Note: This page contains sample records for the topic sewage sludge degradation from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Application of Municipal Sewage Sludge to Forest and Degraded Land  

SciTech Connect

The paper summarizes research done over a decade at the Savannah River Site and elsewhere in the South evaluating the benefits of land application of municipal wastes. Studies have demonstrated that degraded lands, ranging from borrow pits to mine spoils can be successfully revegetated using a mixture of composed municipal sewage sludge and other amendments. The studies have demonstrated a practical approach to land application and restoration.

D.H. Marx, C. R. Berry, and P. P. Kormanik

1995-09-30

2

Degradation of 4-nonylphenol in homogeneous and nonhomogeneous mixtures of soil and sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge is frequently applied as fertilizers to cultivated land. However, municipal sewage sludge often contains organic contaminants including nonylphenol (NP), an intermediate from nonionic surfactant degradation. Knowledge about NP degradation in sludge-amended soil is an important prerequisite for adequate risk assessments. In this study, mineralization of 14C-labeled NP in homogenized and nonhomogenized sludge-soil mixtures was investigated. NP was degraded within 38 days in aerobic homogenized mixtures. In nonhomogeneous mixtures containing sludge aggregates, the degradation of NP was retarded and was generally not completed within 3 months (119-126 days). No detectable amounts of NP were transported from the sludge aggregates to the surrounding soil (detection limit: <0.04 mg of NP/kg dw of soil). Oxygen penetration into sludge aggregates was monitored for 50 days with an oxygen microelectrode. An extrapolation of the oxygen data suggested that more than 1 year was required to obtain fully aerobic conditions in a 2-cm sludge aggregate. Since NP is considered persistent in the absence of oxygen, residual amounts of NP may be present in the anaerobic center of aggregates for prolonged periods. The results demonstrate that sludge aggregate size and thus oxygen availability will be a major controlling factor for NP degradation in soil amended with sewage sludge and that the mobility of NP from sludge aggregates to the surrounding soil is negligible. PMID:11783647

Hesselsøe, M; Jensen, D; Skals, K; Olesen, T; Moldrup, P; Roslev, P; Mortensen, G K; Henriksen, K

2001-09-15

3

Modification to degradation of hexazinone in forest soils amended with sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Influences of one sewage sludge on degradation of hexazinone and formation of its major metabolites were investigated in four forest soils (A, B, C and D), collected in Zhejiang Province, China. In non-amended forest soils, the degradation half-life of hexazinone was 21.4, 30.4, 19.4 and 32.8 days in forest soil A, B, C and D, respectively. Degradation could start in soil A and C without lag period because the two soils had been contaminated by this herbicide for a long time, possibly leading to completion of acclimation period of hexazinone-degrading bacteria. In forest soils amended with sewage sludge, the degradation rate constant increased by 17.3% in soil A, 48.2% in soil B, 8.1% in soil C and 51.6% in soil D, respectively. The higher degradation rates (soil A and C) in non-amended soils accord with the lower rate increase in sewage sludge-amended soils. Under non-sterile conditions, biological mechanism accounted for 51.8-62.4% of hexazinone degradation in four soils. Under sterile conditions, the four soils had the similar chemical degradation capacity for hexazinone. In non-amended soil B, only one metabolite (B) was detected, while two metabolites (B and C) were found in sewage sludge-amended soil B. Similarly situated in agricultural soils, N-demethylation at 6-position of triazine ring, hydroxylation at the 4-positon of cyclohexyl group, and removal of the dimethylamino group with formation of a carbonyl group at 6-position of triazine ring appear to be the principal mechanism involved in hexazinone degradation in sewage sludge-amended forest soils. These data will improve understanding of the actual pollution risk as a result of forest soil fertilization with sewage sludge. PMID:22112800

Wang, Huili; Wang, Chengjun; Chen, Fan; Ma, Meiping; Lin, Zhenkun; Wang, Wenwei; Xu, Zhengti; Wang, Xuedong

2012-01-15

4

Enhancement of pentachlorophenol degradation in soil through induced anaerobiosis and bioaugmentation with anaerobic sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of biologically active anaerobic sewage sludge, previously shown to dechlorinate chlorophenols, to soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) resulted in greatly enhanced rates of PCP degradation. The sludge was added to a soil at a rate of 5 g kg⁻¹ (dry weight basis) and the mixture incubated anaerobically. Initial PCP concentrations of 10-30 mg kg⁻¹ (ppm) were completely degraded

Mark D. Mikesell; Stephen A. Boyd

1988-01-01

5

Enhancement of pentachlorophenol degradation in soil through induced anaerobiosis and bioaugmentation with anaerobic sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

The addition of biologically active anaerobic sewage sludge, previously shown to dechlorinate chlorophenols, to soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) resulted in greatly enhanced rates of PCP degradation. The sludge was added to a soil at a rate of 5 g kg/sup -1/ (dry weight basis) and the mixture incubated anaerobically. Initial PCP concentrations of 10-30 mg kg/sup -1/ (ppm) were completely degraded within 28-35 days. In anaerobic soil without sludge or aerobic soil with or without sludge, PCP persisted, 55% and 90%, respectively, remaining after 56 days. Higher rates of sludge addition gave small differences in PCP degradation. PCP was degraded by sequential dechlorination, and the products of PCP degradation in soil-sludge mixtures were the same as observed in sludge alone. The sequence of products was PCP ..-->.. 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol ..-->.. 3,4,5-trichlorophenol ..-->.. 3,5-dichlorophenol ..-->.. 3-chlorophenol; 3,4-dichlorophenol was also observed. These results clearly demonstrate that the dechlorinating activity present in sludge could be transferred to soil through bioaugmentation.

Mikesell, M.D.; Boyd, S.A.

1988-12-01

6

Sewage sludge combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current review paper, various issues related to the combustion of sewage sludge are discussed. After briefly explaining the formation and treatment of sewage sludge, current and future sludge production are discussed. Thereafter, the four sludge disposal methods which are currently used, i.e. recycling in agriculture, landfilling, dumping into sea and incineration, are examined, and the future trend presented

J. Werther; T. Ogada

1999-01-01

7

Microbial degradation of /sup 14/C-diphenylamine in a laboratory model sewage sludge system  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of the biodegradation of diphenylamine (DPA) in a laboratory model sewage system. Ten ..mu..Ci /sup 14/C-DPA and 7.5 mg unlabeled DPA in 5 mL acetone were added to 1.5 L sludge mixed liquor in the incubation flask to produce a solution containing DPA at the 5 ppm level. Extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Radioactive extracts were counted with a liquid scintillation spectrometer. DPA was degraded in the model sewage sludge system. Results using 3 different 1.5 L batches of sludge were virtually identical. With our extraction procedure, the average recovery of added radioactivity was 82%. When 300 mL of the sludge mixed liquor was boiled for 5 min before 24 h incubation with 5 ppm DPA, 98% of the radioactivity, as unchanged DPA, was recovered. Ninety-seven percent of the radioactivity, as unchanged DPA, was recovered from 300 mL of nutrient medium alone after 24 h incubation with DPA. These data indicate that the sludge microorganisms alone caused the degradation of DPA. (JMT)

Gardner, A.M.; Alvarez, G.H.; Ku, Y.

1982-01-01

8

TRANSPORT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This project was initiated with the overall objective of developing organized information pertaining to the costs of various sewage sludge transport systems. Transport of liquid and dewatered sludge by truck and rail and liquid sludge by barge and pipeline is included. The report...

9

Organic chemicals in sewage sludges.  

PubMed

Sewage sludges are residues resulting from the treatment of wastewater released from various sources including homes, industries, medical facilities, street runoff and businesses. Sewage sludges contain nutrients and organic matter that can provide soil benefits and are widely used as soil amendments. They also, however, contain contaminants including metals, pathogens, and organic pollutants. Although current regulations require pathogen reduction and periodic monitoring for some metals prior to land application, there is no requirement to test sewage sludges for the presence of organic chemicals in the U. S. To help fill the gaps in knowledge regarding the presence and concentration of organic chemicals in sewage sludges, the peer-reviewed literature and official governmental reports were examined. Data were found for 516 organic compounds which were grouped into 15 classes. Concentrations were compared to EPA risk-based soil screening limits (SSLs) where available. For 6 of the 15 classes of chemicals identified, there were no SSLs. For the 79 reported chemicals which had SSLs, the maximum reported concentration of 86% exceeded at least one SSL. Eighty-three percent of the 516 chemicals were not on the EPA established list of priority pollutants and 80% were not on the EPA's list of target compounds. Thus analyses targeting these lists will detect only a small fraction of the organic chemicals in sludges. Analysis of the reported data shows that more data has been collected for certain chemical classes such as pesticides, PAHs and PCBs than for others that may pose greater risk such as nitrosamines. The concentration in soil resulting from land application of sludge will be a function of initial concentration in the sludge and soil, the rate of application, management practices and losses. Even for chemicals that degrade readily, if present in high concentrations and applied repeatedly, the soil concentrations may be significantly elevated. The results of this work reinforce the need for a survey of organic chemical contaminants in sewage sludges and for further assessment of the risks they pose. PMID:16750559

Harrison, Ellen Z; Oakes, Summer Rayne; Hysell, Matthew; Hay, Anthony

2006-08-31

10

Sewage sludge additive  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (inventors)

1980-01-01

11

Adsorption and Fenton-like degradation of naphthalene dye intermediate on sewage sludge derived porous carbon.  

PubMed

A sewage sludge derived porous carbon (SC), which was prepared by physicochemical activation and carbonization (600°C), was applied for the adsorption and degradation of 1-diazo-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid (1,2,4-Acid) in the presence of H(2)O(2) and the performance was compared to that of pure Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The prepared SC showed mesoporous structure with magnetic property, which made it favorable for solid-liquid separation application. Further experiments revealed that SC had a higher adsorption capacity and degradation efficiency of 1,2,4-Acid than bare Fe(3)O(4). The Langmuir and Freundlich model fitted the isotherm data and illustrated that the equilibrium adsorption amount of 1,2,4-Acid onto SC (95.1 mg g(-1)) was quadruple as large as that on Fe(3)O(4) (26.4 mg g(-1)). The subsequent degradation experiments were conducted at conditions (pH 5.0 in the presence of 15 mM H(2)O(2)) with regard to 1,2,4-Acid degradation efficiency and metal ions leach. The 120 min's treatment in SC/H(2)O(2) system achieved 94% of 1,2,4-Acid (from 150 mg L(-1) after adsorption equilibrium to 9 mg L(-1)) and 48.1% TOC reduction, far higher than the efficiency of 46% and 24.3% by using Fe(3)O(4) MNPs. Further analysis evidenced the co-catalytic effect of iron, carbon, silicon and aluminum, which existed in large quantities in sludge derived SC. The carbonaceous phase along with silica contributes to an increase in the dispersion of catalytic centers and an adsorbent to concentrate organic pollutant whereas the iron oxide as well as alumina provides the catalytic centers for a Haber-Weiss initiated reactions. PMID:23298740

Gu, Lin; Zhu, Nanwen; Guo, Huaqing; Huang, Shouqiang; Lou, Ziyang; Yuan, Haiping

2013-02-15

12

Partial oxidation of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for the partial oxidation of sewage sludge. It comprises: shearing without heating a concentrated aqueous slurry of sewage sludge obtained from sewage.; dewatering the sheared pumpable aqueous slurry of sewage sludge from (1) to a solids content in the rage of about 25 to 50 wt. %; mixing the pumpable sheared aqueous slurry of sewage sludge with a supplemental solid fuel and reacting the pumpable aqueous sewage sludge-coal and/or petroleum coke slurry in the reaction zone of a partial oxidation gas generator at a temperature in the range of about 1800{degrees} F. to 2800{degrees} F.

McMahon, M.A.; Suggitt, R.M.; McKeon, R.J.; Brent, A.

1990-06-12

13

Anaerobic degradation of amino acids generated from the hydrolysis of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The anaerobic degradation of each amino acid that could be generated through the hydrolysis of sewage sludge was evaluated. Stickland reaction as an intermediate reaction between two kinds of amino acids was restricted in order to evaluate each amino acid. Changes in the chemical oxygen demand (COD), T-N, NH4(+)-N, biogas, and CH4 were analysed for the anaerobic digestion process. The initial nitrogen concentration of all amino acids is adjusted as 1000 mg/L. The degradation rate of the amino acids was determined based on the ammonia form of nitrogen, which is generated by the deamination of amino acids. Among all amino acids, such as alpha-alanine, beta-alanine, lysine, arginine, glycine, histidine, cysteine, methionine, and leucine, deamination rates of cysteine, leucine, and methionine were just 61.55%, 54.59%, and 46.61%, respectively, and they had low removal rates of organic matter and showed very low methane production rates of 13.55, 71.04, and 80.77 mL CH4/g CODin, respectively. Especially for cysteine, the methane content was maintained at approximately 7% during the experiment. If wastewater contains high levels of cysteine, leucine, and methionine and Stickland reaction is not prepared, these amino acids may reduce the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion. PMID:24701908

Park, Junghoon; Park, Seyong; Kim, Moonil

2014-01-01

14

Degradation of vinyl acetate by soil, sewage, sludge, and the newly isolated aerobic bacterium V2.  

PubMed Central

Vinyl acetate is subject to microbial degradation in the environment and by pure cultures. It was hydrolyzed by samples of soil, sludge, and sewage at rates of up to 6.38 and 1 mmol/h per g (dry weight) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Four yeasts and thirteen bacteria that feed aerobically on vinyl acetate were isolated. The pathway of vinyl acetate degradation was studied in bacterium V2. Vinyl acetate was degraded to acetate as follows: vinyl acetate + NAD(P)+----2 acetate + NAD(P)H + H+. The acetate was then converted to acetyl coenzyme A and oxidized through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glyoxylate bypass. The key enzyme of the pathway is vinyl acetate esterase, which hydrolyzed the ester to acetate and vinyl alcohol. The latter isomerized spontaneously to acetaldehyde and was then converted to acetate. The acetaldehyde was disproportionated into ethanol and acetate. The enzymes involved in the metabolism of vinyl acetate were studied in extracts. Vinyl acetate esterase (Km = 6.13 mM) was also active with indoxyl acetate (Km = 0.98 mM), providing the basis for a convenient spectrophotometric test. Substrates of aldehyde dehydrogenase were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and butyraldehyde. The enzyme was equally active with NAD+ or NADP+. Alcohol dehydrogenase was active with ethanol (Km = 0.24 mM), 1-propanol (Km = 0.34 mM), and 1-butanol (Km = 0.16 mM) and was linked to NAD+. The molecular sizes of aldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase were 145 and 215 kilodaltons, respectively.

Nieder, M; Sunarko, B; Meyer, O

1990-01-01

15

Sewage sludge treatment system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

1976-01-01

16

Microbial degradation of 14 C-diphenylamine in a laboratory model sewage sludge system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the biodegradation of diphenylamine (DPA) in a laboratory model sewage system. Ten ..mu..Ci ¹⁴C-DPA and 7.5 mg unlabeled DPA in 5 mL acetone were added to 1.5 L sludge mixed liquor in the incubation flask to produce a solution containing DPA at the 5 ppm level. Extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography\\/mass spectroscopy. Radioactive extracts

Albert M. Gardner; George H. Alvarez; Yuoh Ku

1982-01-01

17

The use of biochar-amended composting to improve the humification and degradation of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Wood biochar (6%, 12% and 18% of fresh sludge weight) adding to a sludge-and-straw composting system was investigated to assess the potential of biochar as a composting amendment. Organic degradation efficiency, temporal humification profile of the water-extractable organic fraction and solid organic matter, through spectroscopic, microscopic and elementary analysis were monitored. Fluorescent excitation and emission matrix indicated that concentrations of aqueous fulvic-acid-like and humic-acid-like compounds were, respectively, 13-26% and 15-30% higher in the biochar-amended treatments, than those in the control without biochar-amended. On the first day of sludge aerobic incubation, the presence of biochar resulted in increased oxygen uptake rates of 21-37% due to its higher nano-porosity and surface area. SEM indicated that, in the biochar-amended sludge, the dense microstructure on the sludge surface disintegrated into fragments with organic fraction degraded and water lost. Results indicated that 12-18%w/w addition of wood biochar to sludge composting was recommended. PMID:24656550

Zhang, Jining; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

2014-09-01

18

Organic chemicals in sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludges are residues resulting from the treatment of wastewater released from various sources including homes, industries, medical facilities, street runoff and businesses. Sewage sludges contain nutrients and organic matter that can provide soil benefits and are widely used as soil amendments. They also, however, contain contaminants including metals, pathogens, and organic pollutants. Although current regulations require pathogen reduction and

Ellen Z. Harrison; Summer Rayne Oakes; Matthew Hysell; Anthony Hay

2006-01-01

19

Re-inoculation strategies enhance the degradation of emerging pollutants in fungal bioaugmentation of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The use of Trametes versicolor has been partially successful in the removal of some pharmaceuticals from sewage sludge in laboratory-scale biopile systems. The application of two strategies for the re-inoculation of biomass was assessed during the fungal bioaugmentation of non-sterile sludge (42-d treatment) as an approach to improve the elimination of pharmaceuticals and other groups of emerging pollutants. Globally, the re-inoculation of biopiles with blended mycelium exerted a major effect on the removal of pharmaceuticals (86%), brominated-flame-retardants (81%) and UV filters (80%) with respect to the re-inoculation with additional lignocellulosic substrate colonized by the fungus (69-67-22%). The performance was better than that of the analogous non-re-inoculated systems that were assayed previously for the removal of pharmaceuticals. The results demonstrate the ability of T. versicolor to remove a wide spectrum of emerging micropollutants under non-sterile conditions, while re-inoculation appears to be a useful step to improve the fungal treatment of sludge. PMID:24582425

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Lucas, Daniel; Barón, Enrique; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Eljarrat, Ethel; Silvia Díaz-Cruz, M; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

2014-09-01

20

1988 NATIONAL SEWAGE SLUDGE SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Originally developed to support Phase I regulation for use or disposal of biosolids (sewage sludge). Data collected were used to estimate risks, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation. This is currently the only statistically designed surv...

21

Effect of sulfur-containing compounds on anaerobic degradation of cellulose to methane by mixed cultures obtained from sewage sludge.  

PubMed Central

Tests were made to determine the effects of inorganic and organic sulfur sources on the degradation of cellulose to methane in a chemically defined medium with sulfur-poor inoculum prepared from sewage sludge. The results show that a sulfur source of about a 0.85 mM concentration is essential for the degradation of cellulose to CH4. However, the production of CH4 from CO2 and H2 provided in the headspace occurred with 0.1 mM sulfate or sulfide. At a 9 mM concentration, all inorganic sulfur compounds other than sulfate inhibited both cellulose degradation and methane formation, and this inhibition increased in the order thiosulfate less than sulfite less than sulfide less than H2S. It appears that the degradation of cellulose to CH4 in a sulfate-free medium by inoculum maintained in a low-sulfur medium is inhibited because of the lack of availability of sulfur for growth of bacteria and synthesis of cell materials and sulfur-containing cofactors involved in cellulose degradation and methanogenesis. The reduction of methanogenesis by higher levels of sulfate probably occurs as a result of stimulation of reactions converting acetate and H2 to end products other than CH4.

Khan, A W; Trottier, T M

1978-01-01

22

Partial oxidation of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

A process is described comprising: (1) splitting a stream of dewatered sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 17-40 wt.% into a first stream and a second stream; (2) drying the first stream of dewatered sewage sludge to produce a stream of dried sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 75-99 wt.%: (3) grinding the dried sewage sludge from (2) to a particle size so that 100 wt% passes through ASTM E11 Standard Sieve Designation 1.40 mm; (4) mixing about 2-8 parts by dry weight aqueous slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel having a solids content of about 50-70 wt. % with each part by weight of said second stream of dewatered sewage sludge from (1); (5) heating the solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage slurry from (4) to a temperature of about 140-212 F; and mixing together 3-9 parts by dry weight of the solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage sludge slurry from (4) with each part by weight of dried sewage sludge from (2) to produce a pumpable fuel slurry comprising sewage sludge and solid carbonaceous fuel and having a solids content in the range of about 45-70 wt. %; and (6) reacting the fuel slurry from (5) in the reaction zone of a partial oxidation gas generator at a temperature in the range of about 1800-3500 F and a pressure in the range of about 1-35 atmospheres, and in the presence of free-oxygen containing gas, thereby producing a hot raw effluent gas stream of synthesis gas, reducing gas or fuel gas; (7) cooling, cleaning and purifying said raw effluent gas stream to produce a stream of fuel gas; (8) burning the fuel gas from (7) with air in a combustor of a gas turbine, and passing the hot exhaust gas through an expansion turbine which drives an electric generator; and (9) passing the hot exhaust gas from (8) in indirect heat exchange with water to produce steam for use in drying said first stream of dewatered sewage sludge in (2) and/or for heating said solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage slurry is (5) by indirect heat exchange.

McMahon, M.A.; Martin, M.C.; McKenzie, K.W.

1993-07-27

23

National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS) (SAS Transport Version).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS) consists of two tapes: the Analytical Assessment of Sewage Sludge at Final Disposal and the 1988 Sewage Sludge Use and Disposal Questionnaire Survey. The Analytical Assessment tape contains data from samples collec...

C. White

1989-01-01

24

Activated carbons from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbons of different characteristics have been prepared from dried sewage sludge using CO2, air and KOH as activating agents. The adsorption capacity of the resulting materials has been checked using 4-chlorophenol as a target compound in aqueous solution. CO2 and air-activation led to carbons of low BET area which increased with the activation temperature but did not reach 100m2\\/g

Victor Manuel Monsalvo; Angel Fernandez Mohedano; Juan Jose Rodriguez

2011-01-01

25

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1986-01-01

26

Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of

Yoshizo Suzuki; Tomoyuki Nojima; Akihiko Kakuta; Hiroshi Moritomi

2004-01-01

27

Assessment of sewage sludge quality in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of sewage sludge produced by two Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (Sparta and Kavala) was studied during the dry (summer?autumn) and wet (winter) periods. Sewage sludge had considerable nitrogen and phosphorus content that enable them to be used as additives to improve soil quality. On the other hand, the concentrations of harmful metals were lower than the limits imposed

M. O. Angelidis; M. Aloupi

1999-01-01

28

Treatment and reuse of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge was treated using composting, fixed-bed and stirred anaerobic digesters. The treatment performance in terms of the physico chemical parameters, bacterial indicators and pathogenic forms were assessed. In addition, the biogas production rate was recorded in the case of anaerobic digesters. Composting of the sewage sludge increased its total solids from 39 to 93% after 6 weeks, while the

Fayza A. Nasr

1997-01-01

29

Stabilization of primary sewage sludge during vermicomposting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, over the last few decades, there has been a remarkable increase in sewage sludge production due to population increase and unplanned urbanization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform primary sewage sludge (PSS) amended with cow dung (CD) into value added product, i.e., vermicompost in laboratory

Renuka Gupta; V. K. Garg

2008-01-01

30

ENERGETYCZNE WYKORZYSTANIE OSADÓWCIEKOWYCH THERMAL UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work explores thermal methods to sewage sludge utilization. Author prepares review of existing thermal methods of sewage sludge utilization. Nowadays, the most popular way to sewage sludge utilization is neutralization by storage and agriculture utilization. European Union legislation is going to limit this way of sewage sludge neutralization. Thermal methods are going to be the best alternative way

Sebastian Werle; Ryszard K. Wilk

31

Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

32

Characterization of Malaysian sewage sludge and nitrogen mineralization in three soils treated with sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies to determine the chemical composition of sewage sludges produced in Malaysia and the potentially mineralizable nitogen (No) and mineralization rate constant (k) of sewage sludge in three Malaysian soils are reported. Analyses of the sludges collected from 10 wastewater treatment plants in Malaysia are acidic in nature and the N. P, Ca, K and Mg contents is variable. The

A. B. Rosenani; D. R. Kala; C. I. Fauziah

33

Microwave-induced pyrolysis of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new method for pyrolyzing sewage sludge using a microwave furnace. It was found that if just the raw wet sludge is treated in the microwave, only drying of the sample takes place. However, if the sludge is mixed with a small amount of a suitable microwave absorber (such as the char produced in the pyrolysis itself)

J. A Menéndez; M Inguanzo; J. J Pis

2002-01-01

34

Population dynamics of an introduced bacterium degrading chlorinated benzenes in a soil column and in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of the ß-Proteobacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain P51, which degrades chlorinated benzenes, to metabolize 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) under environmental conditions was tested by its release into two experimental systems. The first system consisted of laboratory scale microcosms which were operated with and without the addition of TCB and which were inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant. The second

Ronen Tchelet; Rainer Meckenstock; Patrick Steinle; Jan Roelof van der Meer

1999-01-01

35

Degradation of UV filters in sewage sludge and 4-MBC in liquid medium by the ligninolytic fungus Trametes versicolor.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet (UV) filters are xenobiotic compounds that can enter the environment through the liquid effluent of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and through adsorption in the sludge by-product because of their high hydrophobicity, as the sludge is subsequently applied as a fertiliser. A solid-state treatment of WWTP sludge with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor is reported in the present work as a feasible method for UV filter degradation, with reductions ranging from 87% in the case of 3-(4'-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC) to 100% for benzophenone-3 (BP3) and its metabolite 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone (4DHB). This study represents a first step in the development of a future fungal treatment for UV filters; thus, it is essential to prove that elimination is due only to the action of the fungus and not that of other microorganisms. To this end, the sludge was sterilised prior to fungal treatment. Biological assays indicate that T. versicolor readily eliminates oestrogenic activity, although it may be inefficient at eliminating other compounds, including some with dioxin-like activity. Degradation studies of 4-MBC in liquid media were also performed, and complete removal was achieved in less than 24 h. The main metabolites were identified, and the first steps of the transformation pathway were elucidated: a mono- or di-hydroxylation by cytochrome P450 and a subsequent conjugation with a pentose. None of 4-MBC transformation products was found to be responsible for increased dioxin-like activity in the sludge. PMID:22487399

Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Olivares, Alba; Piña, Benjamí; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Vicent, Teresa; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria

2012-08-15

36

Land Application of Sewage Sludge Landfill Leachate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This investigation evaluated the feasibility of the 'living filter' concept as an alternative method of heavy metal leachate disposal to prevent contamination of groundwaters. Leachate collected from a simulated sewage sludge landfill was applied at rates...

W. R. Wright H. J. Brown

1982-01-01

37

Lightweight aggregate from flyash and sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of treating flyash and sewage sludge. It comprises: mixing flyash with sewage sludge having a high fuel value; agglomerating the mixture; drying the agglomerated mixture; heating the agglomerated mixture to a temperature less than the melting point of the mixture in a rotary kiln using the agglomerated mixture as the principal source of fuel in the kiln to form a porous nodular product; and recovering the nodular product from the kiln.

Nechvatal, T.M.; Heian, G.A.

1991-10-15

38

Clean and Efficient Utilization of Sewage Sludge  

SciTech Connect

This is the Final Report for the DOE SBIR Phase II project (Grant No. DE-FG03-98ER82573). This report summarizes accomplishments and results for the entire program. In this program an innovative technology has been devised for transforming sewage sludge into a high quality fuel and recovering its energy content. The technology being developed is generally applicable to nearly all municipal sewage sludge management facilities and coal-fired boilers. It will provide economic and environmental benefits.

Zamansky, Vladimir; Rizeq, George

2002-09-12

39

A Family Physician's Guide to Sewage Sludge  

PubMed Central

The potential environmental and personal health effects from the agricultural uses of domestic sewage sludge may increasingly require the guidance of the family physician, especially in farming communities. This article summarizes the potential health hazards and outlines the tripartite risk phenomenon—hazard identification, risk assessment, and social evaluation. For the agricultural use of dewatered sewage sludge, strict adherence to regulated procedures should not increase risk beyond that of agriculture generally. Confirmation by prospective epidemiological studies is recommended.

Connop, Peter J.

1983-01-01

40

Virological Investigations on Irradiated Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The virusinactivating activity of a Co sub 60 -irradiation pilot plant at Geiselbullach/Munich was to be examined. We investigated 16 impure sewage water, 15 purified sewage water, 32 raw sladge samples, 62 digested sludge samples before irradiation, 52 d...

C. Epp

1980-01-01

41

SORPTION AND DEGRADATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL IN SLUDGE-AMENDED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Sorption and degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by two alkaline and one acid soil was studied in the presence and absence of sewage sludge. he PCP concentrations used (0.1-10 mg kg-1) included PCP rates expected with land application of normal municipal sewage sludges. orptio...

42

COMPARISON OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF SEWAGE SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested by using the Salmonella/microsome reverse mutation ...

43

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOEpatents

This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

Carlson, L.W.

1985-08-30

44

Application of microwaves for sewage sludge conditioning.  

PubMed

The article focuses on the effect of microwave treatment on the de-waterability of sewage sludge. The specific resistance to filtration, capillary suction time, and dry matter content in centrifuged sludge cake were measured. The quality of sludge liquor obtained after microwave processing was also analysed. It was found out that microwaves improve sludge de-waterability. The quantitative improvement depends on sludge type-better effect of microwave processing were observed in the primary sludge compared to mixed or digested sludges. If microwave treatment is followed by polyelectrolyte conditioning, the effects are considerably better than while these conditioning methods are used separately. Microwave conditioning increased burden of organic matter (BOD(5), COD) in the sludge liquor. PMID:16278005

Wojciechowska, Ewa

2005-11-01

45

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix A to...

2009-01-01

46

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix A to...

2010-07-01

47

Preparing Sewage Sludge for Land Application or Surface Disposal: A Guide for Preparers of Sewage Sludge on the Monitoring, Record Keeping, and Reporting Requirements of the Federal Standards for the Use of Disposal of Sewage Sludge, 40 CFR Part 503.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general resp...

1993-01-01

48

Agronomic characterisation of different types of sewage sludge: Policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spain is one of the main municipal sewage sludge producers of Europe. This paper aims to agronomically characterise different types of sewage sludge stabilised by different methods (anaerobically digested, composted, and pelletised) and deliver policy recommendations from the results of this characterisation. Anaerobic sewage sludge quality is found to be better in plants with a lower volume of water processing.

M. R. Mosquera-Losada; N. Muñoz-Ferreiro; A. Rigueiro-Rodríguez

2010-01-01

49

Study of the pyrolysis liquids obtained from different sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis of sewage sludge in fluidized bed to produce bio-oil is under study as a useful way to valorise this waste. Sewage sludge is the waste produced in the wastewater treatment plants. Its composition may change due to the origin and to the non-standardized treatments in the wastewater treatment plants. The pyrolysis of three samples of anaerobically digested sewage sludge

I. Fonts; M. Azuara; G. Gea; M. B. Murillo

2009-01-01

50

Effect of experimental conditions on gas quality and solids produced by sewage sludge cogasification. 1. Sewage sludge mixed with coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cogasification of sewage sludge mixed with coal showed that the amount of sewage sludge supplied to the gasifier, depending on its availability, could vary without affecting the gasifier performance; however, it had an influence on the syngas composition. The use of sewage sludge during coal gasification gave rise to an increasing gas yield and energy conversion, mainly because the gas

Filomena Pinto; Helena Lopes; Mario Dias; I. Gulyurtlu; I. Cabrita

2007-01-01

51

Study on the characteristics and utilization of urban sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to propose an effective method for the reclamation of sewage sludge, sewage sludge from three waste water treatment plants were sampled and analyzed. The results show that the digested sludge samples are alkalescent, and the undigested sludge samples are acidic. The moisture content ranged from 78% to 83%. The samples have plenty of organic matter, N, P, K,

Niu Junling; Liu Lei; Zheng Binguo

2011-01-01

52

Influence of sewage sludge addition on coal ash fusion temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ash fusion characteristics of three types of bituminous coal (A, B, and C), one type of sewage sludge (W), and the corresponding coal-sewage sludge blends (10 and 50 wt % of sludge) were studied. The ash fusibility temperatures of samples in oxidizing atmosphere were measured, and their chemical and mineralogical compositions were determined. The addition of sludge to coal

M. Belen Folgueras; R. Maria Diaz; Jorge Xiberta; M. Purificacion Garcia; J. Juan Pis

2005-01-01

53

Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

2007-01-01

54

Mechanical properties of dewatered sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of dewatered, anaerobically digested sewage sludge were determined from soil laboratory tests. The sludge material is largely composed of organic clay sized-particles, a sizable fraction of which is in an active state of biological digestion which can continue over many years under field conditions. Moderately digested sludge material was found to have a typical specific gravity of solids value of 1.55, and loss on ignition (LOI) value of 70% dry mass. Strongly digested sludge, produced by digesting the liquid sludge further at 35 degrees C in the laboratory, was found to have a lower LOI value of 55% dry mass, and a higher specific gravity of solids value of about 1.72. The maximum dry density of 0.56 tonne/m3 for the dried sludge material was produced using standard Proctor compaction at roughly 85% moisture content (54% solids content). Air-dried, compacted sludge material was tested in quick-undrained triaxial compression and vane shear. Undrained shear strength-moisture content plots are presented. Shear strength values measured in triaxial compression and vane shear were consistent. The effective angle of shearing resistance (phi') was determined from consolidated-undrained, triaxial compression tests on pasteurized, normally consolidated samples of the sludge material. The mechanical properties of the sludge material changed with the level of sludge digestion. The phi' value increased from 32 degrees for moderately digested sludge, to 37 degrees for strongly digested sludge. The effective cohesion of the sludge material remained zero throughout. The shrinkage, swelling and adhesion properties of the sludge material were also studied. Significant shrinkage occurred as the compacted material dried. The sludge material lost its adhesion below about 95% moisture content (51% solids content). Re-hydration of the dry material caused the bulk volume to double. PMID:15681178

O'Kelly, Brendan C

2005-01-01

55

Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water.  

PubMed

Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water was studied. Influences of main reaction parameters, including temperature (623-698 K), pressure (25-35 Mpa), residence time (10-15 min) and dry matter content (5-25 wt%), were investigated to optimize the gasification process. The main gas products were methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and traces of ethene, etc. Results showed that 10 wt% dry matter content digested sewage sludge at a temperature of 698 K and residence time of 50 min, with a pressure of 25 MPa, were the most favorable conditions for the sewage sludge gasification and carbon gasification efficiencies. In addition, potassium carbonate (K2CO3) was also employed as the catalyst to make a comparison between gasification with and without catalyst. When 2.6 g K2CO3 was added, a gasification efficiency of 25.26% and a carbon gasification efficiency of 20.02% were achieved, which were almost four times as much as the efficiencies without catalyst. K2CO3 has been proved to be effective in sewage sludge gasification. PMID:23315366

Zhai, Yunbo; Wang, Chang; Chen, Hongmei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Pang, Daoxiong; Lu, Pei

2013-04-01

56

SEWAGE SLUDGE PATHOGEN TRANSPORT MODEL PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, raw or anaerobically digest...

57

SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION, HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT  

EPA Science Inventory

A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel ef...

58

Tracers of sewage sludge in the marine environment: a review.  

PubMed

A review of the available and potential tracers of the movement and distribution of sewage sludge ('sludge') in and on marine sediments is presented. A brief review of 'active' sludge tracers is followed by a more extensive review of 'passive' sludge tracers. These can be broken down into five categories: Natural organic components of sludge--organic carbon, faecal steroids, carbohydrate/TOC ratio, tomato seeds. Synthetic organic compounds--silicones, chlorinated hydrocarbons, non-ionic surfactants and their degradation products, linear alkylbenzenes. Stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulphur. Inorganic substances and their properties--minerals, paint pigments, trace elements, magnetic properties. Biological/Microbiological--faecal bacteria, Clostridium welchii spores, amoebae, viruses, nitrogen-fixing enterobacteriaceae. A wide variety of sludge tracers are available with the choice of suitable tracers in an individual situation governed by the available equipment and expertise, cost considerations, ease of sampling requirements and determination, and the nature of other pollutant inputs in the vicinity of the input of interest. Ideally, the sludge tracers chosen should be unique to the input of interest, but this will rarely be achievable in practice. In areas of gross sludge contamination, a marine geophysical survey technique can be used to delineate the area affected and this provides a rapid cost-effective method for large areas. PMID:3529389

Vivian, C M

1986-08-01

59

Plasma chemical gasification of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The possibility for plasma gasification of sewage sludge is investigated. Water steam is used as the plasma generating gas and as a chemical reagent. The experiments are carried out at a sludge to water steam ratio of 1 to 1.5 by weight, and at a plasma torch temperature of up to 2600 degrees C. The calculated average temperature in the reactor after mixing with the sludge particles is up to 1700 degrees C. Proximate and ultimate analyses of the sludge are given. The resulting gases are analysed by gas chromatography. High calorific gas containing mainly carbon monoxide (48% volume) and hydrogen (46% volume), as well as glass-like slag, is obtained. No water-soluble substances are detected within it. The amount of carbon dioxide produced is under 4% mass. No hydrocarbons are observed within the gas. The investigated process is environmentally safe, compact and shows a high rate of conversion. PMID:12667017

Balgaranova, Janetta

2003-02-01

60

Characteristics of sewage sludge and distribution of heavy metal in plants with amendment of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

In order to better understand land application of sewage sludge, the characterization of heavy metals and organic pollutants were investigated in three different sewage sludges in Shanghai City, China. It was found that the total concentrations of Cd in all of sewage sludge and total concentrations of Zn in Jinshan sewage sludge, as well as those of Zn, Cu, and Ni in Taopu sludge are higher than Chinese regulation limit of pollutants for sludge to be used in agriculture. Leachability of Hg in all of studied samples and that of Cd in Taopu sewage sludge exceed the limit values of waste solid extraction standard in China legislation. Based on the characteristics for three kinds of sewage sludge, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amended with Quyang sewage sludge on the accumulation of heavy metal by Begonia semperflorens-hybr; Ophiopogon japonicus (L.F.) Ker-Gaw; Loropetalum chindense-var. rubrum; Dendranthema morifolium; Viola tricolor; A ntirrhinum majus; Buxus radicans Sieb; Viburnum macrocephalum; Osmanthus fragrans Lour; Cinnamomum camphora siebold and Ligustrum lucidum ait. Results showed that 8 species of plant survived in the amended soil, and moreover they flourished as well as those cultivated in the control soil. The heavy metal concentration in plants varied with species, As, Pb, Cd and Cr concentration being the highest in the four herbaceous species studied, particularly in the roots of D. morifolium. These plants, however, did not show accumulator of As, Pb, Cd and Cr. The highest concentration of Ni and Hg was found in the roots of D. morifolium, followed by the leaves of B. semperflorens-hybr. Levels of Zn and Cu were much higher in D. morifolium than in the other plant species. D. morifolium accumulated Ni, Hg, Cu and Zn, which may contribute to the decrease of heavy metal contents in the amended soil. Treatment with sewage sludge did not significantly affect the uptake of heavy metals by the L. chindense-var. rubrum, however, it significantly affected the uptake of heavy metals by D. morifolium. PMID:17294948

Dai, Jia-yin; Chen, Ling; Zhao, Jian-fu; Ma, Na

2006-01-01

61

40 CFR 60.4775 - What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit? 60.4775...Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability... § 60.4775 What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?...

