Sample records for sewage sludge degradation

  1. Application of Municipal Sewage Sludge to Forest and Degraded Land

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Marx; C. R. Berry; P. P. Kormanik

    1995-01-01

    The paper summarizes research done over a decade at the Savannah River Site and elsewhere in the South evaluating the benefits of land application of municipal wastes. Studies have demonstrated that degraded lands, ranging from borrow pits to mine spoils can be successfully revegetated using a mixture of composed municipal sewage sludge and other amendments. The studies have demonstrated a

  2. Application of Municipal Sewage Sludge to Forest and Degraded Land

    SciTech Connect

    D.H. Marx, C. R. Berry, and P. P. Kormanik

    1995-09-30

    The paper summarizes research done over a decade at the Savannah River Site and elsewhere in the South evaluating the benefits of land application of municipal wastes. Studies have demonstrated that degraded lands, ranging from borrow pits to mine spoils can be successfully revegetated using a mixture of composed municipal sewage sludge and other amendments. The studies have demonstrated a practical approach to land application and restoration.

  3. Simulation of substrate degradation in composting of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jun [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Gao Ding, E-mail: gaod@igsnrr.ac.c [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Chen Tongbin; Zheng Guodi; Chen Jun; Ma Chuang; Guo Songlin [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Du Wei [Beijing GreenTech Environmental Engineering Company, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2010-10-15

    To simulate the substrate degradation kinetics of the composting process, this paper develops a mathematical model with a first-order reaction assumption and heat/mass balance equations. A pilot-scale composting test with a mixture of sewage sludge and wheat straw was conducted in an insulated reactor. The BVS (biodegradable volatile solids) degradation process, matrix mass, MC (moisture content), DM (dry matter) and VS (volatile solid) were simulated numerically by the model and experimental data. The numerical simulation offered a method for simulating k (the first-order rate constant) and estimating k{sub 20} (the first-order rate constant at 20 {sup o}C). After comparison with experimental values, the relative error of the simulation value of the mass of the compost at maturity was 0.22%, MC 2.9%, DM 4.9% and VS 5.2%, which mean that the simulation is a good fit. The k of sewage sludge was simulated, and k{sub 20}, k{sub 20s} (first-order rate coefficient of slow fraction of BVS at 20 {sup o}C) of the sewage sludge were estimated as 0.082 and 0.015 d{sup -1}, respectively.

  4. Modeling organic micro pollutant degradation kinetics during sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Degradation of 13 different organic micro-pollutants in sewage sludge during aerobic composting at 5 different temperatures over a 52 day period was investigated. Adequacy of two kinetic models: a single first order, and a dual first order expression (using an early (first 7 days) and a late-time (last 45 days) degradation coefficient), for describing micro-pollutant degradation, and kinetic constant dependency on composting temperature were evaluated. The results showed that both models provide relatively good descriptions of the degradation process, with the dual first order model being most accurate. The single first order degradation coefficient was 0.025 d(-1) on average across all compounds and temperatures. At early times, degradation was about three times faster than at later times. Average values of the early and late time degradation coefficients for the dual first order model were 0.066 d(-1) and 0.022 d(-1), respectively. On average 30% of the initial micro-pollutant mass present in the compost was degraded rapidly during the early stages of the composting process. Single first order and late time dual first order kinetic constants were strongly dependent on composting temperature with maximum values at temperatures of 35-65°C. In contrast the early time degradation coefficients were relatively independent of composting temperature. PMID:25081851

  5. Degradation of sulfamethazine in sewage sludge mixture by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Libing; Wang, Jianlong; Liu, Yuankun

    2015-03-01

    The gamma-irradiation-induced degradation of antibiotics sulfamethazine (SMT) in sludge mixture was investigated. The results showed that gamma irradiation was effective in removing SMT from contaminated sludge mixture. With an initial SMT concentration of 10 mg/L, the SMT removal efficiency reached 65% at 1.0 kGy and increased to 98% at 2.5 kGy. The SMT degradation rate was lower in the sludge mixture than that in pure water. The pseudo first-order kinetic constant of SMT degradation in pure water was 2.3 times higher than that in the sludge mixture. Analysis of the SMT concentrations in the supernatant and sludge residue revealed that 93-97% of SMT was observed in the supernatant and the detected SMT in the sludge residue was 168±29, 147±4, and 87±9 ?g/g dry weight following irradiation at doses of 0, 1.0 and 2.5 kGy, respectively. The sludge solubilization slowly increased from 1.5% to 3.5% with increasing dose from 1.0 to 5.0 kGy, while the sludge activity decreased by 85-98%. Addition of H2O2 exhibited a synergetic effect on the degradation of SMT, with the pseudo first-order kinetic constant k increasing by around 25%.

  6. Eucalyptus development in degraded soil fertilized with sewage sludge and mineral fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, R. A. F.; Santos, E. B.; Alves, M. C.; Arruda, O. G.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the development of eucalyptus in a degraded Oxisol with mineral fertilizer and sewage sludge. The study was conducted in Selviria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. The culture of eucalyptus was planted in 2003 at 2.0 m x 1.5 m spacing, with application of 60 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (dry basis) and mineral fertilizer. After five years (2008) the area received biosolids and mineral fertilizer, and after five months, were evaluated for height and diameter at breast height of Eucalyptus. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments: T1 - control (without addition of inputs), T2 - Mineral fertilization (30 kg ha-1 N, 90 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 60 kg ha-1 K2O), T3 - Reapplication of 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis, T4 - Reapplication of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis. Before reapplication the biosolids plant height was higher in the eucalyptus with treatment 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (8.03 m) compared to control (5.75 m) and mineral fertilizer (5.91 m) and that treatment 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (6.34 m) did not differ from the previous three. For the diameter at breast height was the highest value for treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 (7.78 cm) compared to control (5.23 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm), and that of mineral fertilizer (5.96 cm) did not differ from all treatments. After reapplication of sludge plant height was higher in the eucalyptus treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (11.21 m) compared with control (7.51 m), mineral fertilizer (7.77 m) and 4 64 Mg ha-1 (8.07 m), which did not differ. The diameter at breast height had the same behavior before the application of biosolids in the highest value observed being 9.28 Mg ha-1 (8.46 cm) compared with control (5.75 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm) and that of mineral fertilizer (6.34 cm) did not differ from the others. Reapplication of the dose of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge in degraded Oxisol provided greater height and diameter at breast height from eucalyptus trees.

  7. Sewage sludge combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Werther; T. Ogada

    1999-01-01

    In the current review paper, various issues related to the combustion of sewage sludge are discussed. After briefly explaining the formation and treatment of sewage sludge, current and future sludge production are discussed. Thereafter, the four sludge disposal methods which are currently used, i.e. recycling in agriculture, landfilling, dumping into sea and incineration, are examined, and the future trend presented

  8. Degradation of organic pollutants in Mediterranean forest soils amended with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Francisca Gomez-Rico, M; Font, Rafael; Vera, Jose; Fuentes, David; Disante, Karen; Cortina, Jordi

    2008-05-01

    The degradation of two groups of organic pollutants in three different Mediterranean forest soils amended with sewage sludge was studied for nine months. The sewage sludge produced by a domestic water treatment plant was applied to soils developed from limestone, marl and sandstone, showing contrasting alkalinity and texture. The compounds analysed were: linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) with a 10-13 carbon alkylic chain, and nonylphenolic compounds, including nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol ethoxylates with one and two ethoxy groups (NP1EO+NP2EO). These compounds were studied because they frequently exceed the limits proposed for sludge application to land in Europe. After nine months, LAS decomposition was 86-96%, and NP+NP1EO+NP2EO decomposition was 61-84%, which can be considered high. Temporal trends in LAS and NP+NP1EO+NP2EO decomposition were similar, and the concentrations of both types of compounds were highly correlated. The decomposition rates were higher in the period of 6-9 months (summer period) than in the period 0-6 months (winter+spring period) for total LAS and NP+NP1EO+NP2EO. Differences in decay rates with regard to soil type were not significant. The average values of decay rates found are similar to those observed in agricultural soils. PMID:18329688

  9. TRANSPORT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project was initiated with the overall objective of developing organized information pertaining to the costs of various sewage sludge transport systems. Transport of liquid and dewatered sludge by truck and rail and liquid sludge by barge and pipeline is included. The report...

  10. Sewage sludge effects on soil and plant quality in a degraded, semiarid grassland. [Bouteloua gracilis; Hilaria jamesii; Sitanion hystrix (Nutt. )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Fresquez; R. E. Francis; G. L. Dennis

    2009-01-01

    A major problem affecting grassland productivity in the semiarid southwestern USA is the low quantity of soil organic matter and plant-available N. In this study, dried, anaerobically digested sewage sludge was applied at three rates (22.5, 45, and 90 Mg Ha⁻¹) to a degraded semiarid grassland site to determine the effects of sludge on soil chemical and heavy metal properties,

  11. COMPARISON OF ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM LABORATORY AND FULL-SCALE THERMAL DEGRADATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples of sewage sludge burned at one fluidized-bed and three multiple-hearth incinerators were subjected to laboratory flow reactor thermal decomposition testing under both pyrolytic and oxidative atmospheres. he laboratory test results indicated that biomass decomposition prod...

  12. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  13. Degradation of vinyl acetate by soil, sewage, sludge, and the newly isolated aerobic bacterium V2.

    PubMed Central

    Nieder, M; Sunarko, B; Meyer, O

    1990-01-01

    Vinyl acetate is subject to microbial degradation in the environment and by pure cultures. It was hydrolyzed by samples of soil, sludge, and sewage at rates of up to 6.38 and 1 mmol/h per g (dry weight) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Four yeasts and thirteen bacteria that feed aerobically on vinyl acetate were isolated. The pathway of vinyl acetate degradation was studied in bacterium V2. Vinyl acetate was degraded to acetate as follows: vinyl acetate + NAD(P)+----2 acetate + NAD(P)H + H+. The acetate was then converted to acetyl coenzyme A and oxidized through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glyoxylate bypass. The key enzyme of the pathway is vinyl acetate esterase, which hydrolyzed the ester to acetate and vinyl alcohol. The latter isomerized spontaneously to acetaldehyde and was then converted to acetate. The acetaldehyde was disproportionated into ethanol and acetate. The enzymes involved in the metabolism of vinyl acetate were studied in extracts. Vinyl acetate esterase (Km = 6.13 mM) was also active with indoxyl acetate (Km = 0.98 mM), providing the basis for a convenient spectrophotometric test. Substrates of aldehyde dehydrogenase were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and butyraldehyde. The enzyme was equally active with NAD+ or NADP+. Alcohol dehydrogenase was active with ethanol (Km = 0.24 mM), 1-propanol (Km = 0.34 mM), and 1-butanol (Km = 0.16 mM) and was linked to NAD+. The molecular sizes of aldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase were 145 and 215 kilodaltons, respectively. PMID:2285314

  14. Sewage sludge treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  15. Aerobic degradation of phthalic acid by Comamonas acidovoran Fy1 and dimethyl phthalate ester by two reconstituted consortia from sewage sludge at high concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingying Wang; Yanzhen Fan; Ji-Dong Gu

    2003-01-01

    Microbial degradation of phthalic acid (PA) and dimethyl phthalate ester (DMPE) under aerobic conditions was investigated using a pure species of bacteria and two consortia from sewage sludge. Five morphologically distinct microorganisms were obtained in pure culture and identified, and tested for the capability of degrading phthalate and DMPE. Comamonas acidovorans strain Fy-1 showed the highest ability to degrade high

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND SEWAGE SLUDGE-SOIL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to characterize the chemical properties of municipal sewage sludges, to evaluate the fate of sludge components in soils, and to determine the distribution of trace metals in milling fractions of grains grown on sludge-treated soils....

  17. Simplified mechanistic model for the two-stage anaerobic degradation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Donoso-Bravo, Andrés; Pérez-Elvira, Sara; Fdz-Polanco, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    Two-phase anaerobic systems are being increasingly implemented for the treatment of both sewage sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Despite the good amount of mathematical models in anaerobic digestion, few have been applied in two-phase systems. In this study, a three-reaction mechanistic model has been developed, implemented and validated by using experimental data from a long-term anaerobic two-phase (TPAD) digester treating sewage sludge. A sensitivity analysis shows that the most influential parameters of the model are the ones related to the hydrolysis reaction and the activity of methanogens in the thermophilic reactor. The calibration procedure highlights a noticeable growth rate of the thermophilic methanogens throughout the evaluation period. Overall, all the measured variables are properly predicted by the model during both the calibration and the cross-validation periods. The model's representation of the organic matter behaviour is quite good. The most important disagreements are observed for the biogas production especially during the validation period. The whole application procedure underlines the ability of the model to properly predict the behaviour of this bioprocess. PMID:25400016

  18. Land application of sewage sludge in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min-Jian Wang

    1997-01-01

    Land application of sewage sludge in China is thoroughly reviewed. Operation of sewage sludge disposal is usually expensive and\\/or easy to contaminate the environment. In China, most sewage sludge has not been treated and disposed of properly, resulting in environmental pollution and potential exposure to humans. In the near future, sewage sludge production in China will increase rapidly together with

  19. Re-inoculation strategies enhance the degradation of emerging pollutants in fungal bioaugmentation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Lucas, Daniel; Barón, Enrique; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Eljarrat, Ethel; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2014-09-01

    The use of Trametes versicolor has been partially successful in the removal of some pharmaceuticals from sewage sludge in laboratory-scale biopile systems. The application of two strategies for the re-inoculation of biomass was assessed during the fungal bioaugmentation of non-sterile sludge (42-d treatment) as an approach to improve the elimination of pharmaceuticals and other groups of emerging pollutants. Globally, the re-inoculation of biopiles with blended mycelium exerted a major effect on the removal of pharmaceuticals (86%), brominated-flame-retardants (81%) and UV filters (80%) with respect to the re-inoculation with additional lignocellulosic substrate colonized by the fungus (69-67-22%). The performance was better than that of the analogous non-re-inoculated systems that were assayed previously for the removal of pharmaceuticals. The results demonstrate the ability of T. versicolor to remove a wide spectrum of emerging micropollutants under non-sterile conditions, while re-inoculation appears to be a useful step to improve the fungal treatment of sludge. PMID:24582425

  20. 1988 NATIONAL SEWAGE SLUDGE SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose: Originally developed to support Phase I regulation for use or disposal of biosolids (sewage sludge). Data collected were used to estimate risks, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation. This is currently the only statistically designed surv...

