Science.gov

Sample records for sewage sludge degradation

  1. Impact of composting strategies on the degradation of nonylphenol in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guodi; Chen, Tongbin; Yu, Jie; Gao, Ding; Shen, Yujun; Niu, Mingjie; Liu, Hongtao

    2015-12-01

    Nonylphenol can be present in sewage sludge, and this can limit the use of the sewage sludge to amend soil. Composting is one of the most efficient and economical methods of making sewage sludge stable and harmless. The nonylphenol degradation rates during composting with added bulking agents and with aeration applied were studied. Three organic bulking agents (sawdust, corn stalk, and mushroom residue) were added to sewage sludge, and the effects of the bulking agents used and the amount added on nonylphenol degradation were determined. The highest apparent nonylphenol degradation rate (71.6 %) was found for sewage sludge containing 20 % mushroom residue. The lowest apparent nonylphenol degradation rate (22.5 %) was found for sewage sludge containing 20 % sawdust. The temperature of the composting pile of sewage sludge containing 20 % sawdust became too high for nonylphenol to be efficiently degraded, and the apparent nonylphenol degradation rate was lower than was found for sewage sludge containing 10 % sawdust. Increasing the ventilating time from 5 to 15 min increased the apparent nonylphenol degradation rate from 19.7 to 41.6 %. Using appropriate aerobic conditions facilitates the degradation of nonylphenol in sewage sludge, decreasing the risks posed by sewage sludge applied to land. Adding too much of a bulking agent can decrease the amount of the nonylphenol degraded. Increasing the ventilating time and the amount of air supplied can increase the amount of nonylphenol degraded even if doing so causes the composting pile temperature to remain low. PMID:26452367

  2. Simulation of substrate degradation in composting of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jun; Gao Ding; Chen Tongbin; Zheng Guodi; Chen Jun; Ma Chuang; Guo Songlin; Du Wei

    2010-10-15

    To simulate the substrate degradation kinetics of the composting process, this paper develops a mathematical model with a first-order reaction assumption and heat/mass balance equations. A pilot-scale composting test with a mixture of sewage sludge and wheat straw was conducted in an insulated reactor. The BVS (biodegradable volatile solids) degradation process, matrix mass, MC (moisture content), DM (dry matter) and VS (volatile solid) were simulated numerically by the model and experimental data. The numerical simulation offered a method for simulating k (the first-order rate constant) and estimating k{sub 20} (the first-order rate constant at 20 {sup o}C). After comparison with experimental values, the relative error of the simulation value of the mass of the compost at maturity was 0.22%, MC 2.9%, DM 4.9% and VS 5.2%, which mean that the simulation is a good fit. The k of sewage sludge was simulated, and k{sub 20}, k{sub 20s} (first-order rate coefficient of slow fraction of BVS at 20 {sup o}C) of the sewage sludge were estimated as 0.082 and 0.015 d{sup -1}, respectively.

  3. Degradation of sulfamethazine in sewage sludge mixture by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Libing; Wang, Jianlong; Liu, Yuankun

    2015-03-01

    The gamma-irradiation-induced degradation of antibiotics sulfamethazine (SMT) in sludge mixture was investigated. The results showed that gamma irradiation was effective in removing SMT from contaminated sludge mixture. With an initial SMT concentration of 10 mg/L, the SMT removal efficiency reached 65% at 1.0 kGy and increased to 98% at 2.5 kGy. The SMT degradation rate was lower in the sludge mixture than that in pure water. The pseudo first-order kinetic constant of SMT degradation in pure water was 2.3 times higher than that in the sludge mixture. Analysis of the SMT concentrations in the supernatant and sludge residue revealed that 93-97% of SMT was observed in the supernatant and the detected SMT in the sludge residue was 168±29, 147±4, and 87±9 ?g/g dry weight following irradiation at doses of 0, 1.0 and 2.5 kGy, respectively. The sludge solubilization slowly increased from 1.5% to 3.5% with increasing dose from 1.0 to 5.0 kGy, while the sludge activity decreased by 85-98%. Addition of H2O2 exhibited a synergetic effect on the degradation of SMT, with the pseudo first-order kinetic constant k increasing by around 25%.

  4. Eucalyptus development in degraded soil fertilized with sewage sludge and mineral fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, R. A. F.; Santos, E. B.; Alves, M. C.; Arruda, O. G.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the development of eucalyptus in a degraded Oxisol with mineral fertilizer and sewage sludge. The study was conducted in Selviria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. The culture of eucalyptus was planted in 2003 at 2.0 m x 1.5 m spacing, with application of 60 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (dry basis) and mineral fertilizer. After five years (2008) the area received biosolids and mineral fertilizer, and after five months, were evaluated for height and diameter at breast height of Eucalyptus. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments: T1 - control (without addition of inputs), T2 - Mineral fertilization (30 kg ha-1 N, 90 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 60 kg ha-1 K2O), T3 - Reapplication of 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis, T4 - Reapplication of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis. Before reapplication the biosolids plant height was higher in the eucalyptus with treatment 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (8.03 m) compared to control (5.75 m) and mineral fertilizer (5.91 m) and that treatment 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (6.34 m) did not differ from the previous three. For the diameter at breast height was the highest value for treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 (7.78 cm) compared to control (5.23 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm), and that of mineral fertilizer (5.96 cm) did not differ from all treatments. After reapplication of sludge plant height was higher in the eucalyptus treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (11.21 m) compared with control (7.51 m), mineral fertilizer (7.77 m) and 4 64 Mg ha-1 (8.07 m), which did not differ. The diameter at breast height had the same behavior before the application of biosolids in the highest value observed being 9.28 Mg ha-1 (8.46 cm) compared with control (5.75 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm) and that of mineral fertilizer (6.34 cm) did not differ from the others. Reapplication of the dose of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge in degraded Oxisol provided greater height and diameter at breast height from eucalyptus trees.

  5. COMPARISON OF ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM LABORATORY AND FULL-SCALE THERMAL DEGRADATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples of sewage sludge burned at one fluidized-bed and three multiple-hearth incinerators were subjected to laboratory flow reactor thermal decomposition testing under both pyrolytic and oxidative atmospheres. he laboratory test results indicated that biomass decomposition prod...

  6. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  7. Partial oxidation of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, M.A.; Suggitt, R.M.; McKeon, R.J.; Brent, A.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a process for the partial oxidation of sewage sludge. It comprises: shearing without heating a concentrated aqueous slurry of sewage sludge obtained from sewage.; dewatering the sheared pumpable aqueous slurry of sewage sludge from (1) to a solids content in the rage of about 25 to 50 wt. %; mixing the pumpable sheared aqueous slurry of sewage sludge with a supplemental solid fuel and reacting the pumpable aqueous sewage sludge-coal and/or petroleum coke slurry in the reaction zone of a partial oxidation gas generator at a temperature in the range of about 1800{degrees} F. to 2800{degrees} F.

  8. Degradation of vinyl acetate by soil, sewage, sludge, and the newly isolated aerobic bacterium V2.

    PubMed Central

    Nieder, M; Sunarko, B; Meyer, O

    1990-01-01

    Vinyl acetate is subject to microbial degradation in the environment and by pure cultures. It was hydrolyzed by samples of soil, sludge, and sewage at rates of up to 6.38 and 1 mmol/h per g (dry weight) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Four yeasts and thirteen bacteria that feed aerobically on vinyl acetate were isolated. The pathway of vinyl acetate degradation was studied in bacterium V2. Vinyl acetate was degraded to acetate as follows: vinyl acetate + NAD(P)+----2 acetate + NAD(P)H + H+. The acetate was then converted to acetyl coenzyme A and oxidized through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glyoxylate bypass. The key enzyme of the pathway is vinyl acetate esterase, which hydrolyzed the ester to acetate and vinyl alcohol. The latter isomerized spontaneously to acetaldehyde and was then converted to acetate. The acetaldehyde was disproportionated into ethanol and acetate. The enzymes involved in the metabolism of vinyl acetate were studied in extracts. Vinyl acetate esterase (Km = 6.13 mM) was also active with indoxyl acetate (Km = 0.98 mM), providing the basis for a convenient spectrophotometric test. Substrates of aldehyde dehydrogenase were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and butyraldehyde. The enzyme was equally active with NAD+ or NADP+. Alcohol dehydrogenase was active with ethanol (Km = 0.24 mM), 1-propanol (Km = 0.34 mM), and 1-butanol (Km = 0.16 mM) and was linked to NAD+. The molecular sizes of aldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase were 145 and 215 kilodaltons, respectively. PMID:2285314

  9. Sewage sludge treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  10. The use of biochar-amended composting to improve the humification and degradation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jining; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2014-09-01

    Wood biochar (6%, 12% and 18% of fresh sludge weight) adding to a sludge-and-straw composting system was investigated to assess the potential of biochar as a composting amendment. Organic degradation efficiency, temporal humification profile of the water-extractable organic fraction and solid organic matter, through spectroscopic, microscopic and elementary analysis were monitored. Fluorescent excitation and emission matrix indicated that concentrations of aqueous fulvic-acid-like and humic-acid-like compounds were, respectively, 13-26% and 15-30% higher in the biochar-amended treatments, than those in the control without biochar-amended. On the first day of sludge aerobic incubation, the presence of biochar resulted in increased oxygen uptake rates of 21-37% due to its higher nano-porosity and surface area. SEM indicated that, in the biochar-amended sludge, the dense microstructure on the sludge surface disintegrated into fragments with organic fraction degraded and water lost. Results indicated that 12-18%w/w addition of wood biochar to sludge composting was recommended. PMID:24656550

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND SEWAGE SLUDGE-SOIL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to characterize the chemical properties of municipal sewage sludges, to evaluate the fate of sludge components in soils, and to determine the distribution of trace metals in milling fractions of grains grown on sludge-treated soils.

  12. Accelerated degradation of PAHs using edaphic biostimulants obtained from sewage sludge and chicken feathers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Gómez, Isidoro; Parrado, Juan; García, Carlos; Hernández, Teresa; Tejada, Manuel

    2015-12-30

    We studied in the laboratory the bioremediation effects over a 100-day period of three edaphic biostimulants (BS) obtained from sewage sludge (SS) and from two different types of chicken feathers (CF1 and CF2), in a soil polluted with three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (phenanthrene, Phe; pyrene, Py; and benzo(a)pyrene, BaP), at a concentration of 100mgkg(-1) soil. We determined their effects on enzymatic activities and on soil microbial community. Those BS with larger amounts of proteins and a higher proportion of peptides (<300daltons), exerted a greater stimulation on the soil biochemical properties and microbial community, possibly because low molecular weight proteins can be easily assimilated by soil microorganisms. The soil dehydrogenase, urease, ?-glucosidase and phosphatase activities and microbial community decreased in PAH-polluted soil. This decrease was more pronounced in soils contaminated with BaP than with Py and Phe. The application of the BS to PAH-polluted soils decreased the inhibition of the soil biological properties, principally at 7 days into the experiment. This decrease was more pronounced in soils contaminated with BaP than with Py and Phe and was higher in polluted soils amended with CF2, followed by SS and CF1, respectively. PMID:26188866

  13. Sewage sludge gasification: First studies

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Bacaicoa, P.; Bilbao, R.; Uson, C.

    1995-11-01

    Wastewater treatment installations produce a large quantity of sewage sludge, the disposal and treatment of which causes several problems because of its volume, its toxic organic constituents and the heavy metals that it contains. Certain methods of treatment and disposal do exist, but they are not entirely satisfactory. Moreover, it is important to develop a technology for the adequate treatment of sewage sludge in order to reduce the environmental problem and the costs of treatment. It can be assumed that gasification is a suitable technology because it reduces the waste volume, destroys the toxic organic compounds and fixes the heavy metals in the resultant solid. In order to gain knowledge of the processes occurring in the gasifier, the results obtained in experiments on the thermal decomposition of sewage sludge at different heating rates are shown.

  14. [Technology of sewage sludge hygienization].

    PubMed

    Keller, U

    1983-09-01

    That the use of modern technology against the laws of Nature must fail, has been clearly demonstrated again some years ago when sewage sludge postpasteurization was rashly introduced. Although many attempts were made to improve this procedure, it had to be abandoned because of unavoidable massive regrowth of pathogens which invaded the germ-free postpasteurized sludge. In contrast of postpasteurization, long-term large-scale tests with the pasteurization of fresh sludge (prepasteurization) have demonstrated that this procedure where methane digestion with its pathogen displacing effect constitutes the final stage, is basically able to function. With respect to the Swiss Sewage Sludge Decree which came into force in May 1981, and which imposes sludge hygienization for most applications throughout the year, various thermal prepasteurization methods have been offered on the market ready for application to meet the legally prescribed requirements. However, some of them still need selective improvements in order to ensure the desired hygienisation effect permanently. For some time now, attention has been focussed on a novel biological 2-stage procedure based on partial aerobic thermophilic fermentation followed by anaerobic sludge digestion which in addition to good hygienisation promises improved sludge thickening, reduced digestion time, more favourable energy consumption and added process stability etc. Although it has already been offered on the market, this interesting process is being thouroughly tested and optimized in parallel pilot tests plant at the WWTP Altenrhein. Finally, reference is made to further sludge treatment processes such as sludge drying and sludge composting which mostly comprise efficent sludge hygienisation although they may not entirely prevent pathogenic regrowth. Moreover, some unconventional and less popular processes such as liquid sludge irradiation and chemical methods are also mentioned. PMID:6649988

  15. 1988 NATIONAL SEWAGE SLUDGE SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:Originally developed to support Phase I regulation for use or disposal of biosolids (sewage sludge). Data collected were used to estimate risks, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation. This is currently the only statistically designed surv...

  16. Recovery potential of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Adam, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Incineration of sewage sludge is expected to increase in the future due to growing concerns about the direct use of sludge in agriculture. Sewage sludge is the pollutant sink of wastewater treatment and thus loaded with contaminants that might pose environmental hazards. Incineration degrades organic pollutants efficiently, but since the ash is currently mostly disposed of, all valuable component like phosphorus (P) and technologically relevant metals present in the sewage sludge ash (SSA) are removed from the economic cycle entirely. We conducted a complete survey of SSA from German mono-incineration facilities and determined the theoretical recovery potential of 57 elements. German SSA contains up to 19,000t/a P which equals approximately 13% of phosphorus applied in the German agriculture in form of phosphate rock based mineral fertilizers. Thus, SSA is an important secondary resource of P. However, its P-solubility in ammonium citrate solution, an indicator for the bioavailability, is only about 26%. Treatment of SSA is recommended to enhance P bioavailability and remove heavy metals before it is applied as fertilizer. The recovery potential for technologically relevant metals is generally low, but some of these elements might be recovered efficiently in the course of P recovery exploiting synergies. PMID:25697389

  17. Complete survey of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Grabner, Angela; Adam, Christian

    2014-10-21

    The amount of sewage sludge produced worldwide is expected to further increase due to rising efforts in wastewater treatment. There is a growing concern against its direct use as fertilizer due to contamination of the sludge with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Incinerating the sludge degrades organic compounds almost completely and concentrates heavy metals and phosphorus. However, the sewage sludge ash (SSA) is almost completely disposed of and with it all resources are removed from the economic cycle. Comprehensive knowledge of the composition of SSA is crucial to assess the resource recovery potentials. We conducted a survey of all SSA emerging in Germany and determined the respective mass fractions of 57 elements over a period of one year. The median content of phosphorus was 7.9%, indicating an important recovery potential. Important trace elements were Zn (2.5 g/kg), Mn (1.3 g/kg), and Cu (0.9 g/kg). Mass fractions of technology metals such as V, Cr, Ga, Nb, and rare earths were comparatively low. Considering the possible use of SSA as secondary raw material for fertilizer production it should be noted that its Cd and U content (2.7 mg/kg and 4.9 mg/kg respectively) is significantly lower than that of rock phosphate based mineral fertilizers. PMID:25265150

  18. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  19. REGROWTH OF SALMONELLAE IN COMPOSTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to investigate the regrowth of salmonellae in composted sewage sludge. Though composting effectively stabilizes and disinfects sewage sludges, the decrease in salmonellae may be only temporary, since this pathogen can survive and grow without a human or ani...

  20. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

    A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

  1. The pyrolysis process of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosov, V. F.; Umnova, O. M.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2015-11-01

    The experimental investigations of pyrolysis process sewage sludge at different conditions are presented. As a result of executed investigations it was shown that syngas (mixrure of CO and H2) used in gas engine can be obtained in pyrolysis process.

  2. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1985-08-30

    This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

  3. COMPARISON OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested by using the Salmonella/microsome reverse mutation ...

  4. Treatment of sewage sludge using electrokinetic geosynthetics.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, Stephanie; Lamont-Black, John; Jones, Colin J F P

    2007-01-31

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge is one of the most problematical issues affecting wastewater treatment in the developed world. The traditional outlets for sewage sludge are to spread it on agricultural land, or to form a cake for deposit to landfill or incineration. In order to create a sludge cake, water must be removed. Existing dewatering technology based on pressure can only remove a very limited amount of this water because of the way in which water is bound to the sludge particles or flocs. Several researchers have shown that electrokinetic dewatering of sludge is more efficient than conventional hydraulically driven methods. This involves the application of a dc voltage across the sludge, driving water under an electrical gradient from positive (anode) electrode to negative (cathode) electrode. However, there have been several reasons why this technique has not been adopted in practice, not least because the, normally metallic, anode rapidly dissolves due to the acidic environment created by the electrolysis of water. This paper will describe experimentation using electrokinetic geosynthetics (EKG): polymer-based materials containing conducting elements. These have been used to minimise the problem of electrode corrosion and create a sludge treatment system that can produce dry solids contents in excess of 30%. It will suggest different options for the treatment of sludges both in situ in sludge lagoons and windrows, and ex situ as a treatment process. PMID:16635546

  5. Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

  6. SEWAGE SLUDGE PATHOGEN TRANSPORT MODEL PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, raw or anaerobically digest...

  7. SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION, HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel ef...

  8. Preparation of biochar from sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Aurora; María Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Biomass waste materials appropriate for biochar production include crop residues (both field residues and processing residues such as nut shells, fruit pits, bagasse, etc), as well as yard, food and forestry wastes, and animal manures. Biochar can and should be made from biomass waste materials and must not contain unacceptable levels of toxins such as heavy metals which can be found in sewage sludge and industrial or landfill waste. Making biochar from biomass waste materials should create no competition for land with any other land use option—such as food production or leaving the land in its pristine state. Large amounts of agricultural, municipal and forestry biomass are currently burned or left to decompose and release CO2 and methane back into the atmosphere. They also can pollute local ground and surface waters—a large issue for livestock wastes. Using these materials to make biochar not only removes them from a pollution cycle, but biochar can be obtained as a by-product of producing energy from this biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product from wastewater treatment plants, and contains significant amounts of heavy metals, organic toxins and pathogenic microorganisms, which are considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Agricultural use, land filling and incineration are commonly used as disposal methods. It was, however, reported that sewage sludge applications in agriculture gives rise to an accumulation of harmful components (heavy metals and organic compounds) in soil. For this reason, pyrolysis can be considered as a promising technique to treat the sewage sludge including the production of fuels. The objective of this work is to study the advantages of the biochar prepared from sewage sludge.

  9. Single application of Sewage Sludge to an Alluvial Agricultural Soil - impacts on Soil Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhadolc, M.; Graham, D. B.; Hagn, A.; Doerfler, U.; Schloter, M.; Schroll, R.; Munch, J. C.; Lobnik, F.

    2009-04-01

    Limited information exists on the effects of sewage sludge on soil quality with regard to their ability to maintain soil functions. We studied effects of sewage sludge amendment on soil chemical properties, microbial community structure and microbial degradation of the herbicide glyphosate. Three months soil column leaching experiment has been conducted using alluvial soils (Eutric Fluvisol) with no prior history of sludge application. The soil was loamy with pH 7,4 and organic matter content of 3,5%. Soil material in the upper 2 cm of columns was mixed with dehydrated sewage sludge which was applied in amounts corresponding to the standards governing the use of sewage sludge for agricultural land. Sludge did increase some nutrients (total N, NH4+, available P and K, organic carbon) and some heavy metals contents (Zn, Cu, Pb) in soil. However, upper limits for heavy metals in agricultural soils were not exceeded. Results of heavy metal availability in soil determined by sequential extraction will be also presented. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of 16s/18s rDNA, using universal fungal and bacterial primers, revealed clear shifts in bacterial and fungal community structure in the upper 2 cm of soils after amendment. Fungal fingerprints showed greater short term effects of sewage sludge, whereas sewage sludge seems to have prolonged effects on soil bacteria. Furthermore, sewage sludge amendment significantly increased glyphosate degradation from 21.6±1% to 33.6±1% over a 2 months period. The most probable reasons for shifts in microbial community structure and increased degradation of glyphosate are beneficial alterations to the physical-chemical characteristics of the soil. Negative effects of potentially toxic substances present in the sewage sludge on soil microbial community functioning were not observed with the methods used in our study.

  10. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that...

  11. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that...

  12. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge on higher plants.

    PubMed

    Corrêa Martins, Maria Nilza; de Souza, Victor Ventura; Souza, Tatiana da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Sewage treatment yields sludge, which is often used as a soil amendment in agriculture and crop production. Although the sludge contains elevated concentrations of macro and micronutrients, high levels of inorganic and organic compounds with genotoxic and mutagenic properties are present in sludge. Application of sludge in agriculture is a pathway for direct contact of crops to toxic chemicals. The objective of this study was to compile information related to the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge in different plant species. In addition, data are presented on toxicological effects in animals fed with plants grown in soils supplemented with sewage sludge. Despite the benefits of using sewage sludge as organic fertilizer, the data showcased in this review suggest that this residue can induce genetic damage in plants. This review alerts potential risks to health outcomes after the intake of food cultivated in sewage sludge-amended soils. PMID:26643763

  13. Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few health concerns because sufficient decay occurs before it can reach the public however, incineration, which is done in winter months, directly releases the 131I from sewage sludge to the atmosphere, and even though exposures to both workers and the public were found to be considerably lower than 1% of natural background, incineration of sludge in a pathway for public exposure. Although 131I was readily measurable in sewage sludge, only about 1% of the radioione administered to patients was found in the sludge. The fate of the remaining radioactivity has not been established; some may be in secondary and tertiary residuals, but it is quite likely that most passed through the plant and was discharged in dilute concentrations in plant emissions. The behavior of radioiodine and other radioactive materials released into municipal seweage systems, such as those from large medical facilities, is not yet well understood. PMID:9258296

  14. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that the applicable requirements in this part are met when the sewage sludge is applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge...

  15. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that the applicable requirements in this part are met when the sewage sludge is applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge...

  16. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that the applicable requirements in this part are met when the sewage sludge is applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge...

  17. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that the applicable requirements in this part are met when the sewage sludge is applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge...

  18. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that the applicable requirements in this part are met when the sewage sludge is applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge...

  19. Metal partitioning and toxicity in sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson-Ekvall, C.E.A.; Morrison, G.M.

    1995-12-31

    Over 20 years of research has failed to provide an unequivocal correlation between chemically extracted metals in sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil and either metal toxicity to soil organisms or crop uptake. Partitioning of metals between phases and species can provide a better estimation of mobility and potential bioavailability. Partition coefficients, K{sub D} for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sludge/water solution were determined considering the sludge/water solution as a three-phase system (particulate, colloidal and electrochemically available) over a range of pH values, ionic strengths, contact times and sludge/water ratios and compared with the KD values for sludge/water solution as a two-phase system (aqueous phase and particulate phase). Partitioning results were interpreted in terms of metal mobility from sludge to colloids and in terms of potential bioavailability from colloids to electrochemically available. The results show that both mobility and potential bioavailability are high for Zn, while Cu partitions into the mobile colloidal phase which is relatively non-bioavailable. Lead is almost completely bound to the solid phase, and is neither mobile nor bioavailable. A comparison between K, values and toxicity shows that Zn in sludge is more toxic than can be accounted for in the aqueous phase, which can be due to synergistic effects between sludge organics and Zn. Copper demonstrates clear synergism which can be attributed to the formation of lipid-soluble Cu complexes with known sludge components such as LAS, caffeine, myristic acid and nonylphenol.

  20. Mechanical disintegration of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lehne, G; Müller, A; Schwedes, J

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical disintegration can be used for an accelerated and improved anaerobic digestion of excess sludge. The hydrolysis is the limiting step of this process. Mechanical disintegration can be used to disrupt the cell walls and to cause the release of the organic material from the cells. Particle size analysis describes the size reduction but is not suitable for characterising the release of the organic material and the cell disruption. Two biochemical methods were developed for these phenomena. One of the parameters provides information about the disruption of micro-organisms, the other one gives information about the release of organic material. Different ultrasonic homogenizers, a high pressure homogenizer and stirred ball mills were used for disintegration experiments using various parameters. The influences of a mechanical disintegration on the particle size and of the energy intensity on the disintegration were investigated. Further investigations had to detect the influence of the solid content on the disintegration results. For sludge with a higher solid content better results in terms of energy consumption could be achieved. An optimum of the bead diameter and the stress intensity in stirred ball mills could be detected. A comparison of the results of different methods of sludge disintegration shows that the investigated ultrasonic homogenizers are inferior to a high pressure homogenizer and a stirred ball mill in terms of energy consumption. PMID:11379090

  1. POTENTIAL EMISSIONS OF HAZARDOUS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory thermal decomposition studies were undertaken to evaluate potential organic emissions from sewage sludge incinerators. Precisely controlled thermal decomposition experiments were conducted on sludge spiked with mixtures of hazardous organic compounds, on the mixtures o...

  2. IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

    2004-10-05

    The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

  3. Fractal analysis of soil water hysteresis as influenced by sewage sludge application

    E-print Network

    Kah, Linda

    Fractal analysis of soil water hysteresis as influenced by sewage sludge application G. Ojeda a,, E was not influenced by any of the sludge treatments. These analyses indicate that the effects of sewage sludge produces a great variety of organic wastes, one of which is sewage sludge. Application of sewage sludge

  4. Occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    De Luca, G; Zanetti, F; Fateh-Moghadm, P; Stampi, S

    1998-09-01

    The search for salmonella is the only bacteriological index included in Italian guidelines (in accordance with EU regulations) for the use of sewage sludge in agriculture. As a result, information regarding the presence of Listeria monocytogenes is rather limited. We therefore decided to carry out an investigation of Listeria in the sludge produced by the Bologna (Italy) treatment plant during the various phases of treatment. Five different types of sludge were analysed (primary raw, activated, thickened, digested and dewatered) in a total of 66 samples. The highest frequency and concentrations of Listeria species (100% and 2,743 MPN/g dry matter) and the lowest (63% and 6 MPN/g dry matter) were found in the activated and digested sludge respectively. These bacteria were mostly present in spring and autumn and positively correlated only with fecal streptococci. Four species were isolated: Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Listeria welshimeri and Listeria grayi. Listeria monocytogenes (prevalent serotype 4b) was seen to be resistent to the biological oxidation but sensitive to anaerobic conditions during thickening and digestion. The dewatering process led to an increase in contamination. Since the sludge is used to fertilize land destined for vegetable farming our results show that it may represent a potential health risk. PMID:9789361

  5. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix A to Part 503—Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix A to Part 503—Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate...

  7. The occurrence and significance to animal health of salmonellas in sewage and sewage sludges.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, P. W.; Rennison, L. M.; Lewin, V. H.; Redhead, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 882 samples of settled sewage, sewage sludges and final effluents from eight sewage treatment plants were examined for the presence of salmonellas. Of these samples 68% were positive, isolations being made most frequently from settled sewage (85%), raw sludge (87%) and anaerobically digested sludge (96%). Fewer isolations were made from final effluent (24%) and processed sludges (58%). Samples usually contained less than 200 salmonellas/100 ml and arguments are presented that such concentrations should not lead to disease in animals if suitable grazing restrictions are followed. PMID:6985928

  8. Microwave oxidation treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kwang V; Srinivasan, Asha; Liao, Ping H; Bailey, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Microwave-oxidation treatment of sewage sludge using various oxidants was studied. Two treatment schemes with a combination of hydrogen peroxide and ozone were examined: hydrogen peroxide and ozone were introduced into the sludge simultaneously, followed by microwave heating. The other involved the ozonation first, and then the resulting solution was subjected to microwave and hydrogen peroxide treatment. The set with ozonation followed by hydrogen peroxide plus microwave heating yielded higher soluble materials than those of the set with hydrogen peroxide plus ozone first and then microwave treatment. No settling was observed for all treatments in the batch operation, except ozone/microwave plus hydrogen peroxide set at 120°C. The pilot-scale continuous-flow 915 MHz microwave study has demonstrated that microwave-oxidation process is feasible for real-time industrial application. It would help in providing key data for the design of a full-scale system for treating sewage sludge and the formulation of operational protocols. PMID:26030695

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE...

  14. Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

  15. Radiofrequency-oxidation treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Asha; Young, Chris; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2015-12-01

    A novel thermal-chemical treatment technology using radiofrequency heating and oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, ozone and a combination of both) was used for the treatment of sewage sludge. This was to evaluate the process effectiveness on cell disintegration and nutrient release of sludge, physical property changes such as particle size distribution, dewaterability and settleability, and their inter-relationships. The effectiveness of treatment processes was in the following order, from the most to least: thermal-oxidation process, oxidation process and thermal process. The thermal-oxidation process greatly increased cell disintegration and nutrient release, improved settleability, and decreased particle sizes. The treatment scheme involving ozone addition followed by hydrogen peroxide and radiofrequency heating yielded the highest soluble chemical oxygen demand, volatile fatty acids, ammonia and metals, while proffering the shortest capillary suction time and excellent settling properties. PMID:26233925

  16. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szo?tysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to increased hardness of the vitrificates and reduced leaching of some heavy metals. PMID:25242604

  17. Usage of pumice as bulking agent in sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuandong; Li, Weiguang; Wang, Ke; Li, Yunbei

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the impacts of reused and sucrose-decorated pumice as bulking agents on the composting of sewage sludge were evaluated in the lab-scale reactor. The variations of temperature, pH, NH3 and CO2 emission rate, moisture content (MC), volatile solid, dissolved organic carbon, C/N and the water absorption characteristics of pumice were detected during the 25days composting. The MC of pumice achieved 65.23% of the 24h water absorptivity within the first 2h at the mass ratio of 0.6:1 (pumice:sewage sludge). Reused pumice increased 23.68% of CO2 production and reduced 21.25% of NH3 emission. The sucrose-decorated pumice reduced 43.37% of nitrogen loss. These results suggested that adding pumice and sucrose-decorated pumice in sludge composting matrix could not only adjust the MC of materials, but also improve the degradation of organic matters and reduce nitrogen loss. PMID:25913030

  18. SURFACE DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE (EPA/625/R-95/002)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage sludge and domestic septage may be applied to the land as a soil conditioner and partial fertilizer, incinerated, or placed on land (surface disposal). Placement refers to the act of putting sewage sludge on an active sewage sludge unit (land on which only sewage sludge is...

  19. Effects of chemically contaminated sewage sludge on an aphid population

    SciTech Connect

    Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

    1986-12-01

    Survival and fecundity of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, were markedly reduced when they were fed on collard plants grown in pots of soil treated with chemically contaminated sewage sludge, as compared to populations on potted plants grown in uncontaminated sludge or on fertilized soil (control). Calculated demographic parameters differed significantly between the contaminated sludge and uncontaminated sludge populations and between the contaminated sludge and control populations. No significant differences were detected between the uncontaminated sludge and control populations. The ecological effects on the aphids suggest that plant uptake and translocation of chemicals from the contaminated sludge affected aphid fitness through direct toxicity and/or reduced nutritional value of the plant. These results indicate that phytophagous insects may be affected by chemical contaminants in sewage sludge used in agriculture.

  20. PBDEs in Italian sewage sludge and environmental risk of using sewage sludge for land application.

    PubMed

    Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Misuri, Lorenza; Lanciotti, Eudes; Sweetman, Andy; Laschi, Serena; Palchetti, Ilaria

    2012-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in sewage sludge samples collected from eight Italian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) between June 2009 and March 2010. Total PBDE concentrations ranged from 158.3 to 9427 ng g(-1) dw, while deca-BDE (BDE-209) (concentrations ranging from 130.6 to 9411 ng g(-1) dw) dominated the congener profile in all the samples, contributing between 77% and 99.8% of total PBDE. The suitability of using a magnetic particle enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) to analyse PBDEs in sewage sludge was also tested. The ELISA results, expressed as BDE-47 equivalents, were well correlated with those obtained by GC-NCI-MS, with correlation coefficients (r(2)) of 0.899 and 0.959, depending on the extraction procedure adopted. The risk assessment of PBDEs in sewage sludge addressed to land application was calculated. PEC(soil) values compared to the relative PNEC(soil) for penta and deca-BDE suggests that there is a low risk to the soil environment. PMID:22230090

  1. WINDROW AND STATIC PILE COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted on composting anaerobically digested and centrifuge dewatered sewage sludge from 1975 through 1980. Windrow and static pile composting processes were evaluated; new methods were employed using deeper windrows and aerated static piles were constructed withou...

  2. SPREADING LAGOONED SEWAGE SLUDGE ON FARMLAND: A CASE HISTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project demonstrated that land application is feasible and practical for a metropolitan treatment plant for disposal of a large volume (265,000 cu m) of stabilized, liquid sewage sludge stored in lagoons. The project involved transportation of sludge by semi-trailer tankers ...

  3. EVALUATION OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested using the Salmonella/microsomal activation assay, t...

  4. DIRECT THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE TO FUEL OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A disposal method for primary sewage sludge and industrial sludges which generates boiler fuel as a product and is energy self sufficient or energy-generating is described. The method involves direct liquefaction in a mild aqueous alkali above 250 degs. C and was demonstrated for...

  5. Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes the development of a project involving the application of approximately 265,000 cubic meters of lagooned sewage sludge from a metropolitan area on privately-owned farm land in an adjacent, rural county. The sludge application project was initiated to enable use of the land occupied by the lagoons for expansion of the sewage treatment plant. The procedures developed will be valuable to those proposing to practice land disposal of stabilized sludge as part of the Nation`s resource conservation program.

  6. Behavior of fluoroquinolones and trimethoprim during mechanical, chemical, and active sludge treatment of sewage water and digestion of sludge.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Richard H; Olofsson, Ulrika; Rendahl, Per; Johansson, Magnus I; Tysklind, Mats; Andersson, Barbro A V

    2006-02-01

    The behavior and fate of three fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin), one sulfonamide (sulfamethoxazole), and trimethoprim were investigated at a sewage treatment plant in Umeå, Sweden, in 2004. This plant uses conventional mechanical, chemical, and activated sludge methods to treat the sewage water and digest the sludge; the dewatered digested sludge is pelleted (dry weight > 90% of total weight). Raw sewage water and particles as well as effluents and sludge from specific treatment areas within the plant were sampled. In addition to quantifying the antibiotics within the plant, we characterized the sample matrixes to facilitate evaluation of the results. Of the five substances examined, only norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim were present in concentrations higher than their limits of quantification. Norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin sorbed to sludge in a manner that was independent of changes in pH during sewage treatment, and more than 70% of the total amount of these compounds passing through the plant was ultimately found in the digested sludge. The results suggest that fluoroquinolones undergo thermal degradation during pelleting, but more studies are needed to confirm this. Trimethoprim was found in the final effluent at approximately the same concentration and mass flow as in the raw sewage, and could not be quantified in any solid sample. Predicted environmental concentrations, based on consumption data for Umeå municipality, correlated well with the results obtained, especially when the predicted concentrations were corrected to account for the amount of each active substance excreted in urine. The results obtained were compared to those of previous studies of these three substances' behavior and fate and were found to be similar, although some of the other plants studied employed the various treatment steps in different orders. PMID:16509355

  7. Activated carbon and biochar amendments decrease pore-water concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    primary and secondary treatment processes. In Europe, dry weight per capita production of sewage sludge it is frequently necessary to landfill sewage sludge in the area of a sewage treatment plant. Such sewage sludge organic pollutants (POPs). After sewage sludge deposition or application into the soil, organic

  8. Enumeration of potentially pathogenic bacteria from sewage sludges.

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, D J; Guentzel, M N; Ibarra, M J; Moore, B E; Sagik, B P

    1980-01-01

    To ascertain the health risks that may be posed by the land application of sewage sludges, a scheme was devised to determine the types and numbers of pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria present in sludges. A processing treatment was adapted to sludge to give a homogenate which yielded the greatest numbers of viable bacteria. Conventional methods were successful in enumerating Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, gram-negative enteric bacteria, and commonly used indicator organisms. Modifications of conventional methods improved the enumeration of Salmonella, Mycobacterium sp., fluorescent Pseudomonas sp., and Clostridium perfringens. However, Shigella methodology yielded only one isolate. Utilizing the proposed scheme, the population densities of these organisms were estimated in three domestic wastewater sludges. In light of these results, the potential impact of land application of sewage sludges is discussed. PMID:6243900

  9. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate. PMID:23777667

  10. Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 247 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 230 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 226 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. 40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combustion units that incinerate sewage sludge and are not located at a wastewater treatment facility... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What sewage sludge incineration units... Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of...

  14. 40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... combustion units that incinerate sewage sludge and are not located at a wastewater treatment facility... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What sewage sludge incineration units... Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of...

  15. 40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... combustion units that incinerate sewage sludge and are not located at a wastewater treatment facility... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What sewage sludge incineration units... Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of...

  16. 40 CFR 60.4775 - What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is a new sewage sludge... for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of Authority § 60.4775 What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit? (a) A new SSI unit is a SSI unit that meets either of the...

  17. Bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ye-Ming; Lin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Qing-Ping; Chen, Zu-Liang

    2010-11-01

    Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was isolated from sewage sludge using the incubation in the Waksman liquor medium and the inoculation in Waksman solid plate. It was found that the optimum conditions of the bioleaching included solid concentration 2%, sulfur concentration 5 g?L-1 and cell concentration 10%. The removal efficiency of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zh in sewage sludge, which was obtained from waste treatment plant, Jinshan, Fuzhou, was 43.65%, 96.24%, 41.61% and 96.50% in the period of 4˜10 days under the optimum conditions, respectively. After processing using the proposed techniques, the heavy metals in sewage sludge did meet the requirement the standards of nation.

  18. Impacts on groundwater due to land application of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, A.J.

    1984-06-01

    The project was designed to demonstrate the potential benefits of utilizing sewage sludge as a soil conditioner and fertilizer on Sassafras sandy loam soil. Aerobically digested, liquid sewage sludge was applied to the soil at rates of 0, 22.4, and 44.8 Mg of dry solids/ha for three consecutive years between 1978 and 1981. Groundwater, soil, and crop contamination levels were monitored to establish the maximum sewage solids loading rate that could be applied without causing environmental deterioration. The results indicate that application of 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha of sludge is the upper limit to ensure protection of the groundwater quality on the site studied. Application rates at or slightly below 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha are sufficient for providing plant nutrients for the dent corn and rye cropping system utilized in the study.

  19. Lightweight aggregate made from sewage sludge and incinerated ash.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Ing-Jia; Wang, Kuen-Sheng; Chen, Ching-Ho; Lin, Ya-Ting

    2006-01-01

    In this study, sewage sludge ash (SSA), with similar characteristics to expansive clay, was used as the principal material and sewage sludge (SS) as the admixture to sinter lightweight aggregate and to study the influences of raw material composition on pelletising, sintering effect and aggregate properties. Results showed that both SS and SSA could be sintered to produce synthetic aggregates individually or mixed. Increasing the amount of SS would decrease the pelletising ratio. Under the consideration of energy saving, the mixture of SSA was better for sintering normal weight aggregate. On the contrary, the mixture that added 20-30% of SS was more adequate to make lightweight aggregates. Adding SS would enhance the oxidation-reduction reaction and lower the bulk density and sintering temperature of aggregates to save energy. Sintering temperature affected the properties of sewage sludge ash lightweight aggregate (SSALA) more than retention period did. Prolonging the retention period could improve bloating effect. PMID:16431096

  20. Evaluation of sludge characteristics and metals emissions from municipal sewage sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, R.S.; Conklin, J.A.; Munn, B.G.

    1996-12-31

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has promulgated regulations affecting the disposal of municipal sewage sludge under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) Part 503. The paper addresses emissions requirements for sewage sludge incineration under 40 CFR Part 503, Subpart E. The paper focuses on factors that may influence sewage sludge characteristics, sewage sludge metals feed rates, and the corresponding metals emission rates. Emissions test programs were conducted at three municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), City of Auburn WWTP. City of Glens Falls WWTP, and Saratoga County Sewer District No. 1 WWTP, to determine mass emissions of multiple metals (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Hg, Se, and Zn). The influent incinerator sludge was sampled in conjunction with each test program to determine the sludge metals content. The sewage sludge was analyzed in accordance with USEPA Method SW846. Multiple metals emissions were determined in accordance with USEPA 40 CFR 60, Appendix A, Method 29 sampling and analytical procedures. The results from these test programs were analyzed to identify the factors that influence the metals emission rates. The resulting metals removal efficiencies from each of the three pollution control systems are quantified. Unique analytical issues encountered during these test programs are also addressed. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, Milivoj

    1954-01-01

    The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary. Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds. More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation. PMID:13160760

  2. MUTAGENIC POTENTIAL OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE AND SLUDGE AMENDED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twelve municipal wastewater treatment plant sludges were collected and extracted by sequential extraction with methylene chloride and methanol on a Soxhlet apparatus. Each of three sludge fractions, i.e., methylene chloride, methanol, and a combined fraction (36 fractions total) ...

  3. Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Houot, S.; Imhoff, M.; Valentin, N.; Gómez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.

    2009-04-01

    The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related to their high water content. One way to overcome these problems, in a cheap and clean way, is the drying of sludges using the energy of the sun under greenhouse conditions. This drying may affect sludge chemical characteristics including organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, parameters which have to be controlled for the proper management of dry sludge application onto soils. For this reason, the main aim of this work was to study the impact of greenhouse drying of different sewage sludges on their organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, assessed by biochemical fractionation and mineralization assays. Three sewage sludges were sampled before (dehydrated sludges) and after greenhouse drying (dried sludges). The analyses consisted of: humidity, organic matter, mineral and organic N contents, N and C mineralization during 91-day laboratory incubations in controlled conditions, and biochemical fractionation using the Van Soest procedure. Greenhouse drying decreased the water content from 70-80% to 10% and also the odours, both of which will improve the management of the final product from the perspective of application and transport. We also found that drying reduced the organic matter content of the sludges but not the biodegradability of the remaining carbon. Organic N mineralization occurred during greenhouse drying, explaining why mineral N content tended to increase and the potential mineralization of organic nitrogen decreased after greenhouse drying. The biochemical stability did not change so much except for the one of the sludges, which experienced an important reduction. According to the results, and from a point of view of future soil applications, the balance of the drying process could be considered as positive. It is using a free, renewable and clean energy, which reduces the water content and odours of sludge, thereby improving their management. Except for the water content, there was little modification of the behaviour in soil of greenhouse dried sludges compared to the dehydrated sludges, maintaining its large amount of available nitrogen after drying. Acknowledgements: Jose. M. Soriano-Disla gratefully acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Culture for a research fellowship (AP2005-0320).

  4. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in selected sewage sludge in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sindiku, Omotayo; Orata, Francis; Weber, Roland; Osibanjo, Oladele

    2013-07-01

    Levels of seven major perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and three perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) were analyzed for the first time in sludge from wastewater treatment plants from Nigeria. Measurements were performed using an analytical methodology using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS). The method detection limit and method quantification limit was 3pg/g and 9.5pg/g for both analytes (PFCAs and PFSAs) respectively. Typical recoveries ranged from 50% to 104% for spiked mass labeled internal standards of 1ng (absolute value) to 1g of sample. All sludge samples taken from industrial, domestic and hospital wastewater treatment plants contained measurable levels of PFASs. Levels of the quantified perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates concentrations ranged from 10 to 597 and 14 to 540pg/g, respectively. The concentrations were therefore lower compared to sewage sludge samples reported in other regions in the world. Perfluoroalkyl carboxylates with carbon chain having ?8 fluorinated carbons were detected in the analyzed sewage sludge samples at higher levels compared to carboxylates with <8 fluorinated carbon chain. The measured concentrations indicate that no PFAS point source for the 10 investigated sewage treatment plants existed. Furthermore the low levels in the four municipal sewage treatment plants in Lagos is a first indication that even in an African megacity like Lagos the PFASs release from households are low until now. The highest PFOS level was found in a hospital sewage sludge (539.6pg/g) possibly indicating (minor) release from medical equipment where some are known to contain PFOS. The PFASs in waste water sludge from a brewery warrant further investigations. PMID:23648329

  5. Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1977-01-01

    The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. BAGHOUSE EFFICIENCY ON A MULTIPLE HEARTH INCINERATOR BURNING SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale fabric filter (baghouse) was evaluated for its removal performance for 23 metals and for sulfur as well as for total particles when fitted to a multiple hearth incinerator burning sewage sludge. The small scale baghouse was installed to take a slipstream of about th...

  7. PATHOGEN RISKS FROM APPLYING SEWAGE SLUDGE TO LAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Congress banned ocean dumping of municipal wastes in the late 1980s. In its place, EPA developed guidance (40 CFR Part 503) for land application of processed sewage sludge (biosolids), mainly for agricultural purposes (1). Public health and environmental concerns with processed...

  8. FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION AND STABILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...

  9. PRODUCTION OF NON-FOOD-CHAIN CROPS WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Feasibility and market potential were determined for non-food-chain crops cultivated using sewage sludge. Non-food-chain crops that are currently being sold on the open market or that have a good potential for marketability were selected. From a list of 20 crops, 3 were selected ...

  10. Parasitic hazard with sewage sludge applied to land.

    PubMed Central

    Barbier, D; Perrine, D; Duhamel, C; Doublet, R; Georges, P

    1990-01-01

    A modification of the FAUST technique allowed a highly regular recovery of Taenia saginata eggs from sewage sludge, as well as their quantification. Despite the low viability (8%) noted, the viable T. saginata egg level remains high (20.10(6)/ha) and offers a serious risk for cattle even after a 3-week "no-grazing" period. PMID:2339893

  11. HELMINTH AND HEAVY METALS TRANSMISSION FROM ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses a study designed to determine the practical survival and transmission of the ova of the nematode worm Ascaris sp. through a modern sewage and sludge treatment process. Four large experiments and three smaller ones involving 178 specific pathogen free (SPF) p...

  12. Land Application of Sewage Effluents and Sludges: Selected Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    This report contains 568 selected abstracts concerned with the land application of sewage effluents and sludges. The abstracts are arranged in chronological groupings of ten-year periods from the l940's to the mid-l970's. The report also includes an author index and a subject matter index to facilitate reference to specific abstracts or narrower…

  13. USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON AGRICULTURAL AND DISTURBED LANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of 8 field studies of long-term use of digested sewage on agricultural and disturbed lands are presented. The studies included: (1) response of corn grown on 3 soil types previously amended with annual sludge applications; (2) response of corn grown annually on Blount sil...

  14. Evaluation of nitrogen availability in irradiated sewage sludge, sludge compost and manure compost

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Guang; Bates, T.E.; Voroney, R.P.

    1995-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted during 2 yr to determine plant availability of organic N from organic wastes, and effects of gamma irradiation on organic N availability in sewage sludge. The wastes investigated were: digested, dewatered sewage sludge (DSS), irradiated sewage sludge (DISS), irradiated, composted sewage sludge (DICSS), and composted livestock manure (CLM). The annual application rates were: 10, 20, 30, and 40 Mg solids ha{sup {minus}1}. Fertilizer N was added to the control, to which no waste was applied, as well as to the waste applications to ensure approximately equal amounts of available N (110 kg N ha{sup {minus}1}) for all treatments. Lettuce, petunias, and beans were grown in 1990 and two cuts of lettuce were harvested in 1991. Crop yields and plant N concentrations were measured. Assuming that crop N harvested/available N applied would be approximately equal for the control and the waste treatments, the N from organic fraction of the wastes, which is as available as that in fertilizer, was estimated. With petunia in 1990 and the combination of first and second cut of lettuce in 1991, the percentage ranged from 11.2 to 29.7 in nonirradiated sludge, 10.1 to 14.0 in irradiated sludge, 10.5 to 32.1 in sludge compost and 10.0 to 19.7 in manure compost. Most often, the highest values were obtained with the lowest application rates. Yields of petunia and N concentrations in second cut lettuce in 1991 were lower with irradiated sludge than with nonirradiated sludge suggest that the availability of organic N in digested sludge may have been reduced after irradiation. Irradiation of sludge appears to have released NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. The availability of organic N, however, appears to have been reduced by irradiation by greater amount than the increase in NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. 41 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polyschlorinated dibenzofurans in sewage sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Weerasinghe, N.C.A.; Gross, M.L.; Lisk, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A municipal sewage sludge from Syracuse, New York and a largely domestic sludge from Sodus, New York were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) using combined gas chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS). Concentrations in ppt of the following PCDDs were found in the Syracuse sludge: tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (TCDDs), 150, hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (HxCDDs), 2100, heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (HCDDs), 6300, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (OCDDs), greater than 60,000. The following ppt concentrations were found in the Sodus sludge: TCDDs, 7200, HxCDDs, 300 HCDDs, 900, OCDDs 7500. The TCDD was a single but not the highly toxic 2,3,7,8-isomers. PCDFs were mostly nondetectable in the sludges. The toxicology and potential for environmental contamination by these compounds are discussed.

  16. FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. The energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. These...

  17. FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. he energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. hese f...

  18. Influence of sewage sludge addition on coal ash fusion temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    M. Belen Folgueras; R. Maria Diaz; Jorge Xiberta; M. Purificacion Garcia; J. Juan Pis

    2005-12-01

    The ash fusion characteristics of three types of bituminous coal (A, B, and C), one type of sewage sludge (W), and the corresponding coal-sewage sludge blends (10 and 50 wt % of sludge) were studied. The ash fusibility temperatures of samples in oxidizing atmosphere were measured, and their chemical and mineralogical compositions were determined. The addition of sludge to coal in certain proportions produces blends whose ashes have lower fusibility temperatures than those of coal and sludge. This is related to the differences in chemical composition and modes of elemental combination in both types of materials. The main differences are associated to the elements P, Fe, and Ca. As the sludge is much richer in Ca than the coals, the compositions of the blend ashes pass through low-temperature eutectic regions of the ternary phase diagrams SiO{sub 2}-CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}-CaO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. As a result, for the sludge-coal blend ashes series (one for each coal), the relationships between ash fusibility temperatures and the percentage of sludge ash in blend ashes fit to second-order polynomial functions. The minima of these functions, as well as some sludge-coal blend ashes, are located in the above-mentioned low fusion regions. Differing from coal ashes, in the sludge and 50 wt % blend ashes, the minerals calcium ferrite, larnite, and chloroapatite were found. 17 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Phosphine production potential of various wastewater and sewage sludge sources

    SciTech Connect

    Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.; Devai, G.; Czegeny, I.

    1999-05-01

    A laboratory incubation procedure followed by gas chromatographic detection was used to measure phosphine production potential in representative wastewater and sewage sludge sources. Phosphine production potential was determined by measuring the rate of phosphine formation in samples incubated under laboratory conditions over a seven day period when both electron donors and the targeted electron acceptor were not limiting factors. Results of their experiments showed that except the primary effluent and secondary effluent wastewater samples all other samples studied (influent wastewater, various type of sludge and sediment sources) produced phosphine. The minimum phosphine production potential value (0.39 pg/ml wastewater/day) was measured in composite influent wastewater samples while the maximum (268 pg/g wet sludge/day) was measured in sediment samples collected from an open-air sewage treatment plant.

  20. Growth, yield, and fruit quality of pepper plants amended with two sanitized sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Immaculada; Azcona, Iñaki; Aguirreolea, Jone; Morales, Fermín; Corpas, Francisco Javier; Palma, José Manuel; Rellán-Alvarez, Rubén; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel

    2010-06-01

    Organic wastes such as sewage sludge have been successfully used to increase crop productivity of horticultural soils. Nevertheless, considerations of the impact of sludges on vegetable and fruit quality have received little attention. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to investigate the impact of two sanitized sewage sludges, autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) and compost sludge, on the growth, yield, and fruit quality of pepper plants ( Capsicum annuum L. cv. Piquillo) grown in the greenhouse. Two doses of ATAD (15 and 30% v/v) and three of composted sludge (15, 30, and 45%) were applied to a peat-based potting mix. Unamended substrate was included as control. ATAD and composted sludge increased leaf, shoot, and root dry matter, as well as fruit yield, mainly due to a higher number of fruits per plant. There was no effect of sludge on fruit size (dry matter per fruit and diameter). The concentrations of Zn and Cu in fruit increased with the addition of sewage sludges. Nevertheless, the levels of these elements remained below toxic thresholds. Pepper fruits from sludge-amended plants maintained low concentrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, thus indicating low pungency level, in accordance with the regulations prescribed by the Control Board of "Lodosa Piquillo peppers" Origin Denomination. The application of sludges did not modify the concentration of vitamin C (ASC) in fruit, whereas the highest doses of composted sludge tended to increase the content of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, without change in the GSH/GSSG ratio. There were no effects of sludge on the transcript levels of enzymes involved in the synthesis of vitamin C, l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH) or in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR), and glutathione reductase (GR). Results suggest that the synthesis and degradation of ASC and GSH were compensated for in most of the treatments assayed. The application of sanitized sludges to pepper plants can improve pepper yield without loss of food nutritional quality, in terms of fruit size and vitamin C, glutathione, and capsaicinoid contents. PMID:20450196

  1. Evaluation of sewage sludge and slow pyrolyzed sewage sludge-derived biochar for adsorption of phenanthrene and pyrene.

    PubMed

    Zieli?ska, Anna; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated the sorption of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) by sewage sludges and sewage sludge-derived biochars. The organic carbon normalized distribution coefficient (log K(OC) for C(w) = 0.01 S(w)) for the sewage sludges ranged from 5.62 L kg(-1) to 5.64 L kg(-1) for PHE and from 5.72 L kg(-1) to 5.75 L kg(-1) for PYR. The conversion of sewage sludges into biochar significantly increased their sorption capacity. The value of log K(OC) for the biochars ranged from 5.54 L kg(-1) to 6.23 L kg(-1) for PHE and from 5.95 L kg(-1) to 6.52 L kg(-1) for PYR depending on temperature of pyrolysis. The dominant process was monolayer adsorption in the micropores and/or multilayer surface adsorption (in the mesopores), which was indicated by the significant correlations between log K(OC) and surface properties of biochars. PYR was sorbed better on the tested materials than PHE. PMID:26093256

  2. Dynamics of brominated flame retardants removal in contaminated wastewater sewage sludge under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Stiborova, Hana; Vrkoslavova, Jana; Pulkrabova, Jana; Poustka, Jan; Hajslova, Jana; Demnerova, Katerina

    2015-11-15

    Disposal of solid waste to landfills from waste water sewage treatment plants (WWTPs) serves as a potential source of contamination by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Native microbial communities have been found to degrade a variety of xenobiotics, such as PBDEs and HBCDs. This study investigates the potential of autochthonous microflora to remove 11 PBDE congeners and HBCDs in waste water sludge under anaerobic conditions. Laboratory microcosms were constructed with sewage sludge from the WWTPs of Hradec Kralove and Brno. BDE 209 was detected as the prevailing congener in concentrations 685 and 1403 ng/g dw and the total amounts of 10 lower PBDEs (BDE 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183) were 605 and 205 ng/g dw in sludge from Hradec Kralove and Brno, respectively. The levels of HBCD were detected in both sludge lower than 24 ng/g dw. The experiment was carried out for 15 months. After three months of incubation, HBCD was completely degraded to below detection limits. In sewage from both WWTPs, the higher brominated DEs were removed faster than the lower brominated congeners. One exception was tri-BDE, which was degraded completely within 15 months of cultivation. A significant increase in congener tetra-BDE 49 concentrations was observed over the course of the experiment in all tested sewage. The relative distribution of individual congeners among all PBDEs changed after 15 months of the incubation in favour of lower brominated congeners. This indicates that debromination is the major mechanism of anaerobic biodegradation. Despite of the increase of BDE 49, the overall removal of all 11 PBDEs achieved the levels of 47.4 and 68.7% in samples from WWTPs Hradec Kralove and Brno, respectively. PMID:26179781

  3. Sewage sludge composting: quality assessment for agricultural application.

    PubMed

    Nafez, Amir Hossein; Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Kadkhodaie, Safora; Hatamzadeh, Maryam; Moghim, Sharareh

    2015-11-01

    In order to use sewage sludge (SS) composts in agriculture, it is extremely important to estimate the quality of compost products. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of composted SS as a fertilizer and soil amendment especially in semi-arid areas. To determine the quality and agronomic value of the SS compost products, analyses on pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter content, C/N ratio, phytotoxicity, microbial load, and heavy metal content of composted anaerobically digested SS, with different proportions (1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 v/v) of green and dry plant waste, as bulking agents, were performed. The 1:2 and 1:3 mixtures of SS and green/dry plant waste were the most beneficial for composting, with final composts attaining high organic matter degradation and exhibiting low amounts of heavy metals, a relatively high germination index, and significant reduction of pathogens, suggesting the agricultural relevance of composted SS and green/dry plant waste at 1:2 and 1:3 (v/v) proportions. pH and electrical conductivity were also within the permissible limits. With respect to international standards, it appears that composted SS and green/dry plant waste at 1:2 and 1:3 proportions pose no threat to soil or plant quality if used in agriculture or land restoration. PMID:26508019

  4. MICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN COMPOSTING MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to identify the most important operational parameters which limit the growth and decomposition activity of composting sludge microbiota. Sensitive and nonselective biochemical methods of monitoring microbial biomass and activity were tested and used to stud...

  5. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage treatment is performed in an environmentally safe and cost–effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by sp...