2013-07-01

62

40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt...Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability...Authority § 60.4780 What sewage sludge incineration units are...

2013-07-01

63

40 CFR 60.4770 - Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit? 60.4770...Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability... Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?...

2013-07-01

64

78 FR 34918 - Direct Final Approval of Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9821-1] Direct Final Approval of Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated...control air pollutants from ``Sewage Sludge Incinerators'' (SSI). The...as any device that combusts sewage sludge for the purpose of reducing...

2013-06-11

65

Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few health concerns because sufficient decay occurs before it can reach the public however, incineration, which is done in winter months, directly releases the 131I from sewage sludge to the atmosphere, and even though exposures to both workers and the public were found to be considerably lower than 1% of natural background, incineration of sludge in a pathway for public exposure. Although 131I was readily measurable in sewage sludge, only about 1% of the radioione administered to patients was found in the sludge. The fate of the remaining radioactivity has not been established; some may be in secondary and tertiary residuals, but it is quite likely that most passed through the plant and was discharged in dilute concentrations in plant emissions. The behavior of radioiodine and other radioactive materials released into municipal seweage systems, such as those from large medical facilities, is not yet well understood.

Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

1997-01-01

66

Toxicity Evaluation of Sewage Sludge Before and After Composting Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge and the compost were evaluated through chemical characterization and toxicity testing to determine their suitability for land application. The application of sewage sludge\\/compost, slightly acidic with pH rang of 6.4-6.5, decreased the soil pH. The higher the sewage sludge\\/compost rates, the higher the mixed soil contents of electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P),

Qiang Liu; Ling Chen; You Huang; Wuliang Cheng; Jianfu Zhao

2008-01-01

67

Ecophysiological Responses of Plants After Sewage Sludge Compost Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composting is one of the most appropriate methods to recycle sewage sludge. Sewage sludge compost is a suitable solution for\\u000a improving the quality of barren soil at landfill. Therefore, it is important to investigate the effects of sewage sludge compost\\u000a on plants. Different compost application methods (mixing and scattering over reclaimed soil) on sawtooth oak (Quercus acutissima) and Japanese red

Uhram Song; Eun Ju Lee

2010-01-01

68

Method for incinerating sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

A method and an apparatus are disclosed for incinerating dewatered sludge without using an auxiliary fuel, comprising pelletizing the partially dewatered sludge having a water content of 70 to 75%, drying the pellets with a heat source obtained by burning gases formed by dry-distillation and gasification, using part of the resulting dry-distilled gas in said drying step, dry-distilling the pellets by the sensible heat of a gas formed by gasification, gasifying the dry-distillation residues with air, water vapor and the remainder of said dry- distilled gas.

Suzuki, A.; Kimura, K.; Shioya, Y.

1983-08-16

69

Ammonia sanitisation of sewage sludge using urea.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to develop a simple, low-cost treatment for sewage sludge using urea as a sanitising agent. Sewage sludge was spiked with Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella typhimurium, treated with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% w/w urea at laboratory scale, and the viability was monitored during 4 months of storage at 4, 10 and 22 °C (only 0.5%). A linear relationship was identified between Salmonella spp. inactivation rate and ammonia (NH3) concentration. Temperature had a positive impact on Salmonella spp. inactivation at higher temperatures, but in the range 4-10 °C temperature influenced this inactivation merely by its impact on the ammonia equilibrium. Enterococcus spp. was more persistent and a lag phase of up to 11 weeks was observed. Higher temperature and ammonia concentration reduced the lag phase duration significantly, and also had a clear effect on the inactivation rate for the treatments with 0.5% urea at 22 °C and 2% urea at 4 and 10 °C. Urea sanitisation of sewage sludge can give a 2 log10 reduction of Enterococcus spp. and more than a 5 log10 reduction of Salmonella spp. within 6 weeks with either 0.5% w/w urea at 22 °C or 2% urea at 10 °C. PMID:24185072

Fidjeland, Jørgen; Lalander, Cecilia; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

2013-01-01

70

Reductive hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The United States and the European Union each generate around 6900 million dry tons of sewage sludge annually. This is disposed of by land application, landfilling, incineration and other approaches. Reductive hydrothermal (HT) treatment refers here to simple aqueous systems heated and pressurized above 300 degrees C/100 bar under anoxic and/or reducing conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the HT treatment of municipal sewage sludge and infectious fecal microbial cultures with respect to waste volume reduction, biological sterilization, and the generation of usable hydrocarbon product mixtures. These endpoints from HT treatment also were compared to those from pyrolysis. HT at 400 degrees C/150 bar transformed sewage sludge solids into complex gas phase (4%) and liquid (6%) hydrocarbon mixtures (approximately 11% combined yield), along with similar amounts (5%) of solid residues. HT products in the aqueous phase (e.g., alcohols) were present but not analysed. Viable mixed fecal cultures (10(9) colony forming units/mL) were completely sterilized by HT treatment, and a hydrocarbon mixture also was generated from the cells, but it was markedly different from that resulting from HT of the sludge. The hydrocarbon assemblage generated from the sludge included n-hydrocarbons (C9-C20) and alkyl substituted benzenes, phenols, and related compound series of higher mass (e.g., indanes, naphthalenes). Light aromatic parent compounds were significantly less abundant than their substituted C1-C5 alkyl series and there was a paucity of N-, O- and S-heterocycles and polycyclic systems with more than three fused rings. This was different from the products of pyrolysis which were dominated by a relatively simple mixture of linear and branched hydrocarbons and their oxidized homologues (e.g., aldehydes). PMID:18065219

Catallo, W J; Comeaux, J L

2008-11-01

71

First Report on the WRC Sewage Sludge Pumping Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes experiments carried out over a two year period to investigate the effect of sewage sludge on rotodynamic pump and pipeline performance. Pump performance has been correlated with sludge rheology, and ragging up and gas bubbles within ...

M. Johnson

1981-01-01

72

Irradiation Effects on the Physical Characteristics of Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, i...

M. J. Lee J. K. Lee D. H. Yoo

2005-01-01

73

Exergy analysis of methanol from the sewage sludge process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns a new method of sewage sludge treatment that contributes more than traditional methods to the sustainable technology by achieving a higher rational efficiency of sludge processing. This is obtained by preserving the chemical exergy present in the sludge and transforming it into a chemical one––methanol. The proposed method combines a sludge gasification process and a modified methanol

K. J. Ptasinski; C. Hamelinck; P. J. A. M. Kerkhof

2002-01-01

74

IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

2004-10-05

75

Sono-alkalization pretreatment of sewage sludge containing phthalate acid esters.  

PubMed

This work experimentally elucidates the efficiencies of sono-alkalization treatment on municipal sewage sludge. The total solids (TS) concentration of the sewage sludge was pre-adjusted at 29.7 g/L. Two parameters such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) dosage and sonication time were considered by the central composite design (CCD) program to investigate the effect on the degradation of phthalate acid esters (PAEs) and solubilization of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD). The mean concentrations of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) in the sewage sludge were 718, 41 and 8 mg/kg dry weight sludge, respectively. Sono-alkalization process was effective on the degradation of DBP but worthless for DEHP and BBP. Overall degradation of DBP in sewage sludge was estimated to be 100% at the NaOH dosage of 68 m Mand sonication time of 2.2 min. Sono-alkalization was responsible for 6,000 mg/L increase of SCOD based on the decrease of volatile solids in sewage sludge. PMID:21847788

Ma, Ying-Shih; Lin, Jih-Gaw

2011-01-01

76

FUEL EFFICIENT INCINERATION FOR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, demonstrated that 34 to 70 percent of the fuel used for sewage sludge incineration could be saved. These savings were the result of study of how sewage sludge incineration in a multiple hearth incinerator works, adding instrumentation and contro...

77

Cogasification of sewage sludge in an updraft gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge is the residue produced by the domestic or industrial wastewaters treatment plants. According to the principles of sustainability, several restrictions have been imposed on the conventional methods currently adopted for its disposal. The consequent need to develop alternative processes for the use of sewage sludge for energy purposes such as gasification requires experimental tests in order to quantify

M. Seggiani; S. Vitolo; M. Puccini; A. Bellini

78

Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220sp°C) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This shows the fundamental importance of rapid processing. Rapid thermal conditioning may be incorporated into a wastewater treatment plant where biological treatment is used. For purposes of a concrete example, flow-sheets for the incorporation of the RTC process into the New York City Wards Island WPCP were prepared, and experimental data from the laboratory scale RTC test facility were used to set design parameters. A design incorporating nitrogen removal into the RTC flow sheet was also examined. ASPEN software was used to design the proposed processes and perform economic analyses. Cost estimates for these alternatives show a substantial advantage to implement RTC in comparison to present plant operation. About one third of the current sludge processing cost can be saved by incorporation of RTC into the Wards Island Plant. With nitrogen removal, the economics are even more attractive.

Zheng, Jianhong

79

Codigestion of olive oil mill wastewaters with manure, household waste or sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined anaerobic digestion of oil mill effluent(OME) together with manure, household waste (HHW) orsewage sludge was investigated. In batch experimentsit was shown that OME could be degraded into biogaswhen codigested with manure. In codigestion with HHWor sewage sludge, OME dilution with water (1:5) wasrequired in order to degrade it. Using continuouslystirred lab-scale reactors it was shown thatcodigestion of OME with

I. Angelidaki; B. K. Ahring

1997-01-01

80

Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge  

PubMed Central

The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model.

2014-01-01

81

Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

Trávní?ek, Petr; Junga, Petr

2014-01-01

82

A comparative study of anaerobically digested and undigested sewage sludges in preparation of activated carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of sewage sludge is an increasingly expensive and environmentally sensitive problem throughout the world. Preparation of activated carbon from sewage sludge offers an attractive re-use alternative to the traditional disposal routes. The objective of this research work was to compare anaerobically digested sewage sludge (DS) and undigested sewage sludge (US) as source materials in the preparation of activated carbons.

J. H Tay; X. G Chen; S Jeyaseelan; N Graham

2001-01-01

83

SURFACE DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE (EPA/625/R-95/002)  

EPA Science Inventory

Sewage sludge and domestic septage may be applied to the land as a soil conditioner and partial fertilizer, incinerated, or placed on land (surface disposal). Placement refers to the act of putting sewage sludge on an active sewage sludge unit (land on which only sewage sludge is...

84

Monitoring sewage sludge using heterotrophic nitrogen fixing microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge was studied using free-living N2-fixing bacteria in two types of soil amended with six types of municipal sewage sludges and cow and pig manures, respectively. Sludge and manure treatments were as follows: no addition, Swedish recommended rates of 5 t dry wt ha?1, twice the standard rate of addition (2RR), and 10 times the standard rate (10RR). The

A. M. Mårtensson; L. Torstensson

1996-01-01

85

Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91\\/271\\/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related

J. M. Soriano-Disla; S. Houot; M. Imhoff; N. Valentin; I. Gómez; J. Navarro-Pedreño

2009-01-01

86

THE LOADS OF PAHS IN WASTEWATER AND SEWAGE SLUDGE OF MUNICIPAL TREATMENT PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage and sewage sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant were analyzed for 16 EPA-PAHs. This plant is a classic mechanical-biological treatment plant, consisting of activated sludge technology with additional chemical treatment for the removal of phosphorus compounds. The process of sewage sludge treatment is carried out in closed as well as open sludge digesters. Primary and mechanically thickened sludge

Maria Wlodarczyk-Makula

2005-01-01

87

Enhanced compositing of radiation disinfected sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on isothermal composting of radiation disinfected sewage sludge and liquid chromatography of water extracts of the products were carried out. The optimum temperature and pH were around 50 °C and 7-8, respectively. The repeated use of products as seeds increased the rate of CO 2 evolution. The rate reached a maximum within 10 hours and decreased rapidly, and the CO 2 evolution ceased after about 3 days. The conversion of organic carbon to carbon dioxide attained to about 40% for the repeated use of products as seeds at the optimum conditions. As long as seeds in available were used, no remarkable difference was found in the composting of unirradiated and irradiated sludges. The composting process using radiation, however, can be carried out at the optimum conditions and is expected to shorten the composting period, because it is not necessary to keep fermentation temperature higher to reduce pathogen in sludge. Liquid chromatographic studies of the products showed that low molecular components decreased and higher molecular ones increased with fermentation. An index expressing the degree of reduction of easily decomposable organics was presented. The index also showed that the optimum temperature for fermentation was 50 °C, and that the easily decomposable organics disappeared above 30% of the conversion of organic carbon.

Kawakami, W.; Hashimoto, S.

88

Spectroscopic study of the humification process during sewage sludge treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to study the free radical transition of organic materials during the sewage treatment process. Investigations of sludge from biologic-mechanical sewage treatment plant in Sosnowiec Zagórze were carried out. The course of the humification processes during sewage treatment was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. The concentration of free radicals at each process stage and the value g were determined. Sludge samples and extracted fractions of humic acids were examined. Humic acids were extracted from sludge by means of conventional methods elaborated by Stevenson. For study of humic acids structures, besides EPR, the UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy were used.

Paj?czkowska, J.; Su?kowska, A.; Su?kowski, W. W.; J?drzejczyk, M.

2003-06-01

89

Effects of chemically contaminated sewage sludge on an aphid population  

SciTech Connect

Survival and fecundity of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, were markedly reduced when they were fed on collard plants grown in pots of soil treated with chemically contaminated sewage sludge, as compared to populations on potted plants grown in uncontaminated sludge or on fertilized soil (control). Calculated demographic parameters differed significantly between the contaminated sludge and uncontaminated sludge populations and between the contaminated sludge and control populations. No significant differences were detected between the uncontaminated sludge and control populations. The ecological effects on the aphids suggest that plant uptake and translocation of chemicals from the contaminated sludge affected aphid fitness through direct toxicity and/or reduced nutritional value of the plant. These results indicate that phytophagous insects may be affected by chemical contaminants in sewage sludge used in agriculture.

Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

1986-12-01

90

Electricity generation from bio-treatment of sewage sludge with microbial fuel cell.  

PubMed

A two-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) with potassium ferricyanide as its electron acceptor was utilized to degrade excess sewage sludge and to generate electricity. Stable electrical power was produced continuously during operation for 250 h. Total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) of sludge was reduced by 46.4% when an initial TCOD was 10,850 mg/l. The MFC power output did not significantly depend on process parameters such as substrate concentration, cathode catholyte concentration, and anodic pH. However, the MFC produced power was in close correlation with the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of sludge. Furthermore, ultrasonic pretreatment of sludge accelerated organic matter dissolution and, hence, TCOD removal rate in the MFC was increased, but power output was insignificantly enhanced. This study demonstrates that this MFC can generate electricity from sewage sludge over a wide range of process parameters. PMID:19615894

Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Zhang, Jinna; Zhang, Guodong; Lee, Duu-Jong

2009-12-01

91

Batchwise mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of secondary sludge from pulp and paper industry and municipal sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Residues from forest-industry wastewater-treatment systems are treated as waste at many pulp and paper mills. These organic substances have previously been shown to have potential for production of large quantities of biogas. There is concern, however, that the process would require expensive equipment because of the slow degradation of these substances. Pure non-fibrous sludge from forest industry showed lower specific methane production during mesophilic digestion for 19days, 53±26 Nml/g of volatile solids as compared to municipal sewage sludge, 84±24 Nml/g of volatile solids. This paper explores the possibility of using anaerobic co-digestion with municipal sewage sludge to enhance the potential of methane production from secondary sludge from a pulp and paper mill. It was seen in a batch anaerobic-digestion operation of 19 days that the specific methane production remained largely the same for municipal sewage sludge when up to 50% of the volatile solids were replaced with forest-industry secondary sludge. It was also shown that the solid residue from anaerobic digestion of the forest-industry sludge should be of suitable quality to use for improving soil quality on lands that are not used for food production. PMID:23294534

Hagelqvist, Alina

2013-04-01

92

Biogas production from Sludge of Sewage Treatment Plant at Haridwar (Uttarakhand)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas, a source of non-conventional energy is produced by fermentation of sludges. The sewage have collected through sewage pumping stations and treated in the primary and secondary treatment steps in sewage treatment plant at Jagjitpur, Hardwar. The Sewage Treatment Plant receives approximately 40 mld sewage from different pumping stations and 18 mld sewage is used for treatment at sewage treatment

D. S. Malik; Umesh Bharti

93

Identification of asbestos and glass fibers in municipal sewage sludges  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the results of the analysis of municipal sewage sludges from five large American cities for the presence of asbestos fibers. The possible toxicologic significance of the findings for specific occupational groups is discussed.

Bishop, K.; Ring, S.J.; Zoltai, T.; Manos, C.G.; Ahrens, D.V.; Lisk, D.J.

1985-03-01

94

CONTROL OF PATHOGENS AND VECTORS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document describes the federal requirements concerning pathogens in sewage sludge and septage destined for land application or surface disposal. t also provides guidance for meeting those requirements. he chapters of this document discuss why pathogen control is necessary, t...

95

Costs of Air Pollution Abatement Systems for Sewage Sludge Incinerators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air pollution control systems to municipal sewage sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment-wet s...

G. Annamraju Y. M. Shah M. L. Arora

1986-01-01

96

USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FOR FOREST-TREE SEEDLING PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...

97

Co-digestion of primary sewage sludge and industrial wastewater under anaerobic sulphate reducing conditions: enzymatic profiles in a recycling sludge bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first stage in the degradation and recycling of primary sewage sludge and particulate organic matter is the solubilisation and enhanced hydrolysis of complex polymeric organic carbon structures associated with the anaerobic sulphidogenic environment. Solubilization of complex carbon substrates provides the primary reaction in the BioSURE Process, and is effected in the recycling sludge bed reactor (RSBR). During the process

C. G. Whiteley; G. Enongene; B. I. Pletschke; P. Rose; K. Whittington-Jones

98

Characterization of humic acids extracted from sewage sludge-amended oxisols by electron paramagnetic resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tropical soils, the high turnover rate and mineralization of organic matter (OM) associated with intensive agricultural use, generally leads to faster soil degradation than that observed in temperate climatic zones. The application of sewage sludge to the soils is one proposed method of maintaining soil organic matter, and is also an alternative method of disposing of this waste product.

Martha González-Pérez; Ladislau Martin-Neto; Luiz Alberto Colnago; Débora M. B. P. Milori; Otávio Antonio de Camargo; Ronaldo Berton; Wagner Bettiol

2006-01-01

99

Influence of sewage sludge application on physical and chemical properties of Gypsisols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundant gypsiferous soils of the semi-arid central Ebro valley are very sensitive to environmental change. Poor land management practices have caused severe degradation of the soils near the city of Zaragoza, leading to loss of productivity and of ecological function and badland formation on the slopes. The use of sewage sludge for land rehabilitation is increasingly being considered as

A Navas; F Bermúdez; J Mach??n

1998-01-01

100

Impact of Lead and Sewage Sludge on Soil Microbial Biomass and Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge disposal on arable land is viewed as a method to reduce waste accumulation and to enrich soil fertility. However, such disposal can degrade soil ecosystems due to the presence of potentially harmful substances, such as heavy metals. Pb has assumed greater significance because currently its dispersal through anthropogenic activities has exceeded the inputs from natural sources by about

G. H. Dar

1997-01-01

101

Absence of asbestos in municipal sewage sludge ashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In earlier studies, asbestos was found in sewage sludges in several cities in the United States using x-ray diffraction, high power light optical microscopy, polarized light microscopy or electron microscopy. In a number of cities in the United States, sewage sludge is incinerated at temperatures up to 1,000°C. Temperatures of 550°C or higher dehydroxylate the asbestos lattice resulting in alteration

Kusum J. Patel-Mandlik; Charles G. Manos; Donald J. Lisk

1988-01-01

102

Combustion kinetics of sewage sludge and combustible wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimated the kinetics of the mono- and co-combustion of sewage sludge pellets and combustible wastes such as municipal\\u000a solid waste (MSW) and refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Sewage sludge was manufactured into pellets with a diameter of 8, 12, or\\u000a 16 mm and a length of 30 mm. The RDF was composed of paper and plastics and was formed into

Ho-Soo Lee; Sung-Keun Bae

2009-01-01

103

Aerobic thermophilic treatment of sewage sludge contaminated with 4-nonylphenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) occurs in sewage sludge as a result of the breakdown of detergents which contains nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs). 4-NP is of environmental concern because of its toxicity to biological systems. The present paper reports results of aerobic treatment under thermophilic conditions of sewage sludge artificially contaminated with 4-NP. Experiments were carried out using three parallel laboratory-scale batch reactors operating

Fawzi A Banat; Stephan Prechtl; Franz Bischof

2000-01-01

104

Sorption and Degradation of Pentachlorophenol in Sludge-Amended Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sorption and degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by two alkaline and one acid soil was studied in the presence and absence of sewage sludge. The PCP concentrations used (0.1-10 mg/kg) included PCP rates expected with land application of normal municipa...

C. A. Bellin G. A. O'Connor Y. Jin

1989-01-01

105

Preparing sewage sludge for land application or surface disposal: A guide for preparers of sewage sludge on the monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503  

SciTech Connect

The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general responsibilities. USEPA promulgated at 40 CFR Part 503 Phase 1 of the risk-based regulations that govern the final use or disposal of sewage sludge. The intent of the Federal program is to ensure that the use or disposal of sewage sludge occurs in a way that protects both human health and the environment. The Part 503 regulation establishes general requirements, pollutant limits, operational standards, and management practices, as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. These requirements apply to sewage sludge that is land applied, placed on a surface disposal site, or incinerated in a sewage sludge-only incinerator.

Not Available

1993-08-01

106

Antibiotic resistance of E. coli in sewage and sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is the evaluation of resistance patterns of E. coli in wastewater treatment plants without an evaluation of basic antibiotic resistance mechanisms.Investigations have been done in sewage, sludge and receiving waters from three different sewage treatment plants in southern Austria. A total of 767 E. coli isolates were tested regarding their resistance to 24 different antibiotics.

F. F Reinthaler; J Posch; G Feierl; G Wüst; D Haas; G Ruckenbauer; F Mascher; E Marth

2003-01-01

107

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Llll of... - Summary of Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a 5 Table...Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60...Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a...

2013-07-01

108

Energy recovery from secondary pulp\\/paper-mill sludge and sewage sludge with supercritical water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary pulp\\/paper-mill sludge (SPP) and sewage sludges (primary, secondary, and digested sewage sludges) were treated in supercritical water at temperatures ranging between 400°C and 550°C over 20–120min for energy recovery. Low temperature and short reaction time favored the formation of heavy oil (HO) products, which were mainly composed of a variety of phenol and phenolic compounds, as well as some

Linghong Zhang; Pascale Champagne

2010-01-01

109

Polish experience with sewage sludge utilization in reed beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of utilization and management of sewage sludge originating from small wastewater treatment plants is still unsolved in Poland. One of the waste-free technologies of sludge utilization is the reed bed method. Two experimental facilities of this type have been operating for four years in the Gdansk Region: a reed bed in Darzlubie and a reed lagoon in Swarzewo.

W. Zwara; H. Obarska-Pempkowiak

110

Possibilities of using sewage sludge as nitrogen fertilizer for maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of nitrogen fertilizer sources of ammonium sulphate and municipal sewage sludge on yield, N content and uptake of the maize (Zea mays L.). Nutrient and heavy metals were determined in soil and plant. The experiment with three sludge rates (256, 513 and 1026 kg total N ha or 9.5, 18.0

Mehmet Ali Bozkurt; Hakki Akdeniz; Bilal Keskin; Ibrahim Hakki Yilmaz

2006-01-01

111

Organic markers in the lipidic fraction of sewage sludges.  

PubMed

The lipidic organic fraction of 48 sewage sludges that originated from food-processing, paper-mill and domestic (urban, small urban, and rural) wastewater-treatment plants of the Lorraine region (Northeast of France) was characterised by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (GC-MS). This study enables us to define an average organic composition typical of each group of sewage sludges. Linear alkyl benzenes (LABs) are only present in domestic sludges, sterols in food-processing and domestic sludges. Paper-mill sludges are characterised by the specific distribution of n-alkanes. Besides, all the domestic sludges, whatever the size of the wastewater catchment, are characterised by the same distribution of polar compounds. Differences can be evidenced in the distribution of the aliphatic compounds of some domestic sewage sludges and are attributed to the important contribution of petroleum products in their sewer system. Moreover, this study highlights the correlation between abundance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aromatic fraction of some sewage sludges and a distribution of n-alkanes characteristic of heavy petroleum products into the corresponding aliphatic fraction. This might be a clue for the determination of punctual sources of PAHs. PMID:15862322

Jardé, Emilie; Mansuy, Laurence; Faure, Pierre

2005-04-01

112

EVALUATION OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested using the Salmonella/microsomal activation assay, t...

113

Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development of a project involving the application of approximately 265,000 cubic meters of lagooned sewage sludge from a metropolitan area on privately-owned farm land in an adjacent, rural county. The sludge application project was initiated to enable use of the land occupied by the lagoons for expansion of the sewage treatment plant. The procedures developed will be valuable to those proposing to practice land disposal of stabilized sludge as part of the Nation`s resource conservation program.

Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

1995-06-01

114

Retrofitting for Co-combustion of MSW and sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have demonstrated in a pilot-scale test a new technology for co-combusting sewage sludge with MSW in existing WTE combustors. The technology offers municipalities a cost-competitive alternative to land disposal and ocean-dumping of sludge. The key to the new technology is the selective enrichment of the combustion air with oxygen. Oxygen-enrichment enables the combustion of a higher ratio of sludge

D. M. DeVincentis; D. P. Bucci; S. P. Goff; G. H. Shahani

2009-01-01

115

Distribution of Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb in sewage sludge amended soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Restoration of degraded soils with organic wastes could be a feasible practice to minimise erosion in the Mediterranean area. Today the use of sewage sludge to improve the nutrient contents of a soil is a common practice. Contamination of soils by potentially toxic elements (e.g. Cd, Ni, Cr, Pb) from amendments of sewage sludge is subject to strict controls within the European Community in relation to total permissible metal concentrations, soil properties and intended use. This study is aimed at ascertaining the chemical partitioning of Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb in agricultural soils repeatedly amended with sludge. Five surface soils (0-15 cm) that were polluted as a result of agricultural activities were used in this experiment. The sewage sludge amended soils were selected for diversity of physicochemical properties, especially pH and carbonate content. The soils are classified as non-calcareous and calcareous soils. The distribution of chemical forms of Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb in five sewage sludge amended soils was studied using a sequential extraction procedure that fractionates the metal into soluble-exchangeable, specifically sorbed-carbonate bound, oxidizable, reducible and residual forms. With regard to the mineralogical composition of the soil clay fraction, the mineralogical association found was: illite, kaolinite and chlorite. This paper provides quantitative evidence regarding the form of the association of metals and indirectly of their bioavailability. It can help to explain the process by which metals are eliminated from sewage sludge and also indicate the impact of the use of sludge on agricultural soils, as amendments. Data obtained showed different metal distribution trend among the fractions in sludge-amended soils. Comparison of distribution pattern of metals in sludge-applied soils shows that there is possible redistribution of metals among the different phases. Detailed knowledge of the soil at the application site, especially pH, CEC, buffering capacity, organic matter and clay content, is essential. The sewage sludge incorporation has modified the soil composition, leading to the increment of heavy metals. The heavy metals in this set of sewage sludge amended soils were mostly and variously associated with residual, reducible and carbonate forms depending on the nature and properties of the soils. Mainly, Ni, Cr and Pb are associated with residual phase. However, Cd is mainly associated with carbonate forms. Use of X-rays diffraction to observe possible associations of heavy metals with soil constituents proved to be unsuccessful due to a combination of the highly dispersed distribution of the heavy metals in the soil matrix.

Sanfeliu, Teófilo

2010-05-01

116

Absence of asbestos in municipal sewage sludge ashes  

SciTech Connect

In earlier studies, asbestos was found in sewage sludges in several cities in the United States using x-ray diffraction, high power light optical microscopy, polarized light microscopy or electron microscopy. In a number of cities in the United States, sewage sludge is incinerated at temperatures up to 1,000{degree}C. Temperatures of 550{degree}C or higher dehydroxylate the asbestos lattice resulting in alteration or even destruction of the mineral. Since refractive index and other key parameters used to identify asbestos minerals change above 550{degree}C, it was of interest to analyze for the presence of asbestos in typically produced municipal sludge ashes. In the work reported here, sewage sludge ashes from 10 American cities were obtained and analyzed for the presence of asbestos.

Patel-Mandlik, K.J.; Manos, C.G. (Environmental Science and Engineering, Inc., Gainesville, FL (USA)); Lisk, D.J. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

1988-06-01

117

Sewage sludge fertiliser use: implications for soil and plant copper evolution in forest and agronomic soils.  

PubMed

Fertilisation with sewage sludge may lead to crop toxicity and environmental degradation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two types of soils (forest and agronomic), two types of vegetation (unsown (coming from soil seed bank) and sown), and two types of fertilisation (sludge fertilisation and mineral fertilisation, with a no fertiliser control) in afforested and treeless swards and in sown and unsown forestlands on the total and available Cu concentration in soil, the leaching of this element and the Cu levels in plant. The experimental design was completely randomised with nine treatments and three replicates. Fertilisation with sewage sludge increased the concentration of Cu in soil and plant, but the soil values never exceeded the maximum set by Spanish regulations. Sewage sludge inputs increased both the total and Mehlich 3 Cu concentrations in agronomic soils and the Cu levels in plant developed in agronomic and forest soils, with this effect pronounced in the unsown swards of forest soils. Therefore, the use of high quality sewage sludge as fertiliser may improve the global productivity of forest, agronomic and silvopastoral systems without creating environmental hazards. PMID:22425275

Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mosquera-Losada, M Rosa

2012-05-01

118

78 FR 34973 - Proposal for Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; Indiana  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-R05-OAR-2013-0372; FRL-9820-9] Proposal for Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and...Indiana's State Plan to control air pollutants from Sewage Sludge Incinerators (SSI). The Indiana Department of...

2013-06-11

119

Volatilization, Plant Uptake and Mineralization of Nitrogen in Soils Treated with Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify the amount of ammonia volatilization taking place after application of sewage sludge to the soil surface, evaluate the movement of nitrogen and plant uptake from soils treated with sewage sludge,...

L. E. Sommers C. F. Parker G. J. Meyers

1981-01-01

120

Concentrations and specific loads of UV filters in sewage sludge originating from a monitoring network in Switzerland.  

PubMed

Many substances related to human activities end up in wastewater and accumulate in sewage sludge. The present study focuses on the analysis of widely used UV filters 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC), octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC), octocrylene (OC) and octyl-triazone (OT) in sewage sludge originating from a monitoring network in Switzerland. Mean concentrations in stabilised sludge from 14 wastewater treatment plants were 1780, 110, 4840 and 5510 microg/kg dry matter for 4-MBC, OMC, OC and OT, respectively. Specific loads in sewage sludge show that UV filters originate mainly from private households, but surface runoff and industries may be considered as additional sources. This indicates that besides use for sunscreens and cosmetics UV filters might occur in plastics and other materials and be released to the environment by volatilization or leaching. Differences between the modeled per capita loads of UV filters in sewage sludge and the observed specific loads in sewage sludge are probably due to erroneous figures of production volumes, degradation and sorption during wastewater treatment as well as degradation processes during transport in the sewer or sludge treatment. Thus, further research is needed to elucidate the fate of UV filters after application and release into the environment. Other compounds used as UV filters should be included in future studies. PMID:15996716

Plagellat, Cécile; Kupper, Thomas; Furrer, Reinhard; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Grandjean, Dominique; Tarradellas, Joseph

2006-02-01

121

The production, use and quality of sewage sludge in Denmark  

SciTech Connect

In Denmark, the production of municipal sewage sludge decreased from approximately 170,000 ton d.m. in 1994 to 140,000 ton d.m. in 2002. The sludge is handled and treated in a number of ways. The quality of Danish sludge has steadily improved since the middle of the 1980s, when the first set of quality criteria for heavy metals was introduced. In 1997, cut-off criteria for the organic pollutants, LAS, DEHP, nonylphenol and PAHs were introduced. Effective control from authorities, voluntary phasing out agreements with industry, improved source identification tools, better handling and after-care methods have in combination with higher waste duties led to a significant reduction in the sludge level of especially cadmium, mercury, chromium, LAS and nonylphenol. The increased quality demand has, nevertheless, also led to a minor reduction in the use of sewage sludge as organic fertiliser on agricultural land.

Jensen, John [National Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 314, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark)]. E-mail: john.jensen@dmu.dk; Jepsen, Svend-Erik [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Strandgade 29, DK-1401 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

2005-07-01

122

Enhanced soil sorption of methidathion using sewage sludge and surfactants.  

PubMed

Batch experiments were carried out to examine the partitioning of an organophosphorus insecticide, methidathion, in non-amended agricultural soil and soil amended with urban sewage sludge and/or different types of surfactant. Kinetic data showed that sewage sludge significantly reduced adsorption rate, whereas amendment of the soil with the cationic surfactant tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TDTMA) at 10 x CMC (critical micellar concentration) increased the adsorption rate by a factor of 10. The adsorption isotherms were evaluated using the Freundlich model. The soil adsorption capacity for methidathion was enhanced by amendment with sewage sludge and even more significantly with TDTMA at 10 x CMC or combined with sewage sludge. TDTMA conferred a high hydrophobic character to the soil, enhancing the adsorption capacity of the rather hydrophobic methidathion. The amendment of soil both with sewage sludge and TDTMA combines the increased hydrophobicity with a higher surfactant retention by organic matter, due to an increase in cation exchange capacity, which promotes even more the adsorption capacity for the insecticide. An anionic surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, and the non-ionic Tween 80 only induced a slight modification in the kinetics and adsorption of methidathion. PMID:12916766

Sánchez, Lourdes; Romero, Esperanza; Sánchez-Rasero, Francisco; Dios, Gonzalo; Peña, Aránzazu

2003-08-01

123

Sewage sludge dumping and contamination of Liverpool Bay sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of four MAFF surveys (1975-1980) of the sediments in and around the sewage sludge dumping site in Liverpool Bay are presented. Sediments were analysed for particle size distribution, organic carbon concentrations and concentrations of Hg, Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cr. Concentrations of organic carbon and metals were found to be elevated in the fine ( < 90 ?m) fraction in areas associated with the major inputs of these substances to the bay—near the mouth of the Mersey, near the sewage sludge dumping site and at the dredged spoil dumping site. In an attempt to determine any temporal trends between surveys, stations were grouped into four 8×8 km areas from offshore of the dumping ground to the mouth of the Mersey. Changes in the metal concentrations in sediments in the square nearest the sewage sludge dumping site were larger than in the other squares including that nearest the Mersey. Comparison of temporal trends near the sewage sludge site with the quantities actually dumped showed a correlation between the two, consistent with sewage sludge dumping being a major contributor to the metal levels in fine sediments near the dumping ground.

Norton, M. G.; Rowlatt, S. M.; Nunny, R. S.

1984-07-01

124

Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge with high solids content.  

PubMed

The treatment performance of thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of sewage sludge with high solids content was investigated with two laboratory-scale thermophilic anaerobic reactors (R1 and R2) with a feeding of pre-centrifuged sewage sludge. Reactor R1 was fed with sludge of 3.7% total solids (TS). The volatile solids (VS) removal ratio and methane yield in the stable state were 54.9% and 0.29 NL CH(4)/g VS(added), respectively. For reactor R2, when the TS content of fed sludge was 7.4%, the VS removal ratio and methane yield in the stable state were 73.2% and 0.38 NL CH(4)/g VS(added), respectively. When the TS content was increased to 9.5%, the VS removal ratio and methane yield slightly decreased to 69.3% and 0.32 NL CH(4)/g VS(added), respectively, but the reactor was stably operated. An increase of ammonia concentration was observed, but it was in the safe range without severe inhibition on the methane production. The result indicated that thermophilic AD could support sewage sludge with high TS content (9.5%) without abrupt deterioration of the treatment performance. The high-solids AD process is an economical method for centralized sewage sludge treatment with lower transport cost. PMID:24804672

Wang, Feng; Hidaka, Taira; Uchida, Tsutomu; Tsumori, Jun

2014-01-01

125

Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 247 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-12-01

126

Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 226 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-08-01

127

Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 230 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

128

Effectiveness of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy in the Quick Evaluation of Nitrogen Content in Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main uses of sewage sludge is the incorporation into agricultural soils, the application dose being based on the specific composition of the waste according to the established normative. However, a full analytical characterization of sewage sludge is time?consuming and expensive. Thus, many times, sewage sludge is applied to soils without this information. Therefore, the use of near

Raul Moral; Maria Angeles Bustamante; Concepcion Paredes

2009-01-01

129

Treatment of sewage sludge with lime and zeolite in relation to its application to agricultural soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progressive implementation of Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91\\/271\\/EEC results in increasing quantities of sewage sludge requiring safe disposal. Due to high content of nutrients, the use of sewage sludge in agriculture is encouraged, but only in a way which prevents its harmful effects on soil, vegetation, animals and man. The risks associated with agricultural use of sewage sludge

J. Venglovský

130

Physical and chemical properties study of the activated carbon made from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation of activated carbon from sewage sludge is a promising way to produce a useful adsorbent for pollutants removal as well as to dispose of sewage sludge. The objective of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical properties of the activated carbon made from sewage sludge so as to give a basic understanding of its structure. The activated

Xiaoge Chen; S Jeyaseelan; N Graham

2002-01-01

131

Bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was isolated from sewage sludge using the incubation in the Waksman liquor medium and the inoculation in Waksman solid plate. It was found that the optimum conditions of the bioleaching included solid concentration 2%, sulfur concentration 5 g.L-1 and cell concentration 10%. The removal efficiency of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zh in sewage sludge, which was obtained from waste treatment plant, Jinshan, Fuzhou, was 43.65%, 96.24%, 41.61% and 96.50% in the period of 4~10 days under the optimum conditions, respectively. After processing using the proposed techniques, the heavy metals in sewage sludge did meet the requirement the standards of nation.

