate macromolecular interference and accurately provide specimens for further studies. This study was designed to develop an effective device to collect cervicovaginal fluid from women with symptoms of endometrial lesions, women appearing in the clinic for a routine Papanicolaou smear, and/or women seeking a routine gynecologic checkup. Paper-based assay, ELISA, and qNano were used to provide accurate diagnoses. A total of 103 patients successfully used the developed device to collect cervicovaginal fluid. Some of the collected specimens were used to detect glycogen, lactate, and pH for determining pathogen infection. Other specimen samples were tested for the presence of female genital cancer by comparing interleukin 6 concentration and microvesicle concentration. We proposed a noninvasive screening test for the diagnosis of female genital diseases using a dual-material collection device. The outer, nonwoven fabric portion of this device was designed to filter macromolecules, and the inner cotton portion was designed to absorb cervicovaginal fluid. PMID:27338148

  11. Collecting Fecal Samples for Microbiome Analyses in Epidemiology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rashmi; Chen, Jun; Amir, Amnon; Vogtmann, Emily; Shi, Jianxin; Inman, Kristin S.; Flores, Roberto; Sampson, Joshua; Knight, Rob; Chia, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background The need to develop valid methods for sampling and analyzing fecal specimens for microbiome studies is increasingly important, especially for large population studies. Methods Some of the most important attributes of any sampling method are reproducibility, stability, and accuracy. We compared seven fecal sampling methods (no additive, RNAlater, 70% ethanol, EDTA, dry swab, and pre/post development fecal occult blood test (FOBT)) using 16S rRNA microbiome profiling in two laboratories. We evaluated nine commonly used microbiome metrics: abundance of 3 phyla, two alpha-diversities, and four beta-diversities. We determined the technical reproducibility, stability at ambient temperature, and accuracy. Results While microbiome profiles showed systematic biases according to sample method and time at ambient temperature, the highest source of variation was between individuals. All collection methods showed high reproducibility. FOBT and RNAlater resulted in the highest stability without freezing for four days. In comparison to no-additive samples, swab, FOBT, and 70% ethanol exhibited the greatest accuracy when immediately frozen. Conclusions Overall, optimal stability and reproducibility was achieved using FOBT, making this a reasonable sample collection method for 16s analysis. Impact Having standardized method of collecting and storing stable fecal samples will allow future investigations into the role of gut microbiota in chronic disease etiology in large population studies. PMID:26604270

  12. Curating NASA's Past, Present, and Future Astromaterial Sample Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Allton, J. H.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Zolensky, M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at NASA Johnson Space Center (hereafter JSC curation) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. JSC presently curates 9 different astromaterials collections in seven different clean-room suites: (1) Apollo Samples (ISO (International Standards Organization) class 6 + 7); (2) Antarctic Meteorites (ISO 6 + 7); (3) Cosmic Dust Particles (ISO 5); (4) Microparticle Impact Collection (ISO 7; formerly called Space-Exposed Hardware); (5) Genesis Solar Wind Atoms (ISO 4); (6) Stardust Comet Particles (ISO 5); (7) Stardust Interstellar Particles (ISO 5); (8) Hayabusa Asteroid Particles (ISO 5); (9) OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft Coupons and Witness Plates (ISO 7). Additional cleanrooms are currently being planned to house samples from two new collections, Hayabusa 2 (2021) and OSIRIS-REx (2023). In addition to the labs that house the samples, we maintain a wide variety of infra-structure facilities required to support the clean rooms: HEPA-filtered air-handling systems, ultrapure dry gaseous nitrogen systems, an ultrapure water system, and cleaning facilities to provide clean tools and equipment for the labs. We also have sample preparation facilities for making thin sections, microtome sections, and even focused ion-beam sections. We routinely monitor the cleanliness of our clean rooms and infrastructure systems, including measurements of inorganic or organic contamination, weekly airborne particle counts, compositional and isotopic monitoring of liquid N2 deliveries, and daily UPW system monitoring. In addition to the physical maintenance of the samples, we track within our databases the current and ever changing characteristics (weight, location, etc.) of more than 250,000 individually numbered samples across our various collections, as well as more than 100,000 images, and countless "analog" records that record the sample processing records of each individual sample. JSC Curation is co-located with JSC

  13. Urine sampling and collection system optimization and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Geating, J. A.; Koesterer, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    A Urine Sampling and Collection System (USCS) engineering model was developed to provide for the automatic collection, volume sensing and sampling of urine from each micturition. The purpose of the engineering model was to demonstrate verification of the system concept. The objective of the optimization and testing program was to update the engineering model, to provide additional performance features and to conduct system testing to determine operational problems. Optimization tasks were defined as modifications to minimize system fluid residual and addition of thermoelectric cooling.

  14. Collection and control of tritium bioassay samples at Pantex

    SciTech Connect

    Fairrow, N.L.; Ivie, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Pantex is the final assembly/disassembly point for US nuclear weapons. The Pantex internal dosimetry section monitors radiation workers once a month for tritium exposure. In order to manage collection and control of the bioassay specimens efficiently, a bar code system for collection of samples was developed and implemented to speed up the process and decrease the number of errors probable when transferring data. In the past, all the bioassay data from samples were entered manually into a computer database. Transferring the bioassay data from the liquid scintillation counter to each individual's dosimetry record required as much as two weeks of concentrated effort.

  15. Collection and control of tritium bioassay samples at Pantex

    SciTech Connect

    Fairrow, N.L.; Ivie, W.E.

    1992-12-31

    Pantex is the final assembly/disassembly point for US nuclear weapons. The Pantex internal dosimetry section monitors radiation workers once a month for tritium exposure. In order to manage collection and control of the bioassay specimens efficiently, a bar code system for collection of samples was developed and implemented to speed up the process and decrease the number of errors probable when transferring data. In the past, all the bioassay data from samples were entered manually into a computer database. Transferring the bioassay data from the liquid scintillation counter to each individual`s dosimetry record required as much as two weeks of concentrated effort.

  16. APOLLO 12: C.Conrad Jr. collects geological samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 12: 'Pete' Conrad collects samples from the lunar surface, while at the same time adjusting to, and remarking on, the working conditions. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 12: 'Pinpoint for Science'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLLO 12: Second manned lunar landing and return with Charles 'Pete' Conrad, Jr., Richard F. Gordon, and Alan F. Bean. Landed in the Ocean of Storms on November 19, 1969; deployed television camera and ALSEP experiments; two EVA's performed; collected core samples and lunar materials; photographed and retrieved parts from surveyor 3 spacecraft. Mission duration 244hrs 36min 24sec

  17. Combined-sewer overflow data and methods of sample collection for selected sites, Detroit, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, M.J.; Wolf, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    From October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995, four combined-sewer discharging to the Detroit River in Detroit, Michigan were monitored to characterize storm-related water quantity and quality. Water velocity, stage, discharge, and precipitation were measured continuously and recorded at 5-minute intervals. Water-quality samples were collected at discrete times during each storm and analyzed for inorganic and organic pollutants. This report includes the sampling approach, field collection and processing techniques, and methods of chemical analysis, as well as a compilation of combined sewer discharge volumes, chemical data, and quality control data. These data may be used by resource managers and scientists (1) to describe temporal variation for pollutant concentrations in combined-sewage for various overflow events; (2) to describe spatial distribution of selected pollutants in the four combined-sewer overflows discharging to the Detroit River; (3) to calculate pollutant loads to the Detroit River from the four overflow sites for the monitored storm events; (4) to estimate pollutant loadings form other overflow sites; and, (5) to provide data and information which can be used to define appropriate management methods to reduce or eliminate untreated combined-sewer overflows. Selected combined-sewers were sampled between 30 and 82 times for inorganic pollutants, and between 14 and 22 times for organic pollutants, depending on the site. These samples represented between 8 and 17 storms during which one or more combined-sewers overflowed. The monitored pollutants included fecal coliform, fecal streptococci, and Escherichia coli; antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, total chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, thallium and zinc; and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, volatile organic compounds, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. In general, metal and non-metal inorganic pollutants were detected at all

  18. Apparatus and process for collection of gas and vapor samples

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Peterson, Kurt D.; Riha, Brian D.

    2008-04-01

    A gas sampling apparatus and process is provided in which a standard crimping tool is modified by an attached collar. The collar permits operation of the crimping tool while also facilitating the introduction of a supply of gas to be introduced into a storage vial. The introduced gas supply is used to purge ambient air from a collection chamber and an interior of the sample vial. Upon completion of the purging operation, the vial is sealed using the crimping tool.

  19. Determination of Atmospheric PCB Level Variations in Continuously Collected Samples.

    PubMed

    Sakin, Ahmet Egemen; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2016-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in ambient air samples (n = 48) that were collected for a 2- to 3-day period in each season (winter, spring, summer, fall) of 2013. The samples were collected on the Campus of Uludag University, which is in a semirural region. The samples were collected using a high-volume air sampler. The gas and particle phase concentrations of 87 PCB congeners (Σ87PCB) were measured in these samples. The average gas and particle phase concentrations of the Σ87PCB were calculated to be 293 ± 257 and 52 ± 56 ng/m(3), respectively. However, the results of short-term measurements showed that the variation among the measurements in the gas phase was up to 39-fold and up to 84-fold in the particle phase. These results demonstrated that the ambient air PCB concentrations were not stable and changed dramatically on a daily basis. Therefore, it was clear that a small number of samples could not be representative of the entire region. Furthermore, the obtained concentrations showed differences that depended on the meteorological conditions and long distance transportation. The sampling indicated that PCB homologues with 3 or 4 chlorines were dominant. PMID:27290669

  20. 40 CFR 761.310 - Collecting the sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collecting the sample. 761.310 Section 761.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND...

  1. Detection of Hepatitis E Virus in Sewage After an Outbreak on a French Island.

    PubMed

    Miura, Takayuki; Lhomme, Sébastien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Le Mehaute, Philippe; Guillois, Yvonnick; Couturier, Elizabeth; Izopet, Jacques; Abranavel, Florence; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2016-09-01

    A hepatitis E outbreak, which occurred on a small isolated island, provided an opportunity to evaluate the association between the number of hepatitis E cases in the community and the concentration of virus detected in sewage. Samples were collected from the different sewage treatment plants from the island and analyzed for the presence of hepatitis E (HEV) virus using real-time RT-PCR. We demonstrated that if 1-4 % of inhabitants connected to a WWTP were infected with HEV, raw sewage contained HEV at detectable levels. The finding that such a small number of infected people can contaminate municipal sewage works raises the potential of the further distribution of the virus. Indeed, investigating the routes of transmission of HEV, including the potential for sewage effluent to contain infectious HEV, may help us to better understand the epidemiology of this pathogen, which is considered to be an emerging concern in Europe. PMID:27165600

  2. Experimental Design for the INL Sample Collection Operational Test

    SciTech Connect

    Amidan, Brett G.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Filliben, James J.; Jones, Barbara

    2007-12-13

    This document describes the test events and numbers of samples comprising the experimental design that was developed for the contamination, decontamination, and sampling of a building at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This study is referred to as the INL Sample Collection Operational Test. Specific objectives were developed to guide the construction of the experimental design. The main objective is to assess the relative abilities of judgmental and probabilistic sampling strategies to detect contamination in individual rooms or on a whole floor of the INL building. A second objective is to assess the use of probabilistic and Bayesian (judgmental + probabilistic) sampling strategies to make clearance statements of the form “X% confidence that at least Y% of a room (or floor of the building) is not contaminated. The experimental design described in this report includes five test events. The test events (i) vary the floor of the building on which the contaminant will be released, (ii) provide for varying or adjusting the concentration of contaminant released to obtain the ideal concentration gradient across a floor of the building, and (iii) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. The ideal contaminant gradient would have high concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations decreasing to zero in rooms at the opposite end of the building floor. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG, a stand-in for Bacillus anthracis. The BG contaminant will be disseminated from a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design for each test event. Then judgmental and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the pre-specified sampling plan. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples will be selected in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence

  3. Comparison of aquatic macroinvertebrate samples collected using different field methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenz, Bernard N.; Miller, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Government agencies, academic institutions, and volunteer monitoring groups in the State of Wisconsin collect aquatic macroinvertebrate data to assess water quality. Sampling methods differ among agencies, reflecting the differences in the sampling objectives of each agency. Lack of infor- mation about data comparability impedes data shar- ing among agencies, which can result in duplicated sampling efforts or the underutilization of avail- able information. To address these concerns, com- parisons were made of macroinvertebrate samples collected from wadeable streams in Wisconsin by personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey- National Water Quality Assessment Program (USGS-NAWQA), the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR), the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Forest Service (USDA-FS), and volunteers from the Water Action Volunteer-Water Quality Monitoring Program (WAV). This project was part of the Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality (ITFM) Wisconsin Water Resources Coordination Project. The numbers, types, and environmental tolerances of the organ- isms collected were analyzed to determine if the four different field methods that were used by the different agencies and volunteer groups provide comparable results. Additionally, this study com- pared the results of samples taken from different locations and habitats within the same streams.

  4. Sample Collection Method Bias Effects in Quantitative Phosphoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Kanshin, Evgeny; Tyers, Michael; Thibault, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Current advances in selective enrichment, fractionation, and MS detection of phosphorylated peptides allowed identification and quantitation of tens of thousands phosphosites from minute amounts of biological material. One of the major challenges in the field is preserving the in vivo phosphorylation state of the proteins throughout the sample preparation workflow. This is typically achieved by using phosphatase inhibitors and denaturing conditions during cell lysis. Here we determine if the upstream cell collection techniques could introduce changes in protein phosphorylation. To evaluate the effect of sample collection protocols on the global phosphorylation status of the cell, we compared different sample workflows by metabolic labeling and quantitative mass spectrometry on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cultures. We identified highly similar phosphopeptides for cells harvested in ice cold isotonic phosphate buffer, cold ethanol, trichloroacetic acid, and liquid nitrogen. However, quantitative analyses revealed that the commonly used phosphate buffer unexpectedly activated signaling events. Such effects may introduce systematic bias in phosphoproteomics measurements and biochemical analysis. PMID:26040406

  5. The World of Hidden Biases: From Collection to Sample Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurette, Michel

    Any study of micrometeorites involves a variety of biases, which start right away during their collection, and which have not been suffciently publicized. This section deals with the astonishing folklore of these biases. We shall question whether major differences observed between Antarctic micrometeorites and stratospheric micrometeorites could reflect kinds of complementary biases between the two collections of micrometeorites. Astonishingly, some of them would converge to enrich the SMMs collection in the most fine-grained fluffy dust particles accreted by the Earth. They might be possibly the most primitive material accreted by the Earth. But they would not give a representative sampling of the bulk micrometeorite flux, which is best obtained with the new Concordia micrometeorites collected in central Antarctica. For a change, biases developing around a small metallic plate flying at ~200m/sec in the stratosphere turned out to be quite helpful!

  6. Stardust Sample Collection at Wild 2 and Its Preliminary Examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.; Brownlee, D. E.; Hoerz, F.; Newburn, R. L.; Sandford, S. A.; Sekanina, Z.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of STARDUST is to collect coma samples from 81P/Wild 2. This was made on January 2, 2004. Before the encounter three significant model predictions existed for the number and size of samples to be captured. Three investigations during the Wild 2 encounter (Dust Flux Monitor, Comet and Interstellar Dust Analyzer and Dynamic Science) made in situ measurements of the dust. Spectacular images were captured of the Wild 2 nucleus and dust jets. This abstract compares the model predictions with the in situ measurements and Wild 2 images and assesses the likely samples to be returned for analysis on January 15, 2006. To give some lead time for sample analysts to prepare for the analyses of the returned samples, the organization of the Preliminary Examination is presented.

  7. BENTHIC DISTRIBUTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE INDICATED BY CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRIGENS AT A DEEP-OCEAN DUMP SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clostridium perfrigens in sediment samples collected at the Deep Water Municipal Sewage Sludge Disposal Site (also called the 106-Mile Site), off the coast of New Jersey, was enumerated. he counts of C. perfrigens found in sediment samples collected within and to the southwest of...