  1. Sewage sludge gasification: First studies

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Bacaicoa, P.; Bilbao, R.; Uson, C. [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain)

    1995-11-01

    Wastewater treatment installations produce a large quantity of sewage sludge, the disposal and treatment of which causes several problems because of its volume, its toxic organic constituents and the heavy metals that it contains. Certain methods of treatment and disposal do exist, but they are not entirely satisfactory. Moreover, it is important to develop a technology for the adequate treatment of sewage sludge in order to reduce the environmental problem and the costs of treatment. It can be assumed that gasification is a suitable technology because it reduces the waste volume, destroys the toxic organic compounds and fixes the heavy metals in the resultant solid. In order to gain knowledge of the processes occurring in the gasifier, the results obtained in experiments on the thermal decomposition of sewage sludge at different heating rates are shown.

  2. Potential benefits and risks of land application of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Singh; M. Agrawal

    2008-01-01

    Sewage sludge, also referred as biosolids, is a byproduct of sewage treatment processes. Land application of sewage sludge is one of the important disposal alternatives. Characteristics of sewage sludge depend upon the quality of sewage and type of treatment processes followed. Being rich in organic and inorganic plant nutrients, sewage sludge may substitute for fertilizer, but availability of potential toxic

  3. Thermal processing of sewage sludge – II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucie Houdková; Jaroslav Borá?; Vladimír Ucekaj; Thomas Elsäßer; Petr Stehlík

    2008-01-01

    This paper is focused on heat and economic aspects of selected sludge management options. Sewage sludge produced by waste water cleaning process is biodegradable material with growing production. This paper compares three alternative technologies of sludge management where sludge is used to produce energy. Alternative 1 considers anaerobic digestion of mixed raw sludge with subsequent cogeneration of obtained biogas. Alternative

  4. Heavy Metals Precipitation in Sewage Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Maya Marchioretto; Harry Bruning; Wim Rulkens

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal?polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another advantage is the application of the sludge as soil improver. The

  5. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  6. Complete survey of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Grabner, Angela; Adam, Christian

    2014-10-21

    The amount of sewage sludge produced worldwide is expected to further increase due to rising efforts in wastewater treatment. There is a growing concern against its direct use as fertilizer due to contamination of the sludge with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Incinerating the sludge degrades organic compounds almost completely and concentrates heavy metals and phosphorus. However, the sewage sludge ash (SSA) is almost completely disposed of and with it all resources are removed from the economic cycle. Comprehensive knowledge of the composition of SSA is crucial to assess the resource recovery potentials. We conducted a survey of all SSA emerging in Germany and determined the respective mass fractions of 57 elements over a period of one year. The median content of phosphorus was 7.9%, indicating an important recovery potential. Important trace elements were Zn (2.5 g/kg), Mn (1.3 g/kg), and Cu (0.9 g/kg). Mass fractions of technology metals such as V, Cr, Ga, Nb, and rare earths were comparatively low. Considering the possible use of SSA as secondary raw material for fertilizer production it should be noted that its Cd and U content (2.7 mg/kg and 4.9 mg/kg respectively) is significantly lower than that of rock phosphate based mineral fertilizers. PMID:25265150

  7. REGROWTH OF SALMONELLAE IN COMPOSTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to investigate the regrowth of salmonellae in composted sewage sludge. Though composting effectively stabilizes and disinfects sewage sludges, the decrease in salmonellae may be only temporary, since this pathogen can survive and grow without a human or ani...

  8. Incorporation of sewage sludge in clay brick and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Liew, Abdul G; Idris, Azni; Wong, Calvin H K; Samad, Abdul A; Noor, Megat Johari M M; Baki, Aminuddin M

    2004-08-01

    This study reports the use of sewage sludge generated from sewage treatment plant (STP) as raw material in a clay brick-making process. The physico-chemical and mineralogical characterization of the sewage sludge and clay were carried out in order to identify the major technological constraints and to define the sludge pretreatment requirements if necessary. Moreover, the effects on processing conditions and/or on changes of typical final characteristics are also evaluated. Bricks were produced with sewage sludge additions ranging from 10 to 40% by dry weight. The texture and finishing of the surface of sludge-amended clay bricks were rather poor. As for the physical and chemical properties, bricks with a sludge content of up to 40 wt.% were capable of meeting the relevant technical standards. However, bricks with more than 30 wt.% sludge addition are not recommended for use since they are brittle and easily broken even when handled gently. A tendency for a general degradation of brick properties with sludge additions was observed due to its refractory nature. Therefore, sludge bricks of this nature are only suitable for use as common bricks, which are normally not exposed to view, because of poor surface finishing. PMID:15462329

  9. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

    A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

  10. SORPTION AND DEGRADATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL IN SLUDGE-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption and degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by two alkaline and one acid soil was studied in the presence and absence of sewage sludge. he PCP concentrations used (0.1-10 mg kg-1) included PCP rates expected with land application of normal municipal sewage sludges. orptio...

  11. COMPARISON OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested by using the Salmonella/microsome reverse mutation ...

  12. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1985-08-30

    This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

  13. VALORATION ADDITION DRY SLUDGE SEWAGE IN CONCRETE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Yagüe; S. Valls; E. Vázquez

    The great amount of dry sewage sludge that is generated and the need to stabilize, solidify and, whenever possible, reuse it has led us to attempt the application of new approaches to its treatment. The search for recycling alternatives for this dry sludge has given rise to the possibility of their use addition in concrete with Portland cement. Portland cement

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix...

  19. Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

  20. Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunbo; Wang, Chang; Chen, Hongmei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Pang, Daoxiong; Lu, Pei

    2013-04-01

    Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water was studied. Influences of main reaction parameters, including temperature (623-698 K), pressure (25-35 Mpa), residence time (10-15 min) and dry matter content (5-25 wt%), were investigated to optimize the gasification process. The main gas products were methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and traces of ethene, etc. Results showed that 10 wt% dry matter content digested sewage sludge at a temperature of 698 K and residence time of 50 min, with a pressure of 25 MPa, were the most favorable conditions for the sewage sludge gasification and carbon gasification efficiencies. In addition, potassium carbonate (K2CO3) was also employed as the catalyst to make a comparison between gasification with and without catalyst. When 2.6 g K2CO3 was added, a gasification efficiency of 25.26% and a carbon gasification efficiency of 20.02% were achieved, which were almost four times as much as the efficiencies without catalyst. K2CO3 has been proved to be effective in sewage sludge gasification. PMID:23315366

  1. FUEL SAVINGS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a result of a demonstration project partly sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the Indianapolis Center for Advanced Research, the City of Indianapolis, Indiana, realized a 34% fuel savings for sewage sludge incineration. At the sa...

  2. SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION, HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel ef...

  3. Preparation of biochar from sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Aurora; María Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Biomass waste materials appropriate for biochar production include crop residues (both field residues and processing residues such as nut shells, fruit pits, bagasse, etc), as well as yard, food and forestry wastes, and animal manures. Biochar can and should be made from biomass waste materials and must not contain unacceptable levels of toxins such as heavy metals which can be found in sewage sludge and industrial or landfill waste. Making biochar from biomass waste materials should create no competition for land with any other land use option—such as food production or leaving the land in its pristine state. Large amounts of agricultural, municipal and forestry biomass are currently burned or left to decompose and release CO2 and methane back into the atmosphere. They also can pollute local ground and surface waters—a large issue for livestock wastes. Using these materials to make biochar not only removes them from a pollution cycle, but biochar can be obtained as a by-product of producing energy from this biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product from wastewater treatment plants, and contains significant amounts of heavy metals, organic toxins and pathogenic microorganisms, which are considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Agricultural use, land filling and incineration are commonly used as disposal methods. It was, however, reported that sewage sludge applications in agriculture gives rise to an accumulation of harmful components (heavy metals and organic compounds) in soil. For this reason, pyrolysis can be considered as a promising technique to treat the sewage sludge including the production of fuels. The objective of this work is to study the advantages of the biochar prepared from sewage sludge.

  4. Single application of Sewage Sludge to an Alluvial Agricultural Soil - impacts on Soil Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhadolc, M.; Graham, D. B.; Hagn, A.; Doerfler, U.; Schloter, M.; Schroll, R.; Munch, J. C.; Lobnik, F.

    2009-04-01

    Limited information exists on the effects of sewage sludge on soil quality with regard to their ability to maintain soil functions. We studied effects of sewage sludge amendment on soil chemical properties, microbial community structure and microbial degradation of the herbicide glyphosate. Three months soil column leaching experiment has been conducted using alluvial soils (Eutric Fluvisol) with no prior history of sludge application. The soil was loamy with pH 7,4 and organic matter content of 3,5%. Soil material in the upper 2 cm of columns was mixed with dehydrated sewage sludge which was applied in amounts corresponding to the standards governing the use of sewage sludge for agricultural land. Sludge did increase some nutrients (total N, NH4+, available P and K, organic carbon) and some heavy metals contents (Zn, Cu, Pb) in soil. However, upper limits for heavy metals in agricultural soils were not exceeded. Results of heavy metal availability in soil determined by sequential extraction will be also presented. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of 16s/18s rDNA, using universal fungal and bacterial primers, revealed clear shifts in bacterial and fungal community structure in the upper 2 cm of soils after amendment. Fungal fingerprints showed greater short term effects of sewage sludge, whereas sewage sludge seems to have prolonged effects on soil bacteria. Furthermore, sewage sludge amendment significantly increased glyphosate degradation from 21.6±1% to 33.6±1% over a 2 months period. The most probable reasons for shifts in microbial community structure and increased degradation of glyphosate are beneficial alterations to the physical-chemical characteristics of the soil. Negative effects of potentially toxic substances present in the sewage sludge on soil microbial community functioning were not observed with the methods used in our study.

  5. Comparison of phosphorus availability with application of sewage sludge, sludge compost, and manure compost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guang Wen; Thomas E. Bates; R. Paul Voroney; Julien P. Winter; Mike P. Schellenbert

    1997-01-01

    The objectives were to determine if phosphorus (P) from different organic wastes differs in availability to crops. Four materials: digested, dewatered sewage sludge (DSS); irradiated sewage sludge (DISS); irradiated and composted sewage sludge (DICSS); and composted livestock manure (CLM) were applied for two years at five rates (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 Mg#lbha#lbyr) with four replicates. Uptake of P was

  6. Sewage sludge land application program in West Virginia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Skousen; C. Clinger

    2009-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge can be used as a fertilizer for crops but may also introduce undesirable metals into the food chain, especially when used on acid minesoils. In this study, sewage sludge from Morgantown, WV was surface applied to two acid minesoils and a neutral undisturbed soil to evaluate sludge application rates on forage production, nutrient loadings, and on heavy

  7. Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few health concerns because sufficient decay occurs before it can reach the public however, incineration, which is done in winter months, directly releases the 131I from sewage sludge to the atmosphere, and even though exposures to both workers and the public were found to be considerably lower than 1% of natural background, incineration of sludge in a pathway for public exposure. Although 131I was readily measurable in sewage sludge, only about 1% of the radioione administered to patients was found in the sludge. The fate of the remaining radioactivity has not been established; some may be in secondary and tertiary residuals, but it is quite likely that most passed through the plant and was discharged in dilute concentrations in plant emissions. The behavior of radioiodine and other radioactive materials released into municipal seweage systems, such as those from large medical facilities, is not yet well understood. PMID:9258296

  8. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503...applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge...

  9. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503...applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge...

  10. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503...applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge...

  11. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503...applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge...

  12. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503...applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge...

  13. POTENTIAL EMISSIONS OF HAZARDOUS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory thermal decomposition studies were undertaken to evaluate potential organic emissions from sewage sludge incinerators. Precisely controlled thermal decomposition experiments were conducted on sludge spiked with mixtures of hazardous organic compounds, on the mixtures o...

  14. Metal partitioning and toxicity in sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson-Ekvall, C.E.A.; Morrison, G.M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Sanitary Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Over 20 years of research has failed to provide an unequivocal correlation between chemically extracted metals in sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil and either metal toxicity to soil organisms or crop uptake. Partitioning of metals between phases and species can provide a better estimation of mobility and potential bioavailability. Partition coefficients, K{sub D} for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sludge/water solution were determined considering the sludge/water solution as a three-phase system (particulate, colloidal and electrochemically available) over a range of pH values, ionic strengths, contact times and sludge/water ratios and compared with the KD values for sludge/water solution as a two-phase system (aqueous phase and particulate phase). Partitioning results were interpreted in terms of metal mobility from sludge to colloids and in terms of potential bioavailability from colloids to electrochemically available. The results show that both mobility and potential bioavailability are high for Zn, while Cu partitions into the mobile colloidal phase which is relatively non-bioavailable. Lead is almost completely bound to the solid phase, and is neither mobile nor bioavailable. A comparison between K, values and toxicity shows that Zn in sludge is more toxic than can be accounted for in the aqueous phase, which can be due to synergistic effects between sludge organics and Zn. Copper demonstrates clear synergism which can be attributed to the formation of lipid-soluble Cu complexes with known sludge components such as LAS, caffeine, myristic acid and nonylphenol.

  15. IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

    2004-10-05

    The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

  16. Sewage sludge as a supplementary utility boiler fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwillenberg, M. L.; Guerra, C. R.; Singletary, J. H.

    1982-02-01

    The feasibility of utilizing sewage sludge as a supplementary boiler fuel was studied. Samples of sludge from sewage are gathered for chemicals analysis to determine the range of variation of composition and to select typical sludge compositions. Combustion tests are performed, and the effects of sludge combustion on utility boiler performance, corrosion, emission and economics is estimated. Design criteria for boilers convertible to sludge burning will be developed and a survey of the U.S. utility boiler population enables the estimation of the potential market for sludge as a fuel.

  17. Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jianhong

    Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220sp°C) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This shows the fundamental importance of rapid processing. Rapid thermal conditioning may be incorporated into a wastewater treatment plant where biological treatment is used. For purposes of a concrete example, flow-sheets for the incorporation of the RTC process into the New York City Wards Island WPCP were prepared, and experimental data from the laboratory scale RTC test facility were used to set design parameters. A design incorporating nitrogen removal into the RTC flow sheet was also examined. ASPEN software was used to design the proposed processes and perform economic analyses. Cost estimates for these alternatives show a substantial advantage to implement RTC in comparison to present plant operation. About one third of the current sludge processing cost can be saved by incorporation of RTC into the Wards Island Plant. With nitrogen removal, the economics are even more attractive.