Wen, Ye-Ming; Lin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Qing-Ping; Chen, Zu-Liang

2010-11-01

132

Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge.  

PubMed

A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously generate electricity. Stable power generation (145 +/- 5 mW/m2, 470 omega) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The maximum power density reached 190 +/- 5 mW/m2. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency was 78.1 +/- 0.2% with initial TCOD of 49.7 g/L. The power generation of SMFC was depended on the sludge concentration, while dilution of the raw sludge resulted in higher power density. The maximum power density was saturated at sludge concentration of 17 g-TCOD/L, where 290 mw/m2 was achieved. When effluents from an anaerobic digester that was fed with raw sludge were used as substrate in the SMFC, a maximum power density of 318 mW/m2, and a final TCOD removal of 71.9 +/- 0.2% were achieved. These results have practical implications for development of an effective system to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously recover energy. PMID:22053457

Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit; Angelidaki, Irini

2011-01-01

133

Microbial hydrogen production with immobilized sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Municipal sewage sludge was immobilized to produce hydrogen gas under anaerobic conditions. Cell immobilization was essentially achieved by gel entrapment approaches, which were physically or chemically modified by addition of activated carbon (AC), polyurethane (PU), and acrylic latex plus silicone (ALSC). The performance of hydrogen fermentation with a variety of immobilized-cell systems was assessed to identify the optimal type of immobilized cells for practical uses. With sucrose as the limiting carbon source, hydrogen production was more efficient with the immobilized-cell system than with the suspended-cell system, and in both cases the predominant soluble metabolites were butyric acid and acetic acid. Addition of activated carbon into alginate gel (denoted as CA/AC cells) enhanced the hydrogen production rate (v(H2)) and substrate-based yield (Y((H2)/sucrose)) by 70% and 52%, respectively, over the conventional alginate-immobilized cells. Further supplementation of polyurethane or acrylic latex/silicone increased the mechanical strength and operation stability of the immobilized cells but caused a decrease in the hydrogen production rate. Kinetic studies show that the dependence of specific hydrogen production rates on the concentration of limiting substrate (sucrose) can be described by Michaelis-Menten model with good agreement. The kinetic analysis suggests that CA/AC cells may contain higher concentration of active biocatalysts for hydrogen production, while PU and ALSC cells had better affinity to the substrate. Acclimation of the immobilized cells led to a remarkable enhancement in v(H2) with a 25-fold increase for CA/AC and ca. 10- to 15-fold increases for PU and ALSC cells. However, the ALSC cells were found to have better durability than PU and CA/AC cells as they allowed stable hydrogen production for over 24 repeated runs. PMID:12363341

Wu, Shu-Yii; Lin, Chi-Num; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lee, Kuo-Shing; Lin, Ping-Jei

2002-01-01

134

Potential fertilizing properties of sewage sludge treated in the sludge treatment reed beds (STRB).  

PubMed

In previous research the fertilizer value of sludge from reed beds was evaluated based on the sampling sludge on different depths from four Danish sludge treatment reed beds (STRB) after long periods of stabilization. The dewatering efficiency of sewage sludge in the STRB is comparable to mechanical dewatering. The long-term stabilization of sewage sludge progressively decreases the concentration of organic matter due to the process of humification. The aim of the work was to determine the changes of organic matter concentration, nutrients concentrations as well as speciation of selected heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu and Zn) in vertical profile of the sewage sludge stabilized in the STRB for 7-15 years. The analyzed sewage sludge was collected from the STRB treating sludge from four municipal wastewater treatment plants located in Denmark serving from 9,000 to 40,000 person equivalent. Analyzed heavy metals (except for Zn) were mostly bound with the most stable - residual - fraction. The most stable metals were Pb and Cr, where the share of the residual fraction exceeded 80.0%. The most mobile metal was Zn, where the share of the mobile fractions (calculated as the sum of I, II and III fractions) exceeded 85.0%. The high concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus is the decisive factor in the high valuation of sludge stabilized in the STRB as fertilizer. PMID:24056442

Ko?ecka, Katarzyna; Obarska-Pempkowiak, Hanna

2013-01-01

135

Volatile organic compound losses from sewage sludge-amended soils  

SciTech Connect

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) applied to soil in sludge have been assumed to disappear quickly and completely. The VOC behavior in sludge-amended soils has been studied previously only in laboratory systems where the sludged soil has been spiked with compounds of interest. Behavior in these systems may not necessarily represent compound behavior in field soils to which contaminated sludge is added. A series of laboratory microcosm experiments were designed therefore to investigate the behavior of toluene, ethyl benzene, o-, m-, and p-xylene applied to soil in contaminated sludge, and factors influencing loss processes. The VOC loss from sludge-amended soil was well described by a simple one step pseudo-first-order model but in certain soils was better described by a two step first-order model. Volatilization was the predominant loss process. Rates of loss depended on sludge application rate, method of sludge application, soil properties, and on compound characteristics. Experiments indicated that spiking sludge-amended soils gave a reasonable indication of VOC loss rates from systems amended with contaminated sludge at least over a period of 23 d. The majority of VOCs applied to soils in sludge volatilizes quickly to the atmosphere over a few to 10s of days with a small fraction lost more slowly. Potential for VOC crop uptake, livestock ingestion, and contamination of ground water is low under routine, managed applications of sewage sludge to agricultural land.

Wilson, S.C.; Jones, K.C.

1999-08-01

136

Exploitation of gold in a historic sewage sludge stockpile, Werribee, Australia: resource evaluation, chemical extraction and subsequent utilisation of sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludges are dewatered end products of human sewage waste and are recognised repositories of organic pollutants and heavy metals. They may be considered targets for economic extraction of Au because of the documented Au content of sewage sludges worldwide which are of the order of some ore deposits currently mined for Au. They are also highly nutrient enriched (nitrogen

Shane J. Reeves; Ian R. Plimer; David Foster

1999-01-01

137

Thiosteroids in sewage sludge and its post-treatment products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different sulphur compound derivatives from steroids were detected and quantified in the analysis of the lipidic fraction of sewage sludge and its post-treatment products, including thermally dried sludge and compost. Some steroid thiols: 5?-cholestane-3?-thiol, 24-methyl-5?-cholestane-3?-thiol and 24-ethyl-5?-cholestane-3?-thiol were detected in the gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) analysis. These three compounds, related to the thiostanol family, have only been

Giovanna Mejía; Raquel de Nadal; Bárbara Bagó; Francesc Broto; Lluís Comellas

2008-01-01

138

Properties and effect of forming sewage sludge into lightweight ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we investigated the chemical, thermal and toxic properties of dried sewage sludge (DSS), the preparation and\\u000a properties of lightweight sludge ceramic (LSC) and the mechanisms of action of the organic and inorganic foaming agents (OFAs\\u000a and IFAs). The chemical components and thermal properties of the raw materials were studied by Energy Dispersive X-ray Detection\\u000a (EDX) and Thermogravimetric

Min Yue; Qinyan Yue; Yuanfeng Qi; Baoyu Gao; Hui Yu

139

Fuel-Efficient Sewage Sludge Incineration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. The energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilit...

A. B. Pincince M. J. Walsh W. R. Niessen

1990-01-01

140

National Sewage-Sludge Survey Facility Analytical Results. Volume 1-4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS) is a questionnaire and analytical survey of Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) intended to produce national estimates of: (1) Concentrations of toxic contaminants in municipal sludge; (2) Sludge generation and ...

1989-01-01

141

PATHWAY: A Computer Model to Determine Sewage Sludge Pathogen Transport Through Environmental Pathways.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computer program is presently being developed to model the transport of pathogens through environmental pathways as a result of the application of treated sewage sludge. Specific sludge application cases include the use of treated sludge as a cropland f...

R. E. Sheridan M. F. Abernathy J. G. Yeager

1979-01-01

142

Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

Robson, Stanley G.

1977-01-01

143

Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related to their high water content. One way to overcome these problems, in a cheap and clean way, is the drying of sludges using the energy of the sun under greenhouse conditions. This drying may affect sludge chemical characteristics including organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, parameters which have to be controlled for the proper management of dry sludge application onto soils. For this reason, the main aim of this work was to study the impact of greenhouse drying of different sewage sludges on their organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, assessed by biochemical fractionation and mineralization assays. Three sewage sludges were sampled before (dehydrated sludges) and after greenhouse drying (dried sludges). The analyses consisted of: humidity, organic matter, mineral and organic N contents, N and C mineralization during 91-day laboratory incubations in controlled conditions, and biochemical fractionation using the Van Soest procedure. Greenhouse drying decreased the water content from 70-80% to 10% and also the odours, both of which will improve the management of the final product from the perspective of application and transport. We also found that drying reduced the organic matter content of the sludges but not the biodegradability of the remaining carbon. Organic N mineralization occurred during greenhouse drying, explaining why mineral N content tended to increase and the potential mineralization of organic nitrogen decreased after greenhouse drying. The biochemical stability did not change so much except for the one of the sludges, which experienced an important reduction. According to the results, and from a point of view of future soil applications, the balance of the drying process could be considered as positive. It is using a free, renewable and clean energy, which reduces the water content and odours of sludge, thereby improving their management. Except for the water content, there was little modification of the behaviour in soil of greenhouse dried sludges compared to the dehydrated sludges, maintaining its large amount of available nitrogen after drying. Acknowledgements: Jose. M. Soriano-Disla gratefully acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Culture for a research fellowship (AP2005-0320).

Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Houot, S.; Imhoff, M.; Valentin, N.; Gómez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.

2009-04-01

144

The effect of composting on the organic colloidal fraction from domestic sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the frequent use of domestic sewage sludges as organic additives to soils with low humus content, the chemical characteristics of the extractable polymers from composted and uncomposted sludges were described. The alkali-soluble, acid-insoluble sludge fraction (humic-like) was isolated after exhaustive lipid extraction, and analyzed by chemical degradation followed by combined gas chromatography mass spectrometry. It was observed that this sludge fraction contained an important amount of lipid compounds (more than 40% by weight). Most of this lipid material can be physically removed, but the residual polymer fractions were also found to be highly aliphatic in nature. The high yields upon degradation of several types of alkanoic acids and the relatively high proportion of polypeptides (30% by weight), as well as carbohydrates, suggested that the humic-like fractions from both the composted and uncomposted sludges consisted of slightly altered microbial and residual biopolymers. The effects of composting sludge mainly concern the selective biodegradation of the less resistant moieties. The great differences between the chemical nature of the humic-like fraction of the composted sludge and that of the soil humic acids are considered to reflect the low proportion of lignified materials in the original sludge.

Almendros, Gonzalo; Leal, Juan A.; Martin, Francisco; Gonzalez-Vila, Francisco J.

145

Impact of food industrial waste on anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and pig manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an anaerobic digestion process is much dependent on the type and the composition of the material to be digested. The effects on the degradation process of co-digesting different types of waste were examined in two laboratory-scale studies. In the first investigation, sewage sludge was co-digested with industrial waste from potato processing. The co-digestion resulted in a low

M Murto; L Björnsson; B Mattiasson

2004-01-01

146

The kinetics of combustion of chars derived from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments have been conducted to determine the combustion characteristics of sewage sludge chars in electrically heated beds of silica sand fluidised by air. The effects of the initial size of the char particles, the temperature of the bed and [O2] in the fluidising gas were investigated. Also, the temperatures of burning particles were measured with embedded thermocouples. The kinetics of

J. S. Dennis; R. J. Lambert; A. J. Milne; S. A. Scott; A. N. Hayhurst

2005-01-01

147

Combustible gas production from sewage sludge with a downdraft gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, sewage sludge has particularly become an important problem all over the world because of its harmful impacts on the environment and living beings. It should be converted to combustible gas or useful energy in order to remove all its negative effects and to contribute to a significant portion of the power generation. In this study, combustible gas production from

Adnan Midilli; Murat Dogru; Colin R. Howarth; Mike J. Ling; Teoman Ayhan

2001-01-01

148

Surface area development of sewage sludge during pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies on surface area and pore structure development during pyrolysis of digested sewage sludge were carried out. Surface area and pore structure characterization of the resultant chars was evaluated using an accelerated surface area and porosimetry system (ASAP 2000). The effects of process parameters, temperature and hold time were found to be significant. Generally, the surface area of the

G. Q. Lu; J. C. F. Low; C. Y. Liu; A. C. Lua

1995-01-01

149

Characterization of sewage sludges by primary and secondary pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus formed by the combination of a primary pyrolyzer (Pyroprobe 1000) and a secondary reactor was used to study the thermal decomposition of three different chemical sewage sludges, using temperatures in the secondary reactor between 290 and 650°C and 700°C in the primary pyrolzer. Yields of 12 pyrolysis products were determined (methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, methanol, acetic acid,

J. A. Caballero; R. Front; A. Marcilla; J. A. Conesa

1997-01-01

150

USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON AGRICULTURAL AND DISTURBED LANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Results of 8 field studies of long-term use of digested sewage on agricultural and disturbed lands are presented. The studies included: (1) response of corn grown on 3 soil types previously amended with annual sludge applications; (2) response of corn grown annually on Blount sil...

151

COSTS OF AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYSTEMS FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air pollution control systems to municipal sewage sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment-wet scrubbers, fabric filters,...

152

Baghouse Efficiency on a Multiple Hearth Incinerator Burning Sewage Sludge,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot-scale fabric filter (baghouse) was evaluated for its removal performance for 23 metals and for sulfur as well as for total particles when fitted to a multiple hearth incinerator burning sewage sludge. The small scale baghouse was installed to take...

R. C. Adams L. E. Keller E. V. Robb M. C. Vancil J. B. Farrell

1989-01-01

153

Plasma gasification of sewage sludge: Process development and energy optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma gasification process has been demonstrated in many of the most recent studies as one of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods for solid waste treatment and energy utilization. This method is applied here to the treatment of sewage sludge. Results are presented for a case study concerning the Athens’ Central Wastewater Treatment Plant, at Psittalia Island. An

A. Mountouris; E. Voutsas; D. Tassios

2008-01-01

154

EFFECTS OF USING SEWAGE SLUDGE ON AGRICULTURAL AND DISTURBED LANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The accumulative effects of annual use of sewage sludge on composition of soils, plants, water, and animals that consume the plants is presented. Plant yields were increased and no evidence of phototoxicity from trace elements was observed. Phosphorus toxicity in soybeans develop...

155

SEWAGE SLUDGE ENTRENCHMENT SYSTEM FOR USE BY SMALL MUNICIPALITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A method of disposing of dewatered sewage sludge by entrenching it into soil was developed for small communities. Readily available and relatively inexpensive equipment was used. Included were a tractor equipped with a loader and backhoe, and dump truck or concrete mixer truck. A...

156

Sewage sludge effects on soybean growth and nitrogen fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sewage sludge application, as a source of phosphorus, on dinitrogen symbiotic fixation in soybean was evaluated. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse and included eight different treatments: (1) no fertilization, (2) complete fertilization, (3) inoculation with rhizobia plus phosphate fertilization (IS+P), (4) inoculation with rhizobia without phosphate fertilization (IS-P), (5) inoculation plus dose 1 of

R. F. Vieira

2001-01-01

157

FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION AND STABILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...

158

SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION AT NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a report on the sewage sludge incineration fuel reduction program at the Nashville-Davidson County Metropolitan Government wastewater treatment plant in Nashville, Tennessee. Fuel usage was reduced over 40 percent by reprogramming the methods used for operating the incine...

159

BAGHOUSE EFFICIENCY ON A MULTIPLE HEARTH INCINERATOR BURNING SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot-scale fabric filter (baghouse) was evaluated for its removal performance for 23 metals and for sulfur as well as for total particles when fitted to a multiple hearth incinerator burning sewage sludge. The small scale baghouse was installed to take a slipstream of about th...

160

The dirty work of promoting "recycling" of America's sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Serious illnesses, including deaths, and adverse environmental impacts have been linked to land application of sewage sludge. EPA and the wastewater treatment industry have worked with Congress to fund wastewater trade associations to promote land application, supporting industry-friendly scientists and discouraging independent research, to prevent local governments from restricting land application and to thwart litigation against municipalities and the industry. PMID:16350476

Snyder, Caroline

2005-01-01

161

Evaluation of nitrogen availability in irradiated sewage sludge, sludge compost and manure compost  

SciTech Connect

A field experiment was conducted during 2 yr to determine plant availability of organic N from organic wastes, and effects of gamma irradiation on organic N availability in sewage sludge. The wastes investigated were: digested, dewatered sewage sludge (DSS), irradiated sewage sludge (DISS), irradiated, composted sewage sludge (DICSS), and composted livestock manure (CLM). The annual application rates were: 10, 20, 30, and 40 Mg solids ha{sup {minus}1}. Fertilizer N was added to the control, to which no waste was applied, as well as to the waste applications to ensure approximately equal amounts of available N (110 kg N ha{sup {minus}1}) for all treatments. Lettuce, petunias, and beans were grown in 1990 and two cuts of lettuce were harvested in 1991. Crop yields and plant N concentrations were measured. Assuming that crop N harvested/available N applied would be approximately equal for the control and the waste treatments, the N from organic fraction of the wastes, which is as available as that in fertilizer, was estimated. With petunia in 1990 and the combination of first and second cut of lettuce in 1991, the percentage ranged from 11.2 to 29.7 in nonirradiated sludge, 10.1 to 14.0 in irradiated sludge, 10.5 to 32.1 in sludge compost and 10.0 to 19.7 in manure compost. Most often, the highest values were obtained with the lowest application rates. Yields of petunia and N concentrations in second cut lettuce in 1991 were lower with irradiated sludge than with nonirradiated sludge suggest that the availability of organic N in digested sludge may have been reduced after irradiation. Irradiation of sludge appears to have released NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. The availability of organic N, however, appears to have been reduced by irradiation by greater amount than the increase in NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. 41 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Wen, Guang; Bates, T.E.; Voroney, R.P. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

1995-05-01

162

Toxicity evaluation of sewage sludges in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Anaerobically digested sewage sludges collected from four wastewater treatment plants located in Sha Tin, Tai Po, Yuen Long, and Shek Wu Hui in Hong Kong were subjected to chemical characterization and toxicity testing to provide preliminary assessment of their suitability for land application. All sewage sludges were slightly alkaline with pH range of 8.3-8.7. Electrical conductivity (EC; 0.69 dS m(-1)) and soluble NH4-N content (996 mg kg(-1)) of sewage sludge from Yuen Long were lower than that of other plants. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined as total, extractable, and water-soluble fraction using mixed acid digestion, DTPA (pH 7.3), and distilled water, respectively. Yuen Long sludge was most polluted with Zn and Cr higher than the pollutant concentration limits listed in Part 503 of USEPA, owing to the effluent coming from the tannery industry. High concentration of Ni was found in sludge from Sha Tin that originated mainly from the electroplating industry. DTPA-extractable Zn contents were high in sludges from Yuen Long (1247 mg kg(-1)) and Shek Wu Hui (892 mg kg(-1)), while 3.7 mg kg(-1) of DTPA-extractable Cr was found in Yuen Long sludge. Metal speciation of sludges showed that Pb was major in residual phase while Cu, Cr, and Ni in organic and residual phases, and Zn did not show any dominant chemical phase. The sludge extracts did not exert significant adverse effect on seed germination of Brassica chinensis (Chinese cabbage), but Yuen Long sludge caused a reduction in root growth. In view of its lower EC and soluble ammonia contents, the high concentration of Zn and Cr in Yuen Long sludge would likely be responsible for this adverse effect on root growth. Therefore, Yuen Long sludge would likely have a more serious impact on soil quality and plant growth as compared to other sludges. This would require further verification from greenhouse and field experiments. PMID:11757851

Wong, J W; Li, K; Fang, M; Su, D C

2001-11-01

163

Growth, yield, and fruit quality of pepper plants amended with two sanitized sewage sludges.  

PubMed

Organic wastes such as sewage sludge have been successfully used to increase crop productivity of horticultural soils. Nevertheless, considerations of the impact of sludges on vegetable and fruit quality have received little attention. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to investigate the impact of two sanitized sewage sludges, autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) and compost sludge, on the growth, yield, and fruit quality of pepper plants ( Capsicum annuum L. cv. Piquillo) grown in the greenhouse. Two doses of ATAD (15 and 30% v/v) and three of composted sludge (15, 30, and 45%) were applied to a peat-based potting mix. Unamended substrate was included as control. ATAD and composted sludge increased leaf, shoot, and root dry matter, as well as fruit yield, mainly due to a higher number of fruits per plant. There was no effect of sludge on fruit size (dry matter per fruit and diameter). The concentrations of Zn and Cu in fruit increased with the addition of sewage sludges. Nevertheless, the levels of these elements remained below toxic thresholds. Pepper fruits from sludge-amended plants maintained low concentrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, thus indicating low pungency level, in accordance with the regulations prescribed by the Control Board of "Lodosa Piquillo peppers" Origin Denomination. The application of sludges did not modify the concentration of vitamin C (ASC) in fruit, whereas the highest doses of composted sludge tended to increase the content of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, without change in the GSH/GSSG ratio. There were no effects of sludge on the transcript levels of enzymes involved in the synthesis of vitamin C, l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH) or in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR), and glutathione reductase (GR). Results suggest that the synthesis and degradation of ASC and GSH were compensated for in most of the treatments assayed. The application of sanitized sludges to pepper plants can improve pepper yield without loss of food nutritional quality, in terms of fruit size and vitamin C, glutathione, and capsaicinoid contents. PMID:20450196

Pascual, Immaculada; Azcona, Iñaki; Aguirreolea, Jone; Morales, Fermín; Corpas, Francisco Javier; Palma, José Manuel; Rellán-Alvarez, Rubén; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel

2010-06-01

164

FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. he energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. hese f...

165

FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. The energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. These...

166

Lignite aided dewatering of digested sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Mechanical dewatering is commonly used to increase the solids content of municipal sludge prior to its disposal. However, if the rate of filtration is slow, mechanical dewatering can be expensive. In this study, the use of lignite to improve the sludge dewatering is investigated. The effectiveness of lignite conditioning of polyelectrolyte-flocculated sludge is examined using mechanical compression tests. Results show that lignite conditioning in conjunction with polyelectrolyte flocculation gives much better dewatering than the polyelectrolyte flocculation alone. Using Darcy's filtration theory, the specific cake resistance and permeability of the compressed cakes are obtained. Both of these parameters are significantly improved after lignite conditioning. Mercury porosimetry tests on compressed cakes show that the porosity of the lignite-conditioned sludge cake is much higher than that of the polyelectrolyte-flocculated sludge and it increases with increasing doses of lignite. The mercury porosimetry results show that the lignite pore volume of pores greater than 0.5 microm are reduced with increasing sludge ratio indicating that sludge is trapped within these pores, whereas smaller pores are unaffected. The yield stress curves for sludge, lignite and sludge-lignite mixtures show that the sludge filter cake is very compressible, but the lignite-conditioned cake has a range of compressibility which although more than lignite indicate that the cake is relatively incompressible at low pressures. Thus, lignite conditioning acts to maintain the permeability of the filter cake during compression dewatering by resisting cake compression. This leads to a trade-off between the rate of dewatering and the solids content of the compressed cake. With lignite conditioning, the dewatering rate can be increased by a factor of five for the same degree of water removal. PMID:19058831

Thapa, K B; Qi, Y; Clayton, S A; Hoadley, A F A

2009-02-01

167

PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage treatment is performed in an environmentally safe and cost?effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by sp...

168

Physicochemical characteristics of full scale sewage sludges with implications to dewatering  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was carried out for a variety of different sewage sludges in order to establish correlations between sludge composition, structure and dewatering properties. Results indicated that the fraction of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in sludges was the most important parameter with respect to sludge structure. With high EPS contents, sludges had a lower shear sensitivity and lower degree of

Lene Haugaard Mikkelsen; Kristian Keiding

2002-01-01

169

Survival of faecal indicators and enteroviruses in soil after land-spreading of municipal sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

One concern in regard to the spreading of sewage sludge is the potential for contamination of soil and water by pathogens present in sludge. We studied the survival of enteric micro-organisms in sewage sludge following direct land-spreading. The sludge produced by a wastewater treatment plant (capacity equivalent to 2000 inhabitants; sludge storage tank of 700m3) was spread on a soil,

Anne-Marie Pourcher; Picard-Bonnaud Françoise; Ferré Virginie; Gosinska Agnieszka; Stan Vasilica; Moguedet Gérard

2007-01-01

170

Co-combustion of different sewage sludge and coal: A non-isothermal thermogravimetric kinetic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of the combustion of coal, two different sewage sludge and their blends (containing different dried weight percentages of sewage sludge) was studied by simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis. Once the weight percentage of sludge in the blend was ?10%, the effects on the combustion of coal were hardly noticeable in terms of weight loss. The Arrhenius activation energy corresponding to

M. Otero; L. F. Calvo; M. V. Gil; A. I. García; A. Morán

2008-01-01

171

COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS AND EMISSION OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS IN COMMERCIAL FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTORS FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the disposal of sewage sludge in ocean has been prohibited recently according to London Dumping Convention, technological need for treating sewage sludge safely and efficiently are getting increased in Korea. FBC (Fluidized Bed Combustor) technology has been selected and utilized as one of the alternatives because of combustible content in sludge, on-going process development to maintain the best combustion

Ha-Na Jang; Seong-Bum Park; Jeong-Hun Kim; Yong-Chil Seo

2011-01-01

172

Dye adsorption by sewage sludge-based activated carbons in batch and fixed-bed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research work deals with the production of activated carbons by chemical activation and pyrolysis of sewage sludges. The adsorbent properties of these sewage sludges based activated carbons were studied by liquid-phase adsorption tests. Dyes removal from colored wastewater being a possible application for sludge based adsorbents, methylene blue and saphranine removing from solution was studied. Pure and binary

F. Rozada; L. F. Calvo; A. I. Garc??a; J. Mart??n-Villacorta; M. Otero

2003-01-01

173

Long-term changes in sewage sludge stored in a reed bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of the utilization and management of sewage sludge originating from small wastewater treatment plants is still unsolved. A common approach is to store the sludge in plots which in time turn into grassland. This investigation was aimed at evaluating the influence of the storage time in plots on the chemical properties of sewage sludge deposited there. Tests were

Janusz Pempkowiak; Hanna Obarska-Pempkowiak

2002-01-01

174

Disinfection of sewage sludge cake by gamma-irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disinfection of municipal sewage sludge cake by gamma-irradiation was reviewed. Total bacterial count in the sludge cake did not vary markedly throughout all four seasons in Japan, and it was in the range of 1.6 × 10 8/g to 4.1 × 10 9/g. Coliform count in aerobically activated sludge was form 1.8 × 10 7/g to 4.8 × 10 8/g, while in anaerobically digested sludge it was less than 8.3 × 10 7/g. The dose to reduce the coliforms to undetectable levels ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 Mrad, depending on the season. In addition, it was observed that no coliforms reappeared in 0.5 Mrad irradiated sludge cake during storage at room temperature (6 - 16°C) and at 30°C. The adequate disinfection dose is therefore considered to be 0.5 Mrad. Pseudomonas cepacia was a predominant bacterium in non-irradiated sludge cake. In a range of 0.5 to 0.7 Mrad, the residual flora consisted of Bacillus species, and radioresistant Deinococcus proteolyticus, Deinococcus radiodurans and Pseudomonas radiora were isolated from sludge cake irradiated at dose levels of more than 1 Mrad. Bacterial regrowth and the growth of Escherichia coli K-12 seeded in irradiated sludge cake are discussed.

Watanabe, Hiroshi; Takehisa, Masaaki

175

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Model Rule-Increments of Progress and Compliance Schedules for Existing Sewage Sludge...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Compliance Schedules for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units 1 Table...Compliance Times for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60...Compliance Schedules for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Comply...

2013-07-01

176

40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Model Rule-Emission Limits and Standards for Existing Multiple Hearth Sewage Sludge Incineration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards for Existing Multiple Hearth Sewage Sludge Incineration Units 3 Table...Compliance Times for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60...Standards for Existing Multiple Hearth Sewage Sludge Incineration Units For the...

2013-07-01

177

Ultrasonic reduction of excess sludge from activated sludge system II: urban sewage treatment.  

PubMed

Previous study showed that sonication was effective to reduce waste activated sludge (WAS) using artificial wastewater. This paper confirms the viability and evaluates the performance of this method in practical wastewater treatment using urban sewage without temperature control. The results showed that sonication significantly lowered the WAS and biomass synthesis, and greatly enhanced the mineralization of sewage organics. The optimal specific energy for sludge lysis was 20.0k Wh/kg DS. Further energy-increase had little benefit on WAS reduction. When the specific energy was 20.0kWh/kgDS and the sludge recycle ratio was 0.007, the WAS decreased by 54%, the biomass synthesis abated by 59%, and the sewage mineralization ratio increased from 31% to 58%. The effluent COD and nitrogen were stable but phosphorus was higher than that of the control bioreactor. The COD removal was lower but the WAS reduction was higher for urban sewage than for artificial wastewater. The accumulation pattern of heavy metals in sludge was greatly alternated by the sonication-cryptic growth; and different metals behaved differently. The sludge Ni concentration increased by 141% while As decreased by 53%. PMID:18926629

Zhang, Guangming; He, Junguo; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Jie

2009-05-30

178

Thermochemical liquidization and anaerobic treatment of dewatered sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dewatered sewage sludge was thermochemically liquidized at 175°C and the liquidized sludge was separated by centrifugation to 57.7% (w\\/w) supernatant [moisture, 92.3%; volatile solid (VS), 7.0%] and 42.3% precipitate (moisture, 71.6%; VS, 18.9%). The supernatant was successfully anaerobically digested. Biogas yield from the supernatant at organic loading concentrations of 1.9–2.2 g VS\\/l during 9 days' incubation was 440 ml\\/g-added VS

Shigeki Sawayama; Seiichi Inoue; Tatsuo Yagishita; Tomoko Ogi; Shin-Ya Yokoyama

1995-01-01

179

[Effects of sewage sludge vermicompost on the growth of marigold].  

PubMed

The 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1, and 1:0 mixtures of sewage sludge and cattle dung were treated with earthworm Eisenia foetida, and then, mixed with black soil in the proportions of 10%, 20%, and 30% (dry mass) to investigate the effects of the vermicompost on the marigold plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, branch number, aboveground biomass, underground biomass, ratio of root to shoot, flower bud number, flower yield, flower diameter, and flower biomass. An obvious promotion effect of the vermicompost was observed on the growth of marigold. The smaller the ratio of sewage sludge to cattle dung, the better the growth of marigold; while a higher proportion of the vermicompost to soil would inhibit the marigold growth. In this study, a proportion of 20% vermicompost to soil was the best for the growth of marigold. PMID:20707124

Ma, Li; Yin, Xiu-qin

2010-05-01

180

Co-combustion of dried sewage sludge and coal in a pulverized coal boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 1.1 million tons of municipal and industrial sewage sludge is produced annually in Poland. Most of this sewage sludge\\u000a is landfilled or used for recultivation and fertilization of soil. After accession of Poland to the EU, large investments\\u000a are planned for wastewater treatment, so it is expected that the amount of sewage sludge produced in Poland will grow

S?awomir Stelmach; Ryszard Wasielewski

2008-01-01

181

CFD based combustion model for sewage sludge gasification in a fluidized bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification is one potential way to use sewage sludge as renewable energy and solve the environmental problems caused by\\u000a the huge amount of sewage sludge. In this paper, a three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model has been developed\\u000a to simulate the sewage sludge gasification process in a fluidized bed. The model describes the complex physical and chemical\\u000a phenomena in the

Yiqun Wang; Lifeng Yan

2009-01-01

182

Lime, sewage sludge and mineral fertilization in a silvopastoral system developed in very acid soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, in the European Union, sewage sludge production has been increased as a result of EU policy (European directive\\u000a 91\\/271\\/EEC). Organic matter and nutrient sewage sludge contents, principally nitrogen, indicate it can be used as fertilizer.\\u000a The objective of the experiment was to compare the effect of no fertilization, three doses of sewage sludge, with or without\\u000a liming,

M. L. López-Díaz; M. R. Mosquera-Losada; A. Rigueiro-Rodríguez

2007-01-01

183

Changes in physical, chemical and microbial parameters during the composting of municipal sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in physical, chemical and microbial parameters were investigated during the composting of municipal sewage sludge.\\u000a Raw sewage sludge (30% dry matter) was mixed with compost from sewage sludge (85% dry matter) in 3:1 ratio (v\\/v). The mixture\\u000a was divided into 4 windrows which were composted under the same conditions except the turning factor. The turning was every\\u000a 7, 10,

A. I. Khalil; M. S. Hassouna; H. M. A. El-Ashqar; M. Fawzi

184

Dynamics and plant uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus in soil amended with sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge (SS) represents an inexpensive source of plant nutrients, but the fertilizer value can vary considerably. A field study was carried out, in which anaerobically digested sewage sludge (SS1) and activated sewage sludge (SS2) from the same treatment plant were applied to a crop of oat (Avena sativa L.). Application rates with SS1 were around 120kgha?1 P, 20kgha?1 NH4+–N

Søren O Petersen; Jens Petersen; Gitte H Rubæk

2003-01-01

185

Leaching of boron through sewage sludge amended soil: the role of clinoptilolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the release of boron from soil–sewage sludge mixtures by leaching using a clinoptilolite type natural zeolite, before land application of the sewage sludge. Soil columns were filled up with the clinoptilolite soil after mixing with sewage sludge at a rate of 30 tonsha?1 and with two different particle sizes (0.1–0.25 and 1.0–2.0 mm)

Hasan Sabri Ozturk; Sonay Sozudogru Ok; Sevinc Arcak

2004-01-01

186

The kinetics of gasification of char derived from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification of char derived from sewage sludge was studied under different oxidizing atmospheres containing CO2, O2 or H2O. The gasification tests were carried out in thermobalance at different temperatures and oxidizing reagent concentrations.\\u000a The most efficient were the gaseous mixtures containing oxygen. The reaction took place at temperature 400–500 °C, whilst\\u000a in the case of CO2 and steam much higher temperatures

Lech Nowicki; Anna Antecka; Tomasz Bedyk; Pawe? Stolarek; Stanis?aw Ledakowicz

2011-01-01

187

Compacted sewage sludge as a barrier for tailing impoundment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of compacted sewage sludge serving as a barrier for tailing impoundment was evaluated by the batch test and\\u000a hydraulic conductivity test with respect to heavy metal retardation and impermeability. The batch test results showed that\\u000a the effective removal of heavy metals approached 97.8 and 93.4% for Zn and Cd, respectively. Formation of precipitation of\\u000a oxy(hydroxide) and carbonate minerals

Bao Wang; Huyuan Zhang; Zhiming Fan; Yuanyuan Ju

2010-01-01

188

Removal of siloxane from digestion gas of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the way to remove siloxanes from digestion gas of sewage sludge by adsorbents. Many adsorbents were tested by using the model gas of siloxane in nitrogen. The adsorption ratio was 0.056–0.192 for the activated carbons, 0.004–0.077 for the molecular sieve and 0.104 for the silica gel. An observed tendency was that the activated carbons showed high adsorption

Toru Matsui; Shigeru Imamura

2010-01-01

189

K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring reports, second quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

During second quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13, 173. This report includes the results of those analyses. None of the analyzed constituents exceeded the Primary Drinking Water Standard or the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria at either the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site or the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site.

Not Available

1992-10-01

190

THERMAL TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

The thermal conditioning research program was conducted as part of an overall long-term sludge management study for the Los Angeles and Orange County metropolitan areas. The major goal of this portion of the study was to investigate the advantages of thermal conditioning of prima...

191

DEWATERING MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGES SELECTING A PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Using information and data obtained for an update of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's guidance document on dewatering municipal wastewater sludges, a sequential review is made of key considerations in selecting an optimum process. Included in the discussion are the prin...

192

Utilization and Conversion of Sewage Sludge as Metal Sorbent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most biosolids are disposed on land. With improvements in wastewater treatment processes and upgrading of treatment plants across Canada, biosolids generation will increase dramatically. These biosolids will need to be dealt with because they contain various contaminants, including heavy metals and several classes of emerging contaminants. A number of researchers have recently focused on preparation of sewage sludge-based adsorbents by carbonation, physical activation and chemical activation for decontamination of air and wastewater. These previous studies have indicated that sludge-based activated carbon can have good adsorption performance for organic substances in dye wastewater. The overall results suggest that activated carbon from sewage sludge can produce a useful adsorbent, while also reducing the amount of sewage sludge to be disposed. However, sludge-derived activated carbon has not been extensively studied, especially for adsorption of heavy metal ions in wastewater and for its capacity to remove emerging contaminants, such as poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs). Previous research has indicated that commercial activated carbons adsorb organic compounds more efficiently than heavy metal ions. 45 Activated carbon can be modified to enhance its adsorption capacity for special heavy metal ions,46 e.g. by addition of inorganic and organic reagents. The modifications which are successful for commercial activated carbon should also be effective for sludge-derived activated carbon, but this needs to be confirmed. Our research focuses on (a) investigation of techniques for converting sewage sludge (SS) to activated carbon (AC) as sorbents; (b) exploration of possible modification of the activated carbon (MAC) to improve its sorption capacity; (c) examination of the chemical stability of the activated carbon and the leachability of contaminants from activated carbon,; (d) comparison of adsorptivity with that of other sorbents. Based on XRD and FT-IR, we successfully converted SS to AC and further modified it to improve absorption. SSMAC has large specific surface areas based on the BET technique. Batch adsorption results indicate that metal adsorption for SSMAC > SSAC, with adsorption occurring within the first 5 minutes of contact. Comparison of the adsorptivity of various sorbents such as commercial activated carbon (CAC), mineral sorbents such as perlite, clinoptilolite and illite indicates that SSMAC × CAC × clinoptilolite > kaolite.