  6. [Distribution character of synthetic musks in urban sewage sludges].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ya-Wen; Zhang, Xiao-Lan; Qian, Guang-Ren; Wang, Jun; Liu, Zhong-Zhe; Liang, Gao-Feng; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2009-05-15

    The characteristics of occurrence and distribution of 8 synthetic musks in 15 sewage sludges in Shanghai were studied. The results indicated that HHCB and AHTN were the two main components in all sludges, with the mean concentration of 2.92 mg x kg(-1) (0.81-6.39 mg x kg(-1)) and 1.96 mg x kg(-1) (0.35-3.11 mg x kg(-1)), respectively; and the concentrations of ADBI, AHMI, MK were less. The distributions detected in sludges are in accordance with the usage patterns in China. Total concentrations of 8 synthetic musks were ranged from 1.16-9.57 mg x kg(-1), which were lower than the results in previous studies. Concentrations in sludges are influenced by ratio of domestic wastewater in influent, sewage load and sewage treatment methods. The good linear relationships among HHCB, AHTN and ADBI indicate that these components have the same source: domestic wastewater. The consumption rates of HHCB and AHTN connected to per inhabitant in Shanghai region were estimated, which are low compared with those found in European. The potential impacts on agricultural soil were also assessed. PMID:19558124

  7. Mechanisms and kinetics of granulated sewage sludge combustion.

    PubMed

    Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka; ?roda, Katarzyna; Kosowska-Golachowska, Monika; Musia?, Tomasz; Wolski, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates sewage sludge disposal methods with particular emphasis on combustion as the priority disposal method. Sewage sludge incineration is an attractive option because it minimizes odour, significantly reduces the volume of the starting material and thermally destroys organic and toxic components of the off pads. Additionally, it is possible that ashes could be used. Currently, as many as 11 plants use sewage sludge as fuel in Poland; thus, this technology must be further developed in Poland while considering the benefits of co-combustion with other fuels. This paper presents the results of experimental studies aimed at determining the mechanisms (defining the fuel combustion region by studying the effects of process parameters, including the size of the fuel sample, temperature in the combustion chamber and air velocity, on combustion) and kinetics (measurement of fuel temperature and mass changes) of fuel combustion in an air stream under different thermal conditions and flow rates. The combustion of the sludge samples during air flow between temperatures of 800 and 900°C is a kinetic-diffusion process. This process determines the sample size, temperature of its environment, and air velocity. The adopted process parameters, the time and ignition temperature of the fuel by volatiles, combustion time of the volatiles, time to reach the maximum temperature of the fuel surface, maximum temperature of the fuel surface, char combustion time, and the total process time, had significant impacts. PMID:26306758

  8. 40 CFR 60.4770 - Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sludge incineration unit? 60.4770 Section 60.4770 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of Authority § 60.4770 Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit? Yes, your SSI unit is...

  9. Monometal and competitive adsorption of heavy metals by sewage sludge-amended soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sewage sludge-amended soils may alter their ability to adsorb heavy metals over time, due to the decomposition of sludge-borne organic matter. Thus, we studied Cd, Ni, and Zn adsorption by a sewage sludge-amended soil (Typic Xerofluvent) before and after one-year incubation in both monometal and com...

  10. Landfarming of municipal sewage sludge at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Tischler, M.L.; Pergler, C.; Wilson, M.; Mabry, D.; Stephenson, M.

    1995-12-01

    The City of Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been applying municipal sanitary sludge to 9 sites comprising 90 ha on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) since 1983. Approximately 13,000,000 L are applied annually by spraying sludge (2 to 3% solids) under pressure from a tanker. Under an ongoing monitoring program, both the sludge and the soil in the application areas are analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radioactive parameters on a regular basis. Organic pollutants are analyzed in sludge on a semiannual basis and in the soil application areas on an annual basis. Inorganic parameters are analyzed daily (e.g., pH, total solids) or monthly (e.g., nitrogen, manganese) in sludge and annually in soil in application areas. Radionuclides (Co-60, Cs-137, I-131, Be-7, K-40, Ra-228, U-235, U-238) are scanned daily during application by the sewage treatment plant and analyzed weekly in composite sludge samples and annually in soil. Additionally, data on radioactive body burden for maximally exposed workers who apply the sludge show no detectable exposures. This monitoring program is comprehensive and is one of the few in the United States that analyzes radionuclides. Results from the monitoring program show heavy metals and radionuclides are not accumulating to levels in the soil application areas.

  11. Co-digestion of cultivated microalgae and sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Jesper; Feng, Xin Mei; Ascue, Johnny; Gentili, Francesco G; Shabiimam, M A; Nehrenheim, Emma; Thorin, Eva

    2014-11-01

    In this study two wet microalgae cultures and one dried microalgae culture were co-digested in different proportions with sewage sludge in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The aim was to evaluate if the co-digestion could lead to an increased efficiency of methane production compared to digestion of sewage sludge alone. The results showed that co-digestion with both wet and dried microalgae, in certain proportions, increased the biochemical methane potential (BMP) compared with digestion of sewage sludge alone in mesophilic conditions. The BMP was significantly higher than the calculated BMP in many of the mixtures. This synergetic effect was statistically significant in a mixture containing 63% (w/w VS based) undigested sewage sludge and 37% (w/w VS based) wet algae slurry, which produced 23% more methane than observed with undigested sewage sludge alone. The trend was that thermophilic co-digestion of microalgae and undigested sewage sludge did not give the same synergy. PMID:25203227

  12. THERMAL TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The thermal conditioning research program was conducted as part of an overall long-term sludge management study for the Los Angeles and Orange County metropolitan areas. The major goal of this portion of the study was to investigate the advantages of thermal conditioning of prima...

  13. Utilization of sewage sludge in the manufacture of lightweight aggregate.

    PubMed

    Franus, Ma?gorzata; Barnat-Hunek, Danuta; Wdowin, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study on the possibility of sewage sludge management in a sintered ceramic material such as a lightweight aggregate. Made from clay and sludge lightweight aggregates were sintered at two temperatures: 1100 °C (name of sample LWA1) and 1150 °C (name of sample LWA2). Physical and mechanical properties indicate that the resulting expanded clay aggregate containing sludge meets the basic requirements for lightweight aggregates. The presence of sludge supports the swelling of the raw material, thereby causing an increase in the porosity of aggregates. The LWA2 has a lower value of bulk particle density (0.414 g/cm(3)), apparent particle density (0.87 g/cm(3)), and dry particle density (2.59 g/cm(3)) than it is in the case of LWA1 where these parameters were as follows: bulk particle density 0.685 g/cm(3), apparent particle density 1.05 g/cm(3), and dry particle density 2.69 g/cm(3). Water absorption and porosity of LWA1 (WA?=?14.4 %, P?=?60 %) are lower than the LWA2 (WA?=?16.2 % and P?=?66 %). This is due to the higher heating temperature of granules which make the waste gases, liberating them from the decomposition of organic sewage sludge. The compressive strength of LWA2 aggregate is 4.64 MPa and for LWA1 is 0.79 MPa. Results of leaching tests of heavy metals from examined aggregates have shown that insoluble metal compounds are placed in silicate and aluminosilicate structure of the starting materials (clays and sludges), whereas soluble substances formed crystalline skeleton of the aggregates. The thermal synthesis of lightweight aggregates from clay and sludge mixture is a waste-free method of their development. PMID:26635022

  14. Sewage sludge does not induce genotoxicity and carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Paula Regina Pereira; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Through a series of experiments, the genotoxic/mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of sewage sludge was assessed. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Group 1 - negative control; Group 2 - liver carcinogenesis initiated by diethylnitrosamine (DEN; 200 mg/kg i.p.); Group 3 and G4-liver carcinogenesis initiated by DEN and fed 10,000 ppm or 50,000 ppm of sewage sludge. The animals were submitted to a 70% partial hepatectomy at the 3rd week. Livers were processed for routine histological analysis and immunohistochemistry, in order to detect glutathione S-transferase positive altered hepatocyte foci (GST-P+ AHF). Peripheral blood samples for the comet assay were obtained from the periorbital plexus immediately prior to sacrificing. Polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) were analyzed in femoral bone-marrow smears, and the frequencies of those micronucleated (MNPCEs) registered. There was no sewage-sludge-induced increase in frequency of either DNA damage in peripheral blood leucocytes, or MNPCEs in the femoral bone marrow. Also, there was no increase in the levels of DNA damage, in the frequency of MNPCEs, and in the development of GST-P AHF when compared with the respective control group. PMID:23055806

  15. Utilization and Conversion of Sewage Sludge as Metal Sorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xu Dong; Li, Loretta Y.

    2013-04-01

    Most biosolids are disposed on land. With improvements in wastewater treatment processes and upgrading of treatment plants across Canada, biosolids generation will increase dramatically. These biosolids will need to be dealt with because they contain various contaminants, including heavy metals and several classes of emerging contaminants. A number of researchers have recently focused on preparation of sewage sludge-based adsorbents by carbonation, physical activation and chemical activation for decontamination of air and wastewater. These previous studies have indicated that sludge-based activated carbon can have good adsorption performance for organic substances in dye wastewater. The overall results suggest that activated carbon from sewage sludge can produce a useful adsorbent, while also reducing the amount of sewage sludge to be disposed. However, sludge-derived activated carbon has not been extensively studied, especially for adsorption of heavy metal ions in wastewater and for its capacity to remove emerging contaminants, such as poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs). Previous research has indicated that commercial activated carbons adsorb organic compounds more efficiently than heavy metal ions. 45 Activated carbon can be modified to enhance its adsorption capacity for special heavy metal ions,46 e.g. by addition of inorganic and organic reagents. The modifications which are successful for commercial activated carbon should also be effective for sludge-derived activated carbon, but this needs to be confirmed. Our research focuses on (a) investigation of techniques for converting sewage sludge (SS) to activated carbon (AC) as sorbents; (b) exploration of possible modification of the activated carbon (MAC) to improve its sorption capacity; (c) examination of the chemical stability of the activated carbon and the leachability of contaminants from activated carbon,; (d) comparison of adsorptivity with that of other sorbents. Based on XRD and FT-IR, we successfully converted SS to AC and further modified it to improve absorption. SSMAC has large specific surface areas based on the BET technique. Batch adsorption results indicate that metal adsorption for SSMAC > SSAC, with adsorption occurring within the first 5 minutes of contact. Comparison of the adsorptivity of various sorbents such as commercial activated carbon (CAC), mineral sorbents such as perlite, clinoptilolite and illite indicates that SSMAC × CAC × clinoptilolite > kaolite.

  16. Aerobic biodegradation of selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in wastewater sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Stiborova, Hana; Vrkoslavova, Jana; Lovecka, Petra; Pulkrabova, Jana; Hradkova, Petra; Hajslova, Jana; Demnerova, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    Due to widespread accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in our surroundings, it is important to clarify their fate in the environment and the options of their elimination. The aim of this study was to monitor the biodegradation of the most frequent congeners (BDE 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209) under aerobic condition by indigenous microflora in 2 industrially contaminated sewage sludge samples. BDE 209 was detected as the predominating congener in concentrations 685 ng/g and 1403 ng/g dry weight in sewage sludge from WWTPs (waste water treatment plants) Hradec Kralove and Brno, respectively. The total amount of 10 lower PBDEs was 605 and 205 ng/g dry weight, respectively. The aerobic degradation was significantly enhanced by the addition of yeast extract and 4-bromobiphenyl. The total concentrations of all 11 PBDE congeners were lowered and their elimination was detected reaching 62–78% of their initial amounts after 11 months of cultivation. The degradation of most abundant congener BDE 209 followed the first-order kinetics with constant detected between 2.77 × 10(?3) d(?1) and 3.79 × 10?(3)d(?1) and the half-lives of BDE 209 degradation ranged between 6.0 and 8.2 months. This work clearly demonstrates that both lower brominated PBDEs as well as the major representative BDE 209 could be successfully removed from municipally contaminated sludge under aerobic conditions. PMID:25463256

  17. Leachate tests with sewage sludge contaminated by radioactive cesium.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Ikuo; Ogoshi, Masashi; Harada, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The sewer systems of eastern Japan have transported radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to wastewater treatment plants, where the radioisotopes have accumulated. To better understand the potential problems associated with the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills, leachate tests were conducted with radioactive incinerator ash, cement solidification incinerator ash, and dewatered sludge cake. Radioactivity was undetectable in the eluate from incinerator ash and dewatered sludge cake, but about 30% of the radioactivity initially in cement solidification incinerator ash appeared in the eluate during the leaching experiments. Moreover, modification of test conditions revealed that the presence of Ca(2+) ions and strong alkali in the water that contacted the incinerator ash enhanced leaching of cesium. Lastly, the capacity of pit soil to absorb radioactive cesium was estimated to be at least 3.0 Bq/g (dry). PMID:23947711

  18. Oxisol decapitated recovery with green manure and sewage sludge: Effect on growth of Astronium fraxinifolium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souto Filho, S. N.; Marchini, D. C.; de Arruda, O. G.; Giácomo, R. G.; Alves, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    Incorrect use of land and large buildings in rural areas are causing changes to it, making them less productive and thus increasing the degraded areas. Techniques aimed at ecological restoration of degraded soils have been investigated. In recovery planning a degraded area, the great challenge to be achieved is the establishment of a A horizon, so that from then on, the process is catalyzed by the biosphere, and there may be other horizons, as the natural conditioning. In this sense the positive changes were investigated in an environment of decapitated Savannah Oxisol, which was removed a layer 8.5 m thick to build a hydroelectric power plant. For recovery, we used a native tree species, green manure, sewage sludge and grass. The studied soil is under human intervention techniques for recovery for seven years. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five treatments and five replications. The treatments were: 1-Control- bare soil (without management), 2-Astronium fraxinifolium Schott; 3-A. fraxinifolium + Canavalia ensiformis; 4- A. fraxinifolium + Raphanus sativus by 2005 was replaced in 2006 by Crotalaria juncea; 5- A. fraxinifolium + Brachiaria decumbens + sewage sludge (60 t ha-1, dry basis). We studied in 2010 and 2011 the development of tree species (stem diameter and plant height), the fresh and dry matter of green manures and B. decumbens. The results were analyzed by performing the variance analysis and Tukey test at 5% probability to compare averages. The rate of plant growth during the periods studied in the treatment with sewage sludge was higher than other treatments, so this is the most appropriate management for the recovery of degraded soil under study.

  19. Evidence for Anaerobic Dechlorination of Dechlorane Plus in Sewage Sludge.

    PubMed

    Sverko, Ed; McCarry, Brian; McCrindle, Robert; Brazeau, Allison; Pena-Abaurrea, Miren; Reiner, Eric; Anne Smyth, Shirley; Gill, Biban; Tomy, Gregg T

    2015-12-01

    The environmental occurrence of dechlorination moieties from the high production volume flame retardant, Dechlorane Plus (DP), has largely been documented; however, the sources have yet to be well understood. In addition, few laboratory-based studies exist which identify the cause for the occurrence of these chemicals in the environment or humans. Anaerobic dechlorination of the two DP isomers was investigated using a laboratory-simulated wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) environment where anaerobic digestion is used as part of the treatment regime. Known amounts of each isomer were added separately to sewage sludge which provided the electron-donating substrate and at prescribed time points in the incubation, a portion of the media was removed and analyzed for DP and any dechlorination metabolites. After 7 days, monohydrodechlorinated products were observed for both the syn- and anti-DP which were continued throughout the duration of our study (49 days) in an increasing manner giving a calculated formation rate of 0.48 ± 0.09 and 0.79 ± 0.12 pmols/day for syn- and anti-DP, respectively. Furthermore, we observed a second monohydrodechlorinated product only in the anti-DP isomer incubation medium. This strongly suggests that anti-DP is more susceptible to anaerobic degradation than the syn isomer. We also provide compelling evidence to the location of chlorine loss in the dechlorination DP analogues. Finally, the dechlorination DP moieties formed in our study matched the retention times and identification of those observed in surficial sediment located downstream of the WWTP. PMID:26572321

  20. Microbial acidification and pH effects on trace element release from sewage sludge

    E-print Network

    wastewater sludge appears to be that of acidification. Abstract Leaching of sludge-borne trace elements has of trace elements from wastewater sludge is poorly defined. Our objectives were to determine trace elementMicrobial acidification and pH effects on trace element release from sewage sludge Shabnam Qureshia

  1. Transformation products and human metabolites of triclocarban and tricllosan in sewage sludge across the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pycke, Benny F.G.; Roll, Isaac B.; Brownawell, Bruce J.; Kinney, Chad A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2014-01-01

    Removal of triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) from wastewater is a function of adsorption, abiotic degradation, and microbial mineralization or transformation, reactions that are not currently controlled or optimized in the pollution control infrastructure of standard wastewater treatment. Here, we report on the levels of eight transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in raw and treated sewage sludge. Two sample sets were studied: samples collected once from 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) representing nine states, and multiple samples collected from one WWTP monitored for 12 months. Time-course analysis of significant mass fluxes (? = 0.01) indicate that transformation of TCC (dechlorination) and TCS (methylation) occurred during sewage conveyance and treatment. Strong linear correlations were found between TCC and the human metabolite 2?-hydroxy-TCC (r = 0.84), and between the TCC-dechlorination products dichlorocarbanilide (DCC) and monochlorocarbanilide (r = 0.99). Mass ratios of DCC-to-TCC and of methyl-triclosan (MeTCS)-to-TCS, serving as indicators of transformation activity, revealed that transformation was widespread under different treatment regimes across the WWTPs sampled, though the degree of transformation varied significantly among study sites (? = 0.01). The analysis of sludge sampled before and after different unit operation steps (i.e., anaerobic digestion, sludge heat treatment, and sludge drying) yielded insights into the extent and location of TCC and TCS transformation. Results showed anaerobic digestion to be important for MeTCS transformation (37–74%), whereas its contribution to partial TCC dechlorination was limited (0.4–2.1%). This longitudinal and nationwide survey is the first to report the occurrence of transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in sewage sludge.

  2. Transformation Products and Human Metabolites of Triclocarban and Triclosan in Sewage Sludge Across the United States

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Removal of triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) from wastewater is a function of adsorption, abiotic degradation, and microbial mineralization or transformation, reactions that are not currently controlled or optimized in the pollution control infrastructure of standard wastewater treatment. Here, we report on the levels of eight transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in raw and treated sewage sludge. Two sample sets were studied: samples collected once from 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) representing nine states, and multiple samples collected from one WWTP monitored for 12 months. Time-course analysis of significant mass fluxes (? = 0.01) indicate that transformation of TCC (dechlorination) and TCS (methylation) occurred during sewage conveyance and treatment. Strong linear correlations were found between TCC and the human metabolite 2?-hydroxy-TCC (r = 0.84), and between the TCC-dechlorination products dichlorocarbanilide (DCC) and monochlorocarbanilide (r = 0.99). Mass ratios of DCC-to-TCC and of methyl-triclosan (MeTCS)-to-TCS, serving as indicators of transformation activity, revealed that transformation was widespread under different treatment regimes across the WWTPs sampled, though the degree of transformation varied significantly among study sites (? = 0.01). The analysis of sludge sampled before and after different unit operation steps (i.e., anaerobic digestion, sludge heat treatment, and sludge drying) yielded insights into the extent and location of TCC and TCS transformation. Results showed anaerobic digestion to be important for MeTCS transformation (37–74%), whereas its contribution to partial TCC dechlorination was limited (0.4–2.1%). This longitudinal and nationwide survey is the first to report the occurrence of transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in sewage sludge. PMID:24932693

  3. An experimental study of sewage sludge incineration.

    PubMed

    Morais, L C; Dweck, J; Gonçalves, E M; Büchler, P M

    2006-09-01

    Sludge incinerated ash has been fired at different temperatures. This material was fired at 1050 degrees C for 3 h and until a peak of 1010 degrees C. After thermal treatment the ash was screened at 200 mesh.The ash was characterized by X-ray fluorescence and trace elements like Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, and some oxides like quartz(SiO2), Al2O3, P2O5, Fe2O3 were found. Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) has shown one change of particle between 2 microm at 90 microm and apparent porosity, thermal analysis has shown loss of mass and residual decomposition in the TG, DTG and DTA curves. PMID:17067131

  4. Sewage sludge--looking upstream: the precautionary principle.

    PubMed

    Schettler, Ted

    2002-01-01

    The health care industry makes a unique contribution to the potential public health and environmental impacts of sewage sludge production and disposal. As materials flow into and out of health care facilities, potentially hazardous substances, like mercury, solvents, and pharmaceutical compounds, are introduced into the waste stream and ultimately into sewage sludge. Although the hazards posed by these practices are often not fully understood or the risks quantified, concern about impacts on public health and the environment is fully justified. How to deal with the uncertainties surrounding the impacts of these practices becomes an ethical as well as a scientific question. A precautionary approach to materials manufacture, use, and disposal encourages us to look upstream and to re-design products and systems in ways that primarily prevent problems rather than dealing with them at the "end of the pipe." Early warning systems, shifting the burden of proof, alternatives assessment, and monitoring programs are suggested as interventions that might be used as part of a precautionary approach to addressing the generation and disposal of sewage in an industrial society. PMID:17208781

  5. 40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    This subpart exempts combustion units that incinerate sewage sludge and are not located at a wastewater treatment facility designed to treat domestic sewage sludge. These units may be subject to another subpart of this part (e.g., subpart CCCC of this...

  6. 40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    This subpart exempts combustion units that incinerate sewage sludge and are not located at a wastewater treatment facility designed to treat domestic sewage sludge. These units may be subject to another subpart of this part (e.g., subpart CCCC of this...

  7. 40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    This subpart exempts combustion units that incinerate sewage sludge and are not located at a wastewater treatment facility designed to treat domestic sewage sludge. These units may be subject to another subpart of this part (e.g., subpart CCCC of this...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    This subpart exempts combustion units that incinerate sewage sludge and are not located at a wastewater treatment facility designed to treat domestic sewage sludge. These units may be subject to another subpart of this part (e.g., subpart CCCC of this...

  9. NEAR-BOTTOM PELAGIC BACTERIA AT A DEEP-WATER SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. ixed cultures and bacterial...

  10. LONG-TERM USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON AGRICULTURAL AND DISTURBED LANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents results from the last 2 years of a 15-year study of the long term use of sewage sludge on agricultural and disturbed lands. The three field studies discussed here include (1) the response of corn to repeated annual applications of sewage sludge, (2) the diffe...

  11. Biohydrogen production from oil palm frond juice and sewage sludge by a metabolically engineered

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    Biohydrogen production from oil palm frond juice and sewage sludge by a metabolically engineered Accepted 16 June 2013 Available online 13 July 2013 Keywords: Biohydrogen Escherichia coli Oil palm frond from oil palm frond (OPF) juice and sewage sludge as substrates. Substrate improvement was accomplished

  12. Localised mobilisation of metals, as measured by diffusive gradients in thin-films, in soil historically treated with sewage sludge

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    historically treated with sewage sludge Jun Luo a,c , Hao Zhang a, , William Davison a , Ronald G. McLaren b online 11 September 2012 Keywords: Trace metals Soil Sewage sludge Mn oxide Diffusive gradients in thin was investigated in a sandy loam soil historically treated with sewage sludge. After deployment of two DGT

  13. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Llll of... - Summary of Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a 5 Table 5 to Subpart LLLL of Part 60 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60, Subpt. LLLL, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart LLLL of Part 60—Summary of Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge...

  14. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Model Rule-Operating Parameters for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a 4 Table 4 to Subpart MMMM of Part 60 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60... Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a For these operating parameters You must establish these...

  15. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Model Rule-Operating Parameters for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a 4 Table 4 to Subpart MMMM of Part 60 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60... Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a For these operating parameters You must establish these...

  16. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Llll of... - Summary of Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a 5 Table 5 to Subpart LLLL of Part 60 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60, Subpt. LLLL, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart LLLL of Part 60—Summary of Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge...

  17. 17 ?-estradiol and 17 ?-ethinylestradiol mineralization in sewage sludge and biosolids.

    PubMed

    Rose, Karin P; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Claeys, Anne; Ascef, Bruna

    2014-01-01

    Natural steroid estrogens (e.g., 17 ?-estradiol, E2), synthetic steroid estrogens (e.g., 17 ?-ethinylestradiol, EE2) and pharmaceutical antibiotics (e.g., ciprofloxacin) are chemicals detected in biosolids and sewage sludges because they partition into the solids fraction during the wastewater treatment process. This research utilized a three-way factorial design (six media × two estrogens × three antibiotic treatments) to quantify cumulative E2 and EE2 mineralization over 133 d (MAX) in a range of sewage sludge and biosolid samples in the presence (4 and 40 mg kg(-1)) and absence of ciprofloxacin. The same three-way factorial design was utilized to quantify the impact of the six media, E2 or EE2, and ciprofloxacin on cumulative soil respiration over 133 d (RESP). Minimal ciprofloxacin mineralization was observed (<0.05% over 133 d), but despite its persistence, ciprofloxacin had no significant effect on MAX of E2 or EE2, and, in general, no significant effect on RESP. MAX ranged from 38.38% to 48.44% for E2 but from only 0.72% to 24.27% for EE2 although RESP was relatively similar, ranging from 101.00 to 866.54 mg CO2 in the presence of E2 and from 69.55 to 893.95 mg CO2 in the presence of EE2. The sorption-limited bioavailability of EE2, which is inherently resistant to biodegradation due to chemical structure, as MAX and Freundlich sorption coefficients (Kf) were negatively correlated. As such, the Kf values of EE2 were largest in composted biosolids in which EE2 was particularly resistant to microbial degradation as the MAX of EE2 was <3%. In contrast, the MAX of E2 showed a positive association with the Kf values of E2 because some steps in the E2 transformation process have been found to occur in the sorbed phase. The MAX of E2 was significantly greater in the biosolid and composted biosolid media than in any other media, whereas the MAX of E2 decreased in the following order: secondary sewage sludge > primary sewage sludge > biosolid = composted biosolid. This suggests that sewage sludges in municipal lagoons and pre-treatment holding lagoons are a more favorable media for mineralization of EE2, whereas biosolids in post-treatment storage lagoons are a more favorable media for the mineralization of E2. The presence of ciprofloxacin will have no impact on the potential E2 or EE2 mineralization rates in these cases. PMID:25190562

  18. Pathway of radioisotopes from land surface to sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Helmut W.; Yokoo, Yoshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Radioactive surface contaminations will only partially remain at the original location - a fraction of the inventory will take part in (mainly terrestrial and aquatic) environmental transport processes. The probably best known and most important process comprises the food chain. Besides, the translocation of dissolved and particle-bound radioisotopes with surface waters plays an important role. These processes can have the effect of displacing large radioisotope amounts over considerable distances and of creating new sinks and hot spots, as it is already known for sewage sludge. We are reporting on a combined modeling and experimental project concerning the transport of I-131 and Cs-134/Cs-137 FDNPP 2011 depositions in the Fukushima Prefecture. Well-documented experimental data sets are available for surface deposition and sewage sludge concentrations. The goal is to model the pathway in between, involving surface runoff, transport in the sewer system and processes in the sewage treatment plant. Watershed runoff and sewer transport will be treated with models developed recently by us in other projects. For sewage treatment processes a new model is currently being constructed. For comparison and further validation, historical data from Chernobyl depositions and tracer data from natural and artificial, e.g. medical, isotopes will be used. First results for 2011 data from Fukushima Prefecture will be presented. The benefits of the study are expected to be two-fold: on one hand, the abundant recent and historical data will help to develop and improve environmental transport models; on the other hand, both data and models will help in identifying the most critical points in the envisaged transport pathways in terms of radiation protection and waste management.

  19. The Composition of Fertilizing Value of Sewage Sludge

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1932-01-01

    in Table 6, which shows the net amount of nitrogen aken up by the plants, expressed in percentage of the amounts added. 'able 7 contains. the comparative availability of the nitrogen in the .arious materials, compared with that of nitrate of soda equal... to 100. 'hat is to say, the quantity of nitrogen taken from the nitrate of soda addition Table 3. Nitrogen recovered by corn from sewage sludge-Sand 22194 Wt. Average I Ga&n / Per cent Nitrogenous I p 1 Nitrogen I Grams N number per cent nitrogen...

  20. Fossil Fuel Biomarkers in Sewage Sludges: Environmental Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payet, C.; Bryselbout, C.; Morel, J.-L.; Lichtfouse, E.

    Fossil fuel biomarkers, or "molecular fossils," are specific organic substances found in coals, petroleums, and sedimentary rocks. They are formed during millions of years of sedimentary burial by geochemical alteration of biological molecules, such as cholesterol, under the effect of biodegradation, temperature, pressure, and mineral catalysis, to produce geochemically mature molecules, for example, aromatic steroids (Fig. 1). Since fossil fuel biomarkers have a very specific molecular structure betraying fossil fuel sources, such markers should be useful in assessing the fossil fuel contamination of various modern media such as soils, plants, waters, and modern sediments. Here the identification of fossil fuel biomarkers of high geothermal maturity in sewage sludges provides evidence of the contamination of sludges by petroleum products. The most likely sources of contamination are contaminated vegetal food, road dust, and soil particles carried by rain water.

  1. Sewage sludge effects on soil: heavy metal accumulation and movement

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.; Duseja, D.R.; Thangudu, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    Treated municipal sewage sludge at 0, 11.2, 33.6, and 67.2 metric tons/ha was applied each year for two consecutive years and incorporated into a Byler loam soil (Typic Fragiudalf) having an initial pH of 5.6. Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare L.) was grown in replicated plots (6.1m x 4.6m). Soil samples were taken at 0 to 20 cm and 20 to 40 cm depth at the end of each year and analyzed for DTPA-extractable Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni. Surface soil exhibited significant increases in heavy metal concentrations in the first year at the 67.2 metric tons/ha rates. Heavy metal concentrations increased with continued sludge application. However, this increase was not in proportion to the amount of sludge applied, suggesting some immobilization of metals with time. After two years, downward movement and significiant increases in Cu, Zn, and Ni levels were noted at the 20 to 40 cm depth at the higher rates. Heavy metal levels in the surface soil did not appear to be phytotoxic as judged from sorghum grain and dry matter yields and comparisons with other similar studies. Sludge applications had little effect on soil pH.

  2. Sewage sludge drying process integration with a waste-to-energy power plant.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, A; Bonfiglioli, L; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C

    2015-08-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is encountering increasing problems associated with its disposal. Several solutions have been proposed in the last years regarding energy and materials recovery from sewage sludge. Current technological solutions have relevant limits as dewatered sewage sludge is characterized by a high water content (70-75% by weight), even if mechanically treated. A Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) with good thermal characteristics in terms of Lower Heating Value (LHV) can be obtained if dewatered sludge is further processed, for example by a thermal drying stage. Sewage sludge thermal drying is not sustainable if the power is fed by primary energy sources, but can be appealing if waste heat, recovered from other processes, is used. A suitable integration can be realized between a WWTP and a waste-to-energy (WTE) power plant through the recovery of WTE waste heat as energy source for sewage sludge drying. In this paper, the properties of sewage sludge from three different WWTPs are studied. On the basis of the results obtained, a facility for the integration of sewage sludge drying within a WTE power plant is developed. Furthermore, energy and mass balances are set up in order to evaluate the benefits brought by the described integration. PMID:25959614

  3. Comparative assessment of municipal sewage sludge incineration, gasification and pyrolysis for a sustainable sludge-to-energy management in Greece.

    PubMed

    Samolada, M C; Zabaniotou, A A

    2014-02-01

    For a sustainable municipal sewage sludge management, not only the available technology, but also other parameters, such as policy regulations and socio-economic issues should be taken in account. In this study, the current status of both European and Greek Legislation on waste management, with a special insight in municipal sewage sludge, is presented. A SWOT analysis was further developed for comparison of pyrolysis with incineration and gasification and results are presented. Pyrolysis seems to be the optimal thermochemical treatment option compared to incineration and gasification. Sewage sludge pyrolysis is favorable for energy savings, material recovery and high added materials production, providing a 'zero waste' solution. Finally, identification of challenges and barriers for sewage sludge pyrolysis deployment in Greece was investigated. PMID:24290971

  4. Management of sewage sludge by composting using fermented water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Tello-Andrade, A F; Jiménez-Moleón, M C; Sánchez-Galván, G

    2015-10-01

    The goal of the present research work was to assess the management of sewage sludge (SS) by composting using fermented water hyacinth (WHferm) as an amendment. The water hyacinth was fermented, and a higher production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) (782.67 mg L(-1)) and soluble organic carbon (CSOL) (4788.34 mg L(-1)) was obtained using a particle size of 7 mm compared to 50 mm. For composting, four treatments (10 kg fresh weight each) were evaluated: treatment A (100 % SS + 0 % WHferm), treatment B (75 % SS + 25 % WHferm), treatment C (50 % SS + 50 % WHferm), and treatment D (25 % SS + 75 % WHferm). The WHferm added to SS, especially in treatments C (50 %) and D (75 %), increased the initial contents of organic matter (OM), organic carbon (CORG), CSOL, the C/N ratio, and the germination index (GI). The heavy metal content (HMC) (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) at the beginning was below the maximum allowed by USEPA regulations. All of the samples were free of Salmonella sp. from the beginning. The reduction of the CORG, CSOL, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and C/N ratio indicated the degradation of the OM by day 198. The treatments with WHferm (B, C, and D) yielded higher values of electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and GI than SS at day 198. No significant differences were observed in GI among the treatments with WHferm. The fecal coliforms were eliminated (<3 MPN g(-1)) and the helminths were reduced to ?5 eggs/2 g during the process. The competition for nutrients and the presence of suppressive fungi of the genera Penicillium, Rhizopus, Paecilomyces (penicillin producers), and Fusariella isolated from the compost may have promoted the elimination of pathogens since no thermophile temperatures were obtained. WHferm as an amendment in the composting of SS improved the characteristics of the final product, especially when it was used in proportions of 25 and 50 %. An excellent product was obtained in terms of HMC, and the product was B class in terms of pathogens. PMID:25989858

  5. The application of sewage sludge as an expanding agent in the production of lightweight expanded clay aggregate mass.

    PubMed

    Latosi?ska, J; Zygad?o, M

    2011-10-01

    Sewage sludge can be used as an expanding agent in the production of lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA) mass. The addition of sewage sludge increases the total porosity and decreases the bulk density of a sinter. The addition of sewage sludge to a raw material used in the production of LECA enabled a decrease in the burning temperature for the maintained operational parameters of a lightweight aggregate. The optimum content of sewage sludge added to a raw material used in LECA production was 5% to 15% of dry mass. The addition of sewage sludge in an amount of 5% and 10% caused an increase in closed porosity. PMID:22329137

  6. Comprehensive utilization of the pyrolysis products from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Xu, W Y; Wu, D

    2015-01-01

    Bio-oils were produced from pyrolysis of sewage sludge in a horizontal tubular furnace under the anoxic or anaerobic conditions, by varying operating parameters and moisture content (MC) of the feedstock. Physicochemical properties of the obtained bio-oil (such as density, acid value, kinematical viscosity, high heating value and flash point) were analysed and compared with Chinese fuel standards. Tend, RT and ? were found critical to control the yield and physico-chemical properties of bio-oil products. The relative importance of various parameters such as Tend, RT, ? and MC was determined and the optimum values for the lowest kinematic viscosity and acid value and the highest yield of the bio-oil were achieved using the orthogonal matrix method. The parameters 550°C, 45?min, 5°C?min(-1) and MC of 10% were found effective in producing the bio-oils with most of the desirable physico-chemical properties and yield. Benefit analysis was conducted to further optimize the operating parameters, considering pyrolysis treatment, comprehensive utilization of the pyrolysis products and final disposal of sewage sludge; the results showed the best economy of the pyrolysis parameters 450°C, 75?min, 3°C?min(-1) and MC of 10%. The char obtained under this condition may serve as a microporous liquid adsorbent, while the bio-oil may serve as a low grade fuel oil after upgrading it with conventional fuel oil and deacidification. Pyrolysis products may become economically competitive in addition to being environment friendly. PMID:25609547

  7. Nitrogen transformations and losses during composting of sewage sludge with acidified sawdust in a laboratory reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunbei; Li, Weiguang

    2015-02-01

    Composting is one of the cost-saving ways for sewage sludge treatment to produce a ?nal product that is stable, and free of pathogens and plant seeds. However, the loss of nitrogen through ammonia emission not only reduces the agronomic value of the composting product, but also leads to air pollution and is potentially health threatening. Five mixtures of sewage sludge and acidified sawdust were co-composted for 22 days with different initial pH values (3.51, 4.45, 5.51, 6.48 and 7.56). Acidified sawdust was used as a pH regulator and also bulking agent during composting. Changes in physicochemical properties were characterised by the temperature, organic matter degradation, carbon dioxide emission and pH value. The results showed that regulating the initial pH of composting materials to 5.51~6.48 was the most effective way in reducing ammonia emissions. Compared with the control group, the cumulative ammonia emission was reduced by 52.1% and the nitrogen loss decreased from 44.7% to 24.8% with no adverse effects on organic matter degradation and microbial activity. PMID:25649403

  8. Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of dilute primary-treated sewage sludge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of remotely monitoring ocean dumping of waste products such as acid and sewage sludge is evaluated. The laboratory arrangement, solar simulator, and test results from three experiments conducted in the laboratory are described. Radiance and reflectance spectra are presented for primary-treated sewage sludge mixed with two types of base water. Results indicate that upwelled reflectance varies in a near-linear manner with concentration and that the sludge has a practically flat signal response between 420 and 970 nm. Well-defined upwelled reflectance spectra were obtained for the sewage-sludge mixtures at all wavelengths and concentrations. The spectral-reflectance values appeared to be influenced by the type of base water, but this influence was small, especially for the mixtures with low concentrations of sewage sludge.

  9. Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of dilute secondary-treated sewage sludge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, W. G.; Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), conducted a research program to evaluate the feasibility of remotely monitoring ocean dumping of waste products such as acid and sewage sludge. One aspect of the research program involved the measurements of upwelled spectral signatures for sewage-sludge mixtures of different concentrations in an 11600-liter tank. This paper describes the laboratory arrangement and presents radiance and reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared ranges for concentrations ranging from 9.7 to 180 ppm of secondary-treated sewage sludge mixed with two types of base water. Results indicate that upwelled radiance varies in a near-linear manner with concentration and that the sludge has a practically flat signal response between 420 and 970 nm. Reflectance spectra were obtained for the sewage-sludge mixtures at all wavelengths and concentrations.

  10. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Sewage Sludge by Gamma Irradiation with Pasteurization as a Tool for Hygienization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyadarshini, J.; Roy, P. K.; Mazumdar, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this research work, management of sewage sludge disposal on agricultural soils is addressed. The increasing amount of sewage sludge and more legislative regulation of its disposal have stimulated the need for developing new technologies to recycle sewage sludge efficiently. The research was structured along two main avenues, namely, the efficacy of the irradiation process for removing enteric pathogenic microorganisms and the potential of irradiated sludge as a soil amendment. This study investigated how application of irradiation with heat treatment reduced pathogens in sewage sludge. Raw and pasteurised Sewage sludge was treated at different dose treatment of 1.5, 3 and 5 kilogray (kGy) gamma irradiation individually and for 3 kGy sufficiency was achieved. Decrease in irradiation dose from 5 to 3 kGy was observed for pasteurised sludge resulting in saving of radiation energy. The presence of heavy metals in untreated sewage sludge has raised concerns, which decreases after irradiation.

  11. Reducing capacities and redox potentials of humic substances extracted from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Du, Mengchan; Jiang, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Humic substances (HS) are redox active organic materials that can be extracted from sewage sludge generated in wastewater treatment processes. Due to the poor understanding of reducing capacity, redox potentials and redox active functional groups of HS in sewage sludge, the potential contribution of sludge HS in transformation of wastewater contaminants is unclear. In the present study, the number of electrons donated or accepted by sewage sludge HS were quantified before and after reduction by iron compounds that possess different redox potentials and defined as the reducing capacity of the sewage sludge. In contrast to previous studies of soil and commercial humic acids (HA), reduced sludge HA showed a lower reducing capacity than that of native HA, which implies formation of semiquinone radicals since the semiquinone radical/hydroquinone pair has a much higher redox potential than the quinone/hydroquinone pair. It is novel that reducing capacities of sludge HA were determined in the redox potential range from -314 to 430 mV. The formation of semiquinone radicals formed during the reduction of quinone moieties in sludge HA is shown by three-dimensional excitation/emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopies information, increasing fluorescence intensities and blue-shifting of the excitation/emission peak of reduced sludge HA. Knowledge of sludge HS redox potentials and corresponding reducing capacities makes it possible to predict the transformation of redox active pollutants and facilitate manipulation and optimization of sludge loading wastewater treatment processes. PMID:26432531

  12. Modeling the Radiological Impact of Tritium in Sewage Sludge Being Used as Fertilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Venter, A.; Smith, G

    2005-07-15

    A study was undertaken to assess the radiological impact on humans via the foodchain resulting from the presence of tritium and C-14 in sewage sludge being used as fertilizer on agricultural land. The key endpoint of the assessment was the annual individual dose to an average member of potential critical groups. As part of the assessment, a model was developed to simulate the distribution of tritium between sewage sludge and effluent in the sewage treatment plant, the release of tritium upon sludge decomposition and subsequent uptake by plants and animals. The modeling assumptions, as well as key parameters and parameter values will be discussed in this paper.

  13. Interpreting the synergistic effect in combined ultrasonication-ozonation sewage sludge pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xinbo; Wang, Chong; Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Lin, Leonard; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-12-01

    The sequential combination of ultrasonication and ozonation as sewage sludge treatment prior to anaerobic digestion was investigated. Synergistic volatile suspended solids (VSS) solubilization was observed when low energy ultrasonication (?12kJg(-1) TS) was followed by ozonation. 0.048gO3g(-1) TS ozonation induced the maximum VSS solubilization of 41.3% when the sludge was pre-ultrasonicated at 9kJg(-1) TS; while, the same ozone dosage applied without prior ultrasonication only induced 21.1% VSS solubilization. High molecular weight (MW) components (MW>500kDa) were found to be the main solubilization products when sludge was only ozonated. However, solubilization products by ozone were mainly in the form of low MW components (MW<27kDa) when sludge was pre-ultrasonicated. The high MW products generated by ultrasound were effectively degraded in the subsequent ozonation. Anaerobic biodegradability increased by 34.7% when ultrasonication (9kJg(-1) TS) and ozonation (0.036gO3g(-1) TS) were combined sequentially. The maximum methane production rate increased from 3.53 to 4.32, 4.21 and 4.54mL CH4d(-1) after ultrasonication, ozonation and ultrasonication-ozonation pre-treatments, respectively. PMID:25282627

  14. Exploring the bioaccessibility of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Xiang, Nan; Yu, Lihong; Zhang, Jiying; Chen, Ling; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-12-01

    Environmental risks of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sewage sludge are assessed based on the concentration by exhaustive extraction, which is a likely overestimation of the pool available to exposed organisms. This study evaluated the bioaccessibility of PBDEs in sewage sludge from Shanghai using a 3-compartment model and a 6-d Tenax extraction. The very slowly fraction contributed 56-88% of total PBDEs in spiked sludge, whereas the rapidly desorbing fraction contributed only 1.1-10%. For the same PBDE congener, the rapidly desorbing fractions for sewage sludge measured in the present study were lower than those for sediment. The bioaccessible concentrations of PBDEs were 2.3-56 ng/g dry weight in sewage sludge from Shanghai, which represented 5.2% of the concentration determined by exhaustive (Soxhlet) extraction. BDE-209 was the predominant congener in sludge, contributing to 63% of the total. Moreover, the Ratio between 6-h Tenax and Soxhlet concentrations (T/S Ratio, indicating bioaccessibility) was lower in sludge generated from industrial wastewater treatment compared to sludge from facilities that treated mostly domestic wastewater. The T/S Ratio of PBDE congeners was related to KOW, specifically as KOW increases, the T/S Ratio decreased. These results will improve understanding of the fate and potential toxicity of PBDEs during land and/or landfill application of sewage sludge. PMID:26327497

  15. Accelerating Aerobic Sludge Granulation by Adding Dry Sewage Sludge Micropowder in Sequencing Batch Reactors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Liu, Jun; Wang, Danjun; Chen, Tao; Ma, Ting; Wang, Zhihong; Zhuo, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    Micropowder (20–250 µm) made from ground dry waste sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant was added in a sequencing batch reactor (R2), which was fed by synthetic wastewater with acetate as carbon source. Compared with the traditional SBR (R1), aerobic sludge granulation time was shortened 15 days in R2. Furthermore, filamentous bacteria in bulking sludge were controlled to accelerate aerobic granulation and form large granules. Correspondingly, the SVI decreased from 225 mL/g to 37 mL/g. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis demonstrated that Al and Si from the micropowder were accumulated in granules. A mechanism hypotheses for the acceleration of aerobic granulation by adding dry sludge micropowder is proposed: added micropowder acts as nuclei to induce bacterial attachment; dissolved matters from the micropowder increase abruptly the organic load for starved sludge to control overgrown filamentous bacteria as a framework for aggregation; increased friction from the movement of micropowder forces the filaments which extend outwards to shrink for shaping granules. PMID:26308025

  16. Occurrence of high-tonnage anionic surfactants in Spanish sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Cantarero, Samuel; Prieto, Carlos A; López, Ignacio

    2012-03-01

    Agricultural application has become the most widespread method of sewage sludge disposal, being the most economical outlet for sludge and also recycling beneficial plant nutrients and organic matter to soil for crop production. As a matter of fact, the European Sewage Sludge Directive 86/278/EEC seeks to encourage the disposal of sewage sludge in agriculture applications and regulate its use to prevent harmful effects on the soil environment. At the present time, the sewage sludge Directive is under revision and a possible cut-off limit for some organic chemicals may be implemented. Linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), the main synthetic anionic surfactant, has been included in the draft list of chemicals to be limited. The present research work deals with the monitoring of LAS and soap in Spanish sewage sludge. The average concentration of LAS found in anaerobic sewage sludge samples was 8.06 g/kg, higher than the average values for European sludge. Besides, it has been also found that more than 55% of Spanish anaerobic sludge would not fulfil the limit proposed by the 3rd European Working paper on sludge. As a consequence, the implementation of the limit for LAS would make the disposal of most Spanish biosolids for agricultural applications almost impossible. Regarding the mechanisms why anionic surfactants are found in sludge, two surfactants are compared: LAS and soap, both readily biodegraded in aerobic conditions. Irrespective of the anaerobic biodegradability of soap, its concentration found in sludge is higher than LAS (only anaerobically biodegradable under particular conditions). The relevance of anaerobic biodegradation to assure environmental protection is discussed for this case. PMID:21652141

  17. Oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-01

    Federal regulations banning ocean dumping of sewage sludge coupled with stricter regulations on the disposal of sewage sludge in landfills have forced municipalities, especially those in the northeast United States, to consider alternate methods for disposal of this solid waste. Coincineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) and sludge has proven to be economically attractive for both Europe and Japan, but has not yet proven to be a viable sludge disposal technology in the United States because of a history of operational problems in existing facilities. The most prevalent problem in coincinerating MSW and a dewatered sewage sludge (15 to 25% solids) is incomplete sludge combustion. Incomplete sludge combustion is primarily a function of sludge particle size, occurring when the surface of the sludge particle dries and hardens, while the inner mass is unaffected. This phenomenon is commonly referred to in the industry as the {open_quotes}hamburger effect.{close_quotes} In an effort to promote technology development in this area, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. teamed with the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate a new process being developed for the disposal of a dewatered sewage sludge, {open_quotes}Oxygen-Enriched Coincineration of MSW and Sewage Sludge.{close_quotes} This report provides a comprehensive summary of the pilot demonstration test program for oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge. This report describes the pilot test facility, instrumentation, and methods of data collection and data analyses; describes how the tests were executed; and discusses the test results. Recommendations for the future development of this technology in the current marketplace are also provided.

  18. Agronomic value of sewage sludge and corn cob biochar in an infertile Oxisol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deenik, J. L.; Cooney, M. J.; Antal, M. J., Jr.

    2013-12-01

    Disposal of sewage sludge and other agricultural waste materials has become increasingly difficult in urban environments with limited land space. Carbonization of the hazardous waste produces biochar as a soil amendment with potential to improve soil quality and productivity. A series of greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to assess the agrnomic value of two biochars made from domestic wastewater sludge and corn cob waste. The ash component of the sewage sludge biochar was very high (65.5%) and high for the corn cob (11.4%) biochars. Both biochars contained low concentrations of heavy metals and met EPA land application criteria. The sewage sludge biochar was a better liming material and source of mineral nutrients than the corn cob biochar, but the corn cob biochar showed the greatest increase in soil carbon and total nitrogen. Both biochar materials increased soil pH compared with soils not receiving biochar, but the sewage sludge biochar was a more effective liming material maintaining elevated soil pH throughout the 3 planting cycles. The sewage sludge biochar also showed the greatest increase in extractable soil P and base cations. In the first planting cycle, both biochars in combination with conventional fertilizers produced significantly higher corn seedling growth than the fertilized control. However, the sewage sludge biochar maintained beneficial effects corn seedling growth through the third planting cycle showing 3-fold increases in biomass production compared with the control in the third planting. The high ash content and associated liming properties and mineral nutrient contributions in the sewage sludge biochar explain benefits to plant growth. Conversion of sewage sludge waste into biochar has the potential to effectively address several environmental issues: 1) convert a hazardous waste into a valuable soil amendment, 2) reduce land and water contamination, and 3) improve soil quality and productivity.

  19. A new approach for hydrogen generation from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiwu; Kano, Junya

    2016-02-01

    A new process to produce hydrogen efficiently from sewage sludge (SWS) was developed with co-grinding operation of the dried SWS with calcium and nickel hydroxides (Ca(OH)2 and Ni(OH)2) and subsequent heating of the ground mixture at relatively low temperature below 600°C. A set of analytical methods were used to characterize the ground samples before heating and the gaseous and solid products after heating. Thermo-mass spectroscopic (TG-MS) analysis showed hydrogen occurrence around 450°C. Hydrogen yield over 70g per kg SWS with concentration of 93.6% was obtained with the hydroxide additions of Ca to C from SWS at 1:1 and Ni to C at 1:6, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the solid residues after heating confirmed the existences of calcium carbonate and nickel metal. Based on the obtained results, possible reaction pathway was proposed. PMID:26642224

  20. Pharmaceutical load in sewage sludge and biochar produced by hydrothermal carbonization.

    PubMed

    vom Eyser, C; Palmu, K; Schmidt, T C; Tuerk, J

    2015-12-15

    We investigated the removal of twelve pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), which has emerged as a technology for improving the quality of organic waste materials producing a valuable biochar material. In this study, the HTC converted sewage sludge samples to a biochar product within 4h at a temperature of 210 °C and a resulting pressure of about 15 bar. Initial pharmaceutical load of the sewage sludge was investigated as well as the residual concentrations in biochar produced from spiked and eight native sewage sludge samples from three waste water treatment plants. Additionally, the solid contents of source material and product were compared, which showed a considerable increase of the solid content after filtration by HTC. All pharmaceuticals except sulfamethoxazole, which remained below the limit of quantification, frequently occurred in the investigated sewage sludges in the ?g/kg dry matter (DM) range. Diclofenac, carbamazepine, metoprolol and propranolol were detected in all sludge samples with a maximum concentration of 800 ?g/kgDM for metoprolol. HTC was investigated regarding its contaminant removal efficiency using spiked sewage sludge. Pharmaceutical concentrations were reduced for seven compounds by 39% (metoprolol) to?97% (carbamazepine). In native biochar samples the four compounds phenazone, carbamazepine, metoprolol and propranolol were detected, which confirmed that the HTC process can reduce the load of micropollutants. In contrast to the other investigated compounds phenazone concentration increased, which was further addressed in thermal behaviour studies including three structurally similar potential precursors. PMID:26282751

  1. Restoration of acidic mine spoils with sewage sludge: II measurement of solids applied

    SciTech Connect

    Stucky, D.J.; Zoeller, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sewage sludge was incorporated in acidic strip mine spoils at rates equivalent to 0, 224, 336, and 448 dry metric tons (dmt)/ha and placed in pots in a greenhouse. Spoil parameters were determined 48 hours after sludge incorporation, Time Planting (P), and five months after orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) was planted, Time Harvest (H), in the pots. Parameters measured were: pH, organic matter content (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), electrical conductivity (EC) and yield. Values for each parameter were significantly different at the two sampling times. Correlation coefficient values were calculated for all parameters versus rates of applied sewage sludge and all parameters versus each other. Multiple regressions were performed, stepwise, for all parameters versus rates of applied sewage sludge. Equations to predict amounts of sewage sludge incorporated in spoils were derived for individual and multiple parameters. Generally, measurements made at Time P achieved the highest correlation coefficient and multiple correlation coefficient values; therefore, the authors concluded data from Time P had the greatest predictability value. The most important value measured to predict rate of applied sewage sludge was pH and some additional accuracy was obtained by including CEC in equation. This experiment indicated that soil properties can be used to estimate amounts of sewage sludge solids required to reclaim acidic mine spoils and to estimate quantities incorporated.

  2. Heavy metal speciation an uptake to durum wheat from sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Ketchum, L.H.; Frost, H.L.

    1998-07-01

    This project focused on detection of heavy metal accumulation in durum wheat from sewage sludge or commercial phosphate fertilizer application, using Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Four parts of the durum wheat plants were separated and analyzed (i.e., root, stem, leaves, and grain). Studies compared the metal uptake resulting from sewage sludge application and from commercial fertilizer. Sludges and fertilizers were applied in one application, except for one study which considered the effect of the same sludge dosage, except in two applications. The main objective of this research is to improve the grain quality by minimizing the accumulation of toxic elements in durum wheat.

  3. Chemical and microbial changes during autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shugen; Song, Fanyong; Zhu, Nanwen; Yuan, Haiping; Cheng, Jiehong

    2010-12-01

    Autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) is a promising process for sewage sludge stabilization. Batch experiments were conducted on sewage sludge collected from a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Shanghai, China, to evaluate the effectiveness of the ATAD system by determining changes in volatile suspended solids (VSSs) and to study its microbial diversity by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified by PCR. The digestion system achieved rapid degradation of the organic substrate at 55 degrees C. The VSS was removed by up to 45.3% and 50.4% at 216 h and 264 h, respectively, while NH(4)(+)-N, chemical oxidation demand and total organic carbon of supernatant as well as total nitrogen did not exhibit obvious declines after 168 h. The microbial diversity changed during the thermophilic process as thermophiles belonging to the Hydrogenophilaceae, Thermotogaceae, Clostridiaceae and the genus Ureibacillus replaced less temperature-tolerant microorganisms such as Sphingobacteriaceae and the genus Trichococcus. PMID:20696567

  4. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    During second quarter 1992, the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) of Savannah River Plant were sampled and analyzed for constituents required quarterly by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076. None of these analytes exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria at either sewage sludge site. The F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site wells also were analyzed for a number of other constituents not required by the permit. Of these constituents, tritium exceeded the PDWS in wells FSS 2D and 3D. Lead exceeded the PDWS in well FSS 3D. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well FSS 4D, and manganese exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criterion in wells FSS 2D and 3D.

  5. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    During second quarter 1992, the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) of Savannah River Plant were sampled and analyzed for constituents required quarterly by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076. None of these analytes exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria at either sewage sludge site. The F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site wells also were analyzed for a number of other constituents not required by the permit. Of these constituents, tritium exceeded the PDWS in wells FSS 2D and 3D. Lead exceeded the PDWS in well FSS 3D. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well FSS 4D, and manganese exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criterion in wells FSS 2D and 3D.

  6. F- and H-area Sewage Sludge Application Sites: Groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Currently, no permit-required analytes exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites. Tritium and aluminum have been the primary nonpermit constituents exceeding standards at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. These constituents were not analyzed second quarter 1993. Other constituents also have exceeded standards at this site, but only sporadically, and none of those were analyzed second quarter 1993.

  7. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Historically and currently, no permit-required analytes exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites except iron, lead, and manganese, which occur in elevated concentrations frequently in FSS wells and occasionally in HSS wells. Tritium and aluminum are the primary nonpermit constituents that exceed standards at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. Other constituents also exceed standards at this site but only sporadically.

  8. Impact of Fertilisation with Sewage Sludge on the Content of Lead in Salix Viminalis Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieciechowicz, Aleksandra; Sadecka, Zofia; Myszograj, Sylwia; Suchowska-Kisielewicz, Monika

    2014-06-01

    Sewage sludge is considered to be high quality fertilizer. Therefore, in Poland, it is used to fertilize energy plants. On the one hand, it allows using large amount of sewage sludge on the other hand it contributes to the production of renewable energy. The study was based on monitoring the plantation of energetic willow Salix viminalis fertilized with sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant in Sulechow. The aim of the investigation was to study changes of the lead content in different parts collected during a year and analyze the differences in the accumulation of lead in the plants planted at different times. The results of the study showed that the amount of lead content in the biomass willow was not influenced by sewage sludge used as a fertilizer.

  9. MICROBIALLY MEDIATED GROWTH SUPPRESSION AND DEATH OF SALMONELLA IN COMPOSTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of compost microflora in the suppression of salmonella regrowth in composted sewage sludge was investigated. Microbial inhibition studies of salmonella growth were conducted on nutrient agar, in composts that had been subjected to different temperatures in compost piles,...

  10. SUMMARY REPORT ON CORROSIVITY STUDIES IN COINCINERATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corrosion probe exposures were conducted in the Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Incinerator to determine the effects of burning low-chloride sewage sludge with municipal refuse. Probes having controlled temperature gradients were used to measure corrosion rates for exposure times up to ...

  11. The fate of radionuclides in sewage sludge applied to land

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, H.L.; Van Miegroet, H.; Larsen, I.L.; Walzer, A.E. ); Carlton, J.E. )

    1990-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge containing up to 12 pCi/g {sup 137}Cs, 20 pCi/g {sup 60}Co, and 300 ppm U was injected in a pasture (43 Mg/ha) and sprayed over a young pine plantation (34 Mg/ha). In the pasture, radionuclides were largely retained in the upper 15 cm of the soil, and only about 15% moved below 15 cm. Sludge rapidly infiltrated the soil on the pine plantation. One year after application, at least 85% of the {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and U were found in the upper 7 cm of the pine plantation, with only about 15% moving into the 7- to 15-cm strata. On-site total added radiation dose was 2 to 6 mrem/year. Radionuclides were not detected above background in soil solutions at {approximately}50 cm depth or in shallow down-gradient groundwater wells. Surface runoff from application areas did not have elevated radionuclide concentrations. Concentrations of these radionuclides increased slightly in vegetation on treated sites, and uranium was notably higher in earthworms. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Llll of... - Operating Parameters for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sludge Incineration Units a 3 Table 3 to Subpart LLLL of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60, Subpt. LLLL, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart LLLL of Part 60—Operating Parameters for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a For...

  13. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Llll of... - Operating Parameters for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sludge Incineration Units a 3 Table 3 to Subpart LLLL of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60, Subpt. LLLL, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart LLLL of Part 60—Operating Parameters for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a For...