  8. Collection, isolation, and flow cytometric analysis of human endocervical samples.

    PubMed

    Juno, Jennifer A; Boily-Larouche, Genevieve; Lajoie, Julie; Fowke, Keith R

    2014-01-01

    Despite the public health importance of mucosal pathogens (including HIV), relatively little is known about mucosal immunity, particularly at the female genital tract (FGT). Because heterosexual transmission now represents the dominant mechanism of HIV transmission, and given the continual spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is critical to understand the interplay between host and pathogen at the genital mucosa. The substantial gaps in knowledge around FGT immunity are partially due to the difficulty in successfully collecting and processing mucosal samples. In order to facilitate studies with sufficient sample size, collection techniques must be minimally invasive and efficient. To this end, a protocol for the collection of cervical cytobrush samples and subsequent isolation of cervical mononuclear cells (CMC) has been optimized. Using ex vivo flow cytometry-based immunophenotyping, it is possible to accurately and reliably quantify CMC lymphocyte/monocyte population frequencies and phenotypes. This technique can be coupled with the collection of cervical-vaginal lavage (CVL), which contains soluble immune mediators including cytokines, chemokines and anti-proteases, all of which can be used to determine the anti- or pro-inflammatory environment in the vagina. PMID:25045942

  9. Collection, Isolation, and Flow Cytometric Analysis of Human Endocervical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Juno, Jennifer A.; Boily-Larouche, Genevieve; Lajoie, Julie; Fowke, Keith R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the public health importance of mucosal pathogens (including HIV), relatively little is known about mucosal immunity, particularly at the female genital tract (FGT). Because heterosexual transmission now represents the dominant mechanism of HIV transmission, and given the continual spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is critical to understand the interplay between host and pathogen at the genital mucosa. The substantial gaps in knowledge around FGT immunity are partially due to the difficulty in successfully collecting and processing mucosal samples. In order to facilitate studies with sufficient sample size, collection techniques must be minimally invasive and efficient. To this end, a protocol for the collection of cervical cytobrush samples and subsequent isolation of cervical mononuclear cells (CMC) has been optimized. Using ex vivo flow cytometry-based immunophenotyping, it is possible to accurately and reliably quantify CMC lymphocyte/monocyte population frequencies and phenotypes. This technique can be coupled with the collection of cervical-vaginal lavage (CVL), which contains soluble immune mediators including cytokines, chemokines and anti-proteases, all of which can be used to determine the anti- or pro-inflammatory environment in the vagina. PMID:25045942

  10. Variability of collagen crosslinks: impact of sample collection period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Dillon, E. L.; DeKerlegand, D. E.; Davis-Street, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    Because of the variability of collagen crosslinks, their use as markers for bone resorption is often criticized. We hypothesized that the variability could be reduced by collecting urine for 24 hours (or longer) instead of using single voids, and by not normalizing to creatinine. Urine samples were collected from 22 healthy subjects during two or more 24-hour periods. Each 24-hour pool and each 2nd void of the day were analyzed for N-telopeptide (NTX), pyridinium (PYD), and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks. Data were analyzed by using linear regression. For NTX, R2 for the two, 2nd-void samples (n = 38) was 0.55, whereas R2 for the two 24-hour pools was 0.51 or 0.52, expressed per day or per creatinine. For PYD and DPD, R2 for the 2nd-void samples was 0.26 and 0.18, R2 for the 24-hour pools expressed per day was 0.58 and 0.74, and R2 for the 24-hour pools expressed per creatinine was 0.65 and 0.76, respectively. Regression of the 2nd void and the corresponding 24-hour pool, expressed per day, yielded R2 = 0.19, 0.19, and 0.08, for NTX, PYD, and DPD, respectively (n = 76 each). For the 2nd-void sample and its corresponding 24-hour pool, expressed per creatinine, R2 = 0.24, 0.33, and 0.08, respectively. In a separate study, the coefficient of variation for NTX was reduced (P < 0.05) when data from more than one 24-hour collection were combined. Thus, the variability inherent in crosslink determinations can be reduced by collecting urine for longer periods. In research studies, the high variability of single-void collections, compounded by creatinine normalization, may alter or obscure findings.

  11. Collection of Stratospheric Samples using Balloon-Borne Payload System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant; Sreejith, A. G.; Kumble, Sheshashayi; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Kj, Nirmal; Suresh, Ambily; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2016-07-01

    Earth's atmosphere at stratospheric altitudes contains dust particles from soil lifted by weather, volcanic dust, man-made aerosols, IDP (Interplanetary Dust Particles) - remnants of comets and asteroids, and even interstellar dust. Satellite observations suggest that approximately 100--300 tons of cosmic dust enter Earth's atmosphere every day. However, very little is known about the microbial life in the upper atmosphere, where conditions are very much similar to that on Mars and possibly on some exoplanets. Stratosphere provides a good opportunity to study the existence or survival of biological life in these conditions. Despite the importance of this topic to astrobiology, stratospheric microbial diversity/survival remains largely unexplored, probably due to significant difficulties in the access and ensuring the absence of contamination of the samples. To conduct a detailed study into this, we are developing the balloon-borne payload system SAMPLE (Stratospheric Altitude Microbiology Probe for Life Existence) to collect dust samples from stratosphere and bring them in an hygienic and uncontaminated manner to a suitable laboratory environment, where further study will be conducted to establish the possibility of microbial life in the upper atmosphere. This balloon-borne payload system will rise through the atmosphere till it reaches an altitude of about 25-30 km above sea level. The payload consists of detachable pre-sterilized sampling chambers designed to collect and contain the dust samples and get them back to the surface without contamination during the flight, a microprocessor and a controller which will determine the altitude of the payload system to actively monitor the opening and closing of the sample collection chambers. For contamination control, we will have two extra chambers, one of which will fly but not open, and one will remain closed on the ground. Other onboard devices include environmental sensors, GPS tracking devices, cameras to monitor

  12. Fluid sample collection and distribution system. [qualitative analysis of aqueous samples from several points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A multipoint fluid sample collection and distribution system is provided wherein the sample inputs are made through one or more of a number of sampling valves to a progressive cavity pump which is not susceptible to damage by large unfiltered particles. The pump output is through a filter unit that can provide a filtered multipoint sample. An unfiltered multipoint sample is also provided. An effluent sample can be taken and applied to a second progressive cavity pump for pumping to a filter unit that can provide one or more filtered effluent samples. The second pump can also provide an unfiltered effluent sample. Means are provided to periodically back flush each filter unit without shutting off the whole system.

  13. Astronaut Charles Duke photographed collecting lunar samples at Station 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, is photographed collecting lunar samples at Station no. 1 during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity at the Descartes landing site. This picture, looking eastward, was taken by Astronaut John W. Young, commander. Duke is standing at the rim of Plum crater, which is 40 meters in diameter and 10 meters deep. The parked Lunar Roving Vehicle can be seen in the left background.

  14. Device for collecting and analyzing matrix-isolated samples

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Gerald T.

    1979-01-01

    A gas-sample collection device is disclosed for matrix isolation of individual gas bands from a gas chromatographic separation and for presenting these distinct samples for spectrometric examination. The device includes a vacuum chamber containing a rotatably supported, specular carrousel having a number of external, reflecting surfaces around its axis of rotation for holding samples. A gas inlet is provided for depositing sample and matrix material on the individual reflecting surfaces maintained at a sufficiently low temperature to cause solidification. Two optical windows or lenses are installed in the vacuum chamber walls for transmitting a beam of electromagnetic radiation, for instance infrared light, through a selected sample. Positioned within the chamber are two concave mirrors, the first aligned to receive the light beam from one of the lenses and focus it to the sample on one of the reflecting surfaces of the carrousel. The second mirror is aligned to receive reflected light from that carrousel surface and to focus it outwardly through the second lens. The light beam transmitted from the sample is received by a spectrometer for determining absorption spectra.

  15. PIXE analysis of cascade impactor samples collected over the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raemdonck, H.; Maenhaut, W.; Ferek, R. J.; Andreae, M. O.

    1984-04-01

    Aerosol samples were collected on a cruise of the R/V Conrad in the Pacific Ocean. The cruise track was divided into two legs, the first one on the Peru/Ecuador shelf, the second through the equatorial and tropical Pacific to Hawaii. Sampling took place by means of two 1 l/min, ten-stage Battelle-type cascade impactors positioned on the foremast of the ship at about 20 m above the sea surface. Strict precautions were taken to avoid contamination of the samples by the ship itself. The impactor slides and back-up filters were analyzed for 25 elements by PIXE using a 2.4 MeV proton beam, produced by a compact cyclotron. In the samples, collected on leg 1, a significant anthropogenic component could be detected. Excess fine sulfur, excess fine potassium, and V, Ni, Cu and Zn in < 2 μ m particles were as high as 600, 10, 0.8, 0.2, 3 and 4 ng/m 3, respectively. On the other hand, most of the samples, collected on leg 2, were representative of clean marine air which was little influenced by continentally derived aerosols. The sulfur size distribution showed a very pronounced submicrometer mode of about 100 ng/m 3, suggesting a nearby sulfur source of marine origin. After crossing the intertropical convergence zone from south to north, concentrations of Fe and other crustal elements increased significantly. The size distributions and interelement ratios indicated that the elevated concentrations of these elements were due to long-range transport of mineral dust.

  16. Experimental and Sampling Design for the INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-02-16

    This report describes the experimental and sampling design developed to assess sampling approaches and methods for detecting contamination in a building and clearing the building for use after decontamination. An Idaho National Laboratory (INL) building will be contaminated with BG (Bacillus globigii, renamed Bacillus atrophaeus), a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (BA). The contamination, sampling, decontamination, and re-sampling will occur per the experimental and sampling design. This INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test is being planned by the Validated Sampling Plan Working Group (VSPWG). The primary objectives are: 1) Evaluate judgmental and probabilistic sampling for characterization as well as probabilistic and combined (judgment and probabilistic) sampling approaches for clearance, 2) Conduct these evaluations for gradient contamination (from low or moderate down to absent or undetectable) for different initial concentrations of the contaminant, 3) Explore judgment composite sampling approaches to reduce sample numbers, 4) Collect baseline data to serve as an indication of the actual levels of contamination in the tests. A combined judgmental and random (CJR) approach uses Bayesian methodology to combine judgmental and probabilistic samples to make clearance statements of the form "X% confidence that at least Y% of an area does not contain detectable contamination” (X%/Y% clearance statements). The INL-2 experimental design has five test events, which 1) vary the floor of the INL building on which the contaminant will be released, 2) provide for varying the amount of contaminant released to obtain desired concentration gradients, and 3) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. Desirable contaminant gradients would have moderate to low concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations down to zero in other rooms. Such gradients would provide a range of contamination levels to challenge the sampling

  17. Plume Collection Strategies for Icy World Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neveu, M.; Glavin, D. P.; Tsou, P.; Anbar, A. D.; Williams, P.

    2015-01-01

    Three icy worlds in the solar system display evidence of pluming activity. Water vapor and ice particles emanate from cracks near the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus. The plume gas contains simple hydrocarbons that could be fragments of larger, more complex organics. More recently, observations using the Hubble and Herschel space telescopes have hinted at transient water vapor plumes at Jupiter's moon Europa and the dwarf planet Ceres. Plume materials may be ejected directly from possible sub-surface oceans, at least on Enceladus. In such oceans, liquid water, organics, and energy may co-exist, making these environments habitable. The venting of habitable ocean material into space provides a unique opportunity to capture this material during a relatively simple flyby mission and return it to Earth. Plume collection strategies should enable investigations of evidence for life in the returned samples via laboratory analyses of the structure, distribution, isotopic composition, and chirality of the chemical components (including biomolecules) of plume materials. Here, we discuss approaches for the collection of dust and volatiles during flybys through Enceladus' plume, based on Cassini results and lessons learned from the Stardust comet sample return mission. We also highlight areas where sample collector and containment technology development and testing may be needed for future plume sample return missions.

  18. Matrix solid-phase dispersion followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of selective ciclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in sewage sludge samples.

    PubMed

    Triñanes, Sara; Casais, M Carmen; Mejuto, M Carmen; Cela, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    A straightforward single-step extraction method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with hybrid quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS), was developed and optimized to determine five non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Valdecoxib, Etoricoxib, Parecoxib, Celecoxib and 2,5-Dimethylcelecoxib) in sewage sludge samples. The influence of different operational parameters on the extraction efficiency a well as in the matrix effects of the produced extracts was evaluated in detail. Under final working conditions, freeze dried samples (0.2g) were first soaked with 100μL of aqueous potassium hydroxide solution (60%, w/v), mixed with 1g of anhydrous sodium sulfate and dispersed with 1g of Florisil. This blend was transferred to the top of a polypropylene column cartridge containing 3g of silica. Analytes were recovered using 15mL of hexane/acetone (1:2, v/v) mixture. The extracts were concentrated by evaporation and reconstituted with 1mL of methanol/water (1:1, v/v), filtered and injected in the LC system. Quantification limits from 0.005 and 0.05ngg(-1) and absolute recoveries between 86 and 105% were achieved. Results indicated the presence of two of the targeted COXIBs in real samples of sewage sludge, the highest average concentration (22ngg(-1)) corresponding to celecoxib. Moreover, the screening capabilities of the LC-QTOF-MS system demonstrated that the developed MSPD extraction procedure might be useful for the selective extraction of some other pharmaceuticals (e.g. amiodarone and their metabolite N-desethylamiodarone, miconazole, clotrimazole and ketoprofen) from sludge samples. PMID:27521258

  19. Appendix C. Collection of Samples for Chemical Agent Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, C; Thompson, C; Doerr, T; Scripsick, R

    2005-09-23

    This chapter describes procedures for the collection and analysis of samples of various matrices for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical agents in a civilian setting. This appendix is intended to provide the reader with sufficient information to make informed decisions about the sampling and analysis process and to suggest analytical strategies that might be implemented by the scientists performing sampling and analysis. This appendix is not intended to be used as a standard operating procedure to provide detailed instructions as to how trained scientists should handle samples. Chemical agents can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Table 1 lists the chemical agents considered by this report. In selecting sampling and analysis methods, we have considered procedures proposed by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and peer-reviewed scientific literature. EPA analytical methods are good resources describing issues of quality assurance with respect to chain-of-custody, sample handling, and quality control requirements.

  20. Near-bottom pelagic bacteria at a deep-water sewage sludge disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Takizawa, M.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. Mixed cultures and bacterial isolates obtained from water overlying sediment core samples collected at the deep-water (2,500 m) municipal sewage disposal site were tested for the ability to grow under in situ conditions of temperature and pressure. The responses of cultures collected at a DWD-106 station heavily impacted by sewage sludge were compared with those of samples collected from a station at the same depth which was not contaminated by sewage sludge. Significant differences were observed in the ability of mixed bacterial cultures and isolates from the two sites to grow under deep-sea pressure and temperature conditions. The levels of sludge contamination were established by enumerating Clostridium perfringens, a sewage indicator bacterium, in sediment samples from the two sites. (Copyright (c) 1993, American Society for Microbiology.)

  1. [Detection of Avian Influenza Virus in Environmental Samples Collected from Live Poultry Markets in China during 2009-2013].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Li, Xiaodan; Zou, Shumei; Bo, Hong; Dong, Libo; Gao, Rongbao; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong

    2015-11-01

    Abstract: To investigate the distribution of avian influenza virus in environmental samples from live poultry markets (LPM) in China, samples were collected and tested by nucleic acid during 2009-2013 season. Each sample was tested by real-time RT PCR using flu A specific primers. If any real-time PCR was positive, the sample was inoculated into specific-pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs for viral isolation. The results indicated that the positive rate of nucleic acid in enviromental samples exhibited seasonality. The positive rate of nucleic acid was significantly higher in Winter and Spring. The positive rate of nucleic acid in LPM located in the south of China was higher than in northern China. Samples of Sewage for cleaning poultry and chopping board showed that higher positive rate of nucleic acid than other samples. The Subtype identification showed that H5 and H9 were main subtypes in the enviromental samples. Viral isolation indicated H5 subtypes was more than H9 subtypes between 2009 and 2013 while H9 subtypes increased in 2013. Our findings suggested the significance of public health based on LPM surveillance and provided the basis of prevention and early warning for avian flu infection human. PMID:26951005

  2. Lunar Samples: Apollo Collection Tools, Curation Handling, Surveyor III and Soviet Luna Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    The 6 Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface returned 2196 samples comprised of 382 kg. The 58 samples weighing 21.5 kg collected on Apollo 11 expanded to 741 samples weighing 110.5 kg by the time of Apollo 17. The main goal on Apollo 11 was to obtain some material and return it safely to Earth. As we gained experience, the sampling tools and a more specific sampling strategy evolved. A summary of the sample types returned is shown in Table 1. By year 1989, some statistics on allocation by sample type were compiled [2]. The "scientific interest index" is based on the assumption that the more allocations per gram of sample, the higher the scientific interest. It is basically a reflection of the amount of diversity within a given sample type. Samples were also set aside for biohazard testing. The samples set aside and used for biohazard testing were represen-tative, as opposed to diverse. They tended to be larger and be comprised of less scientifically valuable mate-rial, such as dust and debris in the bottom of sample containers.

  3. Organic analysis of ambient samples collected near Tank 241-C-103: Results from samples collected on May 12, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Lucke, R.B.; Young, J.S.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes organic analyses results from ambient samples collected both upwind and through the vapor sampling system (VSS) near Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-103 (referred to as Tank C-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed. Quantitative results were obtained for organic compounds. Five organic tentatively identified compounds (TICS) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, we looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. We observed 39. Of these, only one was observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrument detection limit. Dichloromethane was above the detection limits using both methods, but the result from the TO-14 method is traceable to a standard gas mixture and is considered more accurate. Organic analytes were found only in the sample collected through the VSS, suggesting that these compounds were residual contamination from a previous sampling job. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text.

  4. Tritium concentrations of blood samples collected throughout Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hisamatsu, Shun`ichi; Takizawa, Yukio; Inoue, Yoshikazu

    1995-04-01

    Tritium concentrations were measured for blood samples collected from 20 cities throughout Japan during 1989-1990. The mean {sup 3}H concentration was found to be 1.4 {plus_minus} 0.4 Bq L{sup -1} and 1.0 {plus_minus} 0.4 Bq L{sup -1} (combustion water) for free water {sup 3}H and organically-bound {sup 3}H, respectively, excluding the abnormally high data of one city. The organically-bound {sup 3}H contents clearly depended on the latitudes of sampling locations, although the free water {sup 3}H concentrations showed no correlation with the latitudes. Organically-bound {sup 3}H is considered to be more suitable than free water {sup 3}H as an indicator of long time {sup 3}H exposure to human.