  18. FUEL EFFICIENT INCINERATION FOR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, demonstrated that 34 to 70 percent of the fuel used for sewage sludge incineration could be saved. These savings were the result of study of how sewage sludge incineration in a multiple hearth incinerator works, adding instrumentation and contro...

  19. APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGES AND COMPOSTS BPG NOTE 6

    E-print Network

    APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGES AND COMPOSTS BPG NOTE 6 Best Practice Guidance for Land Regeneration harmful organisms (plant, animal and human pathogens) in insufficiently composted materials · If C NOTE 6 PAGE 2 Applications of sewage sludges and composts Forestry Tree growth on nutrient

  20. Effects of sewage sludge application method on corn production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Cripps; S. K. Winfree; J. L. Reagan

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of land application of municipal sewage sludge to agricultural land in Upper Cumberland Region of the Tennessee valley. Treatments included single and annual applications of sewage sludge both surface applied and injected into the soil. The primary objective of the study was to determine the effects of different land application methods of

  1. Sewage sludge composting maintains momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.

    1986-11-01

    The number of facilities composting municipal sludge is rising gradually in the U.S. after a dramatic surge between 1983 and 1985. Results of BioCycle's 1986 survey show a total of 178 municipalities and counties that are either operating or constructing plants, or that are in the bid, design, planning, or consideration stages. The total number in 1985 was 173, with four facilities shut down. In 1983, the first year a nationwide survey was conducted, there were 90. The aerated static pile method continues to lead the composting pack, with 53 operating facilities. Windrow composting comes in second, with 21 operating facilities. Five more in-vessel systems went into operation this year, bringing the total to eight. When it comes to facilities on the horizon, however, in-vessel is the category leader: there are 11 in-vessel projects under construction, 11 in the planning, design or bid stages, and 14 under consideration. Conversely, there are eight aerated static pile facilities under construction, 10 in the planning, design and bid stages, and 5.5 under consideration. Windrow composting operations comprise the third largest category, followed by aerated windrow composting.

  2. Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

  3. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szo?tysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to increased hardness of the vitrificates and reduced leaching of some heavy metals. PMID:25242604

  4. Optimising the preparation of activated carbon from digested sewage sludge and coconut husk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H Tay; X. G Chen; S Jeyaseelan; N Graham

    2001-01-01

    Preparation of activated carbon from sewage sludge is a promising way to dispose of sewage sludge as well as to produce a low-cost adsorbent for pollutant removal. This research work aimed to optimise the condition for activated carbon preparation from anaerobically digested sewage sludge with the additive coconut husk. The sewage sludge sample was mixed with the additive coconut husk.

  5. Pretreatment followed by anaerobic digestion of secondary sludge for reduction of sewage sludge volume.

    PubMed

    Abe, Naoki; Tang, Yue-Qin; Iwamura, Makoto; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    The influence of two pretreatment methods, thermal treatment and low-pressure wet oxidation, on the sludge digestion efficiency was examined. Batch thermophilic anaerobic digestion was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the pretreatment methods in terms of volatile suspended solids (VSS) digestion efficiency and gas production. The results showed that the gas production was not proportional to the VSS degradation efficiency of either thermal treatment or low-pressure wet oxidation. Low-pressure wet oxidation treatment at 150 °C along with 40% of the theoretical oxygen required to oxidize organic carbon gave the highest gas production and the VSS digestion efficiency of 77% at a VSS loading rate of 8 g l(-1) d(-1). The digestion efficiency was about 30% higher than that of thermophilic anaerobic digestion without sludge pretreatment. Sewage sludge could be treated effectively at a high VSS digestion efficiency with this pretreatment followed by thermophilic anaerobic digestion. PMID:23752385

  6. Effects of chemically contaminated sewage sludge on an aphid population

    SciTech Connect

    Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

    1986-12-01

    Survival and fecundity of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, were markedly reduced when they were fed on collard plants grown in pots of soil treated with chemically contaminated sewage sludge, as compared to populations on potted plants grown in uncontaminated sludge or on fertilized soil (control). Calculated demographic parameters differed significantly between the contaminated sludge and uncontaminated sludge populations and between the contaminated sludge and control populations. No significant differences were detected between the uncontaminated sludge and control populations. The ecological effects on the aphids suggest that plant uptake and translocation of chemicals from the contaminated sludge affected aphid fitness through direct toxicity and/or reduced nutritional value of the plant. These results indicate that phytophagous insects may be affected by chemical contaminants in sewage sludge used in agriculture.

  7. Batchwise mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of secondary sludge from pulp and paper industry and municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Hagelqvist, Alina

    2013-04-01

    Residues from forest-industry wastewater-treatment systems are treated as waste at many pulp and paper mills. These organic substances have previously been shown to have potential for production of large quantities of biogas. There is concern, however, that the process would require expensive equipment because of the slow degradation of these substances. Pure non-fibrous sludge from forest industry showed lower specific methane production during mesophilic digestion for 19days, 53±26 Nml/g of volatile solids as compared to municipal sewage sludge, 84±24 Nml/g of volatile solids. This paper explores the possibility of using anaerobic co-digestion with municipal sewage sludge to enhance the potential of methane production from secondary sludge from a pulp and paper mill. It was seen in a batch anaerobic-digestion operation of 19 days that the specific methane production remained largely the same for municipal sewage sludge when up to 50% of the volatile solids were replaced with forest-industry secondary sludge. It was also shown that the solid residue from anaerobic digestion of the forest-industry sludge should be of suitable quality to use for improving soil quality on lands that are not used for food production. PMID:23294534

  8. CONTROL OF PATHOGENS AND VECTORS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes the federal requirements concerning pathogens in sewage sludge and septage destined for land application or surface disposal. t also provides guidance for meeting those requirements. he chapters of this document discuss why pathogen control is necessary, t...

  9. USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FOR FOREST-TREE SEEDLING PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...

  10. WINDROW AND STATIC PILE COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted on composting anaerobically digested and centrifuge dewatered sewage sludge from 1975 through 1980. Windrow and static pile composting processes were evaluated; new methods were employed using deeper windrows and aerated static piles were constructed withou...

  11. Effects of sewage sludge amendment on humic acids and microbiological properties of a semiarid Mediterranean soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. García-Gil; C. Plaza; N. Senesi; G. Brunetti; A. Polo

    2004-01-01

    The residual effects of adding 40 t ha -1 sewage sludge (SL) to a degraded soil cropped with barley were investigated after 9 and 36 months in a field experiment under semiarid conditions. The principal soil properties were apparently still affected by SL amendment 9 months after application but the effects disappeared after 36 months. With respect to control soil humic acids (HAs), the

  12. Impact of Lead and Sewage Sludge on Soil Microbial Biomass and Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Dar

    1997-01-01

    Sewage sludge disposal on arable land is viewed as a method to reduce waste accumulation and to enrich soil fertility. However, such disposal can degrade soil ecosystems due to the presence of potentially harmful substances, such as heavy metals. Pb has assumed greater significance because currently its dispersal through anthropogenic activities has exceeded the inputs from natural sources by about

  13. Impacts on groundwater due to land application of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Higgins

    1984-01-01

    The project was designed to demonstrate the potential benefits of utilizing sewage sludge as a soil conditioner and fertilizer on Sassafras sandy loam soil. Aerobically digested, liquid sewage sludge was applied to the soil at rates of 0, 22.4, and 44.8 Mg of dry solids\\/ha for three consecutive years between 1978 and 1981. Groundwater, soil, and crop contamination levels were

  14. Preparing sewage sludge for land application or surface disposal: A guide for preparers of sewage sludge on the monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general responsibilities. USEPA promulgated at 40 CFR Part 503 Phase 1 of the risk-based regulations that govern the final use or disposal of sewage sludge. The intent of the Federal program is to ensure that the use or disposal of sewage sludge occurs in a way that protects both human health and the environment. The Part 503 regulation establishes general requirements, pollutant limits, operational standards, and management practices, as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. These requirements apply to sewage sludge that is land applied, placed on a surface disposal site, or incinerated in a sewage sludge-only incinerator.

  15. Evaluation of electrokinetic removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Yuan; Zhang, Di-Song; Stabnikova, Olena; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2005-09-30

    The presence of heavy metals is one of the main obstacles for agricultural use of million tonnes of dewatered sewage sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. Electrokinetic (EK) treatment can be applied to remove heavy metals from sludge. The aim of this study was to increase the efficiency of electrokinetic removal of heavy metals from dewatered sewage sludge. EK experiments were carried out with and without pH adjustment in cathode chamber of acidified sewage sludge. The selective sequential extraction (SSE) was used to determine the fractionation of heavy metals in sewage sludge. The mobility of heavy metals in sludge significantly increased after its acidification at pH 2.7 and followed the order: Ni, Zn, Cu, As, Cr, Pb. Removal efficiencies of heavy metals in the experiment with acidified sewage sludge and pH adjustment at cathode chamber at 2.0 were: 95% for Zn, 96% for Cu, 90% for Ni, 68% for Cr, 31% for As and 19% for Pb. The concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr and Pb after EK treatment were below the United States Environmental Protection Agency limits for biosolids applied to agricultural land, forest, public contact sites or reclamation sites. PMID:15994006

  16. Effect of biodegradation on the consolidation properties of a dewatered municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, Brendan C

    2008-01-01

    The effect of biodegradation on the consolidation characteristics of an anaerobically digested, dewatered municipal sewage sludge was studied. Maintained-load oedometer consolidation tests that included measurement of the pore fluid pressure response were conducted on moderately degraded sludge material and saturated bulk samples that had been stored under static conditions and allowed to anaerobically biodegrade further (simulating what would happen in an actual sewage sludge monofill or lagoon condition). Strongly degraded sludge material was produced after a storage period of 13 years at ambient temperatures of 5-15 degrees C, with the total volatile solids reducing from initially 70% to 55%. The sludge materials were highly compressible, although impermeable for practical purposes. Primary consolidation generally occurred very slowly, which was attributed to the microstructure of the solid phase, the composition and viscosity of the pore fluid, ongoing biodegradation and the high organic contents. The coefficient of primary consolidation values decreased from initially about 0.35m2/yr to 0.003-0.03m2/yr with increasing effective stress (sigmav'=3-100kPa). Initially, the strongly degraded sludge material was slightly more permeable, although both the moderately and strongly degraded materials became impermeable for practical purposes (k=10(-9)-10(-12)m/s) below about 650% and 450% water contents, respectively. Secondary compression became more dominant with increasing effective stress with a mean secondary compression index (Calphae) value of 0.9 measured for both the moderately and strongly degraded materials. PMID:17936608

  17. SPREADING LAGOONED SEWAGE SLUDGE ON FARMLAND: A CASE HISTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project demonstrated that land application is feasible and practical for a metropolitan treatment plant for disposal of a large volume (265,000 cu m) of stabilized, liquid sewage sludge stored in lagoons. The project involved transportation of sludge by semi-trailer tankers ...

  18. DIRECT THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE TO FUEL OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A disposal method for primary sewage sludge and industrial sludges which generates boiler fuel as a product and is energy self sufficient or energy-generating is described. The method involves direct liquefaction in a mild aqueous alkali above 250 degs. C and was demonstrated for...

  19. Useful Ingredients Recovery from Sewage Sludge by using Hydrothermal Reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Suzuki; Mika Moriyama; Yuki Yamasaki; Yui Takahashi; Chihiro Inoue

    2006-01-01

    Hydrothermal treatment of sludge from a sewage treatment plant was conducted to obtain useful ingredients for culture of specific microbes which can reduce polysulfide ion into sulfide ion and\\/or hydrogen sulfide. Several additives such as acid, base, and oxidizer were added to the hydrothermal reaction of excess sludge to promote the production of useful materials. After hydrothermal treatment, reaction solution

  20. Biological Aspects of Metal Waste Reclamation With Sewage Sludge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Smelter waste deposits pose an environmental threat worldwide. Sewage sludges are potentialy useful in reclamation of such sites. Biological aspects of revegetation of Zn and Pb smelter wastelands are discussed in a paper. The goal of the studies was to asses to what extent sludge treatment would...

  1. Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes the development of a project involving the application of approximately 265,000 cubic meters of lagooned sewage sludge from a metropolitan area on privately-owned farm land in an adjacent, rural county. The sludge application project was initiated to enable use of the land occupied by the lagoons for expansion of the sewage treatment plant. The procedures developed will be valuable to those proposing to practice land disposal of stabilized sludge as part of the Nation`s resource conservation program.

  2. Effects of aeration on gamma irradiation of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Libing; Wang, Jianlong; Wang, Bo

    2010-08-01

    In this paper the effect of aeration on gamma irradiation of sewage sludge was investigated to examine the potential solubilization of solids in sewage sludge to ultimately reduce the solids volume for disposal. Results showed that aeration increased the effectiveness of gamma radiation. The efficiency of sludge solubilization with aeration was increased by around 25% compared to that without aeration at an irradiation dose of 2.5-9 kGy. The soluble protein, polysaccharide and humic (like) substance concentrations were higher under aerated conditions. With aeration the overall reaction appears to be oxidative as evidenced by the higher nitrate and nitrite ion concentrations in solution.