  14. Enhanced dewaterability of anaerobically digested sewage sludge using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans culture as sludge conditioner.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Ravindran, Balasubramani; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Kurade, Mayur B; Yu, Shuk-Man; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2014-10-01

    Role of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans culture in bioacidification and dewaterability of anaerobically digested sewage sludge (ADS) was investigated. A. ferrooxidans culture grown in 9K medium along with Fe(2+) produced iron flocculant containing, secondary iron minerals and biopolymeric substances as confirmed by FT-IR, XRD, and SEM-EDX. Bioacidification of ADS was performed using 10% (v/v) A. ferrooxidans culture, isolated cells and cell-free culture filtrate; and dewaterability was assessed using the capillary suction time (CST) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF). Isolated bacterial cells significantly (P<0.05) reduced the sludge dewaterability when supplemented with Fe(2+) while the whole culture and cell-free filtrate rapidly acidified the sludge without Fe(2+) and showed significant reduction of CST (71.3-73.5%) and SRF (84-88%). Results clearly indicated that the culture and filtrate of the A. ferrooxidans facilitated rapid sludge dewaterability while the cells supplemented with Fe(2+) also enhanced dewaterability but required 2-4 days. PMID:25064335

  15. PAHs content of sewage sludge in Europe and its use as soil fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Suciu, Nicoleta A; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Trevisan, Marco

    2015-07-01

    The European Commission has been planning limits for organic pollutants in sewage sludge for 14years; however no legislation has been implemented. This is mainly due to lack of data on sewage sludge contamination by organic pollutants, and possible negative effects to the environment. However, waste management has become an acute problem in many countries. Management options require extensive waste characterization, since many of them may contain compounds which could be harmful to the ecosystem, such as heavy metals, organic pollutants. The present study aims to show the true European position, regarding the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content of sewage sludge, by comparing the Italian PAHs content with European Union countries, and at assessing the suitability of sewage sludge as soil fertilizer. The FOCUS Pearl model was used to estimate the concentration of benzo [a] pyrene (B(a)Pyr), the most toxic PAH in soil, and its exposure to organisms was then evaluated. The simulated B(a)Pyr and PAHs, expressed as B(a)Pyr, concentrations in soil were much lower than the B(a)Pyr's most conservative lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) for soil organisms. Furthermore, the results obtained indicate that it is more appropriate to apply 5tha(-1) sewage sludge annually than 15tha(-1) triennially. Results suggest, the EU maximum recommended limit of 6mgkg(-)(1) PAHs in sewage sludge, should be conservative enough to avoid groundwater contamination and negative effects on soil organisms. PMID:25872863

  16. Soil Microbial Functional and Fungal Diversity as Influenced by Municipal Sewage Sludge Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Fr?c, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Nwaichi, Eucharia Oluchi

    2014-01-01

    Safe disposal of municipal sewage sludge is a challenging global environmental concern. The aim of this study was to assess the response of soil microbial functional diversity to the accumulation of municipal sewage sludge during landfill storage. Soil samples of a municipal sewage sludge (SS) and from a sewage sludge landfill that was 3 m from a SS landfill (SS3) were analyzed relative to an undisturbed reference soil. Biolog EcoPlatesTM were inoculated with a soil suspension, and the Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon-Weaver index (H) were calculated to interpret the results. The fungi isolated from the sewage sludge were identified using comparative rDNA sequencing of the LSU D2 region. The MicroSEQ® ID software was used to assess the raw sequence files, perform sequence matching to the MicroSEQ® ID-validated reference database and create Neighbor-Joining trees. Moreover, the genera of fungi isolated from the soil were identified using microscopic methods. Municipal sewage sludge can serve as a habitat for plant pathogens and as a source of pathogen strains for biotechnological applications. PMID:25170681

  17. Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. ISCORS ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVITY IN SEWAGE SLUDGE: MODELING TO ASSESS RADIATION DOSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tran...

  20. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning sewage sludge dewatering techniques and equipment in industrial and municipal waste treatment systems. Topics include dewatering processes and control, activated sludge systems, fluidized bed systems, biological treatment, heavy metal recovery, and economic aspects. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment and disposal of sewage sludges. Citations discuss sludge digestion, dewatering, disinfection, stabilization, chlorination, and desulfurization. Topics include pretreatment programs, land disposal, incineration, and waste utilization. Environmental monitoring and protection, federal regulations, and legal aspects are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. TOXICITY OF SEWAGE SLUDGE TO 'RHEPOXYNIUS ABRONIUS', A MARINE BENTHIC AMPHIPOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Relative toxicity of sewage sludges from six treatment plants was determined by the LC50 of sludge-sediment mixtures to the infaunal marine amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius. LC50s were measured as the increase in the percent total volatile solids (TVS) of the mixture due to the add...

  3. Comparison of some spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties of humic acids extracted from sewage sludge and bottom sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polak, J.; Bartoszek, M.; Su?kowski, W. W.

    2009-04-01

    Comparison of the physico-chemical properties was carried out for humic acids extracted from sewage sludge and bottom sediments. The isolated humic acids were investigated by means of EPR, IR, UV/vis spectroscopic methods and elementary analysis AE. On the basis of earlier studies it was stated that humic acids extracted from sewage sludge can be divided into humic acids extracted from raw sewage sludge and from sewage sludge after the digestion process. The digestion process was found to have the most significant effect on the physico-chemical properties of humic acids extracted from sludge during sewage treatment. Humic acids extracted from sewage sludge had higher free radical concentration than humic acid extracted from bottom sediments. Values of the g-factor were similar for all studied samples. However, it is noteworthy that g-factor values for humic acid extracted from raw sewage sludge and from bottom sediments were lower in comparison to the humic acid extracted from sewage sludge after the fermentation processes. The IR spectra of all studied humic acids confirmed the presence of functional groups characteristic for humic substances. It was also observed that humic acids extracted from bottom sediments had a more aromatic character and contained less carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen than those extracted from the sewage sludge.

  4. Thc continuous emission monitoring guidance for part 503 sewage sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-30

    The Envrionmental Protection Agency's guidance document for monitoring of total hydrocarbons (THCs) at sewage sludge incinerators was finalized in response to comments received from Federal, State and local government agencies. The document contains recommendations for compliance with these requirements. It addresses installation, calibration, operation, and maintenance procedures for sewage sludge incinerators in the following areas: (1) THC continuous emissions monitoring (CEM); (2) oxygen CEM; (3) moisture CEM; (4) quality assurance; and (5) recordkeeping and reporting. The document will provide guidance for both the interim and long-term sludge permitting programs.

  5. Integrated drying and incineration of wet sewage sludge in combined bubbling and circulating fluidized bed units.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiyuan; Li, Yunyu; Lu, Qinggang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yao, Yao; Bao, Shaolin

    2014-12-01

    An original integrated drying and incineration technique is proposed to dispose of sewage sludge with moisture content of about 80% in a circulating fluidized bed. This system combines a bubbling fluidized bed dryer with a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. After drying, sewage sludge with moisture less than 20% is transported directly and continuously from the fluidized bed dryer into a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. Pilot plant results showed that integrated drying and incineration is feasible in a unique single system. A 100 t/d Sewage Sludge Incineration Demonstration Project was constructed at the Qige sewage treatment plant in Hangzhou City in China. The operational performance showed that the main operation results conformed to the design values, from which it can be concluded that the scale-up of this technique is deemed both feasible and successful. PMID:25263217

  6. Model of the sewage sludge-straw composting process integrating different heat generation capacities of mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Bia?obrzewski, I; Mikš-Krajnik, M; Dach, J; Markowski, M; Czeka?a, W; G?uchowska, K

    2015-09-01

    A mathematical model integrating 11 first-order differential equations describing the dynamics of the aerobic composting process of sewage sludge was proposed. The model incorporates two microbial groups (mesophiles and thermophiles) characterized by different capacities of heat generation. Microbial growth rates, heat and mass transfer and degradation kinetics of the sewage sludge containing straw were modeled over a period of 36days. The coefficients of metabolic heat generation for mesophiles were 4.32×10(6) and 6.93×10(6)J/kg, for winter and summer seasons, respectively. However, for thermophiles, they were comparable for both seasons reaching 10.91×10(6) and 10.51×10(6)J/kg. In the model, significant parameters for microbial growth control were temperature and the content of easily hydrolysable substrate. The proposed model provided a satisfactory fit to experimental data captured for cuboid-shaped bioreactors with forced aeration. Model predictions of specific microbial populations and substrate decomposition were crucial for accurate description and understanding of sewage sludge composting. PMID:26087644

  7. Microwave Thermal Hydrolysis Of Sewage Sludge As A Pretreatment Stage For Anaerobic Digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, W.; Wang, W.; Xun, R.

    2008-02-01

    This article focuses on the effects of microwave thermal hydrolysis on sewage sludge anaerobic digestion. Volatile suspended solid (VSS) and COD solubilization of treated sludge were investigated. It was found that the microwave hydrolysis provided a rapid and efficient process to release organics from sludge. The increase of organic dissolution ratio was not obvious when holding time was over 5 min. The effect of the VSS solubilization was mainly dependent on temperature. The highest value of VSS dissolving ratio, 36.4%, was obtained at 170 °C for 30 min. COD dissolving ratio was about 25% at 170 °C. BMP test of excess sludge and mixture of primary and excess sludge proved the increase of methane production. Total biogas production of microwave treated mixture sludge increased by 12.9% to 20.2% over control after 30 days digestion. For excess sludge, biogas production was 11.1% to 25.9% higher than untreated sludge.

  8. Comparative assessment of municipal sewage sludge incineration, gasification and pyrolysis for a sustainable sludge-to-energy management in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Samolada, M.C.; Zabaniotou, A.A.

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The high output of MSS highlights the need for alternative routes of valorization. • Evaluation of 3 sludge-to-energy valorisation methods through SWOT analysis. • Pyrolysis is an energy and material recovery process resulting to ‘zero waste’. • Identification of challenges and barriers for MSS pyrolysis in Greece was investigated. • Adopters of pyrolysis systems face the challenge of finding new product markets. - Abstract: For a sustainable municipal sewage sludge management, not only the available technology, but also other parameters, such as policy regulations and socio-economic issues should be taken in account. In this study, the current status of both European and Greek Legislation on waste management, with a special insight in municipal sewage sludge, is presented. A SWOT analysis was further developed for comparison of pyrolysis with incineration and gasification and results are presented. Pyrolysis seems to be the optimal thermochemical treatment option compared to incineration and gasification. Sewage sludge pyrolysis is favorable for energy savings, material recovery and high added materials production, providing a ‘zero waste’ solution. Finally, identification of challenges and barriers for sewage sludge pyrolysis deployment in Greece was investigated.

  9. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, fourth quarter 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-03-01

    Eleven sewage sludge application sites at the Savannah River Site (SRS) were originally the subject of a research program, begun in 1980, using domestic sewage sludge to reclaim borrow pits and to enhance forest productivity at SRS. Currently, the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites are the only remaining active sludge application sites. During fourth quarter 1991, samples from the four monitoring wells at the F-Area site (FSS series) and three monitoring wells at the H-Area site (HSS series) were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, and certain pesticides, herbicides, toxic metals, water quality indicators, and radionuclides. This report describes monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standards (PDWS) and the SRS flagging criteria.

  10. 17 -Estradiol-Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Activated Sludge

    E-print Network

    Chu, Kung-Hui "Bella"

    17 -Estradiol-Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Activated Sludge C H A N G - P I N G Y U , H Y U N G-degrading bacteria (strains KC1-14) were isolated from activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant and estrone or estrogenic activity was detected after 5 days, suggesting that strain KC8 could degrade 17

  11. Improving material and energy recovery from the sewage sludge and biomass residues.

    PubMed

    Kliopova, Irina; Makarskien?, Kristina

    2015-02-01

    Sewage sludge management is a big problem all over the world because of its large quantities and harmful impact on the environment. Energy conversion through fermentation, compost production from treated sludge for agriculture, especially for growing energetic plants, and treated sludge use for soil remediation are widely used alternatives of sewage sludge management. Recently, in many EU countries the popularity of these methods has decreased due to the sewage sludge content (heavy metals, organic pollutions and other hazards materials). This paper presents research results where the possibility of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production from the separate fraction (10-40 mm) of pre-composted materials--sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plant and biomass residues has been evaluated. The remaining fractions of pre-composted materials can be successfully used for compost or fertiliser production, as the concentration of heavy metals in the analysed composition is reduced in comparison with sewage sludge. During the experiment presented in this paper the volume of analysed biodegradable waste was reduced by 96%: about 20% of input biodegradable waste was recovered to SRF in the form of pellets with 14.25 MJ kg(-1) of the net calorific value, about 23% were composted, the rest--evaporated and discharged in a wastewater. The methods of material-energy balances and comparison analysis of experiment data have been chosen for the environmental impact assessment of this biodegradable waste management alternative. Results of the efficiency of energy recovery from sewage sludge by SRF production and burning, comparison analysis with widely used bio-fuel-sawdust and conclusions made are presented. PMID:25481696

  12. [Characteristics of speciation and evaluation of ecological risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge of Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng-Ran; Lei, Yong-Qian; Cai, Da-Chuan; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Rui; Pan, Jia-Chuan

    2014-02-01

    Contents of heavy metals in different sewage sludges were analyzed and the speciation distribution and bioavailability of heavy metals were investigated, and the risk assessment code (RAC) and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure for solid waste were used to evaluate the potential ecological risk and leaching toxicity risk of heavy metals in sludge samples, respectively. The results showed that contents of Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn were high and presented a great difference by different sources in sewage sludges. Most of heavy metals existed in non-residual fractions and percentages of the mobile fraction (acid soluble fraction) of heavy metals in acidic sludge were higher. According to the results of single extraction, 1 mol x L(-1) NaOAc solution (pH 5.0) and 0.02 mol x L(-1) EDTA + 0.5 mol x L(-1) NH4OAc solution (pH 4.6) were suitable for evaluating bioavailable heavy metals in acidic and alkaline sludge, respectively. Percentages of bioavailable heavy metals were higher with the stronger of sludge acidity. The mobile ability of heavy metals resulted in the high ecological risk of sludge samples, and the bioavailability of heavy metals caused acidic sludges with a very high ecological risk but alkaline sludges with the middle ecological risk. Leaching toxicity risk was very high in sludge samples except domestic sewage sludge. After the removal of bioavailable heavy metals, leaching toxicity risk of sludge samples was still high in spite of its decrease; however, part type of sludges could be implemented landfill disposal. PMID:24812965

  13. Combustion characteristics of paper and sewage sludge in a pilot-scale fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-Ho; Chung, Jinwook

    2015-01-01

    This study characterizes the combustion of paper and sewage sludge in a pilot-scale fluidized bed. The highest temperature during combustion within the system was found at the surface of the fluidized bed. Paper sludge containing roughly 59.8% water was burned without auxiliary fuel, but auxiliary fuel was required to incinerate the sewage sludge, which contained about 79.3% water. The stability of operation was monitored based on the average pressure and the standard deviation of pressure fluctuations. The average pressure at the surface of the fluidized bed decreased as the sludge feed rate increased. However, the standard deviation of pressure fluctuations increased as the sludge feed rate increased. Finally, carbon monoxide (CO) emissions decreased as oxygen content increased in the flue gas, and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions were also tied with oxygen content. PMID:26061904

  14. Toxic effects of sewage sludges on freshwater edible fish Cirrhina mrigala

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, L.; Coutinho, C.; Rao, C.V.

    1996-03-01

    Municipal sewage sludges have been advocated by several investigators as a suitable dietary supplement in aquaculture because of the protein contained in it. Other researchers discourage their usage for a variety of reasons, the most common being the presence of heavy metals and pesticides that accumulate in various organs, thereby hampering growth in fish. Settled sewage, if palatable however, would prove to be an excellent low-cost nutrient in intensive aquaculture farms. Sludges may be administered in the aqueous or dehydrated condition, and in either case would be suitable for even fry and fingerlings, if consumed soon after application because of the small particle size. The absence of reports on the effect of sewage sludges from the wastewater treatment plant on animals prompted this investigation, though heavy metal analysis revealed the presence of appreciable quantities of Zn, Cu, Pb and moderate amounts of Ni, Cr, Cd in aqueous activate-sludge. In this study the effect of activated sludge (AcS), raw sludge (RS) in acute and chronic bioassays and hydrated digested sludge (DS) and dehydrated (sun-dried) digested sludge (KS) in chronic feeding experiment on survival, behavior and whole body acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity of Cirrhina mrigala, a freshwater edible fish, were investigated.

  15. Feasibility of bioleaching combined with Fenton oxidation to improve sewage sludge dewaterability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changgeng; Zhang, Panyue; Zeng, Chenghua; Zeng, Guangming; Xu, Guoyin; Huang, Yi

    2015-02-01

    A novel joint method of bioleaching with Fenton oxidation was applied to condition sewage sludge. The specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and moisture of sludge cake (MSC) were adopted to evaluate the improvement of sludge dewaterability. After 2-day bioleaching, the sludge pH dropped to about 2.5 which satisfied the acidic condition for Fenton oxidation. Meanwhile, the SRF declined from 6.45×10(10) to 2.07×10(10) s2/g, and MSC decreased from 91.42% to 87.66%. The bioleached sludge was further conditioned with Fenton oxidation. From an economical point of view, the optimal dosages of H2O2 and Fe2+ were 0.12 and 0.036 mol/L, respectively, and the optimal reaction time was 60 min. Under optimal conditions, SRF, volatile solids reduction, and MSC were 3.43×10(8) s2/g, 36.93%, and 79.58%, respectively. The stability and settleability of sewage sludge were both improved significantly. Besides, the results indicated that bioleaching-Fenton oxidation was more efficient in dewatering the sewage sludge than traditional Fenton oxidation. The sludge conditioning mechanisms by bioleaching-Fenton oxidation might mainly include the flocculation effects and the releases of extracellular polymeric substances-bound water and intercellular water. PMID:25662236

  16. Occurrence of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in sewage sludge from Shanghai: implications for source and environmental burden.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Nan; Chen, Ling; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    Sewage sludge is regarded as one important sink for hydrophobic pollutants, including hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), but the current pollution situation of HBCD in sludge from China is unknown, despite that many studies have reported its occurrence in other environmental compartments across China. In this study, we collected 27 sludge samples from Shanghai to investigate the occurrence and distribution, to examine the diastereoisomer profile and sources, and to provide advice for future pollution control. HBCD is ubiquitous in sludge with a mean concentration of 4.7ngg(-1) dry weight (dw) (range: 0.10-37.2ngg(-1) dw), lower than data from European countries and the United States. Sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) treating industrial wastewater contained high levels of HBCD. However, no significant relationships were found between HBCD and four parameters (total organic carbon, the percentage of industrial wastewater, capacity and sludge production of WWTPs). ?- and ?-HBCD were two main components with the corresponding contributions of 47.9% and 48.0%. Comparing with the annual production of HBCD in China, its storage in sewage sludge is extremely low (less than 0.002%), indicating future release of HBCD from waste polystyrene foam will be significant, and careful considerations should be taken during waste disposal. To our knowledge, this is the first report on HBCD in sewage sludge from China. PMID:25240774

  17. Combined effects of Fenton peroxidation and CaO conditioning on sewage sludge thermal drying.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Liu, Peng; Hu, Hongyun; Zhang, Qiang; Wu, Zhenyu; Yang, Jiakuan; Yao, Hong

    2014-12-01

    Joint application of Fenton's reagent and CaO can dramatically enhance sludge dewaterability, thus are also likely to affect subsequent thermal drying process. This study investigated the synergistic effects of the two conditioners on the thermal drying behavior of sewage sludge and the emission characteristics of main sulfur-/nitrogen-containing gases. According to the results, Fenton peroxidation combined with CaO conditioning efficiently promoted sludge heat transfer, reduced the amounts of both free and bound water, and created porous structure in solids to provide evaporation channels, thus producing significant positive effects on sludge drying performance. In this case, the required time for drying was shortened to one-third. Additionally, joint usage of Fenton's reagent and CaO did not increase the losses of organic matter during sludge drying process. Meanwhile, they facilitated the formation of sulfate and sulfonic acid/sulfone, leading to sulfur retention in dried sludge. Both of Fenton peroxidation and CaO conditioning promoted the oxidation, decomposition, and/or dissolution of protein and inorganic nitrogen in sludge pre-treatment. As a consequence, the emissions of sulfurous and nitrogenous gases from dewatered sludge drying were greatly suppressed. These indicate that combining Fenton peroxidation with CaO conditioning is a promising strategy to improve drying efficiency of sewage sludge and to control sulfur and nitrogen contaminants during sludge thermal drying process. PMID:25289973

  18. Sewage sludge stabilisation with calcium hydroxide: effect on physicochemical properties and molecular composition.

    PubMed

    Czechowski, Franciszek; Marcinkowski, Tadeusz

    2006-05-01

    Raw primary sewage sludge (Wastewater Treatment Plant of Krotoszyn, SW Poland) and its mixtures with 3%d, 6%d, 9%d, 12%d and 24%d of calcium hydroxide were stabilised for 1 and 35 days. Changes of the sludge physicochemical properties and molecular composition, caused by alkaline agent in course of stabilisation process, are recognised. A basic physicochemical data on the sludge cake and filtrate after 1 and 35 days of stabilisation process are given. Soxhlet extracts from the sludge cakes stabilised for 35 days as well pyrolysis and pyrolysis in situ methylation (using tetramethylammonium hydroxide-TMAH) products of respective pre-extracted cake residues were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Increase of calcium hydroxide concentration in the sludge mixture causes enhanced ammonia release, preferential hydrolyses of fats and proteins from the sludge macromolecular network and transformation of free fatty acids contained in the sludge lipids, as well as these released hydrolytically, to their calcium salts. The sewage sludge stabilisation with calcium hydroxide has no effect on homological assemblage and content of unbound stanol and sterol compounds in the sludge lipids and these bound into macromolecular network. Biogenic n-alkanes and anthropogenic linear alkylbenzenes were detected as minor components in the lipids and pyrolytic products from the pre-extracted cake residue, respectively. The alkaline agent used for the sludge stabilisation accelerates equilibration of the process and reduces content of pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:16620904

  19. Removal mechanisms and kinetics of trace tetracycline by two types of activated sludge treating freshwater sewage and saline sewage.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

    2013-05-01

    Understanding the removal mechanisms and kinetics of trace tetracycline by activated sludge is critical to both evaluation of tetracycline elimination in sewage treatment plants and risk assessment/management of tetracycline released to soil environment due to the application of biosolids as fertilizer. Adsorption is found to be the primary removal mechanism while biodegradation, volatilization, and hydrolysis can be ignored in this study. Adsorption kinetics was well described by pseudo-second-order model. Faster adsorption rate (k? = 2.04 × 10(-2)?g min(-1) ?g(-1)) and greater adsorption capacity (qe = 38.8 ?g g(-1)) were found in activated sludge treating freshwater sewage. Different adsorption rate and adsorption capacity resulted from chemical properties of sewage matrix rather than activated sludge surface characteristics. The decrease of tetracycline adsorption in saline sewage was mainly due to Mg(2+) which significantly reduced adsorption distribution coefficient (Kd) from 12,990 ± 260 to 4,690 ± 180 L kg(-1). Species-specific adsorption distribution coefficients followed the order of Kd???>Kd???>Kd???. Contribution of zwitterionic tetracycline to the overall adsorption was >90 % in the actual pH range in aeration tank. Adsorption of tetracycline in a wide range of temperature (10 to 35 °C) followed the Freundlich adsorption isotherm well. PMID:23054779

  20. The comparison of the migration and transformation behavior of heavy metals during pyrolysis and liquefaction of municipal sewage sludge, paper mill sludge, and slaughterhouse sludge.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jianguang; Yuan, Xingzhong; Leng, Lijian; Huang, Huajun; Jiang, Longbo; Wang, Hou; Chen, Xiaohong; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-12-01

    Municipal sewage sludge, paper mill sludge, and slaughterhouse sludge were pyrolyzed and liquefied for the production of bio-char. The migration and transformation behavior of Cu, Cr, and Zn during pyrolysis and liquefaction of these sludges were studied. Pyrolysis and liquefaction promoted mobile fraction (F1 and F2) to stable fraction (F3 and F4). The results showed that pyrolysis and liquefaction largely affected the redistribution of Cu and Zn in raw materials. The environmental risk assessment results indicated that the environmental risk levels of Cu and Zn were significantly reduced in bio-char, and risk level of Cr was slightly decreased after pyrolysis or liquefaction. Both pyrolysis and liquefaction were promising detoxification technologies for the three sludges in terms of the mitigation of heavy metals toxicity. It was suggested that dewatered sludge could be reduced toxicity/risk before utilization by pyrolysis or liquefaction technology, especially for Cu and Zn in slaughterhouse sludge. PMID:26360600

  1. Modeling of the reburning process using sewage sludge-derived syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Werle, Sebastian

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasification provides an attractive method for sewage sludges treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasification generates a fuel gas (syngas) which can be used as a reburning fuel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reburning potential of sewage sludge gasification gases was defined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical simulation of co-combustion of syngases in coal fired boiler has been done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculation shows that analysed syngases can provide higher than 80% reduction of NO{sub x}. - Abstract: Gasification of sewage sludge can provide clean and effective reburning fuel for combustion applications. The motivation of this work was to define the reburning potential of the sewage sludge gasification gas (syngas). A numerical simulation of the co-combustion process of syngas in a hard coal-fired boiler was done. All calculations were performed using the Chemkin programme and a plug-flow reactor model was used. The calculations were modelled using the GRI-Mech 2.11 mechanism. The highest conversions for nitric oxide (NO) were obtained at temperatures of approximately 1000-1200 K. The combustion of hard coal with sewage sludge-derived syngas reduces NO emissions. The highest reduction efficiency (>90%) was achieved when the molar flow ratio of the syngas was 15%. Calculations show that the analysed syngas can provide better results than advanced reburning (connected with ammonia injection), which is more complicated process.

  2. Bio-oil from thermo-chemical hydro-liquefaction of wet sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Malins, Kristaps; Kampars, Valdis; Brinks, Janis; Neibolte, Ilze; Murnieks, Raimonds; Kampare, Ruta

    2015-01-01

    The present work demonstrates the influence of experimental conditions such as weight ratio of sewage sludge to water (1/0-1/15), reaction temperature (200-350°C), initial H2 pressure (2.0-11.0MPa), residence time (10-100min) and type of catalysts (Na2CO3, Raney nickel, FeSO4, MoS2) on hydro-liquefaction process of sewage sludge. High amount of water improves the hydro-liquefaction process of sewage sludge by increasing the yield of bio-oil and the total conversion. The highest yield of bio-oil (47.79 wt.%) from sewage sludge was obtained with initial H2 pressure 5.0MPa, reaction temperature 300°C, and residence time 40min. Under these experimental conditions, using weight ratio of sewage sludge to water 1/5, catalyst (FeSO4) - 5 wt.% of dry SS, mixing speed 350rpm the obtained bio-oil had the highest energy recovery (69.84%), total conversion (70.64%) and its calorific value was 35.22MJ/kg. PMID:25827249

  3. Influence of anaerobic co-digestion of sewage and brewery sludges on biogas production and sludge quality.

    PubMed

    Pecharaply, Athapol; Parkpian, Preeda; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2007-06-01

    This research investigated operating parameters and treatment efficiency for the digestion of sewage and brewery sludge. The prime objective of this study was to enhance the quality of treated sludge for use as agriculture fertilizer and to enhance biogas production, a by-product that can be used as an energy source. Three bench-scale completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) anaerobic digesters were operated at mesophilic condition (36+/-0.2 degrees C). A mixture of sewage and brewery sludge were used as substrates at ratios of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, based on wet weight basis (w/w). For each digester, the solids retention times (SRT) were 20 days. The organic loading and volatile solids loading were between 1.3-2.2 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/m3/day and 0.9-1.5 kg/m3/day, respectively. The digester fed with brewery sludge as co-substrate yielded higher treatment efficiency than sewage sludge alone. The removal efficiencies measured in terms of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and total chemical oxygen demands (TCOD) ranged from 40% to 75% and 22% to 35%, respectively. Higher SCOD and TCOD removal efficiencies were obtained when higher fractions of brewery sludge was added to the substrate mixture. Removal efficiency was lowest for sewage sludge alone. Measured volatile solid (VS) reduction ranged from 15% to 20%. Adding a higher fraction of brewery sludge to the mixture increased the VS reduction percentage. The biogas production and methane yield also increased with increase in brewery sludge addition to the digester mixture. The methane content present in biogas of each digester exceeded 70% indicating the system was functioning as an anaerobic process. Likewise the ratio of brewery sewage influenced not only the treatment efficiency but also improved quality of treated sludge by lowering number of pathogen (less than 2 MPN/g of dried sludge) and maintaining a high nutrient concentration of nitrogen (N) 3.2-4.2%, phosphorus (P) 1.9-3.2% and potassium (K) 0.95-0.96%. The heavy metals, chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) remaining in digested sludge were present at relatively high levels (Cr 1,849-4,230 and Cu 930-2,526 mg/kg dried sludge). The metals were present as organic matter-bound and sulfide-bound fractions that are not soluble and available. The digested sludge could be safely applied to soil as a plant nutrient source, without fecal coliforms or heavy metals risk. A sludge mixture ratio of 25:75 (sewage:brewery), which generated the higher nutrient concentrations (N=4.22%, P=3.20% and K=0.95%), biogas production and treatment efficiency meet the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) safety guidelines required for agricultural application. Biogas production and methane at the 25:75 ratio (sewage:brewery) yielded highest amount of VSremoved (0.65 m3/kg) and CODremoved (220 L/kg), respectively. PMID:17558772

  4. Ecotoxicological evaluation of the bioleaching treatment of sewage sludges contaminated with heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Renoux, A.Y.; Tyagi, R.D.; Paquette, L.; Samson, R.

    1995-12-31

    A new decontamination technology of sewage sludge, the bioleaching of heavy metals, was assessed using ecotoxicity bioassays. Sewage sludges, treated or non-treated, were mixed with a non-contaminated soil used as a negative control at a rate of 1 to 100 g per liter of soil. Aqueous elutriates (TCLP) of the sludges were used for the aqueous bioassays. The bioleaching of metals reduced the toxic effects associated with sludge for most of the bioassays, although the sludge after treatment exhibited an inherent level of toxicity at high loading rates. With respect to seed germination, bioleached sludge was less toxic (EC50 barley: 53 g/L; lettuce: 13.6) than the non-treated (72; 16.8 g/L). The treated sludge stimulated the barley growth at > 5 6 g/L. The non-treated causes an inhibition at 100 g/L. Earthworms survived in up to 56 g/L of bioleached sludge, compared to 32 g/L of the non-treated. The Microtox{reg_sign} EC50s were 4.0% and 8.4% for nontreated and treated sludges respectively. No genotoxicity (SOS Chromotest) in the sludge elutriates was detected, and no significant treatment effects were noticeable using the lettuce root elongation bioassay. The Daphnia magna mortality of the elutriate was increased with sludge treatment. However, the lettuce root elongation and D. magna mortality bioassay results were difficult to interpret due to variability in standard deviations. This study demonstrated that the ecotoxicological battery of bioassays, and particularly direct contact bioassays, can be used to assess sewage sludge remediation technologies.

  5. The assessment of sewage sludge gasification by-products toxicity by ecotoxicologial test.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2015-08-01

    The process of gasification of sewage sludge generates by-products, which may be contaminated with toxic and hazardous substances, both organic and inorganic. It is therefore important to assess the environmental risk associated with this type of waste. The feasibility of using an ecotoxicological tests for this purpose was determined in the presented study. The applied tests contained indicator organisms belonging to various biological groups (bacteria, crustaceans, plants). The subject of the study were solid (ash, char) and liquid (tar) by-products generated during gasification (in a fixed bed reactor) of dried sewage sludge from various wastewater treatment systems. The tested samples were classified based on their toxic effect. The sensitivity of the indicator organisms to the tested material was determined. In-house procedures for the preparation for toxicity analysis of both sewage sludge and by-products generated during the gasification were presented. The scope of work also included the determination of the effect of selected process parameters (temperature, amount of gasifying agent) on the toxicity of gasification by-products depending on the sewage sludge source. It was shown that both the type of sewage sludge and the parameters of the gasification process affects the toxicity of the by-products of gasification. However, the results of toxicity studies also depend on the type of ecotoxicological test used, which is associated with a different sensitivity of the indicator organisms. Nevertheless, it may be concluded that the by-products formed during the gasification of the low toxicity sewage sludge can be regarded as non-toxic or low toxic. However, the results analysis of the gasification of the toxic sludge were not conclusive, which leads to further research needs in this area. PMID:25827844

  6. Optimization of the hydrolytic-acidogenic anaerobic digestion stage (55 degrees C) of sewage sludge: influence of pH and solid content.

    PubMed

    Ponsá, Sergio; Ferrer, Ivet; Vázquez, Felícitas; Font, Xavier

    2008-08-01

    In conventional single-stage anaerobic digestion processes, hydrolysis is regarded as the rate-limiting step in the degradation of complex organic compounds, such as sewage sludge. Two-stage systems have been proposed to enhance this process. However, so far it is not clear which are the best conditions for a two-stage anaerobic digestion process of sewage sludge, in terms of temperature and hydraulic retention time of each stage. The aim of this work was to determine the optimal conditions for the hydrolytic-acidogenic stage treating real sludge with a high concentration of total solids (40-50gL(-1)) and volatile solids (25-30gL(-1)), named high concentration sludge. The variables considered for this first stage were: hydraulic retention time (1-4 days) and temperature (55 and 65 degrees C). Maximum volatile fatty acids generation was obtained at 4 days and 3 days hydraulic retention time for 55 degrees C and 65 degrees C, respectively. Consequently, 4 days hydraulic retention time and temperature of 55 degrees C were set as the working conditions for the hydrolytic-acidogenic stage treating high concentration sludge. The results obtained when operating with high concentration sludge were compared with a low concentration sludge consisting of 17-28gL(-1) total solids and 13-21gL(-1) volatile solids. The effect of decreasing the influent sludge pH, when working at the optimal conditions established, was also evaluated. PMID:18687452

  7. PROCEEDINGS: WORKSHOP ON EFFECTS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE QUALITY AND SOIL PROPERTIES ON PLANT UPTAKE OF SLUDGE-APPLIED TRACE CONSTITUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The workshop report summarizes the current research and understanding about transfer of contaminants from sewage sludge to the human food chain via land application. As such it addresses the important parameters in the system which can alter the rate and degree of movement of con...

  8. [Influencing Factors for Hydrolysis of Sewage Sludge Pretreated by Microwave-H2O2-Alkaline Process].

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui-lai; Wei, Yuan-song; Liu, Ji-bao

    2015-06-01

    Pretreatment can improve carbon source utilization of sludge. In this study, influencing factors of hydrolysis including hydrolysis time, ratio of seed sludge and temperature were investigated for sewage sludge pretreated by microwave-H2O2-alkaline process through batch experiments. Meanwhile, effects of hydrolysis and releasing characteristics of organic matters were also investigated under the optimized conditions. The results showed that the optimal hydrolysis time was 12 h and the optimized inoculum to substrate ratio (I/S) was 0.07. Under optimized conditions (12 h, I/S =0.07), SCOD, soluble proteins, soluble sugars and total VFAs content increased with increasing temperature, reaching the maximum at 65 degrees C. Acetic, propionic and iso-valeric acids were the dominant VFAs produced, and the percentage of acetic acid accounting for total VFAs was between 42.7% and 59.7%. In terms of carbon source composition, SCOD accounted for 37.8%-40.8% of total COD, soluble proteins accounted for 38.3%-41.3% of SCOD, soluble sugars accounted for 9.0%-9.3% of SCOD and total VFAs accounted for 3.3%-5.5% of SCOD. The COD/TN watio was between 15.79 and 16.50 in the sludge supernatant. The results of the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra and apparent molecular weight distributions showed that the fluorescence intensity of tyrosine-like substances in the soluble microbial products was the highest and increased with the increasing temperature in the sludge supernatant. After the sewage sludge was pretreated by microwave-H2O2-OH process, a lot of organic matters were released, including small molecule organics (M 100-350), while after hydrolysis, M, 3000-60,000 organics were degraded. PMID:26387329

  9. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Model Rule-Summary of Reporting Requirements for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Requirements for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a 6 Table 6 to Subpart MMMM of Part 60 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Existing Sewage Sludge... Reporting Requirements for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a Report Due date Contents...

  10. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Model Rule-Summary of Reporting Requirements for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Requirements for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a 6 Table 6 to Subpart MMMM of Part 60 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Existing Sewage Sludge... Reporting Requirements for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a Report Due date Contents...

  11. Residual and cumulative effects of soil application of sewage sludge on corn productivity.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Rosana Faria; Moriconi, Waldemore; Pazianotto, Ricardo Antônio Almeida

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of frequent and periodic applications of sewage sludge to the soil, on corn productivity. The experiment was carried out as part of an experiment that has been underway since 1999, using two types of sludge. One came from the Barueri Sewage Treatment Station (BS, which receives both household and industrial sludge) and the other came from the Franca Sewage Treatment Station (FS, which receives only household sludge). The Barueri sludge was applied from 1999 up to the agricultural year of 2003/2004. With the exception of the agricultural years of 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, the Franca sludge was applied up to 2008/2009. All the applications were made in November, with the exception of the first one which was made in April 1999. After harvesting the corn, the soil remained fallow until the next cultivation. The experiment was set up as a completely randomized block design with three replications and the following treatments: control without chemical fertilization or sludge application, mineral fertilization, and dose 1 and dose 2 of sludge (Franca and Barueri). The sludges were applied individually. Dose 1 was calculated by considering the recommended N application for corn. Dose 2 was twice dose 1. It was evident from this work that the successive application of sludge to the soil in doses sufficient to reach the productivity desired with the use of nitrogen fertilizers could cause environmental problems due to N losses to the environment and that the residual and cumulative effects should be considered when calculating the application of sludge to soil. PMID:24584586

  12. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report: Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Currently, iron, lead, and manganese are the only permit-required analytes that exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites. Tritium and aluminum are the nonpermit constituents exceeding standards. Other constituents have exceeded standards at this site previously, but only sporadically.

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of fruit and vegetable wastes and primary sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, B; Arathy, E C; Hemalatha, R; Philip, Jerry Elsa; Alwar Ramanujam, R

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW) and primary sewage sludge was carried out in a fed-batch reactor having a volume of 21 under ambient temperature conditions. Three different proportions (25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 in terms ofVS) of fruit and vegetable wastes and primary sewage sludge were studied for an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.0 g VS/ l.d and with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 25 days. The reactor with 75% FVW and 25% sewage sludge (in terms of VS) showed better performance in terms of VS reduction and biogas yield when compared to other two proportions. PMID:21114101

  14. The migration and transformation behaviors of heavy metals during the hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hua-Jun; Yuan, Xing-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Various hydrothermal treatment methods, including hydrothermal carbonization, liquefaction and sub/super-critical water gasification, have been applied to the disposal of sewage sludge for producing bio-materials or bio-fuels. It has become a research hotspot whether the heavy metals contained in sewage sludge can be well treated/stabilized after the hydrothermal treatments. This review firstly summarized the methods of assessing heavy metals' contamination level/risk and then discussed the migration and transformation behaviors of heavy metals from the following aspects: the effect of reaction temperature, the effect of additives (catalysts and other biomass), the effect of the type of solvent and the effect of reaction time. This review can provide an important reference for the further study of the migration and transformation behaviors of heavy metals during the hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge. PMID:26577578

  15. Impact of chemically contaminated sewage sludge on the collard arthropod community

    SciTech Connect

    Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.; Lisk, D.J.

    1986-08-01

    Stress effects on a terrestrial arthropod community were evident in a study of collards grown in soil amended with chemically contaminated sewage sludge. Plant growth in the contaminated sludge was significantly reduced compared with growth in plots treated with relatively uncontaminated sludge from two small towns or with mature alone. Population densities of major arthropod taxa tended to be lower in plots of contaminated sludge than they were in uncontaminated sludge and manure plots. Species richness and diversity were also reduced in contaminated-sludge plots compared with those of uncontaminated sludge and manure treatments. In general, few differences were observed in plant growth and arthropod numbers between the uncontaminated-sludge treatment, or uncontaminated sludge treated with cadmium or with the insecticide dieldrin. Because cadmium and dieldrin were applied at dosages of cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) found in the contaminated sludge, results suggested that these two toxins were not responsible for the effects on plants and arthropods observed in the contaminated-sludge treatment. Results of this study indicated the potential for sludge-borne contaminants to suppress growth in crop plants and reduce abundance of their associated arthropods.

  16. Feedstock quality and growth of bioenergy crops fertilized with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Seleiman, Mahmoud F; Santanen, Arja; Stoddard, Frederick L; Mäkelä, Pirjo

    2012-11-01

    Sewage sludge is rich in essential plant nutrients, but its use is restricted for crop production due to the pollutants it contains, such as metalloids and heavy metals. Sludge is also very sticky and compact. Therefore, the objectives of this work were to evaluate (1) the impact of various amounts of sludge on bioenergy crop productivity and quality and (2) the use of peat as an adjuvant to reduce the stickiness, density and nutrient richness of the sludge. Three different applications of sludge were examined, high, low (50% of high) and low mixed with an equal volume of peat. The sludge-peat mix increased significantly leaf area and biomass accumulation of maize and hemp. High sludge and sludge-peat mix applications increased significantly the leaf area and biomass accumulation as well as the net photosynthesis of oilseed rape. High sludge application resulted in the highest heavy metal and metalloid accumulation in maize and hemp. Sludge-peat mix resulted in the highest heavy metal and metalloid accumulation in oilseed rape. However, the sludge-peat mix application provided the best feedstock quality in all three crops, since chloride, silicon and sulfur concentrations and ash content in plant material were the lowest of the three sludge treatments. PMID:22897833

  17. Environmental application for GIS: Assessing Iskandar Malaysia's (IM) sewage sludge for potential biomass resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, M. R.; Shaharuddin, N.; Abdullah Halim, K.

    2014-02-01

    The low carbon scenario could be achieved through the identification of major sectors contributing to the emission of high greenhouse gases (GHG) into the atmosphere. Sewage treatment plant (STP) was ranked as one of the major sectors that emits methane gas (CH4) during treatment processes, including sludge treatment. Sludge treatment is also capital extensive with high operational cost. Thus, sewage sludge has been accepted as a nuisance in STP. However, many has claimed that, sludge produced contain organic matter that has the potential for biomass resource. Thus, it would be such a Žwaste? if sludge are directly disposed of into the landfill without utilizing them at its full potential. In order to do so, it is vital to be able to determine the amount of sludge production. This research was implemented in Iskandar Malaysia regions in the state of Johor. By using GIS tool, the regions that produced the most sewage sludge can be determined, and can be group as critical area. Result shows that Nusajaya produces the most, compared to other regions, which indicated Nusajaya as a densely populated region.

  18. Occurrence and estrogenic potency of eight bisphenol analogs in sewage sludge from the U.S. EPA targeted national sewage sludge survey.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohua; Xue, Jingchuan; Yao, Hong; Wu, Qian; Venkatesan, Arjun K; Halden, Rolf U; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-12-15

    As health concerns over bisphenol A (BPA) in consumer products are mounting, this weak estrogen mimicking compound is gradually being replaced with structural analogs, whose environmental occurrence and estrogen risks are not well understood yet. We used high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to determine the concentrations of eight bisphenol analogs in 76 sewage sludge samples collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2006/2007 from 74 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in 35 states. Bisphenols were detected at the following concentration ranges (ng/g dry weight) and detection frequencies: BPA (6.5-4700; 100%); bisphenol S (BPS; <1.79-1480; 84%); bisphenol F (BPF; <1.79-242; 68%); bisphenol AF (BPAF; <1.79-72.2; 46%); bisphenol P (BPP; <1.79-6.42; <5%), bisphenol B (BPB; <1.79-5.60; <5%), and bisphenol Z (BPZ; <1.79--66.7; <5%). Bisphenol AP (BPAP) was not detected in any of the samples (<1.79ng/gdw). Concentrations of BPA in sewage sludge were an order of magnitude higher than those reported in China but similar to those in Germany. The calculated 17?-estradiol equivalents (E2EQ) of bisphenols present in sludge samples were 7.74 (0.26-90.5)pg/gdw, which were three orders of magnitude lower than the estrogenic activity contributed by natural estrogens present in the sludge. The calculated mass loading of bisphenols through the disposal of sludge and wastewater was <0.02% of the total U.S. production. As the usage of BPA is expected to decline further, environmental emissions of BPS, BPF, and BPAF are likely to increase in the future. This study establishes baseline levels and estrogenic activity of diverse bisphenol analogs in sewage sludge. PMID:26298263

  19. National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS), data element dictionary for the ASCII format databases

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-16

    A data element dictionary including ASCII database file structures, variable naming conventions, and unique identifier variables is provided for the ASCII formats of the Questionnaire, Data Conventions, and Analytical Databases for the 1988 National Sewage Sludge Use and Disposal Survey (NSSS). Data collected in the questionnaire component of the survey are contained in the Questionnaire Database. Revised questionnaire data, including regulatory analytical use or disposal practices, followup information from the Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs), and imputed values for missing or improbable responses which could not be resolved, are recorded in the Data Conventions Database. Chemical concentrations from sewage sludge samples collected just prior to disposal are recorded in the Analytical Database.

  20. Solid-phase treatment with the fungus Trametes versicolor substantially reduces pharmaceutical concentrations and toxicity from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Jeli?, Aleksandra; Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Caminal, Glòria; Petrovi?, Mira; Barceló, Damià; Vicent, Teresa

    2011-05-01

    For safe biosolid-land-applying, sludge should be contaminant-free. However, it may contain important amounts of micropollutants, not removed in the wastewater-treatment-processes. An alternative treatment with the fungus Trametes versicolor was applied in sterile solid-phase systems consisting of sludge and a lignocellulosic substrate. Fungal colonization and activity were demonstrated during the process, according to monitoring of ergosterol, laccase activity and the naproxen-degradation test (ND24). Fourteen out of 43 analyzed pharmaceuticals were found in the raw sludge. After treatment, phenazone, bezafibrate, fenofibrate, cimetidine, clarithromycin, sulfamethazine and atenolol were completely removed, while removals between 42% and 80% were obtained for the remaining pharmaceuticals. Toxicological analyses (Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and seed germination) showed an important reduction in sludge toxicity after treatment. Results suggest that a solid-phase treatment with T. versicolor may reduce the ecotoxicological impact of micropollutants present in sewage sludge. This is the first report of a fungal-approach for elimination of emerging pollutants from biosolids. PMID:21376580

  1. Sanitation ability of anaerobic digestion performed at different temperature on sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Garuti, Gilberto; Negri, Marco; Adani, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    A small amount of ammonia is used in full-scale plants to partially sanitize sewage sludge, thereby allowing successive biological processes to enable the high biological stability of the organic matter. Nevertheless, ammonia and methane are both produced during the anaerobic digestion (AD) of sludge. This paper describes the evaluation of a lab-scale study on the ability of anaerobic process to sanitize sewage sludge and produce biogas, thus avoiding the addition of ammonia to sanitize sludge. According to both previous work and a state of the art full-scale plant, ammonia was added to a mixture of sewage sludge at a rate so that the pH values after stirring were 8.5, 9 and 9.5. This procedure determined an ammonia addition lower than that generally indicated in the literature. The same sludge was also subjected to an AD process for 60 days under psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The levels of fecal coliform, Salmonella spp. helmints ova, pH, total N, ammonia fractions and biogas production were measured at different times during each process. The results obtained suggested that sludge sanitation can be achieved using an AD process; however, the addition of a small amount of ammonia was not effective in sludge sanitation because the buffer ability of the sludge reduced the pH and thus caused ammonia toxicity. Mesophilic and thermophilic AD sanitized better than psychrophilic AD did, but the total free ammonia concentration under the thermophilic condition inhibited biogas production. The mesophilic condition, however, allowed for both sludge sanitation and significant biogas production. PMID:23973551

  2. Use of Municipal Sewage Sludge for Improvement of Forest Sites in the Southeast

    SciTech Connect

    Charles R. Berry

    1987-09-01

    In eight field experiments dried municipal sewage sludge was applied to forest sites before planting of seedlings. In all cases, tree growth was faster on sludge-amended plots than on plots that received fertilizer and lime or no amendment. In all studies, concentrations of total nitrogen in the soil were higher on sludge plots than on control or fertilizer plots, even on good forest sites. In seven of the eight studies, concentrations of phosphorus also were higher on sludge plots than on control or fertilizer plots. Nitrogen and phosphorus tended to be higher in foliage from trees growing on sludge plots. Deep subsoiling was beneficial regardless of soil amendment. Where weeds were plentiful at the outset, they became serious competitors on plots receiving sludge.

  3. Two step esterification-transesterification process of wet greasy sewage sludge for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, C; Sangaletti-Gerhard, N; Cea, M; Suazo, A; Aliberti, A; Navia, R

    2016-01-01

    Sewage sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants was used as a feedstock for biodiesel production via esterification/transesterification in a two-step process. In the first esterification step, greasy and secondary sludge were tested using acid and enzymatic catalysts. The results indicate that both catalysts performed the esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) simultaneously with the transesterification of triacylglycerols (TAG). Acid catalyst demonstrated better performance in FFA esterification compared to TAG transesterification, while enzymatic catalyst showed the ability to first hydrolyze TAG in FFA, which were esterified to methyl esters. In addition, FAME concentration using greasy sludge were higher (63.9% and 58.7%), compared with those of secondary sludge (11% and 16%), using acid and enzymatic catalysts, respectively. Therefore, only greasy sludge was used in the second step of alkaline transesterification. The alkaline transesterification of the previously esterified greasy sludge reached a maximum FAME concentration of 65.4% when using acid catalyst. PMID:26497113

  4. Earthworm transport of heavy metals from sewage sludge: a micro-PIXE application in soil science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protz, R.; Teesdale, W. J.; Maxwell, J. A.; Campbell, J. L.; Duke, C.

    1993-05-01

    Micro-PIXE was used to analyze earthworm fecal material and the linings of earthworm channels in the soil below a land area on which sewage sludge had been applied. Metals present in the sludge were identified both in fecal pellets and in the linings of the channels, at concentration markedly higher than in the soil matrix. PIXE elemental data in raster format were spatially analyzed during image analysis demonstrating in a quantitative manner the spatial correlations among elements transported by the earthworms.

  5. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Municipal Sewage Sludge: A Case Study of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shamuyarira, Kudakwashe K.; Gumbo, Jabulani R.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals in high concentrations can cause health and environmental damage. Nanosilver is an emerging heavy metal which has a bright future of use in many applications. Here we report on the levels of silver and other heavy metals in municipal sewage sludge. Five towns in Limpopo province of South Africa were selected and the sludge from their wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was collected and analysed. The acid digested sewage sludge samples were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) methods. The concentrations of silver found were low, but significant, in the range 0.22 to 21.93 mg/kg dry mass. The highest concentration of silver was found in Louis Trichardt town with a concentration of 21.93 ± 0.38 mg/kg dry mass while the lowest was Thohoyandou with a concentration of 6.13 ± 0.12 mg/kg dry mass. A control sludge sample from a pit latrine had trace levels of silver at 0.22 ± 0.01 mg/kg dry mass. The result showed that silver was indeed present in the wastewater sewage sludge and at present there is no DWAF guideline standard. The average Cd concentration was 3.10 mg/kg dry mass for Polokwane municipality. Polokwane and Louis Trichardt municipalities exhibited high levels of Pb, in excess DWAF guidelines, in sludge at 102.83 and 171.87 mg/kg respectfully. In all the WWTPs the zinc and copper concentrations were in excess of DWAF guidelines. The presence of heavy metals in the sewage sludge in excess of DWAF guidelines presents environmental hazards should the sludge be applied as a soil ameliorant. PMID:24595211

  6. Plant uptake of cadmium from acid-extracted anaerobically digested sewage sludge. [Beta vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, T.J.; Feltz, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the Cd in an anaerobically digested sewage sludge was removed by acid extraction and dewatering. The acid extracted sludge was treated by (i) neutralization to pH 5.9 with Ca(OH)/sub 2/, (ii) addition of monocalcium phosphate (MCP) followed by Ca(OH)/sub 2/ neutralization to pH 5.9, and, (iii) addition of rock phosphate (RP) followed by Ca(OH)/sub 2/ neutralization to pH 5.9. The three treated sludges and the non acid-extracted sludge were applied to Spinks loamy sand at rates equivalent to 18.7 and 37.4 ..mu..mol Cd kg/sup -1/. Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris) was grown in the greenhouse for 56 d. Cadmium, Fe, Ca, and P were measured in saturation extracts of treated soil after sludge addition. These data indicated that hydroxyapatite was stable throughout the study in the soil receiving MCP treated sludge but not in other soil treatments. Cadmium concentration in saturation extracts of the soil with MCP sludge decreased while Cd concentration in saturation extracts of the other sludge treatments were much higher throughout the study. Chard yields were higher in the control than in any of the sludge treatments, and the difference was attributed to greater N availability in the control. Cadmium concentration in Swiss chard tissue at harvest was significantly lower from the MCP sludge than from the other sludges. Cadmium concentration in chard tissue was also higher from the aerated sludge (11.9 mmol Cd kg/sup -1/) than from the three acid-extracted sludges (2.58-3.29 mmol Cd kg/sup -1/). No significant difference in the Cd concentration of chard was obtained for the 18.7 and 37.4 ..mu..mol Cd kg/sup -1/ rates of the MCP sludge, while Cd concentrations in chard increased linearly with Cd applied by the other sludges.

  7. Gaseous emissions from sewage sludge combustion in a moving bed combustor.

    PubMed

    Batistella, Luciane; Silva, Valdemar; Suzin, Renato C; Virmond, Elaine; Althoff, Chrtistine A; Moreira, Regina F P M; José, Humberto J

    2015-12-01

    Substantial increase in sewage sludge generation in recent years requires suitable destination for this residue. This study evaluated the gaseous emissions generated during combustion of an aerobic sewage sludge in a pilot scale moving bed reactor. To utilize the heat generated during combustion, the exhaust gas was applied to the raw sludge drying process. The gaseous emissions were analyzed both after the combustion and drying steps. The results of the sewage sludge characterization showed the energy potential of this residue (LHV equal to 14.5MJkg(-1), db) and low concentration of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF). The concentration of CO, NOx, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) emitted from the sludge combustion process were lower than the legal limits. The overall sludge combustion and drying process showed low emissions of PCDD/PCDF (0.42ng I-TEQNm(-3)). BTEX and PAH emissions were not detected. Even with the high nitrogen concentration in the raw feed (5.88% db), the sludge combustion process presented NOx emissions below the legal limit, which results from the combination of appropriate feed rate (A/F ratio), excess air, and mainly the low temperature kept inside the combustion chamber. It was found that the level of CO emissions from the overall sludge process depends on the dryer operating conditions, such as the oxygen content and the drying temperature, which have to be controlled throughout the process in order to achieve low CO levels. The aerobic sewage sludge combustion process generated high SO2 concentration due to the high sulfur content (0.67wt%, db) and low calcium concentration (22.99gkg(-1)) found in the sludge. The high concentration of SO2 in the flue gas (4776.77mgNm(-3)) is the main factor inhibiting PCDD/PCDF formation. Further changes are needed in the pilot plant scheme to reduce SO2 and particulate matter emissions, such as the installation of exhaust gas-cleaning systems. According to previous studies, the efficient operation of such cleaning systems is also effective for metals emission control, which makes the combustion of sewage sludge a feasible treatment method from both energetic and environmental perspectives. PMID:26337961

  8. REPORT OF PYROLYSIS OF SEWAGE SLUDGES IN THE NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY METROPOLITAN AREA (PHASE I)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this work was to reduce the volume of municipal wastewater (sewage) sludge in a multiple-hearth furnance via starved air combustion (pyrolysis) to determine how it compared with incineration as an environmentally acceptable method of sludge disposal. Sludge was fir...

  9. Phytoremediation of sewage sludge and use of its leachate for crop production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tianfen; Xie, Fangwen; Wei, Zebin; Zeng, Shucai; Wu, Qi-Tang

    2015-12-01

    The land application of sewage sludge has the potential risk of transferring heavy metals to soil or groundwater. The agricultural reuse of sludge leachate could be a cost-effective way to decrease metal contamination. Sludge leachate collected during the phytoremediation of sludge by co-cropping with Sedum alfredii and Zea mays was used for irrigating vegetables in a field experiment. Results indicate that the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in sludge leachates complied with the National Standards for agricultural irrigation water in China. For the vegetable crop Ipomoea aquatica, nutrients obtained only from the sludge leachate were not sufficient to support growth. For the second crop, Brassica parachinensis, no differences in biomass were observed between the treatment with leachate plus a half dose of inorganic fertilizer and the treatment with a full dose of inorganic fertilizers. The concentrations of heavy metals in I. aquatica and B. parachinensis were not significantly affected by the application of sludge leachates. Compared with initial values, there were no significant differences in Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb concentrations in soil following treatment with sludge leachate. This study indicates that on range lands, sludge phytoremediation can be conducted at the upper level, and the generated sludge leachate can be safely and easily used in crop production at the lower level. PMID:25205245

  10. Project summary: Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, was required to construct advanced wastewater treatment facilities at the existing Belmont Wastewater Treatment Plant. The most cost effective site for these new treatment facilities was the 10 sludge lagoons containing 420,000 cubic meters (111 million gallons) of digested sewage sludge stored for up to 50 years. The project consisted of the following major tasks: (1) obtaining approval from regulatory agencies; (2) obtaining cooperation of landowners and farmers; (3) removing, transporting, and applying the lagooned sludge to soil; and (4) monitoring the impact on crops.

  11. EVALUATION OF 'WITHIN-VESSEL' SEWAGE SLUDGE COMPOSTING SYSTEMS IN EUROPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives were: (1) To update a review of the state of the art of sewage sludge composting in Europe; (2) to evaluate a European-designed, continuous, thermophilic, mechanical, aerobic, composting system in Germany; and (3) to compare its cost to those of the U.S. Department...

  12. PRELIMINARY COMPARATIVE STUDY OF METHODS TO EXTRACT VIRUS FROM RAW AND PROCESSED SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two simple virus extraction techniques were compared to an EPA standard method for detection of human enteric viruses in raw sewage sludge and class A biosolids. The techniques were used to detect both indigenous and seeded virus from a plant that distributes class A material pr...

  13. BENTHIC DISTRIBUTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE INDICATED BY CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRIGENS AT A DEEP-OCEAN DUMP SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clostridium perfrigens in sediment samples collected at the Deep Water Municipal Sewage Sludge Disposal Site (also called the 106-Mile Site), off the coast of New Jersey, was enumerated. he counts of C. perfrigens found in sediment samples collected within and to the southwest of...