Gong, Xu Dong; Li, Loretta Y.

2013-04-01

193

Development of Sewage Sludge Direct Melting System Using Oxygen Enriched Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on strict requirements for a smaller volume and more sludge stability than incinceration, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) has developed a new sewage sludge direct melting system. The features of this system are that by using oxygen enriched combus...

S. Nishikawa H. Honda K. Tokuda M. Irino S. Okuno

1989-01-01

194

Detection of radionuclides originating from a nuclear power plant in sewage sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sewage sludge is a sensitive indicator of radionuclides entering the environment. Radionuclides originating in nuclear power stations have been detected in sludge found at wastewater treatment plants in communities near the power plants (NPP). The main co...

M. Puhakainen M. Suomela

1999-01-01

195

[Artifical improvement of soil fertility in a regraded forest ecosystem by using municipal sewage sludge].  

PubMed

The increasing occurrence of forest ecosystem degradation is a serious problem in tropical and subtropical regions. Field experiments showed that the application of sludge from a sewage treatment plant could not only promote the growth and reproduction of trees, including the increase in the height and diameter of trees and thus being advantageous to the growth of shrub and herb of trees, but also improve soil fertility such as increasing soil organic matter and available nitrogen and phosphorus. The test of residual heavy metals of soil indicated that the application of sludge increased the content of Pb in the soil and the increment of Pb was varied with the increase of sludge usage. There was no significant increase in other heavy metals. PMID:11993117

Li, Guibao; Yin, Chengqing; Lin, Yongbiao; Li, Zhian

2002-02-01

196

Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants in digested sewage sludge (1993-2012).  

PubMed

The analysis of temporal trends is a key tool to assess the success of national and international regulations on chemical pollution. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are chemical pollutants, which are not only harmful, but also because of their slow environmental degradation they pose a long-time risk. In this study, concentrations of selected POPs were measured between 1993 and 2012 in digested sewage sludge from eight municipal waste water treatment plants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), which have been banned or restricted for decades, exhibited decreasing trends with apparent half-lives between 9 and 12years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and long-chain perfluorinated acids showed no clear trend, which reflects the recent introduction of regulations. The analysis of octabromodiphenyl ethers did not reveal indications for reductive debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether; however the analysis of total bromine showed that up to 14% of the total bromine load in sewage sludge originated from PBDEs (average 2%). This is the first study to report temporal trends for more than 20years of series POPs in sewage sludge. PMID:24071021

Zennegg, Markus; Munoz, Maria; Schmid, Peter; Gerecke, Andreas C

2013-10-01

197

Effect of experimental conditions on gas quality and solids produced by sewage sludge cogasification. 1. Sewage sludge mixed with coal  

SciTech Connect

Cogasification of sewage sludge mixed with coal showed that the amount of sewage sludge supplied to the gasifier, depending on its availability, could vary without affecting the gasifier performance; however, it had an influence on the syngas composition. The use of sewage sludge during coal gasification gave rise to an increasing gas yield and energy conversion, mainly because the gas produced had a greater hydrocarbon content. H{sub 2}S, HCl, and especially NH{sub 3} were also found to increase, due to higher contents of nitrogen in the sewage sludge compared with coal. The rise of both the temperature and the air flow rate resulted in the production of more gas and a lowering of hydrocarbon, char, and tar contents. A decrease in NH{sub 3} content was also observed, as the increase of these parameters promoted the destruction of this compound. The rise in the equivalent ratio also led to lower contents of H{sub 2}S and HCl, probably due to the partial oxidation of these compounds; however, the total amount of these elements released to the gas phase was not considerably affected. On the other hand, H{sub 2}S formation was favored by the rise in temperature up to 850{sup o}C, while the HCl concentration was not significantly affected. Heavy metals supplied with the fuel were mostly retained in solid residues, with Pb and Hg being the most volatile at 850{sup o}C. However, the leachability of these metals was found to be below the analytical detection levels, and only small quantities of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Cl{sup -} were released. 28 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Filomena Pinto; Helena Lopes; Rui Neto Andre; Mario Dias; I. Gulyurtlu; I. Cabrita [INETI- DEECA, Lisbon (Portugal)

2007-09-15

198

Leachate tests with sewage sludge contaminated by radioactive cesium.  

PubMed

The sewer systems of eastern Japan have transported radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to wastewater treatment plants, where the radioisotopes have accumulated. To better understand the potential problems associated with the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills, leachate tests were conducted with radioactive incinerator ash, cement solidification incinerator ash, and dewatered sludge cake. Radioactivity was undetectable in the eluate from incinerator ash and dewatered sludge cake, but about 30% of the radioactivity initially in cement solidification incinerator ash appeared in the eluate during the leaching experiments. Moreover, modification of test conditions revealed that the presence of Ca(2+) ions and strong alkali in the water that contacted the incinerator ash enhanced leaching of cesium. Lastly, the capacity of pit soil to absorb radioactive cesium was estimated to be at least 3.0 Bq/g (dry). PMID:23947711

Tsushima, Ikuo; Ogoshi, Masashi; Harada, Ichiro

2013-01-01

199

Oxisol decapitated recovery with green manure and sewage sludge: Effect on growth of Astronium fraxinifolium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incorrect use of land and large buildings in rural areas are causing changes to it, making them less productive and thus increasing the degraded areas. Techniques aimed at ecological restoration of degraded soils have been investigated. In recovery planning a degraded area, the great challenge to be achieved is the establishment of a A horizon, so that from then on, the process is catalyzed by the biosphere, and there may be other horizons, as the natural conditioning. In this sense the positive changes were investigated in an environment of decapitated Savannah Oxisol, which was removed a layer 8.5 m thick to build a hydroelectric power plant. For recovery, we used a native tree species, green manure, sewage sludge and grass. The studied soil is under human intervention techniques for recovery for seven years. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five treatments and five replications. The treatments were: 1-Control- bare soil (without management), 2-Astronium fraxinifolium Schott; 3-A. fraxinifolium + Canavalia ensiformis; 4- A. fraxinifolium + Raphanus sativus by 2005 was replaced in 2006 by Crotalaria juncea; 5- A. fraxinifolium + Brachiaria decumbens + sewage sludge (60 t ha-1, dry basis). We studied in 2010 and 2011 the development of tree species (stem diameter and plant height), the fresh and dry matter of green manures and B. decumbens. The results were analyzed by performing the variance analysis and Tukey test at 5% probability to compare averages. The rate of plant growth during the periods studied in the treatment with sewage sludge was higher than other treatments, so this is the most appropriate management for the recovery of degraded soil under study.

Souto Filho, S. N.; Marchini, D. C.; de Arruda, O. G.; Giácomo, R. G.; Alves, M. C.

2012-04-01

200

Assessment of toxicity reduction after metal removal in bioleached sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge can be applied to land to supply and recycle organic matter and nutrients. Trace elements in sludge, however, may accumulate in the soil with repeated sludge applications. Reducing metal content may therefore reduce the adverse effects of sludge application. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of bioleaching technology in reducing metal content and toxicity

Agnès Y Renoux; Rajeshwar D Tyagi; Réjean Samson

2001-01-01

201

Transformation products and human metabolites of triclocarban and triclosan in sewage sludge across the United States.  

PubMed

Removal of triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) from wastewater is a function of adsorption, abiotic degradation, and microbial mineralization or transformation, reactions that are not currently controlled or optimized in the pollution control infrastructure of standard wastewater treatment. Here, we report on the levels of eight transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in raw and treated sewage sludge. Two sample sets were studied: samples collected once from 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) representing nine states, and multiple samples collected from one WWTP monitored for 12 months. Time-course analysis of significant mass fluxes (? = 0.01) indicate that transformation of TCC (dechlorination) and TCS (methylation) occurred during sewage conveyance and treatment. Strong linear correlations were found between TCC and the human metabolite 2'-hydroxy-TCC (r = 0.84), and between the TCC-dechlorination products dichlorocarbanilide (DCC) and monochlorocarbanilide (r = 0.99). Mass ratios of DCC-to-TCC and of methyl-triclosan (MeTCS)-to-TCS, serving as indicators of transformation activity, revealed that transformation was widespread under different treatment regimes across the WWTPs sampled, though the degree of transformation varied significantly among study sites (? = 0.01). The analysis of sludge sampled before and after different unit operation steps (i.e., anaerobic digestion, sludge heat treatment, and sludge drying) yielded insights into the extent and location of TCC and TCS transformation. Results showed anaerobic digestion to be important for MeTCS transformation (37-74%), whereas its contribution to partial TCC dechlorination was limited (0.4-2.1%). This longitudinal and nationwide survey is the first to report the occurrence of transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in sewage sludge. PMID:24932693

Pycke, Benny F G; Roll, Isaac B; Brownawell, Bruce J; Kinney, Chad A; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Halden, Rolf U

2014-07-15

202

Sewage sludge-to-energy approaches based on anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis: Brief overview and energy efficiency assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy recovery from sewage sludge offers an opportunity for sustainable management of sewage sludge and energy. Anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis are among the most promising processes applicable for sewage sludge-to-energy conversion. Anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge forms methane-rich biogas, which can be utilized as fuel to offset heat and electricity consumption of the wastewater treatment sector. However, the digestion process

Yucheng Cao

2012-01-01

203

Balancing hygienization and anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge was evaluated in terms of process efficiency and sludge hygienization. Four different scenarios were analyzed, i.e. mesophilic anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a 60 °C or by an 80 °C hygienization treatment. Digester performance (organic matter removal, process stability and biogas yield) and the hygienization efficiency (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA phages) were the main examined factors. Moreover, a preliminary economical feasibility study of each option was carried out throughout an energy balance (heat and electricity). The obtained results showed that both thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a hygienization step were able to produce an effluent sludge that fulfills the American and the European legislation for land application. However, higher removal efficiencies of indicators were obtained when a hygienization post-treatment was present. Regarding the energy balance, it should be noted that all scenarios have a significant energy surplus. Particularly, positive heat balances will be obtained for the thermophilic anaerobic digestion and for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by 60 °C hygienization post-treatment if an additional fresh-sludge/digested sludge heat exchanger is installed for energy recovery. PMID:23063441

Astals, S; Venegas, C; Peces, M; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Mata-Alvarez, J

2012-12-01

204

Vat dye sorption onto crude dehydrated sewage sludge.  

PubMed

In this work, sewage sludge is used as a textile dye adsorbent. A sample of crude dehydrated sewage sludge issued from an urban wastewater treatment plant (high-rate aeration, activated sludge process, Sahline, Tunisia) is utilized for vat dye retention. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the "efficiency" of the crude material on vat dye sorption. However, no treatment to modify any of the adsorbent properties was considered. Although the relatively low specific surface area (about 3.2m(2)g(-1)) compared to more conventional adsorbents, the used material shows very interesting retention capacities when used with water pollutants. The pseudo, first and second order kinetic models have been used to investigate the retention mechanism. When linearized, the pseudo-second order fit, for the both used dyes, in a better way the obtained experimental results than the pseudo-first order kinetic model. For equilibrium dye uptake amount it is found that the used material has a capacity (Langmuir Freundlich monolayer) of 73.1mg/g to fix the VAT RED 10 and 58.7 mg/g to fix the VAT ORANGE 11. PMID:18809247

Dhaouadi, H; M'henni, F

2009-05-30

205

Sugarcane grown in an oxisol amended with sewage sludge and vinasse: nitrogen contents in soil and plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge is a residue from waste water treatment plants and vinasse is a main effluent from alcohol distilleries. The main differences between them are observed in the nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) contents. Sewage sludge is poor in K, and the vinasse in N. This research was carried out to evaluate sewage sludge and vinasse effects on the nitrogen

Ademir Franco; Marcos Omir Marques; Wanderley José de Melo

2008-01-01

206

Effect of sewage sludge on suppressiveness to soil-borne plant pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge on soil suppressiveness to the pathogens Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on tomato, Sclerotium rolfsii on bean, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on tomato, Rhizoctonia solani on radish, Pythium spp. on cucumber, and Ralstonia solanacearum on tomato. Soil samples were collected from an experimental corn field in which sewage sludge

Raquel Ghini; Flávia Rodrigues Alves Patrício; Wagner Bettiol; Irene Maria Gatti de Almeida; Aline de Holanda Nunes Maia

2007-01-01

207

Study on trace metal partitioning in pulverized combustion of bituminous coal and dry sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the influence of co-firing of dry municipal sewage sludge on the behavior of the metals Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn during pulverized coal combustion is presented. Sewage sludge contains higher concentrations of the metals listed above than the reference coal, but a lower concentration of Cl, that enhances the volatility of many metals. Experiments were performed

R. Cenni; F Frandsen; T Gerhardt; H Spliethoff; K. R. G Hein

1998-01-01

208

Effects of sewage sludge blending on the coal combustion: A thermogravimetric assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion of urban sewage sludge together with coal in existing infrastructures may be a sustainable management option energetically interesting for these materials, usually considered wastes. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to study the combustion of a semianthracite coal and the modifications undergone when adding a small percentage (2%, 5%, 10%) of sewage sludge. Both Differential Scanning Calorimetric analysis and Differential Thermogravimetry

M. Otero; X. Gómez; A. I. García; A. Morán

2007-01-01

209

Inactivation of Ascaris suum eggs during storage in lime treated sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival and development of Ascaris suum eggs in sewage sludge mixed with 10% w\\/w of quick lime (85% CaO) has been examined. Fresh collected A. suum eggs were mixed in sewage sludge during lime treatment. The development of the eggs was followed every second week during a 10 weeks period and again after 5 months, parallel with control eggs. Lime

Lis Eriksen; Peter Andreasen; Bente Ilsøe

1996-01-01

210

Biological and abiotic losses of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soils freshly amended with sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge containing typical indigenous concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was applied to several different soils in glass microcosms. Biologically active and sterilized soils were monitored for PAH content over a period of approximately 205 d. Agricultural soils with and without previous exposure to sewage sludge were tested, together with a forest soil and a soil from a major

S. R. Wild; K. C. Jones

1993-01-01

211

F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, third quarter 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During third quarter 1992, the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) were sampled and analyzed for constituents required quarterly by South Carolina...

1993-01-01

212

Guidance for Writing Permits for the Use or Disposal of Sewage Sludge, September 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document is structured for use as a textbook or reference manual by the permit writer. It presents the provisions in 40 CFR Part 503 relating to application of sewage sludge to the land, placement of sewage sludge on a surface disposal site, placement...

1994-01-01

213

Process for utilizing a pumpable fuel from highly dewatered sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for disposing of sewage sludge comprising: (1) dewatering an aqueous slurry of sewage sludge having a solids content of at least about 3 wt. % to produce an aqueous slurry of sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 5 to 20 wt. %; (2) pressing and/or centrifuging the dewatered slurry of sewage sludge from (1) to produce amorphous sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 28 to 50 wt. %; (3) heating the amorphous sewage sludge from (2) in a closed pressure vessel at a temperature in the range of about 150 F to 510 F in the absence of air for a period in the range of about 3 seconds to 60 minutes and shearing the sewage sludge by a rotor/mixer operating at a speed in the range of about 15 to 100 rpm, thereby producing a pumpable slurry of sewage sludge having a viscosity in the range of about 400 to 1,500 centipoise when a measured at 200 F and a higher heating value in the range of about 5,000 to 9,500 Btu/lb, dry basis; and (4) burning said pumpable slurry from (3) in a partial oxidation gasifier, furnace, boiler, or incinerator to produce an effluent gas stream.

Khan, M.R.

1993-08-10

214

A Quantitative Study of Organic Carbon Decomposition and Nitrogen Transformations in Sewage Sludge-Soil Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A quantitative study of rate of sewage sludge decomposition in soil was made, with emphasis on the effect of soil moisture content and soil temperature on rate of release of CO2, NH4, and NO3. Sewage sludge was found to contain two families of organic com...

Y. P. Hsieh

1976-01-01

215

Effects of Sewage-Sludge Application on Soils and Sunflower Yield: Quality and Toxic Element Accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunflower nutrition, sewage-sludge nutrients, and trace-metals supply have been studied in detail, but separately. The objective of the present work was to study the effects of sewage sludge on sunflower yields and the accumulation of nutrients and trace metals in soils and in the crop. Three experiments with sunflower were therefore conducted on farms located in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

Raül S. Lavado

2006-01-01

216

Effect of sewage sludge on microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic quotient and soil enzymatic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring soil quality by means of biological indices can be of help for the management and sustainability of soils that received sewage sludge application. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-term and continued application of sewage sludge rates on microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic quotient and enzymatic activity of a Dark Red Dystroferric Latosol under

Silvana Aparecida Pavan Fernandes; Wagner Bettiol; Carlos Clementi Cerri

2005-01-01

217

Effect of heavy metal contaminated sewage sludge on soil microbiological properties and growth of Indian mustard  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory incubation and pot experiment were carried out to study the effect of amendment of uncontaminated and metal contaminated sewage sludge on soil microbial biomass carbon (C), soil enzyme activities and growth of Indian mustard in a sandy loam soil. The application of metal contaminated sewage sludge containing chromium (Cr) (2400 mg kg), nickel (Ni) (400 mg kg) and lead (Pb)

Meenu Walia; Sneh Goyal

2010-01-01

218

Application of willows ( Salix viminalis) and earthworms ( Eisenia fetida) in sewage sludge treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to verify the suitability of willows (Salix viminalis) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) for sewage sludge management. The study was conducted in Tarnów city sewage plant. In April 2004, 81 pots were filled with concentrated sludge, 27 of which acted as controls, another 54 were planted with willows. In May, 20 mature earthworms were introduced

Agnieszka Kocik; Monika Truchan; Anna Rozen

2007-01-01

219

Characterization of Malaysian domestic sewage sludge for conversion into fuels for energy recovery plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge is one of the largest contributors of waste material in Malaysia, and it indirectly elevates local environmental problems. The use of this waste material as an alternative fuel can be an effective solution, as it not only contributes as an energy source but also solves environmental issues related to sewage sludge disposal. To support the development of a

A. H. Abbas; A. B. A. Ibrahim; M. F. M. Nor; M. S. Aris

2011-01-01

220

Effects of earthworm activity on fertility and heavy metal bioavailability in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for using earthworms (Eisenia fetida) to improve fertility and reduce copper and cadmium availability in sewage sludge was tested by laboratory incubation experiments. Results comparing sewage sludge with and without earthworm treatment showed that earthworm activity decreased the contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, but increased the contents of available nitrogen and phosphorus and had no significant effect

Xiaoli Liu; Chengxiao Hu; Shuzhen Zhang

2005-01-01

221

Characteristics and potential uses of sewage sludge in the commercial capital of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on contrasting properties, sewage sludge can be co-recycled in order to take simultaneously the best profit and minimise environmental pollution. The present study was conducted to assess the physical and chemical properties of sewage sludge generated from different sources in the commercial capital of Bangladesh and on the basis of these characteristics a variety of ways had been fixed

M. M. Abdullah-Al-Mamun; Kazi Mohammad Masum; Mohammed Shafiul Alam

2011-01-01

222

NEAR-BOTTOM PELAGIC BACTERIA AT A DEEP-WATER SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. ixed cultures and bacterial...

223

Sewage Sludge Application in Semiarid Grasslands: Effects on Vegetation and Water Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Municipal sewage sludge was used as a soil organic matter and nutrient amendment in an attempt to increase rangeland productivity and above-ground plant cover and to reduce soil erosion. The objectives were to: (1) determine the effects of sewage sludge a...

R. Aguilar S. R. Loftin T. J. Ward K. A. Stevens J. R. Gosz

1994-01-01

224

Heavy metals in sludge from the sewage treatment plant of Rio de Janeiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The final disposal of sewage sludge on soils as a compost for agriculture increases heavy metal contamination in soils. This demands controlled use to avoid hazardous situations. This work measures the heavy metals content in sludge and its potential as a fertilizer in agriculture. Samples were collected from the Penha urban sewage plant, the largest in Rio de Janeiro. Heavy

Tomaz Langenbach; Wolfgang Pfeifer; Luiz Rodrigues Freire; Michele Sarpa; Sueli Paim

1994-01-01

225

Digested Sewage Sludge as Seed for Batch Test of Anaerobic Biodegradability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research was carried out to optimize the use of digested sewage sludge (DSS) as a seed for batch tests of food waste anaerobic biodegradability. Digested sewage sludge was used as the seed because of its abundant supply and previous use as a seed. A seed volume of 1:1 g VS basis to the substrate provided a stable anaerobic process, however

Nastaein Qamaruz-Zaman; Mark W. Milke

226

Direct Vermicomposting of Fresh Sewage Sludge by Using Two Epigeic Earthworm Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct vermicomposting of fresh sewage sludge by two epigeic earthworm species (Eisenia foetida and Bimastus parvus) was conducted in a lab-scale experimental setup, and the performance was evaluated. The results showed that it was feasible to use both E. fetida and B. parvus to convert fresh sewage sludge without any pretreatment and blending into good quality fertilizer. Direct vermicomposting resulted

Xuemin Chen; Xiaoyong Fu

2010-01-01

227

Enzyme Activities in a Sandy Soil Amended with Sewage Sludge and Coal Fly Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies showed that coal fly ash could stabilize sewage sludge by reducing metal availability, but fly ash may cause an adverse effect on soil microbial activities. Therefore, an experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of amendment of soil with anaerobically digested dewatered sewage sludge, stabilised with alkaline coal fly ash, on soil enzyme activity and the implications for

K. M. Lai; D. Y. Ye; J. W. C. Wong

1999-01-01

228

An experimental study of sewage sludge incineration.  

PubMed

Sludge incinerated ash has been fired at different temperatures. This material was fired at 1050 degrees C for 3 h and until a peak of 1010 degrees C. After thermal treatment the ash was screened at 200 mesh.The ash was characterized by X-ray fluorescence and trace elements like Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, and some oxides like quartz(SiO2), Al2O3, P2O5, Fe2O3 were found. Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) has shown one change of particle between 2 microm at 90 microm and apparent porosity, thermal analysis has shown loss of mass and residual decomposition in the TG, DTG and DTA curves. PMID:17067131

Morais, L C; Dweck, J; Gonçalves, E M; Büchler, P M

2006-09-01

229

Energy recovery from secondary pulp/paper-mill sludge and sewage sludge with supercritical water treatment.  

PubMed

Secondary pulp/paper-mill sludge (SPP) and sewage sludges (primary, secondary, and digested sewage sludges) were treated in supercritical water at temperatures ranging between 400 degrees Celsius and 550 degrees Celsius over 20-120 min for energy recovery. Low temperature and short reaction time favored the formation of heavy oil (HO) products, which were mainly composed of a variety of phenol and phenolic compounds, as well as some nitrogen-containing compounds, long-chain alkenes and alcohols, etc., with high gross calorific values (>36 MJ/kg). By contrast, the formation of synthetic gases, a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, and other light hydrocarbons, were not significantly affected by reaction time but greatly enhanced with increasing temperature. The highest gas yield was obtained at 550 degrees Celsius, where 37.7 wt.% of the SPP (on dry basis) was converted into gases, with hydrogen yields as high as 14.5 mol H(2)/kg SPP (on a dry basis). In comparison to sewage sludges, SPP exhibited a greater capability for the production of HO and gases owing to its higher contents of volatiles and alkali metals, indicating a prospective utilization potential for SPP as a source of bio-energy. PMID:20044251

Zhang, Linghong; Xu, Chunbao Charles; Champagne, Pascale

2010-04-01

230

Effects of sewage sludge blending on the coal combustion: a thermogravimetric assessment.  

PubMed

Combustion of urban sewage sludge together with coal in existing infrastructures may be a sustainable management option energetically interesting for these materials, usually considered wastes. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to study the combustion of a semianthracite coal and the modifications undergone when adding a small percentage (2%, 5%, 10%) of sewage sludge. Both Differential Scanning Calorimetric analysis and Differential Thermogravimetry burning profiles showed differences between coal and sewage sludge combustion. However, the effects of adding a percentage of sewage sludge equal or smaller than 10% was hardly noticeable in terms of heat release and weight loss during the coal combustion. This was further proved by non-isothermal kinetic analysis, which was used to evaluate the Arrhenius activation energy corresponding to the co-combustion of the blends. This work shows that thermogravimetric analysis may be used as an easy rapid tool to asses the co-combustion of sewage sludge together with coal. PMID:17624399

Otero, M; Gómez, X; García, A I; Morán, A

2007-11-01

231

Pathway of radioisotopes from land surface to sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive surface contaminations will only partially remain at the original location - a fraction of the inventory will take part in (mainly terrestrial and aquatic) environmental transport processes. The probably best known and most important process comprises the food chain. Besides, the translocation of dissolved and particle-bound radioisotopes with surface waters plays an important role. These processes can have the effect of displacing large radioisotope amounts over considerable distances and of creating new sinks and hot spots, as it is already known for sewage sludge. We are reporting on a combined modeling and experimental project concerning the transport of I-131 and Cs-134/Cs-137 FDNPP 2011 depositions in the Fukushima Prefecture. Well-documented experimental data sets are available for surface deposition and sewage sludge concentrations. The goal is to model the pathway in between, involving surface runoff, transport in the sewer system and processes in the sewage treatment plant. Watershed runoff and sewer transport will be treated with models developed recently by us in other projects. For sewage treatment processes a new model is currently being constructed. For comparison and further validation, historical data from Chernobyl depositions and tracer data from natural and artificial, e.g. medical, isotopes will be used. First results for 2011 data from Fukushima Prefecture will be presented. The benefits of the study are expected to be two-fold: on one hand, the abundant recent and historical data will help to develop and improve environmental transport models; on the other hand, both data and models will help in identifying the most critical points in the envisaged transport pathways in terms of radiation protection and waste management.

Fischer, Helmut W.; Yokoo, Yoshiyuki

2014-05-01

232

The occurrence of keratinophilic fungi in sewage sludge from Egypt.  

PubMed

The keratinophilic fungi of 40 sewage sludge samples from Upper Egypt were studied using a goat hair-baiting technique. 43 species representing 22 genera were isolated, 17 species of which were dermatophytes and closely related fungi: Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma tuberculatum, C. asperatum, C. georgii, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. pseudomerdarium, C. queenslandicum, Chrysosporium state of Thielavia sepedonium, C. tropicum, Microsporum cookei, M. gypseum, Myceliophthora anamorph of Corynascus novoguineensis, M. vellerea and Trichophyton terrestre. 26 species of cycloheximide resistant fungi were collected and these included members of Acremonium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Emericella, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Penicillium and others. PMID:1693678

Abdel-Hafez, A I; el-Sharouny, H M

1990-01-01

233

Simulation of co-incineration of sewage sludge with municipal solid waste in a grate furnace incinerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incineration is one of the most important methods in the resource recovery disposal of sewage sludge. The combustion characteristics of sewage sludge and an increasing number of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants provide the possibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was used to verify the feasibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW, and

Hai Lin; Xiaoqian Ma

234

Thermal analysis of growing media obtained from mixtures of paper mill waste materials and sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with thermal analysis of growing media obtained from mixtures of paper will waste materials (one de-inking\\u000a paper sludge, HP, and one reject from paper mill producing paper from virgin wood, RT) with sewage sludge. For the growing\\u000a media formulation, one sewage sludge (L) was mixed with both paper mill waste materials at 10, 20, and 30% in

A. Méndez; S. Barriga; F. Guerrero; G. Gascó

2011-01-01

235

Co-composting of sewage sludge and coal fly ash: nutrient transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-composting of sewage sludge with coal fly ash was carried out for evaluating the effect of coal fly ash on nutrient transformations during sludge composting. Dewatered anaerobically-digested sewage sludge was mixed with sawdust used as a bulking agent at 2:1 (w\\/w), and the mixtures were amended with coal fly ash at 0, 10, 25 and 35% (w\\/w) and composted for

M. Fang; J. W. C. Wong; K. K. Ma; M. H. Wong

1999-01-01

236

NOx, Fine Particle and Toxic Metal Emissions from the Combustion of Sewage Sludge/Coal Mixtures: A Systematic Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditio...

J. O. L. Wendt

2003-01-01

237

Comparative assessment of municipal sewage sludge incineration, gasification and pyrolysis for a sustainable sludge-to-energy management in Greece.  

PubMed

For a sustainable municipal sewage sludge management, not only the available technology, but also other parameters, such as policy regulations and socio-economic issues should be taken in account. In this study, the current status of both European and Greek Legislation on waste management, with a special insight in municipal sewage sludge, is presented. A SWOT analysis was further developed for comparison of pyrolysis with incineration and gasification and results are presented. Pyrolysis seems to be the optimal thermochemical treatment option compared to incineration and gasification. Sewage sludge pyrolysis is favorable for energy savings, material recovery and high added materials production, providing a 'zero waste' solution. Finally, identification of challenges and barriers for sewage sludge pyrolysis deployment in Greece was investigated. PMID:24290971

Samolada, M C; Zabaniotou, A A

2014-02-01

238

Enhancement in characteristics of sewage sludge and anaerobic treatability by electron beam pre-treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron beam was studied to enhance the biodegradability of sewage sludge. Changes in physicochemical characteristics of the sludge were examined with various irradiation doses, sludge thicknesses and exposure times. Irradiation thickness was suggested as the key factor affecting the efficiency of solublization of solid organic matter, whereas exposure time would be the most critical parameter in inducing cell lysis in sewage sludge. In addition, biogas production was improved as much as 22% when the sludge thickness was 0.5 cm with a dose of 7 kGy.

Park, Wooshin; Hwang, Moon-Hyun; Kim, Tak-Hyun; Lee, Myun-Joo; Kim, In S.

2009-02-01

239

Data-element dictionary 1988 sewage-sludge use and disposal: Questionnaire data base  

SciTech Connect

The National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS) is a questionnaire and analytical survey of Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) intended to produce national estimates of: (1) Concentrations of toxic contaminants in municipal sludge; (2) Sludge generation and treatment processes; (3) Sludge use and disposal practices and alternative use and disposal practices; and (4) Treatment and disposal costs. The survey will provide reliable, current data that can be used in the regulatory impact analysis (RIA) and aggregate risk analysis (ARA) to project impacts and benefits to support promulgation of the first round technical regulation for sewage sludge pollutants and use and disposal practices (40 CFR Part 503).

Not Available

1989-10-01

240

National Sewage-Sludge Survey facility analytical results. Volume 1-4  

SciTech Connect

The National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS) is a questionnaire and analytical survey of Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) intended to produce national estimates of: (1) Concentrations of toxic contaminants in municipal sludge; (2) Sludge generation and treatment processes; (3) Sludge use and disposal practices and alternative use and disposal practices; and (4) Treatment and disposal costs. The survey will provide reliable, current data that can be used in the regulatory impact analysis (RIA) and aggregate risk analysis (ARA) to project impacts and benefits to support promulgation of the first round technical regulation for sewage sludge pollutants and use and disposal practices (40 CFR Part 503).

Not Available

1989-10-01

241

Copper and zinc adsorption by sewage sludge?treated soil in southern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal accumulation in soil due to the application of sewage sludge may induce changes in its ionic retention capacity. In this work, sludge application effects on copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) adsorption by the surface horizon of a calcareous soil in Southern Spain have been studied. Sludge from the urban waste water treatment plant in Cordoba was applied at

María José Polo; Rafaela Ordóñez; Juan Vicente Giráldez

1999-01-01

242

Analysis of the co-combustion of sewage sludge and coal by TG-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion of sewage sludge may be a viable solution for its management in some cases and so is its co-combustion with coal. The aim of the present paper is to study the behavior of three different sludges during combustion and the modifications of combustion parameters that take place when sludges are mixed with coal, all measurements being done by thermogravimetry.

M Otero; C D??ez; L. F Calvo; A. I Garc??a; A Morán

2002-01-01

243

Heavy metal uptake by natural zeolite and metals partitioning in sewage sludge compost  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major limitation of land application of sewage sludge compost is the potential high heavy metal content due to the metal content of the original sludge. Zeolites may be useful as metal scavengers in metal-rich sludges. The natural zeolite, clinoptilolite has the ability to take up heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). The aim of the

A. A Zorpas; T Constantinides; A. G Vlyssides; I Haralambous; M Loizidou

2000-01-01

244

Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of investigation of methane fermentation of sewage sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) as well as the cofermentation of both substrates under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. In the first experiment the primary sludge and thickened excess activated sludge were fed into a 40 dm3 bioreactor operated thermophilically. The second co-fermentation experiment was

P Sosnowski; A Wieczorek; S Ledakowicz

2003-01-01

245

Multielement and chlorinated hydrocarbon analysis of municipal sewage sludges of American cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical survey of 68 elements, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) was conducted in municipal sewage sludges sampled during 1972-73 from 16 American cities using several instrumental methods. Unusually elevated concentrations of certain toxic elements were found in sludges from specific cities. Relatively high levels of gold and mercury in sludge from San Francisco possibly derived from geochemical sources. Fluorine

A. Keith Furr; Alonzo W. Lawrence; Steven S. C. Tong; Marian C. Grandolfo; Robert A. Hofstader; Carl A. Bache; Walter H. Gutenmann; Donald J. Lisk

1976-01-01

246

Mineralization of soil and legume nitrogen in soils treated with metal-contaminated sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty percent of urban sewage sludge in southeastern Australia is destined to be reused on agricultural land to improve soil fertility. However, this sludge is usually contaminated with industrial pollutants, in particular with heavy metals. As heavy metals are known to be toxic to microorganisms, concern has been raised that treating soils with these sludges may adversely affect the mineralization

K. J Munn; J Evans; P. M Chalk

2000-01-01

247

Relationship between partition of heavy metals in sewage sludge and elution of heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals in sewage sludge were classified into three partitions associated with extracellular and intracellular organic matters and the residue before and after different elution processes of heavy metals from the sludge. Alkalization of the sludge to pH 11 decreased the content of Cu in the three partitions and that of Ni in extracellular organic and residual ones. Acidification of

A. Ito; J. Kusanagi; T. Matsukura; J. Aizawa; T. Umit

2002-01-01

248

UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ASH (SSA) AS FINE AGGREGATE WITH LOCAL POZZOLANIC MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal of sewage sludge from waste water treatment presents highly complex problems to any municipality, due to increasingly stringent environment regulation and industrial growth that have markedly increased the disposal requirements the incineration only reduces the volume of the sludge and remaining the sludge ash. This study aims to investigate the effect of the substitution of cement and sand

S. R. Zeedan; Z. S. El Den-Houssien; A. M. Kandeel

249

Subchronic toxicity evaluation of a treated urban sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Disposal of tons of sludge produced daily by sewage treatment plants in large cities is a serious problem. Because recycling and application in agriculture have been proposed, the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA, 2006) issued a legal norm that regulates the use of the sewage sludge (SS) in crops. Due to the complex chemical nature of such products, characterization by analytical methods for health and environmental risk assessment has severe limitations. To overcome such limitations, it is necessary to (1) assess the toxicological potential of SS and (2) identify possible adverse effects in vivo in order to provide critical information for future environmental regulations. The present study was conducted to determine the potential toxicity of SS obtained from a representative urban treatment plant located in the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Male and female Wistar rats were fed ad libitum a pelleted diet containing varying amounts of SS. No relevant clinical, hematological, urinary, or gross organ morphological alterations were observed in both genders of rats orally exposed to SS at up to 3.8 g/kg/d for 90 d. Sewage slude produced increased incidence of centrilobular hepatocyte hyperplasia at the high dose and significantly increased aspartate aminotransferease (AST) activities at all doses in both genders. Although the present data indicate some liver involvement, these alterations were considered adaptative and not toxicologically relevant, as the responses were relatively mild, not dose dependent, and no other parameters were markedly affected. The present results may contribute to the establishment of protocols for potential usage in SS agricultural soil application. PMID:20563925

Francisco Lozano Luvizutto, João; de Lourdes Marzo Solano, Marize; Passareli, Daniele; Adriene da Silva Franchi, Carla; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela; Lauro Viana de Camargo, João

2010-01-01

250

Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Sewage Sludge by Gamma Irradiation with Pasteurization as a Tool for Hygienization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research work, management of sewage sludge disposal on agricultural soils is addressed. The increasing amount of sewage sludge and more legislative regulation of its disposal have stimulated the need for developing new technologies to recycle sewage sludge efficiently. The research was structured along two main avenues, namely, the efficacy of the irradiation process for removing enteric pathogenic microorganisms and the potential of irradiated sludge as a soil amendment. This study investigated how application of irradiation with heat treatment reduced pathogens in sewage sludge. Raw and pasteurised Sewage sludge was treated at different dose treatment of 1.5, 3 and 5 kilogray (kGy) gamma irradiation individually and for 3 kGy sufficiency was achieved. Decrease in irradiation dose from 5 to 3 kGy was observed for pasteurised sludge resulting in saving of radiation energy. The presence of heavy metals in untreated sewage sludge has raised concerns, which decreases after irradiation.

Priyadarshini, J.; Roy, P. K.; Mazumdar, A.

2014-05-01

251

Co-combustion of different sewage sludge and coal: a non-isothermal thermogravimetric kinetic analysis.  

PubMed

The kinetics of the combustion of coal, two different sewage sludge and their blends (containing different dried weight percentages of sewage sludge) was studied by simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis. Once the weight percentage of sludge in the blend was 10%, the effects on the combustion of coal were hardly noticeable in terms of weight loss. The Arrhenius activation energy corresponding to the co-combustion of the blends was evaluated by non-isothermal kinetic analysis. This showed that, though differences between coal and sewage sludge, the combustion of their blends kept kinetically alike to that of the coal. This work illustrates how thermogravimetric analysis may be used as an easy rapid tool to asses, not only mass loss, but also kinetics of the co-combustion of sewage sludge and coal blends. PMID:18255288

Otero, M; Calvo, L F; Gil, M V; García, A I; Morán, A

2008-09-01

252

Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of dilute primary-treated sewage sludge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of remotely monitoring ocean dumping of waste products such as acid and sewage sludge is evaluated. The laboratory arrangement, solar simulator, and test results from three experiments conducted in the laboratory are described. Radiance and reflectance spectra are presented for primary-treated sewage sludge mixed with two types of base water. Results indicate that upwelled reflectance varies in a near-linear manner with concentration and that the sludge has a practically flat signal response between 420 and 970 nm. Well-defined upwelled reflectance spectra were obtained for the sewage-sludge mixtures at all wavelengths and concentrations. The spectral-reflectance values appeared to be influenced by the type of base water, but this influence was small, especially for the mixtures with low concentrations of sewage sludge.

Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

1977-01-01

253

Detection of Escherichia coli in sewage and sludge by polymerase chain reaction  

SciTech Connect

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a powerful tool in exploration of microbial activities and identities in environmental microbiology. High concentrations of humic acidlike substances in raw sewage and raw sludge have prevented the use of PCR with sewage and sludge samples. However, monitoring waste water and sludge by the PCR would lead to increased public health protection. In this study a rapid DNA extraction method and rapid purification procedure are combined with the PCR to detect Escherichia coli in sewage and sludge. The PCR is successfully used to amplify from both, a fragment of the E. coli uidAgene that codes for [beta]-D-glucuronidase. Because of their sensitivity and specificity, the PCR and nonradioactive gene probe techniques can be used to detect potentially pathogenic microorganisms in raw sewage and sludge, allowing for evaluation of the efficiency of treatments to remove pathogens.

Tsai, Yuli; Palmer, C.J.; Sangermano, L.R. (Environmental Sciences Lab., Fountain Valley, CA (United States))

1993-02-01

254

Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of dilute secondary-treated sewage sludge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), conducted a research program to evaluate the feasibility of remotely monitoring ocean dumping of waste products such as acid and sewage sludge. One aspect of the research program involved the measurements of upwelled spectral signatures for sewage-sludge mixtures of different concentrations in an 11600-liter tank. This paper describes the laboratory arrangement and presents radiance and reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared ranges for concentrations ranging from 9.7 to 180 ppm of secondary-treated sewage sludge mixed with two types of base water. Results indicate that upwelled radiance varies in a near-linear manner with concentration and that the sludge has a practically flat signal response between 420 and 970 nm. Reflectance spectra were obtained for the sewage-sludge mixtures at all wavelengths and concentrations.

Witte, W. G.; Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

1977-01-01

255

Bibliography of the Beneficial Uses/Sewage-Sludge-Irradiation Project, 1974-1982  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Beneficial Uses/Sewage Sludge Irradiation Project is to develop the technology to disinfect sewage sludge by treatment with gamma radiation from nuclear waste material, and to use the treated sewage sludge as a soil amendment or supplemental animal feed. Since the inception of the project in 1974, several hundred reports and articles have been published that describe the project work supported by Sandia National Laboratories and the Albuquerque Operations Office of the Department of Energy. This Bibliography presents citations and abstracts of those publications. Also listed are several publications describing pertinent work supported by other organizations.

Homann, P.S.; Hartwigsen, C.C.; Zak, B.D. (comps.)

1982-11-01

256

Increased biogas production at wastewater treatment plants through co-digestion of sewage sludge with grease trap sludge from a meat processing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of co-digesting grease trap sludge from a meat-processing plant and sewage sludge was studied in batch and reactor experiments at 35°C. Grease trap sludge had high methane production potential (918m3\\/tVSadded), but methane production started slowly. When mixed with sewage sludge, methane production started immediately and the potential increased with increasing grease trap sludge content. Semi-continuous co-digestion of the

S. Luostarinen; S. Luste; M. Sillanpää

2009-01-01

257

Oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Federal regulations banning ocean dumping of sewage sludge coupled with stricter regulations on the disposal of sewage sludge in landfills have forced municipalities, especially those in the northeast United States, to consider alternate methods for disposal of this solid waste. Coincineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) and sludge has proven to be economically attractive for both Europe and Japan, but has not yet proven to be a viable sludge disposal technology in the United States because of a history of operational problems in existing facilities. The most prevalent problem in coincinerating MSW and a dewatered sewage sludge (15 to 25% solids) is incomplete sludge combustion. Incomplete sludge combustion is primarily a function of sludge particle size, occurring when the surface of the sludge particle dries and hardens, while the inner mass is unaffected. This phenomenon is commonly referred to in the industry as the {open_quotes}hamburger effect.{close_quotes} In an effort to promote technology development in this area, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. teamed with the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate a new process being developed for the disposal of a dewatered sewage sludge, {open_quotes}Oxygen-Enriched Coincineration of MSW and Sewage Sludge.{close_quotes} This report provides a comprehensive summary of the pilot demonstration test program for oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge. This report describes the pilot test facility, instrumentation, and methods of data collection and data analyses; describes how the tests were executed; and discusses the test results. Recommendations for the future development of this technology in the current marketplace are also provided.

none,

1994-01-01

258

Agronomic value of sewage sludge and corn cob biochar in an infertile Oxisol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disposal of sewage sludge and other agricultural waste materials has become increasingly difficult in urban environments with limited land space. Carbonization of the hazardous waste produces biochar as a soil amendment with potential to improve soil quality and productivity. A series of greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to assess the agrnomic value of two biochars made from domestic wastewater sludge and corn cob waste. The ash component of the sewage sludge biochar was very high (65.5%) and high for the corn cob (11.4%) biochars. Both biochars contained low concentrations of heavy metals and met EPA land application criteria. The sewage sludge biochar was a better liming material and source of mineral nutrients than the corn cob biochar, but the corn cob biochar showed the greatest increase in soil carbon and total nitrogen. Both biochar materials increased soil pH compared with soils not receiving biochar, but the sewage sludge biochar was a more effective liming material maintaining elevated soil pH throughout the 3 planting cycles. The sewage sludge biochar also showed the greatest increase in extractable soil P and base cations. In the first planting cycle, both biochars in combination with conventional fertilizers produced significantly higher corn seedling growth than the fertilized control. However, the sewage sludge biochar maintained beneficial effects corn seedling growth through the third planting cycle showing 3-fold increases in biomass production compared with the control in the third planting. The high ash content and associated liming properties and mineral nutrient contributions in the sewage sludge biochar explain benefits to plant growth. Conversion of sewage sludge waste into biochar has the potential to effectively address several environmental issues: 1) convert a hazardous waste into a valuable soil amendment, 2) reduce land and water contamination, and 3) improve soil quality and productivity.

Deenik, J. L.; Cooney, M. J.; Antal, M. J., Jr.

2013-12-01

259

Restoration of acidic mine spoils with sewage sludge: II measurement of solids applied  

SciTech Connect

Sewage sludge was incorporated in acidic strip mine spoils at rates equivalent to 0, 224, 336, and 448 dry metric tons (dmt)/ha and placed in pots in a greenhouse. Spoil parameters were determined 48 hours after sludge incorporation, Time Planting (P), and five months after orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) was planted, Time Harvest (H), in the pots. Parameters measured were: pH, organic matter content (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), electrical conductivity (EC) and yield. Values for each parameter were significantly different at the two sampling times. Correlation coefficient values were calculated for all parameters versus rates of applied sewage sludge and all parameters versus each other. Multiple regressions were performed, stepwise, for all parameters versus rates of applied sewage sludge. Equations to predict amounts of sewage sludge incorporated in spoils were derived for individual and multiple parameters. Generally, measurements made at Time P achieved the highest correlation coefficient and multiple correlation coefficient values; therefore, the authors concluded data from Time P had the greatest predictability value. The most important value measured to predict rate of applied sewage sludge was pH and some additional accuracy was obtained by including CEC in equation. This experiment indicated that soil properties can be used to estimate amounts of sewage sludge solids required to reclaim acidic mine spoils and to estimate quantities incorporated.

Stucky, D.J.; Zoeller, A.L.

1980-01-01

260

Characterization of sewage sludge organic matter using solid-state carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Six sewage sludges from five sewage treatment plants in Australia were characterized using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Spectra were acquired both before and after removal of mineral components through treatment with hydrofluoric acid (HF). Carbon mass balance indicated that little organic matter was lost on HF treatment, which significantly improved NMR sensitivity and spectral resolution, and decreased acquisition time and hence cost of NMR analysis. Two NMR techniques were used, the standard cross polarization (CP) technique and Bloch decay (BD). The BD technique had not been applied previously to the analysis of sewage sludge. For each sludge sample, both before and after HF treatment, the BD spectrum contained significantly more alkyl carbon. Spin counting, another technique applied to sewage sludge here for the first time, showed that the BD spectra of the HF-treated sludges were quantitative, while approximately 30% of the CP NMR signal went undetected. The discrepancy between CP and BD spectra was attributed to the presence of alkyl carbon with such high molecular mobility that the efficiency of cross polarization is affected. This study shows that sewage sludge organic matter is significantly different in chemistry to soil organic matter and has implications for the application of sewage sludge to agricultural land. PMID:12931909

Smernik, Ronald J; Oliver, Ian W; Merrington, Graham

2003-01-01

261

Mechanism of red mud combined with Fenton's reagent in sewage sludge conditioning.  

PubMed

Red mud was evaluated as an alternative skeleton builder combined with Fenton's reagent in sewage sludge conditioning. The results show that red mud combined with Fenton's reagent showed good conditioning capability with the pH of the filtrate close to neutrality, indicating that red mud acted as a neutralizer as well as a skeleton builder when jointly used with Fenton's reagent. Through response surface methodology (RSM), the optimal dosages of Fe(2+), H2O2 and red mud were proposed as 31.9, 33.7 and 275.1 mg/g DS (dry solids), respectively. The mechanism of the composite conditioner could be illuminated as follows: (1) extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), including loosely bound EPS and tightly bound EPS, were degraded into dissolved organics, e.g., proteins and polysaccharides; (2) bound water was released and converted into free water due to the degradation of EPS; and (3) morphology of the conditioned sludge exhibited a porous structure in contrast with the compact structure of raw sludge, and the addition of red mud formed new mineral phases and a rigid lattice structure in sludge, allowing the outflow of free water. Thus, sludge dewatering performance was effectively improved. The economic assessment for a wastewater treatment plant of 370,000 equivalent inhabitants confirms that using red mud conditioning, combined with Fenton's reagent, leads to a saving of approximately 411,000 USD/y or 50.8 USD/t DS comparing with using lime and ordinary Portland cement combined with Fenton's reagent, and approximately 612,000 USD/y or 75.5 USD/t DS comparing with the traditional treatment. PMID:24810740

Zhang, Hao; Yang, Jiakuan; Yu, Wenbo; Luo, Sen; Peng, Li; Shen, Xingxing; Shi, Yafei; Zhang, Shinan; Song, Jian; Ye, Nan; Li, Ye; Yang, Changzhu; Liang, Sha

2014-08-01

262

Adsorption of SO2 on sewage sludge-derived materials.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge-derived materials carbonized at temperatures between 400 and 950 degrees C were used for adsorption of sulfur dioxide from dry and moist air. The materials were characterized using sorption of nitrogen and thermal analysis. The sulfur dioxide capacity was measured according to a laboratory-developed breakthrough test. It was found that the capacity of the adsorbents increases with increasing temperature of carbonization. It is likely that during carbonization at high temperatures such catalytic metals as calcium become active. They play a significant role in the SO2 removal process by neutralization of sulfuric acid formed as a result of oxidation of sulfur dioxide in wet conditions. Besides sulfuric acid, various sulfur-containing salts are formed. It was shown that, after their removal using waterwashing,the SO2 capacitysignificantly decreased. PMID:11506018

Bashkova, S; Bagreev, A; Locke, D C; Bandosz, T J

2001-08-01

263

Removal of siloxane from digestion gas of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

This paper studies the way to remove siloxanes from digestion gas of sewage sludge by adsorbents. Many adsorbents were tested by using the model gas of siloxane in nitrogen. The adsorption ratio was 0.056-0.192 for the activated carbons, 0.004-0.077 for the molecular sieve and 0.104 for the silica gel. An observed tendency was that the activated carbons showed high adsorption ratio, and that the adsorption ratio was increased when BET surface area was higher, and the pore volume was higher and the pH value was higher. Finally, we found a few kinds of activated carbons with the superior ability of adsorption, and we tested the ability of them by using the real digestion gas. All of the siloxanes were found to be removed in the 1000 h test. PMID:19539462

Matsui, Toru; Imamura, Shigeru

2010-01-01

264

Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge ash through an electrodialytic process.  

PubMed

The electrodialytic separation process (ED) was applied to sewage sludge ash (SSA) aiming at phosphorus (P) recovery. As the SSA may have high heavy metals contents, their removal was also assessed. Two SSA were sampled, one immediately after incineration (SA) and the other from an open deposit (SB). Both samples were ED treated as stirred suspensions in sulphuric acid for 3, 7 and 14days. After 14days, phosphorus was mainly mobilized towards the anode end (approx. 60% in the SA and 70% in the SB), whereas heavy metals mainly electromigrated towards the cathode end. The anolyte presented a composition of 98% of P, mainly as orthophosphate, and 2% of heavy metals. The highest heavy metal removal was achieved for Cu (ca. 80%) and the lowest for Pb and Fe (between 4% and 6%). The ED showed to be a viable method for phosphorus recovery from SSA, as it promotes the separation of P from the heavy metals. PMID:24656469

Guedes, Paula; Couto, Nazaré; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

2014-05-01

265

Sewage sludge as a biomass resource for the production of energy: Overview and assessment of the various options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of municipal wastewater results worldwide in the production of large amounts of sewage sludge. The major part of the dry matter content of this sludge consists of nontoxic organic compounds, in general a combination of primary sludge and secondary (microbiological) sludge. The sludge also contains a substantial amount of inorganic material and a small amount of toxic components. There

Wim Rulkens

2008-01-01

266

An Integrated System for Disposal of Sludges Originating from Water Softening and Sewage Treatment in Municipalities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective was to explore the feasibility, both technically and economically, of developing an integrated system for the disposal of sludges originating from water softening and sewage treatment in municipalities. The proposed system consists of utiliz...

J. W. Moore

1971-01-01

267

F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report  

SciTech Connect

During second quarter 1992, the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) of Savannah River Plant were sampled and analyzed for constituents required quarterly by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076. None of these analytes exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria at either sewage sludge site. The F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site wells also were analyzed for a number of other constituents not required by the permit. Of these constituents, tritium exceeded the PDWS in wells FSS 2D and 3D. Lead exceeded the PDWS in well FSS 3D. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well FSS 4D, and manganese exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criterion in wells FSS 2D and 3D.

Not Available

1992-10-01

268

F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

During second quarter 1992, the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) of Savannah River Plant were sampled and analyzed for constituents required quarterly by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076. None of these analytes exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria at either sewage sludge site. The F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site wells also were analyzed for a number of other constituents not required by the permit. Of these constituents, tritium exceeded the PDWS in wells FSS 2D and 3D. Lead exceeded the PDWS in well FSS 3D. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well FSS 4D, and manganese exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criterion in wells FSS 2D and 3D.

Not Available

1992-10-01

269

Nomination Guidance: 1992 Beneficial Sewage Sludge Use Awards Program for Operating Projects, Technology Development, Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides an overview of the Beneficial Sewage Sludge Use Awards Program for technology development, operating projects, and research. Categories of awards, nomination procedures and guidance for participation are included.

1991-01-01

270

Nomination Guidance: Beneficial Sewage Sludge Use Awards Program for Operating Projects, Technology Development, Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the awards program is to encourage the development and use of cost-effective and environmentally safe sewage sludge beneficial use practices which recycle nutrients, improve soil conditions or otherwise conserve valuable natural resources. ...

1990-01-01

271

Proper Sanitization of Sewage Sludge: a Critical Issue for a Sustainable Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

To attain the global goal of an environmentally sustainable society in which organic material is successfully recycled back to arable land, it is crucial to develop effective procedures for the treatment of sewage sludge. The term \\

Veronica Arthurson

2008-01-01

272

SUMMARY REPORT ON CORROSIVITY STUDIES IN COINCINERATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND SOLID WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

Corrosion probe exposures were conducted in the Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Incinerator to determine the effects of burning low-chloride sewage sludge with municipal refuse. Probes having controlled temperature gradients were used to measure corrosion rates for exposure times up to ...

273

EVALUATION OF A FLUIDIZED-BED SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR USING WOOD CHIPS FOR FUEL  

EPA Science Inventory

An environmental and technical evaluation was conducted on the Western Lake Superior Sanitary District waste treatment plant, which uses wood chips to incinerate sewage sludge in fluidized-bed combustors. The most important environmental factors for evaluation were determined to ...

274

Impact of lead and sewage sludge on soil microbial biomass and carbon and nitrogen mineralization  

SciTech Connect

Sewage sludge disposal on arable land is viewed as a method to reduce waste accumulation and to enrich soil fertility. However, such disposal can degrade soil ecosystems due to the presence of potentially harmful substances, such as heavy metals. Pb has assumed greater significance because currently its dispersal through anthropogenic activities has exceeded the inputs from natural sources by about 17 fold. Several soil variables such as texture, organic matter content, clay, cation exchange capacity, soil pH, and CaCO{sub 3} content influence the toxic effects of heavy metals on sol microbes and their activities. Microbes have an essential function in cycling of nutrients through mineralization activities. However, the addition of 375 and 1500 {mu}g Pb g{sup -1} soil in sandy loam and clay loam has been reported to cause a 15% decrease in soil microbial respiration. Contrarily, in an organic soil microbial respiration and enzyme activities were observed to remain unaltered by the addition of 1000 {mu}g Pb g{sup -1} soil. While the nitrification process in a sandy loam soil has been reported to be significantly inhibited at 100 {mu}g Pb g{sup -1} soil, the addition of similar amount of Pb to alluvial and clay loam had no effect on nitrification and ammonifying and nitrifying bacteria. This study assesses the effects of lead and sewages sludge on microbial biomass and mineralization processes in soils of varied texture and organic matter content. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

Dar, G.H. [Haryana Agricultural Univ., Hisar (India)] [Haryana Agricultural Univ., Hisar (India)

1997-02-01

275

The accumulation of zinc in oat grown in soils treated by incubated sewage sludge with peat and straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of addition of treated sewage sludge on the accumulation of Zn in plants was tested in pot experiment. The additions of eight months preincubated sewage sludge at temperature of 20°C under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with addition of peat and straw were tested. Two different combinations were designed: first consisted of 50% sludge + 35% peat and 15%

J. Balík; D. Pavlíková; J. ?erný

276

Waste paper and clinoptilolite as a bulking material with dewatered anaerobically stabilized primary sewage sludge (DASPSS) for compost production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental problems associated with sewage sludge disposal have prompted strict legislative actions over the past few years. At the same time, the upgrading and expansion of wastewater treatment plants have greatly increased the volume of sludge generated. The major limitation of land application of sewage sludge compost is the potential for high heavy metal content in relation to the metal

Antonis A Zorpas; Dimitris Arapoglou; Karlis Panagiotis

2003-01-01

277

Pretreatment technology for the beneficial biological reuse of municipal sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern municipal sewage waste treatment plants use conventional mechanical and biological processes to reclaim waste waters.\\u000a This process has the overall effect of converting a water pollution problem into a solid waste disposal problem (sludges).\\u000a The costs for conventional disposal of sewage sludges have risen dramatically because of increased environmental mandates,\\u000a which restrict their disposal, as well as a dwindling

Christopher J. Rivard; Nicholas J. Nagle

1996-01-01

278

Co-pyrolysis of coal\\/biomass and coal\\/sewage sludge mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass and sewage sludge are attracting increasing interest in power plant technology as a source of carbon-dioxide-neutral fuels. A new way to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels could be the co-combustion or co-gasification of coal and biomass or coal and sewage sludge. In both cases, pyrolysis is the first step in the technical process. In order to obtain detailed

C. Storm; H. Ruediger; H. Spliethoff; K. R. G. Hein

1999-01-01

279

Co-application of Red Gypsum and Sewage Sludge on Acidic Tropical Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agroenvironmental impact of co-utilization of red gypsum and sewage sludge was investigated. Both laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted. The treatments were soil + sewage sludge (5% w\\/w) + red gypsum (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40%, w\\/w). Corn was grown in the greenhouse, and the highest rate of red gypsum application was excluded. The residual calcite in

C. I. Fauziah; M. Nur Hanani; S. Zauyah; A. W. Samsuri; A. Rosazlin

2011-01-01

280

Modeling of the reburning process using sewage sludge-derived syngas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification of sewage sludge can provide clean and effective reburning fuel for combustion applications. The motivation of this work was to define the reburning potential of the sewage sludge gasification gas (syngas). A numerical simulation of the co-combustion process of syngas in a hard coal-fired boiler was done. All calculations were performed using the Chemkin programme and a plug-flow reactor

Sebastian Werle

281

Impact of sewage sludge on the soil bacterial communities by DNA microarray analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge has been used as organic manure to replace chemical fertilizer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect\\u000a of doses of sewage sludge on the soil bacterial community by DNA microarray analysis. A microarray phylochip containing 1,560\\u000a partial sequences of 16S rRNA from the most common strains of bacteria was developed for bioprospection. Soil plots from

Silvana P. Val-Moraes; Jackson Marcondes; Lúcia M. Carareto Alves; Eliana G. M. Lemos

282

Influence of sewage sludge and heavy metals on nematodes in an arable soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance of nematodes was investigated in agricultural plots treated in three different ways, the first with no treatment, the second with 300 m3 ha-1 a-1 raw sewage sludge and the third with 300 m3 ha-1 a-1 sewage sludge with the addition of heavy metals. The nematodes were determined down to the genus and were assigned to five feeding groups.

B. Weiss; O. Larink

1991-01-01

283

Feasibility of biohydrogen production by anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludge for hydrogen production was performed in serum bottles under various volatile solids (VS) concentrations (0.5–5.0%) and mixing ratios of two substrates (0:100–100:0, VS basis). Through response surface methodology, empirical equations for hydrogen evolution were obtained. The specific hydrogen production potential of food waste was higher than that of sewage sludge. However, hydrogen

Sang-Hyoun Kim; Sun-Kee Han; Hang-Sik Shin

2004-01-01

284

Effects of N-enriched sewage sludge on soil enzyme activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge is increasingly used as an organic amendment to soil, especially to soil containing little organic matter. However, little is known about utility of this organic amendment with N-enriched or adjusted C:N ratios in soil. We studied the effects of adding of different doses (0, 100, 200 and 300tha?1) and C:N ratios (3:1, 6:1 and 9:1) of sewage sludge

R?dvan K?z?lkaya; Betül Bayrakl?

2005-01-01

285

Characterization of Polish Sewage Sludges with Respect to Fertility and Suitability for Land Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one varieties of sewage sludge from municipal, municipal-industrial and industrial areas were analysed for their suitability for agricultural purposes. The samples were taken from an agricultural area of Poland characterised by a low level of industrialisation. The sewage sludges were characterised for total organic carbon and nitrogen, pH, available phosphorous and potassium, cation exchange capacity, total exchangeable bases, the degree

PATRYK OLESZCZUK

2006-01-01

286

Inorganic nitrogen in a tropical soil with frequent amendments of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate prediction of plant-available N release from sewage sludge is necessary to optimize crop yields and minimize NO3- leaching to groundwater. We conducted a 1.5-year study with three maize crops to determine N mineralization from an urban sewage sludge from Barueri, State of São Paulo, Brazil, and its potential to contaminate groundwater with NO3-. The soil at the experimental site

R. F. Vieira; A. H. N. Maia; M. A. Teixeira

2005-01-01

287

Gasification and its emission characteristics for dried sewage sludge utilizing a fluidized bed gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various research has attempted to determine the proper treatment of sewage sludge, including thermal technologies. Efficient\\u000a thermal technologies have been focused on because of their energy saving\\/energy recovery. Gasification technology can be considered\\u000a one of these approaches. In this study, the characteristics of gasification reactions were investigated with the aim of finding\\u000a fundamental data for utilizing sewage sludge as an

Seong-Wan Kang; Jong-In Dong; Jong-Min Kim; Woo-Chan Lee; Won-Gu Hwang

288

Vermistabilization of municipal sewage sludge amended with sugarcane trash using epigeic Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts have been made in this study to stabilize the sewage sludge mixed with sugarcane trash in four different proportions: 20% (T1); 40% (T2); 60% (T3) and 80% (T4), under laboratory conditions using epigeic earthworm (Oligochaeta) Eisenia fetida. The composting potential of worm was also evaluated in 100% sewage sludge treatment (T5). The changes in chemical properties of substrate was

Surindra Suthar

2009-01-01

289

Effect of sewage sludge and ammonium nitrate on wheat yield and soil profile inorganic nitrogen accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beneficial effect of sewage sludge in crop production has been demonstrated, but there is concern regarding its contribution to nitrate (NO3) leaching. The objectives of this study were to compare nitrogen (N) rates of sewage sludge and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) on soil profile (0–180 cm), inorganic N [ammonium nitrate (NH4?N) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3?N)] accumulation, yield, and N uptake

Francisco Gavi; William R. Raun; Nicholas T. Basta; Gordon V. Johnson

1997-01-01

290

Comparison of bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge using iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to compare the bioleaching efficiency of Cu, Zn and Cr from anaerobically digested sewage sludge using iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Bioleaching was performed on sewage sludge collected from the Yuen Long wastewater treatment plant. A 15% (v\\/v) inoculation of either iron- or sulfur-oxidizing bacteria with 4 g FeSO4 l?1 and 0.75% elemental sulfur,

L. C. Chan; X. Y. Gu; J. W. C. Wong

2003-01-01

291

K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, Third quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

During third quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and for base-neutral/acid semivolatile constituents. None of the analytical results exceeded standards.

Thompson, C.Y.

1993-01-01

292

Soil improvement with coal ash and sewage sludge: a field experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experimental study was carried out successfully to improve the quality of the sandy soil by adding coal ash and sewage\\u000a sludge. One ha of barren sandy soil field was chosen for the experiment in Shanghe County, Shandong Province, China. For soil\\u000a amelioration and tree planting, two formulas of the mixture:coal ash, sewage sludge and soil, in ratios of

Junfeng Shen; Xuewu Zhou; Daisheng Sun; Jianguo Fang; Zhijun Liu; Zhongmin Li

2008-01-01

293

Effect of sewage sludge on trace element mobility in soils  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption of Be, F, B, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Tc, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Pb, Bi, and P was measured in a sandy soil and a sandy loam soil at concentration levels closely corresponding to those to be expected for field conditions. Mobilities of the elements in the soils were calculated from the adsorption data. Of the trace elements studied, F, B, and Tc were found to be very mobile in both the sandy and sandy loam sils. Manganese, Sr, and Sb were highly mobile only in the sandy soil, and Mo in the sandy loam soil. In general, sludge solutions appeared to increase the mobility of elements in a soil. This is due to a combination of complexation by dissolved organic compounds, high background concentrations, and high ionic strengths of the soil solutions. The relative effects of these factors vary strongly among elements. Equations were derived predicting the rates of accumulation in soils and accompanying increases in the soil solutions of trace elements added with sewage sludge. When adsorption was related to soil organic matter content, for many trace elements the strength of adsorption was found to depend only on pH, increasing with increasing pH.

Gerritse, R.G.; Vriesema, R.; Dalenberg, J.W.; de Roos, H.P.

1982-07-01

294

Effects of sewage sludge biochar on plant metal availability after application to a Mediterranean soil.  

PubMed

Pyrolytic conversion of sewage sludge into biochar could be a sustainable management option for Mediterranean agricultural soils. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of biochar from sewage sludge pyrolysis on soil properties; heavy metals solubility and bioavailability in a Mediterranean agricultural soil and compared with those of raw sewage sludge. Biochar (B) was prepared by pyrolysis of selected sewage sludge (SL) at 500°C. The pyrolysis process decreased the plant-available of Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb, the mobile forms of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb and also the risk of leaching of Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd. A selected Mediterranean soil was amended with SL and B at two different rates in mass: 4% and 8%. The incubation experiment (200 d) was conducted in order to study carbon mineralization and trace metal solubility and bioavailability of these treatments. Both types of amendments increased soil respiration with respect to the control soil. The increase was lower in the case of B than when SL was directly added. Metals mobility was studied in soil after the incubation and it can be established that the risk of leaching of Cu, Ni and Zn were lower in the soil treated with biochar that in sewage sludge treatment. Biochar amended samples also reduced plant availability of Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb when compared to sewage sludge amended samples. PMID:22732302

Méndez, A; Gómez, A; Paz-Ferreiro, J; Gascó, G

2012-11-01

295

Evaluation of Oxygen-Enriched MSW/Sewage Sludge Co-Incineration Demonstration Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides an evaluation of a two-phased demonstration program conducted of a recently developed method of sewage sludge management. This method, known as oxygen-enriched co-incineration, is intended to allow the co-combustion of dewatered sewage...

1994-01-01

296

ISCORS ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVITY IN SEWAGE SLUDGE: MODELING TO ASSESS RADIATION DOSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tran...

297

Effect of coal ash residues on the microbiology of sewage sludge composting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline coal ash residues (fly ash, FA, and lagoon ash, LA) which have been used as co-composting materials for sewage sludge to reduce the availability of trace metals, may have an adverse impact on the composting process. It is therefore the aim of the present study to evaluate the effect of FA and LA on the microbial activities of sewage

M. Fang; J. W. C. Wong; G. X. Li; M. H. Wong

1997-01-01

298

Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-01-01

299

Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

300

Indo3-acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinin-like activity in municipal excess activated sewage sludge: effect on rooting of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilcz.) cuttings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common use for land treatment of municipal sewage sludges is their application in agriculture. Sludges are well known to contain high levels of organic and inorganic materials but can also affect plant growth by supplying growth hormones. We tested the hormonal effect of sewage sludge from the Municipal Sewage Sludge Management Center in Herzliyya, Israel, on rooting of mung

Zeev Wiesman; Gidon Grafi; Nir Azmon; Adiva Shomer-Ilan; Yoav Waisel

1994-01-01

301

Phytoextraction of Zn and Cu from Sewage Sludge and Impact on Agronomic Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of elevated concentrations of heavy metals limits the usage of sewage sludge as a fertilizer and soil amendment. Experiments were carried out to examine the extent to which seven plant species phytoextracted Zn and Cu from dewatered sludge. The hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens and Sedum alfredii showed the greatest removal of Zn, while shoots and tubers of two species

Liu Xiaomel; Wu Qttang; M. K. Banks; S. D. Ebbs

2005-01-01

302

Sewage sludge as a supplementary utility boiler fuel. Volume 2. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

The following appendices are included: Combustion Tests, Carver-Greenfield Sludge-Drying Plant Design and Costing Study, Summary of Expected Costs for Drying Sewage Sludge (Consideration of Gas Turbine Waste Heat Utilization), Research Cottrell Report, Foster Wheeler Report, Boiler Conversion Criteria, Stone and Webster Report, and NERC Boiler Survey (GADS Data Base).

Not Available

1986-05-01

303

Effects of using sewage sludge on agricultural and disturbed lands. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The accumulative effects of annual use of sewage sludge on composition of soils, plants, water, and animals that consume the plants is presented. Plant yields were increased and no evidence of phototoxicity from trace elements was observed. Phosphorus toxicity in soybeans developed. No adverse health effects were observed in pheasants or swine that were fed grain from sludge-treated plots.

Hinesly, T.D.; Hansen, L.G.

1983-11-01

304

Improvement of salinity in sewage sludge compost prior to its utilization as nursery substrate.  

PubMed

Soluble salts are enriched in sewage sludge compost because of their inherent derivation. Accordingly, the content of soluble salt in sludge compost is usually much higher than most seedlings can tolerate. To determine whether sludge compost is suitable for use as a nursery substrate, some experiments were conducted. Reduction of the electrical conductivity (EC) value could improve seed germination in saturated extract from sludge compost. In addition, water elution and mixing dilution with raw soil were all shown to be able to alleviate saline inhibition on seed germination and seedling growth, including stem diameter, seedling height, and above-ground weight. Overall, salinity is a crucial problem when sewage sludge compost is reused as a nursery substrate, and some effective and convenient approaches to reduce salt should be served prior to its reuse. Implications: Sewage sludge after being composted is usually reused as organic fertilizer or plant substrate. However, salt is the main problem during its reclamation. What is the highest salt level the seedling can tolerate? Which types of salts are effective in salinity of sludge-amended substrate? Meanwhile, can the salinity be reduced through water elution or soil mixing dilution? This paper is the first to investigate the salinity and its reduction of sewage sludge compost prior to its use in the development of nursery substrate. PMID:24941702

Liu, Hong-Tao; Gao, Ding; Chen, Tong-Bin; Cai, Hong; Zheng, Guo-Di

2014-05-01

305

INVESTIGATION OF ALLEGED HEALTH INCIDENTS ASSOCIATED WITH LAND APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of U.S. sewage sludges are disposed by application to land for use as a soil amendment. Class B sludges, containing a complex mix of chemical and biological contaminants, comprise the majority. Residents near land application sites report illness. Symptoms of more than 328 people involved in 39 incidents in 15 states are described. Investigation and tracking of the

ELLEN Z. HARRISON; SUMMER RAYNE OAKES

2002-01-01

306

Preference of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae , for plants grown in sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since passage of the Clean Water Act in the 1970s, disposal of the millions of tonnes of sewage sludge generated annually has become a major concern of municipalities throughout the United States. With the range of other disposal options having narrowed in recent years, application of sludge to land is increasingly viewed as a practical and economical means to recycle

Thomas W. Culliney; David Pimentel

1987-01-01

307

Use of sewage sludge compost and Trichoderma asperellum isolates to suppress Fusarium wilt of tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that plant growth media amended with composted bark suppress Fusarium wilts whereas media amended with composted municipal sludge aggravate this disease. However, in this study, a compost prepared from vegetable and animal market wastes, sewage sludge and yard wastes showed a high ability to suppress Fusarium wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici

L. Cotxarrera; M. I. Trillas-Gay; C. Steinberg; C. Alabouvette

2002-01-01

308

Factors affecting nitrate leaching from sewage sludges applied to a sandy soil in arable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of sewage sludge to agricultural land is an increasingly popular disposal route and can be a valuable source of nitrogen (N) for crops. However, inappropriate application times or rates may lead to poor utilisation by crops and, thus, to nitrate leaching and contamination of water supplies. The effects on nitrate leaching of sludge type (raw liquid, digested liquid or

M. A. Shepherd

1996-01-01

309

PHOSPHORUS RECOVERY FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE - IDEAS FOR FURTHER STUDIES TO IMPROVE LEACHING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of methods to recover phosphorus will make handling of sewage sludge more sustainable. In earlier studies sludge incineration ash and SCWO-residues have been leached with acid and base. Acid leaching gives a high degree of recovery but releases besides phosphate also the main part of other metals (including heavy metals). This gives a large separation problem and gives a

E. Levlin; B. Hultman

310

Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment and disposal of sewage sludges. Citations discuss sludge digestion, dewatering, disinfection, stabilization, chlorination, and desulfurization. Topics include pretreatment programs, land disposal, incineration, and waste utilization. Environmental monitoring and protection, federal regulations, and legal aspects are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-06-01

311

Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning sewage sludge dewatering techniques and equipment in industrial and municipal waste treatment systems. Topics include dewatering processes and control, activated sludge systems, fluidized bed systems, biological treatment, heavy metal recovery, and economic aspects. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-11-01

312

Comparison of some spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties of humic acids extracted from sewage sludge and bottom sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparison of the physico-chemical properties was carried out for humic acids extracted from sewage sludge and bottom sediments. The isolated humic acids were investigated by means of EPR, IR, UV/vis spectroscopic methods and elementary analysis AE. On the basis of earlier studies it was stated that humic acids extracted from sewage sludge can be divided into humic acids extracted from raw sewage sludge and from sewage sludge after the digestion process. The digestion process was found to have the most significant effect on the physico-chemical properties of humic acids extracted from sludge during sewage treatment. Humic acids extracted from sewage sludge had higher free radical concentration than humic acid extracted from bottom sediments. Values of the g-factor were similar for all studied samples. However, it is noteworthy that g-factor values for humic acid extracted from raw sewage sludge and from bottom sediments were lower in comparison to the humic acid extracted from sewage sludge after the fermentation processes. The IR spectra of all studied humic acids confirmed the presence of functional groups characteristic for humic substances. It was also observed that humic acids extracted from bottom sediments had a more aromatic character and contained less carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen than those extracted from the sewage sludge.

Polak, J.; Bartoszek, M.; Su?kowski, W. W.

2009-04-01

313

Near-bottom pelagic bacteria at a deep-water sewage sludge disposal site  

SciTech Connect

The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. Mixed cultures and bacterial isolates obtained from water overlying sediment core samples collected at the deep-water (2,500 m) municipal sewage disposal site were tested for the ability to grow under in situ conditions of temperature and pressure. The responses of cultures collected at a DWD-106 station heavily impacted by sewage sludge were compared with those of samples collected from a station at the same depth which was not contaminated by sewage sludge. Significant differences were observed in the ability of mixed bacterial cultures and isolates from the two sites to grow under deep-sea pressure and temperature conditions. The levels of sludge contamination were established by enumerating Clostridium perfringens, a sewage indicator bacterium, in sediment samples from the two sites. (Copyright (c) 1993, American Society for Microbiology.)

Takizawa, M.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.

1994-01-01

314

Identification of Viral Pathogen Diversity in Sewage Sludge by Metagenome Analysis  

PubMed Central

The large diversity of viruses that exist in human populations are potentially excreted into sewage collection systems and concentrated in sewage sludge. In the US, the primary fate of processed sewage sludge (class B biosolids) is application to agricultural land as a soil amendment. To characterize and understand infectious risks associated with land application, and to describe the diversity of viruses in human populations, shotgun viral metagenomics was applied to 10 sewage sludge samples from 5 wastewater treatment plants throughout the continental U.S, each serving between 100,000 and 1,000,000 people. Nearly 330 million DNA sequences were produced and assembled, and annotation resulted in identifying 43 (26 DNA, 17 RNA) different types of human viruses in sewage sludge. Novel insights include the high abundance of newly emerging viruses (e.g. Coronavirus HKU1, Klassevirus, and Cosavirus) the strong representation of respiratory viruses, and the relatively minor abundance and occurrence of Enteroviruses. Viral metagenome sequence annotations were reproducible and independent PCR-based identification of selected viruses suggests that viral metagenomes were a conservative estimate of the true viral occurrence and diversity. These results represent the most complete description of human virus diversity in any wastewater sample to date, provide engineers and environmental scientists with critical information on important viral agents and routes of infection from exposure to wastewater and sewage sludge, and represent a significant leap forward in understanding the pathogen content of class B biosolids.