  3. The Phytotoxicity Changes of Sewage Sludge-Amended Soils.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Malara, Anna; Jo?ko, Izabela; Lesiuk, Adam

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was the estimation of changes in the phytotoxicity of soils amended with sewage sludge with relation to Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba and Sorghum saccharatum. The study was realised in the system of a plot experiment for a period of 29 months. Samples for analyses were taken at the beginning of the experiment, and then after 5, 17 and 29 months. Two kinds of sewage sludge, with varying properties, were added to a sandy soil (soil S) or a loamy soil (soil L) at the dose of 90 t/ha. The addition of sewage sludge to the soils at the start of the experiment caused a significant reduction of both seed germination capacity and root length of the test plants, the toxic effect being distinctly related to the test plant species. With the passage of time the negative effect of sewage sludge weakened, the extent of its reduction depending both of the kind of sewage sludge applied and on the type of soil. Phytotoxicity of the soils amended with the sewage sludges was significantly lower at the end of the experiment than at the beginning. The species of the plants grown on the soils also had a significant effect on their phytotoxicity. The greatest reduction of toxicity was observed in the soil on which no plants were grown (sandy soil) and in the soil under a culture of willow (loamy soil). Solid phase of sewage sludge-amended soils was characterised by higher toxicity than their extracts. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11270-012-1248-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:23002312

  4. Biotests for environmental quality assessment of composted sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kapanen, Anu; Vikman, Minna; Rajasärkkä, Johanna; Virta, Marko; Itävaara, Merja

    2013-06-01

    The quality of sewage sludge-based products, such as composts and growth media, is affected by the contamination of sewage sludge with, potentially, hundreds of different substances. Therefore, it is difficult to achieve the reliable environmental quality assessment of sewage sludge-based products solely based on chemical analysis. In the present work, we demonstrate the use of the kinetic luminescent bacteria test (ISO 21338) to evaluate acute toxicity and the Vitotox™ test to monitor genotoxicity of sewage sludge and composted sewages sludge. In addition, endocrine-disrupting and dioxin-like activity was studied using yeast-cell-based assays. The relative contribution of industrial waste water treated at the Waste Water Treatment Plants led to elevated concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F) in sewage sludge. The effect of elevated amounts of organic contaminants could also be identified with biotests able to demonstrate higher acute toxicity, genotoxicity, and potential for endocrine-disruptive properties. Additional extraction steps in kinetic luminescent bacteria test with DMSO and hexane increased the level of toxicity detected. Composting in a pilot-scale efficiently reduced the amounts of linear alkylbenzensulphonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenolethoxylates (NPE/NPs) and PAH with relative removal efficiencies of 84%, 61% and 56%. In addition, decrease in acute toxicity, genotoxicity and endocrorine-disrupting and dioxin-like activity during composting could be detected. However, the biotests did have limitations in accessing the ecotoxicity of test media rich with organic matter, such as sewage sludge and compost, and effects of sample characteristics on biotest organisms must be acknowledged. The compost matrix itself, however, which contained a high amount of nutrients, bark, and peat, reduced the sensitivity of the genotoxicity tests and yeast bioreporter assays. PMID:23540356

  5. Anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge and glycerol, focusing on process kinetics, microbial dynamics and sludge dewaterability.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P D; Astals, S; Lu, Y; Devadas, M; Batstone, D J

    2014-12-15

    Anaerobic codigestion (AcoD) is a proven option to significantly boost biogas production while utilizing existing digesters and infrastructure. The aim of the present research was to conduct an exhaustive study regarding anaerobic codigestion of mixed sewage sludge and crude glycerol considering impacts on organic load, hydraulic load, process performance and microbial community. The methane potential of crude glycerol varied from 370 mL CH4·g(-1) VS to 483 mL CH4·g(-1) VS for different samples tested. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of crude glycerol was 1.01 g VS L(-1), and the primary mechanism of inhibition was through overload from rapid fermentation rather than the presence of toxic compounds in the crude glycerol. In continuous operation over 200 days, feeding glycerol at up to 2% v/v, increased organic load by up to 70% and resulted in a 50% increase in methane production. Glycerol dosing resulted in no change in apparent dewaterability, with both codigestion and control reactors returning values of 22%-24%. Members of the phylum Thermotogae emerged as a niche population during AcoD of sewage sludge and glycerol; however there was no gross change in microbial community structure and only minimal changes in diversity. AcoD did not result in synergisms between sewage sludge and crude glycerol. Actually, at dose rate up to 2% v/v glycerol dosing is still an effective strategy to increase the organic loading rate of continuous anaerobic digesters with minimal impact of the hydraulic retention time. Nonetheless, the dose rate must be managed to: (i) prevent process inhibition and (ii) ensure sufficient degradation time to produce a stable biosolids product. PMID:25459224

  6. Sewage sludge fertiliser use: implications for soil and plant copper evolution in forest and agronomic soils.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mosquera-Losada, M Rosa

    2012-05-01

    Fertilisation with sewage sludge may lead to crop toxicity and environmental degradation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two types of soils (forest and agronomic), two types of vegetation (unsown (coming from soil seed bank) and sown), and two types of fertilisation (sludge fertilisation and mineral fertilisation, with a no fertiliser control) in afforested and treeless swards and in sown and unsown forestlands on the total and available Cu concentration in soil, the leaching of this element and the Cu levels in plant. The experimental design was completely randomised with nine treatments and three replicates. Fertilisation with sewage sludge increased the concentration of Cu in soil and plant, but the soil values never exceeded the maximum set by Spanish regulations. Sewage sludge inputs increased both the total and Mehlich 3 Cu concentrations in agronomic soils and the Cu levels in plant developed in agronomic and forest soils, with this effect pronounced in the unsown swards of forest soils. Therefore, the use of high quality sewage sludge as fertiliser may improve the global productivity of forest, agronomic and silvopastoral systems without creating environmental hazards. PMID:22425275

  7. Unsafe Sewage Sludge or Beneficial Biosolids?: Liability, Planning, and Management Issues Regarding the Land Application of Sewage Treatment Residuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Goldfarb; Uta Krogmann; Christopher Hopkins

    1999-01-01

    Commentators have identified fear of liability as a major deterrent to the widespread land application of sewage sludge. Liability issues regarding land application include not only legal liability, but also market liability as a result of negative public perceptions of the land application of sewage sludge. Under current law, municipal sewage treatment facilities, landowners, farmers, and even lenders are potentially

  8. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge with high solids content.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Hidaka, Taira; Uchida, Tsutomu; Tsumori, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The treatment performance of thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of sewage sludge with high solids content was investigated with two laboratory-scale thermophilic anaerobic reactors (R1 and R2) with a feeding of pre-centrifuged sewage sludge. Reactor R1 was fed with sludge of 3.7% total solids (TS). The volatile solids (VS) removal ratio and methane yield in the stable state were 54.9% and 0.29 NL CH(4)/g VS(added), respectively. For reactor R2, when the TS content of fed sludge was 7.4%, the VS removal ratio and methane yield in the stable state were 73.2% and 0.38 NL CH(4)/g VS(added), respectively. When the TS content was increased to 9.5%, the VS removal ratio and methane yield slightly decreased to 69.3% and 0.32 NL CH(4)/g VS(added), respectively, but the reactor was stably operated. An increase of ammonia concentration was observed, but it was in the safe range without severe inhibition on the methane production. The result indicated that thermophilic AD could support sewage sludge with high TS content (9.5%) without abrupt deterioration of the treatment performance. The high-solids AD process is an economical method for centralized sewage sludge treatment with lower transport cost. PMID:24804672

  9. Recovery of indigenous enteroviruses from raw and digested sewage sludges.

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, M R; Bates, J; Butler, M

    1981-01-01

    We examined different types of raw sewage sludge treatment, including consolidation, anaerobic mesophilic digestion with subsequent consolidation, and aerobic-thermophilic digestion. Of these, the most efficient reduction in infectious virus titer was achieved by mesophilic digestion with subsequent consolidation, although a pilot-scale aerobic-thermophilic digester was extremely time effective, producing sludges with similarly low virus titers in a small fraction of the time. Although none of the treatments examined consistently produced a sludge with undetectable virus levels, mesophilic digestion alone was found to be particularly unreliable in reducing the levels of infectious virus present in the raw sludge. PMID:6274258

  10. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate. PMID:23777667

  11. Ecotoxicological evaluation of sewage sludge contaminated with zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Concepción; Fernández, María Dolores; Babin, Mar

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the ecotoxicological qualitative risk associated with the use of sewage sludge containing Zn oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) as soil amendment. A sludge-untreated soil and two sludge-treated soils were spiked with ZnO-NPs (0-1,000 mg/kg soil). Soil ecotoxicity was assessed with Eisenia fetida (acute and sublethal end points), and the unfilterable and filterable (0.02 ?m) soil leachates were tested with a battery of biomarkers using Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia magna, and the fish cell line RTG-2 (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The production of E. fetida cocoons in sludge-treated soils was lower than that in sludge-untreated soils. The highest effect in the algal growth inhibition test was detected in sludge-untreated soil, most likely caused by the loss of organic matter in these samples. The D. magna results were always negative. Toxic effects (lysosomal cell function and production of reactive oxygen species) in RTG-2 cells were only observed in sludge-treated soils. In general, the toxicity of ZnO-NPs in sludge-treated soils was similar to that of sludge-untreated soil, and the filterable leachate fraction [Zn salt (Zn(2+))] did not produce greater effects than the unfilterable fraction (ZnO-NPs). Thus, after the addition of ZnO-NP--enriched sewage sludge to agricultural soil, the risk of toxic effects for soil and aquatic organisms was shown to be low. These findings are important because repeated use of organic amendments such as sewage sludge may cause more and more increased concentrations of ZnO-NPs in soils over the long-term. PMID:25185842

  12. Sewage sludge to landfill: some pertinent engineering properties.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, Brendan C

    2005-06-01

    More stringent controls on the quality of wastewater discharges have given rise to increasing volumes of sewage sludge for disposal, principally to land, using either land-spreading or sludge-to-landfill operations. Current sludge-to-landfill methods generally involve mixing the concentrated sludge with other solid waste in municipal landfills. However, stricter waste disposal legislation and higher landfill taxes are forcing the water industry to look for more efficient disposal strategies. Landfill operators are also increasingly reluctant to accept sludge material in the slurry state because of construction difficulties and the potential for instability of the landfill slopes. The engineering and drying properties of a municipal sewage sludge are presented and applied, in particular, to the design, construction, and performance of sewage sludge monofills. Sludge handling and landfill construction are most effectively conducted within the water content range of 85% water content, the optimum water content for standard proctor compaction, and 95% water content, the sticky limit of the sludge material. Standard proctor compaction of the sludge within this water content range also achieves the maximum dry density of approximately 0.56 tonne/m3, which maximizes the storage capacity and, hence, the operational life of the landfill site. Undrained shear strength-water content data (pertinent to the stability of the landfill body during construction) and effective stress-strength parameters, which take into account the landfill age and the effects of ongoing sludge digestion, are presented. Landfill subsidence, which occurs principally because of creep and decomposition of the solid organic particles, is significant and continues indefinitely but at progressively slower rates. PMID:16022414

  13. Useful Ingredients Recovery from Sewage Sludge by using Hydrothermal Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Moriyama, Mika; Yamasaki, Yuki; Takahashi, Yui; Inoue, Chihiro

    2006-05-01

    Hydrothermal treatment of sludge from a sewage treatment plant was conducted to obtain useful ingredients for culture of specific microbes which can reduce polysulfide ion into sulfide ion and/or hydrogen sulfide. Several additives such as acid, base, and oxidizer were added to the hydrothermal reaction of excess sludge to promote the production of useful materials. After hydrothermal treatment, reaction solution and precipitation were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and estimated the availability as nutrition in cultural medium. From the results of product analysis, most of organic solid in sewage was basically decomposed by hydrothermal hydrolysis and transformed into oily or water-soluble compounds. Bacterial culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) showed the good results in multiplication with medium which was obtained from hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge with magnesium or calcium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide.

  14. Impacts on groundwater due to land application of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, A.J.

    1984-06-01

    The project was designed to demonstrate the potential benefits of utilizing sewage sludge as a soil conditioner and fertilizer on Sassafras sandy loam soil. Aerobically digested, liquid sewage sludge was applied to the soil at rates of 0, 22.4, and 44.8 Mg of dry solids/ha for three consecutive years between 1978 and 1981. Groundwater, soil, and crop contamination levels were monitored to establish the maximum sewage solids loading rate that could be applied without causing environmental deterioration. The results indicate that application of 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha of sludge is the upper limit to ensure protection of the groundwater quality on the site studied. Application rates at or slightly below 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha are sufficient for providing plant nutrients for the dent corn and rye cropping system utilized in the study.

  15. Beneficial uses of nuclear byproducts/sewage sludge irradiation project. Progress report, October 1982-March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, J.D.

    1984-11-01

    Gamma irradiation of various commodities in the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids (SIDSS) and the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) continued during this reporting period. One truck-load of grapefruit was irradiated. Pelletized straw was irradiated to doses of 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 megarads in SIDSS. Sludge, virus, and fungus samples were irradiated. Infected ground pork and infected pig carcasses were irradiated in the GIF as a method of Trichinella spiralis inactivation. Other experiments conducted in the GIF included irradiation of cut flowers to extend their shelf life and irradiation of kepone to induce its degradation. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) capsule studies at ORNL and SNLA continued. A purchase order was placed for a prototype sludge solar dryer. Sewage Sludge Irradiation Transportation System (SSITS) cask activities included thermal stress analyses of cask performance following separation from the impact limiters during a fire. Analyses of cask performance, when loaded with six strontium-90 (Sr-90) capsules, also were done.

  16. Evaluation of sludge characteristics and metals emissions from municipal sewage sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, R.S.; Conklin, J.A.; Munn, B.G. [Stearns & Wheler, LLC, Cazenovia, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has promulgated regulations affecting the disposal of municipal sewage sludge under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) Part 503. The paper addresses emissions requirements for sewage sludge incineration under 40 CFR Part 503, Subpart E. The paper focuses on factors that may influence sewage sludge characteristics, sewage sludge metals feed rates, and the corresponding metals emission rates. Emissions test programs were conducted at three municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), City of Auburn WWTP. City of Glens Falls WWTP, and Saratoga County Sewer District No. 1 WWTP, to determine mass emissions of multiple metals (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Hg, Se, and Zn). The influent incinerator sludge was sampled in conjunction with each test program to determine the sludge metals content. The sewage sludge was analyzed in accordance with USEPA Method SW846. Multiple metals emissions were determined in accordance with USEPA 40 CFR 60, Appendix A, Method 29 sampling and analytical procedures. The results from these test programs were analyzed to identify the factors that influence the metals emission rates. The resulting metals removal efficiencies from each of the three pollution control systems are quantified. Unique analytical issues encountered during these test programs are also addressed. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Evaluation of forest trees growth after sewage sludge application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitkutä--, Dovilé; Balträ--Naitä--, Edita; Booth, Colin A.; Fullen, Michael A.; Pereira, Paulo

    2010-05-01

    Sewage sludge is extensively used in forest to improve soil properties. It is expected that sewage sludge rich in phosphorus, nitrogen and organic material enhance the germination of tree seedlings in poor soils. In Lithuania, the deforested soils are highly acid, and have a lack of nutrients, especially in exploited peat areas. Sewage sludge from industry contains beneficial components for the soils (such as organic matter, phosphorus, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, etc.). However, it is also rich in heavy metals, especially Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn. High heavy metals concentrations in soil can be phytotoxic and cause reduced plant growth or plant death. The main objectives of this research was to determine the influence of industrial sewage sludge in the forestry and to highlight the idea that industrial sewage sludge containing metals does not favour development of birch and pine trees. The study was performed in Taruskos experimental plot in Panevezys region (Lithuania), amended with industrial sewage sludge ten years ago was afforestated with birch and pine seedlings. In order to observe the effects of the amendment in accumulation the mentioned metals and tree growth we collected data from trees in amended plot and control plot. The results showed that soil parameters were improved in the amended plot, in comparing with control site (higher pH, organic matter and cation exchange capacity). However, the growth of investigated trees was slower (e.g. birch roots, shoot, stem and leaves biomass was 40, 7.4, 18.6, 22% smaller than in control site. In pine case: 30, 1.2, 17, 36%, respectively; the stem height of birch was 16% and pine - 12% smaller than in control site). This reduced growth can be related with heavy metals concentration load on soil and accumulation in trees. Cu and Cd concentrations were higher in soil amended with sewage sludge comparing with control site (60 and 36%, respectively). Also, in contaminated trees Cu and Cd concentrations were higher (Cu - 37% in birch and 27% in pine shoots; 6% in birch and 73% in pine roots; Cd was 3% in birch and 1.4% in pine shoots; 53% in birch and 24% in pine roots). Our results showed that the sewage sludge applied from industrial sources was not effective to improve tree growth, despite the fact, that it revealed positive effects on forest soil properties.