  14. 78 FR 34973 - Proposal for Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; Indiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    EPA is proposing to approve, through direct final rulemaking, Indiana's State Plan to control air pollutants from Sewage Sludge Incinerators (SSI). The Indiana Department of Environmental Management submitted the State Plan on February 27, 2013, following the required public process. The State Plan is consistent with the Emission Guidelines promulgated by EPA on March 21, 2011. This approval......

  15. 40 CFR 60.4775 - What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    (b) Physical or operational changes made to your SSI unit to comply with the emission guidelines in subpart MMMM of this part (Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units) do not qualify as a modification under this...

  16. 40 CFR 60.4770 - Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    40 ? Protection of Environment ? 7 ? 2014-07-01 ? 2014-07-01 ? false ? Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit? ? 60.4770 ? Section 60.4770 ? Protection of Environment ? ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ? AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ? STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR...

  17. 40 CFR 60.4775 - What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    (b) Physical or operational changes made to your SSI unit to comply with the emission guidelines in subpart MMMM of this part (Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units) do not qualify as a modification under this...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4770 - Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    40 ? Protection of Environment ? 7 ? 2013-07-01 ? 2013-07-01 ? false ? Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit? ? 60.4770 ? Section 60.4770 ? Protection of Environment ? ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ? AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ? STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR...

  19. 40 CFR 60.4770 - Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    40 ? Protection of Environment ? 6 ? 2011-07-01 ? 2011-07-01 ? false ? Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit? ? 60.4770 ? Section 60.4770 ? Protection of Environment ? ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ? AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ? STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR...

  20. 40 CFR 60.4775 - What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    (b) Physical or operational changes made to your SSI unit to comply with the emission guidelines in subpart MMMM of this part (Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units) do not qualify as a modification under this...

  1. 40 CFR 60.4770 - Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    40 ? Protection of Environment ? 7 ? 2012-07-01 ? 2012-07-01 ? false ? Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit? ? 60.4770 ? Section 60.4770 ? Protection of Environment ? ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ? AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ? STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR...

  2. 40 CFR 60.4775 - What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    (b) Physical or operational changes made to your SSI unit to comply with the emission guidelines in subpart MMMM of this part (Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units) do not qualify as a modification under this...

  3. CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES ON INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND MANURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA and the USDA convened a three-day Workshop on Emerging Infectious Disease Agents and Issues Associated with Sewage Sludge, Animal Manures, and Other Organic By-Products on June 4-6, 2001 in Cincinnati, Ohio. The purpose of the workshop was to review and discuss the effe...

  4. ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR EFFICIENCY ON A MULTIPLE HEARTH INCINERATOR BURNING SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot scale electrostatic precipitator (ESP) was evaluated for its removal performance of 23 metals and for sulfur containing particles when fitted to a multiple hearth incinerator burning sewage sludge. The small scale ESP was installed to take a slipstream of about 3% of the ...

  5. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. During fourth quarter 1992, the FSS wells also were analyzed for a number of other constituents not required by the permit. Historically and currently, no permit-required analytes exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites except iron, lead, and manganese, which occur in elevated concentrations frequently in FSS wells. Lead concentrations exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards during fourth quarter 1992, an event that is concurrent with a change in sampling procedures. Tritium is the primary nonpermit constituent that exceeds standards at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. Other constituents also exceed standards at this site but only sporadically.

  6. POTENTIAL OF GREENHOUSE GASES REDUCTION BY FUEL CROP CULTIVATION UTILIZING SEWAGE SLUDGE IN JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Ryo; Fukushi, Kensuke

    Potential of greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction was estimated and compared in six scenarios of fuel crop cultivation by utilizing sewage sludge in Japan. Bioethanol from corn and biodiesel fuel from soybean was selected as biofuel produced. When all the sludge discharged from sewage treatment plants in 18 major cities was utilized for soybean cultivation and subsequent biodiesel fuel production, produced biofuel corresponded to 4.0% of GHG emitted from sewage treatment in Japan. On the other hand, cultivation area for fuel crop cultivation was found to be the regulating factor. When fuel crop was cultivated only in abandoned agricultural fields, produced biofuel corresponded to 0.60% and 0.62%, respectively, in the case that corn and soybean was cultivated. Production of biodiesel fuel from soybean was estimated to have more net reduction potential than bioehanol production from corn when sludge production is limited, because required sewage sludge compost was 2.5-times larger in corn although reduction potential per crop area was 2-times larger in bioethanol production from corn.

  7. The urgent need for risk assessment on the antibiotic resistance spread via sewage sludge land application.

    PubMed

    Bondarczuk, Kinga; Markowicz, Anna; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-02-01

    Sewage sludge is an ever-increasing by-product of the wastewater treatment process frequently used as a soil fertiliser. To control its quality and prevent any possible hazardous impact of fertilisation, some mandatory limits of heavy metal content have been established by the European Commission (Sewage Sludge Directive). However, since the implementation of the limits, new emerging contaminants have been reported worldwide. Regardless of the wastewater treatment process, sewage sludge contains antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes, which can be released into the environment through its land application. Such a practice may even boost the dissemination and further development of antibiotic resistance phenomenon - already a global problem challenging modern medicine. Due to the growing pharmaceutical pollution in the environment, the time is ripe to assess the risk for the human and environmental health of sewage sludge land application in the context of antibiotic resistance spread. In this review we present the current knowledge in the field and we emphasise the necessity for more studies. PMID:26646979

  8. SOIL TEMPERATURE AND SEWAGE SLUDGE EFFECTS ON PLANT AND SOIL PROPERTIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the influence of soil temperature and sewage sludge on growth and composition of corn (Zea mays L.). Changes in soil organic matter, extractable metals, pH, bulb density, aggregation, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus were deter...

  9. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Bodo; Eder, Christian; Grziwa, Peter; Horst, Juri Kimmerle, Klaus

    2008-07-01

    Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures - gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation - are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes.

  12. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. USE OF FLY ASH AND MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE: CHALLENGES, OPPORTUNITIES, AND FUTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilization of coal combustion by-products (CCBP) and municipal by-products, mainly sewage sludge (SS), as agricultural soil amendments is of considerable importance not only as an avenue to dispose these materials but also to explore the potential advantages as source of some plant nutrients and to...

  14. DISPERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE DISCHARGED INTO NEW YORK BIGHT. PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA AND LABORATORY ANALYSES - 1975

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume contains data on the dispersion of sewage sludge subsequent to its disposal at a site near the apex of the New York Bight. Cruises were made in May, July, and October, 1975. An optical tracer method was used to measure the water column distribution of waste material f...

  15. Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as forestry and farm crop fertilizer. References discuss degassed biomass, fertilizer-grade residues, compost fertilizers, biological conversion of organic wastes, organic environmental pollution, and iron salts. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Evaluation of Emission of Greenhouse Gases from Soils Amended with Sewage Sludge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increase in concentrations of various greenhouse gases originated by various human activities, including agricultural origin, could contribute to climate change. Anthropogenic activities such as cultivation of flooded rice and application of waste materials, such as sewage sludge which are rich in ...

  17. [ECOLOGICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AS FERTILIZER].

    PubMed

    Vasbieva, M T

    2015-01-01

    In the article there is considered the question of the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and their uptake by plants as a result of prolonged use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. There have been calculated coefficients of concentrations of elements and the total pollution index. There was performed the comparison of the data obtained with accepted sanitary-hygienic standards. PMID:26625608

  18. MANUAL FOR COMPOSTING SEWAGE SLUDGE BY THE BELTSVILLE AERATED-PILE METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In producing clean water from sewage, wastewater treatment plants also produce sludge. Most of the commonly used methods to dispose of this material are now considered to be either environmentally unacceptable, wasteful of energy, or very expensive. To ease this situation, a rela...

  19. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SYNTHETIC ASPHALT PRODUCED FROM LIQUEFACTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Direct thermochemical liquefaction of primary undigested municipal sewage sludge was carried out to produce a low molecular weight steam-volatile oil, a high molecular weight synthetic asphalt, and a residual char cake. The latter product is capable of supplying the thermal energ...

  20. A REVIEW OF TECHNIQUES FOR INCINERATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE WITH SOLID WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses the state of the art of co-incineration of municipal refuse and sewage sludge. European and American practice is described. Four co-incineration techniques are evaluated for thermodynamic and economic feasibility; pyrolysis, multiple hearth, direct drying, a...

  1. Evaluation of leaching and ecotoxicological properties of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    C.A. Papadimitriou; I. Haritou; P. Samaras; A.I. Zouboulis

    2008-03-15

    The objectives of this work were the evaluation of sewage sludge stabilization by mixing with fly ash, the examination of the physicochemical properties of the produced materials and their leachates and the assessment of their environmental impact by the evaluation of the ecotoxic characteristics. Different ratios of fly ash and sewage sludge (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:6, and 1:9) were mixed for 48 and 72 h. After mixing, the liquid phase of the produced materials was analyzed for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, while the solid residue was dried and tested for the leaching characteristics by the application of TCLP and EN 12457-2 standard leaching methods. Furthermore, the produced leachates were analyzed for their content of specific metals, while their ecotoxicological characteristics were determined by the use of toxicity bioassays, using the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia magna. The phytotoxicity of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures was also determined by utilizing seeds of three higher plants (one monocotyl and two dicotyls). The mixtures exhibited low metal leaching in all cases, while the ecotoxic properties increased with the increase of fly ash/sewage sludge ratio. The phytotoxicity testing showed increased root length growth inhibition.

  2. EVALUATION OF OXYGEN-ENRICHED MSW/SEWAGE SLUDGE CO-INCINERATION DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides an evaluation of a two-phased demonstration program conducted for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation Program, and the results thereof, of a recently developed method of sewage sludge managemen...

  3. Antibiotic resistome and its association with bacterial communities during sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Su, Jian-Qiang; Wei, Bei; Ou-Yang, Wei-Ying; Huang, Fu-Yi; Zhao, Yi; Xu, Hui-Juan; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-06-16

    Composting is widely used for recycling of urban sewage sludge to improve soil properties, which represents a potential pathway of spreading antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes to soils. However, the dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the underlying mechanisms during sewage sludge composting were not fully explored. Here, we used high-throughput quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene based illumina sequencing to investigate the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities during a lab-scale in-vessel composting of sewage sludge. A total of 156 unique ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were detected encoding resistance to almost all major classes of antibiotics. ARGs were detected with significantly increased abundance and diversity, and distinct patterns, and were enriched during composting. Marked shifts in bacterial community structures and compositions were observed during composting, with Actinobacteria being the dominant phylum at the late phase of composting. The large proportion of Actinobacteria may partially explain the increase of ARGs during composting. ARGs patterns were significantly correlated with bacterial community structures, suggesting that the dynamic of ARGs was strongly affected by bacterial phylogenetic compositions during composting. These results imply that direct application of sewage sludge compost on field may lead to the spread of abundant ARGs in soils. PMID:26018772

  4. Environmental assessment of sewage sludge recycling options and treatment processes in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Hara, K; Mino, T

    2008-12-01

    Tokyo has historically suffered from a shortage of final disposal sites for the treated sewage sludge. Given this situation, sludge recycling and incineration have been promoted to reduce the volume of treated sludge conveyed to the disposal site, and the recycling options have changed since the late 1990s. This study aims to revisit the sewage sludge treatment and recycling processes in Tokyo and to evaluate different recycling options (brick, aggregate, refuse derived fuel and slag) from the energy consumption perspective by clarifying the complex flow of treated sludge within Tokyo's 23 wards. The study also estimates environmental loads associated with the operation of the whole sludge management system in the area. The environmental loads include: (1) total energy consumption and (2) gas emissions (greenhouse and acidification gases). The estimation was carried out for the years 1995, 1997, 1999 and 2001, during which a drastic change in recycling options occurred. The results indicated that the production of refuse derived fuel was the most energy consuming recycling option while aggregate production is the least energy consuming. They also showed that despite the increasing sludge volume, the energy consumption associated with the operation of the whole system decreased during the period while the gas emissions increased. PMID:18439814

  5. Fate and occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds in sewage sludges determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Koh, Y K K; Chiu, T Y; Paterakis, N; Boobis, A; Scrimshawe, M D; Lester, J N; Cartmell, E

    2009-12-01

    An analytical method has been developed and applied to determine the concentrations of the nonionic alkylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants and their metabolites, alkylphenoxy carboxylates and alkyphenols, in sewage sludges. The compounds were extracted with methanol/acetone (1:1 v/v) from sludge, and concentrated extracts were cleaned by silica solid-phase extraction prior to determination by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The recoveries, determined by spiking sewage sludge at two concentrations, ranged from 51% to 89% with method detection limits from 6 microg kg(-1) to 60 microg kg(-1). The methodology was subsequently applied to sludge samples obtained from a carbonaceous activated sludge plant, a nitrifying/denitrifying activated sludge plant and a nitrifying/ denitrifying activated sludge plant with phosphorus removal. Concentrations of nonylphenolic compounds were two to three times higher than their octyl analogues. Long-chain nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NP3-12EO) ranged from 16 microg kg(-1) to 11754 microg kg(-1). The estrogenic metabolite nonylphenol was present at concentrations ranging from 33 microg kg(-1) to 6696 microg kg(-1). PMID:20088206

  6. Effects of sewage sludge amendment on snail growth and trace metal transfer in the soil-plant-snail food chain.

    PubMed

    Bourioug, Mohamed; Gimbert, Frédéric; Alaoui-Sehmer, Laurence; Benbrahim, Mohammed; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Alaoui-Sossé, Badr; Aleya, Lotfi

    2015-11-01

    Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations in a soil plant (Lactuca sativa) continuum were measured after sewage sludge amendment. The effects of sewage sludge on growth and trace metal bioaccumulation in snails (Cantareus aspersus) were investigated in a laboratory experiment specifically designed to identify contamination sources (e.g., soil and leaves). Application of sewage sludge increased trace metal concentrations in topsoil. However, except Zn, metal concentrations in lettuce leaves did not reflect those in soil. Lettuce leaves were the main source of Zn, Cu, and Cd in exposed snails. Bioaccumulation of Pb suggested its immediate transfer to snails via the soil. No apparent toxic effects of trace metal accumulation were observed in snails. Moreover, snail growth was significantly stimulated at high rates of sludge application. This hormesis effect may be due to the enhanced nutritional content of lettuce leaves exposed to sewage sludge. PMID:26165994

  7. In situ biodiesel production from greasy sewage sludge using acid and enzymatic catalysts.

    PubMed

    Sangaletti-Gerhard, Naiane; Cea, Mara; Risco, Vicky; Navia, Rodrigo

    2015-03-01

    This study proposes to select the most appropriate sewage sludge (greasy, primary and secondary) for in situ transesterification and to compare the technical, economic and energetic performance of an enzymatic catalyst (Novozym®435) with sulfuric acid. Greasy sludge was selected as feedstock for biodiesel production due to its high lipid content (44.4%) and low unsaponifiable matter. Maximum methyl esters yield (61%) was reached when processing the wet sludge using sulfuric acid as catalyst and n-hexane, followed by dried-greasy sludge catalyzed by Novozym®435 (57% methyl esters). Considering the economic point of view, the process using acid catalyst was more favorable compared to Novozym®435 catalyst due to the high cost of lipase. In general, greasy sludge (wet or dried) showed high potential to produce biodiesel. However, further technical adjustments are needed to make biodiesel production by in situ transesterification using acid and enzymatic catalyst feasible. PMID:25528605

  8. Tar-free fuel gas production from high temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Leguan; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Zhiquan; Liu, Shiming Cheng, Gong; He, Piwen; Sun, Lei

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • High temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge was efficient for producing tar-free fuel gas. • Complete tar removal and volatile matter release were at elevated temperature of 1300 °C. • Sewage sludge was converted to residual solid with high ash content. • 72.60% of energy conversion efficiency for gas production in high temperature pyrolysis. • Investment and costing for tar cleaning were reduced. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of sewage sludge was studied in a free-fall reactor at 1000–1400 °C. The results showed that the volatile matter in the sludge could be completely released to gaseous product at 1300 °C. The high temperature was in favor of H{sub 2} and CO in the produced gas. However, the low heating value (LHV) of the gas decreased from 15.68 MJ/N m{sup 3} to 9.10 MJ/N m{sup 3} with temperature increasing from 1000 °C to 1400 °C. The obtained residual solid was characterized by high ash content. The energy balance indicated that the most heating value in the sludge was in the gaseous product.

  9. Land Application of Treated Sewage Sludge: Community Health and Environmental Justice

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Mary Anne; Wing, Steve; Muhammad, Naeema

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the United States, most of the treated sewage sludge (biosolids) is applied to farmland as a soil amendment. Critics suggest that rules regulating sewage sludge treatment and land application may be insufficient to protect public health and the environment. Neighbors of land application sites report illness following land application events. Objectives: We used qualitative research methods to evaluate health and quality of life near land application sites. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with neighbors of land application sites and used qualitative analytic software and team-based methods to analyze interview transcripts and identify themes. Results: Thirty-four people in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia responded to interviews. Key themes were health impacts, environmental impacts, and environmental justice. Over half of the respondents attributed physical symptoms to application events. Most noted offensive sludge odors that interfere with daily activities and opportunities to socialize with family and friends. Several questioned the fairness of disposing of urban waste in rural neighborhoods. Although a few respondents were satisfied with the responsiveness of public officials regarding sludge, many reported a lack of public notification about land application in their neighborhoods, as well as difficulty reporting concerns to public officials and influencing decisions about how the practice is conducted where they live. Conclusions: Community members are key witnesses of land application events and their potential impacts on health, quality of life, and the environment. Meaningful involvement of community members in decision making about land application of sewage sludge will strengthen environmental health protections. PMID:23562940

  10. EFFECTS ON CATTLE FROM EXPOSURE TO SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils, forages, and cattle grazing on a sludge disposal site were examined for trace metals and persistent organics. Soils at the disposal site had increased concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, and Pb. Forages from sludge applied soils had higher levels of Zn, Cd, Cu, and Ni and lo...

  11. INFORMATION PROGRAMS AFFECT ATTITUDES TOWARD SEWAGE SLUDGE USE IN AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey was conducted of rural farmers, rural nonfarmers, urban and suburban residents to determine attitudes toward land application of sludge. After a thorough educational meeting devoted to a discussion of benefits and risks in sludge use, the groups were again quizzed and th...

  12. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on chemical and physical properties of sewage sludge biochar.

    PubMed

    Khanmohammadi, Zahra; Afyuni, Majid; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of pyrolysis temperatures (300, 400, 500, 600 and 700°C) on properties of biochar produced from an urban sewage sludge. Biochar yield significantly decreased from 72.5% at 300°C to 52.9% at 700°C, whereas an increase in temperature increased the gas yield. Biochar pH and electrical conductivity increased by 3.8 and 1.4 dS m?¹, proportionally to the increment of temperature. Biochar produced at low temperatures had higher total nitrogen and total organic carbon content but a lower C/N ratio, calcium carbonate equivalent, and total P, K and Na contents. Total and diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (DTPA)-extractable concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, Cr and Pb increased with increment of temperature. Lower DTPA-extractable concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb were found in biochars compared to the sewage sludge. Pyrolysis decreased bulk density, whereas particle density and porosity increment was observed upon pyrolysis with increment of temperature. Sewage sludge saturated water content (?s ) was 130.4 g 100g?¹ and significantly greater than biochar, but biochar ?s significantly increased with temperature (95.7 versus 105.4 g 100g?¹ at 300 and 700°C, respectively). Pyrolysis decreased the biochar's water repellency, assessed by molarity of ethanol droplet (MED), compared to the sewage sludge. The lowest MED of 0.2 and water repellency rating of 3 were found for the biochar produced at 700°C. Based on our results and considering the energy consumption, pyrolysis temperature in the range of 300-400°C may be suggested for sewage sludge pyrolysis. PMID:25595292

  13. Sewage sludge ash - A promising secondary phosphorus source for fertilizer production.

    PubMed

    Herzel, Hannes; Krüger, Oliver; Hermann, Ludwig; Adam, Christian

    2016-01-15

    Sewage sludge incineration is extensively practiced in some European countries such as the Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria and Germany. A survey of German sewage sludge ash showed that the recovery potential is high, approx. 19,000t of phosphorus per year. However, the survey also discovered that the bioavailability of phosphorus in the sewage sludge ash is poor and that more than half of the ashes cannot be used as fertilizers due to high heavy metal content. A new thermochemical process for sewage sludge ash treatment was developed that transforms the ash into marketable fertilizer products. Sewage sludge ash was thermochemically treated with sodium and potassium additives under reducing conditions, whereby the phosphate-bearing mineral phases were transformed into plant available phosphates. High P-bioavailability was achieved with a molar Na/P ratio >1.75 in the starting materials. Sodium sulfate, carbonate and hydroxide performed comparably as additives for this calcination process. Potassium carbonate and -hydroxide have to be added in a molar K/P ratio >2.5 to achieve comparable P-solubility. The findings of the laboratory scale investigations were confirmed by an industrial demonstration trial for an ash treatment with sodium sulfate. Simultaneously, the volatile transition metal arsenic (61% removal) as well as volatile heavy metals such as cadmium (80%), mercury (68%), lead (39%) and zinc (9%) were removed via the off-gas treatment system. The product of the demonstration trial is characterized by high bioavailability and a toxic trace element mass fraction below the limit values of the German fertilizer ordinance, thus fulfilling the quality parameters for a P-fertilizer. PMID:26321235

  14. Sewage sludge and liquid pig manure as possible sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hölzel, Christina S; Schwaiger, Karin; Harms, Katrin; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Kunz, Anne; Meyer, Karsten; Müller, Christa; Bauer, Johann

    2010-05-01

    Within the last decades, the environmental spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria has become a topic of concern. In this study, liquid pig manure (n=305) and sewage sludge (n=111) - used as agricultural fertilizers between 2002 and 2005 - were investigated for the presence of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Bacteria were tested for their resistance against 40 chemotherapeutics including several "reserve drugs". E. coli (n=613) from pig manure were at a significantly higher degree resistant to streptomycin, doxycycline, spectinomycin, cotrimoxazole, and chloramphenicol than E. coli (n=116) from sewage sludge. Enterococci (Ent. faecalis, n=387, and Ent. faecium, n=183) from pig manure were significantly more often resistant to high levels of doxycycline, rifampicin, erythromycin, and streptomycin than Ent. faecalis (n=44) and Ent. faecium (n=125) from sewage sludge. Significant differences in enterococcal resistance were also seen for tylosin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin high level, fosfomycin, clindamicin, enrofloxacin, moxifloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. By contrast, aminopenicillins were more effective in enterococci from pig manure, and mean MIC-values of piperacillin+tazobactam and third generation cefalosporines were significantly lower in E. coli from pig manure than in E. coli from sewage sludge. 13.4% (E. coli) to 25.3% (Ent. faecium) of pig manure isolates were high-level multiresistant to substances from more than three different classes of antimicrobial agents. In sewage sludge, high-level-multiresistance reached from 0% (Ent. faecalis) to 16% (Ent. faecium). High rates of (multi-) resistant bacteria in pig manure emphasize the need for a prudent - cautious - use of antibiotics in farm animals. PMID:20303077

  15. Gaseous emissions from ceramics manufactured with urban sewage sludge during firing processes.

    PubMed

    Cusidó, J A; Cremades, L V; González, M

    2003-01-01

    The re-use of sewage sludge without any treatment as primary material-mixed with clays-in order to obtain structural ceramics for buildings has been successfully improved. In the Ecobrick project, the firing of a mixture of specific percentages of three components (clays, sludges and forest debris) resulted in a lighter and more thermal and acoustic insulating brick, compared with conventional clay-bricks. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission from the manufacturing of ceramics is the most important aspect to control. In the Ecobrick project VOC emissions were monitored by using a bench-scale furnace. The study was conducted using an EPA recommended sampling train and portable sampling tubes that were thermally desorbed and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Drying of raw sewage-sludge and firing processes were considered separately. In this paper, we present VOC emissions coming from the firing step of the Ecobrick production. PMID:12737969

  16. Aerobic Heterotrophic Bacterial Populations of Sewage and Activated Sludge1

    PubMed Central

    Prakasam, T. B. S.; Dondero, Norman C.

    1967-01-01

    The nature and behavior of the microbial population developed on a synthetic waste containing salts and sorbitol are compared to that of a treatment-plant activated sludge. The population of the adapted sludge developed on the synthetic waste consisted approximately of only six kinds of bacteria. Experiments with radioactive sorbitol indicate that the microbial population developed on the synthetic waste showed the effects of repression by glucose on the metabolism of sorbitol; in contrast, the activated sludge from a plant treating primarily domestic waste was able to attack both substrates immediately and simultaneously. PMID:16349727

  17. Emission characteristics of dioxins, furans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during fluidized-bed combustion of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenyi; Yan, Jianhua; Li, Xiaodong; Wang, Fei; Chi, Yong; Lu, Shengyong

    2009-01-01

    Pre-dried sewage sludge with high sulfur content was combusted in an electrically heated lab-scale fluidized-bed incinerator. The emission characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied. Coal and calcium oxide (CaO) were added during the sewage sludge combustion tests to optimize combustion conditions and control SO2 emission. The results indicated that the flue gases emitted during mono-combustion of sewage sludge were characterized by relatively high concentrations of SO2, NOx and organic pollutants, due to the high sulfur, nitrogen, and volatile matter content of sewage sludge. The total 16 USEPA priority PAHs and 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs produced from sewage sludge combustion were found to be 106.14 microg/m3 and 8955.93 pg/m3 in the flue gas, respectively. In the case of co-combustion with coal (m(sludge)/m(coal) = 1:1), the 16 PAHs and 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs concentrations were markedly lower than those found during mono-combustion of sewage sludge. During co-combustion, a suppressant effect of CaO on PCDD/Fs formation was observed. PMID:20131608

  18. Protecting effect of recycled urban wastes (sewage sludge and wastewater) on ryegrass against the toxicity of pesticides at high concentrations.

    PubMed

    Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, Ma Dolores; Guzmán, Ignacio; Sánchez, Lourdes; Fernández-Espinosa, Antonio J; Valdés, Benito; Rossini-Oliva, Sabina

    2014-09-01

    Degraded landscapes, like those from abandoned mine areas, could be restored by revegetating them with appropriate plant species, after correction for acidity and improvement by adding exogenous organic material. Application of urban wastes to large areas of derelict land helps in the sustainable development of this landscape. However, the development of plant species in these soils could require in the future the management of possible pests or diseases by pesticide applications which could also affect plant yield. Therefore, ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was planted in a limed soil from the mining area of Riotinto (SW Spain), using an indoor pot experiment and the effects of amendment with sewage sludge, as well as irrigation with urban wastewater on plant uptake of the insecticide thiacloprid and the fungicide fenarimol were examined. Ryegrass biomass was reduced up to 3-fold by pesticide application. Fenarimol residues were the highest in soil, while those of thiacloprid were lower in soil and higher in ryegrass. Addition of sewage sludge and irrigation with wastewater led to a reduction of pesticide translocation to the aerial plant parts, representing a lower hazard to ryegrass quality grown in this mine soil. PMID:24797639

  19. Sorption of short- and long-chain perfluoroalkyl surfactants on sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaojie; Yan, Hong; Li, Fei; Hu, Xiang; Zhou, Qi

    2013-09-15

    Perfluoroalkyl surfactants (PASs) have attracted increasing concerns in recent years due to their global distribution, persistence, bioaccumulation and potential toxicity. Since sludge was a significant source of PASs to environment, the sorption of short (C2-C6) and long-chain (C7-C15) PASs on different sewage sludge was investigated in this study. The equilibrium data were well represented by the Freundlich isotherm and were generally nonlinear. In order to elucidate the sorption mechanism of PASs to sludge, effect of sludge property, solution chemistry and molecular structure were also investigated in details. The dominant sludge parameter influencing sorption of PASs was protein in extracellular polymeric substances. The sorption of PASs onto sludge increased as solution pH decreased. For all the PASs homologues, enhanced adsorption occurred with increasing calcium concentration in solution. For PASs with C5-C15, sorption on sludge increases with increasing alkyl chain length, while for PASs with C2-C5, the association of sludge decreases when the alkyl chain length increases. The perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA) demonstrated substantially stronger sorption than perfluorinated carboxylic acid (PFCA) analog. Evidence for both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions was found. PMID:23834900

  20. Preference of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, for plants grown in sewage sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

    1987-08-01

    Since passage of the Clean Water Act in the 1970s, disposal of the millions of tonnes of sewage sludge generated annually has become a major concern of municipalities throughout the United States. With the range of other disposal options having narrowed in recent years, application of sludge to land is increasingly viewed as a practical and economical means to recycle this waste material. However, sludges from large cities with industries may be contaminated with various toxic chemicals, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), other organic chemicals, such as pesticides, and heavy metals. Sludge application to land thus has the potential adversely to affect biota and the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. The authors previously demonstrated marked reductions in fecundity and survival of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, on collard plants, Brassica oleracea var. sabellica, growing in soil treated with chemically contaminated sludge as compared to aphids on plants growing either in soil treated with uncontaminated sludge of soil conventionally fertilized. Reduced plant growth and increased restlessness in aphids in the contaminated sludge treatment were also observed. The purpose of the present study was to examine more closely the influence of sludge contaminants on aphid settling behavior as indicated by differential preference of M. persicae for leaves of its collard host grown under different soil conditions.

  1. Thermal conductivity characteristics of dewatered sewage sludge by thermal hydrolysis reaction.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyoung Woon; Park, Keum Joo; Han, Seong Kuk; Jung, Hee Suk

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the thermal conductivity of sewage sludge related to reaction temperature for the optimal design of a thermal hydrolysis reactor. We continuously quantified the thermal conductivity of dewatered sludge related to the reaction temperature. As the reaction temperature increased, the dewatered sludge is thermally liquefied under high temperature and pressure by the thermal hydrolysis reaction. Therefore, the bound water in the sludge cells comes out as free water, which changes the dewatered sludge from a solid phase to slurry in a liquid phase. As a result, the thermal conductivity of the sludge was more than 2.64 times lower than that of the water at 20. However, above 200, it became 0.704 W/m* degrees C, which is about 4% higher than that of water. As a result, the change in physical properties due to thermal hydrolysis appears to be an important factor for heat transfer efficiency. Implications: The thermal conductivity of dewatered sludge is an important factor the optimal design of a thermal hydrolysis reactor. The dewatered sludge is thermally liquefied under high temperature and pressure by the thermal hydrolysis reaction. The liquid phase slurry has a higher thermal conductivity than pure water. PMID:25562934

  2. Production of biosolid fuels from municipal sewage sludge: Technical and economic optimisation.

    PubMed

    Wzorek, Ma?gorzata; Ta?czuk, Mariusz

    2015-08-01

    The article presents the technical and economic analysis of the production of fuels from municipal sewage sludge. The analysis involved the production of two types of fuel compositions: sewage sludge with sawdust (PBT fuel) and sewage sludge with meat and bone meal (PBM fuel). The technology of the production line of these sewage fuels was proposed and analysed. The main objective of the study is to find the optimal production capacity. The optimisation analysis was performed for the adopted technical and economic parameters under Polish conditions. The objective function was set as a maximum of the net present value index and the optimisation procedure was carried out for the fuel production line input capacity from 0.5 to 3?t?h(-1), using the search step 0.5?t?h(-1). On the basis of technical and economic assumptions, economic efficiency indexes of the investment were determined for the case of optimal line productivity. The results of the optimisation analysis show that under appropriate conditions, such as prices of components and prices of produced fuels, the production of fuels from sewage sludge can be profitable. In the case of PBT fuel, calculated economic indexes show the best profitability for the capacity of a plant over 1.5?t?h(-1) output, while production of PBM fuel is beneficial for a plant with the maximum of searched capacities: 3.0?t?h(-1). Sensitivity analyses carried out during the investigation show that influence of both technical and economic assessments on the location of maximum of objective function (net present value) is significant. PMID:26116645

  3. Occurrence and point source characterization of perfluoroalkyl acids in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Alder, Alfredo C; van der Voet, Juergen

    2015-06-01

    The occurrence and levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) emitted from specific pollution sources into the aquatic environment in Switzerland were studied using digested sewage sludges from 45 wastewater treatment plants in catchments containing a wide range of potential industrial emitters. Concentrations of individual PFAAs show a high spatial and temporal variability, which infers different contributions from industrial technologies and activities. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was generally the predominant PFAA with concentrations varying between 4 and 2440?gkg(-1) (median 75?gkg(-1)). Elevated emissions were especially observed in catchments capturing discharges from metal plating industries (median 82?gkg(-1)), aqueous firefighting foams (median 215?gkg(-1)) and landfill leachates (median 107?gkg(-1)). Some elevated perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) levels could be attributed to emissions from textile finishing industries with concentrations up to 233?gkg(-1) in sewage sludge. Assuming sorption to sludge for PFOS and PFCAs of 15% and 2%, respectively, concentrations in wastewater effluents up to the low ?gL(-1) level were estimated. Even if wastewater may be expected to be diluted between 10 and 100 times by the receiving waters, elevated concentrations may be reached at specific locations. Although sewage sludge is a minor compartment for PFAAs in WWTPs, these investigations are helpful for the identification of hot-spots from industrial emitters as well as to estimate monthly average concentrations in wastewater. PMID:25176581

  4. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth quarter 1993 and summary 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standard in a single well of the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site during fourth quarter 1993. Aluminum, iron, and lead, reported in excess of the SRS Flag 2 criteria at both the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites during third quarter 1993, were not analyzed fourth quarter.

  5. Characterization of sewage sludge and the use of brine shrimp for toxicity test

    SciTech Connect

    Pun, K.C.; Cheung, R.Y.H.; Wong, M.H.

    1995-12-31

    Heavy metal contents (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) of digested sludges, collected from 4 sewage treatment works in Hong Kong were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, after sequentially extracted by 1 M KNO{sub 3}, 0.5 M KF, 0.1 M Na{sub 4}, P{sub 2}, O{sub 7} 0.1 M EDTA and 6 M HNO{sub 3} It was found that the major forms of Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were in the sulfide phase, organically bound phase, adsorbed phase and carbonate phase respectively. Nauplii larvae of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) was then used as bioindicator to test the toxicity, of the digested sludges. 20 individuals were placed into 1 liter seawater containing whole sample of the types of digested sludges at different concentrations, The toxicity of the 4 sludges, according to 48h-LC 50, were ranked as follows YL > TP > ST > SWH.

  6. Chesapeake Bay nutrient pollution: contribution from the land application of sewage sludge in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Land, Lynton S

    2012-11-01

    Human health concerns and the dissemination of anthropogenic substances with unknown consequences are the reasons most often given why disposal of municipal sewage sludge in landfills or using the organic waste as biofuel is preferable to land application. But no "fertilizer" causes more nitrogen pollution than sludge when applied according to Virginia law. Poultry litter is the only other "fertilizer" that causes more phosphorus pollution than sludge. Cost savings by the few farmers in Virginia who use sludge are far less than the costs of the nitrogen pollution they cause. A ban on the land application of all forms of animal waste is very cost-effective and would reduce Chesapeake Bay nutrient pollution by 25%. PMID:22831861

  7. Study Into Combustion of Sewage Sludge as Energetic Fuel / Badania Spalania OSADÓW ?CIEKOWYCH Jako Paliwa Energetycznego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka; ?roda, Katarzyna; Otwinowski, Henryk

    2013-12-01

    Along with the development of civilisation, it can be observed that the amount of waste of different type is growing and the preparation process for further usage of the waste or the utilization process differs. What is to be focused on is municipal sewage sludge which, due to its energetic properties, constitutes a valuable fuel. The problem of usage of municipal sewage sludge remains still unsolved, which stems both from the increasing amount of such waste, and from the lack of properly adjusted systems for thermal processing thereof. What is of an additional obstacle are the increasingly stricter legal regulations regarding disposal of sewage sludge after the year 2013; hence, it is necessary to consider various benefits resulting from thermal processing of such waste. This work presents an overview of methods of disposal of sewage sludge, taking into consideration, in particular, thermal methods including the process of combustion and co-combustion as a means of successful utilization. The research section of the work presents the results of study into the mechanism and kinetics of combustion of sewage sludge in various conditions of the process carried out in air flow. Combustion of sewage sludge has been compared against combustion of coal and biomass. Wraz z rozwojem cywilizacji zaobserwowa? mo?na post?puj?ce powstawanie ró?nego rodzaju odpadów ró?ni?cych si?, m.in. sposobem przygotowania do dalszego wykorzystania, czy procesem utylizacji. Na szczególn? uwag? zas?uguj? komunalne osady ?ciekowe, które z uwagi na w?a?ciwo?ci energetyczne stanowi? cenne paliwo. Problem wykorzystania komunalnych osadów ?ciekowych jest nadal otwarty, a wynika to zarówno z rosn?cej produkcji tych odpadów, jak i braku odpowiednio przystosowanych instalacji do termicznego ich przekszta?cania. Dodatkowym utrudnieniem s? zaostrzaj?ce si? przepisy prawne dotycz?ce sk?adowania osadów ?ciekowych po 2013 r. sk?aniaj?ce tym samym do rozwa?a? nad korzy?ciami p?yn?cymi z termicznej obróbki tych odpadów. W pracy przedstawiono przegl?d sposobów unieszkodliwiania osadów ?ciekowych ze szczególnym uwzgl?dnieniem metod termicznych, g?ównie spalania i wspó?spalania jako drogi do ich sukcesywnej utylizacji. W cz??ci badawczej pracy zaprezentowano wyniki bada? mechanizmu i kinetyki spalania osadów ?ciekowych w ró?nych warunkach procesu prowadzonego w strumieniu powietrza. Spalanie osadów ?ciekowych porównano ze spalaniem w?gla oraz biomasy.

  8. Stability of Selected PAHs in Sewage Sludge/ Stabilno?? Wybranych Wwa W Osadach ?ciekowych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    W?odarczyk-Maku?a, Maria

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the investigations was to estimate the half-life of selected PAHs in sewage sludge. Five hydrocarbons selected from 16 PAHs- EPA were chosen. In this study, the quantity changes in the concentration 3- and 4-ring of PAHs in sewage sludges were investigated. Sewage sludges were stored under aerobic conditions for 12 weeks. At the same time the sewage sludges with the added sodium azide, in order to deactivate the microorganisms (abiotic samples), were also stored. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to qualify and quantify PAHs in 2-week intervals. Sewage sludges were taken from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Under experimental conditions the half-lives of individual compounds were diversed. In biotic samples halflife of hydrocarbons was in the range of 19 to 368 days. Half-life of PAHs in abiotic sewage sludges was in the range of 31 to 2961 days. The most persistent were phenanthrene. Celem bada? by?a ocena trwa?o?ci WWA w warunkach sk?adowania poprzez wyznaczenie czasu po?owicznego rozpadu. Okre?lono zmiany ilo?ciowe WWA w osadach przechowywanych w warunkach tlenowych przez 12 tygodni. W tych samych warunkach pozostawa?y tak?e osady, w których zahamowano aktywno?? mikroorganizmów poprzez dodatek azydku sodu. Ilo?ciow? analiz? WWA prowadzono z wykorzystaniem zestawu GC-MS w odst?pach 2-tygodniowych równolegle w osadach biotycznych i abiotycznych. Oznaczano pi?? WWA (fluoren, fenentren, antracen, fluoranten, piren), które znajduj? si? w?ród 16 zwi?zków podanych na li?cie EPA. Osady pobrano dwukrotnie z oczyszczalni ?cieków komunalnych, które w praktyce kierowane s? na sk?adowisko. Zawarto?? pocz?tkowa WWA w osadach by?a na poziomie 346?g/kg.s.m. W warunkach prowadzonego eksperymentu czas po?owicznego rozk?adu by? zró?nicowany dla poszczególnych zwi?zków. W osadach aktywnych biologicznie czas po?owicznego rozpadu badanych w?glowodorów by? w granicach od 19 do 368 dób. Czas po?owicznego rozpadu wyznaczony dla WWA w osadach nieaktywnych biologicznie pozostawa? w zakresie od 31 do 2961 dób.

  9. Bacterial community structure in treated sewage sludge with mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Stiborova, Hana; Wolfram, Jan; Demnerova, Katerina; Macek, Tomas; Uhlik, Ondrej

    2015-11-01

    Stabilized sewage sludge is applied to agricultural fields and farmland due to its high organic matter content. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two types of sludge stabilization, mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) and thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD), on bacterial communities in sludge, including the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Bacterial community structure and phylogenetic diversity were analyzed in four sewage sludge samples from the Czech Republic. Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes showed that investigated sludge samples harbor diverse bacterial populations with only a few taxa present across all samples. Bacterial diversity was higher in sludge samples after MAD versus TAD treatment, and communities in MAD-treated sludge shared the highest genetic similarities. In all samples, the bacterial community was dominated by reads affiliated with Proteobacteria. The sludge after TAD treatment had considerably higher number of reads of thermotolerant/thermophilic taxa, such as the phyla Deinococcus-Thermus and Thermotogae or the genus Coprothermobacter. Only one operational taxonomic unit (OTU), which clustered with Rhodanobacter, was detected in all communities at a relative abundance >1 %. All of the communities were screened for the presence of 16S rRNA gene sequences of pathogenic bacteria using a database of 122 pathogenic species and ?98 % identity threshold. The abundance of such sequences ranged between 0.23 and 1.57 % of the total community, with lower numbers present after the TAD treatment, indicating its higher hygienization efficiency. Sequences clustering with nontuberculous mycobacteria were present in all samples. Other detected sequences of pathogenic bacteria included Streptomyces somaliensis, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Alcaligenes faecalis, Gordonia spp., Legionella anisa, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Enterobacter aerogenes, Brucella melitensis, and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25921720

  10. Degradation and environmental risk of surfactants after the application of compost sludge to the soil

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.M.; Martin, J.; Camacho-Munoz, D.; Santos, J.L.; Aparicio, I.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Degradation of surfactants in soil amended with sewage sludge during 100 days. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature influences on the degradation of the studied compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall, the LAS degradation is faster than the NP compounds degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Therefore, the LAS presented lower environmental risk than the NP compounds. - Abstract: In this work, the degradation of anionic and non-ionic surfactants in agricultural soil amended with sewage sludge is reported. The compounds analysed were: linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) with a 10-13 carbon alkylic chain, and nonylphenolic compounds (NPE), including nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol ethoxylates with one and two ethoxy groups (NP1EO and NP2EO). The degradation studies were carried out under winter (12.7 Degree-Sign C) and summer (22.4 Degree-Sign C) conditions in Andalusia region. The concentration of LAS was reduced to 2% of the initial concentration 100 day after sludge-application to the soil. The half-life time measured for LAS homologues were ranged between 4 and 14 days at 12.7 Degree-Sign C and between 4 and 7 days at 22.4 Degree-Sign C. With regard to NPE compounds, after 8 and 4 days from the beginning of the experiment at 12.7 and 22.4 Degree-Sign C, respectively, their concentration levels were increased to 6.5 and 13.5 mg/kg dm (dry matter) as consequence of the degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylates. These concentration levels were reduced to 5% after 63 and 70 days for 12.7 Degree-Sign C and 22.4 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The half-life times measured for NPEs were from 8 to 16 days at 12.7 Degree-Sign C and from 8 to 18 days at 22.4 Degree-Sign C. Environmental risk assessment revealed that for LAS homologues no environment risk could be expected after 7 and 8 days of sludge application to the soil for 22.4 and 12.7 Degree-Sign C, respectively; however, potential toxic effects could be observed for the nonylphenolic compounds during the first 56 days after sludge application to the soil.

  11. Acoustic tracking of ocean-dumped sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Proni, J R; Newman, F C; Sellers, R L; Parker, C

    1976-09-10

    With a modified 200-kilohertz acoustic echo sounder, it has been possible to detect and map sewage dumped into the ocean over several hours. The three-dimensional distribution of suspended material and its rate of diffusion are indicated after digital processing of the data. PMID:17735703

  12. Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ash with sodium salt additives for phosphorus fertilizer production - Analysis of underlying chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Stemann, Jan; Peplinski, Burkhard; Adam, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Stocks of high grade phosphate rock are becoming scarce, and there is growing concern about potentially harmful impurities in conventional phosphorus fertilizers. Sewage sludge ash is a promising secondary phosphorus source. However, to remove heavy metals and convert the phosphorus contained in sewage sludge ash into mineral phases available to plants, an after-treatment is required. Laboratory-scale calcination experiments of sewage sludge ash blended with sodium salts using dried sewage sludge as a reducing agent were carried out at 1000°C. Thus, the Ca3(PO4)2 or whitlockite component of raw sewage sludge ash, which is not readily plant available, was converted to CaNaPO4 (buchwaldite). Consequently, nearly complete phosphorus solubility in ammonium citrate (a well-established indicator for plant availability) was achieved. Moreover, it was shown that Na2CO3 may be replaced by moderately priced Na2SO4. However, molar ratios of Na/P>2 were required to achieve >80% phosphorus solubility. Such over-stoichiometric Na consumption is largely caused by side reactions with the SiO2 component of the sewage sludge ash - an explanation for which clear evidence is provided for the first time. PMID:26219587

  13. FINE PARTICAL AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Wayne S. Seames; Art Fernandez

    2003-09-21

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and pulverized coal. The objective was to determine potential tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} mitigation through using a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel, such as municipal sewage sludge, and the emergence of other potential problems such as the emission of toxic fly ash particles. The work led to new insight into mechanisms governing the partitioning of major and trace metals from the combustion of sewage sludge, and mixtures of coal and sewage sludge. The research also showed that the co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge emitted fine particulate matter that might potentially cause greater lung injury than that from the combustion of either coal alone or municipal sewage sludge alone. The reason appeared to be that the toxicity measured required the presence of large amounts of both zinc and sulfur in particles that were inhaled. MSS provided the zinc while coal provided the sulfur. Additional research showed that the toxic effects could most likely be engineered out of the process, through the introduction of kaolinite sorbent downstream of the combustion zone, or removing the sulfur from the fuel. These results are consequences of applying ''Health Effects Engineering'' to this issue. Health Effects Engineering is a new discipline arising out of this work, and is derived from using a collaboration of combustion engineers and toxicologists to mitigate the potentially bad health effects from combustion of this biomass fuel.

  14. Beneficial uses of nuclear byproducts/sewage sludge irradiation project. Progress report, October 1981-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Zak, B.D.

    1982-12-01

    A cooperative agreement was made between Albuquerque and DOE during FY81 for sewage sludge irradiation in upgrading the sewage treatment facilities. Other potential sites for implementation of sludge irradiation technology were also considered. Sludge was irradiated in the SIDSS for agronomy and animal feeding experiments. Sludge was also irradiated for use on turf areas. Cooperative work was also performed on grapefruit irradiation for fruit fly disinfestation, and on irradiation of sugar cane waste (bagasse) for enhanced ruminant digestibility. Preliminary design work began on a shipping cask to accomodate WESF Cs-137 capsules. The shielding performance, steady-state thermal response, and response to specified regulatory accident sequences have been evaluated. Work has been initiated on pathogen survival and post-irradiation pathogen behavior. Agronomy field, greenhouse, and soil chemistry studies continue. Various field experiments are ongoing. The fifth year of a five-year program to evaluate the potential use of a sludge product as a range feed supplement for cows is now in its fifth year. In agricultural economics, a preliminary marketing plan has been prepared for Albuquerque.

  15. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN BIOSOLIDS/SEWAGE SLUDGES - THE INTERFACE BETWEEN ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY AND REGULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern sanitary practices result in large volumes of human waste, as well as domestic and industrial sewage, being collected and treated at common collection points, wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). In recognition of the growing use of sewage sludges as a fertilizers and as so...

  16. Wet oxidation of sewage sludge: full-scale experience and process modeling.

    PubMed

    Bertanza, Giorgio; Galessi, Raniero; Menoni, Laura; Salvetti, Roberta; Slavik, Edoardo; Zanaboni, Sabrina

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, sewage sludge management represents one of the most important issues in wastewater treatment. Within the European project "ROUTES," wet oxidation (WO) was proposed for sludge minimization. Four different types of sludge were treated in an industrial WO plant: (1) municipal primary sludge (chemical oxygen demand COD: 73.0 g/L; volatile suspended solid VSS: 44.1 g/L); (2) secondary sludge from an industrial wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) without primary sedimentation (COD: 71.8 g/L; VSS: 34.2 g/L); (3) secondary sludge from a mixed municipal and industrial WWTP without primary sedimentation (COD: 61.9 g/L; VSS: 38.7 g/L); and (4) mixed primary (70%) and secondary (30%) municipal sludge (COD: 81.2 g/L; VSS: 40.6 g/L). The effect of process parameters (temperature, reaction time, oxygen dosage) on WO performance was investigated. Depending on operating conditions, VSS and COD removal efficiency varied in the range 80-97% and 43-71%, respectively. A correlation between process efficiency and the initial VSS/TSS (total suspended solids) ratio was highlighted. Furthermore, a mathematical model of WO process for simulating VSS and COD profiles was developed. PMID:24916064

  17. Scale-up of phosphate remobilization from sewage sludge in a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Happe, Manuel; Sugnaux, Marc; Cachelin, Christian Pierre; Stauffer, Marc; Zufferey, Géraldine; Kahoun, Thomas; Salamin, Paul-André; Egli, Thomas; Comninellis, Christos; Grogg, Alain-François; Fischer, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate remobilization from digested sewage sludge containing iron phosphate was scaled-up in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). A 3litre triple chambered MFC was constructed. This reactor was operated as a microbial fuel cell and later as a microbial electrolysis cell to accelerate cathodic phosphate remobilization. Applying an additional voltage and exceeding native MFC power accelerated chemical base formation and the related phosphate remobilization rate. The electrolysis approach was extended using a platinum-RVC cathode. The pH rose to 12.6 and phosphate was recovered by 67% in 26h. This was significantly faster than using microbial fuel cell conditions. Shrinking core modelling particle fluid kinetics showed that the reaction resistance has to move inside the sewage sludge particle for considerable rate enhancement. Remobilized phosphate was subsequently precipitated as struvite and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry indicated low levels of cadmium, lead, and other metals as required by law for recycling fertilizers. PMID:26519694

  18. Palygorskite changes heavy metal bioavailability and microbial functional diversity in sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siying; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Juanjuan; Xia, Dongsheng; Pan, Fei; Liu, Ci; Kyzas, George Z; Fu, Jie

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effects of palygorskite on chemical forms of heavy metal and microbial functional diversity in the sewage sludge composting, a compost matrix of sewage sludge, wheat straw and varying contents of palygorskite were inoculated with the compound microbial preparation. The chemical speciation analysis by a Community Bureau of Reference-sequential extraction indicated the contribution of palygorskite to reduce the bioavailability of a model metal, Cu, during the composting process. The Biolog EcoPlate(TM) test revealed that the microbial community showed better capability of utilizing complex macro-molecules (such as miscellaneous and polymers) in the presence of palygorskite. Increasing the palygorskite contents from 1% to 5%, the microbial activity showed an increasing tendency. However, continuously increasing the palygorskite resulted in a decline of the microbial metabolism. Therefore, appropriate content of palygorskite is an ideal additive for composting, not only enhancing the microbial activity, but also reducing the metal toxicity. PMID:25980362

  19. BMP tests of source selected OFMSW to evaluate anaerobic codigestion with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Cabbai, Valentina; Ballico, Maurizio; Aneggi, Eleonora; Goi, Daniele

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize different types of source selected organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SS-OFMSW) in order to optimize the upgrade of a sewage sludge anaerobic digestion unit by codigestion. Various SS-OFMSW samples were collected from canteens, supermarkets, restaurants, households, fruit-vegetable markets and bakery shops. The substrates characterization was carried out getting traditional chemical-physical parameters, performing elemental analysis and measuring fundamental anaerobic digestion macromolecular compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and volatile fatty acids. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted at mesophilic temperature both on single substrates and in codigestion regime with different substrates mixing ratios. The maximum methane yield was observed for restaurant (675 NmlCH4/gVS) and canteens organic wastes (571 and 645 NmlCH4/gVS). The best codigestion BMP test has highlighted an increase of 47% in methane production respect sewage sludge digestion. PMID:23628216

  20. Atomic-absorption spectrophotometric determination of antimony, arsenic, bismuth, tellurium, thallium and vanadium in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kempton, S; Sterritt, R M; Lester, J N

    1982-08-01

    Electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), by use of a graphite furnace, in conjunction with sample pretreatment by homogenization, was evaluated as a rapid method for the determination of bismuth, thallium and vanadium in sewage sludge. This method was compared with use of flame, electrothermal and hydride-generation (for bismuth) AAS in conjunction with conventional acid digestion and dry-ashing pretreatments and was found to be applicable to this type of sample. Comparisons were also made between flame and hydride-generation AAS in conjunction with an acid digestion pretreatment for the determination of antimony, arsenic and tellurium in sewage sludge. The hydride-generation technique was considered the better for waste-water samples because of its greater sensitivity. PMID:18963211

  1. Detection and quantification of viable Ascaris sp. and other helminth eggs in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Veridiana Karmann; Cutolo, Silvana Audra; Doria, Maria do Carmo Oliveira; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Some epidemiologic studies conducted in developing countries demonstrated a high incidence of enteroparasites, Ascaris sp. being the most prevalent. Therefore, the use of sewage sludge in agriculture may pose risks to human health. In order to protect public health, a Brazilian regulation has established standards regarding its use in rural areas. The objective of this study was to quantify Ascaris sp. and other helminth eggs in sewage sludge from five wastewater treatment plants from a dense metropolitan region, and also to check compliance with the law. The analysis was carried according to USEPA 2003 . A rich parasitological fauna was found, with a prevalence of the eggs of Ascaris sp. (9.55%). The samples analyzed presented a large variety of helminth eggs, and Ascaris sp. proved to be the most prevalent which put in evidence that its application poses public health concerns. PMID:23072414

  2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FREE LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS CONTENT FOR SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA guidelines for disposal of solid waste to landfills require that the waste contain no "free liquids", where the absence of free liquids is demonstrated by the EPA-prescribed pain filter liquids test (PFLT). his requirement applies to wastewater treatment sludges disposed to l...

  3. RECLAMATION OF A LANDFILL WITH DIGESTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Calumet land reclamation project developed design criteria for applying liquid fertilizer (sludge) to land and demonstrated the beneficial and economic use of it in raising crops. The scope of the project included developing a pipeline system to transport liquid fertilizer to...

  4. A METHOD FOR CONCENTRATING VIRUSES RECOVERED FROM SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buffered 10% beef extract eluates of primary, activated, and anaerobic mesophilically digested sludges were concentrated 20-fold by the Katzenelson organic flocculation procedure after diluting the beef extract in the eluates to a final concentration of 3%. The weighted mean reco...

  5. Occurrence of synthetic musks in Korean sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Lee, In-Seok; Kim, Un-Jung; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2010-03-01

    Six polycyclic musks (PCMs) and five nitro musks (NMs) were analyzed in dewatered sludge samples from 13 municipal, 4 livestock and 1 pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in South Korea. 1,3,4,6,7,8-Hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-(g)-2-benzopyran (HHCB; Galaxolide), Abbalide), and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN; Tonalide, Fixolide) were the two predominant PCMs in the sludge samples, at concentrations ranging from 0.52 to 82.0mg/kg dry weight (dw) and 0.12 to 28.8mg/kg (dw), respectively, suggesting the extensive use of these two PCMs in South Korea. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed the different usage patterns of PCMs between livestock cultivating farm and household. The levels of HHCB and AHTN in the effluent discharged from the WWTPs were lower than the threshold effect levels derived for fish, suggesting low potential risks to aquatic organisms. Nevertheless, the calculated discharge of synthetic musks (SMs) from sludge in each target WWTP ranged from 36 to 10,961g/d. These results indicate the necessity of conducting monitoring studies in marine ecosystems due to ocean disposal of sludge, particularly focused on the two prevailing PCMs. PMID:20053421

  6. REVEGETATING STRIP-MINED LAND WITH MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three sites representative of abandoned, barren bituminous and anthracite mines were treated with various types of municipal sludge at high and low application rates and broadcast seeded with a mixture of grasses and legumes. A monitoring system was installed at each demonstratio...

  7. EFFECTS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON CORN SILAGE AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted to determine the impact of heavy metals in sludge-fertilized corn silage on the food and feed chain when the silage containing up to 5.26 mg Cd/kg was fed to dairy goats and feeder lambs. Neither health nor performance of the goats or lambs were significant...

  8. Mobility and biodegradability of an imidazolium based ionic liquid in soil and soil amended with waste sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Markiewicz, M; Jungnickel, C; Cho, C-W; Stolte, S

    2015-08-01

    Sorption on solids and biodegradation are main phenomena that can mitigate the pollution of soil and water by ionic liquids (ILs). ILs sorbed on soil particles become immobilized (temporarily or permanently) which prevents them from spreading into deeper layers of soil or groundwater but which also makes them less bioavailable. In this study we attempt to examine if amendment of soil with waste sludge has a potential to mitigate the transport and enhance biodegradation of ILs using 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium chloride ([OMIM][Cl]) as an example. We present the results of adsorption test (batch and column) and ultimate biodegradation of [OMIM][Cl] using microbial communities derived from soil. Finally, we combine all of these processes together to examine the fate of [OMIM][Cl] in a continuous column flow-through system in soil amended with waste sewage sludge. Addition of sludge serves two purposes: firstly increasing soil organic matter (formerly proved to facilitate retardation), and secondly augmenting soil with versatile microbial communities previously shown to successfully degrade ILs. PMID:26156070

  9. Sewage sludge composting: influence of initial mixtures on organic matter evolution and N availability in the final composts.

    PubMed

    Doublet, Jérémy; Francou, Cédric; Poitrenaud, Maelenn; Houot, Sabine

    2010-10-01

    The influence of bulking agents on organic matter (OM) stability and nitrogen (N) availability in sewage sludge composts was investigated. The same sludge was composted on an industrial plant with different mixtures of bulking agents. The composting process included an active phase and a curing phase, both lasting 6 weeks, separated by the screening of composts. The OM evolution was characterised by carbon (C) and N mass balances in biochemical fractions. The OM stability and N potential availability of final composts were measured during soil incubations. During composting, the C and N losses reached more than 62% of the initial C and more than 45% of the initial N, respectively, due to C mineralisation or N volatilization and screening. The bulking materials mostly influenced OM evolution during the active phase. They contributed to the mitigation of N losses during the active phase where N immobilisation through active microbial activity was favoured by bulking agents increasing the C:N ratio of the initial mixtures. However, the influence of bulking agents on OM evolution was removed by the screening; this induced the homogenisation of compost characteristics and led to the production of sludge composts with similar organic matter characteristics, C degradability and N availability. PMID:20627507

  10. Kinetic analysis for destruction of municipal sewage sludge and alcohol distillery wastewater by supercritical water oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Motonobu; Nada, Takatsugu; Kodama, Akio; Hirose, Tsutomu

    1999-05-01

    Supercritical water oxidation was applied to the destruction of municipal excess sewage sludge and alcohol distillery wastewater of molasses. The reaction was carried out in a batch reactor with hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant in the temperature range 673--773 K. Total organic carbon was measured as a function of reaction time. The dynamic data were analyzed by a first-order reaction model. The reaction rate constant coincides with those reported in the literature.