  5. Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Trávníček, Petr; Junga, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

  6. Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

  7. Optimisation of sewage sludge anaerobic digestion through co-digestion with OFMSW: Effect of collection system and particle size.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Gracia; Bonmatí, August; Fernández, Belén

    2015-09-01

    The effect of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) loading rate and particulate size on the sewage sludge (SS) mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion was assessed in continuous stirred tank reactor at hydraulic retention time of 20days. The SS-OFMSW mixture composed by 54% of the volatile solids fed (inlet-VS), at OLR of 3.1kgCODm(-3)d(-1) (1.9kgVSm(-3)d(-1)), showed the highest increment on the volumetric methane production and yield of +200% and +59% respectively, under stable conditions. The effect of particulate size was assessed with the same mixture and same operational conditions but reducing the OFMSW particulate size from 20mm to 8mm with the aim to improve the hydrolysis step, but the results showed any influence in the OFMSW particulate size range analysed. In addition, specific biomass activity was assessed at the end of each co-digestion period. Results showed that OFMSW promoted β-oxidation syntrophic acetogens and the acetoclastic methanogens activity; although the last increase of the OFMSW percentage (from 47% to 54% inlet-VS) affected negatively the specific substrate activity, but not inhibitory effect was observed. Therefore, the results obtained in the continuous experiment could be related with some inhibitory or toxic effect and not due to hydrolysis limitation. The specific biomass activity test was demonstrated to be an interesting tool to evaluate and control the co-digestion process, especially when conventional parameters did not explain the behaviour of the biological system. PMID:26139136

  8. Optimisation of sewage sludge anaerobic digestion through co-digestion with OFMSW: Effect of collection system and particle size

    SciTech Connect

    Silvestre, Gracia; Bonmatí, August; Fernández, Belén

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Methane production rate increased between 56% and 208% during OFMSW–SS codigestion. • The OFMSW particle size reduction from 20 to 8 mm did not affect the methane yield. • OFMSW–SS codigestion promoted β-oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenic activity. • The evolution of specific activity was a feasible tool to control the process. - Abstract: The effect of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) loading rate and particulate size on the sewage sludge (SS) mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion was assessed in continuous stirred tank reactor at hydraulic retention time of 20 days. The SS–OFMSW mixture composed by 54% of the volatile solids fed (inlet-VS), at OLR of 3.1 kg{sub COD} m{sup −3} d{sup −1} (1.9 kg{sub VS} m{sup −3} d{sup −1}), showed the highest increment on the volumetric methane production and yield of +200% and +59% respectively, under stable conditions. The effect of particulate size was assessed with the same mixture and same operational conditions but reducing the OFMSW particulate size from 20 mm to 8 mm with the aim to improve the hydrolysis step, but the results showed any influence in the OFMSW particulate size range analysed. In addition, specific biomass activity was assessed at the end of each co-digestion period. Results showed that OFMSW promoted β-oxidation syntrophic acetogens and the acetoclastic methanogens activity; although the last increase of the OFMSW percentage (from 47% to 54% inlet-VS) affected negatively the specific substrate activity, but not inhibitory effect was observed. Therefore, the results obtained in the continuous experiment could be related with some inhibitory or toxic effect and not due to hydrolysis limitation. The specific biomass activity test was demonstrated to be an interesting tool to evaluate and control the co-digestion process, especially when conventional parameters did not explain the behaviour of the biological system.

  9. Study of Cloud Water Samples Collected over Northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Polkowska, Ż; Błaś, M; Lech, D; Namieśnik, J

    2014-01-01

    The paper gives the results of the first studies on the chemistry of cloud water collected during 3 mo (Aug.-Oct. 2010) in the free atmosphere over the area to the south of the Tri-City (Gdansk-Sopot-Gdynia) conurbation on the Gulf of Gdansk, Poland. Taken from cumulus, stratus, and stratocumulus clouds by means of an aircraft-mounted collector, the water samples were analyzed for the following contaminants: anions (chlorides, fluorides, nitrates, sulfates, and phosphates), cations (lithium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, and magnesium), and trace metals. In addition, pH values were measured, and the type and composition of suspended particulate matter was determined. We discuss the relationship between the concentration of inorganic ions and the type of cloud from which water was sampled. The chemistry is also likely related to the circulation pattern and inflow of clean air masses from the Baltic Sea. Moreover, a relationship was found between the composition of the samples examined and the location of pollutant emission sources. PMID:25602567

  10. Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoville, Zebulon; Sipila, Stephanie; Bowie, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is challenged with primary mission objectives of demonstrating deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools, and obtaining asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Although the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) is used for the EVAs, it has limited mobility which increases fatigue and decreases the crews' capability to perform EVA tasks. Furthermore, previous Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, some vehicle interfaces and tools can leverage heritage designs and experience. However, when the crew ventures onto an asteroid capture bag to explore the asteroid and collect rock samples, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as bunching of the fabric bag will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the MACES suit. The proposed concept utilizes expandable booms and integrated features of the asteroid capture bag to position and restrain the crew at the asteroid worksite. These methods enable the capability to perform both finesse, and high load tasks necessary to collect samples for scientific characterization of the asteroid. This paper will explore the design trade space and options that were examined for EVA, the

  11. Miniature Blimps for Surveillance and Collection of Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Miniature blimps are under development as robots for use in exploring the thick, cold, nitrogen atmosphere of Saturn's moon, Titan. Similar blimps can also be used for surveillance and collection of biochemical samples in buildings, caves, subways, and other, similar structures on Earth. The widely perceived need for means to thwart attacks on buildings and to mitigate the effects of such attacks has prompted consideration of the use of robots. Relative to rover-type (wheeled) robots that have been considered for such uses, miniature blimps offer the advantage of ability to move through the air in any direction and, hence, to perform tasks that are difficult or impossible for wheeled robots, including climbing stairs and looking through windows. In addition, miniature blimps are expected to have greater range and to cost less, relative to wheeled robots.

  12. Sulfate and nitrate collected by filter sampling near the tropopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humenik, F. M.; Lezberg, E. A.; Otterson, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Filter samples collected near the tropopause with an F-106 aircraft and two Boeing 747 aircraft were analyzed for sulfate and nitrate ion content. Within the range of routine commercial flight altitudes (at or below 12.5 km), stratospheric mass mixing ratios for the winter-spring group averaged 0.26 ppbm for sulfate and 0.35 ppbm for nitrate. For the summer-fall group, stratosphere mixing ratios averaged 0.13 ppbm and 0.25 ppbm for sulfate and nitrate, respectively. Winter-spring group tropospheric mass mixing ratios averaged 0.08 ppbm for sulfate and 0.10 ppbm for nitrate, while summer-fall group tropospheric mixing ratios averaged 0.05 ppbm for sulfate and 0.08 ppbm for nitrate. Correlations of the filter data with available ozone data suggest that the sulfate and nitrate are transported from the stratosphere to the troposphere.

  13. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  14. Collection, chemical analysis, and evaluation of coal samples in 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Vernon Emanuel; Medlin, J.H.; Hatch, J.R.; Coleman, S.L.; Wood, G.H., Jr.; Woodruff, S.D.; Hildebrand, R.T.

    1976-01-01

    During 1975, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with other Federal and State agencies, university groups, and private companies, continued its program to augment and refine information on the composition of coal in the United States. This report includes all analytical data on 799 channel samples of coal beds from major operating mines and core holes in 28 States, collected mainly by State Geological Surveys under a cooperative program funded largely by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. For each sample, the U.S. Geological Survey has quantitatively determined the amounts of 24 major, minor, and trace elements (including AI, As, Cd, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Na, Pb, Se, U, and Zn), and has semiquantitatively determined the concentrations of 15 to 20 additional trace elements (including B, Be, Cr, Ge, Mo, Ni, and V). In addition, the U.S. Bureau of Mines has provided proximate and ultimate analyses, and Btu and forms-of-sulfur determinations on 488 of the samples. Statistical summaries of the data are given for all coal samples in the United States, for coal divided by rank (53 anthracite, 509 bituminous coal, 183 subbituminous coal, and 54 lignite samples), and the arithmetic means, ranges, and geometric means and deviations are given for the coal in each of seven different major coal areas in the United States. For example, the average coal in the United States contains 11.3 percent ash, 10.0 percent moisture, 2.0 percent sulfur, and has 11,180 Btu per pound; of the 10 major oxides determined on the 525?C ash, the average SiO2 content is 38 percent, Al2O3 20 percent, and Na2O 0.67 percent; the average Cd content is 7.3 ppm, Pb 114 ppm, and Zn 151 ppm (range 1 ppm to 6.0 percent). As determined on the raw coal, the average Hg content is 0.18 ppm (range <0.01 to 63.0 ppm), the Se content 4.1 ppm (range <0.1 to 150 ppm), and the U content 1.8 ppm (range <0.2 to 42.9 ppm).

  15. Air sampling filtration media: Collection efficiency for respirable size-selective sampling

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Monaghan, Keenan; Lee, Taekhee; Kashon, Mike; Harper, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The collection efficiencies of commonly used membrane air sampling filters in the ultrafine particle size range were investigated. Mixed cellulose ester (MCE; 0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polycarbonate (0.4, 0.8, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; 0.45, 1, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polyvinyl chloride (PVC; 0.8 and 5 μm pore sizes), and silver membrane (0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes) filters were exposed to polydisperse sodium chloride (NaCl) particles in the size range of 10–400 nm. Test aerosols were nebulized and introduced into a calm air chamber through a diffusion dryer and aerosol neutralizer. The testing filters (37 mm diameter) were mounted in a conductive polypropylene filter-holder (cassette) within a metal testing tube. The experiments were conducted at flow rates between 1.7 and 11.2 l min−1. The particle size distributions of NaCl challenge aerosol were measured upstream and downstream of the test filters by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Three different filters of each type with at least three repetitions for each pore size were tested. In general, the collection efficiency varied with airflow, pore size, and sampling duration. In addition, both collection efficiency and pressure drop increased with decreased pore size and increased sampling flow rate, but they differed among filter types and manufacturer. The present study confirmed that the MCE, PTFE, and PVC filters have a relatively high collection efficiency for challenge particles much smaller than their nominal pore size and are considerably more efficient than polycarbonate and silver membrane filters, especially at larger nominal pore sizes. PMID:26834310

  16. Review of Oceanographic and Geochemical Data Collected in Massachusetts Bay during a Large Discharge of Total Suspended Solids from Boston's Sewage-Treatment System and Ocean Outfall in August 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bothner, Michael H.; Butman, Bradford; Casso, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    During the period August 14-23, 2002, the discharge of total suspended solids (TSS) from the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority sewage-treatment plant ranged from 32 to 132 milligrams per liter, causing the monthly average discharge to exceed the limit specified in the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit. Time-series monitoring data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in western Massachusetts Bay were examined to evaluate changes in environmental conditions during and after this exceedance event. The rate of sediment trapping and the concentrations of near-bottom suspended sediment measured near the outfall in western Massachusetts Bay increased during this period. Because similar increases in sediment-trapping rate were observed in the summers of 2003 and 2004, however, the increase in 2002 cannot be definitively attributed to the increased TSS discharge. Concentrations of copper and silver in trapped sediment collected 10 and 20 days following the 2002 TSS event were elevated compared to those in pre-event samples. Maximum concentrations were less than 50 percent of toxicity guidelines. Photographs of surficial bottom sediments obtained before and after the TSS event do not show sediment accumulation on the sea floor. Concentrations of silver, Clostridium perfringens, and clay in surficial bottom sediments sampled 10 weeks after the discharge event at a depositional site 3 kilometers west of the outfall were unchanged from those in samples obtained before the event. Simulation of the TSS event by using a coupled hydrodynamic-wave-sediment-transport model could enhance understanding of these observations and of the effects of the exceedance on the local marine environment.

  17. Microbial quantities and enzyme activity in soil irrigated with sewage for different lengths of time.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoming; Ma, Teng; Chen, Liuzhu; Cui, Yahui; Du, Peng; Liao, Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Sewage is widely used on agricultural soils in peri-urban areas of developing countries to meet shortages of water resource. Although sewage is a good source of plant nutrients, it also increases the heavy metals loads to soils. Microbial responses to these contaminants may serve as early warning indicators of adverse effects of sewage irrigation on soil quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of time of sewage irrigation on soil microbial indicators. Soil samples were collected from seven soil sites (S1-S7) irrigated with 0 years, 16 years, 23 years, 25 years, 27 years, 32 years and 52 years, respectively in Shijiazhuang of China and analyzed. For each soil sample, we determined the quantities of bacteria, fungi and actinomycete, and enzyme activities of urease, sucrase, phosphatase, dehydrogenase and catalase. Our results showed that the soils of S2-S7 irrigated with sewage effluents for different times (ranged between 16 and 52 years) exhibited higher densities of bacteria, actinomycete, urease, sucrase and phosphatase but lower densities of fungi when compared with S1 irrigated with sewage effluents for 0 years. The soil S7 irrigated with sewage effluents for longest times (52 years) contained lowest activities of catalase when compared with the soils of S1-S6. The densities of bacteria (R = 0.877, p < 0.01), actinomycete (R = 0.875, p < 0.01), sucrase (R = 0.858, p < 0.01) and phosphatase (R = 0.804, p < 0.05) were significantly correlated in a positive manner with time of sewage irrigation. Soil fungi quantities and urease, dehydrogenase and catalase activities did not change significantly with irrigation time. This study confirms that sewage irrigation had negative effects on microbial properties including fungi, catalase and dehydrogenase in the long term, so there is a need for continuous monitoring for sustainable soil health. PMID:25190356

  18. A Multiple-Tracer Approach for Identifying Sewage Sources to an Urban Stream System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyer, Kenneth Edward

    2007-01-01

    sampling approach, 149 sites were sampled at least one time for indicator tracers; 52 of these sites also were sampled for confirmatory tracers at least one time. Through the analysis of multiple-tracer levels in the synoptic samples, three major sewage sources to the Accotink Creek stream network were identified, and several other minor sewage sources to the Accotink Creek system likely deserve additional investigation. Near the end of the synoptic sampling activities, three additional sampling methods were used to gain better understanding of the potential for sewage sources to the watershed. These additional sampling methods included optical brightener monitoring, intensive stream sampling using automated samplers, and additional sampling of several storm-drain networks. The samples obtained by these methods provided further understanding of possible sewage sources to the streams and a better understanding of the variability in the tracer concentrations at a given sampling site. Collectively, these additional sampling methods were a valuable complement to the synoptic sampling approach that was used for the bulk of this study. The study results provide an approach for local authorities to use in applying a relatively simple and inexpensive collection of tracers to locate sewage sources to streams. Although this multiple-tracer approach is effective in detecting sewage sources to streams, additional research is needed to better detect extremely low-volume sewage sources and better enable local authorities to identify the specific sources of the sewage once it is detected in a stream reach.

  19. DS — Software for analyzing data collected using double sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, Jonathan; Hartley, Dana

    2011-01-01

    DS analyzes count data to estimate density or relative density and population size when appropriate. The software is available at http://iwcbm.dev4.fsr.com/IWCBM/default.asp?PageID=126. The software was designed to analyze data collected using double sampling, but it also can be used to analyze index data. DS is not currently configured to apply distance methods or methods based on capture-recapture theory. Double sampling for the purpose of this report means surveying a sample of locations with a rapid method of unknown accuracy and surveying a subset of these locations using a more intensive method assumed to yield unbiased estimates. "Detection ratios" are calculated as the ratio of results from rapid surveys on intensive plots to the number actually present as determined from the intensive surveys. The detection ratios are used to adjust results from the rapid surveys. The formula for density is (results from rapid survey)/(estimated detection ratio from intensive surveys). Population sizes are estimated as (density)(area). Double sampling is well-established in the survey sampling literature—see Cochran (1977) for the basic theory, Smith (1995) for applications of double sampling in waterfowl surveys, Bart and Earnst (2002, 2005) for discussions of its use in wildlife studies, and Bart and others (in press) for a detailed account of how the method was used to survey shorebirds across the arctic region of North America. Indices are surveys that do not involve complete counts of well-defined plots or recording information to estimate detection rates (Thompson and others, 1998). In most cases, such data should not be used to estimate density or population size but, under some circumstances, may be used to compare two densities or estimate how density changes through time or across space (Williams and others, 2005). The Breeding Bird Survey (Sauer and others, 2008) provides a good example of an index survey. Surveyors record all birds detected but do not record

  20. Development of a SPE-HPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of most prescribed pharmaceuticals and related metabolites in urban sewage samples.

    PubMed

    Gurke, Robert; Rossmann, Julia; Schubert, Sara; Sandmann, Tobias; Rößler, Martin; Oertel, Reinhard; Fauler, Joachim

    2015-05-15

    Based on regional prescription data several pharmaceuticals with variable amounts of prescription and corresponding metabolites were selected and analyzed in influent and effluent samples of the sewage treatment plant (STP) in Dresden, Germany. Pharmaceuticals of the following most prescribed therapeutic groups were chosen: antibiotics, antifungals, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antidepressants, and cardiovascular active compounds like beta blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. To analyze the selected compounds, a multi-target method was developed and applied to 24-h composite wastewater samples for three single days in May and June 2014. The method was based on a cleanup of a sample with a volume of 1mL using solid phase extraction followed by a high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer. Analytes were separated in a 15min chromatographic separation and quantified using 23 Internal Standards and a calibration curve in 40-fold diluted blank urine. The limit of quantification varied between 50 and 200ng/L and for all analytes good accuracy and precision as well as linearity for the calibration curve with the correlation coefficient R(2) higher than 0.99 was reached. A total of 41 and 40 of the selected 55 analytes were detected and quantified in the influent and effluent samples of the studied STP, respectively. Valsartan was the compound with the highest maximum concentration in influent (27.1μg/L) and effluent (15.7μg/L). Furthermore, analytes like bezafibrate, candesartan, carbamazepine, gabapentin, metoprolol, levetiracetam, pregabalin and telmisartan as well as the metabolite O-desmethyl venlafaxine were detectable in influent and effluent samples, respectively, with a concentration higher than 1μg/L. PMID:25841203

  1. Diversity and population structure of sewage derived microorganisms in wastewater treatment plant influent

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, S.L.; Huse, S.M.; Mueller-Spitz, S.R.; Andreishcheva, E.N.; Sogin, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    The release of untreated sewage introduces non-indigenous microbial populations of uncertain composition into surface waters. We used massively parallel 454 sequencing of hypervariable regions in rRNA genes to profile microbial communities from eight untreated sewage influent samples of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in metropolitan Milwaukee. The sewage profiles included a discernable human fecal signature made up of several taxonomic groups including multiple Bifidobacteriaceae, Coriobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae genera. The fecal signature made up a small fraction of the taxa present in sewage but the relative abundance of these sequence tags mirrored the population structures of human fecal samples. These genera were much more prevalent in the sewage influent than standard indicators species. High-abundance sequences from taxonomic groups within the Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria dominated the sewage samples but occurred at very low levels in fecal and surface water samples, suggesting that these organisms proliferate within the sewer system. Samples from Jones Island (JI – servicing residential plus a combined sewer system) and South Shore (SS – servicing a residential area) WWTPs had very consistent community profiles, with greater similarity between WWTPs on a given collection day than the same plant collected on different days. Rainfall increased influent flows at SS and JI WWTPs, and this corresponded to greater diversity in the community at both plants. Overall, the sewer system appears to be a defined environment with both infiltration of rainwater and stormwater inputs modulating community composition. Microbial sewage communities represent a combination of inputs from human fecal microbes and enrichment of specific microbes from the environment to form a unique population structure. PMID:19840106

  2. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF URINE SAMPLES (SOP-2.14)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting urine samples from the study participants (children and their primary caregivers). Urine samples will be approximate 48-hr collections, collected as spot urine samples accumulated over the 48-hr sampling period. If the household or da...