  18. Forest land application of sewage sludge on the Savannah River Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1989-01-01

    In 1980, a sewage sludge application study was initiated on the Savannah River Plant to evaluate the effects of sludge additions on nutrient cycling processes in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forest ecosystems and to determine whether or not such additions beneficially enhance forest productivity. Sewage sludge, either as a liquid anaerobic sludge at 0, 402, or 804 kg N\\/ha

  19. 4-nonylphenol in Sewage Sludge: Accumulation of Toxic Metabolites from Nonionic Surfactants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Giger; Paul H. Brunner; Christian Schaffner

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobically treated sewage sludge was found to contain extraordinarily high concentrations of 4-nonylphenol, a metabolite derived from nonionic surfactants of the nonylphenol polyethoxylate type. Concentrations in activated sewage sludge, in mixed primary and secondary sludge, and in aerobically stabilized sludge were substantially lower, suggesting that the formation of 4-nonylphenol is favored under mesophilic anaerobic conditions. Because 4-nonylphenol may be highly

  20. Composting of anaerobic sludge: an economically feasible element of a sustainable sewage sludge management.

    PubMed

    Cukjati, N; Zupan?i?, G D; Roš, M; Grilc, V

    2012-09-15

    An investigation into the feasibility of anaerobic sludge composting, as a sustainable treatment of sewage sludge management, was carried out under actual Slovenian environmental conditions. In order to demonstrate successful composting, five pilot plant experiments were performed during the summer and winter conditions. The first three experiments were performed with pile aeration, while experiments 4 and 5 were carried out by pile turning. Anaerobic sludge to bulking agent ratios were set at 1-6.4:1. The composting was successful and thermophilic temperature being achieved in all cases. In winter conditions, the composting process was prolonged; and low ambient temperatures had a significant impact in pile turning experiments. During winter, a temperature drop of 30 °C during turning of the material doubled the necessary time for an adequate composting process. Five scenarios were considered within an economic feasibility study and in the most favourable scenario, where 60% of compost was commercialised and 40% was used as landfill cover. The payback period in this scenario was 2.9 years. The study of compost quality showed that it can be used in variety of civil engineering applications, especially as a landfill cover and for recultivation of degraded areas. PMID:22562011

  1. Monitoring of the Fate, Transport, and Effects of Sewage Sludge Disposed at the 106Mile Deepwater Municipal Sludge Dump Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Redford; Douglas Pabst; Carlton D. Hupt

    1992-01-01

    Since 1985, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has conducted monitoring studies to determine the transport, fate, and effects of sewage sludge dumped at the 106-Mile Deepwater Municipal Sludge Dump Site (106-Mile Site). This paper describes EPA's 106-Mile Site monitoring activities and the results from six oceanographic surveys of the Site. Surveys have been conducted to track sewage sludge plumes

  2. Concentrations and specific loads of brominated flame retardants in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kupper, Thomas; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Gatsigazi, Revocat; Furrer, Reinhard; Grandjean, Dominique; Tarradellas, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    Many substances related to human activities end up in wastewater and accumulate in sewage sludge. The present study focuses on two classes of brominated flame retardants: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDE28, BDE47, BDE49, BDE66, BDE85, BDE99, BDE100, BDE119, BDE138, BDE153, BDE154, BDE183, BDE209) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) detected in sewage sludge collected from a monitoring network in Switzerland. Mean concentrations (n=16 wastewater treatment plants) were 310, 149, 95 and 17microg per kg dry matter for decaBDE, HBCD, penta- and octaBDE, respectively. These numbers correspond well with other studies from European countries. DecaBDE, HBCD, penta- and octaBDE showed average specific loads (load per connected inhabitant per year) in sludge of 6.1, 3.3, 2.0 and 0.3mgcap(-1)yr(-1), respectively. This is in line with consumption and storage of the compounds in the environment and the anthroposphere. Discrepancies observed for octaBDE and HBCD can be explained by the release from materials where these compounds are incorporated in and/or their degradation during anaerobic sludge treatment. Loads from different types of monitoring sites showed that brominated flame retardants ending up in sewage sludge originate mainly from surface runoff, industrial and domestic wastewater. PMID:18035395

  3. Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Houot, S.; Imhoff, M.; Valentin, N.; Gómez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.

    2009-04-01

    The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related to their high water content. One way to overcome these problems, in a cheap and clean way, is the drying of sludges using the energy of the sun under greenhouse conditions. This drying may affect sludge chemical characteristics including organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, parameters which have to be controlled for the proper management of dry sludge application onto soils. For this reason, the main aim of this work was to study the impact of greenhouse drying of different sewage sludges on their organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, assessed by biochemical fractionation and mineralization assays. Three sewage sludges were sampled before (dehydrated sludges) and after greenhouse drying (dried sludges). The analyses consisted of: humidity, organic matter, mineral and organic N contents, N and C mineralization during 91-day laboratory incubations in controlled conditions, and biochemical fractionation using the Van Soest procedure. Greenhouse drying decreased the water content from 70-80% to 10% and also the odours, both of which will improve the management of the final product from the perspective of application and transport. We also found that drying reduced the organic matter content of the sludges but not the biodegradability of the remaining carbon. Organic N mineralization occurred during greenhouse drying, explaining why mineral N content tended to increase and the potential mineralization of organic nitrogen decreased after greenhouse drying. The biochemical stability did not change so much except for the one of the sludges, which experienced an important reduction. According to the results, and from a point of view of future soil applications, the balance of the drying process could be considered as positive. It is using a free, renewable and clean energy, which reduces the water content and odours of sludge, thereby improving their management. Except for the water content, there was little modification of the behaviour in soil of greenhouse dried sludges compared to the dehydrated sludges, maintaining its large amount of available nitrogen after drying. Acknowledgements: Jose. M. Soriano-Disla gratefully acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Culture for a research fellowship (AP2005-0320).

  4. Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1977-01-01

    The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in selected sewage sludge in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sindiku, Omotayo; Orata, Francis; Weber, Roland; Osibanjo, Oladele

    2013-07-01

    Levels of seven major perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and three perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) were analyzed for the first time in sludge from wastewater treatment plants from Nigeria. Measurements were performed using an analytical methodology using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS). The method detection limit and method quantification limit was 3pg/g and 9.5pg/g for both analytes (PFCAs and PFSAs) respectively. Typical recoveries ranged from 50% to 104% for spiked mass labeled internal standards of 1ng (absolute value) to 1g of sample. All sludge samples taken from industrial, domestic and hospital wastewater treatment plants contained measurable levels of PFASs. Levels of the quantified perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates concentrations ranged from 10 to 597 and 14 to 540pg/g, respectively. The concentrations were therefore lower compared to sewage sludge samples reported in other regions in the world. Perfluoroalkyl carboxylates with carbon chain having ?8 fluorinated carbons were detected in the analyzed sewage sludge samples at higher levels compared to carboxylates with <8 fluorinated carbon chain. The measured concentrations indicate that no PFAS point source for the 10 investigated sewage treatment plants existed. Furthermore the low levels in the four municipal sewage treatment plants in Lagos is a first indication that even in an African megacity like Lagos the PFASs release from households are low until now. The highest PFOS level was found in a hospital sewage sludge (539.6pg/g) possibly indicating (minor) release from medical equipment where some are known to contain PFOS. The PFASs in waste water sludge from a brewery warrant further investigations. PMID:23648329

  6. The Monitoring of UK Sewage Sludge Disposal Sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Rowlatt; H. L. Rees; C. M. G. Vivian; M. M. Parker

    1991-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increase in the intensity and frequency of environmental monitoring surveys at UK sewage sludge disposal sites. These have been carried out by the regulatory authorities and by the licensees. in order to ensure maximum efficiency, a coordinated and harmonised programme of monitoring has been developed. the programme concentrates on sediment chemical and biological

  7. Land Application of Sewage Effluents and Sludges: Selected Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    This report contains 568 selected abstracts concerned with the land application of sewage effluents and sludges. The abstracts are arranged in chronological groupings of ten-year periods from the l940's to the mid-l970's. The report also includes an author index and a subject matter index to facilitate reference to specific abstracts or narrower…

  8. Macrobenthic succession following the cessation of sewage sludge disposal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvana N. R. Birchenough; Chris L. J. Frid

    2009-01-01

    Half a million tonnes of sewage sludge was disposed annually over an 18-yr period at a licensed area off the Northumberland coast, UK. The disposal operation ceased in December 1998, providing the ecological opportunity to study macrobenthic changes in relation to theoretical succession models. A transect from the centre of the disposal site to a control station was monitored three

  9. Soil cadmium mobility as a consequence of sewage sludge disposal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Lamy; S. Bourgeois; A. Bermond

    1993-01-01

    Anaerobically digested liquid sewage sludge was applied as a single treatment to a loamy hydromorphic drained soil, characteristic of agricultural soils in the North of France, at a rate of 11 Mg of dry solids ha⁻¹. Total Cd concentrations of drainage waters for both amended and unamended plots were monitored at selected times to follow the mobility of Cd after

  10. PRODUCTION OF NON-FOOD-CHAIN CROPS WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Feasibility and market potential were determined for non-food-chain crops cultivated using sewage sludge. Non-food-chain crops that are currently being sold on the open market or that have a good potential for marketability were selected. From a list of 20 crops, 3 were selected ...

  11. Plasma gasification of sewage sludge: Process development and energy optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mountouris; E. Voutsas; D. Tassios

    2008-01-01

    The plasma gasification process has been demonstrated in many of the most recent studies as one of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods for solid waste treatment and energy utilization. This method is applied here to the treatment of sewage sludge. Results are presented for a case study concerning the Athens’ Central Wastewater Treatment Plant, at Psittalia Island. An

  12. Removal of Toxic Metals by Biosorption onto Nonliving Sewage Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. SOLARI; A. I. Zouboulis; K. A. Matis; G. A. Stalidis

    1996-01-01

    Toxic metals, such as zinc, nickel, and cadmium, can be removed from dilute aqueous solutions by sorption onto nonliving sewage sludge applied as finely dispersed biosorbent particles after sterilization and drying. A comparison between the suggested method and precipitation, the most common method used for metals removal, was conducted in parallel. The main parameters examined in single component systems include

  13. Gaseous fuels production from dried sewage sludge via air gasification.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2014-06-17

    Gasification is a perspective alternative method of dried sewage sludge thermal treatment. For the purpose of experimental investigations, a laboratory fixed-bed gasifier installation was designed and built. Two sewage sludge (SS) feedstocks, taken from two typical Polish wastewater treatment systems, were analysed: SS1, from a mechanical-biological wastewater treatment system with anaerobic stabilization (fermentation) and high temperature drying; and (SS2) from a mechanical-biological-chemical wastewater treatment system with fermentation and low temperature drying. The gasification results show that greater oxygen content in sewage sludge has a strong influence on the properties of the produced gas. Increasing the air flow caused a decrease in the heating value of the produced gas. Higher hydrogen content in the sewage sludge (from SS1) affected the produced gas composition, which was characterized by high concentrations of combustible components. In the case of the SS1 gasification, ash, charcoal, and tar were produced as byproducts. In the case of SS2 gasification, only ash and tar were produced. SS1 and solid byproducts from its gasification (ash and charcoal) were characterized by lower toxicity in comparison to SS2. However, in all analysed cases, tar samples were toxic. PMID:24938297

  14. COSTS OF AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYSTEMS FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air pollution control systems to municipal sewage sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment-wet scrubbers, fabric filters,...

  15. HELMINTH AND HEAVY METALS TRANSMISSION FROM ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses a study designed to determine the practical survival and transmission of the ova of the nematode worm Ascaris sp. through a modern sewage and sludge treatment process. Four large experiments and three smaller ones involving 178 specific pathogen free (SPF) p...

  16. Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ashes for phosphorus recovery.

    PubMed

    Adam, C; Peplinski, B; Michaelis, M; Kley, G; Simon, F-G

    2009-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for all living organisms and cannot be replaced. Municipal sewage sludge is a carrier of phosphorus, but also contains organic pollutants and heavy metals. A two-step thermal treatment is suggested, including mono-incineration of sewage sludge and subsequent thermochemical treatment of the ashes. Organic pollutants are completely destroyed by mono-incineration. The resulting sewage sludge ashes contain P, but also heavy metals. P in the ashes exhibits low bioavailability, a disadvantage in farming. Therefore, in a second thermochemical step, P is transferred into mineral phases available for plants, and heavy metals are removed as well. The thermochemical treatment was investigated in a laboratory-scale rotary furnace by treating seven different sewage sludge ashes under systematic variation of operational parameters. Heavy metal removal and the increase of the P-bioavailability were the focus of the investigation. The present experimental study shows that these objectives have been achieved with the proposed process. The P-bioavailability was significantly increased due to the formation of new mineral phases such as chlorapatite, farringtonite and stanfieldite during thermochemical treatment. PMID:19036571

  17. PATHOGEN RISKS FROM APPLYING SEWAGE SLUDGE TO LAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Congress banned ocean dumping of municipal wastes in the late 1980s. In its place, EPA developed guidance (40 CFR Part 503) for land application of processed sewage sludge (biosolids), mainly for agricultural purposes (1). Public health and environmental concerns with processed...