  11. Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment processes and disposal of sewage sludges. Topics include resource and energy recovery operations, land disposal, composting, ocean disposal, and incineration. Digestion, dewatering, and disinfection are among the pretreatment processes discussed. Environmental aspects, including the effects on soils, plants, and animals, are also presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Transformation and availability of nutrients and heavy metals during integrated composting-vermicomposting of sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod

    2012-05-01

    Transformation and availability of nutrients and some heavy metals were assessed during the integrated composting-vermicomposting of both primary sewage sludge (PSS) and waste activated sewage sludge (WAS) using matured vermicompost as indigenous bulking material and employing Eisenia fetida as earthworm species. Vermicomposting resulted in significant increase in total N (TN) (PSS: 41.7-64.6%, F=11.6, P<0.05; WAS: 36.4-58.6%, F=6.4, P<0.05), water soluble N (WSN) (PSS: 37.1-50.5%, F=30.1, P<0.05; WAS: 40.1-53.0%, F=27.6, P<0.05), total P (TP) (PSS: 39.9-69.8%, F=27.1, P<0.05; WAS: 32.2-56.6%, F=21.4, P<0.05) and water soluble P (WSP) (PSS: 25.2-34.3%, F=163.9, P<0.05; WAS: 24.1-34.2%, F=144.3, P<0.05) as compared to the initial compost material depending on different experimental conditions. The study demonstrated that the vermicomposting significantly improved the availability of nutrients in sewage sludges. In addition, vermicomposting considerably reduced the availability of heavy metals except Fe and Mn, presumably by forming organic-bound complexes in spite of several fold increase in their total content. The environmental conditions (i.e., temperature and relative humidity), in general, showed significant effect on the transformation and availability of nutrients and heavy metals. There was no effect of earthworm density on the transformation and availability of heavy metals and nutrients except N and P, possibly due to prior exposure during acclimation period in sewage sludge. PMID:22277776

  13. Illicit and abused drugs in sewage sludge: method optimization and occurrence.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Nicola; Postigo, Cristina; de Alda, Miren Lopez; Barcelo, Damia

    2013-12-27

    A sensitive and reliable method for the determination of 20 abused and illicit drugs and their metabolites in sewage sludge has been developed and validated. To the authors' knowledge, nine out of the 20 selected analytes, namely, cocaethylene, ephedrine, heroin, alprazolam, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), its metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD, and the cannabinoids ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD), are investigated for the first time in this matrix. In the optimized approach, freeze-dried sewage sludge samples were extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction, and the extracts were further cleaned-up by solid phase extraction. Analytes were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Method limits of quantification were below 3.3ng/g d.w. for all compounds but cannabinoids (8.2-22.5ng/g d.w.). Method repeatability was below 14% for most compounds. Overall method recoveries were low due to the presence of matrix interferences that could not be completely eliminated and suppressed the ionization of the target analytes between 26% and 89%. However, extraction losses and matrix effects were satisfactorily corrected through the use of isotopically labeled analogs as surrogate standards, ensuring reliable results. The method was applied to the analysis of various sewage sludge samples. Cannabinoids, methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) were the most ubiquitous and abundant compounds, showing maximum concentrations above 100ng/g d.w. in all cases (up to 579ng/g d.w. in the case of THC). This work is the first evidence of the presence of the cannabinoids CBN, CBD, and THC in sewage sludge. PMID:24275487

  14. Emission characteristics of granulated fuel produced from sewage sludge and coal slime.

    PubMed

    Wzorek, Ma?gorzata; Kozio?, Micha?; Scierski, Waldemar

    2010-12-01

    The neutralization of wastewater treatment residues is an issue for many countries. The European Union (EU) legal regulations have limited the use of the residues in agriculture and implemented a ban for their disposal. Therefore, urgent action should be taken to find solutions for the safe disposal of sewage sludge. The problem refers in particular to the new EU member countries, including Poland, where one can now observe an intensive development of sewage system networks and new sewage treatment plants. At the same time, these countries have few installations for thermal sewage sludge utilization (e.g., there is only one installation of that type in Poland). Simultaneously, there are many coal-fired mechanical stoker-fired boilers in some of these countries. This paper presents suggestions for the production of granulated fuel from sewage sludge and coal slime. Additionally, among others, lime was added to the fuel to decrease the sulfur compounds emission. Results are presented of research on fuel with two average grain diameters (approximately 15 and 35 mm). The fuel with such diameters is adapted to the requirements of the combustion process taking place in a stoker-fired boiler. The research was aimed at identifying the behavior of the burning fuel, with special attention paid to its emission properties (e.g., to the emissions of oxides of nitrogen [NO(x)], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and carbon monoxide [CO], among others). The concentration and emission values were compared with similar results obtained while burning hard coal. The combustion process was carried out in a laboratory stand where realization of the large-scale tests is possible. The laboratory stand used made simulation possible for a wide range of burning processes in mechanical stoker-fired boilers. PMID:21243903

  15. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A., III

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water (6- to 21-m depth) from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (<5-m depth) from sludge-treated spoil (pH 5.9) were not elevated relative to untreated spoil (pH 4.4). In contrast, concentrations of nitrate were elevated in vadose water samples from sludge-treated spoil, frequently exceeding 10 mg/L. Downgradient decreases in nitrate to less than 3 mg/L and increases in sulfate concentrations in underlying ground water could result from oxidation of pyrite by nitrate. Thus, sewage sludge added to pyritic spoil can increase the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

  16. CONTROL OF PATHOGENS AND VECTOR ATTRACTION IN SEWAGE SLUDGE (1999 EDITION) (EPA/625/R-92/013)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Properly treated sewage sludge (biosolids) is used as a soil conditioner and partial fertilizer in the United States and many other countries. While sludge has beneficial plant nutrients and soil-conditioning properties, if it is not treated. It may also contain bacteria, viruses...

  17. Priority and emerging pollutants in sewage sludge and fate during sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Mailler, R; Gasperi, J; Chebbo, G; Rocher, V

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims at characterizing the quality of different treated sludges from Paris conurbation in terms of micropollutants and assessing their fate during different sludge treatment processes (STP). To achieve this, a large panel of priority and emerging pollutants (n=117) have been monitored in different STPs from Parisian wastewater treatment plants including anaerobic digestion, thermal drying, centrifugation and a sludge cake production unit. Considering the quality of treated sludges, comparable micropollutant patterns are found for the different sludges investigated (in mg/kg DM - dry matter). 35 compounds were detected in treated sludges. Some compounds (metals, organotins, alkylphenols, DEHP) are found in every kinds of sludge while pesticides or VOCs are never detected. Sludge cake is the most contaminated sludge, resulting from concentration phenomenon during different treatments. As regards treatments, both centrifugation and thermal drying have broadly no important impact on sludge contamination for metals and organic compounds, even if a slight removal seems to be possible with thermal drying for several compounds by abiotic transfers. Three different behaviors can be highlighted in anaerobic digestion: (i) no removal (metals), (ii) removal following dry matter (DM) elimination (organotins and NP) and iii) removal higher than DM (alkylphenols - except NP - BDE 209 and DEHP). Thus, this process allows a clear removal of biodegradable micropollutants which could be potentially significantly improved by increasing DM removal through operational parameters modifications (retention time, temperature, pre-treatment, etc.). PMID:24797622

  18. A research on sintering characteristics and mechanisms of dried sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingrun; Jin, Yiying; Wang, Zhingyu; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Nie, Yongfeng

    2008-12-30

    This study investigates the sintering behavior of dried sewage sludge and the related sintering mechanisms, considering sintering temperature and sintering time. Experimental results indicate that the characteristics are primarily influenced by sintering temperature. When the sintering temperature is increased from 1020 to 1050 degrees C, the specimens' compressive strength and bulk density increase significantly, while water absorption decreases obviously, indicating an improvement of densification due to sintering. However, the compressive strength cannot meet the requirement for traditional ceramic products due to the release of organic matters and the formation of big pores in the products. Phosphorus in sewage sludge initially takes reactions with the formation of calcium magnesium phosphate and aluminum phosphate during sintering, which are helpful for enhancing the compressive strength. So, some materials with high contents of Al could be used to enhance the compressive strength of products. Heavy metals are fixed primarily inside the sintered specimens, with the As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn concentrations in the leachate found to be in the range of China regulatory requirements. These results reveal the feasibility of recycling dried sewage sludge by sintering as a construction material. PMID:18440699

  19. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    During third quarter 1992, the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) were sampled and analyzed for constituents required quarterly by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076. The F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site wells also were analyzed for a number of other constituents not required by the permit. Mercury exceeded the Primary Drinking Water Standard (PDWS) in one analysis from well FSS 2D, and tritium exceeded the PDWS in wells FSS 2D and 3D. The mercury result above PDWS is considered suspect because it was not supported by a reanalysis from the same sample or by historical data. Iron exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criterion in wells FSS 3D, lead exceeded its criterion in wells FSS 3D and HSS 3D, and manganese exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells FSS 2D and 3D.

  20. Decline in PCDD and PCDF levels in sewage sludges from Catalonia (Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Eljarrat, E.; Caixach, J.; Rivera, J. . Mass Spectrometry Lab.)

    1999-08-01

    Nineteen sewage sludges from rural and urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Catalonia (Spain) were analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs using HRGC-HRMS to determine the present levels of contamination. Total I-TEQ values for these samples ranged from 7 to 160 pg/g, with a mean value of 55 pg/g and a median value of 42 pg/g. Moreover, archived sewage sludge samples collected and stored between 1979 and 1987 from 15 WWTPs were analyzed to gain some insight into temporal trends and possible variations in source inputs. Total I-TEQ values for archived samples ranged from 29 to 8300 pg/g, with a mean value of 620 pg/g and a median value of 110 pg/g. The findings show that contemporary sewage sludge PCDD/F concentrations have declined since the 1980s. In addition to the variations in PCDD and PCDF concentrations, there were also some changes in the isomeric patterns. These variations in levels and isomeric patterns could reflect changes in PCDD and PCDF sources to the environment over time.

  1. Image parameters for maturity determination of a composted material containing sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujawa, S.; Nowakowski, K.; Tomczak, R. J.; Boniecki, P.; Dach, J.

    2013-07-01

    Composting is one of the best methods for management of sewage sludge. In a reasonably conducted composting process it is important to early identify the moment in which a material reaches the young compost stage. The objective of this study was to determine parameters contained in images of composted material's samples that can be used for evaluation of the degree of compost maturity. The study focused on two types of compost: containing sewage sludge with corn straw and sewage sludge with rapeseed straw. The photographing of the samples was carried out on a prepared stand for the image acquisition using VIS, UV-A and mixed (VIS + UV-A) light. In the case of UV-A light, three values of the exposure time were assumed. The values of 46 parameters were estimated for each of the images extracted from the photographs of the composted material's samples. Exemplary averaged values of selected parameters obtained from the images of the composted material in the following sampling days were presented. All of the parameters obtained from the composted material's images are the basis for preparation of training, validation and test data sets necessary in development of neural models for classification of the young compost stage.

  2. Artificial neural networks for modeling ammonia emissions released from sewage sludge composting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boniecki, P.; Dach, J.; Pilarski, K.; Piekarska-Boniecka, H.

    2012-09-01

    The project was designed to develop, test and validate an original Neural Model describing ammonia emissions generated in composting sewage sludge. The composting mix was to include the addition of such selected structural ingredients as cereal straw, sawdust and tree bark. All created neural models contain 7 input variables (chemical and physical parameters of composting) and 1 output (ammonia emission). The ? data file was subdivided into three subfiles: the learning file (ZU) containing 330 cases, the validation file (ZW) containing 110 cases and the test file (ZT) containing 110 cases. The standard deviation ratios (for all 4 created networks) ranged from 0.193 to 0.218. For all of the selected models, the correlation coefficient reached the high values of 0.972-0.981. The results show that he predictive neural model describing ammonia emissions from composted sewage sludge is well suited for assessing such emissions. The sensitivity analysis of the model for the input of variables of the process in question has shown that the key parameters describing ammonia emissions released in composting sewage sludge are pH and the carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N).

  3. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and strawberry extrudate under mesophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Antonio; Siles, José A; Chica, Arturo F; Martín, M Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The biomethanization of sewage sludge has several disadvantages such as low methane yield, poor biodegradability and nutrient imbalance. In this paper, a sewage sludge and strawberry extrudate mixture in a proportion of 40:60 (wet weight) is proposed to improve the viability of the process. The addition of an easily biodegradable co-substrate enhanced the nutrient balance and diluted the heavy metals and inhibitors from sewage sludge. Two different experimental set-ups at lab and semi-pilot scale were employed in order to ensure the reproducibility and significance of the obtained values. Co-digestion improved the stability of the process by decreasing the alkalinity to a mean value of 3215 ± 190 mg CaCO?/L, while maintaining the pH within the optimal range for anaerobic digestion. The methane yield coefficient and biodegradability were 176 L/kg VS (total volatile solids) (0°C, 1 atm) and 81% (VS), respectively. Kinetic parameters decreased at the highest loads, suggesting the occurrence of a slowing down phenomenon. A quality organic amendment with a heavy metal content lower than the limits established under European legislation for agricultural applications was obtained from the digestate of the proposed treatment. PMID:25189839

  4. Transformation of apatite phosphorus and non-apatite inorganic phosphorus during incineration of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Rundong; Zhang, Ziheng; Li, Yanlong; Teng, Wenchao; Wang, Weiyun; Yang, Tianhua

    2015-12-01

    The recovery of phosphorus from incinerated sewage sludge ash (SSA) is assumed to be economical. Transformation from non-apatite inorganic phosphorus (NAIP) to apatite phosphorus (AP), which has a higher bioavailability and more extensive industrial applications, was studied at 750-950°C by sewage sludge incineration and model compound incineration with a calcium oxide (CaO) additive. Thermogravimetric differential scanning calorimetry analysis and X-ray diffraction measurements were used to analyze the reactions between NAIP with CaO and crystallized phases in SSA. High temperatures stimulated the volatilization of NAIP instead of AP. Sewage sludge incineration with CaO transformed NAIP into AP, and the percentage of AP from the total phosphorus reached 99% at 950°C. Aluminum phosphate reacted with CaO, forming Ca2P2O7 and Ca3(PO4)2 at 750-950°C. Reactions between iron phosphate and CaO occurred at lower temperatures, forming Ca(PO3)2 before reaching 850°C. PMID:26113414

  5. [Chlorinated hydrocarbons in sewage sludge from a plant in Oslo (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kveseth, N J

    1980-01-01

    Samples of sewage sludge from a plant in Oslo were analysed by gaschromatography for persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. Polychlorinated bifenyls (PCBs) were found in all samples. In 1972 the mean value was 0.9 +/- 0.24 ppm PCBs, while the corresponding value two years later was 0.3 +/- 0.14 ppm. It is suggested that the observed decrease is connected with the restrictions of industrial use of PCBs from 1973. The samples from 1974 were also analysed for phtalic acid esters. Residues of dimethyl-(DMP), diethyl-(DEP), dibutyl-(DBP) and diethylhexcyl-phtalate (DEHP) were found. Mean concentrations of DEHP and DBP were found to be 27 and 13 ppm respectively. The effect of the sludge treatment on PCBs was tested by comparing sewage coming into the plant with cleaned water leaving the plant. Between 50 and 85 percent of total PCBs remained in the water after the cleaning process. The total amount of PCBs in the sewage sludge per year was calculated to be about 2 kg. PMID:7232146

  6. Comparative evaluation of anaerobic digestion for sewage sludge and various organic wastes with simple modeling.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Taira; Wang, Feng; Tsumori, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and other organic wastes, such as kitchen garbage, food waste, and agricultural waste, at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is a promising method for both energy and material recovery. Substrate characteristics and the anaerobic digestion performance of sewage sludge and various organic wastes were compared using experiments and modeling. Co-digestion improved the value of digested sewage sludge as a fertilizer. The relationship between total and soluble elemental concentrations was correlated with the periodic table: most Na and K (alkali metals) were soluble, and around 20-40% of Mg and around 10-20% of Ca (alkaline earth metals) were soluble. The ratio of biodegradable chemical oxygen demand of organic wastes was 65-90%. The methane conversion ratio and methane production rate under mesophilic conditions were evaluated using a simplified mathematical model. There was reasonably close agreement between the model simulations and the experimental results in terms of methane production and nitrogen concentration. These results provide valuable information and indicate that the model can be used as a pre-evaluation tool to facilitate the introduction of co-digestion at WWTPs. PMID:26031329

  7. Fast microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of sewage sludge for bio-oil production.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qinglong; Peng, Peng; Liu, Shiyu; Min, Min; Cheng, Yanling; Wan, Yiqin; Li, Yun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2014-11-01

    In this study, fast microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of sewage sludge was investigated for bio-oil production, with HZSM-5 as the catalyst. Pyrolysis temperature and catalyst to feed ratio were examined for their effects on bio-oil yield and composition. Experimental results showed that microwave is an effective heating method for sewage sludge pyrolysis. Temperature has great influence on the pyrolysis process. The maximum bio-oil yield and the lowest proportions of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds in the bio-oil were obtained at 550°C. The oil yield decreased when catalyst was used, but the proportions of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds were significantly reduced when the catalyst to feed ratio increased from 1:1 to 2:1. Essential mineral elements were concentrated in the bio-char after pyrolysis, which could be used as a soil amendment in place of fertilizer. Results of XRD analyses demonstrated that HZSM-5 catalyst exhibited good stability during the microwave-assisted pyrolysis of sewage sludge. PMID:25260179

  8. Co-pyrolysis of coal/biomass and coal/sewage sludge mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, C.; Ruediger, H.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and sewage sludge are attracting increasing interest in power plant technology as a source of carbon-dioxide-neutral fuels. A new way to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels could be the co-combustion or co-gasification of coal and biomass or coal and sewage sludge. In both cases, pyrolysis is the first step in the technical process. In order to obtain detailed information about the pyrolysis of coal/biomass and coal/sewage sludge mixtures as well as unblended fuels, the Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik and Dampfkesselwesen (IVD) at the University of Stuttgart has carried out investigations using an electrically heated entrained flow reactor. The test runs provided information about fuel conversion efficiency, pyrolysis gas and tar yield, and composition of pyrolysis gas and tar. Besides gas and tar analysis investigations regarding the path of trace elements, like heavy metals, alkali, chlorine and nitrogen components, during the pyrolysis process varying different parameters have been carried out. The fuel nitrogen distribution between pyrolysis gas, tar, and char has been analyzed, as well as the ash composition, and, thus, the release of mineral components during pyrolysis.

  9. Heavy metal concentrations in earthworms from soil amended with sewage sludge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Chaney, R.L.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    Metal concentrations in soil may be elevated considerably when metal-laden sewage sludge is spread on land. Metals in earthworms (Lumbricidae) from agricultural fields amended with sewage sludge and from experimental plots were examined to determine if earthworms are important in transferring metals in soil to wildlife. Earthworms from four sites amended with sludge contained significantly (P . < 0.05) more Cd (12 times), Cu (2.4 times), Zn (2.0 times), and Pb (1.2 times) than did earthworms from control sites, but the concentrations detected varied greatly and depended on the particular sludge application. Generally, Cd and Zn were concentrated by earthworms relative to soil, and Cu, Pb, and Ni were not concentrated. Concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb in earthworms were correlated (P < 0.05) with those in soil. The ratio of the concentration of metals in earthworms to the concentration of metals in soil tended to be lower in contaminated soil than in clean soil. Concentrations of Cd as high as 100 ppm (dry wt) were detected in earthworms from soil containing only 2 ppm Cd. These concentrations are considered hazardous to wildlife that eat worms. Liming soil decreased Cd concentrations in earthworms slightly (P < 0.05) but had no discernible effect on concentrations of the other metals studied. High Zn concentrations in soil substantially reduced Cd concentrations in earthworms.

  10. Full scale performance of the aerobic granular sludge process for sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Pronk, M; de Kreuk, M K; de Bruin, B; Kamminga, P; Kleerebezem, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-11-01

    Recently, aerobic granular sludge technology has been scaled-up and implemented for industrial and municipal wastewater treatment under the trade name Nereda(®). With full-scale references for industrial treatment application since 2006 and domestic sewage since 2009 only limited operating data have been presented in scientific literature so far. In this study performance, granulation and design considerations of an aerobic granular sludge plant on domestic wastewater at the WWTP Garmerwolde, the Netherlands were analysed. After a start-up period of approximately 5 months, a robust and stable granule bed (>8 g L(-1)) was formed and could be maintained thereafter, with a sludge volume index after 5 min settling of 45 mL g(-1). The granular sludge consisted for more than 80% of granules larger than 0.2 mm and more than 60% larger than 1 mm. Effluent requirements (7 mg N L(-1) and 1 mg P L(-1)) were easily met during summer and winter. Maximum volumetric conversion rates for nitrogen and phosphorus were respectively 0.17 and 0.24 kg (m(3) d)(-1). The energy usage was 13.9 kWh (PE150·year)(-1) which is 58-63 % lower than the average conventional activated sludge treatment plant in the Netherlands. Finally, this study demonstrated that aerobic granular sludge technology can effectively be implemented for the treatment of domestic wastewater. PMID:26233660

  11. Optimizing chemical conditioning for odour removal of undigested sewage sludge in drying processes.

    PubMed

    Vega, Esther; Monclús, Hèctor; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael; Martin, Maria J

    2015-03-01

    Emission of odours during the thermal drying in sludge handling processes is one of the main sources of odour problems in wastewater treatment plants. The objective of this work was to assess the use of the response surface methodology as a technique to optimize the chemical conditioning process of undigested sewage sludges, in order to improve the dewaterability, and to reduce the odour emissions during the thermal drying of the sludge. Synergistic effects between inorganic conditioners (iron chloride and calcium oxide) were observed in terms of sulphur emissions and odour reduction. The developed quadratic models indicated that optimizing the conditioners dosage is possible to increase a 70% the dewaterability, reducing a 50% and 54% the emission of odour and volatile sulphur compounds respectively. The optimization of the conditioning process was validated experimentally. PMID:25438118

  12. Multi-system Nernst-Michaelis-Menten model applied to bioanodes formed from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Rimboud, Mickaël; Desmond-Le Quemener, Elie; Erable, Benjamin; Bouchez, Théodore; Bergel, Alain

    2015-11-01

    Bioanodes were formed under constant polarization at -0.2 V/SCE from fermented sewage sludge. Current densities reached were 9.3±1.2 A m(-2) with the whole fermented sludge and 6.2±0.9 A m(-2) with the fermented sludge supernatant. The bioanode kinetics was analysed by differentiating among the contributions of the three redox systems identified by voltammetry. Each system ensured reversible Nernstian electron transfer but around a different central potential. The global overpotential required to reach the maximum current plateau was not imposed by slow electron transfer rates but was due to the potential range covered by the different redox systems. The microbial communities of the three bioanodes were analysed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. They showed a significant microbial diversity around a core of Desulfuromonadales, the proportion of which was correlated with the electrochemical performance of the bioanodes. PMID:26027903

  13. A high-level disinfection standard for land applying sewage sludges (biosolids).

    PubMed Central

    Gattie, David K; McLaughlin, Tara J

    2004-01-01

    Complaints associated with land-applied sewage sludges primarily involve irritation of the skin, mucous membranes, and the respiratory tract accompanied by opportunistic infections. Volatile emissions and organic dusts appear to be the main source of irritation. Occasionally, chronic gastrointestinal problems are reported by affected residents who have private wells. To prevent acute health effects, we recommend that the current system of classifying sludges based on indicator pathogen levels (Class A and Class B) be replaced with a single high-level disinfection standard and that methods used to treat sludges be improved to reduce levels of irritant chemicals, especially endotoxins. A national opinion survey of individuals impacted by or concerned about the safety of land-application practices indicated that most did not consider the practice inherently unsafe but that they lacked confidence in research supported by federal and state agencies. PMID:14754565

  14. Nitrous oxide emissions after sewage sludge fertilization of a bio-energy plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedenrud, Anna; Achberger, Christine; Klemedtsson, Leif; Lindroth, Anders

    2013-04-01

    The use of sewage sludge as fertilizer after harvest of bio-energy plantations gives rise to high emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). N2O is a powerful greenhouse gas with a global warming potential almost 300 times larger than that of carbon dioxide and an atmospheric life-span of over 100 years. Plantations of e.g. willow (Salix) and poplar (Populus) species are today grown and used for bio-energy purposes. They could serve as carbon and nitrogen sinks, thus lowering greenhouse gas emissions and helping to mitigate a change in climate. However, since N2O is such a powerful greenhouse gas it can have a large impact on the total emission of greenhouse gases from a bio-energy plantation. The magnitude of N2O emissions after fertilization using sludge from sewage treatment plants is therefore important to investigate. This study concerns N2O emissions from a conventionally grown bio-energy plantation of Salix. The aim of the study was to investigate the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer after harvest, and its effect on emissions of N2O from the soil ecosystem. The field site is a Salix plantation in south-western Sweden, a representative site in management practices and abiotic conditions. Emissions of N2O were monitored using automatic chambers (height 1.05 m, volume 0.2625 m3) and a trace gas analyzer (TGA100, Campbell Scientific, USA) during approximately one (1) year. After harvest, N2O emissions from control plots without application of sewage sludge (non-fertilized plots) were compared to plots with sewage sludge application (fertilized plots). Preliminary results show that emissions of N2O were continuously very low throughout the measurement period, except for peak emissions after harvest and fertilization. These peak emissions of N2O were observed at both fertilized and non-fertilized plots in connection to the fertilization events. The results indicate that heavy precipitation could be the cause of induced emissions of N2O at non-fertilized plots. Some fertilized plots also showed smaller emission peaks several weeks after fertilization, whereas none of the non-fertilized plots showed this emission pattern. Annual emissions have also been calculated for fertilized and non-fertilized plots, and the results will be presented at the conference. Preliminary results indicate higher annual emissions from fertilized plots.

  15. Mathematical model investigation of long-term transport of ocean-dumped sewage sludge related to remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, C. Y.; Modena, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    An existing, three-dimensional, Eulerian-Lagrangian finite-difference model was modified and used to examine the transport processes of dumped sewage sludge in the New York Bight. Both in situ and laboratory data were utilized in an attempt to approximate model inputs such as mean current speed, horizontal diffusion coefficients, particle size distributions, and specific gravities. The results presented are a quantitative description of the fate of a negatively buoyant sewage sludge plume resulting from continuous and instantaneous barge releases. Concentrations of the sludge near the surface were compared qualitatively with those remotely sensed. Laboratory study was performed to investigate the behavior of sewage sludge dumping in various ambient density conditions.

  16. Isotopic distribution of carbon from sewage sludge and eutrophication in the sediments and food web of estuarine ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Gearing, P.J.; Gearing, J.N.; Maughan, J.T.; Oviatt, C.A. )

    1991-02-01

    Stable isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 13}C) from samples of water, sediments, and biota traced the behavior of organic carbon for 3 summer months in estuarine mesocosms (three controls, three with added sewage sludge, three with added inorganic nutrients). Isotope ratios proved to be a useful quantitative tracer for sewage carbon as well as for the fresh phytoplanktonic carbon produced during nutrient fertilization. Sewage sludge sedimented within hours of its addition, and approximately 50% remained in sediments after 99 days. The sludge was not inert, but was biologically oxidized at rates similar to those of phytoplankton carbon. Its residence time in the water column was too short for uptake by zooplankton, but it was readily assimilated by some benthic organisms. Fresh phytoplanktonic carbon from nutrient-induced blooms was isotopically heavy and thus distinguishable from old primary production (fixed before the experiment). It flowed through the pelagic and benthic food webs more extensively and more uniformly than did sludge carbon.

  17. Factors affecting decay of Salmonella Birkenhead and coliphage MS2 during mesophilic anaerobic digestion and air drying of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Tania; Rouch, Duncan A; Thurbon, Nerida; Smith, Stephen R; Deighton, Margaret A

    2015-06-01

    Factors affecting the decay of Salmonella Birkenhead and coliphage, as representatives of bacterial and viral pathogens, respectively, during mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) and air drying treatment of anaerobically digested sewage sludge were investigated. Controlled concentrations of S. Birkenhead were inoculated into non-sterile, autoclaved, ?-irradiated and nutrient-supplemented sludge and cultures were incubated at 37 °C (MAD sludge treatment temperature) or 20 °C (summer air drying sludge treatment temperature). Nutrient limitation caused by microbial competition was the principal mechanism responsible for the decay of S. Birkenhead by MAD and during air drying of digested sludge. The effects of protease activity in sludge on MS2 coliphage decay in digested and air dried sludge were also investigated. MS2 coliphage showed a 3.0-3.5 log10 reduction during incubation with sludge-protease extracts at 37 °C for 25 h. Proteases produced by indigenous microbes in sludge potentially increase coliphage inactivation and may therefore have a significant role in the decay of enteric viruses in sewage sludge. The results help to explain the loss of viability of enteric bacteria and viral pathogens with treatment process time and contribute to fundamental understanding of the various biotic inactivation mechanisms operating in sludge treatment processes at mesophilic and ambient temperatures. PMID:26042978

  18. Fundamental Combustion Characteristics of Sewage Sludge in Fluidized Bed Incinerator with Turbocharger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Takahiro; Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nagasawa, Hidekazu; Yamamoto, Takafumi; Koseki, Takami; Hirose, Hitoshi; Ochi, Shuichi

    An epoch-making incineration plant, which is equipped with a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor coupled to a turbocharger, for the recovery of the energy contained in sewage sludge is proposed. This plant has three main advantages. (1) A pressure vessel is unnecessary because the maximum operating pressure is 0.3 MPa (absolute pressure). The material cost for plant construction can be reduced. (2) CO2 emissions originating from power generation can be decreased because the FDF (Forced Draft Fan) and the IDF (Induced Draft Fan) are omitted. (3) Steam in the flue gas becomes a working fluid of the turbocharger, so that in addition to the combustion air, the surplus air is also generable. Therefore, this proposed plant will not only save energy but also the generate energy. The objective of this study is to elucidate the fundamental combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge using a lab-scale pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC). The tested fuels are de-watered sludge and sawdust. The temperature distribution in the furnace and N2O emissions in the flue gas are experimentally clarified. As the results, for sludge only combustion, the temperature in the sand bed decreases by drying and pyrolysis, and the pyrolysis gas burns in the freeboard so that the temperature rises. On the other hand, the residual char of sawdust after pyrolysis burns stably in the sand bed for the co-firing of sludge and sawdust. Thus the temperature of the co-firing is considerably higher than that of the sludge only combustion. N2O emissions decreases with increasing freeboard temperature, and are controlled by the temperature for all experimental conditions. These data can be utilize to operation the demonstration plant.

  19. Recovery of phosphorus as struvite from sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huacheng; He, Pinjing; Gu, Weimei; Wang, Guanzhao; Shao, Liming

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an element vital for all living organisms, yet the world's reserves of phosphate rock are becoming depleted. This study investigated an effective P recovery method from sludge ash via struvite precipitation. Results showed that more than 95% of the total P content was extracted from sludge ash by applying 0.5 mol/L HCl at a liquid/solid ratio of 50 mL/g. Although heavy metal leaching also occurred during P extraction, cation exchange resin efficiently removed the heavy metals from the P-rich solution. Orthogonal tests showed that the optimal parameters for P precipitation as struvite would be a Mg:N:P molar ratio of 1.6:1.6:1 at pH 10.0. X-ray diffraction analysis validated the formation of struvite. Further investigations revealed that the harvested precipitate had a high struvite content (97%), high P bioavailability (94%), and low heavy metal content, which could be considered a high quality fertilizer. PMID:23513698

  20. Effects of temperature and composite alumina on pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Jin, Baosheng; Wu, Wei; Zuo, Wu; Zhang, Ya; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Yaji

    2015-04-01

    An interactive dual-circulating fluidized bed system has been proposed in which the pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) and incineration of biomass proceed simultaneously, and alumina is used as the bed material and heat carrier. The alumina coated with biomass ash would mix with sewage sludge in the pyrolysis reactor of this device. It is important to know the influence of composite alumina (CA) on the pyrolysis progress. Sewage sludge was pyrolyzed in a fixed bed reactor from 400 to 600°C using CA as catalyst. The effects of temperature and CA additive ratio on the products were investigated. The product yields and component distribution of non-condensable gas were more sensitive to the change of temperature, and the maximum liquid yield of 48.44 wt.% and maximum Useable Energy of Liquid of 3871 kJ/kg sludge were observed at 500°C with 1/5 CA/SS (mass ratio). The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results showed that the increase of temperature enhanced devolatilization of organic matter and promoted cyclization and aromatization of aliphatics. The presence of CA could strengthen secondary cracking and interaction among primary products from different organic compounds, such as acid-amine condensation, and reduce the content of oxygenated compounds. When the CA additive amount exceeded a certain proportion, the aromatization was clearly strengthened. The effects of CA on decomposition of fatty acids and formation of aromatics were similar to that of temperature. This means that the reaction temperature could be lowered by introducing CA, which has a positive effect on reducing energy consumption. PMID:25872704

  1. Interactions of pathogens and irritant chemicals in land-applied sewage sludges (biosolids)

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, David L; Gattie, David K; Novak, Marc E; Sanchez, Susan; Pumphrey, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Background Fertilisation of land with processed sewage sludges, which often contain low levels of pathogens, endotoxins, and trace amounts of industrial and household chemicals, has become common practice in Western Europe, the US, and Canada. Local governments, however, are increasingly restricting or banning the practice in response to residents reporting adverse health effects. These self-reported illnesses have not been studied and methods for assessing exposures of residential communities to contaminants from processed sewage sludges need to be developed. Methods To describe and document adverse effects reported by residents, 48 individuals at ten sites in the US and Canada were questioned about their environmental exposures and symptoms. Information was obtained on five additional cases where an outbreak of staphylococcal infections occurred near a land application site in Robesonia, PA. Medical records were reviewed in cases involving hospitalisation or other medical treatment. Since most complaints were associated with airborne contaminants, an air dispersion model was used as a means for potentially ruling out exposure to sludge as the cause of adverse effects. Results Affected residents lived within approximately 1 km of land application sites and generally complained of irritation (e.g., skin rashes and burning of the eyes, throat, and lungs) after exposure to winds blowing from treated fields. A prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus infections of the skin and respiratory tract was found. Approximately 1 in 4 of 54 individuals were infected, including 2 mortalities (septicaemia, pneumonia). This result was consistent with the prevalence of S. aureus infections accompanying diaper rashes in which the organism, which is commonly found in the lower human colon, tends to invade irritated or inflamed tissue. Conclusions When assessing public health risks from applying sewage sludges in residential areas, potential interactions of chemical contaminants with low levels of pathogens should be considered. An increased risk of infection may occur when allergic and non-allergic reactions to endotoxins and other chemical components irritate skin and mucus membranes and thereby compromise normal barriers to infection. PMID:12097151

  2. Analysis of organic pollutants in sewage sludges from the Valencian community (Spain).

    PubMed

    Gomez-Rico, M F; Font, R; Aracil, I; Fullana, A

    2007-04-01

    Seventeen sewage sludges were studied to analyse, with the minimum number of steps, the organic pollutants that the European Union proposes to be controlled for land application. The compounds determined were a selection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); a selection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP); nonylphenolic compounds, including nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol ethoxylates with 1 and 2 ethoxy groups (NP1EO + NP2EO); extractable organic halides (EOX); and linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) with an alkylic chain of 10 to 13 carbon atoms. The results were compared with the proposed regulatory limit values, and it was observed that NP + NP1EO + NP2EO and LAS exceeded the maximums in most samples, and DEHP exceeded some of them, whereas PAHs, PCBs, and EOX almost always went beyond the limits. The values obtained are similar to those from other countries, and it can be said that it is difficult to comply with the limits for NP + NP1EO + NP2EO and LAS in many of them, although this latter parameter was not considered in the study carried out by Leschber (2004) concerning the toxicity of sewage sludge. Statistical multivariant analysis was used to look for some relationship between the results of pollutants and the characteristics of the samples, and it was found that the ratio of NP1EO + NP2EO to NP was related to sludge treatment at the sewage plant. At the same time, it was seen that the higher values of organic pollutants belonged to digested sludges. PMID:17384980

  3. Assessment of a potential agricultural application of Bangkok-digested sewage sludge and finished compost products.

    PubMed

    Sreesai, Siranee; Peapueng, Panadda; Tippayamongkonkun, Taninporn; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2013-09-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the levels of plant nutrients, heavy metals, parasites and fecal coliform bacteria in Bangkok-produced sewage sludge and finished compost products for potential agricultural application, as well as to compare the quality of compost under different composting conditions. The results indicated that digested sewage sludge had high fertilizing values for organic matter (19.01 ± 0.09%), total nitrogen (2.17 ± 0.07%), total phosphorus (2.06 ± 0.06%) and total potassium (1.16 ± 0.22%), but it was contaminated with human pathogens, including fecal coliform bacteria, viable helminthes egg and active forms of parasite cysts. Thus, fresh sewage sludge should not be disposed on land unless it has undergone pathogen reduction. It is proven that the quality of the sludge mixed with grass clippings at a ratio of 6:1 volume/volume after having passed a windrow composting process for 8 weeks can be classified as class A biosolids as the levels of remaining fecal coliforms were < 3 most probable number g(-1) dry solid and all human parasites were destroyed. Concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium in the finished compost were 16.53 ± 1.25%, 1.39 ± 0.06%, 0.42 ± 0.10% and 1.53 ± 0.05% respectively. The total copper concentration was rather high (2291.31 ± 121.77 mg kg(-1)), but all heavy metal concentrations were also well below the United States Environmental Protection Agency pollutant limits for land application. The finished compost products can be considered as a soil conditioner as they have relatively low essential plant nutrient concentrations. It is recommended to be initially used for gardening and landscaping to ensure safety utilization. PMID:23836101

  4. Evaluation and Source Apportionment of Heavy Metals (HMs) in Sewage Sludge of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Shanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Baoling; Liu, Fenwu; Zhang, Wuping; Zheng, Haixia; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiaomei; Bu, Yushan

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals (HMs) in sewage sludge have become the crucial limiting factors for land use application. Samples were collected and analyzed from 32 waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Shanxi Province, China. HM levels in sewage sludge were assessed. The multivariate statistical method principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the sources of HMs in sewage sludge. HM pollution classes by geochemical accumulation index Igeo and correlation analyses between HMs were also conducted. HMs were arranged in the following decreasing order of mean concentration: Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > As > Hg > Cd; the maximum concentrations of all HMs were within the limit of maximum content permitted by Chinese discharge standard. Igeo classes of HMs pollution in order from most polluted to least were: Cu and Hg pollution were the highest; Cd and Cr pollution were moderate; Zn, As and Pb pollution were the least. Sources of HM contamination in sewage sludge were identified as three components. The primary contaminant source accounting for 35.7% of the total variance was identified as smelting industry, coking plant and traffic sources; the second source accounting for 29.0% of the total variance was distinguished as household and water supply pollution; the smallest of the three sources accounting for 16.2% of the total variance was defined as special industries such as leather tanning, textile manufacturing and chemical processing industries. Source apportionment of HMs in sewage sludge can control HM contamination through suggesting improvements in government policies and industrial processes. PMID:26690464

  5. Field study on the uptake and translocation of PBDEs by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in soils amended with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Helian; Qu, Ronghui; Yan, Liangguo; Guo, Weilin; Ma, Yibing

    2015-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted to explore the effects of different sewage sludge amendment strategies on the accumulation and translocation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soil-wheat systems. Two types of application methods (single or annual application) and four annual application rates (5, 10, 20, and 40 t ha(-1) year(-1)) were investigated. BDE 209 was detected in all of the sewage sludge amended soils and different parts of wheat plants collected from the contaminated soils. However, the other seven PBDE congeners (BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 99, BDE 100, BDE 153, BDE 154, and BDE 183) were not detected or were only observed at very low levels. A single application of sewage sludge in large quantities would likely increase accumulation of BDE 209 in soil and its subsequent uptake and translocation by wheat. The concentrations of BDE 209 in soils, wheat roots and straws increased with the increasing sewage sludge application rate. There is a negative correlation between the root accumulation factors (the ratios of concentrations in wheat roots to those in soils) and soil total organic carbon (R(2)=0.84,P<0.05), demonstrating that the bioavailability of BDE 209 was controlled by the soil total organic carbon. BDE 209 concentrations in the grains from the sewage sludge amended soils were not significantly different from those of the control soils, suggesting that atmospheric deposition was the main source of BDE 209 detected in the grains. PMID:25563166

  6. Evaluation and Source Apportionment of Heavy Metals (HMs) in Sewage Sludge of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Shanxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Baoling; Liu, Fenwu; Zhang, Wuping; Zheng, Haixia; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiaomei; Bu, Yushan

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals (HMs) in sewage sludge have become the crucial limiting factors for land use application. Samples were collected and analyzed from 32 waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Shanxi Province, China. HM levels in sewage sludge were assessed. The multivariate statistical method principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the sources of HMs in sewage sludge. HM pollution classes by geochemical accumulation index Igeo and correlation analyses between HMs were also conducted. HMs were arranged in the following decreasing order of mean concentration: Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > As > Hg > Cd; the maximum concentrations of all HMs were within the limit of maximum content permitted by Chinese discharge standard. Igeo classes of HMs pollution in order from most polluted to least were: Cu and Hg pollution were the highest; Cd and Cr pollution were moderate; Zn, As and Pb pollution were the least. Sources of HM contamination in sewage sludge were identified as three components. The primary contaminant source accounting for 35.7% of the total variance was identified as smelting industry, coking plant and traffic sources; the second source accounting for 29.0% of the total variance was distinguished as household and water supply pollution; the smallest of the three sources accounting for 16.2% of the total variance was defined as special industries such as leather tanning, textile manufacturing and chemical processing industries. Source apportionment of HMs in sewage sludge can control HM contamination through suggesting improvements in government policies and industrial processes. PMID:26690464

  7. Nitrogen fertilizer and sewage sludge effects on hybrid poplars. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, S.R.; Senesac, G.P.; Naylor, L.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments conducted in the greenhouse compared the growth and nutrient and heavy metal uptake in two clones of hybrid poplar grown in soil amended with nitrogen fertilizer or sewage sludge. In addition, poplar responses to weed competition and to rooting prior to planting were investigated. Both fertilizer and sludge application increased poplar stem biomass. Weeds reduced poplar biomass. The large difference in root biomass of the two poplar clones may account for different effects weed and sludge application had on nutrient and heavy metal uptake in each clone. The relatively small root biomass of I-45/51 increased with increasing sludge application, as did the uptake of nutrients and heavy metals. The relatively large root biomass of clone NE-510 was reduced when weeds were present, as was nutrient and heavy metal uptake. Other results suggest that poplars with low root-to-stem ratios may be most affected by weed competition, especially after their first year, and that nitrogen fertilization may alleviate effects of weeds on their growth. Poplars grown in sludge-amended soil did not accumulate more of any nutrient or heavy metal studied compared to those grown in nitrogen-fertilized soil. 17 refs., 5 figs., 57 tabs.

  8. Inactivation of Clostridium difficile in sewage sludge by anaerobic thermophilic digestion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changyun; Salsali, Hamidreza; Weese, Scott; Warriner, Keith

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in community-associated Clostridium difficile infections with biosolids derived from wastewater treatment being identified as one potential source. The current study evaluated the efficacy of thermophilic digestion in decreasing levels of C. difficile ribotype 078 associated with sewage sludge. Five isolates of C. difficile 078 were introduced (final density of 5 log CFU/g) into digested sludge and subjected to anaerobic digestion at mesophilic (36 or 42 °C) or thermophilic (55 °C) temperatures for up to 60 days. It was found that mesophilic digestion at 36 °C did not result in a significant reduction in C. difficile spore levels. In contrast, thermophilic sludge digestion reduced endospore levels at a rate of 0.19-2.68 log CFU/day, depending on the strain tested. The mechanism of lethality was indirect - by stimulating germination then inactivating the resultant vegetative cells. Acidification of sludge by adding acetic acid (6 g/L) inhibited the germination of spores regardless of the sludge digestion temperature. In conclusion, thermophilic digestion can be applied to reduce C. difficile in biosolids, thereby reducing the environmental burden of the enteric pathogen. PMID:26564276

  9. Phosphorus in manure and sewage sludge more recyclable than in soluble inorganic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Kahiluoto, H; Kuisma, M; Ketoja, E; Salo, T; Heikkinen, J

    2015-02-17

    Phosphorus (P) flow from deposits through agriculture to waterways leads to eutrophication and depletion of P reserves. Therefore, P must be recycled. Low and unpredictable plant availability of P in residues is considered to be a limiting factor for recycling. We identified the determinants for the plant-availability of P in agrifood residues. We quantified P in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and in field soil fractions with different plant availabilities of P as a response to manure and sewage sludge with a range of P capture and hygienization treatments. P was more available in manure and in sludge, when it was captured biologically or with a moderate iron (Fe)/P (1.6), than in NPK. Increasing rate of sludge impaired P recovery and high Fe/P (9.8) prevented it. Anaerobic digestion (AD) reduced plant-availability at relevant rates. The recovery of P was increased in AD manure via composting and in AD sludge via combined acid and oxidizer. P was not available to plants in the sludge hygienized with a high calcium/P. Contrary to assumed knowledge, the recyclability of P in appropriately treated residues can be better than in NPK. The prevention of P sorption in soil by organic substances in fertilizers critically enhances the recyclability of P. PMID:25569114

  10. Speciation Dynamics of Phosphorus during (Hydro)Thermal Treatments of Sewage Sludge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rixiang; Tang, Yuanzhi

    2015-12-15

    (Hydro)thermal treatments of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment process can significantly reduce waste volume and transform sludge into valuable products such as pyrochar and hydrochar. Given the global concern with phosphorus (P) resource depletion, P recycling/reclamation from or direct soil application of the derived chars can be potential P recycling practices. In order to evaluate P recyclability as well as the selection and optimization of treatment techniques, it is critical to understand the effects of different treatment techniques and conditions on P speciation and distribution. In the present study, we systematically characterized P speciation in chars derived from thermal (i.e., pyrolysis) and hydrothermal treatments of municipal sewage sludge using complementary chemical extraction and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy methods. P species in the raw activated sludge was dominated by orthophosphate and long-chain polyphosphates, whereas increased amounts of pyrophosphate and short-chain polyphosphates formed after pyrolysis at 250-600 °C. In contrast, hydrothermal treatments resulted in the production of only inorganic orthophosphate in the hydrochar. In addition to the change of molecular speciation, thermal treatments also altered the physical state and extractability of different P species in the pyrochars from pyrolysis, with both total P and polyphosphate being less extractable with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Results from this study suggest that P speciation and availability in sludge-derived chars are tunable by varying treatment techniques and conditions, and provide fundamental knowledge basis for the design and selection of waste management strategies for better nutrient (re)cycling and reclamation. PMID:26633236

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY: CONTROL OF PATHOGENS AND VECTOR ATTRACTION IN SEWAGE SLUDGE (INCLUDING DOMESTIC SEWAGE) UNDER 40 CFR PART 503

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes the federal requirements concerning pathogens in sewage sludge applied to land or placed on a surface disposal site, and it provides guidance concerning those requirements. The document is intended for: (1) Owners and operators of treatment works treati...

  12. Leachability of Heavy Metals from Lightweight Aggregates Made with Sewage Sludge and Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Na

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight aggregate (LWA) production with sewage sludge and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash is an effective approach for waste disposal. This study investigated the stability of heavy metals in LWA made from sewage sludge and MSWI fly ash. Leaching tests were conducted to find out the effects of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge (MSWI FA/SS) ratio, sintering temperature and sintering time. It was found that with the increase of MSWI FA/SS ratio, leaching rates of all heavy metals firstly decreased and then increased, indicating the optimal ratio of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge was 2:8. With the increase of sintering temperature and sintering time, the heavy metal solidifying efficiencies were strongly enhanced by crystallization and chemical incorporations within the aluminosilicate or silicate frameworks during the sintering process. However, taking cost-savings and lower energy consumption into account, 1100 °C and 8 min were selected as the optimal parameters for LWA sample- containing sludge production. Furthermore, heavy metal leaching concentrations under these optimal LWA production parameters were found to be in the range of China’s regulatory requirements. It is concluded that heavy metals can be properly stabilized in LWA samples containing sludge and cannot be easily released into the environment again to cause secondary pollution. PMID:25961800

  13. Effect of cofiring coal and biofuel with sewage sludge on alkali problems in a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    SciTech Connect

    K.O. Davidsson; L.-E. Aamand; A.-L. Elled; B. Leckner

    2007-12-15

    Cofiring experiments were performed in a 12 MW circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuel combinations were biofuel (wood+straw), coal+biofuel, coal+sewage sludge+biofuel, and sewage sludge+biofuel. Limestone or chlorine (PVC) was added in separate experiments. Effects of feed composition on bed ash and fly ash were examined. The composition of flue gas was measured, including on-line measurement of alkali chlorides. Deposits were collected on a probe simulating a superheater tube. It was found that the fuel combination, as well as addition of limestone, has little effect on the alkali fraction in bed ash, while chlorine decreases the alkali fraction in bed ash. Sewage sludge practically eliminates alkali chlorides in flue gas and deposits. Addition of enough limestone to coal and sludge for elimination of the SO{sub 2} emission does not change the effect of chlorine. Chlorine addition increases the alkali chloride in flue gas, but no chlorine was found in the deposits with sewage sludge as a cofuel. Cofiring of coal and biofuel lowers the alkali chloride concentration in the flue gas to about a third compared with that of pure biofuel. This is not affected by addition of lime or chlorine. It is concluded that aluminum compounds in coal and sludge are more important than sulfur to reduce the level of KCl in flue gas and deposits. 24 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Leachability of heavy metals from lightweight aggregates made with sewage sludge and municipal solid waste incineration fly ash.

    PubMed

    Wei, Na

    2015-05-01

    Lightweight aggregate (LWA) production with sewage sludge and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash is an effective approach for waste disposal. This study investigated the stability of heavy metals in LWA made from sewage sludge and MSWI fly ash. Leaching tests were conducted to find out the effects of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge (MSWI FA/SS) ratio, sintering temperature and sintering time. It was found that with the increase of MSWI FA/SS ratio, leaching rates of all heavy metals firstly decreased and then increased, indicating the optimal ratio of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge was 2:8. With the increase of sintering temperature and sintering time, the heavy metal solidifying efficiencies were strongly enhanced by crystallization and chemical incorporations within the aluminosilicate or silicate frameworks during the sintering process. However, taking cost-savings and lower energy consumption into account, 1100 °C and 8 min were selected as the optimal parameters for LWA sample- containing sludge production. Furthermore, heavy metal leaching concentrations under these optimal LWA production parameters were found to be in the range of China's regulatory requirements. It is concluded that heavy metals can be properly stabilized in LWA samples containing sludge and cannot be easily released into the environment again to cause secondary pollution. PMID:25961800

  15. Effects of elemental sulphur on heavy metal uptake by plants growing on municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Dede, Gulgun; Ozdemir, Saim

    2016-01-15

    In this study experiment was carried out to determine the phytoextraction potential of six plant species (Conium maculatum, Brassica oleraceae var. oleraceae, Brassica juncea, Datura stramonium, Pelargonium hortorum and Conyza canadensis) grown in a sewage sludge medium amended with metal uptake promoters. The solubility of Cu, Cd and Pb was significantly increased with the application of elemental S due to decrease of pH. Faecal coliform number was markedly decreased by addition of elemental sulphur. The extraction of Cu, Cr and Pb from sewage sludge by using B. juncea plant was observed as 65%, 65% and 54% respectively that is statistically similar to EDTA as sulphur. The bioaccumulation factors were found higher (>1) in the plants tested for Cu and Pb like B. juncea. Translocation index (TI) calculated values for Cd and Pb were greater than one (>1) in both C. maculatum and B. oleraceae var. oleraceae. The results cleared that the amendment of sludge with elemental sulphur showed potential to solubilize heavy metals in phytoremediation as much as EDTA. PMID:26496839

  16. A statistical comparison of protein and carbohydrate characterisation methodology applied on sewage sludge samples.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Julie; Vedrenne, Fabien; Denis, Cécile; Mottet, Alexis; Déléris, Stephane; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Cacho Rivero, Jesús Andrés

    2013-04-01

    Biochemical characterization of organic matter is becoming of key importance in wastewater treatment. The main objectives are to predict organic matter properties, such as granulation or flocculation, and hence treatment performance. Although standardized methods do exist for some organic molecules, such as volatile fatty acids or lipids, there are no standard methods to measure proteins and carbohydrates content, both biochemical families being the main components of sewage sludge. Consequently, the aim of the present work is to investigate the efficiency of several colorimetric methods to determine proteins and carbohydrates content as well as their compatibility with the sludge matrices. The different methods have been evaluated based on statistical criteria such as sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, rightness, and specificity using standard molecules such as Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), glucose, cellulose and a certified reference product. The Lowry and the Dubois methods have been shown to be the best compromise for the considered criteria after having been tested on sewage sludge samples obtained from different locations in a wastewater treatment plant. In average, the measured volatile fatty acids, lipids, proteins and carbohydrates contents represented 80 ± 7% (% volatile solids) of the organic matter. Proteins and carbohydrates represented in average 69 ± 3%. This study underlined that the choice of a relevant methodology is of great importance for organic matter measurement. PMID:23357791

  17. Evaluation of granular sludge for secondary treatment of saline municipal sewage.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Ben; Reid, Katherine; Middlemiss, Kyra; Krampe, Joerg

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the impact of chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on the stability and performance of granular sludge treating high saline municipal sewage. Under high DO concentrations of 4.0-7.0 mg/L, and COD loading rates of 0.98 and 1.55 kg/m(3)/d, rapid settling granules were established within four weeks of start-up. Under the highest COD load, a reduction in DO lead to the rapid deterioration of the sludge volume index (SVI) and washout of granules due to prolific growth of the filament Thiothrix Type 021N. Conversely, when operated under a lower COD load, a reduction in DO concentration had no adverse impact on the stability of SVI and granules. A decrease in DO also improved nitrogen removal performance, where simultaneous removal of ammonium (98%), total nitrogen (86%) and BOD5 (98%) were achieved when median DO concentrations were between 1.0 and 1.5 mg/L. Phosphate removal was lower than expected, however the level of biological phosphate removal activity observed appeared sufficient to maintain granule stability, even under low DO concentrations. Nitrous oxide emissions were also characterised, which ranged between 2.3 and 6.8% of the total nitrogen load. Our results confirmed that granular sludge is a viable option for the treatment of saline sewage. PMID:25897508

  18. [Thermophiles and their working mechanisms in degrading excess sludge: a review].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue; Wang, Yun-Long; Yang, Shang-Yuan; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Guo-Fang; Chen, Ying-Xu

    2012-07-01

    Activated sludge process is widely used in treating a wide variety of wastewater, but the by-product is the large amount of excess sludge. To treat the excess sludge properly could spend 25%-60% of the total cost of wastewater treatment, while improperly treating the sludge could cause serious secondary pollution. Therefore, the reduction of excess sludge is becoming a rising challenge. Using thermophiles to degrade excess sludge is a way easy in operation and inexpensive in maintenance, being a promising method in application. This paper reviewed the recent progress in the researches of sludge-degrading thermophiles, their working mechanisms, and the enzymes from thermophiles, such as thermophilic proteolytic enzymes and thermophilic lipases which play an important role in the degradation of sludge. The factors affecting the degradation of sludge by thermophiles were summarized, and the perspectives for the further research on the application of thermophiles in digesting sludge were discussed. PMID:23173483

  19. Activated sludge degradation of adipic acid esters.

    PubMed Central

    Saeger, V W; Kalley, R G; Hicks, O; Tucker, E S; Mieure, J P

    1976-01-01

    The biodegradability of three aliphatic adipic acid diesters and a 1,3-butylene glycol adipic acid polyester was determined in acclimated, activated sludge systems. Rapid primary biodegradation from 67 to 99+% was observed at 3- and 13-mg/liter feed levels for di-n-hexyl adipate, di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, and di(heptyl, nonyl) adipate in 24 h. When acclimated, activated sludge microorganisms were employed as the seed for two carbon dioxide evolution procedures, greater than 75% of the theoretical carbon dioxide was evolved for the three diesters and the polyester in a 35-day test period. The essentially complete biodegradation observed in these studies suggests that these esters would not persist when exposed to similar mixed microbial populations in the environment. PMID:1275494

  20. Microbial degradation of 4-monobrominated diphenyl ether with anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yang-hsin; Chou, Hsi-Ling; Peng, Yu-Huei

    2012-04-30

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardant additives for many plastic and electronic products. Owing to their ubiquitous distribution in the environment, multiple toxicity to humans, and increasing accumulation in the environment, the fate of PBDEs is of serious concern for public safety. In this study, the degradation of 4-monobrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-3) in anaerobic sludge and the effect of carbon source addition were investigated. BDE-3 can be degraded by two different anaerobic sludge samples. The by-products, diphenyl ether (DE) and bromide ions, were monitored, indicating the reaction of debromination within these anaerobic samples. Co-metabolism with glucose facilitated BDE-3 biodegradation in terms of kinetics and efficiency in the Jhongsing sludge. Through the pattern of amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments in denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), the composition of the microbial community was analyzed. Most of the predominant microbes were novel species. The fragments enriched in BDE-3-degrading anaerobic sludge samples are presumably Clostridium sp. This enrichment coincides with the H(2) gas generation and the facilitation of debromination during the degradation process. Findings of this study provide better understanding of the biodegradation of brominated DEs and can facilitate the prediction of the fate of PBDEs in the environment. PMID:22370205

  1. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application sites groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    During first quarter 1995, samples from monitoring wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were analyzed for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) samples were analyzed for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 12,076. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permits. The only constituent that exceeded the SCDHEC final Primary Drinking Water Standard in any well was lead which was found in wells HSS 3D and PSS 3D. Aluminum and iron were above Flag 2 criteria in one or more wells in the three sites during first quarter 1995.