  3. CONFIRMED VIRUSES VERSUS UNCONFIRMED PLAQUES IN SEWAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ninety-two treated and untreated sewage samples from seven wastewater treatment plants in Chicago, Illinois, Memphis, Tennessee, and Cincinnati, Ohio were examined for their virus content. Concentrated and unconcentrated samples were plaque assayed in five different cell culture ...

  4. Quantification of human-associated fecal indicators reveal sewage from urban watersheds as a source of pollution to Lake Michigan.

    PubMed

    Templar, Hayley A; Dila, Deborah K; Bootsma, Melinda J; Corsi, Steven R; McLellan, Sandra L

    2016-09-01

    Sewage contamination of urban waterways from sewer overflows and failing infrastructure is a major environmental and public health concern. Fecal coliforms (FC) are commonly employed as fecal indicator bacteria, but do not distinguish between human and non-human sources of fecal contamination. Human Bacteroides and human Lachnospiraceae, two genetic markers for human-associated indicator bacteria, were used to identify sewage signals in two urban rivers and the estuary that drains to Lake Michigan. Grab samples were collected from the rivers throughout 2012 and 2013 and hourly samples were collected in the estuary across the hydrograph during summer 2013. Human Bacteroides and human Lachnospiraceae were highly correlated with each other in river samples (Pearson's r = 0.86), with average concentrations at most sites elevated during wet weather. These human indicators were found during baseflow, indicating that sewage contamination is chronic in these waterways. FC are used for determining total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) in management plans; however, FC concentrations alone failed to prioritize river reaches with potential health risks. While 84% of samples with >1000 CFU/100 ml FC had sewage contamination, 52% of samples with moderate (200-1000 CFU/100 ml) and 46% of samples with low (<200 CFU/100 ml) FC levels also had evidence of human sewage. Load calculations in the in the Milwaukee estuary revealed storm-driven sewage contamination varied greatly among events and was highest during an event with a short duration of intense rain. This work demonstrates urban areas have unrecognized sewage inputs that may not be adequately prioritized for remediation by the TMDL process. Further analysis using these approaches could determine relationships between land use, storm characteristics, and other factors that drive sewage contamination in urban waterways. PMID:27236594

  5. Quantification of human-associated fecal indicators reveal sewage from urban watersheds as a source of pollution to Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templar, Hayley A.; Dila, Deborah K.; Bootsma, Melinda J.; Corsi, Steven; McLellan, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Sewage contamination of urban waterways from sewer overflows and failing infrastructure is a major environmental and public health concern. Fecal coliforms (FC) are commonly employed as fecal indicator bacteria, but do not distinguish between human and non-human sources of fecal contamination. Human Bacteroides and humanLachnospiraceae, two genetic markers for human-associated indicator bacteria, were used to identify sewage signals in two urban rivers and the estuary that drains to Lake Michigan. Grab samples were collected from the rivers throughout 2012 and 2013 and hourly samples were collected in the estuary across the hydrograph during summer 2013. Human Bacteroides and human Lachnospiraceae were highly correlated with each other in river samples (Pearson’s r = 0.86), with average concentrations at most sites elevated during wet weather. These human indicators were found during baseflow, indicating that sewage contamination is chronic in these waterways. FC are used for determining total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) in management plans; however, FC concentrations alone failed to prioritize river reaches with potential health risks. While 84% of samples with >1000 CFU/100 ml FC had sewage contamination, 52% of samples with moderate (200–1000 CFU/100 ml) and 46% of samples with low (<200 CFU/100 ml) FC levels also had evidence of human sewage. Load calculations in the in the Milwaukee estuary revealed storm-driven sewage contamination varied greatly among events and was highest during an event with a short duration of intense rain. This work demonstrates urban areas have unrecognized sewage inputs that may not be adequately prioritized for remediation by the TMDL process. Further analysis using these approaches could determine relationships between land use, storm characteristics, and other factors that drive sewage contamination in urban waterways.

  6. COLLECTION EFFICIENCY OF FIELD SAMPLING CASSETTES: INTERAGENCY ENERGY/ENVIRONMENT R AND D PROGRAM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Industrial hygiene particulate samples are often collected under anisokinetic sampling conditions and in crosswinds. Experiments were conducted to quantitate errors associated with sampling under these non-ideal conditions. Three types of field sampling cassetts were tested to de...

  7. Atmospheric CO sub 2 concentrations derived from flask samples collected at USSR-operated sampling sites

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, T.A. . Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center); Brounshtein, A.M.; Faber, E.V.; Shashkov, A.A. )

    1991-12-01

    This document presents daily atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations from four USSR-operated sampling sites (Teriberka Station, Ocean Station Charlie, Bering Island, and Kotelny Island). The period of record varies by station with the earliest measurements dating back to 1983 and recent estimates from early 1991. These CO{sub 2} concentrations are derived from air samples collected in 1.5-L stainless steel electropolished flasks and later analyzed at the Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg, USSR) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer. Measurements not meeting wind direction, wind speed, inter-flask agreement, and climate condition criteria were either discarded or flagged. All measurements have been corrected for drift biases introduced during flask storage. These atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are considered indicative of regional background air conditions and are directly traceable to the World Meteorological Organization's primary CO{sub 2} standards. These measurements support the rising trend in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations measured at other monitoring sites around the world and may be compared with similar measurements made by various monitoring programs at other northern latitude sites. The document presents the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations in graphical and tabular form, describes the sampling methods, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, and describes the information on the magnetic media.

  8. Identification of viral pathogen diversity in sewage sludge by metagenome analysis.

    PubMed

    Bibby, Kyle; Peccia, Jordan

    2013-02-19

    The large diversity of viruses that exist in human populations are potentially excreted into sewage collection systems and concentrated in sewage sludge. In the U.S., the primary fate of processed sewage sludge (class B biosolids) is application to agricultural land as a soil amendment. To characterize and understand infectious risks associated with land application, and to describe the diversity of viruses in human populations, shotgun viral metagenomics was applied to 10 sewage sludge samples from 5 wastewater treatment plants throughout the continental U.S, each serving between 100,000 and 1,000,000 people. Nearly 330 million DNA sequences were produced and assembled, and annotation resulted in identifying 43 (26 DNA, 17 RNA) different types of human viruses in sewage sludge. Novel insights include the high abundance of newly emerging viruses (e.g., Coronavirus HKU1, Klassevirus, and Cosavirus) the strong representation of respiratory viruses, and the relatively minor abundance and occurrence of Enteroviruses. Viral metagenome sequence annotations were reproducible and independent PCR-based identification of selected viruses suggests that viral metagenomes were a conservative estimate of the true viral occurrence and diversity. These results represent the most complete description of human virus diversity in any wastewater sample to date, provide engineers and environmental scientists with critical information on important viral agents and routes of infection from exposure to wastewater and sewage sludge, and represent a significant leap forward in understanding the pathogen content of class B biosolids. PMID:23346855

  9. National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS), data element dictionary for the ASCII format databases

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-16

    A data element dictionary including ASCII database file structures, variable naming conventions, and unique identifier variables is provided for the ASCII formats of the Questionnaire, Data Conventions, and Analytical Databases for the 1988 National Sewage Sludge Use and Disposal Survey (NSSS). Data collected in the questionnaire component of the survey are contained in the Questionnaire Database. Revised questionnaire data, including regulatory analytical use or disposal practices, followup information from the Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs), and imputed values for missing or improbable responses which could not be resolved, are recorded in the Data Conventions Database. Chemical concentrations from sewage sludge samples collected just prior to disposal are recorded in the Analytical Database.

  10. 1988 NATIONAL SEWAGE SLUDGE SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:Originally developed to support Phase I regulation for use or disposal of biosolids (sewage sludge). Data collected were used to estimate risks, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation. This is currently the only statistically designed surv...

  11. 24 CFR 35.1315 - Collection and laboratory analysis of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... authorized by EPA in accordance with 40 CFR part 745, subpart Q, or by the EPA in accordance with 40 CFR 745... Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. All paint chip, dust, or soil samples shall be collected...

  12. Sewage contamination of a densely populated coral 'atoll' (Bermuda).

    PubMed

    Jones, Ross; Parsons, Rachel; Watkinson, Elaine; Kendell, David

    2011-08-01

    Bermuda is a densely populated coral 'atoll' located on a seamount in the mid-Atlantic (Sargasso Sea). There is no national sewerage system and the ∼20 × 10(6) L of sewage generated daily is disposed of via marine outfalls, cess pits/septic tanks underneath houses and through waste disposal (injection) wells. Gastrointestinal (GI) enterococci concentrations were measured in surface seawater samples collected monthly at multiple locations across the island over a 5-year period. According to the EU Bathing Water Directive microbial classification categories, 18 of the sites were in the 'excellent' category, four sites in the 'good', five sites were in the 'sufficient' and three sites in the 'poor' categories. One of the sites in the 'poor' category is beside a popular swimming beach. Between 20-30% of 58 sub tidal sediment samples collected from creeks, coves, bays, harbours and marinas in the Great Sound complex on the western side of Bermuda tested positive for the presence of the human specific bacterial biomarker Bacteroides (using culture-independent PCR-based methods) and for the faecal biomarker coprostanol (5β-cholestan-3-β-ol, which ranged in concentration from <0.05-0.77 mg kg( - 1). There was a significant statistical correlation between these two independent techniques for faecal contamination identification. Overall the microbial water quality and sedimentary biomarker surveys suggest sewage contamination in Bermuda was quite low compared with other published studies; nevertheless, several sewage contamination hotpots exist, and these could be attributed to discharge of raw sewage from house boats, from nearby sewage outfalls and leakage from septic tanks/cess pits. PMID:20978839

  13. Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM): An Early Mars Sample Return Mission Through the Mars Scout Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leshin, L. A.; Yen, A.; Bomba, J.; Clark, B.; Epp, C.; Forney, L.; Gamber, T.; Graves, C.; Hupp, J.; Jones, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM) mission is designed to: (1) make a 40 km pass through the Martian atmosphere; (2) collect dust and atmospheric gas; and (3) return the samples to Earth for analysis. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Evidence for Cometabolism in Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Stuart N.; O'Mara, Nancy L.; Alexander, Martin

    1980-01-01

    A procedure was developed to demonstrate cometabolism in models of natural ecosystems. The procedure involves showing the formation of metabolic products in high yield and the lack of incorporation of substrate carbon into cellular constituents. Samples of four 14C-labeled herbicides (trifluralin, profluralin, fluchloralin, and nitrofen) were incubated with sewage aerobically and under discontinuous anaerobiosis for 88 days, and fresh sewage was added at intervals. Products were formed from each of the herbicides in nonsterile, but not in sterile, sewage. The yield of recovered products reached 87% for profluralin and more than 90% for fluchloralin and trifluralin, and the number of products ranged from 6 for nitrofen to 12 for fluchloralin. Concentrating the sewage microflora 40-fold greatly enhanced the rate of conversion. None of the radioactivity from the herbicide entered the nucleoside pool of the sewage microflora. The lack of incorporation of substrate carbon into cells and the almost stoichiometric conversion of the substrate to organic products indicate that members of the microbial community were cometabolizing the test compounds. PMID:16345657

  15. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

  16. Occurrence of microbial indicators and Clostridium perfringens in wastewater, water column samples, sediments, drinking water, and Weddell seal feces collected at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lisle, J.T.; Smith, J.J.; Edwards, D.D.; McFeters, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    McMurdo Station, Antarctica, has discharged untreated sewage into McMurdo Sound for decades. Previous studies delineated the impacted area, which included the drinking water intake, by using total coliform and Clostridium perfringens concentrations. The estimation of risk to humans in contact with the impacted and potable waters may be greater than presumed, as these microbial indicators may not be the most appropriate for this environment. To address these concerns, concentrations of these and additional indicators (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, coliphage, and enteroviruses) in the untreated wastewater, water column, and sediments of the impacted area and drinking water treatment facility and distribution system at McMurdo Station were determined. Fecal samples from Weddell seals in this area were also collected and analyzed for indicators. All drinking water samples were negative for indicators except for a single total coliform-positive sample. Total coliforms were present in water column samples at higher concentrations than other indicators. Fecal coliform and enterococcus concentrations were similar to each other and greater than those of other indicators in sediment samples closer to the discharge site. C. perfringens concentrations were higher in sediments at greater distances from the discharge site. Seal fecal samples contained concentrations of fecal coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, and C. perfringens similar to those found in untreated sewage. All samples were negative for enteroviruses. A wastewater treatment facility at McMurdo Station has started operation, and these data provide a baseline data set for monitoring the recovery of the impacted area. The contribution of seal feces to indicator concentrations in this area should be considered.

  17. Occurrence of microbial indicators and Clostridium perfringens in wastewater, water column samples, sediments, drinking water, and Weddell seal feces collected at McMurdo Station, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Lisle, John T; Smith, James J; Edwards, Diane D; McFeters, Gordon A

    2004-12-01

    McMurdo Station, Antarctica, has discharged untreated sewage into McMurdo Sound for decades. Previous studies delineated the impacted area, which included the drinking water intake, by using total coliform and Clostridium perfringens concentrations. The estimation of risk to humans in contact with the impacted and potable waters may be greater than presumed, as these microbial indicators may not be the most appropriate for this environment. To address these concerns, concentrations of these and additional indicators (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, coliphage, and enteroviruses) in the untreated wastewater, water column, and sediments of the impacted area and drinking water treatment facility and distribution system at McMurdo Station were determined. Fecal samples from Weddell seals in this area were also collected and analyzed for indicators. All drinking water samples were negative for indicators except for a single total coliform-positive sample. Total coliforms were present in water column samples at higher concentrations than other indicators. Fecal coliform and enterococcus concentrations were similar to each other and greater than those of other indicators in sediment samples closer to the discharge site. C. perfringens concentrations were higher in sediments at greater distances from the discharge site. Seal fecal samples contained concentrations of fecal coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, and C. perfringens similar to those found in untreated sewage. All samples were negative for enteroviruses. A wastewater treatment facility at McMurdo Station has started operation, and these data provide a baseline data set for monitoring the recovery of the impacted area. The contribution of seal feces to indicator concentrations in this area should be considered. PMID:15574926

  18. Could sewage epidemiology be a strategy to assess lifestyle and wellness of a large scale population?

    PubMed

    Santos, Julia M; Jurban, Michael; Kim, Hyesook

    2015-10-01

    The use of sewage epidemiology to estimate the behavior of a large scale population has mainly been used to assess illicit drug use within a community. The systemic oxidative stress marker, 8-isoprostane, is a wildly accepted biomarker for various diseases such as diabetes, and cardiovascular and renal diseases. 8-Isoprostane is detected in urine and, as with illicit drugs, is excreted into urban sewer networks. Initially, we tested the hypothesis that differential 8-isoprostane levels are detected in wastewater of different communities and that 8-isoprostane values adjusted for the flow rate and population size will remain constant over a 2 months period. Sewage samples were collected from three sewage collection points supplied by different communities located in the Detroit metropolitan area and concentration of 8-isoprostane and synthetic plastic component, bisphenol A (BPA), were measured. Levels of 8-isoprostane were constant during the two measured months at each collection point in oppose to BPA levels. When the levels were compared among communities, 8-isoprostane levels in 24h flow and their concentrations per capita in each community varied by more than 5-fold among them. Considering the fact that 8-isoprostane is a biomarker of several diseases, we hypothesize that measurement of 8-isoprostane levels in sewage may serve as a risk assessment tool of oxidative stress-related diseases in a large scale population. Thus, sewage epidemiology can be utilized to obtain an early warning in a community to facilitate intervention for improvement of the community health. PMID:26146131

  19. Curating NASA's Past, Present, and Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Allton, J. H.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Zolensky, M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "...curation of all extra-terrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "...documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the past, present, and future activities of the NASA Curation Office.

  20. Methodological Issues of Sample Collection and Analysis of Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommended standardized procedures have been developed for measurement of exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide (NO) and nasal NO. It would be desirable to develop similar guidelines for the sampling of exhaled breath related to other compounds. For such systemic volatile o...