  18. Hydrogen and syngas production from sewage sludge via steam gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nimit Nipattummakul; Islam I. Ahmed; Somrat Kerdsuwan; Ashwani K. Gupta

    2010-01-01

    High temperature steam gasification is an attractive alternative technology which can allow one to obtain high percentage of hydrogen in the syngas from low-grade fuels. Gasification is considered a clean technology for energy conversion without environmental impact using biomass and solid wastes as feedstock. Sewage sludge is considered a renewable fuel because it is sustainable and has good potential for

  19. SEWAGE SLUDGE ENTRENCHMENT SYSTEM FOR USE BY SMALL MUNICIPALITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method of disposing of dewatered sewage sludge by entrenching it into soil was developed for small communities. Readily available and relatively inexpensive equipment was used. Included were a tractor equipped with a loader and backhoe, and dump truck or concrete mixer truck. A...

  20. Effect of seeding during thermophilic composting of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Nakasaki, K.; Sasaki, M.; Shoda, M.; Kubota, H.

    1985-03-01

    The effect of seeding on the thermophilic composting of sewage sludge was examined by measuring the changes in CO/sub 2/ evolution rates and microbial numbers. Although the succession of thermophilic bacteria and thermophilic actinomycetes clearly reflected the effect of seeding, no clear difference was observed in the overall rate of composting or quality of the composted product. 7 references.

  1. BAGHOUSE EFFICIENCY ON A MULTIPLE HEARTH INCINERATOR BURNING SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale fabric filter (baghouse) was evaluated for its removal performance for 23 metals and for sulfur as well as for total particles when fitted to a multiple hearth incinerator burning sewage sludge. The small scale baghouse was installed to take a slipstream of about th...

  2. USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON AGRICULTURAL AND DISTURBED LANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of 8 field studies of long-term use of digested sewage on agricultural and disturbed lands are presented. The studies included: (1) response of corn grown on 3 soil types previously amended with annual sludge applications; (2) response of corn grown annually on Blount sil...

  3. EFFECTS OF USING SEWAGE SLUDGE ON AGRICULTURAL AND DISTURBED LANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accumulative effects of annual use of sewage sludge on composition of soils, plants, water, and animals that consume the plants is presented. Plant yields were increased and no evidence of phototoxicity from trace elements was observed. Phosphorus toxicity in soybeans develop...

  4. FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION AND STABILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...

  5. Effect of sewage sludges contaminated with polybrominated diphenylethers on agricultural soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ethel Eljarrat; Göran Marsh; Ana Labandeira; Damià Barceló

    2008-01-01

    The fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sewage sludge after agricultural application was analysed. This study was based on the analysis of sewage sludge and sludge amended soil samples collected during 2005. PBDE concentrations in sewage sludge ranged from 197 to 1185ng\\/g dry weight (dw), being deca-BDE-209 the predominant congener. PBDE levels in soils ranged between 21 and 690ng\\/g

  6. Effects of lime treatment on fractionation and extractabilities of heavy metals in sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1997-01-01

    Many studies have focused on heavy metal characteristics in sewage sludges and sludge?amended soils other than lime?stabilized sewage sludge (LS). Thus, the aerobically digested sewage sludge cake (13.61% solids) sampled from the Min?Sheng Wastewater Treatment Plant in Taipei City, Taiwan was lime?stabilized for studying the effects of the lime treatment on fractionation and extractabilities of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cr,

  7. Growth, yield, and fruit quality of pepper plants amended with two sanitized sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Immaculada; Azcona, Iñaki; Aguirreolea, Jone; Morales, Fermín; Corpas, Francisco Javier; Palma, José Manuel; Rellán-Alvarez, Rubén; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel

    2010-06-01

    Organic wastes such as sewage sludge have been successfully used to increase crop productivity of horticultural soils. Nevertheless, considerations of the impact of sludges on vegetable and fruit quality have received little attention. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to investigate the impact of two sanitized sewage sludges, autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) and compost sludge, on the growth, yield, and fruit quality of pepper plants ( Capsicum annuum L. cv. Piquillo) grown in the greenhouse. Two doses of ATAD (15 and 30% v/v) and three of composted sludge (15, 30, and 45%) were applied to a peat-based potting mix. Unamended substrate was included as control. ATAD and composted sludge increased leaf, shoot, and root dry matter, as well as fruit yield, mainly due to a higher number of fruits per plant. There was no effect of sludge on fruit size (dry matter per fruit and diameter). The concentrations of Zn and Cu in fruit increased with the addition of sewage sludges. Nevertheless, the levels of these elements remained below toxic thresholds. Pepper fruits from sludge-amended plants maintained low concentrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, thus indicating low pungency level, in accordance with the regulations prescribed by the Control Board of "Lodosa Piquillo peppers" Origin Denomination. The application of sludges did not modify the concentration of vitamin C (ASC) in fruit, whereas the highest doses of composted sludge tended to increase the content of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, without change in the GSH/GSSG ratio. There were no effects of sludge on the transcript levels of enzymes involved in the synthesis of vitamin C, l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH) or in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR), and glutathione reductase (GR). Results suggest that the synthesis and degradation of ASC and GSH were compensated for in most of the treatments assayed. The application of sanitized sludges to pepper plants can improve pepper yield without loss of food nutritional quality, in terms of fruit size and vitamin C, glutathione, and capsaicinoid contents. PMID:20450196

  8. FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. The energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. These...

  9. FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. he energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. hese f...

  10. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage treatment is performed in an environmentally safe and cost?effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by sp...

  11. Influence of bulking agents on speciation of heavy metals during sewage sludge composting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Liu; Ya-tong Xu

    2011-01-01

    The major limitation of soil application of sewage sludge compost is the total heavy metal contents and their bioavailability and mobility. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mature compost as a bulking agent on reduction the mobility and bioavailability of Zn, Cu , Pb and Cr during the sewage sludge composting process. The three composting processes: sewage

  12. Physicochemical characteristics of full scale sewage sludges with implications to dewatering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lene Haugaard Mikkelsen; Kristian Keiding

    2002-01-01

    An investigation was carried out for a variety of different sewage sludges in order to establish correlations between sludge composition, structure and dewatering properties. Results indicated that the fraction of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in sludges was the most important parameter with respect to sludge structure. With high EPS contents, sludges had a lower shear sensitivity and lower degree of

  13. MICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN COMPOSTING MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to identify the most important operational parameters which limit the growth and decomposition activity of composting sludge microbiota. Sensitive and nonselective biochemical methods of monitoring microbial biomass and activity were tested and used to stud...

  14. Monometal and competitive adsorption of heavy metals by sewage sludge-amended soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sewage sludge-amended soils may alter their ability to adsorb heavy metals over time, due to the decomposition of sludge-borne organic matter. Thus, we studied Cd, Ni, and Zn adsorption by a sewage sludge-amended soil (Typic Xerofluvent) before and after one-year incubation in both monometal and com...

  15. COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS AND EMISSION OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS IN COMMERCIAL FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTORS FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ha-Na Jang; Seong-Bum Park; Jeong-Hun Kim; Yong-Chil Seo

    2011-01-01

    Since the disposal of sewage sludge in ocean has been prohibited recently according to London Dumping Convention, technological need for treating sewage sludge safely and efficiently are getting increased in Korea. FBC (Fluidized Bed Combustor) technology has been selected and utilized as one of the alternatives because of combustible content in sludge, on-going process development to maintain the best combustion

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentration changes in sewage sludge and organic municipal waste mixtures during composting and anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Siebielska, Izabela; Side?ko, Robert

    2015-05-01

    We determined the changes in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in a mixture of sewage sludge and the organic fraction of municipal waste during composting and during anaerobic digestion. The processes were carried out on a laboratory scale. The PCBs were analyzed in the waste samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We evaluated the rates at which the PCB concentrations decreased during composting and during anaerobic digestion and compared the PCB degradation kinetics during these processes. The most important conclusion of this work is that anaerobic digestion is much more effective than composting at removing PCBs from a mixture of sewage sludge and the organic fraction of municipal waste. PMID:25618191

  17. Thermochemical liquidization and anaerobic treatment of dewatered sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeki Sawayama; Seiichi Inoue; Tatsuo Yagishita; Tomoko Ogi; Shin-Ya Yokoyama

    1995-01-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge was thermochemically liquidized at 175°C and the liquidized sludge was separated by centrifugation to 57.7% (w\\/w) supernatant [moisture, 92.3%; volatile solid (VS), 7.0%] and 42.3% precipitate (moisture, 71.6%; VS, 18.9%). The supernatant was successfully anaerobically digested. Biogas yield from the supernatant at organic loading concentrations of 1.9–2.2 g VS\\/l during 9 days' incubation was 440 ml\\/g-added VS

  18. Co-digestion of cultivated microalgae and sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Jesper; Feng, Xin Mei; Ascue, Johnny; Gentili, Francesco G; Shabiimam, M A; Nehrenheim, Emma; Thorin, Eva

    2014-11-01

    In this study two wet microalgae cultures and one dried microalgae culture were co-digested in different proportions with sewage sludge in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The aim was to evaluate if the co-digestion could lead to an increased efficiency of methane production compared to digestion of sewage sludge alone. The results showed that co-digestion with both wet and dried microalgae, in certain proportions, increased the biochemical methane potential (BMP) compared with digestion of sewage sludge alone in mesophilic conditions. The BMP was significantly higher than the calculated BMP in many of the mixtures. This synergetic effect was statistically significant in a mixture containing 63% (w/w VS based) undigested sewage sludge and 37% (w/w VS based) wet algae slurry, which produced 23% more methane than observed with undigested sewage sludge alone. The trend was that thermophilic co-digestion of microalgae and undigested sewage sludge did not give the same synergy. PMID:25203227

  19. Landfarming of municipal sewage sludge at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Tischler, M.L.; Pergler, C.; Wilson, M.; Mabry, D.; Stephenson, M.

    1995-12-01

    The City of Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been applying municipal sanitary sludge to 9 sites comprising 90 ha on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) since 1983. Approximately 13,000,000 L are applied annually by spraying sludge (2 to 3% solids) under pressure from a tanker. Under an ongoing monitoring program, both the sludge and the soil in the application areas are analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radioactive parameters on a regular basis. Organic pollutants are analyzed in sludge on a semiannual basis and in the soil application areas on an annual basis. Inorganic parameters are analyzed daily (e.g., pH, total solids) or monthly (e.g., nitrogen, manganese) in sludge and annually in soil in application areas. Radionuclides (Co-60, Cs-137, I-131, Be-7, K-40, Ra-228, U-235, U-238) are scanned daily during application by the sewage treatment plant and analyzed weekly in composite sludge samples and annually in soil. Additionally, data on radioactive body burden for maximally exposed workers who apply the sludge show no detectable exposures. This monitoring program is comprehensive and is one of the few in the United States that analyzes radionuclides. Results from the monitoring program show heavy metals and radionuclides are not accumulating to levels in the soil application areas.

  20. Effect of the addition of rice straw on microbial community in a sewage sludge digester.

    PubMed

    Nakakihara, E; Ikemoto-Yamamoto, R; Honda, R; Ohtsuki, S; Takano, M; Suetsugu, Y; Watanabe, H

    2014-01-01

    Rice straw was added to a sewage sludge digester and its effects on methane production, dewatering characteristics, and microbial communities in the digested sludge were examined by a continuous digestion experiment under mesophilic conditions (35 °C). Stable gas generation was monitored in all digestion experiments. Methane yield from raw sludge, chopped rice straw and softened rice straw were estimated to be 0.27, 0.18 and 0.26 NL/g total solids load, respectively. The capillary suction time of digested sludge was decreased by the addition of rice straw. Archaeal and bacterial communities in the sludge were elucidated by PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction--denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) targeting 16S rRNA genes. The Shannon index of DGGE profiles indicated that bacterial diversity increased with the addition of softened rice straw. DNA sequences of significant bands of the digested sludge were most closely related to Methanosaeta concilii (97.4% identity) and Methanoculleus bourgensis (100% identity). Meanwhile, those in the co-digested sludge with rice straw were most closely related to Methanosarcina barkeri (98.4% identity) and Methanoculleus bourgensis (99.3% identity). Although both Methanosaeta spp. and Methanosarcina spp. metabolize acetate to methane, Methanosarcina spp. have a competitive advantage at acetate concentrations of >70 mg/L. Results suggested that the quantity of acetate produced during rice straw degradation may change the archaeal community. PMID:25225928

  1. Heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash analyzed by thermogravimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Vogel; Christian Adam; Miriam Unger

    2011-01-01

    A high temperature (1000 °C) thermochemical process for heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash via the chloride pathway\\u000a was investigated by thermogravimetry\\/differential thermal analysis (TG\\/DTA). TG and DTA measurements gave information about\\u000a secession and evaporation of water, HCl, and heavy metal chlorides at different temperatures. Additionally, gaseous water\\u000a and hydrochloric acid which occurred in the process were detected by an

  2. Distribution and levels of brominated flame retardants in sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Öberg; Kristofer Warman; Tomas Öberg

    2002-01-01

    One hundred and sixteen sewage sludge samples from 22 municipal wastewater treatment plants in Sweden were analysed for brominated flame retardants. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were in the range n.d.–450 ng\\/g wet weight, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) varied between n.d. and 220 ng\\/g wet weight, 2,4,6-tribromophenol was in the range n.d.–0.9 ng\\/g wet weight and polybrominated biphenyls were not detected (except

  3. Synthetic zeolites as amendments for sewage sludge-based compost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R Nissen; N. W Lepp; R Edwards

    2000-01-01

    The effects of incorporating a synthetic zeolite (Zeolite P) in a range of concentrations (0.1–1.0 w:w) into an experimental horticultural compost, derived from sewage sludge, have been investigated. The impact of zeolite treatment on time-related changes of the labile zinc, copper, iron and manganese pools within the compost was compared to lime incorporation (5% w:w) and to a proprietary unamended

  4. Environmental and economic assessment of sewage sludge handling options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Lundin; M Olofsson; G. J Pettersson; H Zetterlund

    2004-01-01

    The environmental and economic consequences of four recycling and disposal options for municipal sewage sludge have been assessed. The four options were: agricultural application, co-incineration with waste, incineration combined with phosphorus recovery (Bio-Con) and fractionation including phosphorus recovery (Cambi-KREPRO). Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to assess the environmental consequences, while effects in the district heating system were analysed using

  5. THERMAL TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The thermal conditioning research program was conducted as part of an overall long-term sludge management study for the Los Angeles and Orange County metropolitan areas. The major goal of this portion of the study was to investigate the advantages of thermal conditioning of prima...