  2. Decontamination of heavy metal laden sewage sludge with simultaneous solids reduction using thermophilic sulfur and ferrous oxidizing species.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, A; Kundu, K; Sreekrishnan, T R

    2016-02-01

    A possibility of using simultaneous sewage sludge digestion and metal leaching (SSDML) process at the thermophilic temperature to remove heavy metals and suspended solids from sewage sludge is explored in this study. Though thermophilic sludge digestion efficiently produces a stable sludge, its inability to remove heavy metals requires it to be used in tandem with another process like bioleaching for metal reduction. Previously, different temperature optima were known for the heterotrophs (thermophilic) responsible for the sludge digestion and the autotrophs involved in bioleaching (mesophilic), because of which the metal concentration was brought down separately in a different reactor. In our study, SSDML process was carried out at 50 °C (thermophilic) by using ferrous sulfate (batch-1) and sulfur (batch-2) as the energy source in two reactors. The concentration of volatile suspended solids reduced by >40% in both batches, while that of heavy metals zinc, copper, chromium, cadmium and nickel decreased by >50% in both batch-1 and batch-2. Lead got leached out only in batch-1. Using 16S rRNA gene-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, Alicyclobacillus tolerans was found to be the microorganism responsible for lowering the pH in both the reactors at thermophilic temperature. The indicator organism count was also below the maximum permissible limit making sludge suitable for agricultural use. Our results indicate that SSDML at thermophilic temperature can be effectively used for reduction of heavy metals and suspended solids from sewage sludge. PMID:26686075

  3. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: Preliminary feasibility evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The aim is to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a solar greenhouse. • The system allows the exploitation of heat available from OFMSW aerobic process. • Another aim is to face the problem of OFMSW treatment, in particular food waste. • Energy and mass balances are presented for a case study. - Abstract: In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications.

  4. The effect of sewage urban and industrial sludge on the development of wheat and colza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasoued, Najla; Bilal, Essaid; Rejeb, Saloua; Guénole-Bilal, Issam; Rejeb, Nejib

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of two types of sludge from sewage treatment urban and industrial plants on the wheat and colza. These sludge is made at different doses (5, 25, 50 and 100 t / ha). We are therefore interested in the growth and absorption of heavy metals by plants and follow the fate of the latter in the ground to prevent pollution events and toxicity. The soil is characterized by an alkaline pH; conductivity ranging from 1.06 to 1.52mmho/cm resulting low salinity and soil saturation is between 30.4 and 31.8ml/100g. The sand is the most representative size fraction in this soil which is a sandy loam soil texture. The percentages of limestone in the different horizons are less than 5% so it is a non-calcareous soil, with organic matter content very low. Contents of total nitrogen are relatively low. The C/N ratio is about 7 at the first horizon (0-10cm) indicates that organic matter will be quickly mineralized. The mean levels of heavy metals found in the soil are organized in the following order: Fe >> Mn> Zn> Pb> Cu> Ni> Co> Cd mean concentrations of heavy metals introduced by the sludge. With the addition of sludge, there is a parallel increase in the number of ears and an increased number of grains per m². The ears and grains also increases with increasing dose of sludge, whatever the type of sludge made. The increase in the number of grains with the addition of sludge has the consequence of decrease in PMG this can be explained by the decrease in weight and grain quality response to stress. The numbers of feet of wheat increases dice the contribution of 5t/ha sludge, this increase is more pronounced with the addition of urban sludge. The leaf area increases with the contribution of sludge as well as for urban or industrial sludge's. The leaf surface of this crop varies between 15.77cm2 of the oldest leaf to 3.78cm2 for the youngest leaf in the control soil. The leaf surface increases by 10cm² for 5BI and 11cm² 5BU. We noted that the young leaf appears to 5BI and 25BI, but it is not yet developed with input from 50t/ha to 100t/ha. This developmental delay may be due to toxicity effect more pronounced with industrial sludge. The effects of the contribution of sludge are manifested by a significant increase in the weight gains of the whole plant, these results in a variation of the ratio of the aerial part and root (PA / R) which tends to increase with the increase the dose sludge made. In all cases, the increase in leaf weight gain following a contribution of mud is still perceptible from the low inputs applied with a more significant effect with the provision of urban sludge. The important contribution of sludge rich in heavy metals causes stress in plants. We found a high content of Ni, Pb and Zn in these plants.

  5. Enhanced dewaterability of sewage sludge in the presence of Fe(II)-activated persulfate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Guangyin; Lu, Xueqin; Zhao, Youcai; Chai, Xiaoli; Niu, Dongjie

    2012-07-01

    The potential benefits of Fe(II)-activated persulfate oxidation on sludge dewatering and its mechanisms were investigated in this study. Capillary suction time (CST) was used to evaluate sludge dewaterability. Both extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and viscosity were determined in an attempt to explain the observed changes in sludge dewaterability. The optimal conditions to give preferable dewaterability characteristics were found to be persulfate (S(2)O(8)(2-)) 1.2 mmol/gVSS, Fe(II) 1.5 mmol/gVSS, and pH 3.0-8.5, which demonstrated a very high CST reduction efficiency (88.8% reduction within 1 min). It was further observed that both soluble EPS and viscosity played relatively negative roles in sludge dewatering, whereas no correlation was established between sludge dewaterability and bound EPS. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra also revealed that soluble EPS of sludge were degraded and sludge flocs were ruptured by persulfate oxidation, which caused the release of water in the intracellular pace and subsequent improvement of its dewaterability. PMID:22542138

  6. Use of sewage sludge ash (SSA)-cement admixtures in mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Monzo, J.; Paya, J.; Borrachero, M.V.; Corcoles, A.

    1996-09-01

    The chemical composition of sewage sludge ash (SSA) and their sized fractions are studied; some differences in chemical composition are observed. SEM studies show irregular shape of SSA particles and sized fractions, this shape has a decisive influence on workability of mortars. The effect of replacing 15% of portland cement by SSA and their sized fractions: coarse (SSAC) and medium (SSAM) obtained by sieving on compressive (R{sub c}) and flexural (R{sub f}) strength of mortars was investigated. The study reveals an enhancement of strength when ashes are used, due to probably, pozzolanic properties of SSA.

  7. Design of a 110 MWth CFB boiler firing RDF, rejects, sewage sludge, wood waste and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenauer, G.; Hoelblinger, W.; Cleve, K.

    1997-12-31

    The consortium Austrian Energy and LLB Lurgi Lentjes Babcock Energietechnik GmbH was awarded the contract to build a 110 MWth CFB Plant in Lenzing, Austria. The plant will be started up in the fall of 1998 and is in the design state right now. The objective of the plant is to burn various fuels to overcome the challenges of waste fuel utilization. The main fuel to be burnt will be RDF. Additional fuels will be rejects, sewage sludge, wood waste and coal. The design of the plant is based on the Lurgi circulating fluidized bed technology. The boiler system and the fuel feeding systems will be supplied by Austrian Energy.

  8. Treatment of anaerobic digestion effluent of sewage sludge using soilless cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchimura, Koki; Sago, Yuki; Kamahara, Hirotsugu; Atsuta, Yoichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

    2014-02-01

    Soilless cultivation was carried out using anaerobic digestion effluent of sewage sludge as liquid fertilizer, with a preparation which cultures microorganisms in nutrient solution. As a result, ammonium ions contained in the effluent were nitrified into nitrate ions by the microorganisms. And then, Japanese mustard spinach (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) was cultivated by soilless cultivation system. The plants were grown well using microbial nutrient solution, which similar to the plants using conventional inorganic nutrient solution. In contrast, the plants were grown poorly using the effluent as liquid fertilizer without microorganisms.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Polyacrylamide-Degrading Bacteria from Dewatered Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Feng; Fu, Ruimin; Xie, Yun; Chen, Wuling

    2015-01-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) is a water-soluble polymer that is widely used as a flocculant in sewage treatment. The accumulation of PAM affects the formation of dewatered sludge and potentially produces hazardous monomers. In the present study, the bacterial strain HI47 was isolated from dewatered sludge. This strain could metabolize PAM as its sole nutrient source and was subsequently identified as Pseudomonas putida. The efficiency of PAM degradation was 31.1% in 7 days and exceeded 45% under optimum culture condition (pH 7.2, 39 °C and 100 rpm). The addition of yeast extract and glucose improved the bacterial growth and PAM degradation. The degraded PAM samples were analyzed by gel-filtration chromatography, Fourier transform infrared and high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that high-molecular-weight PAM was partly cleaved to small molecular oligomer derivatives and part of the amide groups of PAM had been converted to carboxyl groups. The biodegradation did not accumulate acrylamide monomers. Based on the SDS-PAGE and N-terminal sequencing results, the PAM amide groups were converted into carboxyl groups by a PAM-induced extracellular enzyme from the aliphatic amidase family. PMID:25893998

  10. U.S. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY)-SPONSORED EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF WASTEWATER AND SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1975 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has sponsored 11 epidemiological studies of the potential health effects associated with the treatment and disposal of sewage and sewage sludge. Three of these have been occupational exposure studies: One of sewage treatment pla...

  11. Environmental and plant effects of sewage sludge application to forests and pastures

    SciTech Connect

    Van Miegroet, H.; Boston, H.L.; Johnson, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    Digested sewage sludge was applied to pastures and tree plantations at 19 to 44 Mg/ha (dry weight) as part of a municipal sludge disposal program. The sludge had low concentrations of heavy metals and traces of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 60/Co. Monitoring of soils, soil solutions, and runoff indicated that N, P, heavy metals, and radionuclides were largely retained in the upper 15cm of the soil. Soil solutions had elevated NO/sub 3//sup /minus// concentrations often >100 mg/L, but no significant increases in groundwater NO/sub 3//sup /minus// were found during the first year. Runoff from active sites had elevated concentrations of NO/sub 3//sup /minus// (20--30 mg/L), soluble P (1 mg/L), BOD/sub 5/ (5--30 mg/L), and fecal coliform (up to 14,000 colonies per 100 ml), not unlike runoff from pastures with cattle. Enrichment of organic N (2 times), available (inorganic) N (5 to 10 times), and Bray-P in the upper soils persisted for several years following sludge application. Sludge increased vegetation N concentrations from 1.5% to 2.3% and P concentrations from 0.16% to 0.31%. With the exception of Zn, heavy metals did not accumulate substantially in the vegetation. The sludge addition increased the survival and growth of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.). For a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation future growth improvements are expected based on elevated foliar N concentrations. 37 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Relationship between electrical and rheological properties of sewage sludge - Impact of temperature.

    PubMed

    Ségalen, C; Dieudé-Fauvel, E; Clément, J; Baudez, J C

    2015-04-15

    Rheological properties are key criteria for sewage sludge management but are difficult to determine in situ. Because the literature often links rheological characteristics to surface charges of particles that interact, the underlying electrostatic interactions could be key characteristics explaining the rheological behavior of sludge. This paper analyzed the impact of temperature on both rheological and electrical properties. Both liquid and solid properties appear to be related to electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements because they obey the same relationships with the same activation energies. Infinite viscosity follows an Arrhenius law with temperature, whereas the storage modulus shows VTF (Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher) behavior. Sludge electrical behavior can be modeled by an equivalent 2-branch parallel circuit whose respective impedances follow Arrhenius and VTF relationships. More interestingly, resistors are proportional to (dissipative) viscous characteristics, whereas capacitances are proportional to the (storage) elastic modulus. These similarities and relationships underlie the same interactions that seem to be involved in both rheological and electrical properties. These interdependences are quite logical but open new insights into sludge characterization. PMID:25634652

  13. Obtaining edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers from different sewage sludges. Effects on soil biological properties.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Gómez, Isidoro; Parrado, Juan; García-Martínez, Ana M; Aragón, Carlos; Tejada, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    We studied the influence of six edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers (BSs) manufactured by the pH-stat method from different sewage sludge (SS): SS1 (an anaerobic mature sludge, one year old), SS2 (an aerobic young sludge, without maturation) and SS3 (an aerobic mature sludge, four months old), not previously autoclaved (A) and autoclaved (B), by analysing their effects on soil biological properties. Soil enzymatic activities were measured at 1, 3, 5, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days of the incubation period, whereas the 16S rDNA-DGGE profiles were determined at 0, 5 and 60 days. The enzymatic activities were significantly stimulated. The highest stimulation was found in the B2 treatment followed by B3, A2, A3, B1 and A1 treatments. Increasing the number of lower molecular weight proteins in the BS enhances the stimulation of soil enzymatic activities. The application of BS caused at 5 days of the incubation period temporal variations in the soil bacterial community structure. PMID:25732482

  14. Combined ultrasonication and thermal pre-treatment of sewage sludge for increasing methane production.

    PubMed

    Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Tian, Xinbo; Wang, Chong; Lin, Li Leonard; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the combination of ultrasonic and thermal treatment of sewage sludge (SS). The combination involved ultrasonicating a fraction of the sludge and thermal treatment at various temperatures and this resulted in solubilization of proteins and carbohydrates, and so contributing to increased COD solubilization. During the treatment, SCOD, soluble proteins and carbohydrates increased from 760 mg L(-1) to 10,200 mg L(-1), 110 mg L(-1) to 2,900 mg L(-1) and 60 mg L(-1) to 630 mg L(-1), respectively. It was found ultrasonication of only a fraction of the sludge (>20%) followed by thermal treatment led to significant improvement compared to thermal and ULS treatments applied on their own. At 65°C, the kinetic of solubilization was improved and the hyper-thermophilic treatment time could be reduced to a few hours when ultrasonication was used first. A linear correlation (R(2) = 95%) was found between the SCOD obtained after ultrasonication pre-treatment and anaerobic biodegradability. The combined treatment resulted in 20% increase in biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of the pre-treated sludge. PMID:25560267

  15. Soil and pasture P concentration in a Fraxinus excelsior L. silvopastoral system fertilised with different types of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Nair, Vimala; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Rosa Mosquera-Losada, María

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, sewage sludge should be stabilised before using as fertiliser in agriculture. Depending on the stabilisation process that is used, sewage sludge has different characteristics, nutrient contents and soil nutrient incorporation rates. Sewage sludge is usually applied on a plant-available N or total metal concentration basic, and therefore, P concentrations can be well above crop needs. Leaching of excess P can threaten surface and ground waters with eutrophication. In this context, recent studies have demonstrated that the implementation of agroforestry systems could reduce the P leaching risk compared with conventional agricultural systems due to the different localisation of tree and crop roots which enhance nutrient uptake. The aim of this study was to evaluate during three consecutive years the effect of municipal sewage sludge stabilised by anaerobic digestion, composting, and pelletisation on concentration of P in soil and pasture compared to control treatments (mineral and no fertilisation) in a silvopastoral system established under Fraxinus excelsior L. in Galicia (Spain). The results showed that at the beginning of the study, the fertilisation with mineral increased more the total and available P in soil than the fertilisation with sewage sludge probably because the sludge nutrient release rate is slower than those from mineral fertilisers. The increment of soil available P caused by the mineral fertiliser implied an improvement of the P concentration in the pasture. However, in the last year of the experiment it was observed a positive effect of the fertilisation with pelletised sludge on the concentration of P in pasture compared with the composted sludge and the mineral fertiliser probably due to the annual application of this type of sludge. Therefore, the establishment of silvopastoral systems and their fertilisation with pelletized sludge should be recommended because the pelletized sludge increases the concentration of P in the pasture and reduces the application and storage costs due to its lower proportion of water than the other types of sludge tested. At the same time, the integration of trees in agricultural areas decreases the problem of environmental impact resulting from addition of organic and inorganic fertilisers on soils.

  16. Potential for Increased Human Foodborne Exposure to PCDD/F When Recycling Sewage Sludge on Agricultural Land

    PubMed Central

    Rideout, Karen; Teschke, Kay

    2004-01-01

    Sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment is used in agriculture as a nutrient source and to aid in moisture retention. To examine the potential impact of sludge-amended soil on exposures to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from plant and animal foods, we conducted a review of published empirical data from international sources. Levels of PCDD/F in municipal sewage sludge ranged from 0.0005 to 8,300 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ)/g. Background levels in soil ranged from 0.003 to 186 pg TEQ/g. In sludge-amended soils, levels of PCDD/F ranged from 1.4 to 15 pg TEQ/g. Studies that measured levels before and after sludge treatment showed an increase in soil concentration after treatment. Relationships between PCDD/F levels in soil and resulting concentrations in plants were very weakly positive for unpeeled root crops, leafy vegetables, tree fruits, hay, and herbs. Somewhat stronger relationships were observed for plants of the cucumber family. In all cases, large increases in soil concentration were required to achieve a measurable increase in plant contamination. A considerably stronger positive relationship was observed between PCDD/F in feed and resulting levels in cattle tissue, suggesting bioaccumulation. Although PCDD/Fs are excreted in milk, no association was found between feed contamination and levels of PCDD/Fs measured in milk. There is a paucity of realistic data describing the potential for entry of PCDD/Fs into the food supply via sewage sludge. Currently available data suggest that sewage sludge application to land used for most crops would not increase human exposure. However, the use of sludge on land used to graze animals appears likely to result in increased human exposure to PCDD/F. PMID:15198915

  17. Growth, physiology and yield of durum wheat (Triticum durum) treated with sewage sludge under water stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Boudjabi, Sonia; Kribaa, Mohammed; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas, low soil fertility and water deficit considerably limit crop production. The use of sewage sludge as an organic amendment could contribute to the improvement of soil fertility and hence the agronomic production. The study aims to highlight the behaviour of durum wheat to the application of sewage sludge associated with water stress. The assessment focused on morphophysiological parameters of the wheat plant and yield. Under greenhouse conditions, the variety Mohamed Ben Bachir was treated by four water stress levels (100 %, 80 %, 50 % and 30 %). Each stress level comprised five fertilizer treatments: 20, 50 and 100 t/ha of dry sludge, 35 kg/ha of urea, and a control with no fertilization. Results revealed a significant loss in water content and chlorophyll a in leaves. Water stress negatively affected the development of wheat plants by reducing significantly seed yield, leaf area and biomass produced. Plant’s responses to water stress manifested by an accumulation of proline and a decrease in total phosphorus. However, the increasing doses of sewage sludge limited the effect of water stress. Our findings showed an increase in the amount of chlorophyll pigments, leaf area, total phosphorus, biomass and yield. In addition, excessive accumulation of proline (1.11 ± 1.03 µg/g DM) was recorded as a result of the high concentration of sludge (100 t/ha DM). The application of sewage sludge is beneficial for the wheat crop, but the high accumulation of proline in plants treated with high dose of sludge suggests to properly consider this fact. The application of sludge should be used with caution in soils where water is limited. Because the combined effect of these two factors could result in a fatal osmotic stress to crop development. PMID:26417365

  18. Potential for increased human foodborne exposure to PCDD/F when recycling sewage sludge on agricultural land.

    PubMed

    Rideout, Karen; Teschke, Kay

    2004-06-01

    Sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment is used in agriculture as a nutrient source and to aid in moisture retention. To examine the potential impact of sludge-amended soil on exposures to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from plant and animal foods, we conducted a review of published empirical data from international sources. Levels of PCDD/F in municipal sewage sludge ranged from 0.0005 to 8300 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ)/g. Background levels in soil ranged from 0.003 to 186 pg TEQ/g. In sludge-amended soils, levels of PCDD/F ranged from 1.4 to 15 pg TEQ/g. Studies that measured levels before and after sludge treatment showed an increase in soil concentration after treatment. Relationships between PCDD/F levels in soil and resulting concentrations in plants were very weakly positive for unpeeled root crops, leafy vegetables, tree fruits, hay, and herbs. Somewhat stronger relationships were observed for plants of the cucumber family. In all cases, large increases in soil concentration were required to achieve a measurable increase in plant contamination. A considerably stronger positive relationship was observed between PCDD/F in feed and resulting levels in cattle tissue, suggesting bioaccumulation. Although PCDD/Fs are excreted in milk, no association was found between feed contamination and levels of PCDD/Fs measured in milk. There is a paucity of realistic data describing the potential for entry of PCDD/Fs into the food supply via sewage sludge. Currently available data suggest that sewage sludge application to land used for most crops would not increase human exposure. However, the use of sludge on land used to graze animals appears likely to result in increased human exposure to PCDD/F. PMID:15198915

  19. Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) biomass production in a calcareous soil amended with sewage sludge compost and irrigated with sewage water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lag, A.; Gomez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Melendez, I.; Perez Gimeno, A.; Soriano-Disla, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    Energy use is one of the most important current global issues. Traditional energetic resources are limited and its use generates environmental problems, i.e. Global Warming, thus it is necessary to find alternative ways to produce energy. Energy crops represent one step towards sustainability but it must be coupled with appropriate land use and management adapted to local conditions. Moreover, positive effects like soil conservation; economical improvement of rural areas and CO2 storage could be achieved. Treated sewage water and sewage sludge compost were used as low-cost inputs for nutrition and irrigation, to cultivate cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) a perennial Mediterranean crop. The aim of the present field experiment was to ascertain the optimum dose of compost application to obtain maximum biomass production. Four compost treatments were applied by triplicate (D1=0; D2=30; D3=50; D4=70 ton/ha) and forty eight cardoon plants were placed in each plot, 12 per treatment, in a calcareous soil (CLfv; WRB, 2006) plot, located in the South East of Spain, in semi-arid conditions. The experiment was developed for one cardoon productive cycle (one year); soil was sampled three times (October, April and July). Soil, compost and treated sewage irrigation water were analyzed (physical and chemical properties). Stalk, capitula and leave weight as well as height and total biomass production were the parameters determined for cardoon samples. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) at p=0,05 significance level were performed to detect differences among treatments for each sampling/plot and to study soil parameters evolution and biomass production for each plot/dose. Several statistical differences in soil were found between treatments for extractable zinc, magnesium and phosphorus; as well as Kjeldahl nitrogen and organic carbon due to compost application, showing a gradual increase of nutrients from D1 to D4. However, considering the evolution of soil parameters along time, pH was the only with marked and significant decreasing trend from the first to the last sampling period. Mean cardoon biomass production in D1subplot was 13 ton/ha which differed significantly from D4 production, which was about 20 ton/ha. Hence, the maximum biomass production was obtained with the maximum compost dose. The results show that compost amendment increased cardoon biomass production, probably due to the improvement of soil properties, especially plant nutrient availability. No significant differences were found in soil parameters along time, with the exception of pH. However, longer test time is needed to evaluate long term effects in soil and to check the maintenance of biomass productivity. References Fernadez J., Curt, M.D., Aguado P.L. Industrial applications of Cynara cardunculus for energy and other uses. Industrial Crops and Product 24 (2006) pp 222-229. WRB (2006). World Reference Base for Soil Resources (2nd ed.). World Soil Resources Report 103, FAO, Rome, Italy (2006) 133 pp. Casado, J.; Sellés, S.; Navarro, J.; Bustamante, M.A.; Mataix, J.; Guerrero, C.; Gomez, I. Evaluation of composted sewage sludge as nutricional source for horticulturals soils. Waste Management 26 (2006). pp 946-952. Acknowledgements: The author gratefully acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Science for a research fellowship (AP2007-01641).

  20. Possible practical utility of an enzyme cocktail produced by sludge-degrading microbes for methane and hydrogen production from digested sludge.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hayato; Kuribayashi, Kyohei; Fujii, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-25

    Digested sludge (DS) is a major waste product of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and is resistant to biodegradation. In this study, we examined suitability of the hydrolases produced by DS-degrading fungal strains (DS-hydrolases) for methane and hydrogen fermentation from DS. Although the strains are mesophilic, DS-hydrolases showed strong chitinase and keratinase activity at ?50°C. SDS-PAGE analysis suggested that the strains possess a multienzyme system, which allows the hydrolases of some strains to be stable in a wide range of temperatures. Addition of the DS-hydrolases to a vial-scale anaerobic digester enhanced methane and hydrogen production from DS at pH 9.0 and 5.0, respectively. The hydrogen production was also enhanced by the use of methacrylate ester-precipitated DS as a substrate. Further improvement of culture and reaction conditions may make these hydrolases suitable for production of renewable fuels. PMID:26248274

  1. Emission characteristics of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing odorous compounds during different sewage sludge chemical conditioning processes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Luo, Guang-Qian; Hu, Hong-Yun; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Jia-Kuan; Yao, Hong

    2012-10-15

    Chemical conditioners are often used to enhance sewage sludge dewaterability through altering sludge properties and flocs structure, both affect odorous compounds emissions not only during sludge conditioning but also in subsequent sludge disposal. This study was to investigate emission characteristics of ammonia (NH(3)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) generated from sewage sludge conditioned by three representative conditioners, i.e., organic polymers, iron salts and skeleton builders, F-S (Fenton's reagent and skeleton builders) composite conditioner. The results demonstrate that polyacrylamide (PAM) has an insignificant effect on emission characteristics of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing odorous compounds, because the properties, sulfur and nitrogen speciations are similar in PAM-conditioned sludge and raw sludge (RS). Significant increases of SO(2) and H(2)S emissions in the H(2)SO(4) conditioning process were observed due to the accelerated decomposition of sulfur-containing amino acids in acidic environment. Fenton peroxidation facilitates the formation of COS. CaO can reduce sulfur-containing gases emission via generation of calcium sulfate. However, under strong alkaline conditions, free ammonia or protonated amine in sludge can be easily converted to volatile ammonia, resulting in a significant release of NH(3). PMID:22902143

  2. Mathematical modelling of disintegration-limited co-digestion of OFMSW and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Esposito, G; Frunzo, L; Panico, A; d'Antonio, G

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model able to simulate under dynamic conditions the physical, chemical and biological processes prevailing in a OFMSW and sewage sludge anaerobic digestion system. The model proposed is based on differential mass balance equations for substrates, products and bacterial groups involved in the co-digestion process and includes the biochemical reactions of the substrate conversion and the kinetics of microbial growth and decay. The main peculiarity of the model is the surface based kinetic description of the OFMSW disintegration process, whereas the pH determination is based on a nine-order polynomial equation derived by acid-base equilibria. The model can be applied to simulate the co-digestion process for several purposes, such as the evaluation of the optimal process conditions in terms of OFMSW/sewage sludge ratio, temperature, OFMSW particle size, solid mixture retention time, reactor stirring rate, etc. Biogas production and composition can also be evaluated to estimate the potential energy production under different process conditions. In particular, model simulations reported in this paper show the model capability to predict the OFMSW amount which can be treated in the digester of an existing MWWTP and to assess the OFMSW particle size diminution pre-treatment required to increase the rate of the disintegration process, which otherwise can highly limit the co-digestion system. PMID:18957767

  3. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on composted sewage sludge biochar priming effect in a loamy soil.

    PubMed

    Méndez, A; Tarquis, A M; Saa-Requejo, A; Guerrero, F; Gascó, G

    2013-10-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich solid product obtained by the pyrolysis of organic materials. The carbon stability of biochar allows that it can be applied to soil for long-term carbon storage. This carbon stability is greatly influenced by the pyrolysis temperature and the raw material used for biochar production. The aim of the present work is to study the soil carbon sequestration after the application of biochar from sewage sludge (SL) pyrolysis at two different temperatures (400 and 600 °C). For this purpose, soil CO2 emissions were measured for 80 d in an incubation experiment after soil amendment with the SL and each biochar at a dosage of 8 wt%. Biochar reduced the CO2 emissions during incubation between 11% and 32% relative to the SL treatment. The CO2 data were fit to a dual exponential model, and the CO2 emissions were simulated at different times (1, 5 and 10 yr). Additionally, the kinetics of the CO2 evolution from SL, two biochar samples, soil and amended soil were well fit to a dual first-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients greater than 0.93. The simulation of CO2 emissions from the soil by applying the proposed double first-order kinetic model (kg CO2-C ha(-1)) showed a reduction of CO2 emissions between 301 and 932 kg CO2-C ha(-1)with respect to the direct application of raw sewage sludge after 10 yr. PMID:23891257

  4. Occurrence and environmental implications of pharmaceuticals in Chinese municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongshan; Yu, Gang; Cao, Qiming; Zhang, Haibo; Lin, Qiaoying; Hong, Youwei

    2013-11-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment has become a topic of concern because of their potential adverse effects on human health and wildlife species. A total of 45 dewatered sewage sludge samples were collected throughout China and analyzed for 30 commonly consumed pharmaceutical residues. Ofloxacin was found to be the dominant contaminant with concentrations up to 24760 ?g kg(-1), followed by oxytetracycline (5280 ?g kg(-1)), norfloxacin (5280 ?g kg(-1)) and ketoprofen (4458 ?g kg(-1)). The concentration of pharmaceutical residues varied greatly depending on the operation conditions of wastewater treatment plants and sampling locations. Poor agreement was found between the predicted (calculation based on the annual consumption and coefficient of sludge water partition) and detected concentrations of the pharmaceuticals indicating that the occurrence of pharmaceutical residues was affected by various factors such as loading rates, sewage properties and the chemical properties such as the contribution from polar groups. National wide fate and ecotoxicity study is required for the development of control strategies. PMID:23827484

  5. Activated carbons obtained from sewage sludge by chemical activation: gas-phase environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Boualem, T; Debab, A; Martínez de Yuso, A; Izquierdo, M T

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity for toluene and SO2 of low cost activated carbons prepared from sewage sludge by chemical activation at different impregnation ratios. Samples were characterized by proximate and ultimate analyses, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption. Because of the low carbon content of the raw material, the development of porosity in the activated carbons was mainly of a mesoporous nature, with surface areas lower than 300 m(2)/g. The study of gas-phase applications for activated carbons from sewage sludge was carried out using both an organic and an inorganic compound in order to screen for possible applications. Toluene adsorption capacity at saturation was around 280 mg/g, which is a good level of performance given the high ash content of the activated carbons. However, dynamic experiments at low toluene concentration presented diffusion problems resulting from low porosity development. SO2 adsorption capacity is associated with average micropore size, which can be controlled by the impregnation ratio used to prepare the activated carbons. PMID:24747937

  6. Influence of ionic conductivity in bioelectricity production from saline domestic sewage sludge in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Rengasamy; Selvam, Ammayaippan; Cheng, Ka Yu; Wong, Jonathan Woon-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at manipulating ionic conductivity (EC) to harvest the maximum electrical energy from seawater-based domestic wastewater sewage sludge (SWS), unique to only a few cities, through microbial fuel cell (MFC). SWS has never been investigated as a MFC substrate before, and thus the influence of high in-situ EC on the energy recovery was unknown. In this study, the EC of the SWS was reduced through mixing it with fresh water-based domestic wastewater sewage sludge (FWS) or diluted 50% using deionized water while FWS and SWS were individually served as reference treatments. SWS:FWS mix (1:1) exhibited a maximum Coulombic efficiency of 28.6±0.5% at a COD removal of 59±3% while the peak power density was 20-fold higher than FWS. The improved performance was due to the lower ohmic internal resistance (36.8±4.2?) and optimal conductivity (12.8±0.2mScm(-1)). Therefore, dilution with FWS could enhance energy recovery from SWS. PMID:26590759

  7. The Effect of paper mill waste and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, Ana; Barriga, Sandra; Guerrero, Francisca; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    In general, Mediterranean soils have low organic matter content, due to the climate characteristics of this region and inadequate land management. Traditionally, organic wastes such as manure are used as amendment in order to improve the soil quality, increasing soil fertility by the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and other plant nutrients in the soil. In the last decade, other anthropogenic organic wastes such as sewage sludge or paper waste materials have been studied as soil amendments to improve physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. The objective of the present work was to study the influence of waste from a paper mill and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter. For this reason, soil organic matter evolution was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the derivative (dTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal analytical techniques have the advantage of using full samples without pre-treatments and have been extensively used to study the evolution of organic matter in soils, to evaluate composting process or to study the evolution of organic matter of growing media.

  8. A stand for the image acquisition of composted material based on the sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujawa, S.; Tomczak, R. J.; Kluza, T.; Weres, J.; Boniecki, P.

    2012-04-01

    Composting is one of the best methods for sewage sludge management. The early identification of the young compost stage in composted material is important. The method for determining the degree of maturity of composted material containing sewage sludge will use the selected topologies of artificial neural networks. The learning processes of these networks will be carried out with the use of the information contained in digital images of composted material. It is important that acquisition of these images was carried out under constant lighting and exposure conditions on a suitable acquisition stand. The objectives of presented study were: to develop a stand for image acquisition of composted material, to determine the spectral distribution for used light sources and illuminance distribution for visible light, to determine the parameters for image acquisition of composted material. A suitable stand, consisted of three photographic chambers illuminated with visible light, UV-A light and mixed light, was developed. The spectral distribution of the used light sources and the illuminance distribution for visible light were analyzed and considered satisfactory. Image acquisition parameters, such as focal length, ISO sensitivity, aperture and exposure time, were specified.

  9. Perchlorate in sewage sludge, rice, bottled water and milk collected from different areas in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yali; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Yawei; Shi, Jianbo; Cai, Yaqi; Mou, Shifen; Jiang, Guibin

    2007-10-01

    As a new emerging environmental contaminant, perchlorate has prompted people to pay more attention. The presence of perchlorate in the human body can result in improper regulation of metabolism for adults. Furthermore, it also causes developmental and behavioral problems for infants and children because it can interfere with iodide uptake into the thyroid tissue. In this paper, perchlorate in sewage sludge, rice, bottled drinking water and milk was detected for investigating the perchlorate pollution status in China. The places, where the samples were collected, cover most regions of China. Therefore, the final data on perchlorate levels will give an indication of the perchlorate pollution status in China. The final determination of perchlorate was performed by ion chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with negative mode. The concentration of perchlorate in sewage sludge, rice, bottled drinking water and milk was in the range of 0.56-379.9 microg/kg, 0.16-4.88 mug/kg, 0.037-2.013 microg/L and 0.30-9.1 microg/L, respectively. The results show that perchlorate has been widespread in China. PMID:17604836

  10. Co-digestion of sewage sludge with glycerol to boost biogas production

    SciTech Connect

    Fountoulakis, M.S.; Petousi, I.; Manios, T.

    2010-10-15

    The feasibility of adding crude glycerol from the biodiesel industry to the anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants was studied in both batch and continuous experiments at 35 {sup o}C. Glycerol addition can boost biogas yields, if it does not exceed a limiting 1% (v/v) concentration in the feed. Any further increase of glycerol causes a high imbalance in the anaerobic digestion process. The reactor treating the sewage sludge produced 1106 {+-} 36 ml CH{sub 4}/d before the addition of glycerol and 2353 {+-} 94 ml CH{sub 4}/d after the addition of glycerol (1% v/v in the feed). The extra glycerol-COD added to the feed did not have a negative effect on reactor performance, but seemed to increase the active biomass (volatile solids) concentration in the system. Batch kinetic experiments showed that the maximum specific utilization rate ({mu}{sub max}) and the saturation constant (K{sub S}) of glycerol were 0.149 {+-} 0.015 h{sup -1} and 0.276 {+-} 0.095 g/l, respectively. Comparing the estimated values with the kinetics constants for propionate reported in the literature, it can be concluded that glycerol uptake is not the rate-limiting step during the process.

  11. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: preliminary feasibility evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications. PMID:24656467

  12. Microbial electrolysis cell accelerates phosphate remobilisation from iron phosphate contained in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Fabian; Zufferey, Géraldine; Sugnaux, Marc; Happe, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate was remobilised from iron phosphate contained in digested sewage sludge using a bio-electric cell. A significant acceleration above former results was caused by strongly basic catholytes. For these experiments a dual chambered microbial electrolysis cell with a small cathode (40 mL) and an 80 times larger anode (2.5 L) was equipped with a platinum sputtered reticulated vitreous carbon cathode. Various applied voltages (0.2-6.0 V) generated moderate to strongly basic catholytes using artificial waste water with pH close to neutral. Phosphate from iron phosphate contained in digested sewage sludge was remobilised most effectively at pH ?13 with up to 95% yield. Beside minor electrochemical reduction, hydroxyl substitution was the dominating remobilisation mechanism. Particle-fluid kinetics using the "shrinking core" model allowed us to determine the reaction controlling step. Reaction rates changed with temperature (15-40 °C) and an activation energy of Ea = 55 kJ mol(-1) was found. These analyses indicated chemical and physical reaction control, which is of interest for future scale-up work. Phosphate remobilisation rates increased significantly, yields doubled and recovered PO4(3-) concentrations increased four times using a task specific bio-electric system. The result is a sustainable process for decentralized phosphate mining and a green chemical base generator useful also for many other sustainable processing needs. PMID:25407335

  13. Anaerobic digestion for simultaneous sewage sludge treatment and CO biomethanation: process performance and microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang; Wang, Wen; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-09-17

    Syngas is produced by thermal gasification of both nonrenewable and renewable sources including biomass and coal, and it consists mainly of CO, CO2, and H2. In this paper we aim to bioconvert CO in the syngas to CH4. A novel technology for simultaneous sewage sludge treatment and CO biomethanation in an anaerobic reactor was presented. Batch experiments showed that CO was inhibitory to methanogens, but not to bacteria, at CO partial pressure between 0.25 and 1 atm under thermophilic conditions. During anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge supplemented with CO added through a hollow fiber membrane (HFM) module in continuous thermophilic reactors, CO did not inhibit the process even at a pressure as high as 1.58 atm inside the HFM, due to the low dissolved CO concentration in the liquid. Complete consumption of CO was achieved with CO gas retention time of 0.2 d. Results from high-throughput sequencing analysis showed clear differences of the microbial community structures between the samples from liquid and biofilm on the HFM in the reactor with CO addition. Species close to Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus were the two main archaeal species involved in CO biomethanation. However, the two species were distributed differently in the liquid phase and in the biofilm. Although the carboxidotrophic activities test showed that CO was converted by both archaea and bacteria, the bacterial species responsible for CO conversion are unknown. PMID:23952148

  14. Stabilization of heavy metals in lightweight aggregate made from sewage sludge and river sediment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guoren; Liu, Mingwei; Li, Guibai

    2013-09-15

    The primary goal of this research is to investigate the stabilization of heavy metals in lightweight aggregate (LWA) made from sewage sludge and river sediment. The effects of the sintering temperature, the (Fe?O?+CaO+MgO)/(SiO?+Al?O?) ratio (K ratio), SiO?/Al?O? and Fe?O?/CaO/MgO (at fixed K ratio), pH, and oxidative conditions on the stabilization of heavy metals were studied. Sintering at temperatures above 1100 °C effectively binds Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb in the LWA, because the stable forms of the heavy metals are strongly bound to the aluminosilicate or silicate frameworks. Minimum leachabilities of Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb were obtained at K ratios between 0.175 and 0.2. When the LWA was subjected to rigorous leaching conditions, the heavy metals remained in the solid even when the LWA bulk structure was broken. LWA made with sewage sludge and river sediment can therefore be used as an environmentally safe material for civil engineering and other construction applications. PMID:23747465

  15. Recycling and recovery routes for incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA): a review.

    PubMed

    Donatello, Shane; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2013-11-01

    The drivers for increasing incineration of sewage sludge and the characteristics of the resulting incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) are reviewed. It is estimated that approximately 1.7 milliontonnes of ISSA are produced annually world-wide and is likely to increase in the future. Although most ISSA is currently landfilled, various options have been investigated that allow recycling and beneficial resource recovery. These include the use of ISSA as a substitute for clay in sintered bricks, tiles and pavers, and as a raw material for the manufacture of lightweight aggregate. ISSA has also been used to form high density glass-ceramics. Significant research has investigated the potential use of ISSA in blended cements for use in mortars and concrete, and as a raw material for the production of Portland cement. However, all these applications represent a loss of the valuable phosphate content in ISSA, which is typically comparable to that of a low grade phosphate ore. ISSA has significant potential to be used as a secondary source of phosphate for the production of fertilisers and phosphoric acid. Resource efficient approaches to recycling will increasingly require phosphate recovery from ISSA, with the remaining residual fraction also considered a useful material, and therefore further research is required in this area. PMID:23820291

  16. Hydrologic effects of storing liquified sewage sludge on strip-mined land, Fulton County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    The water table near four sewage storage basins in a strip-mined area of western Illinois, has risen about 10 feet since the basins were constructed in 1971. Two dimensional modeling of ground-water flow in the mine spoil indicates that the rise is caused by leakage from one storage basin. The hydrologic-parameter values producing the best fit between computed and observed head values are 0.000007 feet per second for the hydraulic conductivity of the mine spoil, 0.0000000004 feet per second for recharge from the leaking basin. The model indicates the volume of water leaking from the basin is 91,600 cubic yards per year. The principal components of the sewage sludge after the solids have been removed are alkalinity, nitrogen, phosphorous, and chloride. Components in higher concentrations near the basins were sodium, alkalinity, and chloride. Because the sodium and chloride concentrations in the sludge were too low to cause the higher concentrations in the ground water, the strip-mine spoil used in constructing the basins was considered to be the major source of these constituents. This spoil has been moved from its original location and unweathered surfaces exposed, which allowed dissolution of carbonate and chloride and release of sodium through cation exchange. (USGS)

  17. Current levels and composition profiles of emerging halogenated flame retardants and dehalogenated products in sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants in China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lixi; Yang, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhang, Haidong; Xiao, Ke; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Yawei; Lam, Paul K S; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-11-01

    Occurrence of new toxic chemicals in sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is of concern for the environment and human health. Alternative halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) are a group of potentially harmful organic contaminants in the environment. In this study, a nationwide survey was carried out to identify the occurrence of HFRs and their potential dehalogenated products in sewage sludge from 62 WWTPs in China. Of all 20 target chemicals analyzed, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and 1, 2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-ethane (BTBPE) were detected in all sludge samples, and the concentrations were in the range of 0.82-215, 0.09-65.8, and 0.10-2.26 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively. Dechlorane Plus (DP) was found in 60 of 62 samples, and the concentration ranged from nd-298 ng g(-1) with a mean of 18.9 ng g(-1) d.w. The anti-DP fractional abundance fanti (0.79) in the samples was much higher than the commercial DP composition (fanti=0.59), indicating a stereoselective degradation. Comparison with global sludge concentrations of HFRs indicate that China is at the medium pollution level in the world. Principal components analysis revealed that strong correlations existed between ln-transformed concentrations (natural logarithm) of the dominant BFRs and total organic carbon (TOC) as well as industrial wastewater proportion, influent volume and serving population. Significant linear relationships (R=0.360-0.893, p<0.01) were found among emerging brominated flame retardants (BFRs), suggesting their common commercial applications and release sources to the environment. Two kinds of dehalogenated products, pentabromocyclododecane (PBCD) and undecachloropentacyclooctadecadiene (Cl11-DP), derived from HBCD and DP, were also identified in sewage sludge for the first time. PMID:25286358

  18. Environmental monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and insoluble soap in Spanish sewage sludge samples.

    PubMed

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Reis, Marco S; Saraiva, Pedro M; Vílchez, José L

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and insoluble soap performed on Spanish sewage sludge samples. This work focuses on finding statistical relations between LAS concentrations and insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples and variables related to wastewater treatment plants such as water hardness, population and treatment type. It is worth to mention that 38 samples, collected from different Spanish regions, were studied. The statistical tool we used was Principal Component Analysis (PC), in order to reduce the number of response variables. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and a non-parametric test such as the Kruskal-Wallis test were also studied through the estimation of the p-value (probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true) in order to study possible relations between the concentration of both analytes and the rest of variables. We also compared LAS and insoluble soap behaviors. In addition, the results obtained for LAS (mean value) were compared with the limit value proposed by the future Directive entitled "Working Document on Sludge". According to the results, the mean obtained for soap and LAS was 26.49 g kg(-1) and 6.15 g kg(-1) respectively. It is worth noting that LAS mean was significantly higher than the limit value (2.6 g kg(-1)). In addition, LAS and soap concentrations depend largely on water hardness. However, only LAS concentration depends on treatment type. PMID:21526451

  19. The study of partitioning of heavy metals during fluidized bed combustion of sewage sludge and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Gulyurtlu, I.; Lopes, M.H.; Abelha, P.; Cabrita, I.; Oliveira, J.F.S.

    2006-06-15

    The behavior of Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Hg during the combustion tests of a dry granular sewage sludge on a fluidized bed combustor pilot (FBC) of about 0.3 MW was evaluated. The emissions of these heavy metals from mono-combustion were compared with those of co-combustion of the sludge with a bituminous coal. The effect of the addition of limestone was also studied in order to retain sulphur compounds and to verify its influence on the retention of heavy metals (HM). Heavy metals were collected and analyzed from different locations of the installation, which included the stack, the two cyclones, and the material removed from the bed. The results showed that the volatility of metals was rather low, resulting in emissions below the legal limits of the new directive on incineration, with the exception of Hg during the mono-combustion tests. The partitioning of metals, except for Hg, appeared to follow that of ashes, amounting to levels above 90% in the bed streams in the mono-combustion case. For co-combustion, there was a lower fixation of HM in the bed ashes, mostly originating essentially from the sewage sludge, ranging between 40% and 80%. It is believed that in this latter case, a slightly higher temperature could have enhanced the volatilization, especially of Cd and Pb. However these metals were then retained in fly ashes captured in the cyclones. In the case of Hg, the volatilisation was complete. The bed ashes were free of Hg and part of Hg was retained in the cyclones and the rest was emitted either with fine ash particles or in gaseous forms. In mono-combustion the Hg emissions from the stack (particles and gas) accounted, for about 50%. This appeared to have significantly decreased in the case of co-combustion, as only about 75% has been emitted, due to the retention effect of cyclone ashes.

  20. Hygienisation and nutrient conservation of sewage sludge or cattle manure by lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Scheinemann, Hendrik A; Dittmar, Katja; Stöckel, Frank S; Müller, Hermann; Krüger, Monika E

    2015-01-01

    Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. This potential problem can increase with the global connectedness of animal herds fed imported feed grown on fields fertilized with local manures. This paper describes a simple, easy-to-use, low-tech hygienization method which conserves nutrients and does not require large investments in infrastructure. The proposed method uses the microbiotic shift during mesophilic fermentation of cow manure or sewage sludge during which gram-negative bacteria, enterococci and yeasts were inactivated below the detection limit of 3 log10 cfu/g while lactobacilli increased up to a thousand fold. Pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli EHEC O:157 and vegetative Clostridium perfringens were inactivated within 3 days of fermentation. In addition, ECBO-viruses and eggs of Ascaris suum were inactivated within 7 and 56 days, respectively. Compared to the mass lost through composting (15-57%), the loss of mass during fermentation (< 2.45%) is very low and provides strong economic and ecological benefits for this process. This method might be an acceptable hygienization method for developed as well as undeveloped countries, and could play a key role in public and animal health while safely closing the nutrient cycle by reducing the necessity of using energy-inefficient inorganic fertilizer for crop production. PMID:25786255

  1. Hygienisation and Nutrient Conservation of Sewage Sludge or Cattle Manure by Lactic Acid Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Scheinemann, Hendrik A.; Dittmar, Katja; Stöckel, Frank S.; Müller, Hermann; Krüger, Monika E.

    2015-01-01

    Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. This potential problem can increase with the global connectedness of animal herds fed imported feed grown on fields fertilized with local manures. This paper describes a simple, easy-to-use, low-tech hygienization method which conserves nutrients and does not require large investments in infrastructure. The proposed method uses the microbiotic shift during mesophilic fermentation of cow manure or sewage sludge during which gram-negative bacteria, enterococci and yeasts were inactivated below the detection limit of 3 log10 cfu/g while lactobacilli increased up to a thousand fold. Pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli EHEC O:157 and vegetative Clostridium perfringens were inactivated within 3 days of fermentation. In addition, ECBO-viruses and eggs of Ascaris suum were inactivated within 7 and 56 days, respectively. Compared to the mass lost through composting (15–57%), the loss of mass during fermentation (< 2.45%) is very low and provides strong economic and ecological benefits for this process. This method might be an acceptable hygienization method for developed as well as undeveloped countries, and could play a key role in public and animal health while safely closing the nutrient cycle by reducing the necessity of using energy-inefficient inorganic fertilizer for crop production. PMID:25786255

  2. STRATEGY FOR MONITORING OF CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTIONS RESULTING FROM PROPOSED SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL AT THE 106-MILE OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been proposed that future ocean disposal of sewage sludge from the US east coast be done at a site beyond the edge of the continental shelf. In anticipation of that, a monitoring strategy has been developed to determine the average spatial distribution of contamination. Th...

  3. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Groundwater samples from the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Construction Permit 12,076. Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permits. No constituents exceeded the SCDHEC final Primary Drinking Water Standard in any well from the H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. Aluminum, iron, lead, and manganese, which were above standards and Flag 2 criteria in one or more wells in the three sites during first quarter 1994, were not analyzed this quarter. Second quarter results are similar to results for fourth quarter 1993.

  4. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1992 and 1992 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. During fourth quarter 1992, the FSS wells also were analyzed for a number of other constituents not required by the permit. Historically and currently, no permit-required analytes exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites except iron, lead, and manganese, which occur in elevated concentrations frequently in FSS wells. Lead concentrations exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards during fourth quarter 1992, an event that is concurrent with a change in sampling procedures. Tritium is the primary nonpermit constituent that exceeds standards at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. Other constituents also exceed standards at this site but only sporadically.

  5. HIGHLIGHTS, INSIGHTS, AND PERSPECTIVES ON INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND ANIMAL MANURE IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this chapter is: 1) Highlight the core principles and findings from the Workshop on Emerging Infectious Disease Agents and Issues Associated With Sewage Sludge, Animal Manures and Other Organic By-Products held June 4-6, 2001, Cincinnati, Ohio, so that all readers,...

  6. Influence of Dissolved Organic Matter on the Solubility of Heavy Metals in Sewage-Sludge-Amended Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sewage sludge-amended soils generally contain elevated levels of organic matter and heavy metals compared to control soils. Since organic matter is known to complex with heavy metals, the solubility behavior of the organic matter in such soils may exert a significant influence on the solubility of t...

  7. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles during Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater and Post-Treatment Processing of Sewage Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Turney, Terence W.; Naidu, Ravi; Miller, Bradley W.; Scheckel, Kirk G.

    2013-01-14

    The rapid development and commercialization of nanomaterials will inevitably result in the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment. As NPs often exhibit physical and chemical properties significantly different from those of their molecular or macrosize analogs, concern has been growing regarding their fate and toxicity in environmental compartments. The wastewater-sewage sludge pathway has been identified as a key release pathway leading to environmental exposure to NPs. In this study, we investigated the chemical transformation of two ZnO-NPs and one hydrophobic ZnO-NP commercial formulation (used in personal care products), during anaerobic digestion of wastewater. Changes in Zn speciation as a result of postprocessing of the sewage sludge, mimicking composting/stockpiling, were also assessed. The results indicated that 'native' Zn and Zn added either as a soluble salt or as NPs was rapidly converted to sulfides in all treatments. The hydrophobicity of the commercial formulation retarded the conversion of ZnO-NP. However, at the end of the anaerobic digestion process and after postprocessing of the sewage sludge (which caused a significant change in Zn speciation), the speciation of Zn was similar across all treatments. This indicates that, at least for the material tested, the risk assessment of ZnO-NP through this exposure pathway can rely on the significant knowledge already available in regard to other 'conventional' forms of Zn present in sewage sludge.

  8. Effects of different applications of sewage sludge on crops of a cultivated site located in the East part of Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, A.; Duering, R.; Felix-Henningsen, P.; Raus, L.; Ailincai, C.; Jitareanu, G.

    2009-04-01

    Investigations were carried out in order to determine the effects of sewage sludge application on soil and plants. In the course, plots with an area of 100 sq.m were treated with different fertilization systems (mineral fertilization, organic fertilization, and mineral and organic fertilization). The organic component consisted of sewage sludge in different amounts with a maximum of 30 tons dry substance per ha. Furthermore three tillage systems were installed (conventional tillage system, minimal tillage system and no-tillage system). The content in heavy metals was affect by both fertilization and tillage systems. Winter wheat and rape where sewage sludge was applied, showed a clear increase of Zn and Cd compared to the untreated plots, both in plants and seeds. The increases of applied sewage sludge increased also the contents in both Zn and Cd in plants and seeds of these crops. The effect of the tillage systems on the contents of these heavy metals, shows different results. A higher content of Cd in crops occurred in the no-tillage system and a higher content in Zn was found in crops of the minimal tillage system. A lesser content of Cd and Zn occurred generally in crops of the conventional tillage system. The results of this one-year experiment up to now show no significant negative effects for the food chain according to the present laws and regulations in Romania.

  9. THE USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE BIOCHAR FOR SOIL AMENDMENT AND ITS IMPACT ON SOYBEAN GROWTH AND RHIZOBIA

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Bo

    the addition of sewage sludge biochar impacts the nodule formation and plant growth of soybeans (Glycine max due to its structure. It has been hypothesized that biochar addition will increase nodule formation biochar to the soil did not affect nodule formation and soybean growth, whereas addition of more than 1

  10. Public officials' perspectives on tracking and investigating symptoms reported near sewage sludge land application sites.

    PubMed

    Lowman, Amy; Wing, Steve; Crump, Carolyn; MacDonald, Pia D M; Heaney, Chris; Aitken, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    A majority of treated sewage sludge (biosolids) from U.S. wastewater treatment plants is applied to farmland as a soil amendment. Residents living close to treated farmland have reported becoming ill following land application of sludge. No systematic tracking or investigation of these reports or of land application practices that could affect off-site migration of chemical and biological constituents of the sludge has occurred, however. In the study described in this article, the authors conducted a web-based survey and phone interviews with officials at federal, state, and local regulatory and health agencies and municipal wastewater treatment plants for input on how to design and implement an investigation protocol for tracking and responding to reports of human illness near land application sites. Officials expressed a need for and interest in implementing a systematic, standardized investigation protocol and offered insights on aids and barriers to its use and collaboration among diverse agencies. Additional opinions and innovative solutions expressed in this article will assist interested users in the implementation of the investigation protocol. PMID:21306090

  11. Achieving waste to energy through sewage sludge gasification using hot slags: syngas production.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongqi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    To relieve the environmental issues of sewage sludge (SS) disposal and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in China, we proposed an integrated method for the first time to simultaneously deal with these two problems. The hot slags below 920?°C could act as a good heat carrier for sludge gasification and the increasing CO2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmospheres enhanced the production of CO and H2 at 400-800?°C. Three stages of syngas release were clearly identified by Gaussian fittings, i.e., volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon reaction. Additionally, the effect of sulfur retention of slags and the synergy effect of the stabilization of toxic elements in the solid residuals were discovered in this study. Furthermore, a novel prototype of multiple industrial and urban systems was put forward, in which the produced CO + H2 could be utilized for direct reduced iron (DRI) production and the solid residuals of sludge ash and glassy slags would be applied as cementitious materials. For a steel plant with an annual production of crude steel of 10 million tons in China, the total annual energy saving and GHG emission reduction achieved are 3.31*10(5) tons of standard coal and 1.74*10(6) tons of CO2, respectively. PMID:26074060

  12. Achieving waste to energy through sewage sludge gasification using hot slags: syngas production

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongqi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    To relieve the environmental issues of sewage sludge (SS) disposal and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in China, we proposed an integrated method for the first time to simultaneously deal with these two problems. The hot slags below 920?°C could act as a good heat carrier for sludge gasification and the increasing CO2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmospheres enhanced the production of CO and H2 at 400–800?°C. Three stages of syngas release were clearly identified by Gaussian fittings, i.e., volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon reaction. Additionally, the effect of sulfur retention of slags and the synergy effect of the stabilization of toxic elements in the solid residuals were discovered in this study. Furthermore, a novel prototype of multiple industrial and urban systems was put forward, in which the produced CO?+?H2 could be utilized for direct reduced iron (DRI) production and the solid residuals of sludge ash and glassy slags would be applied as cementitious materials. For a steel plant with an annual production of crude steel of 10 million tons in China, the total annual energy saving and GHG emission reduction achieved are 3.31*105 tons of standard coal and 1.74*106 tons of CO2, respectively. PMID:26074060

  13. Achieving waste to energy through sewage sludge gasification using hot slags: syngas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongqi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-06-01

    To relieve the environmental issues of sewage sludge (SS) disposal and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in China, we proposed an integrated method for the first time to simultaneously deal with these two problems. The hot slags below 920?°C could act as a good heat carrier for sludge gasification and the increasing CO2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmospheres enhanced the production of CO and H2 at 400-800?°C. Three stages of syngas release were clearly identified by Gaussian fittings, i.e., volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon reaction. Additionally, the effect of sulfur retention of slags and the synergy effect of the stabilization of toxic elements in the solid residuals were discovered in this study. Furthermore, a novel prototype of multiple industrial and urban systems was put forward, in which the produced CO?+?H2 could be utilized for direct reduced iron (DRI) production and the solid residuals of sludge ash and glassy slags would be applied as cementitious materials. For a steel plant with an annual production of crude steel of 10 million tons in China, the total annual energy saving and GHG emission reduction achieved are 3.31*105 tons of standard coal and 1.74*106 tons of CO2, respectively.