BIBBY, KYLE; PECCIA, JORDAN

2013-01-01

315

Organic matter transformations and kinetics during sewage sludge composting in a two-stage system.  

PubMed

The use of different proportions of rape straw and grass as amendments in the composting of dewatered sewage sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was tested in a two-stage system (first stage, an aerated bioreactor and second stage, a periodically turned windrow). The composition of feedstock affected the temperature and organic matter degradation in the bioreactor and the formation of humic substances, especially humic acids (HA), during compost maturation in the windrow. The total HA content (the sum of labile and stable HA) increased according to first-order kinetics, whereas labile HA content was constant and did not exceed 12% of total HA. ?logK of 1.0-1.1 indicated that HA was of R-type, indicating a low degree of humification. Temperature during composting was the main factor affecting polymerization of fulvic acids to HA and confirmed the value of the degree of polymerization, which increased only when thermophilic conditions were obtained. PMID:21978622

Kulikowska, Dorota; Klimiuk, Ewa

2011-12-01

316

Treatment test of supernatant from sewage sludge by irradiation of high energy electron beams under supersaturation with oxygen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Supernatant comes from dewaterization of sewage sludge, and contains biologically nondegradable organics. Therefore, it is hard to be treated by conventional activated sludge method. The development of a new technology is required to decrease the chemical...

M. Hosono H. Arai M. Aizawa T. Shimooka I. Yamamoto

1993-01-01

317

Thc continuous emission monitoring guidance for part 503 sewage sludge incinerators  

SciTech Connect

The Envrionmental Protection Agency's guidance document for monitoring of total hydrocarbons (THCs) at sewage sludge incinerators was finalized in response to comments received from Federal, State and local government agencies. The document contains recommendations for compliance with these requirements. It addresses installation, calibration, operation, and maintenance procedures for sewage sludge incinerators in the following areas: (1) THC continuous emissions monitoring (CEM); (2) oxygen CEM; (3) moisture CEM; (4) quality assurance; and (5) recordkeeping and reporting. The document will provide guidance for both the interim and long-term sludge permitting programs.

Not Available

1994-06-30

318

Stabilization of Mine Tailings Using Fly Ash and Sewage Sludge Planted with Phalaris arundinacea L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of plants (Phalaris arundinacea L.) on the leakage of ammonium, cadmium, copper, nitrate, phosphate, and zinc from sulfidic mine tailings covered with wood\\u000a fly ash and sewage sludge was investigated. Either ash or sludge was placed in contact with the tailings, and ash layers of\\u000a either low or high compactness were used. It was revealed that an ash\\/sludge

Clara Neuschütz; Maria Greger

2010-01-01

319

Thermogravimetric analysis of the co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion of three different sewage sludge samples (B, F and S), one bituminous coal and sludge–coal blends were studied by TG dynamic runs carried out at 10 °C\\/min in the temperature range 25–800 °C. The sludge is mainly formed by two organic fractions with different reactivity; the less reactive fraction decomposes and burns at temperatures closer to those of coal,

M. Belén Folgueras; Ramona M. D??az; Jorge Xiberta; Ismael Prieto

2003-01-01

320

Successful Treatment of Low PAH-Contaminated Sewage Sludge in Aerobic Bioreactors (7 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aims and Scope   Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known for their adverse and cumulative effects at low concentration. In particular,\\u000a the PAHs accumulate in sewage sludge during wastewater treatment, and may thereafter contaminate agricultural soils by spreading\\u000a sludge on land. Therefore, sludge treatment processes constitute the unique opportunity of PAH removal before their release\\u000a in the environment. In this

Eric Trably; Dominique Patureau

2006-01-01

321

Phytotoxic effects of sewage sludge extracts on the germination of three plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the ability of three types of extracts to explain the ecotoxicological risk of treated municipal sewage\\u000a sludges, the OECD 208A germination test was applied using three plants (Lolium perenne L., Brassica rapa L., and Trifolium pratense L.). Three equivalent batches of sludge, remained as dewatered sludge, composted with plant remains and thermally dried,\\u000a from an anaerobic

Wilson A. Ramírez; Xavier Domene; Pilar Andrés; Josep M. Alcañiz

2008-01-01

322

Sewage sludge stabilisation with calcium hydroxide: Effect on physicochemical properties and molecular composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw primary sewage sludge (Wastewater Treatment Plant of Krotoszyn, SW Poland) and its mixtures with 3%d, 6%d, 9%d, 12%d and 24%d of calcium hydroxide were stabilised for 1 and 35 days. Changes of the sludge physicochemical properties and molecular composition, caused by alkaline agent in course of stabilisation process, are recognised. A basic physicochemical data on the sludge cake and

Franciszek Czechowski; Tadeusz Marcinkowski

2006-01-01

323

Ecotoxicological evaluation of sewage sludge using bioluminescent marine bacteria and rotifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioassay using the marine bacteria,Vibrio fischeri and rotifer,Brachionus plicatilis, and chemical analyses were conducted to assess the toxicity of the various sewage sludges, one of the major ocean dumped\\u000a materials in the Yellow Sea of Korea. Sludge elutriates extracted by filtered seawater were used to estimate the ecotoxicity\\u000a of the sludge. Chemical characterization included the analyses of organic contents, heavy

Gyung Soo Park; Sang Hee Lee; Soung Yun Park; Seong Jin Yoon; Seung Min Lee; Chang Soo Chung; Gi-Hoon Hong; Suk Hyun Kim

2005-01-01

324

Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge with a hybrid process of low pressure wet oxidation and nanofiltration.  

PubMed

Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge will become increasingly important within the next decades due to depletion of mineral phosphorus resources. In this work a new process concept was investigated, which aims at realising phosphorus recovery in a synergistic way with the overall sewage sludge treatment scheme. This process combines a low pressure wet oxidation for sewage sludge decomposition as well as phosphorus dissolution and a nanofiltration process to separate phosphorus from heavy metals and obtain a clean diluted phosphoric acid, from which phosphorus can be recovered as clean fertiliser. It was shown that this process concept is feasible for sewage sludge for wastewater treatment plants that apply enhanced biological removal or precipitation with alumina salts for phosphorus removal. The critical parameter for phosphorus dissolution in the low pressure wet oxidation process is the iron concentration, while in the nanofiltration multi-valent cations play a predominant role. In total, a phosphorus recovery of 54% was obtained for an exemplary wastewater treatment plant. Costs of the entire process are in the same range as conventional sewage sludge disposal, with the benefit being phosphorus recovery and reduced emission of greenhouse gases due to avoidance of sludge incineration. PMID:22325934

Blöcher, Christoph; Niewersch, Claudia; Melin, Thomas

2012-04-15

325

F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, fourth quarter 1991  

SciTech Connect

Eleven sewage sludge application sites at the Savannah River Site (SRS) were originally the subject of a research program, begun in 1980, using domestic sewage sludge to reclaim borrow pits and to enhance forest productivity at SRS. Currently, the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites are the only remaining active sludge application sites. During fourth quarter 1991, samples from the four monitoring wells at the F-Area site (FSS series) and three monitoring wells at the H-Area site (HSS series) were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, and certain pesticides, herbicides, toxic metals, water quality indicators, and radionuclides. This report describes monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standards (PDWS) and the SRS flagging criteria.

Thompson, C.Y.

1992-03-01

326

Effective water content reduction in sewage wastewater sludge using magnetic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The present work compares the use of three flocculants for sedimentation of sludge and sludge water content from sewage wastewater i.e. magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MION), ferrous sulfate (chemical) and Moringa crude extract (protein). Sludge water content, wet/dry weight, turbidity and color were performed for, time kinetics and large-scale experiment. A 30% reduction of the sludge water content was observed when the wastewater was treated with either protein or chemical coagulant. The separation of sludge from wastewater treated with MION was achieved in less than 5min using an external magnet, resulted in 95% reduction of sludge water content. Furthermore, MION formed denser flocs and more than 80% reduction of microbial content was observed in large volume experiments. The results revealed that MION is efficient in rapid separation of sludge with very low water content, and thus could be a suitable alternative for sludge sedimentation and dewatering in wastewater treatment processes. PMID:24378779

Lakshmanan, Ramnath; Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna

2014-02-01

327

Effects on nodulation and early growth of soybeans grown in sewage sludge-amended soil of McPherson  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge, which once was a great environmental concern, is now being widely and safely used as a fertilizer for agricultural crops. Because of sludge's high nitrogen content, it has been used mainly on crops with relatively high nitrogen requirements. These crops have benefited from the sludge as they would from commercial fertilizers, but the effect of sludge on crops

Cameron W. Mahler

328

Chemical speciation and phytoavailability of Zn, Cu, Ni and Cd in soil amended with fly ash-stabilized sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sequential extraction method was used to determine chemical forms of Cu, Zn, Ni and Cd in fly ash-stabilized sludge. A loamy acid soil amended with fly ash-stabilized sludge was used to grow corn under greenhouse conditions. Sewage sludge amended with coal fly ash can reduce the availability of Cu, Zn, Ni and Cd in the sludge. Increasing fly ash

D. C. Su; J. W. C. Wong

2004-01-01

329

Transformation of phosphorus during drying and roasting of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge (SS), a by-product of wastewater treatment, consists of highly concentrated organic and inorganic pollutants, including phosphorus (P). In this study, P with different chemical fractions in SS under different drying and roasting temperatures was investigated with the use of appropriate standards, measurements, and testing protocol. The drying and roasting treatment of SS was conducted in a laboratory-scale furnace. Two types of SS samples under different treatment temperatures were analyzed by (31)P NMR spectroscopy. These samples were dried by a vacuum freeze dryer at -50°C and a thermoelectric thermostat drying box at 105°C. Results show that the inorganic P (IP) content increased as the organic P content decreased, and the bio-availability of P increased because IP is a form of phosphorousthat can be directly absorbed by plants. (31)P NMR analysis results indicate the change in P fractions at different temperatures. Non-apatite P was the dominant form of P under low-temperature drying and roasting, whereas apatite P was the major one under high-temperature drying and roasting. Results indicate that temperature affects the transformation of P. PMID:24810201

Li, Rundong; Yin, Jing; Wang, Weiyun; Li, Yanlong; Zhang, Ziheng

2014-07-01

330

Modelling N mineralization from bovine manure and sewage sludge composts.  

PubMed

Nitrogen mineralization kinetics were compared in three different soils (pH values: 5.2, 7.1 and 8.6) when treated with bovine manure (BM) and sewage sludge (SS) composts. The soil-compost mixtures were kept at a controlled moisture content of 60% of their water holding capacity (WHC) and were incubated in the dark at 25 °C for 2 years. Five mathematical models were compared (simple exponential, double exponential, special model, hyperbolic and parabolic), using as experimental data the mineralized N accumulated during 360 and 720 days of incubation. The results showed that the best fit for describing the mineralization of organic N from the compost after 1 year of experimentation was obtained with the simple exponential model. However, the special model showed the best fit for data from 2 years of incubation and thus better reflected organic N mineralization over a longer time-span. This suggested that the organic N in the two composts was made up of two organic pools of different degrees of stability. PMID:20951032

Gil, M V; Carballo, M T; Calvo, L F

2011-01-01

331

[Characteristics of speciation and evaluation of ecological risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge of Guangzhou].  

PubMed

Contents of heavy metals in different sewage sludges were analyzed and the speciation distribution and bioavailability of heavy metals were investigated, and the risk assessment code (RAC) and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure for solid waste were used to evaluate the potential ecological risk and leaching toxicity risk of heavy metals in sludge samples, respectively. The results showed that contents of Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn were high and presented a great difference by different sources in sewage sludges. Most of heavy metals existed in non-residual fractions and percentages of the mobile fraction (acid soluble fraction) of heavy metals in acidic sludge were higher. According to the results of single extraction, 1 mol x L(-1) NaOAc solution (pH 5.0) and 0.02 mol x L(-1) EDTA + 0.5 mol x L(-1) NH4OAc solution (pH 4.6) were suitable for evaluating bioavailable heavy metals in acidic and alkaline sludge, respectively. Percentages of bioavailable heavy metals were higher with the stronger of sludge acidity. The mobile ability of heavy metals resulted in the high ecological risk of sludge samples, and the bioavailability of heavy metals caused acidic sludges with a very high ecological risk but alkaline sludges with the middle ecological risk. Leaching toxicity risk was very high in sludge samples except domestic sewage sludge. After the removal of bioavailable heavy metals, leaching toxicity risk of sludge samples was still high in spite of its decrease; however, part type of sludges could be implemented landfill disposal. PMID:24812965

Guo, Peng-Ran; Lei, Yong-Qian; Cai, Da-Chuan; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Rui; Pan, Jia-Chuan

2014-02-01

332

Effects on Ni and Cd speciation in sewage sludge during composting and co-composting with steel slag.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge and industrial steel slag (SS) pose threats of serious pollution to the environment. The experiments aimed to improve the stabilizing effects of heavy metal Ni and Cd morphology in composting sludge. The total Ni and Cd species distribution and chemical forms in the compost sewage sludge were investigated with the use of compost and co-compost with SS, including degradation. The carbon/nitrogen ratio of piles was regulated with the use of sawdust prior to batch aerobic composting experiments. Results indicated that the co-composting with SS and organic matter humification can contribute to the formation of Fe and Mn hydroxides and that the humus colloid significantly changed Ni and Cd species distribution. The decreased content of Ni and Cd in an unstable state inhibited their biological activity. Conclusions were drawn that an SS amount equal to 7% of the dry sludge mass was optimal value to guarantee the lowest amount of Cd in an unstable state, whereas the amount was 14% for Ni. PMID:24616342

Zeng, Zheng-Zhong; Wang, Xiao-Li; Gou, Jian-Feng; Zhang, He-Fei; Wang, Hou-Cheng; Nan, Zhong-Ren

2014-03-01

333

Detection of enteric viruses in sewage sludge and treated wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge and treated wastewater when contaminated with enteric virus and discharged into the environment, could pose a human health risk. The aim of study was to verify the presence and viability of enteric viruses in sewage sludge and treated wastewater at a local sewage plant in Florianopolis city, Brazil. Sewage sludge was concentrated by organic flocculation and polyethylene glycol precipitation and wastewater by electronegative membrane filtration and ultrafiltration by Centriprep Concentrator. Adenovirus (AdV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and Rotavirus (RV) were examined for all samples for 12 months and Poliovirus (PV) was also tested for in sewage sludge samples. AdV was the most prevalent in both kind of samples, followed by RV, PV (in sludge) and HAV. Viral viability by cell culture (ICC-PCR) was: AdV: 100%, HAV: 16.7%, PV: 91.7%, RV: 25% in sludge and AdV: 66.6%, HAV: 66.6% and RV: 0% in wastewater. IFA for AdV in sludge ranged from 70 to 300 FFU/ml. QPCR for AdV ranged from 4.6 x 10(4) to 1.2 x 10(6) and from 50 to 1.3 x 10(4) gc/ml in sludge and wastewater, respectively. HAV quantification in sludge ranged from 3.1 x 10(2) to 5.4 x 10(2) gc/ml. In conclusion, it was possible to correlate presence and viability of enteric viruses in the environmental samples analyzed. PMID:20107281

Schlindwein, A D; Rigotto, C; Simões, C M O; Barardi, C R M

2010-01-01

334

Removal mechanisms and kinetics of trace tetracycline by two types of activated sludge treating freshwater sewage and saline sewage.  

PubMed

Understanding the removal mechanisms and kinetics of trace tetracycline by activated sludge is critical to both evaluation of tetracycline elimination in sewage treatment plants and risk assessment/management of tetracycline released to soil environment due to the application of biosolids as fertilizer. Adsorption is found to be the primary removal mechanism while biodegradation, volatilization, and hydrolysis can be ignored in this study. Adsorption kinetics was well described by pseudo-second-order model. Faster adsorption rate (k? = 2.04 × 10(-2)?g min(-1) ?g(-1)) and greater adsorption capacity (qe = 38.8 ?g g(-1)) were found in activated sludge treating freshwater sewage. Different adsorption rate and adsorption capacity resulted from chemical properties of sewage matrix rather than activated sludge surface characteristics. The decrease of tetracycline adsorption in saline sewage was mainly due to Mg(2+) which significantly reduced adsorption distribution coefficient (Kd) from 12,990 ± 260 to 4,690 ± 180 L kg(-1). Species-specific adsorption distribution coefficients followed the order of Kd???>Kd???>Kd???. Contribution of zwitterionic tetracycline to the overall adsorption was >90 % in the actual pH range in aeration tank. Adsorption of tetracycline in a wide range of temperature (10 to 35 °C) followed the Freundlich adsorption isotherm well. PMID:23054779

Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

2013-05-01

335

Impact of sewage sludge conditioning and dewatering on the fate of nonylphenol in sludge-amended soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of 14C-labelled p353-nonylphenol (NP) in soils amended with differently treated sludges originating from the same precursor sludge was assessed. The effects of commonly applied conditioning and dewatering techniques were investigated. Nonylphenol was degraded considerably faster in soils amended with liquid sludge, while a significant portion of it remained intact and extractable by organic solvents when sludge had been

V. N. Kouloumbos; A. Schäffer; P. F.-X. Corvini

2008-01-01

336

Alteration of a Salt Marsh Bacterial Community by Fertilization with Sewage Sludge  

PubMed Central

The effects of long-term fertilization with sewage sludge on the aerobic, chemoheterotrophic portion of a salt marsh bacterial community were examined. The study site in the Great Sippewissett Marsh, Cape Cod, Mass., consisted of experimental plots that were treated with different amounts of commercial sewage sludge fertilizer or with urea and phosphate. The number of CFUs, percentage of mercury- and cadmium-resistant bacteria, and percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were all increased in the sludge-fertilized plots. Preliminary taxonomic characterization showed that sludge fertilization markedly altered the taxonomic distribution and reduced diversity within both the total heterotrophic and the mercury-resistant communities. In control plots, the total heterotrophic community was fairly evenly distributed among taxa and the mercury-resistant community was dominated by Pseudomonas spp. In sludge-fertilized plots, both the total and mercury-resistant communities were dominated by a single Cytophaga sp.

Hamlett, Nancy V.

1986-01-01

337

A spatial multicriteria decision making tool to define the best agricultural areas for sewage sludge amendment.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge amendment on agricultural soils has recently become a practice of heightened interest, as a consequence of sewage sludge production increase. This practice has benefits to soil and crops, however it may also lead to environmental contamination, depending on the characteristics of the fields. In order to define the suitability of the different agricultural fields to receive sewage sludge, a spatial tool is proposed. This tool, elaborated in GIS platform, aggregates different criteria regarding human exposure and environmental contamination. The spatial tool was applied to a case study in the region of Catalonia (NE of Spain). Within the case study, each step of the tool development is detailed. The results show that the studied region has different suitability degrees, being the appropriate areas sufficient for receiving the total amount of sewage sludge produced. The sensitivity analysis showed that "groundwater contamination", "distance to urban areas", "metals concentration in soil" and "crop type" are the most important criteria of the evaluation. The developed tool successfully tackled the problem, providing a comprehensive procedure to evaluate agricultural land suitability to receive sewage sludge as an organic fertilizer. Also, the tool implementation gives insights to decision makers, guiding them to more confident decisions, based on an extensive group of criteria. PMID:21982027

Passuello, Ana; Cadiach, Oda; Perez, Yolanda; Schuhmacher, Marta

2012-01-01

338

Reuse of treated wastewater and sewage sludge for fertilization and irrigation.  

PubMed

The objective of the present work was to assess the short-term potential of treated wastewater and sewage sludge for ornamental lawn fertilization and irrigation. A field experiment was performed and the following treatments were considered: sewage sludge application + irrigation with public water; sewage sludge application + irrigation with treated wastewater; irrigation with public water; irrigation with treated wastewater (TW). Irrigation with treated wastewater showed a positive effect on lawn installation through higher growth of grass (1,667 cm) and higher dry matter yield (18,147 g m(-2)). These results represent a significant increase in the grass yield compared with public water irrigation. The grass height (2,606 cm) and dry matter yield (23,177 g m(-2)) increased even more, when sewage sludge produced in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was applied to soil, which proves once more its benefits as an organic fertilizer. At the end of the experiment, an increase of some soil parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, Ca2+, Na+, K+, Mg2+ and NH4+) was observed, indicating that treated wastewater irrigation can cause a soil sodization. This short-term study indicated that use of treated wastewater and sewage sludge for ornamental lawn fertilization and irrigation is an environmentally sustainable option for re-use of the WWTP by-products. PMID:22097073

Sousa, Gonçalo; Fangueiro, David; Duarte, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Ernesto

2011-01-01

339

Leaching of boron through sewage sludge amended soil: the role of clinoptilolite.  

PubMed

A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the release of boron from soil-sewage sludge mixtures by leaching using a clinoptilolite type natural zeolite, before land application of the sewage sludge. Soil columns were filled up with the clinoptilolite soil after mixing with sewage sludge at a rate of 30 tons ha(-1) and with two different particle sizes (0.1-0.25 and 1.0-2.0 mm) of clinoptilolite each at the concentrations of 1% and 2%. The particle size and the application rate of clinoptilolite affected both boron leaching from soil compared to the control treatment (soil and sewage sludge mixture). The total soluble boron leached from a soil column varied from 66-92% depending on the applications of clinoptilolite and reached 96% for the control treatment, following application of 80 cm depth of water in all treatments. In the cases of the 1% application rate of 0.1-0.25 and 1-2 mm sized clinoptilolite 78% and 92% of the total boron leached, respectively. While at 2% application rate of 0.1-0.25 and 1-2 mm zeolite, 66% and 87% of total soluble boron leached, respectively. Boron concentrations in the soil layers increased as application rate increased and particle size of clinoptilolite decreased because of its high adsorption capacity. Adsorption isotherms indicated that clinoptilolite had a high adsorption capacity for boron compared to the sewage sludge and soil. PMID:15207287

Ozturk, Hasan Sabri; Ok, Sonay Sozudogru; Arcak, Sevinc

2004-10-01

340

Influence of forced air volume on water evaporation during sewage sludge bio-drying.  

PubMed

Mechanical aeration is critical to sewage sludge bio-drying, and the actual water loss caused by aeration can be better understood from investigations of the relationship between aeration and water evaporation from the sewage sludge bio-drying pile based on in situ measurements. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of forced air volume on the evaporation of water from a sewage sludge bio-drying pile. Dewatered sewage sludge was bio-dried using control technology for bio-drying, during which time the temperature, superficial air velocity and water evaporation were measured and calculated. The results indicated that the peak air velocity and water evaporation occurred in the thermophilic phase and second temperature-increasing phase, with the highest values of 0.063 ± 0.027 m s(-1) and 28.9 kg ton(-1) matrix d(-1), respectively, being observed on day 4. Air velocity above the pile during aeration was 43-100% higher than when there was no aeration, and there was a significantly positive correlation between air volume and water evaporation from day 1 to 15. The order of daily means of water evaporation was thermophilic phase > second temperature-increasing phase > temperature-increasing phase > cooling phase. Forced aeration controlled the pile temperature and improved evaporation, making it the key factor influencing water loss during the process of sewage sludge bio-drying. PMID:23648285

Cai, Lu; Chen, Tong-Bin; Gao, Ding; Zheng, Guo-Di; Liu, Hong-Tao; Pan, Tian-Hao

2013-09-01

341

Modeling of the reburning process using sewage sludge-derived syngas  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasification provides an attractive method for sewage sludges treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasification generates a fuel gas (syngas) which can be used as a reburning fuel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reburning potential of sewage sludge gasification gases was defined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical simulation of co-combustion of syngases in coal fired boiler has been done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculation shows that analysed syngases can provide higher than 80% reduction of NO{sub x}. - Abstract: Gasification of sewage sludge can provide clean and effective reburning fuel for combustion applications. The motivation of this work was to define the reburning potential of the sewage sludge gasification gas (syngas). A numerical simulation of the co-combustion process of syngas in a hard coal-fired boiler was done. All calculations were performed using the Chemkin programme and a plug-flow reactor model was used. The calculations were modelled using the GRI-Mech 2.11 mechanism. The highest conversions for nitric oxide (NO) were obtained at temperatures of approximately 1000-1200 K. The combustion of hard coal with sewage sludge-derived syngas reduces NO emissions. The highest reduction efficiency (>90%) was achieved when the molar flow ratio of the syngas was 15%. Calculations show that the analysed syngas can provide better results than advanced reburning (connected with ammonia injection), which is more complicated process.

Werle, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.werle@polsl.pl [Institute of Thermal Technology, Silesian University of Technology at Gliwice, 44-100 Gliwice, Konarskiego 22 (Poland)

2012-04-15

342

Toxic effects of sewage sludges on freshwater edible fish Cirrhina mrigala  

SciTech Connect

Municipal sewage sludges have been advocated by several investigators as a suitable dietary supplement in aquaculture because of the protein contained in it. Other researchers discourage their usage for a variety of reasons, the most common being the presence of heavy metals and pesticides that accumulate in various organs, thereby hampering growth in fish. Settled sewage, if palatable however, would prove to be an excellent low-cost nutrient in intensive aquaculture farms. Sludges may be administered in the aqueous or dehydrated condition, and in either case would be suitable for even fry and fingerlings, if consumed soon after application because of the small particle size. The absence of reports on the effect of sewage sludges from the wastewater treatment plant on animals prompted this investigation, though heavy metal analysis revealed the presence of appreciable quantities of Zn, Cu, Pb and moderate amounts of Ni, Cr, Cd in aqueous activate-sludge. In this study the effect of activated sludge (AcS), raw sludge (RS) in acute and chronic bioassays and hydrated digested sludge (DS) and dehydrated (sun-dried) digested sludge (KS) in chronic feeding experiment on survival, behavior and whole body acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity of Cirrhina mrigala, a freshwater edible fish, were investigated.

Pereira, L.; Coutinho, C.; Rao, C.V. [St. Xavier`s College, Bombay (India)] [St. Xavier`s College, Bombay (India)

1996-03-01

343

Effects of three sewage sludges on slash pine seedlings grown in three acid sandy soils  

SciTech Connect

Vast areas of pine forest are grown on acid sandy soils of low native fertility, located near urban areas in the southeastern States. Such soils may offer suitable land disposal for sewage sludge. The present study evaluated effects of three municipal sewage sludges on the growth and nutrient uptake by slash pine seedlings (Pinus elliottii var. elliotti Engelm) grown for 6 months in pot cultures consisting of one Quartzipsamment and two Haplaquod soils amended with four rates of each sludge. Plant tissue was sectioned as new tops, old tops, and roots. Plant dry weight responded linearly to increase in sludge rate. Root to shoot ratios decreased slightly with sludge rate. Total weight response to sludge amendments was greater for the two soils of high organic matter content than for a soil with low organic matter content. Seedling N uptake also increased with sludge rate. Root N concentration changed more with sludge rate than did new tops. Absolute N uptake ranged from 8 to 88 percent of N applied in the sludge. These net N recoveries decreased with sludge rate. Uptake of P by the seedlings was proportional to rate of sludge applied. Cadmium uptake was increased linearly with sludge rates from 1.26 to 10 g/kg soil. The sludge with the highest Cd content had the lowest net Cd recovery at all sludge rates. Ratio of N:Cd uptake ranged from 8690 to 896, which is indicative of the degree of sludge mineralization and of the amount of Cd released into a form available to the seedling. 10 references.

Fiskell, J.G.A.; Pritchett, W.L.; Maftoun, M.

1984-01-01

344

Sewage sludge stabilisation with calcium hydroxide: effect on physicochemical properties and molecular composition.  

PubMed

Raw primary sewage sludge (Wastewater Treatment Plant of Krotoszyn, SW Poland) and its mixtures with 3%d, 6%d, 9%d, 12%d and 24%d of calcium hydroxide were stabilised for 1 and 35 days. Changes of the sludge physicochemical properties and molecular composition, caused by alkaline agent in course of stabilisation process, are recognised. A basic physicochemical data on the sludge cake and filtrate after 1 and 35 days of stabilisation process are given. Soxhlet extracts from the sludge cakes stabilised for 35 days as well pyrolysis and pyrolysis in situ methylation (using tetramethylammonium hydroxide-TMAH) products of respective pre-extracted cake residues were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Increase of calcium hydroxide concentration in the sludge mixture causes enhanced ammonia release, preferential hydrolyses of fats and proteins from the sludge macromolecular network and transformation of free fatty acids contained in the sludge lipids, as well as these released hydrolytically, to their calcium salts. The sewage sludge stabilisation with calcium hydroxide has no effect on homological assemblage and content of unbound stanol and sterol compounds in the sludge lipids and these bound into macromolecular network. Biogenic n-alkanes and anthropogenic linear alkylbenzenes were detected as minor components in the lipids and pyrolytic products from the pre-extracted cake residue, respectively. The alkaline agent used for the sludge stabilisation accelerates equilibration of the process and reduces content of pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:16620904

Czechowski, Franciszek; Marcinkowski, Tadeusz

2006-05-01

345

Leaching of heavy metals and alkylphenolic compounds from fresh and dried sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Reusing sewage sludge as a soil fertiliser has become a common alternative to disposal. Although this practice has a few benefits, it may contribute to the medium- and long-term contamination of the trophic chain because sewage sludge may contain heavy metals and organic contaminants. As the leaching of contaminants may depend on the sludge pre-treatment, the leaching of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cr) and alkylphenolic compounds (APCs) (octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol-mono-ethoxylate (NP1EO)) was investigated in five fresh and 40 °C dried sewage sludge samples from north-eastern Spain. FT-IR analyses and full-scan GC-MS chromatograms showed that sludge drying changed the nature of organic compounds leading to changes in their solubility. Moreover, sludge drying led to a higher relative contribution of dissolved organic carbon than the particulate organic carbon in the leachates. Leaching of Pb, Zn and Cr was below 5 % in both fresh and dried sludge samples, whereas Cu and Ni leached at rates up to 12 and 43 %, respectively, in some of the dried sludge samples. The leaching yields of OP, NP and NP1EO ranged from 1.3 to 35 % for fresh samples, but they decreased from 0.8 to 3.4 % in dried samples. The decrease in the leachability of APCs observed in dried sludge samples might be attributed to the fact that these compounds are associated with particulate organic matter, with significantly lower concentration or even absent in dried sludge than in fresh sludge samples. Therefore, it is recommended to dry the sludge before its disposal. PMID:24019139

Milinovic, Jelena; Vidal, Miquel; Lacorte, Silvia; Rigol, Anna

2014-02-01

346

Benthic distribution of sewage sludge indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-ocean dump site  

SciTech Connect

Since 1986, sewage sludge from New York and northern New Jersey has been dumped 196 km off the coast of New Jersey at the Deep Water Municipal Sewage Sludge Disposal Site. This study determines the distribution of sludge contamination of the benthic environment in the area, by using Clostridium perfringens as an indicator. The counts of C. perfringens confirm a previous report that sewage sludge is reaching the ocean floor at the disposal site as a result of the sludge dumping. C. perfringes counts within the dump site and to the south and west of the dump site are considerably elevated compared to counts east of the site. The distribution pattern of C. perfringes is broadly consistent with the estimates of the sea floor area impacted in the most recent computer model. However, the area of maximum desposition of sludge may be slightly further north than predicted. Use of C. perfringens has proven to be an efficient and reliable method for tracing sewage contamination of deep ocean sediments. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Hill, R.T.; Anikis, M.S.; Colwell, R.R. (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (United States)); Knight, I.T. (James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States))

1993-01-01

347

Leaching of ashes from co-combustion of sewage sludge and wood—Part II: The mobility of metals during phosphorus extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge and its ashes after combustion are contaminated with metals in various concentrations. In the work described in this paper, the mobility of metals during recovery of phosphorus by acid leaching of fly ashes from co-combustion of sewage sludge with wood was investigated. The metal concentrations in two sewage sludges, fly ashes and leachates from acid phosphorus extraction, were

Anita Pettersson; Lars-Erik Åmand; Britt-Marie Steenari

2008-01-01

348

Anaerobic co-digestion of mechanically biologically treated municipal waste with primary sewage sludge – A feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This bench scale study investigated the suitability of MBT material for treatment by anaerobic digestion and the impacts of co-digestion of these wastes with sewage sludge. The results suggest that MBT material is amenable to anaerobic digestion with sewage sludge. The main problems for scale-up are related to the physical composition of the MBT material, the accumulation of heavy metals

Ole Pahl; Anna Firth; Iain MacLeod; Jim Baird

2008-01-01

349

Green energy at cement kiln in Cyprus—Use of sewage sludge as a conventional fuel substitute  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the results of a study concerning the utilization of sewage sludge as an alternative fuel at cement kilns, covering all process, health and safety and environmental matters, are presented. Trials have started in Vassiliko Cement Plant (Cyprus), on how to treat and utilize wet sewage sludge, of moisture content 65–70%, as an alternative fuel at the cement

A. Zabaniotou; C. Theofilou

2008-01-01

350

The Impact of Zeolites During Co-Combustion of Municipal Sewage Sludge with Alkali and Chlorine Rich Fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Municipal sewage sludge has proven to eliminate alkali metals and chlorine related problems during combustion of straw and refuse derived fuels (RDF). However, the mechanisms involved have not been clarified. The aim of this work was to gain more knowledge about the behaviour of sewage sludge and detergent zeolites in combustion and about their effects on alkali metal chemistry.

Pettersson, A.; Elledt, A.-L.; Moöler, A.; Steenari, B.-M.; Åmand, L.-E.

351

FINE PARTICAL AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE\\/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and pulverized coal. The objective was to determine potential tradeoffs between COâ mitigation through using a COâ neutral fuel, such as municipal sewage sludge, and the emergence of other potential problems such as the emission of toxic fly ash particles. The work led

Jost O. L. Wendt; Wayne S. Seames; Art Fernandez

2003-01-01

352

The use of sewage sludge and horticultural waste to develop artificial soil for plant cultivation in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse pot experiments were performed with Ipomoea aquatica (Kang Kong) to evaluate artificial soil produced from poor fertility subsoil, horticultural compost, and sewage sludge. The addition of horticultural compost and sewage sludge to subsoil substantially improved plant growth, improved the physical properties of subsoil and enriched subsoil by essential nutrients for plants. The effect was enhanced when the two ingredients

O. Stabnikova; W.-K. Goh; H.-B. Ding; J.-H. Tay; J.-Y. Wang

2005-01-01

353

Influence of sewage sludge application on soil properties and on the distribution and availability of heavy metal fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of sewage sludge application on some soil properties and on the growth of wheat and corn plants were studied with pot experiments. The distribution of heavy metals among the various soil fractions and their availability to plants were also investigated in relation to soil pH. The results showed that sewage sludge application significantly ifluenced pH, organic matter content,

C. D. Tsadilas; Theodora Matsi; N. Barbayiannis; D. Dimoyiannis

1995-01-01

354

Effect of cultivated plants on physico?chemical characteristics of humic substances of soils amended by sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humic substances were extracted from raw sewage sludge samples as well as an alluvial slightly alkaline soil [Typic Xerofluvent (So)], a clay loam soil [Calcixerollic Xerochrept (M)] and the corresponding field plots amended with different rates of sewage sludge and cultivated with corn and cotton respectively, in a two?year field experiment. These substances have been characterized by chemical and spectroscopic

C. S. Kallianou

2000-01-01

355

Effect of increased cobalt treatments on sewage sludge amended soil: Nitrogen species in soil and tranference to tomato plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of increased cobalt additions (0, 50, 100 and 200 v mg v kg m 1 soil) in sewage sludge-amended soil on organic matter, N Kjeldahl, ammonium and nitrate were studied in this experiment. Three different rates of sewage sludge were applied (0, 30 and 60 v tn v ha m 1 ) to soil as main plots, using

A. Perez-Espinosa; J. Moreno-Caselles; M. D. Perez-Murcia; I. Gomez

2002-01-01

356

EFFECT OF LONG-TERM SEWAGE SLUDGE APPLICATION ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF NUTRIENTS IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of the nutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and iron (Fe) in maize (Zea mays L.) was studied in a long-term sewage sludge field application in an acid coarse sandy soil at Bordeaux, France. Sewage sludge had been applied since 1974 at 100 t (dry weight) ha per 2 years (SS 100) in

Barbara Jarausch-Wehrheim; Bernard Mocquot; Michel Mench

2001-01-01

357

USE OF PINE BARK AND SEWAGE SLUDGE COMPOST AS COMPONENTS OF SUBSTRATES FOR PINUS PINEA AND CUPRESSUS ARIZONICA PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using pine bark and composted sewage sludge to produce alternative substrates was studied. The substrates tested were 1 and 2) pine bark fertilized with 1 and 4 g L of a slow-release NPK fertilizer (15 : 11 : 13) and 3) a substrate in which 15% (v\\/v) of the pine bark was replaced by composted sewage sludge.

F. Guerrero; J. M. Gascó; L. Hernández-Apaolaza

2002-01-01

358

Characteristics of tar, NOx precursors and their absorption performance with different scrubbing solvents during the pyrolysis of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently thermal utilizations of sewage sludge, especially pyrolysis and gasification, are regarded as promising technologies due to efficient utilization of fuel gas. In this study, characteristics of tar and NOx precursors were investigated during the pyrolysis of sewage sludge. Moreover, absorption performance for tar and NOx precursors were also studied by using four kinds of scrubbing mediums: cooking oil, diesel

Hongfang Chen; Tomoaki Namioka; Kunio Yoshikawa

2011-01-01

359

Modeling of the reburning process using sewage sludge-derived syngas.  