  1. Sewage Reflects the Microbiomes of Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ryan J.; McLellan, Sandra L.; Dila, Deborah K.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Eren, A. Murat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular characterizations of the gut microbiome from individual human stool samples have identified community patterns that correlate with age, disease, diet, and other human characteristics, but resources for marker gene studies that consider microbiome trends among human populations scale with the number of individuals sampled from each population. As an alternative strategy for sampling populations, we examined whether sewage accurately reflects the microbial community of a mixture of stool samples. We used oligotyping of high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequence data to compare the bacterial distribution in a stool data set to a sewage influent data set from 71 U.S. cities. On average, only 15% of sewage sample sequence reads were attributed to human fecal origin, but sewage recaptured most (97%) human fecal oligotypes. The most common oligotypes in stool matched the most common and abundant in sewage. After informatically separating sequences of human fecal origin, sewage samples exhibited ~3× greater diversity than stool samples. Comparisons among municipal sewage communities revealed the ubiquitous and abundant occurrence of 27 human fecal oligotypes, representing an apparent core set of organisms in U.S. populations. The fecal community variability among U.S. populations was significantly lower than among individuals. It clustered into three primary community structures distinguished by oligotypes from either: Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, or Lachnospiraceae/Ruminococcaceae. These distribution patterns reflected human population variation and predicted whether samples represented lean or obese populations with 81 to 89% accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that sewage represents the fecal microbial community of human populations and captures population-level traits of the human microbiome. PMID:25714718

  2. Inherent variability in lead and copper collected during standardized sampling.

    PubMed

    Masters, Sheldon; Parks, Jeffrey; Atassi, Amrou; Edwards, Marc A

    2016-03-01

    Variability in the concentration of lead and copper sampled at consumers' taps poses challenges to assessing consumer health threats and the effectiveness of corrosion control. To examine the minimum variability that is practically achievable, standardized rigs with three lead and copper containing plumbing materials (leaded brass, copper tube with lead solder, and a lead copper connection) were deployed at five utilities and sampled with regimented protocols. Variability represented by relative standard deviation (RSD) in lead release was high in all cases. The brass had the lowest variability in lead release (RSD = 31 %) followed by copper-solder (RSD = 49%) and lead-copper (RSD = 80%). This high inherent variability is due to semi-random detachment of particulate lead to water, and represents a modern reality of water lead problems that should be explicitly acknowledged and considered in all aspects of exposure, public education, and monitoring. PMID:26896965

  3. Estimating the Prevalence of Potential Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Intimin Gene Diversity in a Human Community by Monitoring Sanitary Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; Pagaling, Eulyn

    2014-01-01

    Presently, the understanding of bacterial enteric diseases in the community and their virulence factors relies almost exclusively on clinical disease reporting and examination of clinical pathogen isolates. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of an alternative approach that monitors potential enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) prevalence and intimin gene (eae) diversity in a community by directly quantifying and characterizing target virulence genes in the sanitary sewage. The quantitative PCR (qPCR) quantification of the eae, stx1, and stx2 genes in sanitary sewage samples collected over a 13-month period detected eae in all 13 monthly sewage samples at significantly higher abundance (93 to 7,240 calibrator cell equivalents [CCE]/100 ml) than stx1 and stx2, which were detected sporadically. The prevalence level of potential EPEC in the sanitary sewage was estimated by calculating the ratio of eae to uidA, which averaged 1.0% (σ = 0.4%) over the 13-month period. Cloning and sequencing of the eae gene directly from the sewage samples covered the majority of the eae diversity in the sewage and detected 17 unique eae alleles belonging to 14 subtypes. Among them, eae-β2 was identified to be the most prevalent subtype in the sewage, with the highest detection frequency in the clone libraries (41.2%) and within the different sampling months (85.7%). Additionally, sewage and environmental E. coli isolates were also obtained and used to determine the detection frequencies of the virulence genes as well as eae genetic diversity for comparison. PMID:24141131

  4. Estimating the prevalence of potential enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and intimin gene diversity in a human community by monitoring sanitary sewage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kun; Pagaling, Eulyn; Yan, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Presently, the understanding of bacterial enteric diseases in the community and their virulence factors relies almost exclusively on clinical disease reporting and examination of clinical pathogen isolates. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of an alternative approach that monitors potential enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) prevalence and intimin gene (eae) diversity in a community by directly quantifying and characterizing target virulence genes in the sanitary sewage. The quantitative PCR (qPCR) quantification of the eae, stx1, and stx2 genes in sanitary sewage samples collected over a 13-month period detected eae in all 13 monthly sewage samples at significantly higher abundance (93 to 7,240 calibrator cell equivalents [CCE]/100 ml) than stx1 and stx2, which were detected sporadically. The prevalence level of potential EPEC in the sanitary sewage was estimated by calculating the ratio of eae to uidA, which averaged 1.0% (σ = 0.4%) over the 13-month period. Cloning and sequencing of the eae gene directly from the sewage samples covered the majority of the eae diversity in the sewage and detected 17 unique eae alleles belonging to 14 subtypes. Among them, eae-β2 was identified to be the most prevalent subtype in the sewage, with the highest detection frequency in the clone libraries (41.2%) and within the different sampling months (85.7%). Additionally, sewage and environmental E. coli isolates were also obtained and used to determine the detection frequencies of the virulence genes as well as eae genetic diversity for comparison. PMID:24141131

  5. Self-Collected versus Clinician-Collected Sampling for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Screening: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lunny, Carole; Taylor, Darlene; Hoang, Linda; Wong, Tom; Gilbert, Mark; Lester, Richard; Krajden, Mel; Ogilvie, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Background The increases in STI rates since the late 1990s in Canada have occurred despite widespread primary care and targeted public health programs and in the setting of universal health care. More innovative interventions are required that would eliminate barriers to STI testing such as internet-based or mail-in home and community service testing for patients that are hard to reach, who refuse to go for clinician-based testing, or who decline an examination. Jurisdictions such as New Zealand and some American states currently use self-collected sampling, but without the required evidence to determine whether self-collected specimens are as accurate as clinician-collected specimens in terms of chlamydia and gonorrhea diagnostic accuracy. The objective of the review is to compare self-collected vaginal, urine, pharyngeal and rectal samples to our reference standard - clinician-collected cervical, urethral, pharyngeal and rectal sampling techniques to identify a positive specimen using nucleic acid amplification test assays. Methods The hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic and the fixed effect models were used to assess the accuracy of comparable specimens that were collected by patients compared to clinicians. Sensitivity and specificity estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported as our main outcome measures. Findings We included 21 studies based on over 6100 paired samples. Fourteen included studies examined chlamydia only, 6 compared both gonorrhea and chlamydia separately in the same study, and one examined gonorrhea. The six chlamydia studies comparing self-collection by vaginal swab to a clinician-collected cervical swab had the highest sensitivity (92%, 95% CI 87-95) and specificity (98%, 95% CI 97-99), compared to other specimen-types (urine/urethra or urine/cervix). Six studies compared urine self-samples to urethra clinician-collected samples in males and produced a sensitivity of 88% (95% CI 83-93) and a specificity of

  6. Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipila, Stephanie A.; Scoville, Zebulon C.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Buffington, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenging primary objectives associated with NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is to demonstrate deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools and to obtain asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Prior Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from engineered EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as behavior of the asteroid capture mechanism will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint, and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) suit. This paper will summarize the overall operational concepts for conducting EVAs for the ARCM mission including translation paths and body restraint methods, potential tools used to extract the samples, design implications for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) for EVA, and the results of early development testing of potential EVA tasks.

  7. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Implementing Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With... locations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces destined to remain at a cleanup site after cleanup. (a) Minimum number of samples. (1) At each separate cleanup site at a PCB remediation...

  8. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Implementing Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With... locations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces destined to remain at a cleanup site after cleanup. (a) Minimum number of samples. (1) At each separate cleanup site at a PCB remediation...

  9. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Implementing Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With... locations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces destined to remain at a cleanup site after cleanup. (a) Minimum number of samples. (1) At each separate cleanup site at a PCB remediation...

  10. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Implementing Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With... locations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces destined to remain at a cleanup site after cleanup. (a) Minimum number of samples. (1) At each separate cleanup site at a PCB remediation...

  11. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Implementing Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With... locations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces destined to remain at a cleanup site after cleanup. (a) Minimum number of samples. (1) At each separate cleanup site at a PCB remediation...

  12. ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES--SAMPLING PERIOD JAN 1988 - DEC 1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents analytical data from the 30 acid precipitation collection sites in the State-operated Network. amples are collected weekly in plastic bag liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottles to Global Geochemistry Corporation (the central laboratory for the netw...

  13. ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES SAMPLING PERIOD JANUARY 1990 - DECEMBER 1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents analytical data from the 30 acid precipitation collection sites in the State-Operated Network. amples are collected weekly in plastic bag liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottles to Global Geochemistry Corporation (the central laboratory for the netw...

  14. ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES SAMPLING PERIOD: JANUARY 1992 - DECEMBER 1992

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents analytical data from 30 acid precipitation collection sites in the State-Operated Network. amples are collected weekly in plastic bag bucket liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottled to Global Geochemistry Corporation, the central laboratory for the n...

  15. Comparison of Two Concentration Methods for the Molecular Detection of Enteroviruses in Raw and Treated Sewage.

    PubMed

    Hmaïed, F; Jebri, S; Saavedra, M E R; Yahya, M; Amri, I; Lucena, F; Hamdi, M

    2016-01-01

    Human enteric viruses are a major causative agent of emerging waterborne diseases and constitute a serious public health concern. Environmental contamination occurs through discharge of waste materials from infected persons. Methods for viral detection should be developed to detect low infective dose of enteric viruses in environment. In this study, we aimed at comparing two concentration methods for the detection of naturally occurring enteroviruses in raw and treated sewage. In the first method, polyethylene glycol is used to concentrate viral particles from the collected samples. The second method is based on ultracentrifugation of viral particles at high speed (110,000×g). Genomes of enteroviruses were quantified by the quantitative real-time PCR method in raw and treated sewage samples. PEG-based method yielded higher genomic copies of enteric viruses (with an average of 5.9 log10 genomic copies/100 mL) when applied to raw sewage samples. While the ultracentrifugation assay in the second method decreases genomic copies number (with an average of 5.4 log10 genomic copies/100 mL). The recovery differences between the two methods were not significant when applied to clean samples (treated sewage). This could be explained by the presence of inhibitors, which interfere with qRT-PCR, in less quantity comparatively to raw sewage. PEG-based method would be more accurate for samples with high-organic matter load. This report emphasizes the importance of matrices nature on the recovery of enteroviruses from sewage samples. This should be taken into consideration for establishing standardized virological assays to ensure the virological quality control of discharged water in environment. PMID:26362161

  16. Collection and analysis of NASA clean room air samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, L. S.; Keever, J.

    1985-01-01

    The environment of the HALOE assembly clean room at NASA Langley Research Center is analyzed to determine the background levels of airborne organic compounds. Sampling is accomplished by pumping the clean room air through absorbing cartridges. For volatile organics, cartridges are thermally desorbed and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, compounds are identified by searching the EPA/NIH data base using an interactive operator INCOS computer search algorithm. For semivolatile organics, cartridges are solvent entracted and concentrated extracts are analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection, compound identification is made by matching gas chromatogram retention times with known standards. The detection limits for the semivolatile organics are; 0.89 ng cu m for dioctylphlhalate (DOP) and 1.6 ng cu m for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The detection limit for volatile organics ranges from 1 to 50 parts per trillion. Only trace quantities of organics are detected, the DOP levels do not exceed 2.5 ng cu m and the PCB levels do not exceed 454 ng cu m.

  17. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion...

  18. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion...

  19. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion...

  20. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion...

  1. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion...

  2. Data for periphyton and water samples collected from the south Florida ecosystem, 1995 and 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, N.S.; Cox, T.; Spencer, R.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents data for samples of periphyton and water collected in 1995 and 1996 from Water Conservation Areas, the Big Cypress National Preserve, and the Everglades National Park in south Florida. Periphyton samples were analyzed for concentrations of total mercury, methyl mercury, nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, and inorganic carbon . Water-column samples collected on the same dates as the periphyton samples were analyzed for concentrations of major ions.

  3. 1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TANKS AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT, BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TANKS AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT, BUILDING 304, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Sewage Plant & Tanks, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  4. The use of Vacutainer tubes for collection of soil samples for helium analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Margaret E.; Kilburn, James E.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the helium concentration of soil samples collected and stored in Vacutainer-brand evacuated glass tubes show that Vacutainers are reliable containers for soil collection. Within the limits of reproducibility, helium content of soils appears to be independent of variations in soil temperature, barometric pressure, and quantity of soil moisture present in the sample.

  5. 21 CFR 111.80 - What representative samples must you collect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What representative samples must you collect? 111.80 Section 111.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Process Control System § 111.80 What representative samples must you collect? The representative...

  6. Collecting cometary soil samples? Development of the ROSETTA sample acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coste, P. A.; Fenzi, M.; Eiden, Michael

    1993-01-01

    In the reference scenario of the ROSETTA CNRS mission, the Sample Acquisition System is mounted on the Comet Lander. Its tasks are to acquire three kinds of cometary samples and to transfer them to the Earth Return Capsule. Operations are to be performed in vacuum and microgravity, on a probably rough and dusty surface, in a largely unknown material, at temperatures in the order of 100 K. The concept and operation of the Sample Acquisition System are presented. The design of the prototype corer and surface sampling tool, and of the equipment for testing them at cryogenic temperatures in ambient conditions and in vacuum in various materials representing cometary soil, are described. Results of recent preliminary tests performed in low temperature thermal vacuum in a cometary analog ice-dust mixture are provided.

  7. Long-term study of palladium in road tunnel dust and sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Leopold, K; Maier, M; Weber, S; Schuster, M

    2008-11-01

    The present work summarizes data about palladium contents of road tunnel dust from 1994 to 2007 and sewage sludge ash from 1972 to 2006. Since palladium is emitted from automotive catalytic converters as elemental particles, road dust is quiet useful to study traffic-related Pd emissions. Very high Pd values of up to 516 microg Pd kg(-1) were found in the road dust samples collected in 2007. Heavy metals of all urban emissions, also dental practice effluent, are enriched in sewage sludge ash and thus this matrix is useful for the documentation of palladium emission caused by the use of Pd alloys in dental medicine. In sewage sludge ash highest Pd contents of maximum 460 microg Pd kg(-1) were found in the years 1986-1997. In both matrices correlations of Pd content to Pd demand of industry are discussed. PMID:18355951

  8. Guidelines for collection and field analysis of ground-water samples for selected unstable constituents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Warren W.

    1976-01-01

    The unstable nature of many chemical and physical constituents in ground water requires special collection procedures and field analysis immediately after collection. This report describes the techniques and equipment commonly used m the collection and field analysis of samples for pH, temperature, carbonate, bicarbonate, specific conductance, Eh, and dissolved oxygen.

  9. Examination of the responses of slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) collected on the Saint John River (Canada) downstream of pulp mill, paper mill, and sewage discharges.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Brendan J; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Currie, Steve; Gray, Michelle A; Curry, R Allen; Wood, Craig S

    2003-12-01

    As part of a larger survey on cumulative effects within the Saint John River basin (Canada), a fish survey was conducted near Edmundston (NB, Canada) in the fall of 1999 using slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). The discharge environment receives effluent from the pulp mill, a paper mill, three sewage discharges, and tributaries receiving agricultural runoff. Sculpin collected downstream of the sewage discharges and pulp mill effluent had greater growth, condition, and liver size but no significant differences in gonad size. Stable isotope data indicated slimy sculpin did not move between sites. Female sculpin collected downstream of the paper mill showed no significant differences in length, body weight, age, condition factor, liver size, and gonad size compared to fish from reference sites. Female white sucker collected downstream of the pulp mill did not differ significantly in any measured parameter compared to reference fish. Liver sizes of white sucker from the Saint John River were outside the range considered to be indicative of uncontaminated riverine sites. In 2000, sculpin collected downstream from a poultry-processing facility had larger livers and lower condition factors, suggesting that the site is contaminated. We found no significant differences in sculpin length, weight, condition (except for males), and liver size in sculpin collected downstream from the pulp mill in October 2001. The responses of slimy sculpin and white sucker differed, perhaps in relation to differences in life history characteristics. Results from this study indicate the slimy sculpin is a suitable fish species for monitoring rivers that receive multiple industrial and municipal effluents. PMID:14713029

  10. Adaptive Sampling-Based Information Collection for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaobin; Zhao, Fang; Wang, Wendong; Tian, Hui

    2016-01-01

    To collect important health information, WBAN applications typically sense data at a high frequency. However, limited by the quality of wireless link, the uploading of sensed data has an upper frequency. To reduce upload frequency, most of the existing WBAN data collection approaches collect data with a tolerable error. These approaches can guarantee precision of the collected data, but they are not able to ensure that the upload frequency is within the upper frequency. Some traditional sampling based approaches can control upload frequency directly, however, they usually have a high loss of information. Since the core task of WBAN applications is to collect health information, this paper aims to collect optimized information under the limitation of upload frequency. The importance of sensed data is defined according to information theory for the first time. Information-aware adaptive sampling is proposed to collect uniformly distributed data. Then we propose Adaptive Sampling-based Information Collection (ASIC) which consists of two algorithms. An adaptive sampling probability algorithm is proposed to compute sampling probabilities of different sensed values. A multiple uniform sampling algorithm provides uniform samplings for values in different intervals. Experiments based on a real dataset show that the proposed approach has higher performance in terms of data coverage and information quantity. The parameter analysis shows the optimized parameter settings and the discussion shows the underlying reason of high performance in the proposed approach. PMID:27589758

  11. Eukaryotic viruses in wastewater samples from the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symonds, E.M.; Griffin, Dale W.; Breitbart, M.