  14. Simultaneous heavy metals removal and municipal sewage sludge dewaterability improvement in bioleaching processes by various inoculums.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chaohong; Zhu, Nengwu; Shang, Ru; Kang, Naixin; Wu, Pingxiao

    2015-11-01

    The heavy metals content and dewaterability of municipal sewage sludge (MSS) are important parameters affecting its subsequent disposal and land application. Six kinds of inoculums were prepared to examine the characteristics of heavy metals removal and MSS dewaterability improvement in bioleaching processes. The results showed that Cu, Zn and Cd bioleaching efficiencies (12 days) were 81-91, 87-93 and 81-89%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of Fe-S control (P < 0.05) and blank control (P < 0.01). The bioleaching boosted by the prepared inoculums could also significantly enhance MSS dewaterability (P < 0.01). The centrifugal dehydration efficiency of MSS rose from 73.00 to 90.00% at day 12. Microscopic observations and energy dispersive spectrum analysis demonstrated that the dewaterability improvement might be attributed to the changes of sludge structure from flocculent to obvious granular and the formation of secondary minerals mainly consisting of iron, oxygen and sulfur elements. The results above demonstrated that bacterial consortium enriched from acid mine drainage (AMD) was suitable to boost sludge bioleaching for heavy metals removal and dewaterability improvement. It also suggested that the synergy of sulfur/ferrous-oxidizing bacteria (SFOB) enriched from AMD and the cooperation of exogenous and indigenous SFOB significantly promoted bioleaching efficiencies. PMID:26271772

  15. Techno-economic and environmental assessment of sewage sludge wet oxidation.

    PubMed

    Bertanza, Giorgio; Canato, Matteo; Heimersson, Sara; Laera, Giuseppe; Salvetti, Roberta; Slavik, Edoardo; Svanström, Magdalena

    2015-05-01

    Today, several technologies and management strategies are proposed and applied in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to minimise sludge production and contamination. In order to avoid a shifting of burdens between different areas, their techno-economic and environmental performance has to be carefully evaluated. Wet oxidation (WO) is an alternative solution to incineration for recovering energy in sewage sludge while converting it to mostly inorganic residues. This paper deals with an experimentation carried out within the EU project "ROUTES". A mass balance was made for a WWTP (500,000 person equivalents) in which a WO stage for sludge minimisation was considered to be installed. Both bench- and full-scale test results were used. Design of treatment units and estimation of capital and operational costs were then performed. Subsequently, technical and economic aspects were evaluated by means of a detailed methodology which was developed within the ROUTES project. Finally, an assessment of environmental impacts from a life cycle perspective was performed. The integrated assessment showed that for the specific upgrade considered in this study, WO technology, although requiring a certain increase of technical complexity at the WWTP, may contribute to environmental and economic advantages. The paper provides guidance in terms of which aspects need a more thorough evaluation in relation to the specific case in which an upgrade with WO is considered. PMID:25091166

  16. Effect of sewage sludge content on gas quality and solid residues produced by cogasification in an updraft gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Seggiani, Maurizia; Puccini, Monica; Raggio, Giovanni

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cogasification of sewage sludge with wood pellets in updraft gasifier was analysed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of sewage sludge content on the gasification process were examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sewage sludge addition up to 30 wt.% reduces moderately the process performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At high sewage sludge content slagging and clinker formation occurred. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid residues produced resulted acceptable at landfills for non-hazardous waste. - Abstract: In the present work, the gasification with air of dehydrated sewage sludge (SS) with 20 wt.% moisture mixed with conventional woody biomass was investigated using a pilot fixed-bed updraft gasifier. Attention was focused on the effect of the SS content on the gasification performance and on the environmental impact of the process. The results showed that it is possible to co-gasify SS with wood pellets (WPs) in updraft fixed-bed gasification installations. However, at high content of sewage sludge the gasification process can become instable because of the very high ash content and low ash fusion temperatures of SS. At an equivalent ratio of 0.25, compared with wood pellets gasification, the addition of sewage sludge led to a reduction of gas yield in favor of an increase of condensate production with consequent cold gas efficiency decrease. Low concentrations of dioxins/furans and PAHs were measured in the gas produced by SS gasification, well below the limiting values for the exhaust gaseous emissions. NH{sub 3}, HCl and HF contents were very low because most of these compounds were retained in the wet scrubber systems. On the other hand, high H{sub 2}S levels were measured due to high sulfur content of SS. Heavy metals supplied with the feedstocks were mostly retained in gasification solid residues. The leachability tests performed according to European regulations showed that metals leachability was within the limits for landfilling inert residues. On the other hand, sulfate and chloride releases were found to comply with the limits for non-hazardous residues.

  17. Long-term balance in heavy metal adsorption and release in biochar derived from sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohi, Saran; Cleat, Robert; Graham, Margaret; Cross, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    In Europe, sewage sludge has major potential as a resource for producing biochar. Biochar from sludge could offer a means for the controlled recycling of phosphorus to soil, with the additional benefit of carbon stabilisation. Biochar made from contaminated feedstock could, however, also leach heavy metals into soil. Counter to release of metals, biochar from fresh plant biomass has a documented affinity and adsorption capacity. The longer term balance of release and adsorption of metals in sludge-derived biochar has not been established. Our work compared the adsorption and release of both indigenous metals and metals adsorbed to sludge derived biochar. The hypotheses were threefold: (1) the capacity to adsorb metals is lower than the potential to release them, (2) the affinity for indigenous metals is higher than for metals in solution, 3) oxidative ageing of biochar leads to partial release of adsorbed metals. Sludge biochar was produced in a horizontal, externally heated kiln at a feed rate of approx. 0.5 kg/hr. Dry sludge was converted in a 20 min. transit time with peak kiln temperature of 550°C. Elemental analysis using ICP OES (after a published preparation step) showed Zn, Pb and Cu to be the most abundant heavy metals in the biochar. The same elements were assessed in sequential water and Mehlich III extracts. Adsorption of the metals from pure and mixed Zn, Pb and Pb solutions were undertaken before and after the other extractions. All the treatments were applied to the same biochar after oxidative ageing, in which biochar C was also found to be very stable. Extractability of all three metals from fresh biochar was low (less than 5 %), but for two of the metals it was lower after ageing. For one of the metals, ageing increased extractability. For the same metal, adsorption was lower when undertaken with a mixed rather than pure solution. Capacity for adsorption of one of the other metals was higher after biochar ageing; the general capacity for metal adsorption was similar to indigenous content. The affinity of biochar for adsorbed metals was higher after ageing than it had been for fresh biochar. The findings provide a quite positive picture in terms of the potential for safe use of sludge-derived biochar in agriculture, over the long- as well as near-term. Integrating further work on metals and its integration with work biochar phosphorus and C stability could lead to strategies that successfully address multiple goals and are also economically feasible.

  18. Rapid start-up and microbial characteristics of partial nitrification granular sludge treating domestic sewage at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuhai; Li, Dong; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Cuidan; Zhang, Jie

    2015-11-01

    The successful suppression of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the partial nitrification (PN) stage was the main challenge for the application of autotrophic nitrogen removal process treating mainstream sewage. In this study, two identical PN granular reactors (P1 and P2) were rapid started-up using the simultaneous PN and granulation strategy, for treating the domestic sewage. P1 was seeded with 30% PN granular sludge to induce nucleation, in which the granule size achieved to more than 400?m in 12d, with ammonia oxidation rate and nitrite accumulation rate of 80% and 95%, respectively, while P2 realized granulation in 42d. The presence of organic matters and specific structure of granules were profitable for the stability of PN for treating sewage with low ammonia. High-throughput pyrosequencing results indicated the biodiversity of both reactors decreased after start-up, and Nitrosomonas was the predominant specie of aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in PN granular sludge. PMID:26271439

  19. Recovering metals from sewage sludge, waste incineration residues and similar substances with hyperaccumulative plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisser, Johannes; Gattringer, Heinz; Iordanopoulos-Kisser, Monika

    2015-04-01

    Sewage sludges as well as ashes from waste incineration plants are known accumulation sinks of many elements that are either important nutrients for biological organisms (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, etc.) or valuable metals when considered on their own in pure form (nickel, chrome, zinc, etc.); they are also serious pollutants when they occur in wild mixtures at localized anthropogenic end- of-stream points. Austria and many other countries have to import up to 90% of the material inputs of metals from abroad. These primary resources are becoming more expensive as they become more scarce and remaining deposits more difficult to mine, which is a serious concern for industrialized nations. Basic economic and strategic reasoning demands an increase in recycling activities and waste minimization. Technologies to recover metals in a reasonable and economically relevant manner from very diffuse sources are practically non-existent or require large amounts of energy and chemicals, which pose environmental risks. On the other hand agriculture uses large volumes of mineral fertilizers, which are often sourced from mines as well, and thus are also subject to the same principle of finiteness and potential shortage in supply. These converted biological nutrients are taken up by crops and through the food chain and human consumption end up in sewage systems and in wastewater treatment plants in great quantities. The metabolized nutrients mostly do not return to agriculture, but due to contamination with heavy metals are diverted to be used as construction aggregates or are thermally treated and end up rather uselessly in landfills. The project BIO-ORE aimed to explore new pathways to concentrate metals from diluted sources such as sewage sludge and wastewater by using highly efficient biological absorption and transport mechanisms. These enzymatic systems from plants work with very little energy input. The process is called bioaccumulation and can be most effectively observed in so-called hyperaccumulating metalophytes, which are studied for its suitability to be incorporated in metal recovery processes of elements that diffusely occur in different waste streams. In a systematic series of tests under laboratory conditions the accumulation behaviour for many different elements including rare earth metals of a selection of candidate plants growing on sewage sludge, incineration residues and industrial leftovers was assessed (quantitavely and qualitatively). Growth performance of these plants as well as the most suitable substrate properties were evaluated. The results of this project provided the groundwork for further research and development steps that might bring to practical implementation a technological option with potentially huge benefits: The recovery of valuable metal resources from sewage sludge, incineration ashes and metal rich wastewaters by environmentally friendly and low energy means. Simultaneous decontamination of the input substrates from heavy metals, opening the possibility for these nutrient streams to be redirected to biological regeneration processes (for example use as fertilizers in agriculture) without fear of polluting soils with heavy metal loads. Generation of biomass on contaminated substrates can yield usable energy surplus through incineration during or after processing.

  20. Influence of organic and inorganic flocculants on the formation of PCDD/Fs during sewage sludge incineration.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoqing; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Wang, Fei; Chen, Tong; Yan, Jianhua

    2015-10-01

    Flocculants are widely used to improve the properties of sludge dewatering in industrial wastewater treatment. However, there have been no studies conducted on the influence of flocculants on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) during sewage sludge incineration. This paper selected three typical kinds of flocculants, including polyacrylamide (PAM), poly-ferric chloride (PFC), and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) flocculant, to study their influences on the formation of PCDD/Fs during sewage sludge incineration. The results indicated that PAM flocculant, which is an organic flocculant, inhibited the formation of PCDD/Fs in sewage sludge incineration, while inorganic flocculant, such as PFC and PAC flocculant, promoted the formation. The most probable explanation is that the amino content in the PAM flocculant acted as an inhibitor in the formation of PCDD/Fs, while the chlorine content, especially the metal catalyst in the PFC and PAC flocculants, increased the formation rate. The addition of flocculants nearly did not change the distribution of PCDD/F homologues. The PCDFs contributed the most toxic equivalent (TEQ) value, especially 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-PeCDF. Therefore, the use of inorganic flocculants in industrial wastewater treatment should be further assessed and possibly needs to be strictly regulated if the sludge is incinerated. From this aspect, a priority to the use of organic flocculants should be given. PMID:25028327

  1. [Nutrient contents and heavy metal pollutions in composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants in Beijing region].

    PubMed

    Bai, Li-Ping; Qi, Hong-Tao; Fu, Ya-Ping; Li, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Changes of nutrient contents and heavy metal pollutions in composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants (as represented by CSS-A and CSS-B, respectively) in Beijing region were investigated. The results showed that the pH values, nutrient contents, trace elements and heavy metals in CSS-A and CSS-B depended on the sludge resources and particular years. The average of organic matter content in different years (203 338.0 mg x kg(-1)) from CSS-A met both the requirement of sludge quality standard for agricultural use (CJ/T 309-2009) and land improvement (GB/T 24600-2009) in China except the permitted limit of sludge quality standards for garden or park use (GB/T 23486-2009) in China. Moreover, the average of organic matter in different years (298531.5 mg x kg(-1)) from CSS-B and the averages of pH values (7.1 and 7.2, respectively) and NPK concentrations (41 111.7 mg x kg(-1) and 65 901.5 mg x kg(-1), respectively) in different years from CSS-A and CSS-B all met the requirements of sludge quality standards for the above-mentioned disposal types of sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants. The contents of heavy metals in CSS-A and CSS-B except Hg and Ni were below the permitted limits of the A-class sludge quality standard for agricultural use (CJ/T 309-2009) , being the most stringent standards in China. It was suggested that composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants in Beijing region use as a fertilizer in agriculture, land improvement, and garden or park, but the top concern about potential environmental pollution of Hg and Ni should be considered. PMID:25826937

  2. Investigation of effects of background water on upwelled reflectance spectra and techniques for analysis of dilute primary-treated sewage sludge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Farmer, F. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    In an effort to improve understanding of the effects of variations in background water on reflectance spectra, laboratory tests were conducted with various concentrations of sewage sludge diluted with several types of background water. The results from these tests indicate that reflectance spectra for sewage-sludge mixtures are dependent upon the reflectance of the background water. Both the ratio of sewage-sludge reflectance to background-water reflectance and the ratio of the difference in reflectance to background-water reflectance show spectral variations for different turbid background waters. The difference in reflectance is the only parameter considered.

  3. Effect of wastewater treatment processes on the pyrolysis properties of the pyrolysis tars from sewage sludges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xia; Xie, Li-Ping; Li, Xin-Yu; Dai, Xiao-Hong; Fei, Xue-Ning; Jiang, Yuan-Guang

    2011-06-01

    The pyrolysis properties of five different pyrolysis tars, which the tars from 1# to 5# are obtained by pyrolyzing the sewage sludges of anaerobic digestion and indigestion from the A2/O wastewater treatment process, those from the activated sludge process and the indigested sludge from the continuous SBR process respectively, were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 10 °C/min in the nitrogen atmosphere. The results show that the pyrolysis processes of the pyrolysis tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5# all can be divided into four stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, heavy polar organic compounds decomposition, heavy organic compounds decomposition and the residual organic compounds decomposition. However, the process of 4# pyrolysis tar is only divided into three stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, decomposition of heavy polar organic compounds and the residual heavy organic compounds respectively. Both the sludge anaerobic digestion and the "anaerobic" process in wastewater treatment processes make the content of light organic compounds in tars decrease, but make that of heavy organic compounds with complex structure increase. Besides, both make the pyrolysis properties of the tars become worse. The pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of the five pyrolysis tars have been studied with Coats-Redfern equation. It shows that there are the same mechanism functions in the first stage for the five tars and in the second and third stage for the tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5#, which is different with the function in the second stage for 4# tar. The five tars are easy to volatile.

  4. The effect of different aeration conditions in activated sludge - Side-stream system on sludge production, sludge degradation rates, active biomass and extracellular polymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Habermacher, Jonathan; Benetti, Antonio Domingues; Derlon, Nicolas; Morgenroth, Eberhard

    2015-11-15

    On-site minimization of excess sludge production is a relevant strategy for the operation of small-scale and decentralized wastewater treatment plants. In the study, we evaluated the potential of activated sludge systems equipped with side-stream reactors (SSRs). This study especially focused on how the sequential exposure of sludge to different aeration conditions in the side-stream reactors influences the overall degradation of sludge and of its specific fractions (active biomass, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), EPS proteins, EPS carbohydrates). We found that increasing the solid retention time from 25 to 40 and 80 days enhanced sludge degradation for all aeration conditions tested in the side-stream reactor. Also, the highest specific degradation rate and in turn the lowest sludge production were achieved when maintaining aerobic conditions in the side-stream reactors. The different sludge fractions in terms of active biomass (quantified based on adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) measurements), EPS proteins and EPS carbohydrates were quantified before and after passage through the SSR. The relative amounts of active biomass and EPS to volatile suspended solids (VSS) did not changed when exposed to different aeration conditions in the SSRs, which indicates that long SRT and starvation in the SSRs did not promote the degradation of a specific sludge fraction. Overall, our study helps to better understand mechanisms of enhanced sludge degradation in systems operated at long SRTs. PMID:26295938

  5. Occurrence of emerging contaminants in agricultural soils, sewage sludge and waters in Valencia (E Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boluda, Rafael; Marimon, Lupe; Atzeni, Stefania; Mormeneo, Salvador; Iranzo, María; Zueco, Jesús; Gamón, Miguel; Sancenón, José; Romera, David; Gil, Carlos; Amparo Soriano, Maria; Granell, Clara; Roca, Núria; Bech, Jaume

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, studies into the presence and distribution of emerging contaminants (ECs), like pharmaceutical products, some pesticides and mycotoxins in the natural environment, are receiving considerable attention. Thus, the presence of these compounds in waters, soils and wastes in different locations including agricultural systems has been stressed; very few studies into this matter are available in Spain. The main source of ECs in the environment is wastewater spillage from wastewater treatment plants (WTP), where these compounds arrive from the sewer system network. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of 35 ECs constituted by nine pharmaceutical products, 23 fungicides and three mycotoxins in soils, sewages sludge and waters adjacent to WTP from an agriculture area of Valencia (E Spain) influenced by intense urban and industrial activity. Seven samples from sludge, 13 soil samples and eight samples of waters from the area of influence of WTP were collected. The ECs extraction were performed using 5 g of fresh sample and a mixture of acetonitrile with 1% formic acid and water at the 3:1 ratio by shaking for 45 min and then centrifuging at 4,000 rpm for 5 min. The extract was filtered and determination was done by HPLC system connected to a 3200-Qtrap de triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with an electrospray ion source. The results showed that soil-ECs concentrations were 10 times lower that in sewage sludge. The smaller number of detections and detected compounds should also be stressed. As in previous cases, fungicides azole (tebuconazole and tricyclazole), along with boscalid, were the most detected compounds with concentrations of between 100 and 400 µg kg-1 dw. In second place, propiconazole and azoxystrobin stood out, followed by carbendazim, dimetomorph, pyraclostrobin and propamocarb. The following drugs and mycotoxins were detected to have a higher to lower concentration (1-40 µg kg-1): telmisartan, irbesartan, venlafaxine, citalopram, azithromycin, fluoxetine and deoxinivalenol. In our case, the presence of these compounds in soils suggests substantial persistence. It is also noteworthy that this presence varied according to soil use. The results also reveal the presence of the majority of these compounds mainly in WTP sludge and, to a lesser extent, in surface waters originating from irrigation channels. This fact demonstrates that we need to verify the effectiveness of wastewater treatment to study these aspects in order to design strategies that enhance and improve their effectiveness. We would like to thank Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, Project AGL2011-29382; we also wish to thank to CINFA laboratories for their help in obtaining the standards of pharmaceuticals.

  6. Fixation and partitioning of heavy metals in slag after incineration of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Tao; Yan Bo

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The contents and partitioning of HMs in slag of sludge incineration were examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fixation rate decreases with residential time and finally keeps a constant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water mass fraction of 55% is optimal for the sediment for Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu and Cr. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water mass fraction of 75% is optimal for the sediment for Pb. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found higher temperature versus lower non-residual fraction except that of Pb. - Abstract: Fixation of heavy metals in the slag produced during incineration of sewage sludge will reduce emission of the metals to the atmosphere and make the incineration process more environmentally friendly. The effects of incineration conditions (incineration temperature 500-1100 Degree-Sign C, furnace residence time 0-60 min, mass fraction of water in the sludge 0-75%) on the fixation rates and species partitioning of Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Mn and Ni in slag were investigated. When the incineration temperature was increased from 500 to 1100 Degree-Sign C, the fixation rate of Cd decreased from 87% to 49%, while the fixation rates of Cu and Mn were stable. The maximum fixation rates for Pb and Zn and for Ni and Cr were reached at 900 and 1100 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The fixation rates of Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr and Zn decreased as the residence time increased. With a 20 min residence time, the fixation rates of Pb and Mn were low. The maximum fixation rates of Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu and Cr were achieved when the mass fraction of water in the sludge was 55%. The fixation rate of Cd decreased as the water mass fraction increased, while the fixation rate of Pb increased. Partitioning analysis of the metals contained in the slag showed that increasing the incineration temperature and residence time promoted complete oxidation of the metals. This reduced the non-residual fractions of the metals, which would lower the bioavailability of the metals. The mass fraction of water in the sludge had little effect on the partitioning of the metals. Correlation analysis indicated that the fixation rates of heavy metals in the sludge and the forms of heavy metals in the incinerator slag could be controlled by optimization of the incineration conditions. These results show how the bioavailability of the metals can be reduced for environmentally friendly disposal of the incinerator slag.

  7. An experimental investigation of sewage sludge gasification in a fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Calvo, L F; García, A I; Otero, M

    2013-01-01

    The gasification of sewage sludge was carried out in a simple atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. Flow and fuel feed rate were adjusted for experimentally obtaining an air mass : fuel mass ratio (A/F) of 0.2 < A/F < 0.4. Fuel characterization, mass and power balances, produced gas composition, gas phase alkali and ammonia, tar concentration, agglomeration tendencies, and gas efficiencies were assessed. Although accumulation of material inside the reactor was a main problem, this was avoided by removing and adding bed media along gasification. This allowed improving the process heat transfer and, therefore, gasification efficiency. The heating value of the produced gas was 8.4 MJ/Nm, attaining a hot gas efficiency of 70% and a cold gas efficiency of 57%. PMID:24453863

  8. Mechanical and physical properties of cement blended with sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Garcés, P; Pérez Carrión, M; García-Alcocel, E; Payá, J; Monzó, J; Borrachero, M V

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the compatibility of sewage sludge ash (SSA) with various types of commercially available cements (CEM I and CEM II types, cements with several proportions of clinker). The behaviour of mortars fabricated with various percentages (10-30% by weight) of the cement replaced by SSA has been analyzed in terms of workability, mechanical strength, porosity and shrinkage/expansion. SSA exhibits moderate pozzolanic activity; the highest compressive strengths were obtained with 10% of the cement replaced by SSA. The CEM II/B-M (V-LL) 42.5R cement is considered ideal for preparing mortars containing SSA. Shrinkage data demonstrate that sulphates present in SSA are not reactive towards cement. PMID:18424024

  9. Efficiency of repeated phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc from an agricultural soil contaminated with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kai; Ma, Tingting; Liu, Hongyan; Wu, Longhua; Ren, Jing; Nai, Fengjiao; Li, Rui; Chen, Like; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Long-term application of sewage sludge resulted in soil cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) contamination in a pot experiment conducted to phytoextract Cd/Zn repeatedly using Sedum plumbizincicola and Apium graceolens in monoculture or intercropping mode eight times. Shoot yields and soil physicochemical properties changed markedly with increasing number of remediation crops when the two plant species were intercropped compared with the unplanted control soil and the two monoculture treatments. Changes in soil microbial indices such as average well colour development, soil enzyme activity and soil microbial counts were also significantly affected by the growth of the remediation plants, especially intercropping with S. plumbizincicola and A. graveolens. The higher yields and amounts of Cd taken up indicated that intercropping of the hyperaccumulator and the vegetable species may be suitable for simultaneous agricultural production and soil remediation, with larger crop yields and higher phytoremediation efficiencies than under monoculture conditions. PMID:25747245

  10. A detailed kinetic model for the hydrothermal decomposition process of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fengjun; Chen, Hongzhen; Xu, Guihua; Wang, Guangwei; Xu, Yuanjian

    2015-12-01

    A detailed kinetic model for the hydrothermal decomposition (HTD) of sewage sludge was developed based on an explicit reaction scheme considering exact intermediates including protein, saccharide, NH4(+)-N and acetic acid. The parameters were estimated by a series of kinetic data at a temperature range of 180-300°C. This modeling framework is capable of revealing stoichiometric relationships between different components by determining the conversion coefficients and identifying the reaction behaviors by determining rate constants and activation energies. The modeling work shows that protein and saccharide are the primary intermediates in the initial stage of HTD resulting from the fast reduction of biomass. The oxidation processes of macromolecular products to acetic acid are highly dependent on reaction temperature and dramatically restrained when temperature is below 220°C. Overall, this detailed model is meaningful for process simulation and kinetic analysis. PMID:26409104

  11. An Experimental Investigation of Sewage Sludge Gasification in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, L. F.; García, A. I.; Otero, M.

    2013-01-01

    The gasification of sewage sludge was carried out in a simple atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. Flow and fuel feed rate were adjusted for experimentally obtaining an air mass?:?fuel mass ratio (A/F) of 0.2 < A/F < 0.4. Fuel characterization, mass and power balances, produced gas composition, gas phase alkali and ammonia, tar concentration, agglomeration tendencies, and gas efficiencies were assessed. Although accumulation of material inside the reactor was a main problem, this was avoided by removing and adding bed media along gasification. This allowed improving the process heat transfer and, therefore, gasification efficiency. The heating value of the produced gas was 8.4?MJ/Nm, attaining a hot gas efficiency of 70% and a cold gas efficiency of 57%. PMID:24453863

  12. National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS), data element dictionary for the data conventions databases

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-16

    A data element dictionary including variable naming conventions, file formats, and unique identifier variables is provided for the Data Conventions Database for the 1988 National Sewage Sludge Use and Disposal Survey (NSSS). Following publication of the Questionnaire Database, EPA developed use or disposal practice definitions to be used for the purpose of regulation and the process used during data analysis identified responses that needed clarification. At EPA's direction, questionnaire use or disposal practices were classified into regulatory analytical use or disposal practices, certain questionnaire responses were referred back to the responding Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) for clarification, and values were imputed for missing or improbable responses that could not otherwise be resolved. The revised data are recorded in the Data Conventions Database for the NSSS.

  13. Concentrations and distribution of synthetic musks and siloxanes in sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plants in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nannan; Shi, Yali; Li, Wenhui; Xu, Lin; Cai, Yaqi

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we assessed the occurrence and distribution patterns of seven synthetic musks (SMs) and 17 siloxanes in anaerobic digested sludge samples collected at the dewatering process from 42 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. SMs in sludge from different WWTPs exhibited similar composition profiles, and their total concentrations ranged from 47.3 ng/g to 68.2 ?g/g dry weight (dw). On average, galaxolide (HHCB, 63.8%) and tonalide (AHTN, 31.7%) accounted for 95.5% of ?SMs. The total concentrations of cyclic siloxanes ranged from sewage sludge indicated that both of them were widely used in China. Among the sludge samples from 42 WWTPs, the concentrations of both ?SMs and ?siloxanes had considerable variations. We investigated the influence of potential factors (wastewater and sludge characteristics, the treatment capacity, serving population, and the treatment techniques of WWTPs) on the levels of target compounds in sludge, and found that SMs were significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) of the sludge and the serving population of WWTP. There were also strong correlations (p<0.05) between the treatment capacity of WWTPs and cyclic siloxanes, as well as between the TOC of the sludge and linear siloxanes. In addition, the ecological risks of SMs and siloxanes in sewage sludge addressed to land application were assessed, which suggested that there was a low risk to the soil environment. PMID:24463026

  14. Optimization and microbial community analysis of anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludge based on microwave pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junya; Lv, Chen; Tong, Juan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Jibao; Yu, Dawei; Wang, Yawei; Chen, Meixue; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-01-01

    The effects of microwave pretreatment (MW) on co-digestion of food waste (FW) and sewage sludge (SS) have never been investigated. In this study, a series of mesophilic biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted to determine the optimized ratio of FW and SS based on MW, and the evolution of bacterial and archaeal community was investigated through high-throughput sequencing method. Results showed that the optimized ratio was 3:2 for co-digestion of FW and SS based on MW, and the methane production was 316.24 and 338.44mLCH4/gVSadded for MW-FW and MW-SS, respectively. The MW-SS was superior for methane production compared to MW-FW, in which accumulation of propionic acid led to the inhibition of methanogenesis. Proteiniborus and Parabacteroides were responsible for proteins and polysaccharides degradation for all, respectively, while Bacteroides only dominated in co-digestion. Methanosphaera dominated in MW-FW at the active methane production phase, while it was Methanosarcina in MW-SS and mono-SS. PMID:26496214

  15. Observation of Emerging Photoinitiator Additives in Household Environment and Sewage Sludge in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Runzeng; Lin, Yongfeng; Hu, Fanbao; Liu, Ruirui; Ruan, Ting; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-01-01

    Photoinitiators (PIs) are widely used additives in industrial polymerization process, the contamination of which through migration into foodstuffs has been subjected to increasing public scrutiny. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the PI residue levels and potential exposure pathways from other environmental compartments. In the present study, the occurrence of PI additives with discrete molecular structures, that is, nine benzophenones (BZPs), four thioxanthones (TXs), and eight amine co-initiators (ACIs), was investigated in commercial products, indoor dust and sewage sludge samples. Nine PI compounds were positively detected in ultraviolet curable resins with concentrations of ?PIs (sum of the detected PIs) up to 2.51 × 10(4) ng/g, and 20 PIs can be found in food contact materials with concentrations of ?PIs varying from 65.9 to 6.93 × 10(3) ng/g. The wide usage of PIs in commercial products led to the occurrence of 19 PIs in indoor dust, with concentrations of ?PIs in the range of 245-5.68 × 10(3) ng/g. Meanwhile, all 21 targeted PIs could be identified in the sewage sludge, with concentrations from 67.6 to 2.03 × 10(3) ng/g. Distinct PI composition profiles were observed in different investigated compartments, and BZPs were the dominant homologues in all samples. Most of the target PIs were further identified as class III chemicals by toxic hazard estimation algorithm (Toxtree), which indicates the compounds might be of significant toxicity or have reactive functional groups. PMID:26649800

  16. Limitations for heavy metal release during thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge ash

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Benedikt

    2011-06-15

    Phosphate recycling from sewage sludge can be achieved by heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash (SSA) producing a fertilizer product: mixing SSA with chloride and treating this mixture (eventually after granulation) in a rotary kiln at 1000 {+-} 100 deg. C leads to the formation of volatile heavy metal compounds that evaporate and to P-phases with high bio-availability. Due to economical and ecological reasons, it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption of this technology. Generally, fluidized bed reactors are characterized by high heat and mass transfer and thus promise the saving of energy. Therefore, a rotary reactor and a fluidized bed reactor (both laboratory-scale and operated in batch mode) are used for the treatment of granulates containing SSA and CaCl{sub 2}. Treatment temperature, residence time and - in case of the fluidized bed reactor - superficial velocity are varied between 800 and 900 deg. C, 10 and 30 min and 3.4 and 4.6 m s{sup -1}. Cd and Pb can be removed well (>95 %) in all experiments. Cu removal ranges from 25% to 84%, for Zn 75-90% are realized. The amount of heavy metals removed increases with increasing temperature and residence time which is most pronounced for Cu. In the pellet, three major reactions occur: formation of HCl and Cl{sub 2} from CaCl{sub 2}; diffusion and reaction of these gases with heavy metal compounds; side reactions from heavy metal compounds with matrix material. Although, heat and mass transfer are higher in the fluidized bed reactor, Pb and Zn removal is slightly better in the rotary reactor. This is due the accelerated migration of formed HCl and Cl{sub 2} out of the pellets into the reactor atmosphere. Cu is apparently limited by the diffusion of its chloride thus the removal is higher in the fluidized bed unit.

  17. Dissolution of Barium from Barite in Sewage Sludges and Cultures of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, F.; Pepi, M.; Burrini, D.; Kniewald, G.; Scali, D.; Lanciotti, E.

    1996-01-01

    High concentrations of total barium, ranging from 0.42 to 1.58 mg(middot)g(sup-1) (dry weight) were found in sludges of two sewage treatment plants near Florence, Italy. Barium concentrations in the suspended matter decreased as redox potential values changed from negative to positive. An anoxic sewage sludge sample was aerated, and 30% of the total barium was removed in 24 h. To demonstrate that barium was solubilized from barite by sulfate-reducing bacteria, a strain of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans was used to study the solubilization of barium from barite under laboratory conditions. During cell growth with different concentrations of barite from 0.01 to 0.3 g(middot)liter(sup-1) (the latter is the MIC) as the only source of sulfates in the cultures, the D. desulfuricans strain accumulated barium up to 0.58 (mu)g(middot)mg(sup-1) (dry weight). Three times the quantity of barium was dissolved by bacteria than in the uninoculated medium (control). The unexpectedly low concentration of soluble barium (1.2 mg of Ba(middot)liter(sup-1)) with respect to the quantity expected (109 mg of Ba(middot)liter(sup-1)), calculated on the basis of the free H(inf2)S evolved from the dissimilatory reduction of sulfate from barite, was probably due to the formation of other barium compounds, such as witherite (BaCO(inf3)) and the transient species barium sulfide (BaS). The D. desulfuricans strain, growing on barite, formed visible aggregates. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that aggregates consisted of bacteria and barite. After 3 days of incubation, several autofluorescent crystals surrounded by a dissolution halo were observed. The crystals were identified as BaS by comparison with the commercial compound. PMID:16535353

  18. Tracking the composition and transformation of humic and fulvic acids during vermicomposting of sewage sludge by elemental analysis and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Lv, Baoyi; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian

    2015-05-01

    Sewage sludge (T1) and the mixture of sewage sludge and cattle dung (T2) were vermicomposted with Eisenia fetida, respectively. The transformation of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) extracted from these two treatments were evaluated by a series of chemical and spectroscopic methods. Results indicated that the vermicomposting decreased pH, TOC, and C/N ratio, and increased EC, total extractable C, and HA contents. The FA content in treatment T1 was increased significantly, and only slight increasing was observed in treatment T2. Moreover, vermicomposting decreased H content, C/N ratio, proteinaceous and carbohydrates components, and increased the N content, C/H ratio, aromatic compounds and polycondensation structures in HA and FA. In addition, fluorescence spectra and fluorescence regional integration indicated that protein-like groups were degraded and HA compounds were formed. Furthermore, the addition of cattle dung enhanced the humification process and improved the HA quality in spite of no significant effect on the FA. PMID:25736580

  19. Removal of heavy metals from contaminated sewage sludge using Aspergillus niger fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes.

    PubMed

    Del Mundo Dacera, Dominica; Babel, Sandhya

    2008-04-01

    The environmental benefits derived from using citric acid in the removal of heavy metals from contaminated sewage sludge have made it promising as an extracting agent in the chemical extraction process. At present, citric acid is produced commercially by fermentation of sucrose using mutant strains of Aspergillus niger (A. niger), and chemical synthesis. In recent years, various carbohydrates and wastes (such as pineapple wastes) have been considered experimentally, to produce citric acid by A. niger. This study investigated the potential of using A. niger fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes as a source of citric acid, in extracting chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) from anaerobically digested sewage sludge. Results of the study revealed that metal removal efficiencies varied with pH, forms of metals in sludge and contact time. At pH approaching 4, and contact time of 11 days, A. niger fermented liquid seemed to remove all Cr and Zn while removing 94% of Ni. Moreover, chemical speciation studies revealed that metals which are predominantly in the exchangeable and oxidizable phases seemed to exhibit ease of leachability (e.g., Zn). The by-products of the process such as pineapple pulp and mycelium which are rich in protein, can still be used as animal feed. It can be said therefore that this novel process provides a sustainable way of managing contaminated sewage sludge. PMID:17512728

  20. Citric acid and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid as effective washing agents to treat sewage sludge for agricultural reuse.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xianghao; Yan, Rui; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Kou, Ying-Ying; Chae, Kyu-Jung; Kim, In S; Park, Yong-Jin; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the effects of different concentrations of citric acid (CA) and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) when used as additive reagents for the treatment of sewage sludge for agricultural use. Herein, both the retention of nutrients and removal of metals from the sewage sludge are examined. The average removal rate for the metals after treatment by CA decreased in the order Cu>Pb>Cd>Cr>Zn, while the rates after treatment by EDTA decreased in the order of Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd>Zn. After treatment with CA and EDTA, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the sludge decreased, while the content of available nitrogen and Olsen-P increased. In addition, a multi-criteria analysis model-fuzzy analytic network process method (with 3 main factors and 12 assessment sub-factors) was adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatment methods. The results showed that the optimal CA and EDTA concentrations for sewage sludge treatment were 0.60 and 0.125mol/L, respectively. PMID:26235448

  1. Comprehensive study of the parameters influencing the detection of organotin compounds by a pulsed flame photometric detector in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zuliani, Tea; Lespes, Gaetane; Milacic, Radmila; Scancar, Janez; Potin-Gautier, Martine

    2008-04-25

    An investigation of the operating conditions of a pulsed flame photometric detection (PFPD) system for the determination of organotin compounds (OTCs) in sewage sludge is reported. During the analyses, some spectral interferences were observed. For their elimination detector parameters such as gate delay and gate width were investigated. In addition, the applicability of three different internal standards was evaluated. Under optimised analytical conditions (gate delay 3 ms, gate width 2 ms, tripropyltin as internal standard) limits of detection (LOD) were determined. The LOD for butyltins ranged between 8 and 16 ng Sn g(-1), for phenyltins around 8 ng Sn g(-1) and for octyltins between 5 and 10 ng Sn g(-1). Since there is no certified reference material (CRM) available for sewage sludge, the accuracy of the analytical procedure was checked by the analysis of CRM PACS-2 (marine sediment) and a spiked sludge sample. Good agreement between determined and certified values was obtained. Sewage sludge from a local wastewater treatment plant was analysed and the results compared with data from the literature. PMID:18346749

  2. Investigation of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates in sewage sludge samples from a metropolitan wastewater treatment plant in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ömero?lu, Seçil; Murdoch, Fadime Kara; Sanin, F Dilek

    2015-01-01

    Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) have drawn significant attention within the last decade for both scientific and legislative reasons. In Turkey, the Regulation Regarding the Use of Domestic and Urban Sludges on Land states a limit value for the sum of nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO) and nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO) as NPE (NPE=NP+NP1EO+NP2EO). Unfortunately a standard method for the determination of these chemicals has not been yet set by the authorities and no data exists about the concentrations of NP and NPEOs in sewage sludge in Turkey. The aim of this study is to propose simple and easily applicable extraction and measurement techniques for 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP), NP, NP1EO and NP2EO in sewage sludge samples and investigate the year round concentrations in a Metropolitan Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Turkey. Different extraction techniques and GC/MS methods for sewage sludge were tested. The best extraction method for these compounds was found to be ultrasonication (5 min) using acetone as the solvent with acceptable recovery of analytes suggested by USEPA and other studies. The optimized extraction method showed good repeatability with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 6%. The recovery of analytes were within acceptable limits suggested by USEPA and other studies. The limits of detection (LODs) were 6 µg kg(-1) for NP and NP1EO, 12 µg kg(-1) for NP2EO and 0.03 µg kg(-1) for 4-n-NP. The developed method was applied to sewage sludge samples obtained from the Central WWTP in Ankara, Turkey. The sum NPE (NP+NP1EO+NP2EO) was found to be in between 5.5 µg kg(-1) and 19.5 µg kg(-1), values which are in compliance with Turkish and European regulations. PMID:25281154

  3. Environmental and economic assessment of municipal sewage sludge management - a case study in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinyi; Takaoka, Masaki; Zhu, Fenfen; Wang, Jiawei; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Mizuno, Tadao

    2013-01-01

    A case study was conducted in Beijing to identify municipal sewage sludge (SS) management systems appropriate for a sound material-cycle society. The environmental and economic impacts of four realistic SS-handling scenarios were investigated: stabilization by thermal drying, increased inclusion of SS in cement manufacture, and using either dried or carbonized SS as substitute fuel for coal-fired power generation plants. The results showed that the current sludge management system had the lowest operating cost but higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and a low recycling rate. The case with the use of carbonized SS reused in coal-fired power plants had higher energy consumption and almost the same GHG emissions as the current system. On the other hand, the case including more SS in cement manufacture had the same level of energy consumption with much lower GHG emissions. The case with the use of dried SS in coal-fired power plants also resulted in lower energy consumption and lower GHG emissions than at present. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis showed that drying SS with surplus heat from cement plants used less energy and emitted less GHG compared to the other two drying methods. PMID:23552233

  4. Impact of ozone assisted ultrasonication pre-treatment on anaerobic digestibility of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xinbo; Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Lin, Li Leonard; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-07-01

    Impact of ultrasonication (ULS) and ultrasonication-ozonation (ULS-Ozone) pre-treatment on the anaerobic digestibility of sewage sludge was investigated with semi-continuous anaerobic reactors at solid retention time (SRT) of 10 and 20 days. The control, ULS and ULS-Ozone reactors produced 256, 309 and 348 mL biogas/g CODfed and the volatile solid (VS) removals were 35.6%, 38.3% and 42.1%, respectively at SRT of 10 days. At SRT of 20 days, the biogas yields reached 313, 337 and 393 mL biogas/g CODfed and the VS removal rates were 37.3%, 40.9% and 45.3% in the control, ULS and ULS-Ozone reactors, respectively. ULS-Ozone pre-treatment increased the residual organic amount in the digested sludge. These soluble residual organics were found to contain macromolecules with molecular weights (MW) larger than 500 kDa and smaller polymeric products with MW around 19.4 and 7.7 kDa. These compounds were further characterized to be humic acid-like substances with fluorescent spectroscopy analysis. PMID:26141875

  5. Nitrogen conversion in relation to NH3 and HCN during microwave pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei; Chen, Lin; Cui, Yanni; Tan, Tao

    2013-04-01

    The nitrogen conversions in relation to NH3 and HCN were investigated during microwave pyrolysis of sewage sludge. The nitrogen distributions and evolution of nitrogen functionalities in the char, tar, and gas fractions were conducted. The results suggested that the thermal cracking of protein in sludge produced three important intermediate compounds, including the amine-N, heterocyclic-N, and nitrile-N compounds. The deamination of amine-N compounds resulted from labile proteins cracking led to the formation of NH3 (about 7.5% of SS-N) between 300 and 500 °C. The cracking of nitrile-N and heterocyclic-N compounds in the tars from the dehydrogenation and polymerization of amine-N generated HCN (6.6%) from 500 to 800 °C, respectively. Moreover, the ring-opening of heterocyclic-N in the char and tar contributed to the release of NH3 accounting for about 18.3% of SS-N with the temperature increasing from 500 to 800 °C. Specifically, the thermal cracking of amine-N, heterocyclic-N and nitrile-N compounds contributed to above 80% of the total (HCN+NH3) productions. Consequently, it might be able to reduce the HCN and NH3 emissions through controlling the three intermediates production at the temperature of 500-800 °C. PMID:23477529

  6. Application of sewage sludge to non-agricultural ecosystems: Assessment of contaminant risks to wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, B.E.; Efroymson, R.A.; Barnthouse, L.W.; Daniel, F.B.

    1995-12-31

    This report is part of a larger study evaluating nutrient and contaminant impacts associated with the land application of biosolids in four non-agricultural ecosystems: Pacific Northwest forests, semi-arid rangelands, eastern deciduous forests, and southeasternpine plantations. Because contaminants in biosolids may be taken up by biota and transferred through the food web, they may present a risk to wildlife. Biosolids application scenarios that reflect actual practices in each ecosystem were developed. Concentrations of contaminants in biosolids were obtained from the US EPA`s 1988 National Sewage Sludge Survey. Soil-biota uptake factors for contaminants in sludge were developed from contaminant studies performed in each ecosystem type. Where ecosystem-specific data were unavailable, more generalized factors were used. Endpoints were selected that reflected species expected to be present in each ecosystem. Four trophic groups were considered: herbivores (e.g., deer) vermivores (earthworm-consumers; e.g., shrews), insectivores (e.g., songbirds), and carnivores (e.g., fox). Contaminant concentrations in wildlife foods were estimated using the uptake factors. These estimates were then incorporated into models to estimate the contaminant exposure for endpoints in each trophic group in each ecosystem. Exposure estimates were then compared to NOAELs and LOAELs to determine the nature and magnitude of risks that biosolids may present to wildlife.

  7. Acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge degrading benzene derivatives and co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene by benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shizong; Yang, Qi; Bai, Zhiyong; Wang, Shidong; Wang, Yeyao; Nowak, Karolina M

    2015-01-01

    The acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge for degradation of benzene derivatives was investigated in batch experiments. Phenol, benzoic acid, toluene, aniline and chlorobenzene were concurrently added to five different bioreactors which contained the aerobic-activated sludge. After the acclimation process ended, the acclimated phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic-activated sludge were used to explore the co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene (TCE). Monod equation was employed to simulate the kinetics of co-metabolic degradation of TCE by benzene derivative-grown sludge. At the end of experiments, the mixed microbial communities grown under different conditions were identified. The results showed that the acclimation periods of microorganisms for different benzene derivatives varied. The maximum degradation rates of TCE for phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic sludge were 0.020, 0.017, 0.016, 0.0089 and 0.0047 mg g SS(-1) h(-1), respectively. The kinetic of TCE degradation in the absence of benzene derivative followed Monod equation well. Also, eight phyla were observed in the acclimated benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge. Each of benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge had different microbial community composition. This study can hopefully add new knowledge to the area of TCE co-metabolic by mixed microbial communities, and further the understanding on the function and applicability of aerobic-activated sludge. PMID:25409590

  8. GC/MS analysis of triclosan and its degradation by-products in wastewater and sludge samples from different treatments.

    PubMed

    Tohidi, Fatemeh; Cai, Zongwei

    2015-08-01

    A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based method was developed for simultaneous determination of triclosan (TCS) and its degradation products including 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD), and methyl triclosan (MTCS) in wastewater and sludge samples. The method provides satisfactory detection limit, accuracy, precision and recovery especially for samples with complicated matrix such as sewage sludge. Liquid-liquid extraction and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) methods were applied for the extraction, and column chromatography was employed for the sample cleanup. Analysis was performed by GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The method was successfully applied to wastewater and sludge samples from three different municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Satisfactory mean recoveries were obtained as 91(±4)-106(±7)%, 82(±3)-87(±4)%, 86(±6)-87(±8)%, and 88(±4)-105(±3)% in wastewater and 88(±5)-96(±8)%, 84(±2)-87(±3)%, 84(±7)-89(±4)%, and 88(±3)-97(±5)% in sludge samples for TCS, 2,4-DCP, 2,8-DCDD, and MTCS, respectively. TCS degradation products were detected based on the type of the wastewater and sludge treatment. 2,8-DCDD was detected in the plant utilizing UV disinfection at the mean level of 20.3(±4.8) ng/L. 2,4-DCP was identified in chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) applying chlorine disinfection at the mean level of 16.8(±4.5) ng/L). Besides, methyl triclosan (MTCS) was detected in the wastewater collected after biological treatment (10.7?±?3.3 ng/L) as well as in sludge samples that have undergone aerobic digestion at the mean level of 129.3(±17.2) ng/g dry weight (dw). PMID:25810102

  9. Anaerobic treatability of liquid residue from wet oxidation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Bertanza, Giorgio; Galessi, Raniero; Menoni, Laura; Pedrazzani, Roberta; Salvetti, Roberta; Zanaboni, Sabrina

    2015-05-01

    Wet Oxidation (WO) of sewage sludge is a chemical oxidation of sludge at high temperatures and pressures by means of an oxygen-containing gas. The liquid stream originated by WO is easily biodegradable, and therefore, the recirculation to the biological Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) may be a feasible solution. However, the WO effluent has a residual organic and nitrogen content so that its treatment may be required when the receiving WWTP has no surplus treatment capacity left. The aim of this research was the assessment of the anaerobic treatability of the WO liquid residue, in order to reduce the organic load to be recirculated to the WWTP, simultaneously promoting energy recovery. For this purpose, the liquid residue obtained during full scale WO tests on two different types of sludge was submitted to anaerobic digestion in a continuous flow pilot reactor (V?=?5 L). Furthermore, batch tests were carried out in order to evaluate possible inhibition factors. Experimental results showed that, after the start-up/acclimation period (~130 days), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency was stably around 60% for about 120 days, despite the change in operating conditions. In the last phase of the experimental activity, COD removal reached 70% under the following treatment conditions: Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT)?=?20 days, Volumetric Organic Loading Rate (VOLR)?=?0.868 kg COD/m(3)/day, Organic Loading Rate per Volatile Suspended Solids (OLRvss)?=?0.078 kg COD/kg VSS/day, temperature (T)?=?36.5 °C, pH?=?8. Energy balance calculation demonstrated anaerobic treatment sustainability. PMID:25035054

  10. Identification of Novel Polyfluorinated Ether Sulfonates as PFOS Alternatives in Municipal Sewage Sludge in China.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Ting; Lin, Yongfeng; Wang, Thanh; Liu, Runzeng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-06-01

    A 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (6:2 Cl-PFAES) with the trade name F-53B, is an alternative to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in electroplating industry that is uniquely used in China. It was developed as a mist suppressant initially in the 1970s, but the environmental behaviors and potential adverse effects of the 6:2 Cl-PFAES have only recently been investigated. In this work, the occurrence and distribution of perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFSA), fluorotelomer sulfonate (FTSA), and PFAES analogues were investigated in municipal sewage sludge samples collected around China. Perfluorobutane, perfluorohexane, perfluorooctane, and perfluorodecanesulfonates, 6:2 and 8:2 FTSAs, and the emerging 6:2 Cl-PFAES were detected. Moreover, 8:2 and 10:2 Cl-PFAESs were identified for the first time as new polyfluorinated contaminants using high resolution mass spectrometry. These fluorinated analytes were further quantified with the aid of commercial and laboratory-purified standards. PFOS was the predominant contaminant with a geometric mean (GM) value of 3.19 ng/g dry weight (d.w.), which was subsequently followed by 6:2 Cl-PFAES and 8:2 Cl-PFAES (GM: 2.15 and 0.50 ng/g d.w., respectively). Both 6:2 and 8:2 Cl-PFAES were positively detected as the major components in the F-53B commercial product, and discrete 6:2 Cl-PFAES/8:2 Cl-PFAES ratios in the product and sludge samples might suggest 8:2 Cl-PFAES had enhanced sorption behavior in the sludge due to the increase in hydrophobicity. PMID:25961764

  11. Report on the Oak Ridge sewage sludge land-farming experience. Part 1. Data presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Oakes, T.W.; Braunstein, H.M.; Daniels, K.L.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Kitchings, J.T.; Alexander, W.A.

    1984-08-01

    Disposal of sludge from the City of Oak Ridge's sewage treatment facility on a 65-acre site on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation was initiated in November 1983. On March 22, 1984, DOE and the City determined that the sludge contained radioactive materials. Application of sludge on the Reservation was suspended on March 25 and a comprehensive survey and sampling plan was instituted to radiologically characterize the disposal site. By April 1, a radiation walkover survey had been completed on the site and samples of air, water, and soil had been collected to be analyzed for the presence of radionuclides. The mean air dose rate, one meter above the ground surface, was found to be 13 ..mu..R/h with a range from about 8 ..mu..R/h, which is the usual background level in the area, to 21 ..mu..R/h. Concentrations of Cs-137 and Co-60, the principle contaminants in the soil, were essentially below the analytical detection limits in the air and water. About 350 soil samples were collected by extracting cores to a depth of 12 to 15 inches according to a systematic random sampling design. Each core was separated into three sections; the top 3 inches, a middle section, and the bottom 3 inches to represent layers on the site. The majority of the radioactivity was determined to be in the upper 3 inches of soil. A statistical treatment of the analytical results provided an estimate of the total activity at the site, the vertical distribution of the gamma activity, and the areal distribution of the primary radionuclides. A total of 170 mCi of activity was estimated as present in the top 3-inch layer of the 65-acre site, 69% of which was contributed by Co-60 and Cs-137, 23% by U-234 and Sr-90, and 8% by other minor radionuclides. 4 references, 12 figures, 43 tables.

  12. Emission of artificial sweeteners, select pharmaceuticals, and personal care products through sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Bikram; Lee, Sunggyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-07-01

    Concern over the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) as well as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment is growing, due to their high use and potential adverse effects on non-target organisms. The data for this study are drawn from a nationwide survey of ASWs in sewage sludge from 40 representative wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that receive domestic (WWTPD), industrial (WWTPI), or mixed (domestic plus industrial; WWTPM) wastewaters in Korea. Five ASWs (concentrations ranged from 7.08 to 5220 ng/g dry weight [dw]) and ten PPCPs (4.95-6930 ng/g dw) were determined in sludge. Aspartame (concentrations ranged from 28.4 to 5220 ng/g dw) was determined for the first time in sewage sludge. The median concentrations of ASWs and PPCPs in sludge from domestic WWTPs were 0.8-2.5 and 1.0-3.4 times, respectively, the concentrations found in WWTPs that receive combined domestic and industrial wastewaters. Among the five ASWs analyzed, the median environmental emission rates of aspartame through domestic WWTPs (both sludge and effluent discharges combined) were calculated to be 417 ?g/capita/day, followed by sucralose (117 ?g/capita/day), acesulfame (90 ?g/capita/day), and saccharin (66?g/capita/day). The per-capita emission rates of select PPCPs, such as antimicrobials (triclocarban: 158 ?g/capita/day) and analgesics (acetaminophen: 59 ?g/capita/day), were an order of magnitude higher than those calculated for antimycotic (miconazole) and anthelmintic (thiabendazole) drugs analyzed in this study. Multiple linear regression analysis of measured concentrations of ASWs and PPCPs in sludge revealed that several WWTP parameters, such as treatment capacity, population-served, sludge production rate, and hydraulic retention time could influence the concentrations found in sludge. PMID:24695211

  13. Application of a battery of biotests for the determination of leachate toxicity to bacteria and invertebrates from sewage sludge-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Malara, Anna; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2013-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the leachates toxicity from sewage sludge-amended soils (sandy and loamy). Samples originated from a plot experiment realized over a period of 29 months. Two types of soil were fertilized with sewage sludges at the dose of 3 % (90 t/ha). Soil samples were taken after 0, 7, 17, and 29 months from the application of sewage sludges. Leachates were obtained according to the EN 12457-2 protocol. The following commercial tests were applied for the estimation of the toxicity: Microtox (Vibrio fischeri), Microbial assay for toxic risk assessment (ten bacteria and one yeast), Protoxkit F (Tetrahymena thermophila), Rotoxkit F (Brachionus calyciflorus), and Daphtoxkit F (Daphnia magna). The test organisms displayed varied toxicity with relation to the soils amended with sewage sludges. The toxicity of the leachates depended both on the soil type and on the kind of sewage sludge applied. Notable differences were also observed in the sensitivity of the test organisms to the presence of sewage sludge in the soil. The highest sensitivity was a characteristic of B. calyciflorus, while the lowest sensitivity to the presence of the sludges was revealed by the protozoa T. thermophila. Throughout the periods of the study, constant variations of toxicity were observed for most of the test organisms. The intensity as well as the range of those variations depended both on the kind of test organism and on the kind of sludge and soil type. In most cases, an increase of the toxicity of soils amended with the sewage sludges was observed after 29 months of the experiment. PMID:23132406

  14. Influence of sewage sludge-based activated carbon and temperature on the liquefaction of sewage sludge: yield and composition of bio-oil, immobilization and risk assessment of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunbo; Chen, Hongmei; Xu, Bibo; Xiang, Bobin; Chen, Zhong; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming

    2014-05-01

    The influence of sewage sludge-based activated carbons (SSAC) on sewage sludge liquefaction has been carried out at 350 and 400°C. SSAC increased the yield and energy density of bio-oil at 350°C. The metallic compounds were the catalytic factor of SSAC obtained at 550°C (SSAC-550), while carbon was the catalytic factor of SSAC obtained at 650°C. Liquefaction with SSAC redistributed the species of heavy metals in solid residue (SR). With the addition of SSAC, the risk of Cu, Zn and Pb decreased at 350°C, while at 400°C the risk of Cd, Cu, and Zn were decreased. Ecological risk index indicated that 400°C was preferable for the toxicity decrement of SR, while risk assessment code indicated that SR obtained at 350°C contained lower risk. Considering the bio-oil yield, liquefaction at 350°C with SSAC-550 was preferable. PMID:24632628

  15. A solid-phase extraction method for rapidly determining the adsorption coefficient of pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge

    PubMed Central

    Berthod, Laurence; Roberts, Gary; Whitley, David C.; Sharpe, Alan; Mills, Graham A.

    2014-01-01

    The partitioning of pharmaceuticals in the environment can be assessed by measuring their adsorption coefficients (Kd) between aqueous and solid phases. Measuring this coefficient in sewage sludge gives an indication of their partitioning behaviour in a wastewater treatment plant and hence contributes to an understanding of their subsequent fate. The regulatory approved method for measuring Kd in sewage sludge is the US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) guideline 835.1110, which is labour intensive and time consuming. We describe an alternative method for measuring the Kd of pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge using a modified solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique. SPE cartridges were packed at different sludge/PTFE ratios (0.4, 6.0, 24.0 and 40.0% w/w sludge) and eluted with phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. The approach was tested initially using three pharmaceuticals (clofibric acid, diclofenac and oxytetracycline) that covered a range of Kd values. Subsequently, the sorption behaviour of ten further pharmaceuticals with varying physico-chemical properties was evaluated. Results from the SPE method were comparable to those of the OPPTS test, with a correlation coefficient of 0.93 between the two approaches. SPE cartridges packed with sludge and PTFE were stable for up to one year; use within one month reduced variability in measurements (to a maximum of 0.6 log units). The SPE method is low-cost, easy to use and enables the rapid measurement of Kd values for a large number of chemicals. It can be used as an alternative to the more laborious full OPPTS test in environmental fate studies and risk assessments. PMID:25299795

  16. Determination of azoles in sewage sludge from Spanish wastewater treatment plants by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    García-Valcárcel, Ana I; Tadeo, José L

    2011-06-01

    A simple and rapid analytical method for the determination of 16 azoles in sewage sludge has been developed and validated. The method was based on ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction cleanup and liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometric detection. The azoles were selected by their intensive usage as biocides (tebuconazole, propiconazole, cyproconazole and thiabendazole), antimycotic pharmaceuticals (ketoconazole, econazole, fluconazole and clotrimazole) or fungicides in agriculture (difenoconazole, flusilazole, hexaconazole, prochloraz, bromuconazole, epoxiconazole and triticonazole). The recoveries of these compounds through the method were between 71.9 and 115.8%, with relative standard deviations lower than 20%. Detection limits were in the range of 0.5-5.0 ng/g. The developed method was applied to the analysis of azoles in sewage sludge samples collected from 19 Spanish wastewater treatment plants. Although azoles used as biocides or agriculture fungicides were present in a few sludge samples, the pharmaceuticals ketoconazole, econazole and clotrimazole were present in all of the analyzed sludge samples, being ketoconazole the one found at the highest level, representing the 68.6% of the total azole content found in the 19 sludge samples studied. PMID:21491590

  17. Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China

    SciTech Connect

    Niu Dongjie; Huang Hui; Dai Xiaohu; Zhao Youcai

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

  18. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2001-08-01

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end work is progress using an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. For the Third Quarter of this project we present our data on trace metal partitioning obtained from combustion of MSS and Gas, MSS and Coal and Coal and Gas alone.

  19. Pyritic waste from precombustion coal cleaning: Amelioration with oil shale retort waste and sewage sludge for growth of soya beans

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, B.G.; Gnanapragasam, N.; Stevens, M.L.