PubMed

Gasification of sewage sludge can provide clean and effective reburning fuel for combustion applications. The motivation of this work was to define the reburning potential of the sewage sludge gasification gas (syngas). A numerical simulation of the co-combustion process of syngas in a hard coal-fired boiler was done. All calculations were performed using the Chemkin programme and a plug-flow reactor model was used. The calculations were modelled using the GRI-Mech 2.11 mechanism. The highest conversions for nitric oxide (NO) were obtained at temperatures of approximately 1000-1200K. The combustion of hard coal with sewage sludge-derived syngas reduces NO emissions. The highest reduction efficiency (>90%) was achieved when the molar flow ratio of the syngas was 15%. Calculations show that the analysed syngas can provide better results than advanced reburning (connected with ammonia injection), which is more complicated process. PMID:22079251

Werle, Sebastian

2012-04-01

360

Stabilization of sewage sludge by different biochars towards reducing freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to identify the effect of various biochars on the content of freely dissolved (Cfree) PAHs in sewage sludge. Apart from the evaluation of biochars obtained from various materials, the study also included the determination of the effects of biochar particle sizes and biochar production temperature on their ability to bind PAHs in sewage sludge. Increase in biochar dose caused a gradual reduction of Cfree PAHs content, but only up to the biochar dose of 5%. Depending on the kind of initial material from which the biochar was produced, the reduction of Cfree PAHs content in sewage sludge varied from 17.4% to 58.0%. Both the temperature and the particle size of biochar had an effect on PAH free concentration reduction. Biochars characterised by a low polarity index (O/C or (O+N)/C) reduced the level of Cfree PAHs better than biochars with a higher polarity index value. PMID:24495539

Oleszczuk, Patryk; Zieli?ska, Anna; Cornelissen, Gerard

2014-03-01

361

F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report: Third quarter 1993  

SciTech Connect

Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Currently, iron, lead, and manganese are the only permit-required analytes that exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites. Tritium and aluminum are the nonpermit constituents exceeding standards. Other constituents have exceeded standards at this site previously, but only sporadically.

Not Available

1994-01-01

362

Pulverized fuel ash products solve the sewage sludge problems of the wastewater industry  

SciTech Connect

Sewage sludge recycling has become one of the predominant problems of the water industry. Not all types of sewage sludges are able to be recycled to farm land or into composting processes. Pulverized fuel ash is used as a major ingredient in a product called Rhenipal which is used to stabilize sewage sludge for recycling into a material for land reclamation, as a soil conditioner, as cover material for landfill and as a landfill engineering material. This article deals with the results achieved when applying rhenipal in a post-stabilization process to prepare landfill engineering material. The process is currently developed further and can be operated in a pre-stabilization mode, which will further improve the economical results shown for the post-stabilization method in this paper.

Dirk, G. [Rhenipal UK Ltd., Birkenhead (United Kingdom)] [Rhenipal UK Ltd., Birkenhead (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

363

Evaluation of the anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and tomato waste at mesophilic temperature.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge is a hazardous waste, which must be managed adequately. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion is a widely employed treatment for sewage sludge involving several disadvantages such as low methane yield, poor biodegradability, and nutrient imbalance. Tomato waste was proposed as an easily biodegradable co-substrate to increase the viability of the process in a centralized system. The mixture proportion of sewage sludge and tomato waste evaluated was 95:5 (wet weight), respectively. The stability was maintained within correct parameters in an organic loading rate from 0.4 to 2.2 kg total volatile solids (VS)/m(3) day. Moreover, the methane yield coefficient was 159 l/kg VS (0 °C, 1 atm), and the studied mixture showed a high anaerobic biodegradability of 95 % (in VS). Although the ammonia concentration increased until 1,864 ± 23 mg/l, no inhibition phenomenon was determined in the stability variables, methane yield, or kinetics parameters studied. PMID:24682875

Belhadj, Siham; Joute, Yassine; El Bari, Hassan; Serrano, Antonio; Gil, Aida; Siles, José A; Chica, Arturo F; Martín, M Angeles

2014-04-01

364

Biological degradation of cyclophosphamide and its occurrence in sewage water.  

PubMed

The mutagenic and cancerogenic antineoplastic agent cyclophosphamide (CP) is released into sewage water by cancer patient excretion. To assess the biological degradability of CP two standardized test systems, the Zahn-Wellens/EMPA test (OECD 302B) and a laboratory scale sewage treatment plant, were used. In both test systems the agent exhibited only poor degradability. To verify the expected occurrence of CP in hospital sewage, water samples were analyzed for CP with GC/MS after enrichment by solid-phase extraction. CP could be detected in concentrations ranging from 20 ng/L to 4.5 micrograms/L. The occurrence of the agent could also be proved in samples from the influent and the effluent of the communal sewage treatment plant into which the hospital's sewage water is shed. Concentrations ranged from 7 to 143 ng/L. In an attempt to assess the contribution of CP to the genotoxicity detected in hospital waste water in a recent study, the effects of CP in the umuC test, a bacterial genotoxicity assay, were investigated. However, no genotoxic effects of CP were found up to concentrations of 1 g/L. PMID:9126435

Steger-Hartmann, T; Kümmerer, K; Hartmann, A

1997-03-01

365

Residual and cumulative effects of soil application of sewage sludge on corn productivity.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of frequent and periodic applications of sewage sludge to the soil, on corn productivity. The experiment was carried out as part of an experiment that has been underway since 1999, using two types of sludge. One came from the Barueri Sewage Treatment Station (BS, which receives both household and industrial sludge) and the other came from the Franca Sewage Treatment Station (FS, which receives only household sludge). The Barueri sludge was applied from 1999 up to the agricultural year of 2003/2004. With the exception of the agricultural years of 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, the Franca sludge was applied up to 2008/2009. All the applications were made in November, with the exception of the first one which was made in April 1999. After harvesting the corn, the soil remained fallow until the next cultivation. The experiment was set up as a completely randomized block design with three replications and the following treatments: control without chemical fertilization or sludge application, mineral fertilization, and dose 1 and dose 2 of sludge (Franca and Barueri). The sludges were applied individually. Dose 1 was calculated by considering the recommended N application for corn. Dose 2 was twice dose 1. It was evident from this work that the successive application of sludge to the soil in doses sufficient to reach the productivity desired with the use of nitrogen fertilizers could cause environmental problems due to N losses to the environment and that the residual and cumulative effects should be considered when calculating the application of sludge to soil. PMID:24584586

Vieira, Rosana Faria; Moriconi, Waldemore; Pazianotto, Ricardo Antônio Almeida

2014-05-01

366

Feedstock quality and growth of bioenergy crops fertilized with sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge is rich in essential plant nutrients, but its use is restricted for crop production due to the pollutants it contains, such as metalloids and heavy metals. Sludge is also very sticky and compact. Therefore, the objectives of this work were to evaluate (1) the impact of various amounts of sludge on bioenergy crop productivity and quality and (2) the use of peat as an adjuvant to reduce the stickiness, density and nutrient richness of the sludge. Three different applications of sludge were examined, high, low (50% of high) and low mixed with an equal volume of peat. The sludge-peat mix increased significantly leaf area and biomass accumulation of maize and hemp. High sludge and sludge-peat mix applications increased significantly the leaf area and biomass accumulation as well as the net photosynthesis of oilseed rape. High sludge application resulted in the highest heavy metal and metalloid accumulation in maize and hemp. Sludge-peat mix resulted in the highest heavy metal and metalloid accumulation in oilseed rape. However, the sludge-peat mix application provided the best feedstock quality in all three crops, since chloride, silicon and sulfur concentrations and ash content in plant material were the lowest of the three sludge treatments. PMID:22897833

Seleiman, Mahmoud F; Santanen, Arja; Stoddard, Frederick L; Mäkelä, Pirjo

2012-11-01

367

Guidance for writing permits for the use or disposal of sewage sludge. Draft report  

SciTech Connect

Section 405(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) directs the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop regulations containing guidelines for the use and disposal of sewage sludge. On February 19th, 1993, EPA published final regulations at 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 503 as the culmination of a major effort to develop technical standards in response to Section 405(d). These regulations govern three sewage sludge use and disposal practices: land application, surface disposal, and incineration. A key element in EPA's implementation of the Part 503 regulations is educating Agency and State personnel about these new requirements. Although the regulations are generally directly enforceable against all persons involved in the use and disposal of sewage sludge, they will also be implemented through permits issued to treatment works treating domestic sewage as defined in 40 CFR 122.22. Thus, the primary focus of the manual is to assist permit writers in incorporating the Part 503 requirements into permits; it serves as an update to the Guidance for Writing Case-by-Case Permit Conditions for Municipal Sewage Sludge (PB91-145508/HDM).

Not Available

1993-03-01

368

Immobilization of selected heavy metals in sewage sludge by natural zeolites.  

PubMed

This contribution presents the possibility of application of natural sorbent (Transcarpathian clinoptylolite (KL)) for immobilization of selected heavy metals in the sewage sludge. The influence of ion-exchange parameters (e.g. time, amount of zeolite) were discussed. Process of immobilization was performed using a static method (Batch). It was found that best possible conditions for immobilization of heavy metal ions were as follows: zeolite fraction 0.7-1.0mm, 5h of shaking, zeolite/sewage sludge ratio 2/98. PMID:18083511

Kosobucki, Przemys?aw; Kruk, Magdalena; Buszewski, Bogus?aw

2008-09-01

369

Conversion of sewage sludge into lipids by Lipomyces starkeyi for biodiesel production.  

PubMed

The potential of accumulation of lipids by Lipomyces starkeyi when grown on sewage sludge was assessed. On a synthetic medium, accumulation of lipids strongly depended on the C/N ratio. The highest content of lipids was measured at a C/N-ratio of 150 with 68% lipids of the dry matter while at a C/N-ratio of 60 only 40% were accumulated. Within a pH range from 5.0 to 7.5 the highest lipid accumulation was found at pH 5.0 while the highest yield per litre was pH 6.5. Although sewage sludge had no inhibitory effects on growth or accumulation on L. starkeyi when added to synthetic medium, there was no significant growth on untreated sewage sludge. However, pretreatment of sludge by alkaline or acid hydrolysis, thermal or ultrasonic treatment lead to accumulation of lipids by L. starkeyi with highest values of 1 g L(-1) obtained with ultrasound pre-treatment. Based on the content of free fatty acids and phosphorus, lipids accumulated from sewage sludge could serve as a substrate for the production of biodiesel. PMID:17719773

Angerbauer, C; Siebenhofer, M; Mittelbach, M; Guebitz, G M

2008-05-01

370

Alteration of a salt marsh bacterial community by fertilization with sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

The effects of long-term fertilization with sewage sludge on the aerobic, chemoheterotrophic portion of a salt marsh bacterial community were examined. The study site in the Great Sippewissett Marsh, Cap Cod, Mass., consisted of experimental plots that were treated with different amounts of commercial sewage sludge fertilizer or with urea and phosphate. The number of CFUs, percentage of mercury- and cadmium-resistant bacteria, and percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were all increased in the sludge-fertilized plots. Preliminary taxonomic characterization showed fertilization markedly altered the taxonomic distribution and reduced diversity within both the total heterotrophic and the mercury-resistant communities. In control plots, the total heterotrophic community was fairly evenly distributed among taxa and the mercury-resistant community was dominated by Pseudomonas spp. In sludge-fertilized plots, both the total and mercury-resistant communities were dominated by a single Cytophaga sp.

Hamlett, N.V.

1986-10-01

371

[Removal of polio- and parvovirus in sewage-sludge by lime-treatment (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Lime (CaO) applied as conditioner for dewatering municipal sewage sludge in filter-presses is suitable to disinfect sewage sludge with respect to virus. A pH-rise to more than 12 followed by release of ammonia inactivates Polio- and Bovine Parvovirus. Addition of 3 kg CaO and more per m3 of raw sludge inactivates Poliovirus within 30 minutes. 7.5 kg CaO per m3 of anaerobically digested sludge are required to inactivate Polio-virus within 5 days and Bovine Parvovirus within 24 hours. Parvovirus seems to be more sensitive against free ammonia than Poliovirus, but less sensitive against high pH-values. PMID:6280414

Koch, K; Strauch, D

1981-12-01

372

[Effect of different sludge retention time (SRT) on municipal sewage sludge bioleaching continuous plug flow reaction system].  

PubMed

A plug-flow bio-reactor of 700 L working volume for sludge bioleaching was used in this study. The reactor was divided into six sections along the direction of the sludge movement. Fourteen days of continuous operation of sludge bioleaching with different sludge retention time (SRT) under the condition of 1.2 m3 x h(-1) aeration amount and 4 g x L(-1) of microbial nutritional substance was conducted. During sludge bioleaching, the dynamic changes of pH, DO, dewaterability (specific resistance to filtration, SRF) of sewage sludge in different sections were investigated in the present study. The results showed that sludge pH were maintained at 5.00, 3.00, 2.90, 2.70, 2.60 and 2.40 from section 1 to section 6 and the SRF of sludge was drastically decreased from initial 0.64 x 10(13) m x kg(-1) to the final 0.33 x 10(13) m x kg(-1) when bioleaching system reached stable at hour 72 with SRT 2.5d. In addition, the sludge pH were maintained at 5.10, 4.10, 3.20, 2.90, 2.70 and 2.60, the DO value were 0.43, 1.47, 3.29, 4.76, 5.75 and 5.88 mg x L(-1) from section 1 to section 6, and the SRF of sludge was drastically decreased from initial 0.56 x 10(13) to the final 0.20 x 10(13) m x kg(-1) when bioleaching system reached stable at hour 120 with SRT 2 d. The pH value was increased to 3.00 at section 6 at hour 48 h with SRT 1.25 d. The bioleaching system imbalanced in this operation conditions because of the utilization efficiency of microbial nutritional substance by Acidibacillus spp. was decreased. The longer sludge retention time, the easier bioleaching system reached stable. 2 d could be used as the optimum sludge retention time in engineering application. The bioleached sludge was collected and dewatered by plate-and-frame filter press to the moisture content of dewatered sludge cake under 60%. This study would provide the necessary data to the engineering application on municipal sewage sludge bioleaching. PMID:22452209

Liu, Fen-Wu; Zhou, Li-Xiang; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Feng; Wang, Dian-Zhan

2012-01-01

373

Leaching of ashes from co-combustion of sewage sludge and wood—Part I: Recovery of phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion of sewage sludge with subsequent recovery of phosphorus is a relatively new sludge treatment option. In the work described in this paper, recovery of phosphorus by acid leaching of fly ashes from co-combustion of sewage sludge with wood in a circulating fluidized bed combustor was investigated. The results showed that it is possible to find a pH range (0.5–1)

Anita Pettersson; Lars-Erik Åmand; Britt-Marie Steenari

2008-01-01

374

Solid-phase treatment with the fungus Trametes versicolor substantially reduces pharmaceutical concentrations and toxicity from sewage sludge.  

PubMed

For safe biosolid-land-applying, sludge should be contaminant-free. However, it may contain important amounts of micropollutants, not removed in the wastewater-treatment-processes. An alternative treatment with the fungus Trametes versicolor was applied in sterile solid-phase systems consisting of sludge and a lignocellulosic substrate. Fungal colonization and activity were demonstrated during the process, according to monitoring of ergosterol, laccase activity and the naproxen-degradation test (ND24). Fourteen out of 43 analyzed pharmaceuticals were found in the raw sludge. After treatment, phenazone, bezafibrate, fenofibrate, cimetidine, clarithromycin, sulfamethazine and atenolol were completely removed, while removals between 42% and 80% were obtained for the remaining pharmaceuticals. Toxicological analyses (Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and seed germination) showed an important reduction in sludge toxicity after treatment. Results suggest that a solid-phase treatment with T. versicolor may reduce the ecotoxicological impact of micropollutants present in sewage sludge. This is the first report of a fungal-approach for elimination of emerging pollutants from biosolids. PMID:21376580

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Jeli?, Aleksandra; Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Caminal, Glòria; Petrovi?, Mira; Barceló, Damià; Vicent, Teresa

2011-05-01

375

Land application of chemically treated sewage sludge. II. Effects on soil and plant heavy metal content  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobically digested sewage sludges resulting from treatment of sewage with Ca(OH)/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/, or FeCl/sub 3/ for phosphorus precipitation were applied to corn (Zea mays L.) and bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyess) grown on a soil having an initial pH of 7.3. Rates of sludge supplied 200, 400, 800, and and 1,600 kg N/ha each year for 5 years. Treatments with NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ supplying 0, 100, 20, and 400 kg N/ha were included for comparison. Plant tissue was analyzed for Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb. No toxicity or deficiency symptoms were noted. Soil Zn, Cd, and Ni extracted by NTA (nitrilotriacetic acid) were increased by continued sludge application. The NTA-extractable Zn and Cd were positively correlated with the Zn and Cd concentrations in corn stover. Soil pH was reduced by the Fe-sludge application, slightly affected by the Al-sludge, and increased by the Ca-sludge. Increases in Cu concentrations in bromegrass and corn stover were associated with increases in the N content rather than the source of N, and plant Cu concentrations remained relatively constant across years. Sewage sludge application increased Zn, Cd, and Ni concentrations in bromegrass and corn stover, and Zn and Ni concentrations in corn grain, particularly at the higher metal loadings from sludge application. Zinc and Cd concentrations, especially in corn stover, increased with continued sludge application during the 5-year period. The inclusion of soil pH as a factor, in addition to cummulative amounts of Zn or Cd added as a constituent of sludge, improved the regression equations predicting Zn or Cd uptake.

Soon, Y.K.; Bates, T.E.; Moyer, J.R.

1980-07-01

376

The study of partitioning of heavy metals during fluidized bed combustion of sewage sludge and coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Hg during the combustion tests of a dry granular sewage sludge on a fluidized bed combustor pilot (FBC) of about 0.3 MW was evaluated. The emissions of these heavy metals from mono-combustion were compared with those of co-combustion of the sludge with a bituminous coal. The effect of

I. Gulyurtlu; M. Helena Lopes; P. Abelha; I. Cabrita; J. F. Santos Oliveira

2006-01-01

377

A review of methods for the thermal utilization of sewage sludge: The Polish perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of demographic projections, it is estimated that the quantity of sewage sludge which will be produced in Poland between 2010 and 2018 will increase from 612.8 thousand tons (dry basis, d.b.) to 706.6 thousand tons (d.b.). Currently, the predominant method for the disposal of this sludge is its storage and agricultural application. However, the legislation taking effect

Sebastian Werle; Ryszard K. Wilk

2010-01-01

378

Drying sewage sludge using flue gas from power plants in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot of energy is required for drying the sewage sludge produced during the wastewater treatment process in China; however,\\u000a on the other hand, the thermal energy in flue gas from power plants is usually wasted as it discharges into the atmosphere.\\u000a In this study, a new technique for sludge drying is introduced. The key component of the new technique

Xue-wen Ma; Huan-xin Weng; Min-hua Su; Lehua Pan

379

Gaseous emissions from ceramics manufactured with urban sewage sludge during firing processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The re-use of sewage sludge without any treatment as primary material—mixed with clays—in order to obtain structural ceramics for buildings has been successfully improved. In the Ecobrick1 project, the firing of a mixture of specific percentages of three components (clays, sludges and forest debris) resulted in a lighter and more thermal and acoustic insulating brick, compared with conventional clay-bricks. Volatile

J. A. Cusido; L. V. Cremades; M. Gonzalez

2003-01-01

380

Assessment of heavy metals in municipal sewage sludge: a case study of Limpopo province, South Africa.  

PubMed

Heavy metals in high concentrations can cause health and environmental damage. Nanosilver is an emerging heavy metal which has a bright future of use in many applications. Here we report on the levels of silver and other heavy metals in municipal sewage sludge. Five towns in Limpopo province of South Africa were selected and the sludge from their wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was collected and analysed. The acid digested sewage sludge samples were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) methods. The concentrations of silver found were low, but significant, in the range 0.22 to 21.93 mg/kg dry mass. The highest concentration of silver was found in Louis Trichardt town with a concentration of 21.93 ± 0.38 mg/kg dry mass while the lowest was Thohoyandou with a concentration of 6.13 ± 0.12 mg/kg dry mass. A control sludge sample from a pit latrine had trace levels of silver at 0.22 ± 0.01 mg/kg dry mass. The result showed that silver was indeed present in the wastewater sewage sludge and at present there is no DWAF guideline standard. The average Cd concentration was 3.10 mg/kg dry mass for Polokwane municipality. Polokwane and Louis Trichardt municipalities exhibited high levels of Pb, in excess DWAF guidelines, in sludge at 102.83 and 171.87 mg/kg respectfully. In all the WWTPs the zinc and copper concentrations were in excess of DWAF guidelines. The presence of heavy metals in the sewage sludge in excess of DWAF guidelines presents environmental hazards should the sludge be applied as a soil ameliorant. PMID:24595211

Shamuyarira, Kudakwashe K; Gumbo, Jabulani R

2014-03-01

381

Assessment of Heavy Metals in Municipal Sewage Sludge: A Case Study of Limpopo Province, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Heavy metals in high concentrations can cause health and environmental damage. Nanosilver is an emerging heavy metal which has a bright future of use in many applications. Here we report on the levels of silver and other heavy metals in municipal sewage sludge. Five towns in Limpopo province of South Africa were selected and the sludge from their wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was collected and analysed. The acid digested sewage sludge samples were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) methods. The concentrations of silver found were low, but significant, in the range 0.22 to 21.93 mg/kg dry mass. The highest concentration of silver was found in Louis Trichardt town with a concentration of 21.93 ± 0.38 mg/kg dry mass while the lowest was Thohoyandou with a concentration of 6.13 ± 0.12 mg/kg dry mass. A control sludge sample from a pit latrine had trace levels of silver at 0.22 ± 0.01 mg/kg dry mass. The result showed that silver was indeed present in the wastewater sewage sludge and at present there is no DWAF guideline standard. The average Cd concentration was 3.10 mg/kg dry mass for Polokwane municipality. Polokwane and Louis Trichardt municipalities exhibited high levels of Pb, in excess DWAF guidelines, in sludge at 102.83 and 171.87 mg/kg respectfully. In all the WWTPs the zinc and copper concentrations were in excess of DWAF guidelines. The presence of heavy metals in the sewage sludge in excess of DWAF guidelines presents environmental hazards should the sludge be applied as a soil ameliorant.

Shamuyarira, Kudakwashe K.; Gumbo, Jabulani R.

2014-01-01

382

Chemical composition of sewage sludges and analysis of their potential use as fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) was used to provide information concerning the chemical bonding of zinc and copper present in the sludge obtained from the Dayton, Ohio sewage treatment plant. The binding energy of the Zn 2Pââ electron in sludge when placed under a vacuum of 10⁻⁷ Torr was 1023.8 +- 0.2 eV and the binding energy of the

L. E. Sommers

1977-01-01

383

Bioavailability of heavy metals and arbuscular mycorrhiza in a sewage-sludge-amended sandy soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioavailability of metals (Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb and Mn) and abundance of arbuscular mycorrhiza were studied in a long-term sewage-sludge field trial on an acid sandy soil, at INRA-Bordeaux, France. ZnMn-(E1) and CdNi-(E2)contaiminated sludge had been applied at two rates (10t DM ha?1 y?1 and 100 t DM ha?1 2y?1) for 18 and 5 y, respectively. Inorganic fertilizer

I. Weissenhorn; M. Mench; C. Leyval

1995-01-01

384

Effect of thermochemical pretreatment on sewage sludge and its impact on carboxylic acids production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the potential of converting sewage sludge into a useful product, namely carboxylic acids. To potentially enhance acid yields, the effect of pretreatment using 0.3g lime\\/g dry biomass and water at 100°C for 10–240min was studied. The pretreated sludges were anaerobically fermented to mixed-acids using a mixed culture of microorganisms; methanogens were suppressed using iodoform. Batch fermentations were

Hema Rughoonundun; Cesar Granda; Romeela Mohee; Mark T. Holtzapple

2010-01-01

385

Production of pyrolytic liquids from industrial sewage sludges in an induction-heating reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the application of induction-heating, the pyrolytic experiments have been carried out for three sewage sludges from the food processing factories in an externally heated fixed-bed reactor. The thermochemical characteristics of sludge samples were first analyzed. The results indicated that the calorific value had about 15 MJ\\/kg on an average, suggesting that it had a potential for biomass energy source.

Wen-Tien Tsai; Jeng-Hung Chang; Kuo-Jung Hsien; Yuan-Ming Chang

2009-01-01

386

The bioavailability of cadmium to lettuce and cabbage in soils previously treated with sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of sewage sludges to soils may lead to increased soil-Cd levels. The bioavailability of Cd is determined by\\u000a the interaction of a number of soil physico-chemical and plant variables, of which pH is the most important. Duplicate samples\\u000a of sludge-treated soils were transferred to tubs in the field, one of each pair being limed to pH 7±0.5. Lettuce

Andrew P. Jackson; Brian J. Alloway

1991-01-01

387

Effect of Magnesium Oxychloride Cement on Stabilization\\/Solidification of Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solidification\\/stabilization (S\\/S) is considered to be a well-established disposal technique to reduce sludge handling and disposal obstacles. In this work, the sewage sludge was solidified at variable proportions with magnesium oxychloride cement (denoted as MOC therinafter) as reagent. The mortar prism samples of 40 times 40 times 160 mm in dimension were prepared and hardened for 24 hours at room

Ma Jianli; Zhao Youcai; Wang Li; Wang Jinmei

2009-01-01

388

Use of Municipal Sewage Sludge for Improvement of Forest Sites in the Southeast  

SciTech Connect

In eight field experiments dried municipal sewage sludge was applied to forest sites before planting of seedlings. In all cases, tree growth was faster on sludge-amended plots than on plots that received fertilizer and lime or no amendment. In all studies, concentrations of total nitrogen in the soil were higher on sludge plots than on control or fertilizer plots, even on good forest sites. In seven of the eight studies, concentrations of phosphorus also were higher on sludge plots than on control or fertilizer plots. Nitrogen and phosphorus tended to be higher in foliage from trees growing on sludge plots. Deep subsoiling was beneficial regardless of soil amendment. Where weeds were plentiful at the outset, they became serious competitors on plots receiving sludge.

Charles R. Berry

1987-09-01

389

Rheological measurements on different types of sewage sludge for pumping design.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge pumping could represent an optimal solution to assure adequate treatment of sludge in centralized plants, with a consequent reduction of the environmental impact of sludge disposal (volume, odour, putrescence), because small wastewater treatment plants usually do not provide an adequate treatment due to high costs. An accurate knowledge of rheological parameters is required to compute head loss for pipeline design, but only few data are available. In order to circumvent the problem of the scarcity of sludge rheological data, we have performed tests on different types of sludge, with solids concentration and temperature in the typical range of a conventional wastewater treatment plant. Bingham rheological parameters and sludge thixotropy values have been processed by regression analysis to identify their dependence on solids concentration or temperature. The results of this study allow the definition of guidelines and optimal strategies for designers in order to reduce pumping costs. PMID:24681323

Lotito, Vincenzo; Lotito, Adriana Maria

2014-05-01

390

Information Programs Affect Attitudes Toward Sewage Sludge Use in Agriculture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey was conducted of rural farmers, rural nonfarmers, urban and suburban residents to determine attitudes toward land application of sludge. After a thorough educational meeting devoted to a discussion of benefits and risks in sludge use, the groups ...

N. M. Musselman L. G. Welling S. C. Newman D. A. Sharp

1980-01-01

391

Reduced bioaccumulation of PAHs by Lactuca satuva L. grown in contaminated soil amended with sewage sludge and sewage sludge derived biochar.  

PubMed

The influence of sewage sludge (SS) and sewage sludge biochar (SSBC) upon biomass yield and the bioaccumulation of PAHs into lettuce plants grown in contaminated soil (?16PAH 20.2 ± 0.9 mg kg(-1)) is presented. All SSBC amendments (2, 5 and 10%) and the 2% SS amendment significantly (P < 0.01) increased lettuce biomass. Both SS and SSBC amendments significantly reduced (P < 0.01) the bioaccumulation of PAHs at all application levels; with reduction in ?16PAH concentration ranging between 41.8 and 60.3% in SS amended treatments and between 58.0 and 63.2% in SSBC amended treatments, with respect to the control. Benefits in terms of biomass production and PAHs bioaccumulation reduction were greatest where SSBC was used as a soil amendment. At high application rates (10%) SSBC reduced bioaccumulation of PAHs by between 56% and 67%, while SS reduced bioaccumulation of PAHs by less than 44%. PMID:23337353

Khan, Sardar; Wang, Ning; Reid, Brian J; Freddo, Alessia; Cai, Chao

2013-04-01

392

NO(x), Fine Particle and Toxic Metal Emissions from the Combustion of Sewage Sludge/Coal Mixtures: A Systematic Assessment. Quarterly Report Number 7.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditio...

J. O. L. Wendt

2002-01-01

393

NO(x), Fine Particle and Toxic Metal Emissions from the Combustion of Sewage Sludge/Coal Mixtures: A Systematic Assessment. Quarterly Report Number 5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditio...

J. O. L. Wendt

2002-01-01

394

NOx, Fine Particle and Toxic Metal Emissions From the Combustion of Sewage Sludge/Coal Mixtures: A Systematic Assessment. Quarterly Report 2 January 1, 2001 - March 31, 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditio...

J. O. L. Wendt

2001-01-01

395

No(x) Fine Particle and Toxic Metal Emissions from the Combustion of Sewage Sludge/Coal Mixtures: A Systematic Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditio...

J. O. L. Wendt

2001-01-01

396

Electrical conductivity measurements in sewage sludge pellets: innovative techniques for environmental management.  

PubMed

This paper presents research on the behaviour of electrical conductivity of sludge pellets resulting from the treatment of urban wastewater at the drying grounds of the El Trebal wastewater processing plant, located in the Mapocho river basin of the Metropolitana Region, Santiago, Chile. In the methodology used samples were taken that correspond to three horizons of the sewage sludge pile. The first horizon made up the upper portion of the pile (the surface), the second the central portion (mesophilous), and the third the lower one (thermophilous). Electrical conductivity measurements were taken in sewage sludge pellets under pressures on the order of 15-50 MPa with currents of 10(-15)A. Electrical conductivity measurements were also taken for different horizons, and innovative techniques and methodologies for sludge samples presented in the form of pellets are used for this purpose. Such pellets are easily reproduced with sufficient precision, and at the same time allow modifying other variables like mass, sample dimensions and compaction levels. The trends of the conductivity curves are similar for the sludge from the isolation surface horizon (H1) as well as for the mesophilous area horizon (H2). In the case of the thermophilous area horizon (H3), the electrical conductivity shows extremely high values when compared to horizons H1 and H2. This paper could be useful in establishing a general rule for taking electrical conductivity measurements in sewage sludge samples. Such a rule could bring accurate reproducible values, and be used for other types of dry wastes. PMID:19342161

Camilla, S; Jordan, M M

2009-09-15

397

Concentrations of trace substances in sewage sludge from 28 wastewater treatment works in the UK.  

PubMed

Concentrations of trace substances in sewage sludge have been measured in a survey of 28 wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) in the UK carried out over a period of 12months. Approximately 250 samples were analysed for more than 40 trace contaminants, including trace metals, pharmaceuticals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 'emerging' and regulated organic pollutants. All substances investigated were found to be present in at least some of the sludges sampled. Concentrations were relatively homogenous across all the WwTWs, irrespective of the treatment process, influent and effluent concentrations, and the location of the sludge sampling point within each works. Analysis of the results against existing regulatory and proposed thresholds suggested that levels are mostly below the limits set in the Sewage Sludge Directive, and proposed new limits for sludge used in agriculture. Predicted soil concentrations after application of sewage sludge to land were below the predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) for all determinands. Predicted concentrations of pharmaceuticals in soil were also below thresholds deemed to indicate negligible environmental risk. PMID:24997955

Jones, Vera; Gardner, Mike; Ellor, Brian

2014-09-01

398

Byproducts Utilization Program: Sewage Sludge Irradiation Project. Progress report, July-December 1983  

SciTech Connect

Engineering support for a demonstration-scale irradiator design included assisting the City of Albuquerque in preparing a comprehensive site plan for their proposed sludge handling and treatment facilities. The solar sludge dryer has been delivered to SNLA. A preliminary sludge drying experiment indicated the importance of optimizing stirring and air flow. Installation of instrumentation and mechanical equipment continued. The Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids (SIDSS) was used to irradiate 23 tons of dried, digested sewage sludge for the New Mexico State University (NMSU) Department of Crop and Soil Sciences. Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) operations included irradiation of ground pork for Toxoplasma gondii inactivation experiments, irradiation of surgical supplies and soil samples. Beneficial Uses Shipping Systems (BUSS) cask activities included near completion of the two full-scale cask bodies. Work continued on the Cask Safety Analysis Report (SAR) including additional analyses to reconfigure the six strontium fluoride capsules and/or reduce the number of capsules accommodated. NMSU has indicated no regrowth of salmonellae occurred in the irradiated sludge stockpile, while salmonellae did regrow in the unirradiated stockpile. Analyses of raw and digested sewage sludge from the Albuquerque Waste Water Treatment Plant showed levels of Yersinia enterocolitica (a human pathogen of emerging significance) to be below detection limits.

Not Available

1984-12-01

399

NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE\\/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge\\/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the

Jost O. L. Wendt

2002-01-01

400

Study on Immobilization Activated Sludge by Polyvinyl Alcohol-sodium Alginate - Calcium Nitrate in Domestic Sewage Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation conditions of immobilization activated sludge were studied with polyvinyl alcohol-sodium alginate as carrier and calcium nitrate as cross linking agent. Physical properties and removal effect of immobilization activated sludge were also investigated, where cross linking agent was boric acid, calcium chloride, calcium nitrate, respectively. The effect of sewage treatment was compared with activated sludge cross optimum linker calcium nitrate

Nie Qian; Jian Peichao; Liu Zhibin; Gu Fang

2010-01-01

401

Partitioning of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in sewage sludge incineration by rotary kiln and fluidized bed furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of four metals (Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn) during sewage sludge incineration was studied in eight pilot plant tests performed with a rotary kiln (RK) and a fluidised bed (FB) furnace. To simulate sludge co-incineration with hazardous wastes, in three FB tests feed sludge was mixed with chlorinated organic compounds. Chromium and copper showed similar concentrations both in bottom

G. Mininni; C. M. Braguglia; D. Marani

402

REPORT OF PYROLYSIS OF SEWAGE SLUDGES IN THE NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY METROPOLITAN AREA (PHASE I)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this work was to reduce the volume of municipal wastewater (sewage) sludge in a multiple-hearth furnance via starved air combustion (pyrolysis) to determine how it compared with incineration as an environmentally acceptable method of sludge disposal. Sludge was fir...

403

Plant uptake of cadmium from acid-extracted anaerobically digested sewage sludge. [Beta vulgaris  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 80% of the Cd in an anaerobically digested sewage sludge was removed by acid extraction and dewatering. The acid extracted sludge was treated by (i) neutralization to pH 5.9 with Ca(OH)/sub 2/, (ii) addition of monocalcium phosphate (MCP) followed by Ca(OH)/sub 2/ neutralization to pH 5.9, and, (iii) addition of rock phosphate (RP) followed by Ca(OH)/sub 2/ neutralization to pH 5.9. The three treated sludges and the non acid-extracted sludge were applied to Spinks loamy sand at rates equivalent to 18.7 and 37.4 ..mu..mol Cd kg/sup -1/. Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris) was grown in the greenhouse for 56 d. Cadmium, Fe, Ca, and P were measured in saturation extracts of treated soil after sludge addition. These data indicated that hydroxyapatite was stable throughout the study in the soil receiving MCP treated sludge but not in other soil treatments. Cadmium concentration in saturation extracts of the soil with MCP sludge decreased while Cd concentration in saturation extracts of the other sludge treatments were much higher throughout the study. Chard yields were higher in the control than in any of the sludge treatments, and the difference was attributed to greater N availability in the control. Cadmium concentration in Swiss chard tissue at harvest was significantly lower from the MCP sludge than from the other sludges. Cadmium concentration in chard tissue was also higher from the aerated sludge (11.9 mmol Cd kg/sup -1/) than from the three acid-extracted sludges (2.58-3.29 mmol Cd kg/sup -1/). No significant difference in the Cd concentration of chard was obtained for the 18.7 and 37.4 ..mu..mol Cd kg/sup -1/ rates of the MCP sludge, while Cd concentrations in chard increased linearly with Cd applied by the other sludges.

Logan, T.J.; Feltz, R.E.

1985-01-01

404

[Recovery of copper from sewage sludge by bioleaching-solvent extraction-electrodeposition process].  