  6. DEWATERING MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGES SELECTING A PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using information and data obtained for an update of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's guidance document on dewatering municipal wastewater sludges, a sequential review is made of key considerations in selecting an optimum process. Included in the discussion are the prin...

  7. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge management: a review.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Christensen, Thomas H; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-11-01

    In this article, 35 published studies on life cycle assessment (LCA) of sewage sludge were reviewed for their methodological and technological assumptions. Overall, LCA has been providing a flexible framework to quantify environmental impacts of wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and disposal processes for multiple scales, ranging from process selection to policy evaluation. The results of LCA are, in principle, unique to the goal and scope of each study, reflecting its local conditions and comparison between different LCAs is not intended. Furthermore, the assessments are limited by the methodological development of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) and the advancement of research in quantifying environmental emissions associated with wastewater and sewage sludge treatment processes. Thus, large discrepancies were found in the selection of the environmental emissions to be included and how they were estimated in the analysis. In order to reduce these choice uncertainties, consolidation of the modelling approach in the following area are recommended: quantification of fugitive gas emissions and modelling of disposal practices. Besides harmonization of the key technical assumptions, clear documentation of the modelling approach and the uncertainties associating with each assumption is encouraged so as to improve the integrity and robustness of assessment. PMID:24061046

  8. Dynamic of lead speciation in sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Zheng, G D; Chen, T B; Gao, D; Luo, W

    2004-01-01

    A large-scale sewage sludge composting experiment was conducted to develop an understanding of changes that occur to Pb chemical speciation, distribution and bio-availability during the course of composting. The four-stage Tessier sequential extraction method was employed to investigate the dynamics of heavy metal Pb speciation (exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to Fe-Mn oxides, bound to organic matter and sulphides, residual) during the course of sewage sludge composting. The concentrations of the total Pb and the five Pb fractions concentrations were increased during the whole stage of compost. However, the percentages of Pb distribution with respect to total Pb were changed in the following manner: exchangeable, bound to Fe-Mn oxides and bound to carbonates Pb with respect to total Pb were increased, while the percentages of bound to organic matter and sulphides, and residual Pb with respect to total Pb were decreased during composting. The data showed that the quantity of Pb in the less toxic portion, such as consisting of organic matter and sulphides bound and residual Pb, was increased, and that the contamination and bio-availability of heavy metal Pb in sewage sludge was reduced during the composting process. PMID:15580997

  9. Sewage sludge does not induce genotoxicity and carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Paula Regina Pereira; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Through a series of experiments, the genotoxic/mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of sewage sludge was assessed. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Group 1 - negative control; Group 2 - liver carcinogenesis initiated by diethylnitrosamine (DEN; 200 mg/kg i.p.); Group 3 and G4-liver carcinogenesis initiated by DEN and fed 10,000 ppm or 50,000 ppm of sewage sludge. The animals were submitted to a 70% partial hepatectomy at the 3rd week. Livers were processed for routine histological analysis and immunohistochemistry, in order to detect glutathione S-transferase positive altered hepatocyte foci (GST-P+ AHF). Peripheral blood samples for the comet assay were obtained from the periorbital plexus immediately prior to sacrificing. Polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) were analyzed in femoral bone-marrow smears, and the frequencies of those micronucleated (MNPCEs) registered. There was no sewage-sludge-induced increase in frequency of either DNA damage in peripheral blood leucocytes, or MNPCEs in the femoral bone marrow. Also, there was no increase in the levels of DNA damage, in the frequency of MNPCEs, and in the development of GST-P AHF when compared with the respective control group. PMID:23055806

  10. Utilization and Conversion of Sewage Sludge as Metal Sorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xu Dong; Li, Loretta Y.

    2013-04-01

    Most biosolids are disposed on land. With improvements in wastewater treatment processes and upgrading of treatment plants across Canada, biosolids generation will increase dramatically. These biosolids will need to be dealt with because they contain various contaminants, including heavy metals and several classes of emerging contaminants. A number of researchers have recently focused on preparation of sewage sludge-based adsorbents by carbonation, physical activation and chemical activation for decontamination of air and wastewater. These previous studies have indicated that sludge-based activated carbon can have good adsorption performance for organic substances in dye wastewater. The overall results suggest that activated carbon from sewage sludge can produce a useful adsorbent, while also reducing the amount of sewage sludge to be disposed. However, sludge-derived activated carbon has not been extensively studied, especially for adsorption of heavy metal ions in wastewater and for its capacity to remove emerging contaminants, such as poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs). Previous research has indicated that commercial activated carbons adsorb organic compounds more efficiently than heavy metal ions. 45 Activated carbon can be modified to enhance its adsorption capacity for special heavy metal ions,46 e.g. by addition of inorganic and organic reagents. The modifications which are successful for commercial activated carbon should also be effective for sludge-derived activated carbon, but this needs to be confirmed. Our research focuses on (a) investigation of techniques for converting sewage sludge (SS) to activated carbon (AC) as sorbents; (b) exploration of possible modification of the activated carbon (MAC) to improve its sorption capacity; (c) examination of the chemical stability of the activated carbon and the leachability of contaminants from activated carbon,; (d) comparison of adsorptivity with that of other sorbents. Based on XRD and FT-IR, we successfully converted SS to AC and further modified it to improve absorption. SSMAC has large specific surface areas based on the BET technique. Batch adsorption results indicate that metal adsorption for SSMAC > SSAC, with adsorption occurring within the first 5 minutes of contact. Comparison of the adsorptivity of various sorbents such as commercial activated carbon (CAC), mineral sorbents such as perlite, clinoptilolite and illite indicates that SSMAC × CAC × clinoptilolite > kaolite.

  11. Process performance of high-solids batch anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaocong; Li, Huan; Cheng, Yingchao; Chen, Nan; Li, Chenchen; Yang, Yuning

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of high-solids anaerobic digestion (AD) of sewage sludge were investigated by comparison with conventional low-solids processes. A series of batch experiments were conducted under mesophilic condition and the initial solid contents were controlled at four levels of 1.79%, 4.47%, 10.28% and 15.67%. During these experiments, biogas production, organic degradation and intermediate products were monitored. The results verified that high-solids batch AD of sewage sludge was feasible. Compared with the low-solids AD with solid contents of 1.79% or 4.47%, the high-solids processes decreased the specific biogas yield per gram of sludge volatile solids slightly, achieved the same organic degradation rate of about 40% within extended degradation time, but increased the volumetric biogas production rate and the treatment capability of digesters significantly. The blocked mass and energy transfer, the low substrate to inoculum rate and the excessive cumulative free ammonia were the main factors impacting the performance of high-solids batch AD. PMID:25176298

  12. Aerobic biodegradation of selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in wastewater sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Stiborova, Hana; Vrkoslavova, Jana; Lovecka, Petra; Pulkrabova, Jana; Hradkova, Petra; Hajslova, Jana; Demnerova, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    Due to widespread accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in our surroundings, it is important to clarify their fate in the environment and the options of their elimination. The aim of this study was to monitor the biodegradation of the most frequent congeners (BDE 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209) under aerobic condition by indigenous microflora in 2 industrially contaminated sewage sludge samples. BDE 209 was detected as the predominating congener in concentrations 685 ng/g and 1403 ng/g dry weight in sewage sludge from WWTPs (waste water treatment plants) Hradec Kralove and Brno, respectively. The total amount of 10 lower PBDEs was 605 and 205 ng/g dry weight, respectively. The aerobic degradation was significantly enhanced by the addition of yeast extract and 4-bromobiphenyl. The total concentrations of all 11 PBDE congeners were lowered and their elimination was detected reaching 62–78% of their initial amounts after 11 months of cultivation. The degradation of most abundant congener BDE 209 followed the first-order kinetics with constant detected between 2.77 × 10(?3) d(?1) and 3.79 × 10?(3)d(?1) and the half-lives of BDE 209 degradation ranged between 6.0 and 8.2 months. This work clearly demonstrates that both lower brominated PBDEs as well as the major representative BDE 209 could be successfully removed from municipally contaminated sludge under aerobic conditions. PMID:25463256

  13. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring reports, second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    During second quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13, 173. This report includes the results of those analyses. None of the analyzed constituents exceeded the Primary Drinking Water Standard or the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria at either the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site or the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site.

  14. Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants in digested sewage sludge (1993-2012).

    PubMed

    Zennegg, Markus; Munoz, Maria; Schmid, Peter; Gerecke, Andreas C

    2013-10-01

    The analysis of temporal trends is a key tool to assess the success of national and international regulations on chemical pollution. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are chemical pollutants, which are not only harmful, but also because of their slow environmental degradation they pose a long-time risk. In this study, concentrations of selected POPs were measured between 1993 and 2012 in digested sewage sludge from eight municipal waste water treatment plants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), which have been banned or restricted for decades, exhibited decreasing trends with apparent half-lives between 9 and 12years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and long-chain perfluorinated acids showed no clear trend, which reflects the recent introduction of regulations. The analysis of octabromodiphenyl ethers did not reveal indications for reductive debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether; however the analysis of total bromine showed that up to 14% of the total bromine load in sewage sludge originated from PBDEs (average 2%). This is the first study to report temporal trends for more than 20years of series POPs in sewage sludge. PMID:24071021

  15. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage and brewery sludge for biogas production and land application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Babel; J. Sae-Tang

    2009-01-01

    In Thailand, sewage sludge production from the Bangkok metropolitan area can reach up to 63,000 ton\\/y by 2010. The Beer-Thai Company, Thailand, produces beer and generates lots of sludge as waste. Sewage sludge and brewery sludge can be used to generate energy which could be saved on the fossil fuels conventionally used as a source of energy. The possibility was

  16. Leachate tests with sewage sludge contaminated by radioactive cesium.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Ikuo; Ogoshi, Masashi; Harada, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The sewer systems of eastern Japan have transported radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to wastewater treatment plants, where the radioisotopes have accumulated. To better understand the potential problems associated with the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills, leachate tests were conducted with radioactive incinerator ash, cement solidification incinerator ash, and dewatered sludge cake. Radioactivity was undetectable in the eluate from incinerator ash and dewatered sludge cake, but about 30% of the radioactivity initially in cement solidification incinerator ash appeared in the eluate during the leaching experiments. Moreover, modification of test conditions revealed that the presence of Ca(2+) ions and strong alkali in the water that contacted the incinerator ash enhanced leaching of cesium. Lastly, the capacity of pit soil to absorb radioactive cesium was estimated to be at least 3.0 Bq/g (dry). PMID:23947711

  17. Microbial acidification and pH effects on trace element release from sewage sludge

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    Microbial acidification and pH effects on trace element release from sewage sludge Shabnam Qureshia wastewater sludge appears to be that of acidification. Abstract Leaching of sludge-borne trace elements has mobilization from sludge subjected to treatments representing microbial acidification, direct chemical

  18. Transformation products and human metabolites of triclocarban and triclosan in sewage sludge across the United States.

    PubMed

    Pycke, Benny F G; Roll, Isaac B; Brownawell, Bruce J; Kinney, Chad A; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Halden, Rolf U

    2014-07-15

    Removal of triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) from wastewater is a function of adsorption, abiotic degradation, and microbial mineralization or transformation, reactions that are not currently controlled or optimized in the pollution control infrastructure of standard wastewater treatment. Here, we report on the levels of eight transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in raw and treated sewage sludge. Two sample sets were studied: samples collected once from 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) representing nine states, and multiple samples collected from one WWTP monitored for 12 months. Time-course analysis of significant mass fluxes (?=0.01) indicate that transformation of TCC (dechlorination) and TCS (methylation) occurred during sewage conveyance and treatment. Strong linear correlations were found between TCC and the human metabolite 2'-hydroxy-TCC (r=0.84), and between the TCC-dechlorination products dichlorocarbanilide (DCC) and monochlorocarbanilide (r=0.99). Mass ratios of DCC-to-TCC and of methyl-triclosan (MeTCS)-to-TCS, serving as indicators of transformation activity, revealed that transformation was widespread under different treatment regimes across the WWTPs sampled, though the degree of transformation varied significantly among study sites (?=0.01). The analysis of sludge sampled before and after different unit operation steps (i.e., anaerobic digestion, sludge heat treatment, and sludge drying) yielded insights into the extent and location of TCC and TCS transformation. Results showed anaerobic digestion to be important for MeTCS transformation (37-74%), whereas its contribution to partial TCC dechlorination was limited (0.4-2.1%). This longitudinal and nationwide survey is the first to report the occurrence of transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in sewage sludge. PMID:24932693

  19. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Llll of... - Emission Limits and Standards for New Fluidized Bed Sewage Sludge Incineration Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Emission Limits and Standards for New Fluidized Bed Sewage Sludge Incineration...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge...

  20. Balancing hygienization and anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Astals, S; Venegas, C; Peces, M; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2012-12-01

    The anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge was evaluated in terms of process efficiency and sludge hygienization. Four different scenarios were analyzed, i.e. mesophilic anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a 60 °C or by an 80 °C hygienization treatment. Digester performance (organic matter removal, process stability and biogas yield) and the hygienization efficiency (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA phages) were the main examined factors. Moreover, a preliminary economical feasibility study of each option was carried out throughout an energy balance (heat and electricity). The obtained results showed that both thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a hygienization step were able to produce an effluent sludge that fulfills the American and the European legislation for land application. However, higher removal efficiencies of indicators were obtained when a hygienization post-treatment was present. Regarding the energy balance, it should be noted that all scenarios have a significant energy surplus. Particularly, positive heat balances will be obtained for the thermophilic anaerobic digestion and for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by 60 °C hygienization post-treatment if an additional fresh-sludge/digested sludge heat exchanger is installed for energy recovery. PMID:23063441

  1. Glazed tiles manufactured from incinerated sewage sludge ash and clay.

    PubMed

    Lin, Deng-Fong; Luo, Huan-Lin; Sheen, Yeong-Nain

    2005-02-01

    Sewage sludge incineration is applied extensively in highly populated cities as a final sludge treatment. In this study, incinerated ash was utilized as an additive to clay to manufacture glaze tiles. Four different amounts of ash (0, 15, 30, and 45%) were added, and five glaze concentrations (0.03, 0.06, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 g/cm2) were applied on the surface of biscuit tiles to study the effects of ash additive and glaze concentration on properties of fired samples. Sewage sludge was dehydrated and incinerated into ash at 800 degrees C. Subsequently, tile specimens were manufactured and fired at 800 degrees C to make biscuit tiles. Fritted glazes and iron oxide were used as the fundamental glaze and colorant, respectively. Finally, glaze was applied on the surface of biscuit tiles and then fired at 1050 degrees C to sinter them into glazed tile specimens. Tests were performed to analyze properties, including water absorption, firing shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, abrasion resistance, bending resistance, acid-alkali resistance, and aging resistance on specimens of glaze tile. To further understand more about the microstructural behavior of glazed tile specimens, analysis of energy dispersive spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray were carried out in this study. PMID:15796106

  2. NEAR-BOTTOM PELAGIC BACTERIA AT A DEEP-WATER SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. ixed cultures and bacterial...