    1994-12-31

    Solid residue from fossil fuel mining and utilization generally present little hazard to human health. However, because of the high volumes generated, they do pose unique disposal problems in terms of land use and potential degradation of soil and water. In the specific case of wastes from precombustion coal cleaning, the materials include sulfur compounds that undergo oxidation when exposed to normal atmospheric conditions and microbial action and then produce sulfuric acid. The wastes also contain compounds of metals and nonmetals at concentrations many times those present in the original raw coal. Additionally, the residues often contain coal particles and fragments that combust spontaneously if left exposed to the air, thus contributing to the air pollution that the coal cleaning process was designed to prevent. Federal and state efforts in the United States to ameliorate the thousands of hectares covered with these wastes have focused on neutralizing the acidity with limestone and covering the material with soil. The latter procedure creates additional degraded areas, which were originally farmland or wildlife habitat. It would seem preferable to reclaim the coal refuse areas without earth moving. The authors describe here experiments with neutralization of coal waste acidity using an alkaline waste derived from the extraction of oil from oil shale to grow soya beans (Glycine max. [L]) on a mixture of wastes and sewage sludge. Yield of plant material and content of nutrients an potentially toxic elements in the vegetation and in the growth mixtures were determined; results were compared with those for plants grown on an agricultural soil, with particular focus on boron.

  20. Compacted Sewage Sludge as a Barrier for Tailings: The Heavy Metal Speciation and Total Organic Carbon Content in the Compacted Sludge Specimen

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huyuan; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Bo; Wang, Jinfang

    2014-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) was the main environmental problem facing the mining industry. For AMD had high heavy metals content and low pH, the compacted sewage sludge might be a barrier for tailings whose oxidation and weathering produced AMD, with its own carbon source, microorganism reduction ability and impermeability. To study the heavy metals environmental risk, under the simulate AMD, the deionized water (DW), and the pH 2.1 sulfuric acid water (SA) seepage conditions, respectively, the changes of the chemical speciation of heavy metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and total organic carbon (TOC) content in the compacted sewage sludge were assessed in the different periods. The results indicated according to the distribution of heavy metals, the potential mobility was for Cd: 6.08 under AMD, 7.48 under SA, ? under DW; for Cu: 0.08 under AMD, 0.17 under SA, 0.59 under DW; for Fe: 0.15 under AMD, 0.22 under SA, 0.22 under DW; for Ni: 2.60 under AMD, 1.69 under SA, 1.67 under DW; and for Zn: 0.15 under AMD, 0.23 under SA and 0.21 under DW at the second checking time. TOC content firstly decreased from 67.62±0% to 66.29±0.35%, then increased to 67.74±0.65% under the AMD seepage while TOC decreased to 63.30±0.53%, then to 61.33±0.37% under the DW seepage, decreased to 63.86±0.41%, then to 63.28±0.49% under SA seepage. That indicated under the AMD seepage, the suitable microorganisms communities in the compacted sewage sludge were activated. And the heavy metals environmental risk of compacted sewage sludge was lower with AMD condition than with other two. So the compacted sewage sludge as a barrier for tailings was feasible as the aspect of environmental risk assessment. PMID:24979755

  1. Beneficial synergetic effect on gas production during co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and biomass in a vacuum reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijiang; Yuan, Chengyong; Xu, Jiao; Yang, Xiao

    2015-05-01

    A vacuum fixed bed reactor was used to pyrolyze sewage sludge, biomass (rice husk) and their blend under high temperature (900°C). Pyrolytic products were kept in the vacuum reactor during the whole pyrolysis process, guaranteeing a long contact time (more than 2h) for their interactions. Remarkable synergetic effect on gas production was observed. Gas yield of blend fuel was evidently higher than that of both parent fuels. The syngas (CO and H2) content and gas lower heating value (LHV) were obviously improved as well. It was highly possible that sewage sludge provided more CO2 and H2O during co-pyrolysis, promoting intense CO2-char and H2O-char gasification, which benefited the increase of gas yield and lower heating value. The beneficial synergetic effect, as a result, made this method a feasible one for gas production. PMID:25728344

  2. Degradation of slime extracellular polymeric substances and inhibited sludge flocs destruction contribute to sludge dewaterability enhancement during fungal treatment of sludge using filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zheng, Guanyu; Zhou, Lixiang

    2015-09-01

    Mechanisms responsible for the sludge dewaterability enhanced by filamentous fungi during fungal treatment of sludge were investigated in the present study. The filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1, isolated from waste activated sludge, enhanced sludge dewaterability by 82.1% to achieve the lowest value of normalized sludge specific resistance to filtration (SRF), 8.18 × 10(10) m · L/kg · g-TSS. During the fungal treatment of sludge, 57.8% of slime extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and 51.1% of polysaccharide in slime EPS were degraded, respectively, by Mucor sp. GY-1, contributing to the improvement of sludge dewaterability. Slime EPS is much more available for Mucor sp. GY-1 than either LB-EPS or TB-EPS that bound with microbial cells. In addition, filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1 entrapped small sludge particles and inhibited the destruction of sludge flocs larger than 100 ?m, thus enhancing sludge dewaterability, during fungal treatment of sludge using Mucor sp. GY-1. PMID:26086084

  3. The influence of multiple sewage sludge amendments on the PCB content of an agricultural soil over time

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, R.E.; Jones, K.C.; McGrath, S.P.

    1995-04-01

    The polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content of soils from a long-term agricultural experiment that received 25 separate sewage sludge applications from 1942 to 1961 is presented, along with data from an untreated control plot. Archived plough layer (0 to 23 cm) soil samples were collected, stored, and processed in the same manner between 1942 and 1992 (i.e., before, during, and after sludge amendments) and samples of the applied sludges were available for analysis. Soil {Sigma} PCB concentrations (defined as the sum of the 27 congeners quantified) on the control plot increased between 1942 (63 {mu}g {Sigma} PCB kg{sup {minus}1}) and 1972 (560 {mu}g {Sigma} PCB kg{sup {minus}1}) as a result of atmospheric deposition inputs; they subsequently declined to 13 {mu}g {Sigma} PCB kg{sup {minus}1} in 1992. A total of {approximately} 1 kg {Sigma} PCBs/hectare was applied in sewage sludges (containing 0.14 to 4.33 mg {Sigma} PCB kg{sup {minus}1}) to the sludge-amended plot. Soil concentrations increased accordingly, to 640 {mu}g {Sigma} PCB kg{sup {minus}1} by 1960. However, because of the continued high atmospheric deposition inputs, concentrations on this plot also continued to increase until 1972. By 1992, the sludge-amended plot contained ca. 5 times the {Sigma} PCB content of the control plot. By 1960, {approximately} 81% of the predicted {Sigma} PCB added in sludge could be accounted for; this had decreased to < 50 and 21% by 1984 and 1992, respectively. Marked compound-specific differences in soil persistence were noted; generally lower chlorinated (3/4-Cl) congeners became less important contributors to the {Sigma} PCB content of the soils over time, while 5-Cl homologues and above increased.

  4. Whole-Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas putida Strain UASWS0946, a Highly Ammonia-Tolerant Nitrifying Bacterium Isolated from Sewage Sludge Aerobic Granules

    PubMed Central

    Crovadore, Julien; Calmin, Gautier; Cochard, Bastien; Chablais, Romain; Grizard, Damien; Berthon, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    We report here the genome of Pseudomonas putida strain UASWS0946, a highly ammonia-tolerant nitrifying strain isolated from sewage sludge aerobic granules, which displays adequate genetic equipment for soil depollution, sludge treatment, and biological fertilization in agriculture. PMID:26450728

  5. Estimation of parameters in sewage sludge by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) using several regression tools.

    PubMed

    Galvez-Sola, Luis; Morales, Javier; Mayoral, Asunción M; Paredes, Concepción; Bustamante, María A; Marhuenda-Egea, Frutos C; Barber, J Xavier; Moral, Raúl

    2013-06-15

    Sewage sludge application to agricultural soils is a common practice in several countries in the European Union. Nevertheless, the application dose constitutes an essential aspect that must be taken into account in order to minimize environmental impacts. In this study, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to estimate in sewage sludge samples several parameters related to agronomic and environmental issues, such as the contents in organic matter, nitrogen and other nutrients, metals and carbon fractions, among others. In our study (using 380 biosolid samples), two regression models were fitted: the common partial least square regression (PLSR) and the penalized signal regression (PSR). Using PLSR, NIRS became a feasible tool to estimate several parameters with good goodness of fit, such as total organic matter, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, water-soluble carbon, extractable organic carbon, fulvic acid-like carbon, electrical conductivity, Mg, Fe and Cr, among other parameters, in sewage sludge samples. For parameters such as C/N ratio, humic acid-like carbon, humification index, the percentage of humic acid-like carbon, the polymerization ratio, P, K, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni and Hg, the performance of NIRS calibrations developed with PLSR was not sufficiently good. Nevertheless, the use of PSR provided successful calibrations for all parameters. PMID:23618179

  6. HS-SPME/GC-MS analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted from municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kotowska, Urszula; ?alikowski, Maciej; Isidorov, Valery A

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the research involved identification and semi-quantitative determination of unknown volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted to air by sewage sludge formed in the process of municipal wastewater treatment in a sewage treatment plant. Samples taken directly after completion of the technological process as well as the sludge stored on the premise of the sewage treatment plant were analyzed. A simple method using off-line headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been proposed for extraction and detection of organic pollutants. For reliable identification of compounds, combination of two independent parameters: mass spectra and linear temperature programmed retention indices were employed. Over 170 compounds of different structure were identified including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, carbonyls, as well as sulfur, nitrogen, and chlorine containing compounds. The prevailing substances included: ethyl ether, n-hexane, p-xylene, o-xylene, mesitylene, m-ethylbenzene, limonene, n-decane, n-undecane, and n-dodecane. A few compounds such as methanetiol, dimethyl polisulfide, octaatomic sulfur, phthalic anhydride, and indoles were identified in the sludge for the first time. PMID:21688031

  7. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Groundwater samples from the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Construction Permit 12,076. Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the quired by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permits. No constituents exceeded the SCDHEC final Primary Drinking Water Standard in any well from the H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. Aluminum and iron were above Flag 2 criteria in one or more wells in the three sites during third quarter 1994. These constituents were not analyzed during the previous quarter. Third quarter results are similar to results for first quarter 1994.

  8. Pilot study on feasibility of application of gas chromatography for the assessment of acrylamide concentration in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    W?odarczyk, El?bieta; Próba, Marta; Wolny, Lidia; Wojtal, ?ukasz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of using gas chromatography to measurement of the acrylamide concentration in sewage sludge. Acrylamide, as a toxic substance, is not indifferent to human health, but it is used in the production of plastics, dyes, adhesives, cosmetics, mortar, as well as a coagulant for water treatment, wastewater or sewage sludge conditioning. Determination of acrylamide by gas chromatography was based on standard: EPA Method 8032A "Acrylamid by gas chromatography." It consists of a bromination reaction of the compound in the presence of dibromopropendial derivative, a triple extraction with the ethyl acetate, a concentration of the eluate sample up to the 1 ml volume, and an analysis by the gas chromatography using an electron capture detector (ECD). The acrylamide concentration of was calculated according to the formula presented in the mentioned standard. All samples were performed twice (the difference between the results was not greater than 10%), and the average value of the four samples was 17.64 µg/L(-1). The presence of acrylamide in sewage sludge has been confirmed. PMID:24904929

  9. Sewage sludge hydrochars: properties and agronomic impact as related to different production conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneque, Marina; María De la Rosa, José; Aragón, Carlos; Kern, Jürgen; Conte, Pellegrino; Knicker, Heike

    2015-04-01

    The huge amount of sewage sludge (SS) generated in wastewater treatment plants all over the world represents an environmental problem. Due to the high concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen in SS as well as other macro and micro nutrients it has been considered a suitable soil amendment. However, before being applied to soil a complete sterilization and elimination of pollutants should be carried out [1]. In this context, thermal treatments appear as a convenient methodology for producing SS byproducts useful for agronomic purposes. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a kind of pyrolysis characterized by the heating of the biomass in presence of water. This process shows an advantage compared to other thermal treatments for wet residues since dryness of the biomass prior to the thermal transformation is not necessary. The solid product which results from HTC is called hydrochar and it has been suggested to increase soil productivity [2]. However, the agronomic potential of hydrochars depends on the feedstock and production conditions. Additionally, possible toxic and risks have to be carefully evaluated. Thus, SS hydrochars appear as a potential soil amendment but further scientific research is needed to find its real capacity, optimal production conditions as well as possible environmental harmful effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate which are the most suitable production conditions, to transform SS into hydrochar. An additional goal of this work was to relate the hydrochars properties to its agronomic response. Therefore, hydrochars were produced from SS collected from the Experimental Wastewater Treatment plant of CENTA (http://www.centa.es/), located in Carrion de los Cespedes (Seville), under two different temperatures (200 and 260?C) and residence times (30 min and 1h). With the hydrochars obtained, a greenhouse pot incubation study was carried out for 80 days. The pots contained 250 g of a Calcic Cambisol (IUSS Working Group WRB, 2007) and an amount of hydrochar equivalent to 5 and 25 t ha-1 were prepared in quadruplicate for each hydrochar using Lolium perenne as test plant (25 seeds per pot). Hydrochars were not washed before this experiment. Control pots, without hydrochar amendment, were also settled for comparison purposes (n=6). After adjusting the soil humidity to 60% of the maximum WHC, the pots were placed into a greenhouse under similar conditions than those reported by [3]. In this experiment germination, survival rates and biomass production per pot were measured periodically. Elemental analysis and the determination of several chemical properties of hydrochars such as pH, electrical conductivity and ash content were performed. Additionally, 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was applied to elucidate the main chemical groups whereas fast field cycling (FFC) NMR relaxometry was valuable for investigating the porous structure and water dynamic in the different hydrochars. This work confirmed that production conditions of hydrochars vary their chemical properties and hence their agronomic effect. Biomass production raised significantly in presence of all hydrochars, being the response in presence of hydrochars produced at 200?C significantly higher than the response in presence of hydrochars produced at 260?C, whereas the residence time of the hydrochars in the reactor did not affect biomass productivity. Concerning the characterization data, hydrochars which showed the highest biomass production were those which contain the highest mineralized nitrogen content (NH4, NO2 and NO3) and a greater presence of alkyl carbons and carboxyl groups. Hydrochars FFC NMR relaxometry results show a lower T1 (longitudinal relaxation time) compared to the pure sewage sludge, which suggests that HTC processes reduced the average pore size of the system. This has further implications in the water and nutrient retention capacity of the hydrochars compared to the pure sewage sludge. Acknowledgements: The Marie Sklodowska-Curie actions of the EU 7th Framework People Programme (REA grant agreement

  10. Analysis of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates in sewage sludge by high performance liquid chromatography following microwave-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, Michalis; Drillia, Panagiota; Pakou, Constantina; Kampioti, Adamantia; Stamatelatou, Katerina; Lyberatos, Gerasimos

    2005-09-30

    Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPnEOs) constitute a significant portion of the non-ionic surfactant market. The presence of nonylphenol (NP) in the aquatic environment is often a product of the microbial breakdown of NPEOs through discharge of industrial effluents and sewage treatment plants. The aim of this work is to develop the microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of the NP and NPEO in sewage sludge and compare this method with more traditional methods such as Soxhlet extraction and sonication. The method efficiency was evaluated as to the linearity, repeatability, accuracy, and sensitivity. Recoveries were 61.4% for NPEO and 91.4% for NP with repeatability less than 5%. The detection limit was 1.82 microg/g for NPEO and 2.86 microg/g for NP. The developed method was applied on sewage sludge samples from the sewage treatment plants of three Greek cities: Athens, Patras and Heraklion and were ranged 12.8-233.5 mg/kg for NPEO and 3.6-93 mg/kg for NP. PMID:16130770

  11. Analysis of time series of Cs-137 concentration in sewage sludge at Fukushima City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Helmut W.; Mack, Majvor; Shikano, Yudai; Yokoo, Yoshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    Daily routine radioisotope measurements of sewage sludge at the sewage plant of Fukushima City starting in 2011 have provided a detailed data set for the isotopes Cs-137, Cs-134 and I-131. The long-term trend for the Cs isotopes is comparable to data sets from Central Europe caused by the Chernobyl emissions in 1986 - the average Cs-137 concentration decreases faster in the first year (T1/2 < 1 yr) and slower in later years (T1/2 > 1 yr). Absolute values at Fukushima City are comparably low (mostly below 1 kBq/kg dry mass), due to the existence of separate wastewater and rainwater sewer systems, with only a small portion of rainwater and erosion products reaching the purification plant. Cs-134 data decay faster due to the shorter radioactive half-life. I-131 appears even years after the NPP releases and is assumed to originate from the common medical usage of the isotope for thyroid treatment. Short-term Cs data show a clear dependence on rainfall: each significant rainfall event causes a concentration increase in sludge of up to a factor of ten. Therefore the time series exhibits high short-term variability. Here we attempt to numerically analyse the detailed Cs-137 data set, using two separate approaches: The first method tries to connect parameters like the local surface deposition density, surface types (sealed/unsealed), rainfall statistics, rainfall-induced erosion rate, leakage rate from rainwater to wastewater sewer, transport time in the sewer and residence time in the purification plant for a basically physical approach. As not all parameters are known, values have to be assumed or can be extracted in the course of the fitting process. The second approach is purely heuristic, based on a water surface runoff and transport model. Whilst there is no ad-hoc physical meaning in the extracted parameters, they can possibly be interpreted as such when compared with physical modeling results. The combination of both methods is expected to give a deeper insight into the transport dynamics of radioisotopes in contaminated areas, helping to identify important sources and sinks and to predict long-term behaviour.

  12. Pyrolysis of high-ash sewage sludge in a circulating fluidized bed reactor for production of liquids rich in heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Wu; Jin, Baosheng; Huang, Yaji; Sun, Yu; Li, Rui; Jia, Jiqiang

    2013-01-01

    A circulating fluidized bed reactor was used for pyrolyzing sewage sludge with a high ash content to produce liquids rich in heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds. GC/MS and FTIR analyses showed that heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds and hydrocarbons made up 38.5-61.21% and 2.24-17.48% of the pyrolysis liquids, respectively. A fluidized gas velocity of 1.13 m/s, a sludge feed rate of 10.78 kg/h and a particle size of 1-2mm promoted heterocyclic nitrogenated compound production. Utilizing heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds as chemical feedstock could be a way for offsetting the cost of sewage sludge treatment. PMID:23131621

  13. Odors from Sewage Sludge and Livestock: Associations with Self-Reported Health

    PubMed Central

    Lowman, Amy; Keil, Alex; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Class B treated sewage sludge (TSS) contains microbes and toxicants and is applied to land in areas where livestock wastes may be present. We evaluated relationships of reports of TSS and livestock odors with acute symptoms and excessive flies. Methods A total of 158 adults living near liquid TSS application sites, 85 living near cake TSS application sites, and 188 living in comparison areas responded to a household survey regarding odors, health, and demographics. We identified symptom groups using factor analysis. We used generalized estimating equations to fit linear models for associations between factor scores and odors, and Poisson models for associations with specific symptoms. Results Most factor scores were similar between exposure groups. Covariate-adjusted z-scores for lower respiratory symptoms were 0.28 (95% confidence interval [CI] –0.10, 0.65) higher among residents who reported moderate to very strong liquid TSS odor than among residents in comparison areas, and 0.28 (95% CI 0.05, 0.50) higher among residents who reported moderate to very strong livestock odor compared with residents reporting no or faint livestock odor. The factor score for dermatologic conditions was higher among residents who reported higher liquid sludge odor (0.27, 95% CI –0.13, 0.68), primarily due to skin rash (prevalence ratio = 2.21, 95% CI 1.13, 4.32). Excessive flies were reported twice as commonly among respondents who reported moderate to very strong TSS odor than among other residents. Conclusions Reported odors from TSS and livestock were associated with some acute symptoms. Health departments should monitor land applications of human and animal wastes and conduct surveillance of health problems reported by neighbors. PMID:25364052

  14. Composting of Sewage Sludge Using Recycled Matured Compost as a Single Bulking Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangyang; Ren, Jian; Niu, Huasi; Wu, Xingwu

    2010-11-01

    Pretreatment (bulking agent choice and mixing) is an essential phase of dewatered raw sludge (RS) composting affecting its industrialization significantly. In this paper recycled compost (RC) was chosen as a single bulking agent in the composting experiment instead of other agents such as sawdust, rice straw, MSW, and the mixing machine was developed for mixing of SS and RC. According to the mixing experiment, SS and RC can be mixed uniformly and formed into small particles of 10˜15 mm in diameter, which improved the availability of oxygen during composting. The effect of different volumetric ratios of RS to RC, 1:1 (Exp.1), 1:2 (Exp.2) and 1:4 (Exp.3), on the performance of composting was investigated in detail. Temperature, oxygen consumption rate, organic matter, C/N ratio and moisture content were monitored in each experiment. In despite of low initial C/N of the mixture, intensive fermentation happened in all the experiments. Exp.1 and Exp.2 achieved stability and sanitization, but Exp 1 took more days to accomplish the fermentation. Exp 3 maintained thermophilic temperatures for a shortest time and did not satisfy the necessary sanitation requirements because more RC was recycled. In all experiments, the moisture content of their final composts were too high to be used as bulking agents before extra moisture was reduced. RS: RC = 1:2 (v/v) was the optimum and advisable proportion for the industrialization of sewage sludge composting of, the composting period was about 10 days, and the aeration rate 0.05 m3/(m3?min) was appropriate in this study.

  15. A novel sludge minimized biological nitrogen removal process for saline sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Tsang, W L; Wang, J; Lu, H; Li, S; Chen, G H; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2009-01-01

    This study reports a lab-scale evaluation of a new biological nitrogen removal process for saline sewage treatment, namely a SANI process (Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated process). The experimental system consisted of an up-flow anaerobic bed for sulfate reduction, an anoxic filter for autotrophic denitrification using dissolved sulfide produced in the up-flow anaerobic bed and an aerobic filter for nitrification. The system successfully operated for more than 180 days with an overall organic carbon removal efficiency of 95%, in which, 82% removal was contributed by the up-flow anaerobic bed operating at a HRT of 6 h, and 13% removal by the anoxic filter. An average COD removed /sulfate removed ratio was found to be 0.76 gCOD/gSO(4) or 2.28 COD/gSO(4)-S further confirming that the organic removal was mainly achieved by the sulfate reduction. In terms of nitrogen removal efficiency, the SANI system was found sensitive to the recirculation rate between the anoxic filter and the aerobic filter. A recirculation rate of 3Q was found to be optimal for achieving 74% of the total nitrogen removal. It was confirmed that the autotrophic denitrification was a major contributor to the total nitrogen removal in the SANI system. Sulfur balance analysis indicated that both the accumulation of elementary sulfur in the biomass and the loss of hydrogen sulfide were trivial. During the entire operation period (330 days to date), no sludge was wasted from any reactors in this system. This was further confirmed by the biomass balance simulation results that low biomass yields of sulfate reducing bacteria, autotrophic denitrifiers and nitrifiers contribute to the zero excess sludge discharge. PMID:19474482

  16. Changes in organic matter composition during composting of two digested sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Hernández, T; Masciandaro, G; Moreno, J I; García, C

    2006-01-01

    Changes in the chemical and chemical-structural composition of the organic matter of two different sewage sludges (aerobic and anaerobic) mixed with sawdust (1:1 and 1:3, v/v) during composting were determined by monitoring chemical and microbiological parameters as well as by pyrolysis-gas chromatography. Composting was carried out in periodically turned outdoor piles, which were sampled for analysis 1, 30, 60 and 90 days after the beginning of the composting process. Both volatile organic matter and the water soluble C fraction decreased during composting, indicating that the more labile C fractions are mineralized during the process. Microbial activity as measured by microbial respiration (CO(2) evolved from compost samples during incubation) also decreased with composting, reflecting the more stable character of the resulting compost. No major differences were observed between the four composts studied as regards their chemical-structural characteristics. The acetonitrile, acetic acid and phenol pyrolytic fragment tended to increase with composting. Although the final composts were more aromatic in nature than the starting materials, a low degree of humification was observed in all four composts studied, as determined by their high proportion of polysaccharides and alkyl compounds. For this reason, the relationship between pyrolytic fragments, such as benzene/toluene or benzene+toluene/pyrrol+phenols, which are used as indices of humification for soil organic matter, are not of use for such poorly evolved sludge composts; instead, ratios that involve carbohydrate derivatives and aromatic compounds, such as furfural+acetic/benzene+toluene or acetic/toluene, are more sensitive indices for reflecting the transformations of these materials during composting. Both the chemical and microbiological parameters and pyrolytic analysis provided valuable information concerning the nature of the compost's organic matter and its changes during the composting process. PMID:16356705

  17. Assessment of a sewage sludge treatment on cadmium, copper and zinc bioavailability in barley, ryegrass and earthworms.

    PubMed

    Renoux, Agnès Y; Rocheleau, Sylvie; Sarrazin, Manon; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Blais, Jean-François

    2007-01-01

    The toxicity and bioavailability of metals were assessed to verify the efficiency of a new chemical leaching process (METIX-AC) to minimize the risk of metals found in municipal sewage sludge. For this purpose, sludge samples were spiked with cadmium, copper and/or zinc before being treated using METIX-AC. The sludge decontamination resulted in a removal of spiked metals (79-89%), in a decrease of the more labile fractions, and in a corresponding increase of the residual fraction. The toxicity observed after exposure of two plant species, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and a terrestrial invertebrate, Eisenia andrei, to sludge-soil mixtures, disappeared after treatment, although the adverse effects were minor before treatment. The sludge treatment also significantly decreased the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the exposed species. For cadmium, maximum tissue concentrations of 0.45+/-0.08 mg/kg in barley, 0.79+/-0.27 mg/kg in ryegrass, and 21.82+/-1.85 mg/kg in earthworm exposed to sludge before treatment decreased after treatment to values similar to those observed with negative controls. PMID:16720067

  18. The study of the cumulative effects of the application of urban sewage sludge on an eroded soil cultivated in the Algerian steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutmedjet, Ahmed; Boukkaya, Nassira; Houyou, zohra; Ouakid, Mohamed; Bielders, Charles

    2014-05-01

    Since the seventies, desertification is one of the major problems faced by the Mediterranean climate regions. These problems are inherent in the soil and climate characteristics of these regions, but their magnitude and acuity depend mainly on human activities. The process of desertification that affects more and more land is more pronounced as soil degradation, which accelerates constantly reduced resources farmland and pasture. Especially in areas bordering the Sahara, as the Algerian steppe, a real belt between the Sahara and the Algerian tell As part of the study of the cumulative effect of the application of urban sewage sludge on sandy soil and culture that is a cereal (barley), we had results that enabled us to identify some precepts,. The short-term effects studied in this experiment indicate that the amendment of the sewage sludge had a beneficial effect on the fertilizing qualities of the soil and therefore the performance of barley. To observations of Culture (barley), indicate that the best grain yield was obtained with D3 (28.76 quintals / ha) and D2 (33.91 quintals / ha). This is due to the effect of the sludge by the addition of required nutrients crop production. The lowest yield (24.11 quintals / ha) being obtained for the control (D0). It is the same for straw yield, with 47.5 quintals / ha in D2. The D3 treatment (30 t / ha) has previously presented the best results, but after 3 years we noticed that the best yields are obtained with D2 (10 t / ha). Except the pH and the rate of limestone that are related to changes in the characteristics of the site, there was an improvement in some physical and chemical properties of the soil. The contributions of sewage sludge amended greater quality soil biology D2 (number and effective species collected). Increasing the organic matter content (1.45%) and electrical conductivity (0.18 microseconds / cm) in the soil is only significant for the highest dose (30t/ha), although a tendency to enrichment in proportion to the dose appears clearly (except for nitrogen with a maximum of 0.066% in D3). The content of nitrogen increases less than organic carbon, which results in an increase of the C/N in the processing D2, justifying a biological activity which allows a soil structure, ensuring protection against leaching and challenging creating conditions favorable for crop development. So opportunities for agricultural use of sewage sludge exist for the rehabilitation of degraded sites (revegetation), while remaining in an application under controlled and regulated. These pathways underused in Algeria may comprise an interesting alternative to overcome the lack of organic matter, and even conserve soil areas subject has often destructive climatic and anthropogenic conditions.

  19. A study on temporal trends and estimates of fate of Bisphenol A in agricultural soils after sewage sludge amendment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zulin; Le Velly, Morgane; Rhind, Stewart M; Kyle, Carol E; Hough, Rupert L; Duff, Elizabeth I; McKenzie, Craig

    2015-05-15

    Temporal concentration trends of BPA in soils were investigated following sewage sludge application to pasture (study 1: short term sludge application; study 2: long term multiple applications over 13 years). The background levels of BPA in control soils were similar, ranging between 0.67-10.57 ng g(-1) (mean: 3.02 ng g(-1)) and 0.51-6.58 ng g(-1) (mean: 3.22 ng g(-1)) for studies 1 and 2, respectively. Concentrations in both treated and control plots increased over the earlier sampling times of the study to a maximum and then decreased over later sampling times, suggesting other sources of BPA to both the treated and control soils over the study period. In study 1 there was a significant treatment effect of sludge application in the autumn (p=0.002) although no significant difference was observed between treatment and control soils in the spring. In study 2 treated soils contained considerably higher BPA concentrations than controls ranging between 12.89-167.9 ng g(-1) (mean: 63.15 ng g(-1)). This and earlier studies indicate the long-term accumulation of multiple contaminants by multiple sewage sludge applications over a prolonged period although the effects of the presence of such contaminant mixtures have not yet been elucidated. Fugacity modelling was undertaken to estimate partitioning of Bisphenol A (soil plus sewage: pore water: soil air partitioning) and potential uptake into a range of food crops. While Bisphenol A sorbs strongly to the sewage-amended soil, 4% by mass was predicted to enter soil pore water resulting in significant uptake by crops particularly leafy vegetables (3.12-75.5 ng g(-1)), but also for root crops (1.28-31.0 ng g(-1)) with much lower uptake into cereal grains (0.62-15.0 ng g(-1)). This work forms part of a larger programme of research aimed at assessing the risks associated with the long-term application of sewage sludge to agricultural soils. PMID:25682473

  20. Nitrous oxide emissions after sewage sludge and inorganic N-fertilization of a willow bio-energy plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemedtsson, Leif; Hedenrud, Anna; Rychlik, Sophie; Weslien, Per; Kasimir Klemedtsson, Åsa; Achberger, Christine; Lindroth, Anders

    2014-05-01

    The use of sewage sludge as fertilizer after harvest or inorganic N-fertilization of bio-energy plantations can give rise to high emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Plantations of e.g. willow (Salix) are today grown and used for bioenergy purposes. They could serve as carbon and nitrogen sinks, lowering greenhouse gas emissions and helping to mitigate a change in climate. However, since N2O is such a powerful greenhouse gas it can have a large impact on the total emission of greenhouse gases from a bio-energy plantation. The magnitude of N2O emissions after fertilization is therefore important to investigate. This study concerns N2O emissions from a conventionally grown bio-energy plantation of Salix. The aim of the study was to investigate the use of sewage sludge after harvest as well as inorganic N-fertilization in a growing plantation, and its effect on emissions of N2O from the soil ecosystem. The field site is a Salix plantation in south-western Sweden, a representative site in management practices and abiotic conditions. The site was divided into two areas, a larger field and smaller plots. The field was applied with sewage sludge after harvest 2013. Emissions of N2O were measured using the micrometeorological Eddy covariance technique, with a Quantum Cascade laser (Aerodyne). The fluxes of CO2 and H2O were measured using a LI-7200(Li-cor) instrument. The flux was calculated using the EddyPro software. On the plots, N2O emissions from inorganic N-fertilization (2013) were monitored using automatic chambers (height 1.05 m, volume 0.2625 m3) and a trace gas analyzer (TGA100, Campbell Scientific, USA) during approximately one (1) year. The N2O emissions from the plots (inorganic fertilizer) and field (sewage sludge) were compared with non-fertilized plots (controls) using the automatic chambers for both comparisons. The N2O emissions from the control plot for the inorganic fertilizer had an emission over the growing season that was 0.33 kg N2O per hectare (SD 0.21 kg N2O per hectare), while the fertilized plots had a non-significant higher emission of 0.52 kg N2O per hectare (SD 0.31 kg N2O per hectare). The sewage sludge treated field had a fertilized induced emission of about 3 kg N2O per hectare (preliminary data), which was in the same range as the measured emission during 2012 for sewage sludge fertilization. The flux during 2012 was estimated using automatic chambers. The N2O emissions from the control plot for the sewage sludge field had an emission over the growing season that was less than 0.1 kg N2O per hectare (SD 0.02 kg N2O per hectare). The emissions from organic and inorganic fertilizers, methodological issues as well as inter-annual variability will be discussed.

  1. Dewaterability of five sewage sludges in Guangzhou conditioned with Fenton's reagent/lime and pilot-scale experiments using ultrahigh pressure filtration system.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jialin; Huang, Shaosong; Dai, Yongkang; Li, Lei; Sun, Shuiyu

    2015-11-01

    Sludge conditioning with Fenton's reagent and lime is a valid method for sludge dewatering. This study investigated the influence of different organic matter content sludge on sludge dewatering and discussed the main mechanism of sludge conditioning by combined Fenton's reagent and lime. The results indicated that the specific resistance to filterability (SRF) of sludge was reduced efficiently by approximately 90%, when conditioned with Fenton's reagent and lime. Through single factor experiments, the optimal conditioning combinations were found. In addition, the relationship between VSS% and consumption of the reagents was detected. Furthermore, it was also demonstrated that the SRF and filtrate TOC values had a significant correlation with VSS% of sludge (including raw and conditioned). The main mechanism of sludge dewatering was also investigated. Firstly, it revealed that the dewaterability of sludge was closely correlated to extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and bound water contents. Secondly, the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) stated that sludge particles were to be smaller and thinner after conditioning. And this structure could easily form outflow channels for releasing free water. Additionally, with the ultrahigh pressure filtration system, the water content of sludge cake conditioned with Fenton's reagent and lime could be reduced to below 50%. Moreover, the economic assessment shows that Fenton's reagent and lime combined with ultrahigh pressure filtration system can be an economical and viable technology for sewage sludge dewatering. Finally, three types of sludge were classified: (1) Fast to dewater; (2) Moderately fast to dewater; (3) Slow to dewater sludge. PMID:26253895

  2. Evaluation of composted sewage sludge (CSS) as a soil amendment for Bermudagrass growth.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, O Nouri; Pishdar, H

    2007-05-01

    In order to evaluate the growth of Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) in soils amended with 5-100% composted sewage sludge (CSS) and the impacts of CSS amendment on soil physical and chemical properties an experiment was conducted. Soils amended with < or = 20% CSS did not significantly affect the seedling emergence, while the contents of chlorophyll, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium of Bermudagrass grown in such soils were greatly improved. Bulk density, water retention and nutrient contents of the soil were also improved with the amendment of CSS, but high CSS contents introduced excessive amounts of heavy metals and soluble salts. Results show that Cu, Zn and Pb accumulated slightly (up to approximately 2.3 times) in clippings of Bermudagrass grown in CSS-amended soils compared to those grown in the base and reference soils, while no significant Cd absorption in shoots of Bermudagrass occurred. The detrimental effects on seedling emergence and turfgrass growth observed on substrates with high (> or = 40%) CSS contents were mainly attributed to the presence of high soluble salt concentrations. The findings suggest that addition of CSS at 10-20% levels can greatly improve the soil nutrient supply for turfgrass growth without significantly affecting heavy metal and soluble salt contents of the soil. PMID:19069946

  3. Bio-char derived from sewage sludge by liquefaction: Characterization and application for dye adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Lijian; Yuan, Xingzhong; Huang, Huajun; Shao, Jianguang; Wang, Hou; Chen, Xiaohong; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-08-01

    Bio-chars produced by liquefaction of sewage sludge with methanol, ethanol, or acetone as the solvent at 260-380 °C were characterized in terms of their elemental composition, thermogravimetric characteristics, surface area and pore size distribution, and oxygen-containing functional groups composition. The surface area and total volume of the bio-chars were low, but the contents of oxygen-containing functional groups were high. The bio-chars were effective on Malachite green (MG) and Methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The MG adsorption equilibrium data showed excellent fit to the Langmuir model and the kinetic data fitted well to the Pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic investigations indicated that MG adsorption on bio-char was spontaneous and endothermic. The MG adsorption mechanism appears to be associated with cation release and functional group participation. Additionally, liquefaction of SS with acetone as the solvent at low temperature (280 °C) would favor the production of bio-char adsorbent in terms of bio-char yield and MG and MB adsorption capacity.

  4. Air emissions assessment and air quality permitting for a municipal waste landfill treating municipal sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, J.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a case study into the air quality permitting of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in the San Francisco Bay Area undergoing a proposed expansion in operations to increase the life of the landfill. The operations of this facility include MSW landfilling, the treatment and disposal of municipal sewage sludge, the aeration of petroleum-contaminated soils, the construction of a new on-site plant to manufacture soil amendment products from waste wood and other organic material diverted from the landfill, and the installation of a vaporator to create steam from leachate for injection into the landfill gas flare. The emissions assessment for each project component relied upon interpretation of source tests from similar operations, incorporation of on-site measurements into emissions models and mass balances, and use of AP-42 procedures for emissions sources such as wind-blown dust, material handling and transfer operations, and fugitive landfill gas. Air permitting issues included best available control technology (BACT), emission offset thresholds, new source performance standards (NSPS), potential air toxics health risk impacts, and compliance with federal Title V operating permit requirements. With the increasing difficulties of siting new landfills, increasing pressures to reduce the rate of waste placement into existing landfills, and expanding regulatory requirements on landfill operations, experiences similar to those described in this paper are likely to increase in the future as permitting scenarios become more complex.

  5. Biostabilization enhancement of heavy metals during the vermiremediation of sewage sludge with passivant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Longmian; Zheng, Zheng; Zhang, Yimin; Chao, Jianying; Gao, Yuexiang; Luo, Xingzhang; Zhang, Jibiao

    2013-01-15

    The present study revealed the effects of fly ash (FA) and phosphoric rock (PR) on stabilization of sewage sludge (SS) after vermicomposting for 60 days. The earthworms in all vermibeds showed significant increases in tissue metal; however, the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of all investigated metals (except Zn) differed among treatments. Additionally, significant differences were observed in the final system weight and SS+Passivant weight reduction among treatments, but not in the percentage reduction of total system weight and organic matter (OM). pH decreased from the initial levels, eventually reaching neutrality. Significantly greater earthworm heavy metals content, growth and reproduction rates and BCFs were observed, while a decreased percentage of total heavy metals concentration and a proportional decrease of extractable metals (except Cu and Zn) were observed in treatments mixed with FA and PR. Furthermore, significant linear correlations between BCFs and a reduction in percentage concentration of total metals (Cu, Pb, Cd and As) were shown, as well as BCF-Cu and relative proportional changes in extractable Cu. These results indicate that vermicomposting with proportions of FA and PR is better for stabilization and remediation of SS in a short period of time. PMID:23246935

  6. Production of glass-ceramics from sewage sludge and waste glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenstrauha, I.; Sosins, G.; Petersone, L.; Krage, L.; Drille, M.; Filipenkov, V.

    2011-12-01

    In the present study for recycling of sewage sludge and waste glass from JSC "Valmieras stikla skiedra" treatment of them to the dense glass-ceramic composite material using powder technology is estimated. The physical-chemical properties of composite materials were identified - density 2.19 g/cm3, lowest water absorption of 2.5% and lowest porosity of 5% for the samples obtained in the temperature range of sintering 1120 - 1140 °C. Regarding mineralogical composition of glass-ceramics the following crystalline phases were identified by XRD analysis: quartz (SiO2), anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) and hematite (Fe2O3), which could ensure the high density of materials and improve the mechanical properties of material - compressive strength up to 60.31±5.09 - 52.67±19.18 MPa. The physical-chemical properties of novel materials corresponds to dense glass-ceramics composite which eventually could be used as a building material, e.g. for floor covering, road pavement, exterior tiles etc.

  7. Vermiremoval of heavy metal in sewage sludge by utilising Lumbricus rubellus.

    PubMed

    Azizi, A B; Lim, M P M; Noor, Z M; Abdullah, Noorlidah

    2013-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to remove heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) from urban sewage sludge (SS) amended with spent mushroom compost (SMC) using worms, Lumbricus rubellus, for 105 days, after 21 days of pre-composting. Five combinations of SS/SMC treatments were prepared in triplicate along with a control for each treatment in microcosms. Analysis of the earthworms' multiplication and growth and laboratory analysis were conducted during the tenth and fifteenth week of vermicomposting. Our result showed that the final biomass of earthworms (mg) and final number of earthworms showed significant differences between treatments i.e. F=554.70, P=0.00 and F=729.10, P=0.00 respectively. The heavy metals Cr, Cd and Pb contained in vermicompost were lower than initial concentrations, with 90-98.7 percent removal on week ten. However, concentrations of Cu and Zn, that are considered as micronutrients, were higher than initial concentrations, but they were 10-200-fold lower than the EU and USA biosolid compost limits and Malaysian Recommended Site Screening Levels for Contaminated Land (SSLs). An increment of heavy metals were recorded in vermicompost for all treatments on week fifteen compared to week ten, while concentration of heavy metals in earthworms' tissue were lower compared to vermicompost. Hence, it is suggested that earthworms begin to discharge heavy metals into their surroundings and it was evident that the earthworms' heavy metals excretion period was within the interval of ten to fifteen weeks. PMID:23294636

  8. Sewage sludge ash to phosphorus fertiliser: Variables influencing heavy metal removal during thermochemical treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Mattenberger, H.; Fraissler, G.; Brunner, T. Herk, P.; Hermann, L.

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to improve the removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge ash by a thermochemical process. The resulting detoxified ash was intended for use as a raw material rich in phosphorus (P) for inorganic fertiliser production. The thermochemical treatment was performed in a rotary kiln where the evaporation of relevant heavy metals was enhanced by additives. The four variables investigated for process optimisation were treatment temperature, type of additive (KCl, MgCl{sub 2}) and its amount, as well as type of reactor (directly or indirectly heated rotary kiln). The removal rates of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and of Ca, P and Cl were investigated. The best overall removal efficiency for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn could be found for the indirectly heated system. The type of additive was critical, since MgCl{sub 2} favours Zn- over Cu-removal, while KCl acts conversely. The use of MgCl{sub 2} caused less particle abrasion from the pellets in the kiln than KCl. In the case of the additive KCl, liquid KCl - temporarily formed in the pellets - acted as a barrier to heavy metal evaporation as long as treatment temperatures were not sufficiently high to enhance its reaction or evaporation.

  9. Nocardioides daejeonensis sp. nov., a denitrifying bacterium isolated from sludge in a sewage-disposal plant.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sung-Geun; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Yang, Jihoon; Jung, Yong-An; Kim, Myung Kyum; Lee, Myungjin

    2012-05-01

    Strain MJ31(T), a gram-reaction-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium, was isolated from a sludge sample collected at the Daejeon sewage-disposal plant, in South Korea, and characterized in order to determine its taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain MJ31(T) belonged to the genus Nocardioides, appearing most closely related to Nocardioides dubius KSL-104(T) (98.6?% sequence similarity), Nocardioides jensenii DSM 20641(T) (97.6?%), Nocardioides daedukensis MDN22(T) (97.2?%) and Nocardioides mesophilus MSL-22(T) (97.0?%). The chemotaxonomic properties of strain MJ31(T) were consistent with those of the genus Nocardioides: MK-8(H(4)) was the predominant menaquinone, iso-C(16?:?0), iso-C(17?:?0) and C(18?:?1)?9c were the predominant cellular fatty acids, and the cell-wall peptidoglycan was based on LL-2,6-diaminopimelic acid. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain MJ31(T) was 71.2 mol%. Some differential phenotypic properties and low DNA-DNA relatedness values (<28?%) with the type strains of closely related species indicated that strain MJ31(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Nocardioides daejeonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJ31(T) (?=?KCTC 19772(T)?=?JCM 16922(T)). PMID:21742819

  10. Soil solution chemistry of sewage-sludge incinerator ash and phosphate fertilizer amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, P.M.; Rosen, C.J.; Bloom, P.R.; Nater, E.A.

    1995-03-01

    The chemical composition of the soil provides useful information on the feasibility of amending agricultural land with municipal and industrial waste, because the soil solution is the medium for most soil chemical reactions, the mobile phase in soils, and the medium for mineral adsorption by plant roots. The soil solutions studies in this research were from plots in a 4-yr field experiment conducted to evaluate the effects of the trace metals and P in sewage-sludge incinerator ash. Treatments compared ash with equivalent P rates from triple-superphosphate fertilizer and a control receiving no P application. Ash and phosphate fertilizer were applied annually at rates of 35, 70, and 140 kg citrate-soluble P ha{sup -1}. Cumulative ash applications during 4 yr amounted to 3.6, 7.2, and 14.4 Mg ash ha{sup -1}. Soil solutions were obtained by centrifugation-immiscible liquid displacement using a fluorocarbon displacing agent. Following chemical analysis, a chemical speciation model was used to determine possible solubility-controlling minerals for trace metals and P, and correlations between solution composition and plant uptake were analyzed. 37 refs., 5 tabs.

  11. Heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash by thermochemical treatment with polyvinylchloride.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christian; Exner, Robert M; Adam, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Sewage sludge ash (SSA) is a prospective phosphorus source for the future production of recycling P-fertilizers. Due to its high heavy metals contents and the relatively low P plant-availability, SSA must be treated before agricultural utilisation. In this paper SSA was thermochemically treated with PVC in a bench-scale rotary furnace in order to remove heavy metals via the chloride pathway. PVC has a high Cl-content of 52-53% and a high heating value that can be beneficially used for the thermochemical process. Large amounts of waste PVC are already recovered in recycling processes, but there are still some fractions that would be available for the proposed thermochemical process, for example, the low quality near-infrared(NIR)-fraction from waste separation facilities. Heavy metals were effectively removed at temperatures in the range of 800-950 °C via the gas phase by utilisation of PVC as Cl-donor. The resulting P plant-availability was comparable to SSA thermochemically treated with MgCl(2) as Cl-donor if MgO was used as an additive (Mg-donor). A further increase of the plant availability of phosphorus was achieved by acid post-treatment of the thermochemically treated SSA. PMID:23189972

  12. Transformation of phosphorus during combustion of coal and sewage sludge and its contributions to PM10

    SciTech Connect

    Lian Zhang; Yoshihiko Ninomiya

    2007-07-01

    Emission of airborne P-bearing particulates from combustion of both coal and sewage sludge samples has been studied in a lab-scale drop tube furnace. The results indicate that both the organically bound fraction of phosphorus and its inorganic species in a complex form containing Si, Al, Ca, Fe, P and O at non-stoichiometric ratios appear to vaporize readily. The resultant phosphorus vapors undergo oxidation, chemical reactions with other metallic vapors including Na/K/Zn, nucleation, and homogeneous/heterogeneous coagulation to form a mixture of their oxides and phosphates with particle sizes smaller than 1.0 {mu}m. On the other hand, phosphorus in the larger fractions, {gt}1.0 {mu}m, mainly consist of apatite and condensed melting phases, which may have been formed through the direct liberation of inherent apatite in raw fuels and the shedding of melting P-bearing particles from the char surface. The amounts of phosphorus in each fraction of PM10 vary considerably with fuel type and combustion conditions. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Co-digestion of the hydromechanically separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the anaerobic digestion of the hydromechanically sorted organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (HS-OFMSW) co-digested with sewage sludge (SS). Eight laboratory-scale experiments were conducted under semi-continuous conditions at 15 and 20 days of solids retention time (SRT). The biogas yield from the waste reached 309 to 315 dm(3)/kgVS and 320 to 361 dm(3)/kgVS under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. The addition of SS to HS-OFMSW (1:1 by weight) improved the C/N balance of the mixture, and the production of biogas through anaerobic mesophilic digestion increased to 494 dm(3)/kgVS, which corresponded to 316 dm(3)CH4/kgVS. However, when SS and HS-OFMSW were treated under thermophilic conditions, methanogenesis was inhibited by volatile fatty acids and free ammonia, which concentrations reached 5744 gCH3COOH/m(3) and 1009 gNH3/m(3), respectively. PMID:25262391

  14. Respiration and enzymatic activities as indicators of stabilization of sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Nafez, Amir Hossein; Bina, Bijan; Nabavi, BiBi Fatemeh; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this work was to study the evolution of physico-chemical and microbial parameters in the composting process of sewage sludge (SS) with pruning wastes (PW) in order to compare these parameters with respect to their applicability in the evaluation of organic matter (OM) stabilization. To evaluate the composting process and organic matter stability, different microbial activities were compared during composting of anaerobically digested SS with two volumetric ratios, 1:1 and 3:1 of PW:SS and two aeration techniques including aerated static piles (ASP) and turned windrows (TW). Dehydrogenase activity, fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis, and specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) were used as microbial activity indices. These indices were compared with traditional parameters, including temperature, pH, moisture content, organic matter, and C/N ratio. The results showed that the TW method and 3:1 (PW:SS) proportion was superior to the ASP method and 1:1 proportion, since the former accelerate the composting process by catalyzing the OM stabilization. Enzymatic activities and SOUR, which reflect microbial activity, correlated well with temperature fluctuations. Based on these results it appears that SOUR and the enzymatic activities are useful parameters to monitor the stabilization of SS compost. PMID:25728091

  15. Sewage sludge and fly ash mixture as an alternative for decontaminating lead and zinc ore regions.

    PubMed

    Pogrzeba, M; Galimska-Stypa, R; Krzy?ak, J; Sas-Nowosielska, A

    2015-01-01

    Many years of heavy industrial processes in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region in Poland (ore flotation, metal smelting and battery scrap processing) have resulted in lead, zinc and cadmium pollution of the air and soil. The most significant issues stem not only from elevated levels of these metals in environmental compartments, but also from the uneven pattern of their distribution. Point sources of local metal concentration are to be found dispersed over areas of contaminated soil. Such distribution is a challenge for remediation technology, as it precludes the introduction of standard procedures. Metals present in the soil pose a constant risk for living organisms. One of the most effective ways of limiting their ecological impact is by decreasing their mobility. In this study, the effect of introducing sewage sludge and fly ash mixtures (sluash material) into contaminated soil was evaluated. We tested the mixture in terms of the probability of its ecotoxicological impact on plant growth and development. The data obtained have shown that even low doses (3%) of sluash are effective in reducing the bioavailability of lead, cadmium and zinc, resulting in a decrease of their concentration in plants. The application of sluash also led to stabilize soil pH. It also had a positive impact on the total number of soil bacteria and soil fungi. PMID:25381583

  16. Recycling potential of air pollution control residue from sewage sludge thermal treatment as artificial lightweight aggregates.

    PubMed

    Bialowiec, Andrzej; Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Gusiatin, Zygmunt M; Thornton, Arthur; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Zielinska, Magdalena

    2014-03-01

    Thermal treatment of sewage sludge produces fly ash, also known as the air pollution control residue (APCR), which may be recycled as a component of artificial lightweight aggregates (ALWA). Properties of APCR are typical: high content of Ca, Mg, P2O5, as well as potential to induce alkaline reactions. These properties indicate that ALWA prepared with a high content of APCR may remove heavy metals, phosphorus, and ammonium nitrogen from wastewater with high efficiency. The aim of this preliminary study was to determine the optimal composition of ALWA for potential use as a filter media in wastewater treatment systems. Five kinds of ALWA were produced, with different proportions of ash (shown as percentages in subscripts) in mixture with bentonite: ALWA0 (reference), ALWA12.5, ALWA25, ALWA50, and ALWA100. The following parameters of ALWA were determined: density, bulk density, compressive strength, hydraulic conductivity, and removal efficiency of ions Zn(2+), NH4 (+), and PO4 (3-). Tests showed that ALWA had good mechanical and hydraulic properties, and might be used in wastewater filtering systems. Phosphates and zinc ions were removed with high efficiency (80-96%) by ALWA25-100 in static (batch) conditions. The efficiency of ammonium nitrogen removal was low, <18%. Artificial wastewater treatment performance in dynamic conditions (through-flow), showed increasing removal efficiency of Zn(2+), PO4 (3-) with a decrease in flow rate. PMID:24616344

  17. Development of lightweight aggregate from dry sewage sludge and coal ash.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingrun; Jin, Yiying; Wang, Zhiyu; Nie, Yongfeng; Huang, Qifei; Wang, Qi

    2009-04-01

    In this study, dry sewage sludge (DSS) as the principal material was blended with coal ash (CA) to produce lightweight aggregate. The effects of different raw material compositions and sintering temperatures on the aggregate properties were then evaluated. In addition, an environmental assessment of the lightweight aggregate generated was conducted by analyzing the fixed rate of heavy metals in the aggregate, as well as their leaching behavior. The results indicated that using DSS enhanced the pyrolysis-volatilization reaction due to its high organic matter content, and decreased the bulk density and sintering temperature. However, the sintered products of un-amended DSS were porous and loose due to the formation of large pores during sintering. Adding CA improved the sintering temperature while effectively decreasing the pore size and increasing the compressive strength of the product. Furthermore, the sintering temperature and the proportion of CA were found to be the primary factors affecting the properties of the sintered products, and the addition of 18-25% of CA coupled with sintering at 1100 degrees C for 30 min produced the highest quality lightweight aggregates. In addition, heavy metals were fixed inside products generated under these conditions and the As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn concentrations of the leachate were found to be within the limits of China's regulatory requirements. PMID:19008090

  18. Soil microbial biomass and community structure affected by repeated additions of sewage sludge in four Swedish long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börjesson, G.; Kätterer, T.; Kirchmann, H.

    2012-04-01

    Soil organic matter is a key attribute of soil fertility. The pool of soil organic C can be increased, either by mineral fertilisers or by adding organic amendments such as sewage sludge. Sewage sludge has positive effects on agricultural soils through the supply of organic matter and essential plant nutrients, but sludge may also contain unwanted heavy metals, xenobiotic substances and pathogens. One obvious effect of long-term sewage sludge addition is a decrease in soil pH, caused by N mineralisation followed by nitrification, sulphate formation and presence of organic acids with the organic matter added. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sewage sludge on the microbial biomass and community structure. Materials and methods We analysed soil samples from four sites where sewage sludge has been repeatedly applied in long-term field experiments situated in different parts of Sweden; Ultuna (59°49'N, 17°39'E, started 1956), Lanna (58°21'N, 13°06'E, started 1997-98), Petersborg (55°32'N, 13°00'E, started 1981) and Igelösa (55°45'N, 13°18'E, started 1981). In these four experiments, at least one sewage sludge treatment is included in the experimental design. In the Ultuna experiment, all organic fertilisers, including sewage sludge, are applied every second year, corresponding to 4 ton C ha-1. The Lanna experiment has a similar design, with 8 ton dry matter ha-1 applied every second year. Lanna also has an additional treatment in which metal salts (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) are added together with sewage sludge. At Petersborg and Igelösa, two levels of sewage sludge (4 or 12 ton dry matter ha-1 every 4th year) are compared with three levels of NPK fertiliser (0 N, ½ normal N and normal N). Topsoil samples (0-20 cm depth) from the four sites were analysed for total C, total N, pH and PLFAs (phospholipid fatty acids). In addition, crop yields were recorded. Results At all four sites, sewage sludge has had a positive effect on crop yields and soil organic matter levels. Correlations between soil organic matter and total PLFA contents showed highly positive correlations at all sites (with R-values between 0.72 and 0.88). To find out whether sewage sludge through its metal impurities could impose stress on the microbial biomass, we compared the correlations between all different fertilisers used and PLFAs. The slopes of these comparisons revealed that sludge did not differ from other fertiliser treatments, which means that our results contrast earlier reports on negative effects of metals in sludge on soil microbes. The microbial community structure, studied with principal component analysis of individual PLFAs, was strongly affected by changes in soil pH, and at those sites where sewage sludge had caused a low pH, Gram-positive bacteria were more dominant than in the other treatments. However, differences in community structure were larger between sites than between the treatments investigated in this study, thus indicating that the original soil properties were more important for the microbial community structure than the fertiliser treatments.

  19. Clay-sewage sludge co-pyrolysis. A TG-MS and Py-GC study on potential advantages afforded by the presence of clay in the pyrolysis of wastewater sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Ischia, Marco; Maschio, Roberto Dal; Grigiante, Maurizio; Baratieri, Marco

    2011-01-15

    Wastewater sewage sludge was co-pyrolyzed with a well characterized clay sample, in order to evaluate possible advantages in the thermal disposal process of solid waste. Characterization of the co-pyrolysis process was carried out both by thermogravimetric-mass spectrometric (TG-MS) analysis, and by reactor tests, using a lab-scale batch reactor equipped with a gas chromatograph for analysis of the evolved gas phase (Py-GC). Due to the presence of clay, two main effects were observed in the instrumental characterization of the process. Firstly, the clay surface catalyzed the pyrolysis reaction of the sludge, and secondly, the release of water from the clay, at temperatures of approx. 450-500 deg. C, enhanced gasification of part of carbon residue of the organic component of sludge following pyrolysis. Moreover, the solid residue remaining after pyrolysis process, composed of the inorganic component of sludge blended with clay, is characterized by good features for possible disposal by vitrification, yielding a vitreous matrix that immobilizes the hazardous heavy metals present in the sludge.

  20. Enhancement of methane production in mesophilic anaerobic digestion of secondary sewage sludge by advanced thermal hydrolysis pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Abelleira-Pereira, Jose M; Pérez-Elvira, Sara I; Sánchez-Oneto, Jezabel; de la Cruz, Roberto; Portela, Juan R; Nebot, Enrique

    2015-03-15

    Studies on the development and evolution of anaerobic digestion (AD) pretreatments are nowadays becoming widespread, due to the outstanding benefits that these processes could entail in the management of sewage sludge. Production of sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is becoming an extremely important environmental issue. The work presented in this paper is a continuation of our previous studies with the aim of understanding and developing the advanced thermal hydrolysis (ATH) process. ATH is a novel AD pretreatment based on a thermal hydrolysis (TH) process plus hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) addition that takes advantage of a peroxidation/direct steam injection synergistic effect. The main goal of the present research was to compare the performance of TH and ATH, conducted at a wide range of operating conditions, as pretreatments of mesophilic AD with an emphasis on methane production enhancement as a key parameter and its connection with the sludge solubilization. Results showed that both TH and ATH patently improved methane production in subsequent mesophilic BMP (biochemical methane potential) tests in comparison with BMP control tests (raw secondary sewage sludge). Besides other interesting results and discussions, a promising result was obtained since ATH, operated at temperature (115 °C), pretreatment time (5 min) and pressure (1 bar) considerably below those typically used in TH (170 °C, 30 min, 8 bar), managed to enhance the methane production in subsequent mesophilic BMP tests [biodegradability factor (fB) = cumulative CH4production/cumulative CH4production (Control) = 1.51 ± 0.01] to quite similar levels than conventional TH pretreatment [fB = 1.52 ± 0.03]. PMID:25682559