    2009-01-01

    Human fecal matter contains a large number of viruses, and current bacterial indicators used for monitoring water quality do not correlate with the presence of pathogenic viruses. Adenoviruses and enteroviruses have often been used to identify fecal pollution in the environment; however, other viruses shed in fecal matter may more accurately detect fecal pollution. The purpose of this study was to develop a baseline understanding of the types of viruses found in raw sewage. PCR was used to detect adenoviruses, enteroviruses, hepatitis B viruses, herpesviruses, morbilliviruses, noroviruses, papillomaviruses, picobirnaviruses, reoviruses, and rotaviruses in raw sewage collected throughout the United States. Adenoviruses and picobirnaviruses were detected in 100% of raw sewage samples and 25% and 33% of final effluent samples, respectively. Enteroviruses and noroviruses were detected in 75% and 58% of raw sewage samples, respectively, and both viral groups were found in 8% of final effluent samples. This study showed that adenoviruses, enteroviruses, noroviruses, and picobirnaviruses are widespread in raw sewage. Since adenoviruses and picobirnaviruses were detected in 100% of raw sewage samples, they are potential markers of fecal contamination. Additionally, this research uncovered previously unknown sequence diversity in human picobirnaviruses. This baseline understanding of viruses in raw sewage will enable educated decisions to be made regarding the use of different viruses in water quality assessments. Copyright ?? 2009, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Aichi virus in sewage and surface water, the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Lodder, Willemijn J; Rutjes, Saskia A; Takumi, Katsuhisa; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2013-08-01

    Detection of Aichi virus in humans was initially reported in Japan in 1989. To establish a timeline for the prevalence of Aichi virus infection among humans in the Netherlands, we conducted molecular analysis of archival water samples from 1987-2000 and 2009-2012. Aichi virus RNA was detected in 100% (8/8) of sewage samples and 100% (7/7) of surface water samples collected during 1987-2000 and 100% (8/8) of sewage samples and 71% (5/7) of surface water samples collected during 2009-2012. Several genotype A and B Aichi virus lineages were observed over the 25-year period studied, but the time course of viral genetic diversity showed recent expansion of the genotype B population over genotype A. Our results show that Aichi virus has been circulating among the human population in the Netherlands since before its initial detection in humans was reported and that genotype B now predominates in this country. PMID:23876456

  13. Aichi Virus in Sewage and Surface Water, the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Rutjes, Saskia A.; Takumi, Katsuhisa; Husman, Ana Maria de Roda

    2013-01-01

    Detection of Aichi virus in humans was initially reported in Japan in 1989. To establish a timeline for the prevalence of Aichi virus infection among humans in the Netherlands, we conducted molecular analysis of archival water samples from 1987–2000 and 2009–2012. Aichi virus RNA was detected in 100% (8/8) of sewage samples and 100% (7/7) of surface water samples collected during 1987–2000 and 100% (8/8) of sewage samples and 71% (5/7) of surface water samples collected during 2009–2012. Several genotype A and B Aichi virus lineages were observed over the 25-year period studied, but the time course of viral genetic diversity showed recent expansion of the genotype B population over genotype A. Our results show that Aichi virus has been circulating among the human population in the Netherlands since before its initial detection in humans was reported and that genotype B now predominates in this country. PMID:23876456

  14. Biochemical Fingerprinting of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated From Sewage and Hospital in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Fateh; Bouzari, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is known as a common pathogen in nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Sewage acts as an environmental reservoir and may have a significant role in development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Objectives: This study was undertaken to determine the epidemiological relatedness between the MRSA isolated from sewage and human infections. Materials and Methods: Samples were collected from a referral hospital and also a sewage treatment plant in Tehran, Iran, during 2010. All the MRSA isolates were identified at the species level and typed using Phene plate (PhP) system and SCCmec typing. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were also performed. Results: Of the 1142 isolates, 200 MRSA strains from the sewage (n = 100) and the clinic (n = 100) were isolated. Distinct PhP types, consisting of 16 common types and 13 single types, and also 3 different staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types (III, IVa and IVc) were found amongst the MRSA isolated from the two different sources. The results of antibiotic susceptibility testing showed an increased resistance to penicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline. In addition, none of the isolates showed resistance to vancomycin, quinupristin -dalfopristin and linezolid. Conclusions: The presence of common PhP types and also SCCmec type III, as an indicator for hospital strains, among the isolates, may indicate an epidemiological link between clinical and sewage MRSA isolates in Tehran. PMID:26421131

  15. 21 CFR 111.80 - What representative samples must you collect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Process Control System § 111.80 What representative samples must you collect? The representative samples... unique lot within each unique shipment); (b) Representative samples of in-process materials for each manufactured batch at points, steps, or stages, in the manufacturing process as specified in the...

  16. 21 CFR 111.80 - What representative samples must you collect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Process Control System § 111.80 What representative samples must you collect? The representative samples... unique lot within each unique shipment); (b) Representative samples of in-process materials for each manufactured batch at points, steps, or stages, in the manufacturing process as specified in the...

  17. 21 CFR 111.80 - What representative samples must you collect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Process Control System § 111.80 What representative samples must you collect? The representative samples... unique lot within each unique shipment); (b) Representative samples of in-process materials for each manufactured batch at points, steps, or stages, in the manufacturing process as specified in the...

  18. Prototype Device for Computerized Blood Sampling and Data Collection in Freely Moving Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collecting biofluid samples or physiological and behavioral data from animals presents challenges from excessive human intervention, and the stress of manual sampling. Our objective was to construct a device capable of protecting external leads and tubing used to facilitate automated sampling, dosin...

  19. Analysis of multiple enteric viral targets as sewage markers in coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Erin K; Futch, J Carrie; Griffin, Dale W

    2007-12-01

    Water and coral mucus samples were collected from throughout the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and the Dry Tortugas for three years and were analyzed for human enteric viruses (enteroviruses, noroviruses, hepatitis A virus and adenoviruses) as conservative markers of human sewage using molecular methods. Of the 100 coral and water samples collected, 40 contained genetic material from one or more human enteric viruses. DNA-based adenoviruses were detected widely, in 37.8% of samples and at 91% of stations, including 'pristine' reefs in the Dry Tortugas; however, the detection rate was < or =12% for the RNA-based enteroviruses and noroviruses (hepatitis A virus was never detected). The disparity between the prevalence of RNA- and DNA-based viruses suggests the need for additional work to determine the utility of adenovirus as marker of human sewage. PMID:17881013

  20. Analysis of multiple enteric viral targets as sewage markers in coral reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipp, Erin K.; Futch, J. Carrie; Griffin, Dale W.

    2007-01-01

    Water and coral mucus samples were collected from throughout the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and the Dry Tortugas for three years and were analyzed for human enteric viruses (enteroviruses, noroviruses, hepatitis A virus and adenoviruses) as conservative markers of human sewage using molecular methods. Of the 100 coral and water samples collected, 40 contained genetic material from one or more human enteric viruses. DNA-based adenoviruses were detected widely, in 37.8% of samples and at 91% of stations, including ‘pristine’ reefs in the Dry Tortugas; however, the detection rate was ⩽12% for the RNA-based enteroviruses and noroviruses (hepatitis A virus was never detected). The disparity between the prevalence of RNA- and DNA-based viruses suggests the need for additional work to determine the utility of adenovirus as marker of human sewage.

  1. Microbial sewage contamination associated with Superstorm Sandy flooding in New York City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mullan, G.; Dueker, M.; Sahajpal, R.; Juhl, A. R.

    2013-05-01

    The lower Hudson River Estuary commonly experiences degraded water quality following precipitation events due to the influence of combined sewer overflows. During Super-storm Sandy large scale flooding occurred in many waterfront areas of New York City, including neighborhoods bordering the Gowanus Canal and Newtown Creek Superfund sites known to frequently contain high levels of sewage associated bacteria. Water, sediment, and surface swab samples were collected from Newtown Creek and Gowanus Canal flood impacted streets and basements in the days following the storm, along with samples from the local waterways. Samples were enumerated for the sewage indicating bacterium, Enterococcus, and DNA was extracted and amplified for 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequence analysis. Waterways were found to have relatively low levels of sewage contamination in the days following the storm. In contrast, much higher levels of Enterococci were detected in basement and storm debris samples and these bacteria were found to persist for many weeks in laboratory incubations. These data suggest that substantial sewage contamination occurred in some flood impacted New York City neighborhoods and that the environmental persistence of flood water associated microbes requires additional study and management attention.

  2. Sewage contamination in a tropical coastal area (São Sebastião Channel, SP, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Muniz, P; da Silva, D A M; Bícego, M C; Bromberg, S; Pires-Vanin, A M S

    2015-10-15

    Urban effluent discharges in Brazilian coastal areas are a chronic problem and often lead to changes in the quality of the marine environment. São-Sebastião-Channel (SSC) is an important aquatic ecosystem to be monitored for urban sewage contamination due to the intense urban activities in that region, as well as the relative high biodiversity of marine organisms. In the area are present three submarine sewage outfalls, a commercial harbour and also the biggest oil terminal in Brazil. Total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total sulphur (TS), steroids and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) were measured in sediment samples collected in three strategic locations of the SSC in order to monitor urban sewage contamination. Total LAB and total sterols levels ranged from below DL-51.3 ng g(-1) and below DL-10.40 μg g(-1), respectively. Samples collected near sewage outfall in the central part of the SSC had higher concentrations of urban sewage-associated contaminants. PMID:26231066

  3. Assembly for collecting samples for purposes of identification or analysis and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Cyril V [Knoxville, TN; Smith, Rob R [Knoxville, TN

    2010-02-02

    An assembly and an associated method for collecting a sample of material desired to be characterized with diagnostic equipment includes or utilizes an elongated member having a proximal end with which the assembly is manipulated by a user and a distal end. In addition, a collection tip which is capable of being placed into contact with the material to be characterized is supported upon the distal end. The collection tip includes a body of chemically-inert porous material for binding a sample of material when the tip is placed into contact with the material and thereby holds the sample of material for subsequent introduction to the diagnostic equipment.

  4. Characterisation of raw sewage and performance assessment of primary settling tanks at Firle Sewage Treatment Works, Harare, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muserere, Simon Takawira; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Nhapi, Innocent

    The need for more stringent effluent discharge standards as prescribed by the Environmental Management Act 20:27 to protect the environment can be sustainably achieved with the aid of Activated Sludge Models. Thus, the researchers believe it is time to re-evaluate wastewater characteristics at Firle Sewage Treatment Works (STW) and make use of activated sludge simulators to address pollution challenges caused by the sewage plant. Therefore, this paper characterizes raw sewage and assesses settled and unsettled sewage in order to evaluate the performance of the primary treatment system and the suitability of the settled sewage for treatment by the subsequent Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) system at Firle STW. Parameters studied included COD, BOD, TKN, TP, NH3, TSS, pH and Alkalinity. Composite samples were collected over a 9-day campaign period (27 June to 6 July 2012), hourly grab samples over 24 hrs and composite samples on 6 March 2012 which were then analysed in the lab in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater to support the City of Harare 2004-2012 lab historical records. Concentrations for unsettled sewage in mg/L were COD (527 ± 32), BOD (297 ± 83) TKN (19.0 ± 2.0), TP (18 ± 3), NH3 (24.0 ± 12.9), TSS (219 ± 57), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 266 ± 36 mg/L. For settled sewage the corresponding values in mg/L were COD (522 ± 15), BOD (324 ± 102), TKN (21.0 ± 3.0), TP (19.0 ± 2.0), NH3 (25.6 ± 11.2), TSS (250 ± 66), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 271 ± 17 mg/L. The plant design values for raw sewage are COD (650 mg/L), BOD (200 mg/L), TKN (40 mg/L) and TP (11 mg/L). Thus, COD and nitrogen were within the plant design range while BOD and TP were higher. Treatability of sewage in BNR systems is often inferred from the levels of critical parameters and also the ratios of TKN/COD and COD/TP. The wastewater average settled COD/BOD, COD/TP and TKN/COD ratio were 1.7 ± 0.5, 27.1 ± 3.1 and 0.04 ± 0

  5. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  6. Collection of solid and gaseous samples to diagnose inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, M. A.; Velsko, C. A.; Spears, B. K.; Hicks, D. G.; Hudson, G. B.; Sangster, T. C.; Freeman, C. G.

    2012-02-15

    Collection of representative samples of debris following inertial confinement fusion implosions in order to diagnose implosion conditions and efficacy is a challenging endeavor because of the unique conditions within the target chamber such as unconverted laser light, intense pulse of x-rays, physical chunks of debris, and other ablative effects. We present collection of gas samples following an implosion for the first time. High collection fractions for noble gases were achieved. We also present collection of solid debris samples on flat plate collectors. Geometrical collection efficiencies for Au hohlraum material were achieved and collection of capsule debris (Be and Cu) was also observed. Asymmetric debris distributions were observed for Au and Be samples. Collection of Be capsule debris was higher for solid collectors viewing the capsule through the laser entrance hole in the hohlraum than for solid collectors viewing the capsule around the waist of the hohlraum. Collection of Au hohlraum material showed the opposite pattern: more Au debris was collected around the waist than through the laser entrance hole. The solid debris collectors were not optimized for minimal Cu backgrounds, which limited the conclusions about the symmetry of the Cu debris. The quality of the data limited conclusions on chemical fractionation effects within the burning, expanding, and then cooling plasma.

  7. Collection of solid and gaseous samples to diagnose inertial confinement fusion implosions.

    PubMed

    Stoyer, M A; Velsko, C A; Spears, B K; Hicks, D G; Hudson, G B; Sangster, T C; Freeman, C G

    2012-02-01

    Collection of representative samples of debris following inertial confinement fusion implosions in order to diagnose implosion conditions and efficacy is a challenging endeavor because of the unique conditions within the target chamber such as unconverted laser light, intense pulse of x-rays, physical chunks of debris, and other ablative effects. We present collection of gas samples following an implosion for the first time. High collection fractions for noble gases were achieved. We also present collection of solid debris samples on flat plate collectors. Geometrical collection efficiencies for Au hohlraum material were achieved and collection of capsule debris (Be and Cu) was also observed. Asymmetric debris distributions were observed for Au and Be samples. Collection of Be capsule debris was higher for solid collectors viewing the capsule through the laser entrance hole in the hohlraum than for solid collectors viewing the capsule around the waist of the hohlraum. Collection of Au hohlraum material showed the opposite pattern: more Au debris was collected around the waist than through the laser entrance hole. The solid debris collectors were not optimized for minimal Cu backgrounds, which limited the conclusions about the symmetry of the Cu debris. The quality of the data limited conclusions on chemical fractionation effects within the burning, expanding, and then cooling plasma. PMID:22380089

  8. The representativeness of pore water samples collected from the unsaturated zone using pressure-vacuum lysimeters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, C.A.; Healy, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Studies have indicated that the chemistry of water samples may be altered by the collection technique, creating concern about the representativeness of the pore water samples obtained. A study using soil water pressure-vacuum lysimeters in outwash sand and glacial till deposits demonstrates that for non-dilute-solution samples the effect of pH of sampling with lysimeters is minimal, and that measured major cation and anion concentrations are representative of the natural pore water; trace-metal concentrations can be significantly altered by collection procedures at low concentrations. -from Authors

  9. Tracking persistent pharmaceutical residues from municipal sewage to drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heberer, Thomas

    2002-09-01

    In urban areas such as Berlin (Germany) with high municipal sewage water discharges and low surface water flows there is a potential risk of drinking water contamination by polar organic compounds when groundwater recharge is used in drinking water production. Thus, some pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are not eliminated completely in the municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they are discharged as contaminants into the receiving waters. In terms of several monitoring studies carried out in Berlin between 1996 and 2000, PhACs such as clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, propyphenazone, primidone and carbamazepine were detected at individual concentrations up to the μg/l-level in influent and effluent samples from STPs and in all surface water samples collected downstream from the STPs. Under recharge conditions, several compounds were also found at individual concentrations up to 7.3 μg/l in samples collected from groundwater aquifers near to contaminated water courses. A few of the PhACs were also identified at the ng/l-level in Berlin tap water samples.

  10. Sewage Contamination under Different Storm and Hydrologic Conditions in Three Urban Waterways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templar, H.; Corsi, S.; McLellan, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Fecal contamination in urban waterways is a major public and environmental health threat. Sanitary sewer and combined sewer overflows are major point sources of fecal pollution. Additionally, stormwater runoff and failing sewer infrastructure contribute fecal contamination and pathogens to urban waterways. Traditionally, fecal indicator bacteria such as E. coli, enterococci, and fecal coliforms are used to gauge fecal contamination in water; however, these general indicators are unable to distinguish fecal sources in the environment. This study used two human-specific fecal indicator bacteria to identify human sewage contamination in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where three rivers form an estuary that discharges to Lake Michigan. Two-hour composite samples were collected at four sites, one in each of the three rivers and one in the estuary, to represent the entire hydrograph before, during, and after a rain event. Samples were collected throughout a variety of conditions, including dry-weather baseline, light and heavy rain events, and combined sewage overflows (CSOs). These samples were analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to determine human sewage loads in each river during each type of event. Low levels of human indicators were found during dry-weather baseline conditions, and loads increased significantly (one to two orders of magnitude) during rain events. Sampling upstream of the estuary indicated sewage contamination was originating in the heavily urbanized part of the watersheds, likely a result of failing infrastructure. CSO events contributed the highest loads, which were on average ten-fold higher than rainfall events with no CSO. This information will be a useful for directing the efforts of local agencies and municipalities to investigate failing infrastructure, as well as agencies at the state and federal levels to create appropriate goals to address the human health concerns that are posed by sewage contamination in urban

  11. Vacuum hand pump apparatus for collecting water samples from a horizontal intragravel pipe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a lightweight, portable vacuum hand pump apparatus for use in collecting water samples from horizontal intragravel pipe samplers buried in the stream bottom. The apparatus is easily fabricated from relatively inexpensive materials available at many laboratory supply houses.

  12. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF HOURLY AND DAILY SEWAGE FLOW RATES IN FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOGARTY, WILLIAM J.; REEDER, MILTON E.

    A DETERMINATION OF THE HOURLY AND DAILY SEWAGE FLOW RATES IN FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOLS WAS MADE TO IDENTIFY THE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AND TO PROVIDE A MORE PRECISE BASIS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SEWAGE DISPOSAL FACILITIES IN SCHOOLS. WATER FLOW DATA WAS COLLECTED FOR 158 SCHOOLS AND SEWAGE FLOW DATA FROM 42 SCHOOLS. THE FINDINGS…

  13. Mars Rover Sample Return: A sample collection and analysis strategy for exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, M. H.; Fischler, M.; Schwartz, D. E.; Rosenthal, Donald A.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Nedell, Susan S.; Gamble, E.; Mckay, Christopher P.

    1989-01-01

    For reasons defined elsewhere it is reasonable to search for biological signatures, both chemical and morphological, of extinct life on Mars. Life on Earth requries the presence of liquid water, therefore, it is important to explore sites on Mars where standing bodies of water may have once existed. Outcrops of layered deposits within the Valles Marineris appear to be ancient lake beds. Because the outcrops are well exposed, relatively shallow core samples would be very informative. The most important biological signature to detect would be organics, microfossils, or larger stromato-like structures, although the presence of cherts, carbonates, clays, and shales would be significant. In spite of the limitations of current robotics and pattern recognition, and the limitations of rover power, computation, Earth communication bandwidth, and time delays, a partial scenario was developed to implement such a scientific investigation. The rover instrumentation and the procedures and decisions and IR spectrometer are described in detail. Preliminary results from a collaborative effort are described, which indicate the rover will be able to autonomously detect stratification, and hence will ease the interpretation burden and lead to greater scientific productivity during the rover's lifetime.