PubMed

Sewage sludge contains not only a lot of organic matter and plant nutrients, but also some harmful metals. Recovery of sludge-born metals for sewage sludge of high metal content is very important for safe reutilization of sewage sludge and for economic consideration. Here, we reported a recovery technique for sludge-born copper using bioleaching-solvent extraction-electrodeposition (L-SX-EW) process through batch experiments. The tested sludge containing 7 432 mg/kg Cu was collected from Suzhou Wastewater Treatment Plant located in industrial zone of Suzhou City, Jiangsu, China. The results showed that more than 90% of sludge-born Cu could be solubilized into aqueous phase within 72 h through bioleaching process. Furthermore, soluble Cu in the form of Cu2+ in bioleached sludge filtrate could be concentrated into organic phase through the extracting operation using 2% solvent extractant M5640 under the optimized condition of 1/3 phase ratio (O/A) and pH 2.0, in which Cu2+ extraction efficiency reached more than 95%, whereas the co-existing soluble iron extraction efficiency was less than 10%. Stripping results showed that the Stripping rate of Cu was 80.07% when the phase ratio (O/A) was 2/1 using 1.5 mol/L H2SO4 as stripping solvent. After the concentrated Cu2+ in acidic aqueous phase was electrolyzed for 6 h at 2.1 V bath voltage and 55 degrees C, more than 90% of the Cu2+ recovery efficiency was achieved in the form of elemental Cu powder. There wasn't any wastewater generation in this process. Therefore, this L-SX-EW technique exhibited a potential application for the recovery of metal for heavy metal-loaded sludge. PMID:20063755

Chen, Hai-Ping; Zhou, Li-Xiang; Wang, Shi-Mei; Liang, Jian-Ru

2009-11-01

405

Enhanced microbial adaptation to pNitrophenol using activated sludge retained in porous carrier particles and simultaneous removal of nitrite released from degradation of pNitrophenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine the microbial degradation of p-nitrophenol (PNP) by a mixed culture system and simultaneous removal of nitrite released via the degradation, an activated sludge retained in porous carrier particles and a suspension culture as a control were acclimated to artificial sewage containing PNP as the sole carbon source. The adaptation of microbes retained in porous carrier particles

Xin-Hui Xing; Tomoyuki Inoue; Yasunori Tanji; Hajime Unno

1999-01-01

406

Co-composting as an oxygen stabilization of an organic fraction of municipal solid waste and industrial sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to study the characteristics of the co-composting of municipal solid waste (MSW), sewage sludge, grass and sawdust. Differing proportions of biodegradable waste were investigated through changes of temperature, oxygen consumption, organic matters, moisture content, carbon, nitrogen, C/N ratio as well as heavy metals and pathogen microorganisms content. The present study has shown that addition of MSW above 10% had a negative impact on the composting process. The initial C/N of the mixtures with a higher MSW content was below 18. Lower losses of organic matter occurred during composting for the mixture with the highest addition of MSW. Although studies have shown that composting is a good method for the disposal of organic waste additional research is required in order to optimize the organic and nitrogen compounds degradation during the co-composting process. In conclusion, a 1:4:4:1 mixture of MSW:sewage sludge:grass:sawdust is recommended because it can achieve high temperature as well as the highest organic matter degradation and highest N content in the final composting product. The concentration of heavy and light metals in all composts was within the limits of regulation of the Polish Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development. PMID:24185049

Milczarek, M; Neczaj, E; Parkitna, K

2013-01-01

407

Project summary: Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history  

SciTech Connect

The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, was required to construct advanced wastewater treatment facilities at the existing Belmont Wastewater Treatment Plant. The most cost effective site for these new treatment facilities was the 10 sludge lagoons containing 420,000 cubic meters (111 million gallons) of digested sewage sludge stored for up to 50 years. The project consisted of the following major tasks: (1) obtaining approval from regulatory agencies; (2) obtaining cooperation of landowners and farmers; (3) removing, transporting, and applying the lagooned sludge to soil; and (4) monitoring the impact on crops.

Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

1995-06-01

408

The use of sewage sludge as soil amendment. The need for an ecotoxicological evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Sewage sludge use in agriculture should be limited by the presence of metals and other persistent environmental pollutants.\\u000a The present study aims to contribute for the definition of a test battery of ecotoxicological assays that allows a proper\\u000a ecotoxicological characterization of sludges, providing information on their potential hazard and identified “safe” application\\u000a levels.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Three sludges

Tiago Natal-da-Luz; Serena Tidona; Bruno Jesus; Paula V. Morais; José P. Sousa

2009-01-01

409

Adsorption of pesticides by sewage sludge, grape marc, spent mushroom substrate and by amended soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative adsorption study of linuron, diazinon and myclobutanil, representing three classes of pesticides, by sewage sludge (SS), grape marc (GM) and spent mushroom substrate (SMS) and soils amended with these residues was carried out. The study assayed the effect of the nature of the residue, soil characteristics, pesticide properties and residue-soil incubation time on adsorption. Soil-residues were incubated outdoors

M. Sonia Rodríguez-Cruz; Eliseo Herrero-Hernández; José M. Ordax; Jesús M. Marín-Benito; Khalid Draoui; María J. Sánchez-Martín

2011-01-01

410

Adsorption of pesticides by sewage sludge, grape marc, spent mushroom substrate and by amended soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative adsorption study of linuron, diazinon and myclobutanil, representing three classes of pesticides, by sewage sludge (SS), grape marc (GM) and spent mushroom substrate (SMS) and soils amended with these residues was carried out. The study assayed the effect of the nature of the residue, soil characteristics, pesticide properties and residue-soil incubation time on adsorption. Soil-residues were incubated outdoors

M. Sonia Rodríguez-Cruz; Eliseo Herrero-Hernández; José M. Ordax; Jesús M. Marín-Benito; Khalid Draoui; María J. Sánchez-Martín

2012-01-01

411

EVALUATION OF OXYGEN-ENRICHED MSW/SEWAGE SLUDGE CO-INCINERATION DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

This report provides an evaluation of a two-phased demonstration program conducted for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation Program, and the results thereof, of a recently developed method of sewage sludge managemen...

412

EVALUATION OF OXYGEN-ENRICHED MSW/SEWAGE SLUDGE CO-INCINERATION DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

This report provides and evaluation of a two-phased demonstration program conducted for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation Program, and the results thereof, of a recently developed method of sewage sludge management. ...

413

Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification.  

PubMed

Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures--gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation--are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes. PMID:17919896

Gross, Bodo; Eder, Christian; Grziwa, Peter; Horst, Juri; Kimmerle, Klaus

2008-01-01

414

A REVIEW OF TECHNIQUES FOR INCINERATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE WITH SOLID WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses the state of the art of co-incineration of municipal refuse and sewage sludge. European and American practice is described. Four co-incineration techniques are evaluated for thermodynamic and economic feasibility; pyrolysis, multiple hearth, direct drying, a...

415

MINIMIZATION OF MAJOR AIR POLLUTANTS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE FLUID BED INCINERATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of major air pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and mercury (Hg) were studied at two sewage sludge fluidized bed combustion (FBC) plants. Both the North West Bergen (NWB) County Utility Authority and the Little Miami (LM) plants have air pollution control systems (APCS) that are of the wet type. Various operating conditions such as temperature, excess

Ky Dangtran; Troy Holst

416

Fine particle formation from co-combustion of sewage sludge and bituminous coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous investigations of co-combustion process characteristics, only minor emphasis was put on the fine particulate matter evolution in power plants. Contrary to this, work at the IVD (Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology) was aimed at determining the influence of the supplementary fuel sewage sludge on fine particulate matter.Extensive combustion tests were performed for three different input

Natascha Wolski; J Maier; K. R. G Hein

2004-01-01

417

Volatilisation of trace elements for coal–sewage sludge blends during their combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of sewage sludge addition on the volatility of 37 trace elements (Ag, As, Au, B, Ba, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, Hf, Hg, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sn, Sr, Ta, Te, Th, Tl, U, V, Y, Zn, Zr) during coal combustion was studied. For this purpose, a bituminous

M. Belén Folgueras; Ramona M D??az; Jorge Xiberta; Ismael Prieto

2003-01-01

418

Reduction of superheater corrosion by co-firing risky biomass with sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron and aluminium sulphates are added to processes producing sewage sludge (SWS), and SWS also contains aluminium silicates. These compounds can destroy alkali chlorides and prevent Cl deposition on superheaters. Sulphation of chlorides requires formation of SO3 in the furnace. Raw and digested SWSs were mixed with a fuel containing bark and recycled fuel (REF). Combustion experiments were conducted with

M. Aho; P. Yrjas; R. Taipale; M. Hupa; J. Silvennoinen

2010-01-01

419

Combustion characteristics of sewage sludge in an incineration plant for energy recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of sewage sludge incinerator that combines a pressurized fluidized bed combustor and a turbocharger driven by flue gas was proposed. In this study, the operation and combustion characteristics of a demonstration plant were clarified, and the design data for a commercial plant were obtained. The steady operation exceeded 600 h in total. CO, NOx, and N2O emissions in

Takahiro Murakami; Yoshizo Suzuki; Hidekazu Nagasawa; Takafumi Yamamoto; Takami Koseki; Hitoshi Hirose; Seiichiro Okamoto

2009-01-01

420

Co-combustion kinetics of sewage sludge with coal and coal gangue under different atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the co-combustion behaviour of sewage sludge with coal gangue and coal were investigated by a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in the temperature range from ambient temperature to 1000°C. Experiments were carried out with about 10mg of sample in five different atmospheres: 20% oxygen in nitrogen, 30% oxygen in nitrogen, 40% oxygen in nitrogen, 60% oxygen in nitrogen and

Hanmin Xiao; Xiaoqian Ma; Kai Liu

2010-01-01

421

Emission Characteristics of Granulated Fuel Produced from Sewage Sludge and Coal Slime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutralization of wastewater treatment residues is an issue for many countries. The European Union (EU) legal regulations have limited the use of the residues in agriculture and implemented a ban for their disposal. Therefore, urgent action should be taken to find solutions for the safe disposal of sewage sludge. The problem refers in particular to the new EU member

Ma?gorzata Wzorek; Micha? Kozio?; Waldemar ?cierski

2010-01-01

422

Predicting the heating value of sewage sludges in Thailand from proximate and ultimate analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been various methods used for determining a heating value of solid fuel such as coal, biomass and municipal solid waste (MSW) either by experiment using a bomb calorimeter or by modeling based on its compositions. This work proposes another aspect in developing models to predict the heating value of sewage sludge from its proximate and ultimate analyses data.

Puchong Thipkhunthoda

423

The fate of trace elements in fluidised bed combustion of sewage sludge and wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion tests have been carried out in a fluidised bed boiler to investigate the fate of trace elements during co-combustion of wood and municipal sewage sludge. The approach was to collect fuel and ash samples and to perform thermodynamic equilibrium calculations for gasification (reducing) and combustion (oxidising) conditions. Trace elements are found in the ash. Even most of the highly

Anna-Lena Elled; Lars-Erik Åmand; Bo Leckner; Bengt-Åke Andersson

2007-01-01

424

Study of Aerobic Stabilization Techniques for Sewage Sludge Composting (Untersuchung Aerober Stabilisierungsverfahren zur Schlammverrottung).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are several systems for the composting of sewage sludge. Within the framework of this research work a systematical survey of all systems currently in operation was made by means of a questionnaire. Data on the technology, economy and the final produ...

F. Bickel W. Bidlingmaier

1980-01-01

425

Role of soil properties in sewage sludge toxicity to soil collembolans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil properties are one of the most important factors explaining the different toxicity results found in different soils. Although there is knowledge about the role of soil properties on the toxicity of individual chemicals, not much is known about its relevance for sewage sludge amendments. In particular little is known about the effect of soil properties on the toxicity modulation

Xavier Domene; Joan Colón; Maria Vittoria Uras; Rebeca Izquierdo; Anna Àvila; Josep M. Alcañiz

2010-01-01

426

EFFECTS OF HIGH TEMPERATURE MELTING ON FRACTIONATION OF HEAVY METALS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge from aerobic treatment plant was found to contain high amounts of heavy metals. Research was carried out to investigate the speciation and leaching behavior of heavy metals when using high temperature melting technology for treatment. This was achieved by conducting a sequential chemical extraction procedure and EP-TOX leaching test. The thermal treatment led to increased shift of metals

Azni Idris; Katayon Saed

2002-01-01

427

EVALUATION OF 'WITHIN-VESSEL' SEWAGE SLUDGE COMPOSTING SYSTEMS IN EUROPE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives were: (1) To update a review of the state of the art of sewage sludge composting in Europe; (2) to evaluate a European-designed, continuous, thermophilic, mechanical, aerobic, composting system in Germany; and (3) to compare its cost to those of the U.S. Department...

428

Experimental and Theoretical Study of Agitated Contact Drying of Sewage Sludge under Partial Vacuum Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agitated contact drying experiments were carried out in a cylindrical lab-scale paddle dryer to study the drying kinetics of sewage sludge under partial vacuum conditions. To explore the drying mechanisms, the penetration model for vacuum contact drying of agitated particulate materials, developed by Schlünder and Mollekopf, was applied to simulate the experimental results. The influence of the drying parameters (system

Jian-Hua Yan; Wen-Yi Deng; Xiao-Dong Li; Fei Wang; Yong Chi; Sheng-Yong Lu; Ke-Fa Cen

2009-01-01

429

Co-digestion of sewage sludge with glycerol to boost biogas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of adding crude glycerol from the biodiesel industry to the anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants was studied in both batch and continuous experiments at 35°C. Glycerol addition can boost biogas yields, if it does not exceed a limiting 1% (v\\/v) concentration in the feed. Any further increase of glycerol causes a high imbalance in

M. S. Fountoulakis; I. Petousi; T. Manios

2010-01-01

430

Potential Ground Water Pollution from Sewage Sludge Application on Agricultural Land.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Corn for silage was grown for three years on land treated with either annual applications or a single application of limed, dewatered sewage sludge at six rates of application. Yields of silage, heavy metal uptake, soil heavy metals, soil nitrates and soi...

R. W. Wengel G. F. Griffin

1979-01-01

431

SOIL TEMPERATURE AND SEWAGE SLUDGE EFFECTS ON PLANT AND SOIL PROPERTIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A field experiment was conducted to determine the influence of soil temperature and sewage sludge on growth and composition of corn (Zea mays L.). Changes in soil organic matter, extractable metals, pH, bulb density, aggregation, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus were deter...

432

Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as forestry and farm crop fertilizer. References discuss degassed biomass, fertilizer-grade residues, compost fertilizers, biological conversion of organic wastes, organic environmental pollution, and iron salts. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-06-01

433

DISPERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE DISCHARGED INTO NEW YORK BIGHT. PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA - DECEMBER 1974  

EPA Science Inventory

This volume contains physical oceanographic data collected at the sewage sludge disposal site near the apex of the New York Bight December 18 through 21, 1974. An optical tracer method was used to measure the water column distribution of waste material with time after discharge. ...

434

EFFECTS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON THE CADMIUM AND ZINC CONTENT OF CROPS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report evaluates the available data on the effects on plants of single and repeated additions of Cd and Zn to soils in the form of sewage sludge. The concentrations of Cd and Zn in plants vary with (a) the species and cultivation grown, (b) environmental and management facto...

435

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR EFFICIENCY ON A MULTIPLE HEARTH INCINERATOR BURNING SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot scale electrostatic precipitator (ESP) was evaluated for its removal performance of 23 metals and for sulfur containing particles when fitted to a multiple hearth incinerator burning sewage sludge. The small scale ESP was installed to take a slipstream of about 3% of the ...

436

Effects of carbonate and phosphate concentrations on hydrogen production using anaerobic sewage sludge microflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic sewage sludge acclimated with sucrose in a completely stirred tank reactor operating at 35°C was used as the seed (dominated by Clostridia species) in a batch experiment to investigate the concentration effects of carbonate and phosphate on biological hydrogen production. The Taguchi orthogonal array was used in the experimental design and a confirmation experiment was conducted. Experimental results indicated

C.-Y Lin; C. H Lay

2004-01-01

437

Heavy metal balances of an Italian soil as affected by sewage sludge and Bordeaux mixture applications  

SciTech Connect

Applications of sewage sludge and Bordeaux mixture (Bm) (a mixture of copper sulfate and lime) add heavy metals to the soil. At an experimental farm in the Cremona district (Italy), the authors measured current heavy metal contents in soil and their removal via harvested products. They also measured heavy metal adsorption by soil from this farm. With these data, projections were made of the long-term development of heavy metal (Cd, Cu, and Zn) contents in soil, crop removal, and leaching at different application rates of sewage sludge and Bm. These projections were compared with existing quality standards of the European Union (EU) and Italy with regard to soil and groundwater. The calculations reveal that the permitted annual application rates of sewage sludge and Bm are likely to result in exceedance of groundwater and soil standards. Sewage sludge applications, complying with the Italian legal limits, may pose problems for Cd, Cu, and Zn within 30, 70, and 100 yr, respectively. Furthermore, severe Cu pollution of integrated and especially organic (Bm only) vineyards is unavoidable with the currently allowed application rates of Bm. The results suggest that the current Italian soil protection policy as well as the EU policy are not conducive of a sustainable heavy metal management in agroecosystems.

Moolenaar, S.W. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands); Beltrami, P. [Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza (Italy)

1998-07-01

438

Trace metal concentration in durum wheat from application of sewage sludge and commercial fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive application of commercial fertilizer continually introduces potentially toxic trace metals to the soil. Such metallic elements are not biodegradable, accumulate in the soil, and are subsequently taken up by food crops. Sewage sludge, often disposed of in landfills, contains high nutrient and organic contents and is now being recycled and beneficially applied to agricultural land worldwide in increasing amounts.

Heather L Frost; Lloyd H Ketchum

2000-01-01

439

Wheat grown on volcanic ash with slow releasing nitrogen fertilizer and amended with sewage sludge compost  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volcanic ash of the Mount Pinatubo in Philippines is used in this study. The major drawbacks of this volcanic ash for growing agricultural crops are nitrogen (N) and iron (Fe) deficiencies with low organic matter contents. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of sewage sludge compost on wheat through shoot and root development as well

M. Y. Miah; M. K. Wang; M. Chino

2000-01-01

440

Thermogravimetric study of different sewage sludges and their relationship with the nitrogen content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis and combustion of 17 sewage sludges were studied by thermogravimetry. The dynamic experiments were carried out at 10°Cmin?1, and three different behaviours were observed at the decomposition curves. One of them shows combustion and pyrolysis curves that are parallel until high temperatures, and so the combustion process can be considered as an oxidative pyrolysis. The DSC combustion curve

M. Francisca Gómez-Rico; Andrés Fullana; Ignacio Martín-Gullón

2005-01-01

441

POTENTIAL OF GREENHOUSE GASES REDUCTION BY FUEL CROP CULTIVATION UTILIZING SEWAGE SLUDGE IN JAPAN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential of greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction was estimated and compared in six scenarios of fuel crop cultivation by utilizing sewage sludge in Japan. Bioethanol from corn and biodiesel fuel from soybean was selected as biofuel produced. When all the sludge discharged from sewage treatment plants in 18 major cities was utilized for soybean cultivation and subsequent biodiesel fuel production, produced biofuel corresponded to 4.0% of GHG emitted from sewage treatment in Japan. On the other hand, cultivation area for fuel crop cultivation was found to be the regulating factor. When fuel crop was cultivated only in abandoned agricultural fields, produced biofuel corresponded to 0.60% and 0.62%, respectively, in the case that corn and soybean was cultivated. Production of biodiesel fuel from soybean was estimated to have more net reduction potential than bioehanol production from corn when sludge production is limited, because required sewage sludge compost was 2.5-times larger in corn although reduction potential per crop area was 2-times larger in bioethanol production from corn.

Honda, Ryo; Fukushi, Kensuke

442

Amendment Free, Mechanically Enhanced Biodrying & Composting of Dewatered Undigested Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodrying of manure is not an uncommon practice, but few active sewage sludge projects at full scale have been reported in the literature. During biodrying, heat from the composting microbiology is used to drive off moisture. Pathogen kill can also be accomplished provided the compost energetics support the required temperatures. In some facilities, the operator can choose between retaining the

Lewis Naylor; Richard Nicoletti; Matthew Calderiso

443

Evaluation of emission of greenhouse gases from soils amended with sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increase in concentrations of various greenhouse gases and their possible contributions to the global warming are becoming a serious concern. Anthropogenic activities such as cultivation of flooded rice and application of waste materials, such as sewage sludge which are rich in C and N, as soil amendments could contribute to the increase in emission of greenhouse gases such as methane

S. Paramasivam; Gamola Z. Fortenberry; Afolabi Julius; Kenneth S. Sajwan; A. K. Alva

2008-01-01

444

Land application of aerobic sewage sludge does not impair methane oxidation rates of soils.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to measure and compare methane oxidation rates of arable and grassland soils that received 7.5t ha?¹ y?¹ of noncontaminated aerobically treated sewage sludge for ten years. Arable soils showed generally lower methane oxidation rates (from 6 to 15?10?³ h?¹) than grassland soils (from 26 to 33?10³ h?¹). Oxidation rate constants (k) of soils amended with sewage sludge were remarkably close to their respective untreated controls, but a soil, that had received a tenfold sewage sludge application (i.e. 75 t ha?¹ y?¹), showed a statistically significantly higher k-value. Laboratory addition of up to 1000 mg Pb g?¹ soil to this soil did not cause any significant change in methane oxidation, but caused a decrease from 13.9 to 10.9×10?³ h?¹ in the control soil. Addition of Zn was much more toxic than Pb, with a significant decrease at 300 ?g g?¹ soil rate and an almost complete inhibition at 1500 ?g g?¹ soil rate. Higher resistance was evident of sewage sludge treated soil in comparison to control soil, for both biomass C and CH? oxidation activity. PMID:23134765

Contin, Marco; Goi, Daniele; De Nobili, Maria

2012-12-15

445

Exposure Analysis for Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In February 1993, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the Standards for the Use or Disposal of Sewage Sludge (40 CFR Part 503). This regulation lists management practices and pollutant limits that protect public health and the environ...

2001-01-01

446

Development of sewage sludge?based synthetic aggregates for containerized ornamentals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential utilization of synthetic aggregates (SAs) developed from sewage sludge (SS) as a component of containerized media for French marigold (Tagetes patula) cultivation as a peat substitution was investigated in this study. The six different containerized media utilized were: peat only, SA 20%: peat 80%, SA 40%: peat 60%, SA 60%: peat 40%, SA 80%: peat 20% and SA only.

G. Y. Jayasinghe; Yoshihiro Tokashiki; I. D. Liyana Arachchi

2011-01-01

447

Sewage Treatment Plant Sludge: A Source of Potential Microorganism for Citric Acid Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research emphasizes on the utilization of Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) sludge, which is an inexpensive and easily available raw material and a good source for growth of microorganisms because it has enough nutrients and trace elements. This can be considered as an alternative cost effective solution for waste management in addition to production of a value added product citric

Parveen Jamal; Zahangir Alam; M. Ramlan; M. Salleh; Munirah M. Akib

448

Development of lightweight aggregate from dry sewage sludge and coal ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, dry sewage sludge (DSS) as the principal material was blended with coal ash (CA) to produce lightweight aggregate. The effects of different raw material compositions and sintering temperatures on the aggregate properties were then evaluated. In addition, an environmental assessment of the lightweight aggregate generated was conducted by analyzing the fixed rate of heavy metals in the

Xingrun Wang; Yiying Jin; Zhiyu Wang; Yongfeng Nie; Qifei Huang; Qi Wang

2009-01-01

449

Evaluation of leaching and ecotoxicological properties of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this work were the evaluation of sewage sludge stabilization by mixing with fly ash, the examination of the physicochemical properties of the produced materials and their leachates and the assessment of their environmental impact by the evaluation of the ecotoxic characteristics. Different ratios of fly ash and sewage sludge (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:6, and 1:9) were mixed for 48 and 72 h. After mixing, the liquid phase of the produced materials was analyzed for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, while the solid residue was dried and tested for the leaching characteristics by the application of TCLP and EN 12457-2 standard leaching methods. Furthermore, the produced leachates were analyzed for their content of specific metals, while their ecotoxicological characteristics were determined by the use of toxicity bioassays, using the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia magna. The phytotoxicity of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures was also determined by utilizing seeds of three higher plants (one monocotyl and two dicotyls). The mixtures exhibited low metal leaching in all cases, while the ecotoxic properties increased with the increase of fly ash/sewage sludge ratio. The phytotoxicity testing showed increased root length growth inhibition.

C.A. Papadimitriou; I. Haritou; P. Samaras; A.I. Zouboulis [Technological Educational Institute of West Macedonia, Kozani (Greece)

2008-03-15

450

Practical manual for determining settling rates of ocean-disposed sewage sludge. Technical memo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the manual is to describe a practical approach to the measurement of the size and settling velocity characteristics of sewage-sludge particles in seawater. Three measurement sequences are required for complete characterization, but each can be performed separately according to the goals or needs of the user. The first measurement sequence provides percent total solids and some size

D. A. Tennant; S. L. Walker; J. W. Lavelle; E. T. Baker

1987-01-01

451

Functioning and toxicity of artificial soil mixtures with metal-bearing sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various artificial soil mixtures were prepared by mixing two different toxic metals containing sewage sludge from Ljubljana and Maribor wastewater treatment plants with natural mineral soil. The plots with mixtures were exposed to field environmental conditions for a period of 1 year, after which we assessed soil toxicity (germination test with Lactuca sativa), potential metal phyto-accessibility (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid –

Urska Zapusek; Domen Lestan

2011-01-01

452

Comparison of microbial sulfuric acid production in sewage sludge from added sulfur and thiosulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial leaching is one of the most attractive methods of removing toxic metals from sewage sludge. Sulfuric acid produced by indigenous microflora by the oxidation of elemental sulfur and sulfur compounds solubilizes toxic metals. The oxidation of sulfur compounds can be achieved by the direct oxidation to sulfates or by indirect oxidation, through the production and accumulation of soluble intermediate

R. D. Tyagi; J. F. Blais; L. Deschenes; P. Lafrance; J. P. Villeneuve

1994-01-01

453

Sewage sludge handling with phosphorus utilization – life cycle assessment of four alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four handling options for sewage sludge were studied from an environmental system's perspective using life cycle assessment. The studied options were restoration of mining areas, composting with other biomaterials for use on golf courses, hygienisation through storage for agricultural use, and supercritical water oxidation with phosphorus recovery. The results are discussed in terms of impact on global warming, acidification, eutrophication,

Kristin Johansson; Maria Perzon; Morgan Fröling; Agnes Mossakowska; Magdalena Svanström

2008-01-01

454

Vermicomposting of industrially produced woodchips and sewage sludge utilizing Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult Eisenia fetida were used to vermicompost woodchips (WC) and sewage sludge (SS) that are produced as waste product by platinum mines. The aims of the study were to examine the growth and reproductive success of the worms over 84 days to determine long-term feasibility of large-scale implementation and monitor the bioconcentration of heavy metals and the effects of microorganisms

M. S. Maboeta; L. van Rensburg

2003-01-01

455

CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES ON INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND MANURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA and the USDA convened a three-day Workshop on Emerging Infectious Disease Agents and Issues Associated with Sewage Sludge, Animal Manures, and Other Organic By-Products on June 4-6, 2001 in Cincinnati, Ohio. The purpose of the workshop was to review and discuss the effe...

456

Dispersion of Sewage Sludge Discharged into New York Bight. Physical Oceanographic Data - December 1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains physical oceanographic data collected at the sewage sludge disposal site near the apex of the New York Bight December 18 through 21, 1974. An optical tracer method was used to measure the water column distribution of waste material wi...

A. M. Teeter R. J. Callaway D. W. Denbo

1978-01-01

457

Dispersion of Sewage Sludge Discharged into New York Bight. Physical Oceanographic Data and Laboratory Analyses - 1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains data on the dispersion of sewage sludge subsequent to its disposal at a site near the apex of the New York Bight. Cruises were made in May, July, and October, 1975. An optical tracer method was used to measure the water column distrib...

A. M. Teeter R. J. Callaway G. R. Ditsworth D. W. Denbo D. W. Browne

1978-01-01

458

Production of a solid fuel using sewage sludge and spent cooking oil by immersion frying.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge and spent cooking oil are two main waste sources of modern Chinese cities. In this paper, the immersion frying method using spent cooking oil as the heating medium was applied to dry and convert wet sewage sludge into a solid fuel. The drying and oil uptake curves were plotted to demonstrate the fry-drying characteristics of the sewage sludge. Parametric studies were carried out to identify the governing parameters in the frying drying operation. It was found that at frying oil temperatures of 140-160°C, the wet sewage sludge could be dried completely in 6-9 min and converted into a solid fuel with a high calorific value of 21.55-24.08 MJ/kg. The fuel structure, chemical components, pyrolysis and combustion characteristics were investigated and the experimental results showed the solid fuel had a porous internal structure and a low ignition temperature of 250°C due to presence of oil. The frying drying mechanism was also discussed. PMID:23158688

Wu, Zhonghua; Zhang, Jing; Li, Zhanyong; Xie, Jian; Mujumdar, Arun S

2012-12-01

459

Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01

460

Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

461

Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification  

SciTech Connect

Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures - gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation - are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes.

Gross, Bodo [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany); Eder, Christian [CET, Christian Eder Technology, Eduard-Didion Strasse, D-66539 Neunkirchen (Germany); Grziwa, Peter [BISANZ Anlagenbau GmbH, Scheidter Strasse 2, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Horst, Juri [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany)], E-mail: horst@izes.de; Kimmerle, Klaus [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany)

2008-07-01

462

Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-06-01

463

Exporting large volumes of municipal sewage sludge through turfgrass sod production.  

PubMed

The nutrient content of sludge produced by municipal water treatment works often far exceeds the requirements of nearby crops. Transporting sludge further afield is not always economically viable. This study reports on the potential to export large volumes of anaerobically digested municipal sewage sludge through turfgrass sod production. Hypotheses examined are that sludge loading rates far above recommendations based on crop nutrient removal (i) are possible without reducing turf growth and quality, (ii) do not cause an accumulation of N and P below the active root zone, (iii) can minimize soil loss through sod harvesting, and (iv) do not cause unacceptably high nitrate and salt leaching. An 8 Mg ha(-1) sludge control (the recommended limit) was compared with sludge rates of 0, 33, 67, and 100 Mg ha(-1) on a loamy, kaolinitic, mesic, Typic Eutrustox soil near Johannesburg, South Africa. Sludge application rates up to 67 Mg ha(-1) significantly improved turfgrass establishment rate and color. The ability of sods to remain intact during handling and transport improved as the sludge application rate increased to 33 Mg ha(-1) but deteriorated at higher rates. A sludge application rate of 100 Mg ha(-1) was needed to eliminate soil loss, but this rate was associated with unacceptably high N leaching losses. All our hypotheses were accepted for application rates not exceeding 33 Mg ha(-1) on the proviso that some soil loss was acceptable and that the leaching fraction was carefully managed during the first 2 mo after sludge application. PMID:19398530

Tesfamariam, Eyob H; Annandale, John G; Steyn, Joachim M; Stirzaker, Richard J

2009-01-01

464

Working to gain public acceptance of sewage sludge composting and use of liquid and dewatered sludge on land  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is (1) to examine those factors that especially spark the resistance and concern of citizens to land utilization and composting of sewage sludge and (2) to characterize essential ingredients that are invariably a part of the most successful systems for reducing the resistance and minimizing the concerns of these citizens. Experiences in the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area will be discussed which show how municipal authorities and/or their agents have worked with citizens. These discussions show how their efforts have either alleviated or increased citizen concern and resistance to sludge utilization and composting.

Walker, J.M.

1995-06-01

465

Operation of a new sewage treatment process with technologies of excess sludge reduction and phosphorus recovery.  

PubMed

This paper shows the potential application of a new sewage treatment process with technologies of excess sludge reduction and phosphorus recovery. The process incorporated ozonation for excess sludge reduction and crystallisation process for phosphorus recovery to a conventional anaerobic/oxic (A/O) phosphorus removal process. A lab-scale continuous operation experiment was conducted with the ratio of sludge flow rate to ozonation tank of 1.1% of sewage inflow under 30 to 40 mgO3/gSS of ozone consumption and with sludge wasting ratio of 0.34% (one-fifth of a conventional A/O process). Throughout the operational experiment, a 60% reduction of excess sludge production was achieved in the new process. A biomass concentration of 2300 mg/L was maintained, and the accumulation of inactive biomass was not observed. The new process was estimated to give a phosphorus recovery degree of more than 70% as an advantage of excess sludge reduction. The slight increase in effluent COD was observed, but the process performance was maintained at a satisfactory level. These facts demonstrate an effectiveness of the new process for excess sludge reduction as well as for phosphorus recovery. PMID:16889258

Saktaywin, W; Tsuno, H; Nagare, H; Soyama, T

2006-01-01

466

Assessment of anaerobic sewage sludge quality for agricultural application after metal bioleaching.  

PubMed

The effects of metal bioleaching on nutrient solubilization, especially nitrogen and phosphorous, from anaerobically-digested sewage sludge were investigated in this work. The assessment of the sanitary quality of the anaerobic sludge after bioleaching was also carried out by enumerating indicator (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci) and total heterotrophic bacteria. The experiments of bioleaching were performed using indigenous sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus spp.) as inoculum and samples of anaerobically-digested sludge. Nitrogen and phosphorous solubilization from sewage sludge was assessed by measuring, respectively, the concentration of Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen, ammonia, nitrate/nitrite, and soluble and total phosphorous before and after the bioleaching assays. At the end of the experiment, after 4 days of incubation (final pH of 1.4), the following metal solubilization yields were obtained: zinc, 91%; nickel, 87%; copper, 79%; lead, 52%; and chromium, 42%. As a result of sludge acidification, the viable counts of selected indicator bacteria were decreased to below the detection limit (4 x 10(3) cfu 100 ml(-1)), followed by an increase in the mineral fraction of nitrogen (from 6 to 10%) and in the soluble fraction of phosphorous (from 15 to 30%). Although some loss of sludge nutrients can occur during solid-liquid separation following bioleaching, its beneficial effects as metal removal and reduction of pathogenic bacteria are sufficient to consider the potential of this treatment before sludge disposal onto agricultural fields. PMID:14977151

Villar, L D; Garcia, O

2003-12-01

467

Potential for land application of contaminated sewage sludge treated with fermented liquid from pineapple wastes.  

PubMed

The suitability for land application of anaerobically digested sewage sludge treated with naturally fermented and Aspergillus niger (A. niger) fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes, in terms of changes in the forms and amount of heavy metals and nutrient and pathogen content, were investigated in this study. Leaching studies for fermented liquid at optimum conditions (pH and contact time with best metal removal efficiencies) were carried out for the removal of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn from sewage sludge, with citric acid as a reference. Using the same sludge before and after leaching, sequential fractionation studies were done to observe the effect of treatment on the forms of metals in sludge and their mobility and bioavailability. Results of laboratory scale studies revealed that leaching with all extractants at selected optimum conditions resulted in a decrease in heavy metals and pathogen content of the treated sludge, presence of sufficient amount of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and dominance of residual fractions in most metals, with sludge treated with A. niger, having the best quality. The results, therefore, indicate the high potential of the treated sludge for land application, with no harm from heavy metals released and no toxicity to the soil and groundwater. PMID:19232826

Del Mundo Dacera, Dominica; Babel, Sandhya; Parkpian, Preeda

2009-08-15

468

Oxygen-enriched multiple-hearth sewage sludge incineration demonstration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen-enhanced multiple-hearth sludge incineration was the focus of a five-month joint study by Praxair and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Testing and demonstration were conducted in Rochester NY, at Monroe County`s Frank E. Van Lare Sewage Treatment Plant. A simple retrofit of high-momentum oxygen lances created a convection hearth in which convective heat and mass transfer with the drying sludge were greatly enhanced, while hearth temperatures were moderated by the wet sludge to prevent overheating. Based on the results of short- and long-term controlled tests discussed in this report, oxygen enhancement of multiple-hearth sludge incinerators can be economically viable, with a savings between $30 and $60 per hour at Van Lare based upon increased sludge throughput and reduced fuel consumption.

NONE

1998-07-01

469

Study on trace metal partitioning in pulverized combustion of bituminous coal and dry sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

In Germany, the feasibility of co-combustion of sewage sludge in power plants is under evaluation. A study of the influence of co-firing of dry municipal sewage sludge on the behavior of the metals Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, zn during pulverized coal combustion is presented. Sewage sludge contains higher concentrations of the metals listed above than the reference coal, but a lower concentration of Cl, that enhances the volatility of many metals. Experiments were performed in a semi-industrial scale pulverized fuel combustion chamber. Ash was collected at four locations: bottom hopper, air preheater, cyclone, and bag filter. From the bottom hopper to the filter, the particle size decreased and ash particles were progressively enriched in volatile elements. Mass balances of the metals were performed and the enrichment trends on the ash collected at the different locations were calculated. Increasing the sewage sludge share in the blend caused a significant increase in the recovery rate in the solid phase. In spite of that, the calculated concentrations in the flue gas of Hg and zn increased. Sewage sludge co-firing influences the combustion process and the post-combustion environment in many ways. This study focuses on the effect of the different flue gas composition on the condensation temperature of metal species. The system was modeled by assuming thermodynamic equilibrium. The results indicated that the increasing recovery of Zn might be caused by enhanced condensation and the increasing recovery of Hg by adsorption on ash particles. The increasing recovery of the other metals seemed referable to failure in vaporization and it cannot be studied with an equilibrium approach.

Cenni, R.; Gerhardt, T.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. for Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology] [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. for Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology; Frandsen, F. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Inst. for Chemical Engineering] [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Inst. for Chemical Engineering

1998-12-31

470

Effect of sewage sludge on mobilization of surface-applied calcium in a Greenville soil  

SciTech Connect

The effect of sewage sludge on movement of surface-applied Ca was determined with controlled leaching studies in the laboratory. Soil columns were prepared by filling 5.5- by 30-cm PVC plastic tubes with samples of the Ap horizon of a Greenville soil (clayey, kaolinitic, thermic Rhodic Paleudult). These were affixed to the 5.5- by 30-cm tubes filled with Bt1 horizon samples, so that the total column was 60 cm long. The soil columns, receiving various lime and sewage sludge treatments were leached with distilled water and analyzed for K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Zn, and Cd concentrations. After leaching, the soil columns were sectioned into four 15-cm layers for determination of pH and the above elements. Although amounts equivalent to 4.5 metric tons (t) CaCO/sub 3/ and 112 t sewage sludge per ha were applied, no differences were detected in Ca contents of the leachates from soils with or without sewage sludge. Very low levels of K and Mg and negligible amounts of Al, Fe, Zn, and Cd were also found in the leachates, indicating minor leaching losses of these elements. The present result compared favorably with results of long-term experiments, indicating that significant Ca translocation can also be achieved in a shorter term even though most of the Ca was retained in the surface sections of the soil columns. Calcium movement into the subsoil increased soil pH. Infrared analysis indicated that mobilization of Ca was facilitated by formation of Ca-chelates, formed by the interaction of lime and fulvic acid produced by sewage sludge.

Tan, K.H.; Edwards, J.H.; Bennett, O.L.

1985-03-01

471

Phosphate recovery from sewage sludge in combination with supercritical water oxidation.  

PubMed

Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) is an innovative and effective destruction method for organics in sewage sludge. The SCWO process leaves a slurry of inorganic ash in a pure water phase free from organic contaminants, which opens possibilities for a simple process to recover components like phosphates from the sewage sludge. In a continuous pilot plant for the SCWO process digested sludge has been treated. The ash has been extracted in lab scale with both caustic and acids in order to recover phosphates. By leaching the ash with caustic, 90% of the phosphorus could be separated as a sodium phosphate solution. By treating the sodium phosphate solution with lime, calc