  14. The Internet of Samples in the Earth Sciences: Providing Access to Uncurated Collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, M. R.; Lehnert, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Vast amounts of physical samples have been collected in the Earth Sciences for studies that address a wide range of scientific questions. Only a fraction of these samples are well curated and preserved long-term in sample repositories and museums. Many samples and collections are stored in the offices and labs of investigators, or in basements and sheds of institutions and investigators' homes. These 'uncurated' collections often contain samples that have been well studied, or are unique and irreplaceable. They may also include samples that could reveal new insights if re-analyzed using new techniques, or specimens that could have unanticipated relevance to research being conducted in fields other than the one for which they were collected. Currently, these samples cannot be accessed or discovered online by the broader science community. Investigators and departments often lack the resources to properly catalog and curate the samples and respond to requests for splits. Long-term preservation of and access to these samples is usually not provided for. iSamplES, a recently-funded EarthCube Research Coordination Network (RCN), seeks to integrate scientific samples, including 'uncurated' samples, into digital data and information infrastructure in the Earth Sciences and to facilitate their curation, discovery, access, sharing, and analysis. The RCN seeks to develop and implement best practices that increase digital access to samples with the goal of establishing a comprehensive infrastructure not only for the digital, but also physical curation of samples. The RCN will engage a broad group of individuals from domain scientists to curators to publishers to computer scientists to define, articulate, and address the needs and challenges of digital sample management and recommend community-endorsed best practices and standards for registering, describing, identifying, and citing physical specimens, drawing upon other initiatives and existing or emerging software tools for

  15. ANALYSIS OF ACID PRECIPITATION SAMPLES COLLECTED BY STATE AGENCIES: JANUARY 1987 - DECEMBER 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the analytical data from the 31 acid precipitation collection sites in the State Operated Network. Samples are collected weekly in plastic bag liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottles to Global Geochemistry Corp. (the central laboratory for the networ...

  16. AUTOMATED SYSTEM FOR COLLECTING MULTIPLE, SEQUENTIAL SAMPLES FROM SOIL WATER SAMPLERS UNDER CONTINUOUS VACUUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manually collecting a series of sequential, discrete water samples from soil water percolation samplers, or similar devices, that withdraw water from unsaturated porous media under continuous vacuum is a logistical challenge, though the resulting collection can provide valuable information on the dy...

  17. Collecting Samples of Workplace Air. Module 8. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on collecting samples of workplace air. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) collecting information about…

  18. Sewage-based epidemiology in monitoring the use of new psychoactive substances: Validation and application of an analytical method using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kinyua, Juliet; Covaci, Adrian; Maho, Walid; McCall, Ann-Kathrin; Neels, Hugo; van Nuijs, Alexander L N

    2015-09-01

    Sewage-based epidemiology (SBE) employs the analysis of sewage to detect and quantify drug use within a community. While SBE has been applied repeatedly for the estimation of classical illicit drugs, only few studies investigated new psychoactive substances (NPS). These compounds mimic effects of illicit drugs by introducing slight modifications to chemical structures of controlled illicit drugs. We describe the optimization, validation, and application of an analytical method using liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the determination of seven NPS in sewage: methoxetamine (MXE), butylone, ethylone, methylone, methiopropamine (MPA), 4-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA), and 4-methoxyamphetamine (PMA). Sample preparation was performed using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with Oasis MCX cartridges. The LC separation was done with a HILIC (150 x 3 mm, 5 µm) column which ensured good resolution of the analytes with a total run time of 19 min. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was between 0.5 and 5 ng/L for all compounds. The method was validated by evaluating the following parameters: sensitivity, selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recoveries and matrix effects. The method was applied on sewage samples collected from sewage treatment plants in Belgium and Switzerland in which all investigated compounds were detected, except MPA and PMA. Furthermore, a consistent presence of MXE has been observed in most of the sewage samples at levels higher than LLOQ. PMID:25655588

  19. A simple and novel method for retrieval of Pasteurellaceae from swab samples collected in the field.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mie J; Bertelsen, Mads F; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Bojesen, Anders M

    2013-10-01

    Traditionally it has been difficult or impossible to collect and preserve bacterial samples of especially fastidious bacteria in mixed primary cultures, unless the samples could be transported to a laboratory within approximately 24 h. Therefore, a simple novel method for preserving swab samples until bacterial isolation can be completed in the laboratory was developed and evaluated. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were used as a representative for fastidious bacteria. A 7.5% glucose serum medium was used as freeze medium. Swab samples were soaked in the medium a maximum of 2 h after collection and stored at -20°C. As a control study, 15 samples were collected from the oral cavity of a captive brown bear. One was immediately plated, while the remaining 12 swabs were stored at -20°C for 7 days and multiples of 30 days up to 330 days prior to plating. Two samples were stored without the medium for 7 and 30 days prior to plating. From a field setting in Greenland, eight polar bear samples were collected and subsequently stored for 240 to 259 days at -20°C before incubation. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were isolated and genotyped from all samples stored in the freeze medium, indicating that the medium enabled the bacteria to survive for at least 330 days at -20°C. The 100% recovery of target organisms in the polar bear samples even following lengthy storage and transport demonstrates that the method is very useful under remote field conditions. PMID:23897719

  20. OSIRIS-REx Touch-and-Go (TAG) Mission Design for Asteroid Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Alexander; Sutter, Brian; Linn, Timothy; Bierhaus, Beau; Berry, Kevin; Mink, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in September 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid Bennu in October 2018. After several months of proximity operations to characterize the asteroid, OSIRIS-REx flies a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid's surface to collect at least 60 g of pristine regolith sample for Earth return. This paper provides mission and flight system overviews, with more details on the TAG mission design and key events that occur to safely and successfully collect the sample. An overview of the navigation performed relative to a chosen sample site, along with the maneuvers to reach the desired site is described. Safety monitoring during descent is performed with onboard sensors providing an option to abort, troubleshoot, and try again if necessary. Sample collection occurs using a collection device at the end of an articulating robotic arm during a brief five second contact period, while a constant force spring mechanism in the arm assists to rebound the spacecraft away from the surface. Finally, the sample is measured quantitatively utilizing the law of conservation of angular momentum, along with qualitative data from imagery of the sampling device. Upon sample mass verification, the arm places the sample into the Stardust-heritage Sample Return Capsule (SRC) for return to Earth in September 2023.

  1. 33 CFR 159.317 - Sampling and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... all costs associated with development of an acceptable QA/QCP and VSSP, sampling and testing of... testing and in accordance with the Coast Guard accepted QA/QCP. (e) Samples collected for analysis under.../Quality Control Plan (QA/QCP) accepted by the COTP for sampling and analysis of treated sewage...

  2. Efficiency of Different Sampling Tools for Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Collections in Malaysian Streams

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Wan Mohd Hafezul Wan Abdul; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Hamid, Suhaila Abd; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the sampling performance of three benthic sampling tools commonly used to collect freshwater macroinvertebrates. Efficiency of qualitative D-frame and square aquatic nets were compared to a quantitative Surber sampler in tropical Malaysian streams. The abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates collected using each tool evaluated along with their relative variations (RVs). Each tool was used to sample macroinvertebrates from three streams draining different areas: a vegetable farm, a tea plantation and a forest reserve. High macroinvertebrate diversities were recorded using the square net and Surber sampler at the forested stream site; however, very low species abundance was recorded by the Surber sampler. Relatively large variations in the Surber sampler collections (RVs of 36% and 28%) were observed for the vegetable farm and tea plantation streams, respectively. Of the three sampling methods, the square net was the most efficient, collecting a greater diversity of macroinvertebrate taxa and a greater number of specimens (i.e., abundance) overall, particularly from the vegetable farm and the tea plantation streams (RV<25%). Fewer square net sample passes (<8 samples) were sufficient to perform a biological assessment of water quality, but each sample required a slightly longer processing time (±20 min) compared with those gathered via the other samplers. In conclusion, all three apparatuses were suitable for macroinvertebrate collection in Malaysian streams and gathered assemblages that resulted in the determination of similar biological water quality classes using the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP). However, despite a slightly longer processing time, the square net was more efficient (lowest RV) at collecting samples and more suitable for the collection of macroinvertebrates from deep, fast flowing, wadeable streams with coarse substrates. PMID:27019685

  3. Efficiency of Different Sampling Tools for Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Collections in Malaysian Streams.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Wan Mohd Hafezul Wan Abdul; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Hamid, Suhaila Abd; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo

    2016-02-01

    This study analyses the sampling performance of three benthic sampling tools commonly used to collect freshwater macroinvertebrates. Efficiency of qualitative D-frame and square aquatic nets were compared to a quantitative Surber sampler in tropical Malaysian streams. The abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates collected using each tool evaluated along with their relative variations (RVs). Each tool was used to sample macroinvertebrates from three streams draining different areas: a vegetable farm, a tea plantation and a forest reserve. High macroinvertebrate diversities were recorded using the square net and Surber sampler at the forested stream site; however, very low species abundance was recorded by the Surber sampler. Relatively large variations in the Surber sampler collections (RVs of 36% and 28%) were observed for the vegetable farm and tea plantation streams, respectively. Of the three sampling methods, the square net was the most efficient, collecting a greater diversity of macroinvertebrate taxa and a greater number of specimens (i.e., abundance) overall, particularly from the vegetable farm and the tea plantation streams (RV<25%). Fewer square net sample passes (<8 samples) were sufficient to perform a biological assessment of water quality, but each sample required a slightly longer processing time (±20 min) compared with those gathered via the other samplers. In conclusion, all three apparatuses were suitable for macroinvertebrate collection in Malaysian streams and gathered assemblages that resulted in the determination of similar biological water quality classes using the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP). However, despite a slightly longer processing time, the square net was more efficient (lowest RV) at collecting samples and more suitable for the collection of macroinvertebrates from deep, fast flowing, wadeable streams with coarse substrates. PMID:27019685

  4. Coprostanol as a potential tracer of particulate sewage effluent to shelf waters adjacent to the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. C.; Wade, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    Samples were collected in the Chesapeake Bay entrance and contiguous shelf waters and were subsequently analyzed for particulate coprostanol and cholesterol concentrations. Surface coprostanol concentrations were fairly uniform, with a slight increase with depth. This increase with depth may be due to sewage-associated particulates settling as they leave the Bay, or the resuspension of contaminated sediment. Preliminary findings indicate sewage-associated materials are being transported from the Chesapeake Bay to shelf waters, where they may have a detrimental affect on living marine resources.

  5. Adsorptive Films in Support of In-field UF6 Destructive Assay Sample Collection and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Christopher A.; Martinez, Alonzo; McNamara, Bruce K.; Cannon, Bret D.; Anheier, Norman C.

    2014-07-20

    International Atom Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguard verification measures in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) rely on environmental sampling, non-destructive assay (NDA), and destructive assay (DA) sampling and analysis to determine uranium enrichment. UF6 bias defect measurements are made by DA sampling and analysis to assure that enrichment is consistent with declarations. DA samples are collected from a limited number of cylinders for high precision, offsite mass spectrometer analysis. Samples are typically drawn from a sampling tap into a UF6 sample bottle, then packaged, sealed, and shipped under IAEA chain of custody to an offsite analytical laboratory. Future DA safeguard measures may require improvements in efficiency and effectiveness as GCEP capacities increase and UF6 shipping regulations become increasingly more restrictive. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) DA sampler concept and Laser Ablation Absorption Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) assay method are under development to potentially provide DA safeguard tools that increase inspection effectiveness and reduce sample shipping constraints. The PNNL DA sampler concept uses a handheld sampler to collect DA samples for either onsite LAARS assay or offsite laboratory analysis. The DA sampler design will use a small sampling planchet that is coated with an adsorptive film to collect controlled quantities of UF6 gas directly from a cylinder or process sampling tap. Development efforts are currently underway at PNNL to enhance LAARS assay performance to allow high-precision onsite bias defect measurements. In this paper, we report on the experimental investigation to develop adsorptive films for the PNNL DA sampler concept. These films are intended to efficiently capture UF6 and then stabilize the collected DA sample prior to onsite LAARS or offsite laboratory analysis. Several porous material composite films were investigated, including a film designed to maximize the chemical adsorption

  6. 77 FR 36567 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application and Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP... requirement concerning the: Application and Approval to Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods. This... respondents or record keepers from the collection of information (total capital/startup costs and...

  7. Soil sample collection and analysis for the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Carvacho, Omar F.; Brown, Michael S.; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Magliano, Karen C.

    A unique set of soil samples was collected as part of the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study. The study was carried out to establish whether or not source profiles could be constructed using novel analytical methods that could distinguish soil dust sources from each other. The soil sources sampled included fields planted in cotton, almond, tomato, grape, and safflower, dairy and feedlot facilities, paved and unpaved roads (both urban and rural), an agricultural staging area, disturbed land with salt buildup, and construction areas where the topsoil had been removed. The samples were collected using a systematic procedure designed to reduce sampling bias, and were stored frozen to preserve possible organic signatures. For this paper the samples were characterized by particle size (percent sand, silt, and clay), dry silt content (used in EPA-recommended fugitive dust emission factors), carbon and nitrogen content, and potential to emit both PM 10 and PM 2.5. These are not the "novel analytical methods" referred to above; rather, it was the basic characterization of the samples to use in comparing analytical methods by other scientists contracted to the California Air Resources Board. The purpose of this paper is to document the methods used to collect the samples, the collection locations, the analysis of soil type and potential to emit PM 10, and the sample variability, both within field and between fields of the same crop type.

  8. A new device for collecting time-integrated water samples from springs and surface water bodies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panno, S.V.; Krapac, I.G.; Keefer, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    A new device termed the 'seepage sampler' was developed to collect representative water samples from springs, streams, and other surface-water bodies. The sampler collects composite, time-integrated water samples over short (hours) or extended (weeks) periods without causing significant changes to the chemical composition of the samples. The water sample within the sampler remains at the ambient temperature of the water body and does not need to be cooled. Seepage samplers are inexpensive to construct and easy to use. A sampling program of numerous springs and/or streams can be designed at a relatively low cost through the use of these samplers. Transient solutes migrating through such flow systems, potentially unnoticed by periodic sampling, may be detected. In addition, the mass loading of solutes (e.g., agrichemicals) may be determined when seepage samplers are used in conjunction with discharge measurements.

  9. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Sewage and Genotype 1 in Acute Hepatitis Cases, Israel.

    PubMed

    Ram, Daniela; Manor, Yossi; Gozlan, Yael; Schwartz, Eli; Ben-Ari, Ziv; Mendelson, Ella; Mor, Orna

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging infectious agent in developed countries. HEV genotypes 1 (G1) and 3 (G3) have been identified in environmental and clinical samples in Europe. In Israel, the overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies was found to be 10.6%; however, reports of HEV infection are scarce. In this study, the presence of HEV in Israel was investigated using 169 sewage samples from 32 treatment facilities and 49 samples from acute hepatitis patients, all collected between 2013 and 2015. Fourteen sewage samples, from Haifa (11/18 samples), Tel Aviv (2/29 samples), and Beer Sheva (1/17 samples), regions with good sanitary conditions and middle-high socioeconomic populations, were HEV positive. Among the patient samples, 6.1% (3/49) were HEV positive, all returning travelers from India. Genotype analysis revealed G1 HEV in patients and G3 HEV sequences in sewage. Evidence that HEV could be establishing itself in our region may justify more active surveillance to monitor its spread. PMID:27246446

  10. Collecting Comet Samples by ER-2 Aircraft: Cosmic Dust Collection During the Draconid Meteor Shower in October 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastien, Ron; Burkett, P. J.; Rodriquez, M.; Frank, D.; Gonzalez, C.; Robinson, G.-A.; Zolensky, M.; Brown, P.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Broce, S.; Kapitzke, M.; Moes, T.; Steel, D.; Williams, T.; Gearheart, D.

    2014-01-01

    Many tons of dust grains, including samples of asteroids and comets, fall from space into the Earth's atmosphere each day. NASA periodically collects some of these particles from the Earth's stratosphere using sticky collectors mounted on NASA's high-flying aircraft. Sometimes, especially when the Earth experiences a known meteor shower, a special opportunity is presented to associate cosmic dust particles with a known source. NASA JSC's Cosmic Dust Collection Program has made special attempts to collect dust from particular meteor showers and asteroid families when flights can be planned well in advance. However, it has rarely been possible to make collections on very short notice. In 2012, the Draconid meteor shower presented that opportunity. The Draconid meteor shower, originating from Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner, has produced both outbursts and storms several times during the last century, but the 2012 event was not predicted to be much of a show. Because of these predictions, the Cosmic Dust team had not targeted a stratospheric collection effort for the Draconids, despite the fact that they have one of the slowest atmospheric entry velocities (23 km/s) of any comet shower, and thus offer significant possibilities of successful dust capture. However, radar measurements obtained by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar during the 2012 Draconids shower indicated a meteor storm did occur October 8 with a peak at 16:38 (+/-5 min) UTC for a total duration of approximately 2 hours.

  11. A Cryosampler Payload for Aseptic Air Sample Collection at Stratospheric Altitudes Using Balloons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasan, S.; Dutt, C. B. S.; Bhargava, P.; Shivaji, S.; Manchanda, R. K.

    A balloon borne Astrobiology program is being conducted from the National Balloon Facility of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research at Hyderabad India in which a liquid Neon cooled cryo pump collects air samples under sterile conditions in the altitude regime 19 - 41 Km Pursuant to the encouraging results obtained from an earlier experiment conducted on January 2001 a new payload was configured and the balloon flight was conducted on April 20 2005 after implementing much more rigorous and enhanced sterilization protocol to completely rule out contamination from ground Air samples were collected in the altitude region 20 - 41 Km and are under analysis in the National laboratories in India for detecting the presence of living microbial cells In this paper we discuss the design and fabrication of the air sample collection probes the stringent sterilization protocol evolved for ensuring that the probes are aseptic before the commencement of the experiment and the sample retrival methods for analysis in the laboratory

  12. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  13. A sampling system for collecting gas-tight time-series hydrothermal fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S.; Yang, C.; Ding, K.

    2012-12-01

    It is known that the hydrothermal venting has temporal variations associated with tectonic and geochemical processes. To date, the methods for long-term monitoring of the seafloor hydrothermal systems are rare. A new sampling system has been designed to be deployed at seafloor for long term to collect gas-tight time-series samples from hydrothermal vents. Based on the modular design principle, the sampling system is currently composed of a control module and six sampling modules, which is convenient to be upgraded by adding more sampling modules if needed. The control module consists of a rechargeable battery pack and a circuit board with functions of sampling control, temperature measurement, data storage and communication. Each sampling module has an independent sampling valve, a valve actuator and a sampling cylinder. The sampling cylinder consists of a sample chamber and an accumulator chamber. Compressed nitrogen gas is used to maintain the sample at in-situ pressure. A prototype of the sampling system has been constructed and tested. First, the instrument was tested in a high-pressure vessel at a pressure of 40 MPa. Six sampling modules were successfully triggered and water samples were collected and kept at in-situ pressure after experiment. Besides, the instrument was field tested at the shallow hydrothermal field near off Kueishantao islet (24°51'N, 121°55'E), which is located offshore of northeastern Taiwan, from May 25 to May 28, 2011. The sampling system worked at an automatic mode. Each sampling module was triggered according to the preset time. Time-series hydrothermal fluids have been collected from a shallow hydrothermal vent with a depth of 16 m. The preliminary tests indicated the success of the design and construction of the prototype of the sampling system. Currently, the sampling system is being upgraded by integration of a DC-DC power conversion and serial-to-Ethernet conversion module, so that it can utilize the continuous power supply and

  14. Methods for collecting algal samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Stephen D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic algae (periphyton) and phytoplankton communities are characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. This multidisciplinary approach provides multiple lines of evidence for evaluating water-quality status and trends, and for refining an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. Water quality can be characterized by evaluating the results of qualitative and quantitative measurements of the algal community. Qualitative periphyton samples are collected to develop of list of taxa present in the sampling reach. Quantitative periphyton samples are collected to measure algal community structure within selected habitats. These samples of benthic algal communities are collected from natural substrates, using the sampling methods that are most appropriate for the habitat conditions. Phytoplankton samples may be collected in large nonwadeable streams and rivers to meet specific program objectives. Estimates of algal biomass (chlorophyll content and ash-free dry mass) also are optional measures that may be useful for interpreting water-quality conditions. A nationally consistent approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection, as well as information on methods and equipment for qualitative and quantitative sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data locally, regionally, and nationally.

  15. Comparison of water-quality samples collected by siphon samplers and automatic samplers in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, David J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Steur, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    In small streams, flow and water-quality concentrations often change quickly in response to meteorological events. Hydrologists, field technicians, or locally hired stream ob- servers involved in water-data collection are often unable to reach streams quickly enough to observe or measure these rapid changes. Therefore, in hydrologic studies designed to describe changes in water quality, a combination of manual and automated sampling methods have commonly been used manual methods when flow is relatively stable and automated methods when flow is rapidly changing. Auto- mated sampling, which makes use of equipment programmed to collect samples in response to changes in stage and flow of a stream, has been shown to be an effective method of sampling to describe the rapid changes in water quality (Graczyk and others, 1993). Because of the high cost of automated sampling, however, especially for studies examining a large number of sites, alternative methods have been considered for collecting samples during rapidly changing stream conditions. One such method employs the siphon sampler (fig. 1). also referred to as the "single-stage sampler." Siphon samplers are inexpensive to build (about $25- $50 per sampler), operate, and maintain, so they are cost effective to use at a large number of sites. Their ability to collect samples representing the average quality of water passing though the entire cross section of a stream, however, has not been fully demonstrated for many types of stream sites.

  16. Lockport Sewage Lagoon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, John

    1995-01-01

    Describes a student initiated stewardship project that resulted in the transformation of a sewage lagoon near the school into a place to study nature. Contains a list of 20 things that discourage a successful stewardship project. (LZ)

  17. Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

  18. Bio-banking in microbiology: from sample collection to epidemiology, diagnosis and research.

    PubMed

    De Paoli, Paolo

    2005-11-01

    Millions of biological samples, including cells of human, animal or bacterial origin, viruses, serum/plasma or DNA/RNA, are stored every year throughout the world for diagnostics and research. The purpose of this review is to summarize the resources necessary to set up a bio-banking facility, the challenges and pitfalls of sample collection, and the most important techniques for separation and storage of samples. Biological samples can be stored for up to 30 years, but specific protocols are required to reduce the damage induced by preservation techniques. Software dedicated to biological banks facilitate sample registration and identification, the cataloguing of sample properties (type of sample/specimen, associated diseases and/or therapeutic protocols, environmental information, etc.), sample tracking, quality assurance and specimen availability. Bio-bank facilities must adopt good laboratory practices and a stringent quality control system and, when required, comply with ethical issues. PMID:16219511

  19. Sample collection of virulent and non-virulent B. anthracis and Y. pestis for bioforensics analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth; Valdez, Yolanda E; Shou, Yulin; Yoshida, Thomas M; Marrone, Babetta L; Dunbar, John

    2009-01-01

    Validated sample collection methods are needed for recovery of microbial evidence in the event of accidental or intentional release of biological agents into the environment. To address this need, we evaluated the sample recovery efficiencies of two collection methods -- swabs and wipes -- for both non-virulent and virulent strains of B. anthracis and Y. pestis from four types of non-porous surfaces: two hydrophilic surfaces, stainless steel and glass, and two hydrophobic surfaces, vinyl and plastic. Sample recovery was quantified using Real-time qPCR to assay for intact DNA signatures. We found no consistent difference in collection efficiency between swabs or wipes. Furthermore, collection efficiency was more surface-dependent for virulent strains than non-virulent strains. For the two non-virulent strains, B. anthracis Sterne and Y. pestis A1122, collection efficiency was approximately 100% and 1 %, respectively, from all four surfaces. In contrast, recovery of B. anthracis Ames spores and Y. pestis C092 from vinyl and plastic was generally lower compared to collection from glass or stainless steel, suggesting that surface hydrophobicity may playa role in the strength of pathogen adhesion. The surface-dependent collection efficiencies observed with the virulent strains may arise from strain-specific expression of capsular material or other cell surface receptors that alter cell adhesion to specific surfaces. These findings contribute to validation of standard bioforensics procedures and emphasize the importance of specific strain and surface interactions in pathogen detection.

  20. The Importance of Meteorite Collections to Sample Return Missions: Past, Present, and Future Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welzenbach, L. C.; McCoy, T. J.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Abell, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    While much of the scientific community s current attention is drawn to sample return missions, it is the existing meteorite and cosmic dust collections that both provide the paradigms to be tested by these missions and the context for interpreting the results. Recent sample returns from the Stardust and Hayabusa missions provided us with new materials and insights about our Solar System history and processes. As an example, Stardust sampled CAIs among the population of cometary grains, requiring extensive and unexpected radial mixing in the early solar nebula. This finding would not have been possible, however, without extensive studies of meteoritic CAIs that established their high-temperature, inner Solar System formation. Samples returned by Stardust also revealed the first evidence of a cometary amino acid, a discovery that would not have been possible with current in situ flight instrument technology. The Hayabusa mission provided the final evidence linking ordinary chondrites and S asteroids, a hypothesis that developed from centuries of collection and laboratory and ground-based telescopic studies. In addition to these scientific findings, studies of existing meteorite collections have defined and refined the analytical techniques essential to studying returned samples. As an example, the fortuitous fall of the Allende CV3 and Murchison CM2 chondrites within months before the return of Apollo samples allowed testing of new state-of-the-art analytical facilities. The results of those studies not only prepared us to better study lunar materials, but unanticipated discoveries changed many of our concepts about the earliest history and processes of the solar nebula. This synergy between existing collections and future space exploration is certainly not limited to sample return missions. Laboratory studies confirmed the existence of meteorites from Mars and raised the provocative possibility of preservation of ancient microbial life. The laboratory studies in

  1. Macroinvertebrate community sample collection methods and data collected from Sand Creek and Medano Creek, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado, 2005–07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, Morgan A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Walters, David M.; Bruce, James F.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a table of site descriptions, sample information, and semiquantitative aquatic macroinvertebrate data from 105 samples collected between 2005 and 2007 from 7 stream sites within the Sand Creek and Medano Creek watersheds in Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Saguache County, Colorado. Additionally, a short description of sample collection methods and laboratory sample processing procedures is presented. These data were collected in anticipation of assessing the potential effects of fish toxicants on macroinvertebrates.

  2. Sample Collection of Ash and Burned Soils from the October 2007 Southern California Wildfires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Martin, Deborah A.; Rochester, Carlton; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Mendez, Greg; Reichard, Eric G.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2009-01-01

    Between November 2 through 9, 2007 scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected samples of ash and burned soils from 28 sites in six areas burned as a result of the Southern California wildfires of October 2007, including the Harris, Witch, Santiago, Ammo, Canyon, and Grass Valley Fires. The primary goal of this sampling and analysis effort was to understand how differences in ash and burned soil composition relate to vegetation type, underlying bedrock geology, burn intensity, and residential versus wildland. Sampling sites were chosen with the input of local experts from the USGS Water Resources and Biological Resources Disciplines to help understand possible effects of the fires on water supplies, ecosystems, and endangered species. The sampling was also carried out in conjunction with detailed field analysis of the spectral reflectance characteristics of the ash, so that chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the field samples could be used to help interpret data collected as part of an airborne, hyperspectral remote-sensing survey of several of the burned areas in mid-late November, 2007. This report presents an overview of the field sampling methodologies used to collect the samples, includes representative photos of the sites sampled, and summarizes important characteristics of each of the collection sites. In this report we use the term 'ash' to refer collectively to white mineral ash, which results from full combustion of vegetation and black charred organic matter from partial combustion of vegetation or other materials. These materials were found to be intermingled as a deposited residue on the soil surface following the Southern California fires of 2007.

  3. Swabs as DNA collection devices for sampling different biological materials from different substrates.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Timothy J; Mitchell, Robert J; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2014-07-01

    Currently, there is a variety of swabs for collection of biological evidence from crime scenes, but their comparative efficiency is unknown. Here, we report the results of an investigation into the efficiency of different swab types to collect blood, saliva and touch DNA from a range of substrates. The efficiency of extracting blood and saliva from each swab type was also tested. Some swabs were significantly more effective than others for sampling biological materials from different substrates. Swabs with the highest sampling efficiency, however, often did not have the highest extraction efficiency. Observations were recorded regarding practicality of each swab in a variety of situations. Our study demonstrates that selection of sampling device impacts greatly upon successful collection and extraction of DNA. We present guidelines to assist in evaluation of swab choice. PMID:24502761

  4. Effects of rainfalls variability and physical-chemical parameters on enteroviruses in sewage and lagoon in Yopougon, Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momou, Kouassi Julien; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Traoré, Karim Sory; Akré, Djako Sosthène; Dosso, Mireille

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the variability of the content of nutrients, oxidizable organic and particulate matters in raw sewage and the lagoon on the effect of rainfall. Then evaluate the impact of these changes in the concentration of enteroviruses (EVs) in waters. The sewage samples were collected at nine sampling points along the channel, which flows, into a tropical lagoon in Yopougon. Physical-chemical parameters (5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Suspended Particulate Matter, Total Phosphorus, Orthophosphate, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen and Nitrate) as well as the concentration of EV in these waters were determined. The average numbers of EV isolated from the outlet of the channel were 9.06 × 104 PFU 100 ml-1. Consequently, EV was present in 55.55 and 33.33 % of the samples in the 2 brackish lagoon collection sites. The effect of rainfall on viral load at the both sewage and brackish lagoon environments is significant correlate (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.05). Furthermore, in lagoon environment, nutrients (Orthophosphate, Total Phosphorus), 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Suspended Particulate Matter were significant correlated with EVs loads (P < 0.05 by Pearson test). The overall results highlight the problem of sewage discharge into the lagoon and correlation between viral loads and water quality parameters in sewage and lagoon.

  5. Archival policies and collections database for the Woods Hole Science Center's marine sediment samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buczkowski, Brian J.; Kelsey, Sarah A.

    2007-01-01

    The Woods Hole Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for over 40 years. In that time there have been many projects that involved the collection of sediment samples conducted by USGS scientists and technicians for the research and study of seabed environments and processes. These samples were collected at sea or near shore and then brought back to the Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) for analysis. While at the center, samples are stored in ambient temperature, refrigerated and freezing conditions ranging from +2º Celsius to -18º Celsius, depending on the best mode of preparation for the study being conducted or the duration of storage planned for the samples. Recently, storage methods and available storage space have become a major concern at the WHSC. The core and sediment archive program described herein has been initiated to set standards for the management, methods, and duration of sample storage. A need has arisen to maintain organizational consistency and define storage protocol. This handbook serves as a reference and guide to all parties interested in using and accessing the WHSC's sample archive and also defines all the steps necessary to construct and maintain an organized collection of geological samples. It answers many questions as to the way in which the archive functions.

  6. Multi-element composition of historical lichen collections and bark samples, indicators of changing atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvis, O. W.; Chimonides, P. D. J.; Jeffries, T. E.; Jones, G. C.; Rusu, A.-M.; Read, H.

    Thirty six element signatures were compared in historical Parmelia sulcata samples from the Natural History Museum herbarium collected over the period 1797-1967 with those recorded in the same species and tree bark sampled in 2000 from Burnham Beeches, lying 40 km west of London. Nineteen elements reached highest concentrations in herbarium samples, consistent with a pollution legacy and dust contamination in the herbarium. Healthy Parmelia sampled east and down-wind of London at a farm during peak SO 2 emissions in 1967 contained highest V, Ni, Zn, Cd, Se, Ge contents, supporting derivation from fuel combustion; the same sample was previously determined as having a low δ34S and high S and N contents. Lowest V, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, Ba, Pb, Mo, Sb, Li, B, Cs, U, Th, Ga contents were recorded in a sample with a high δ34S and low S content collected in 1887 from a remote region from Ross-shire, Scotland. Se and Cd enrichment, never-the-less suggest a transboundary pollution influence. Lichen Pb concentrations from Burnham Beeches were amongst the lowest recorded in spite of lichens being collected close to roads. Herbarium samples help interpret changes in element deposition where few data exist, in spite of dust contamination.

  7. Detection of Pathogenic Viruses in Sewage Provided Early Warnings of Hepatitis A Virus and Norovirus Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Hellmér, Maria; Paxéus, Nicklas; Magnius, Lars; Enache, Lucica; Arnholm, Birgitta; Johansson, Annette; Bergström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care. PMID:25172863

  8. Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeson, Phillip E., (Edited By); Ehlke, T.A.; Irwin, G.A.; Lium, B.W.; Slack, K.V.

    1977-01-01

    Chapter A4 contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze waters to determine their biological and microbiological properties. Part 1 discusses biological sampling and sampling statistics. The statistical procedures are accompanied by examples. Part 2 consists of detailed descriptions of more than 45 individual methods, including those for bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, seston, periphyton, macrophytes, benthic invertebrates, fish and other vertebrates, cellular contents, productivity, and bioassays. Each method is summarized, and the application, interferences, apparatus, reagents, collection, analysis, calculations, reporting of results, precision and references are given. Part 3 consists of a glossary. Part 4 is a list of taxonomic references.

  9. The assessment of inflammatory activity and toxicity of treated sewage using RAW264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Makene, Vedastus W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Toxicity and inflammatory activity of wastewater samples were evaluated using RAW264.7 cells as a bioassay model. The RAW264.7 cell cultures were exposed to sterile filtered wastewater samples collected from a sewage treatment plant. Cell viability was evaluated using WST‐1 and XTT assays. Inflammatory effects of samples were assessed by determination of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL‐6). The NO was estimated using the Griess reaction and IL‐6 was measured by enzyme‐linked immunoassay. All samples had no toxicity effects to RAW264.7 cells, however they significantly (P < 0.001) induced NO and IL‐6 production. The highest NO (12.5 ± 0.38 μM) and IL‐6 (25383.84 ± 2327 pg/mL) production was induced by postbiofiltration sample. Final effluent induced the lowest inflammatory response, which indicates effective sewage treatment. In conclusion, wastewater samples can induce inflammatory activities in RAW264.7 cells. The RAW264.7 cells, therefore, can be used as a model for monitoring the quality of treated sewage. PMID:26900395

  10. An unmanned mission to Mars with sample collection and in-situ resource utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    The design for the Mars Analysis and Return Vehicle with In-Situ Resource Utilization (MARVIN) project is outlined. The MARVIN mission is designed to collect samples of the Martian environment; to produce fuel from local Martian resources; and to use the fuel produced to return the samples to earth. It uses only existing technologies. Exploratory Technologies' mission-design efforts have focused on methods of orbit determination, sample collection, fuel production, power, communications, control, and structural design. Lambert Targeting provided Delta-V's, launch dates, and travel times. The landing site is the Tharsis Plateau, to the southeast of Olympus Mons, chosen for its substantial scientific value. Samples of soil, dust, and atmosphere are collected with lander-based collection devices: the soil sample, with a robotic arm similar to those used in the Viking missions; the atmospheric sample, from a bleed line to the compressor in the fuel-production facility; a dust sample, from the dust-collection container in the fuel-production facility; and a redundant dust sample, with a with a passive filter system, which relies upon neither a power source nor other collection methods. The sample-return capsule (SRC) houses these samples, which are triply contained to prevent contamination. Proven technology can be used to produce methane and oxygen for fuel with relative ease at the landing site: the Sabatier reactor produces methane and water by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen (brought from earth); the Reverse Water-Gas Shift unit combines carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form carbon monoxide and water; a water-electrolysis unit splits the water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Mars-lander vehicle (MLV) transports the equipment from earth to Mars. The Mars-ascent vehicle (MAV) contains the SRC and the engine, which is the same for both the MLV and the MAV. All equipment that is unnecessary for the Mars-Earth trajectory remains on Mars. This report presents detailed