  3. Chemical and microbial changes during autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shugen Liu; Fanyong Song; Nanwen Zhu; Haiping Yuan; Jiehong Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) is a promising process for sewage sludge stabilization. Batch experiments were conducted on sewage sludge collected from a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Shanghai, China, to evaluate the effectiveness of the ATAD system by determining changes in volatile suspended solids (VSSs) and to study its microbial diversity by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA

  4. Effect of heavy metal contaminated sewage sludge on soil microbiological properties and growth of Indian mustard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meenu Walia; Sneh Goyal

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory incubation and pot experiment were carried out to study the effect of amendment of uncontaminated and metal contaminated sewage sludge on soil microbial biomass carbon (C), soil enzyme activities and growth of Indian mustard in a sandy loam soil. The application of metal contaminated sewage sludge containing chromium (Cr) (2400 mg kg), nickel (Ni) (400 mg kg) and lead (Pb)

  5. Root Penetration of Sealing Layers Made of Fly Ash and Sewage Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clara Neuschütz; Eva Stoltz; Maria Greger

    2006-01-01

    Fly ash and sewage sludge are suggested materials for constructing sealing layers covering mine tailings impoundments. Little is known, however, of their effect on vegetation or resistance to root penetration. We investigate: (i) the ability of different plant species to grow in seal- ing layers comprising fly ash and sewage sludge, (ii) the impact on plant growth of freshly hardened

  6. Perception of technical personnel on research and education needs for land application of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Kelley; T. W. Simpson; R. B. Reneau; G. D. McCart; D. C. Martens

    1984-01-01

    A questionnaire was developed and sent to individuals involved in waste management to get their perspective on problem areas associated with land application of sewage sludge that need additional research. From their responses, a list of research priorities was formulated to give direction to future research in land application of sewage sludge. All the questions received a mean response that

  7. Technical support document for land application of sewage sludge. Volume 1. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Jones; L. Beyer; M. Rookwood; J. Pacenka; J. Bergin

    1992-01-01

    The document provides the technical background and justification for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) final regulation (40 CFR Part 503) covering the land application of sewage sludge. The document summarizes current practices in land application and presents data supporting the risk assessment methodology used to derive human health and environmental risk-based limits for contaminants in land applied sewage sludge.

  8. Comparative criteria: Land application of sewage sludge and ocean disposal of dredged material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P O'Connor

    1998-01-01

    That societal perceptions differ between use of the land and the ocean is exemplified by environmental regulations in the United States that allow much higher levels of chemical contamination in sewage sludge to be used on land than in dredged material to be dumped at sea. Criteria for sewage sludge acceptability for land application are bulk chemical concentrations. Criteria for

  9. Studies on land application of sewage sludge and its limiting factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Wang; Tao Chen; Yinghua Ge; Yongfeng Jia

    2008-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of sewage sludge application on the heavy metal content in soils and grasses. The sewage sludge was obtained from Northern Shenyang Wastewater Treatment Plant, China, and applied at 0, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 150tha?1. Native grasses Zoysia japonica and Poa annua were chosen as experimental plants. The experimental results showed that

  10. Heavy metals in sludge from the sewage treatment plant of Rio de Janeiro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomaz Langenbach; Wolfgang Pfeifer; Luiz Rodrigues Freire; Michele Sarpa; Sueli Paim

    1994-01-01

    The final disposal of sewage sludge on soils as a compost for agriculture increases heavy metal contamination in soils. This demands controlled use to avoid hazardous situations. This work measures the heavy metals content in sludge and its potential as a fertilizer in agriculture. Samples were collected from the Penha urban sewage plant, the largest in Rio de Janeiro. Heavy

  11. LONG-TERM USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON AGRICULTURAL AND DISTURBED LANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents results from the last 2 years of a 15-year study of the long term use of sewage sludge on agricultural and disturbed lands. The three field studies discussed here include (1) the response of corn to repeated annual applications of sewage sludge, (2) the diffe...

  12. Evaluation of dioxin contamination in sewage sludge discharges on coastal sediments from catalonia, spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Eljarrat; J Caixach; J Rivera

    2001-01-01

    The fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in sewage sludges after discharge into the sea was investigated. Sediment samples were analysed at a sewage sludge disposal site as well as in the surrounding areas. Moreover, eight sediment samples from two rivers in Catalonia and three sediment samples from Catalonian Coast were analysed to determine the background levels of

  13. Comparative goal-oriented assessment of conventional and alternative sewage sludge treatment options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakob Lederer; Helmut Rechberger

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorous (P) is a limited and non-substitutable resource. Sewage sludge contains significant amounts of P and is therefore a widely applied fertilizer. Due to its organic and inorganic contaminants, sewage sludge is also combusted in industrial facilities as well as in waste incinerators. This study compares five common methods and one novel alternative based on a thermo-chemical process to treat

  14. Activated carbon and biochar amendments decrease pore-water concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    - tion, which is one way of sewage sludge disposal, is very expensive and meets opposition from hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge Patryk Oleszczuk a,b, , Sarah E. Hale a , Johannes Lehmann c , Gerard Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Bioavailability Sewage sludge a b s t r a c t The aim of the research

  15. Macrobenthic succession following the cessation of sewage sludge disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Frid, Chris L. J.

    2009-11-01

    Half a million tonnes of sewage sludge was disposed annually over an 18-yr period at a licensed area off the Northumberland coast, UK. The disposal operation ceased in December 1998, providing the ecological opportunity to study macrobenthic changes in relation to theoretical succession models. A transect from the centre of the disposal site to a control station was monitored three times a year (i.e. March, August and December). This study provides a description of the changes in the macrobenthos and physical environment in the initial '3 years' (i.e. 1999 - 2001). During the period of sewage sludge disposal there were indications of an impact on the macrobenthic community with a high total abundance of individuals ( N) and high total number of species ( S) at the stations located in the centre of the disposal ground. During the immediate post-disposal phase the site continued to show a localised increased of individuals and species in the disposal area. Over time the communities showed signs of successional changes when the reduction of organic matter source was eliminated from the natural system. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a clear gradient of change in the community composition between impacted and control stations. While most benthic studies assess re-colonisation and succession stages of macrobenthos by using manipulative field experiments, this study provides an in situ long-term assessment in the offshore environment. This study contributes with information on: i) initial colonization and succession of macrobenthic communities over a large scale and real world data; ii) macrobenthic data into existing successional models and iii) resilience of benthic communities following the cessation of sewage sludge disposal. This information has the potential to contribute to an effective management of the marine communities in the North Sea.

  16. Pathway of radioisotopes from land surface to sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Helmut W.; Yokoo, Yoshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Radioactive surface contaminations will only partially remain at the original location - a fraction of the inventory will take part in (mainly terrestrial and aquatic) environmental transport processes. The probably best known and most important process comprises the food chain. Besides, the translocation of dissolved and particle-bound radioisotopes with surface waters plays an important role. These processes can have the effect of displacing large radioisotope amounts over considerable distances and of creating new sinks and hot spots, as it is already known for sewage sludge. We are reporting on a combined modeling and experimental project concerning the transport of I-131 and Cs-134/Cs-137 FDNPP 2011 depositions in the Fukushima Prefecture. Well-documented experimental data sets are available for surface deposition and sewage sludge concentrations. The goal is to model the pathway in between, involving surface runoff, transport in the sewer system and processes in the sewage treatment plant. Watershed runoff and sewer transport will be treated with models developed recently by us in other projects. For sewage treatment processes a new model is currently being constructed. For comparison and further validation, historical data from Chernobyl depositions and tracer data from natural and artificial, e.g. medical, isotopes will be used. First results for 2011 data from Fukushima Prefecture will be presented. The benefits of the study are expected to be two-fold: on one hand, the abundant recent and historical data will help to develop and improve environmental transport models; on the other hand, both data and models will help in identifying the most critical points in the envisaged transport pathways in terms of radiation protection and waste management.

  17. Fossil Fuel Biomarkers in Sewage Sludges: Environmental Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payet, C.; Bryselbout, C.; Morel, J.-L.; Lichtfouse, E.

    Fossil fuel biomarkers, or "molecular fossils," are specific organic substances found in coals, petroleums, and sedimentary rocks. They are formed during millions of years of sedimentary burial by geochemical alteration of biological molecules, such as cholesterol, under the effect of biodegradation, temperature, pressure, and mineral catalysis, to produce geochemically mature molecules, for example, aromatic steroids (Fig. 1). Since fossil fuel biomarkers have a very specific molecular structure betraying fossil fuel sources, such markers should be useful in assessing the fossil fuel contamination of various modern media such as soils, plants, waters, and modern sediments. Here the identification of fossil fuel biomarkers of high geothermal maturity in sewage sludges provides evidence of the contamination of sludges by petroleum products. The most likely sources of contamination are contaminated vegetal food, road dust, and soil particles carried by rain water.

  18. Fossil fuel biomarkers in sewage sludges: environmental significance

    PubMed

    Payet; Bryselbout; Morel; Lichtfouse

    1999-10-01

    Fossil fuel biomarkers, or "molecular fossils," are specific organic substances found in coals, petroleums, and sedimentary rocks. They are formed during millions of years of sedimentary burial by geochemical alteration of biological molecules, such as cholesterol, under the effect of biodegradation, temperature, pressure, and mineral catalysis, to produce geochemically mature molecules, for example, aromatic steroids (Fig. 1). Since fossil fuel biomarkers have a very specific molecular structure betraying fossil fuel sources, such markers should be useful in assessing the fossil fuel contamination of various modern media such as soils, plants, waters, and modern sediments. Here the identification of fossil fuel biomarkers of high geothermal maturity in sewage sludges provides evidence of the contamination of sludges by petroleum products. The most likely sources of contamination are contaminated vegetal food, road dust, and soil particles carried by rain water.http://link. springer.de/link/service/journals/00114/bibs/9086010/90860484. htm

  19. Behavior of Ag nanoparticles in soil: effects of particle surface coating, aging and sewage sludge amendment.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Annie R; Levard, Clément; Oostveen, Emily; Bertsch, Paul M; Matocha, Chris J; von der Kammer, Frank; Unrine, Jason M

    2013-11-01

    This study addressed the relative importance of particle coating, sewage sludge amendment, and aging on aggregation and dissolution of manufactured Ag nanoparticles (Ag MNPs) in soil pore water. Ag MNPs with citrate (CIT) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coatings were incubated with soil or municipal sewage sludge which was then amended to soil (1% or 3% sludge (w/w)). Pore waters were extracted after 1 week and 2 and 6 months and analyzed for chemical speciation, aggregation state and dissolution. Ag MNP coating had profound effects on aggregation state and partitioning to pore water in the absence of sewage sludge, but pre-incubation with sewage sludge negated these effects. This suggests that Ag MNP coating does not need to be taken into account to understand fate of AgMNPs applied to soil through biosolids amendment. Aging of soil also had profound effects that depended on Ag MNP coating and sludge amendment. PMID:23911623

  20. Sewage sludge effects on soil: heavy metal accumulation and movement

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.; Duseja, D.R.; Thangudu, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    Treated municipal sewage sludge at 0, 11.2, 33.6, and 67.2 metric tons/ha was applied each year for two consecutive years and incorporated into a Byler loam soil (Typic Fragiudalf) having an initial pH of 5.6. Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare L.) was grown in replicated plots (6.1m x 4.6m). Soil samples were taken at 0 to 20 cm and 20 to 40 cm depth at the end of each year and analyzed for DTPA-extractable Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni. Surface soil exhibited significant increases in heavy metal concentrations in the first year at the 67.2 metric tons/ha rates. Heavy metal concentrations increased with continued sludge application. However, this increase was not in proportion to the amount of sludge applied, suggesting some immobilization of metals with time. After two years, downward movement and significiant increases in Cu, Zn, and Ni levels were noted at the 20 to 40 cm depth at the higher rates. Heavy metal levels in the surface soil did not appear to be phytotoxic as judged from sorghum grain and dry matter yields and comparisons with other similar studies. Sludge applications had little effect on soil pH.

  1. Basic Study of Concrete Made Using Ash Derived from the Incinerating Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaoka, Nobutaka; Yokoi, Katsunori; Yamanaka, Takashi

    Sewage sludge incinerated ash is discharged as waste. Those are increasing with progress of a sewage enterprise every year. However, the reservation of the last disposal place for reclaiming the generated incineration ash is becoming quickly difficult. In this situation of sewage sludge processing, it is very important to promote more reducing and development of new reusing method. Recently, in the construction industry, reusing technology that was used sewage sludge incinerated ash as aggregate for concrete products is developed. But there are many unknown points in the performance and durability of concrete. In this study, sewage sludge incinerated ash is used instead of natural aggregate for concrete. It is investigated about fresh characteristics, chloride content, strength, resistance to frost damage and drying shrinkage of concrete using sewage sludge incinerated ash. As the results of this research, the compressive strength increases with ratio of sewage sludge incinerated ash. And the relationship between the compressive strength and the dynamic modulus of elasticity can be comparatively expressed as the linear relationship. If this concrete includes proper air content, the resistance to frost damage is enough. The drying shrinkage is become larger with increase of substitute rate of sewage sludge incinerated ash.

  2. Selected Nutrients and Heavy Metals in Sewage Sludge From New Jersey POTWs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogmann, Uta; Chiang, Hai-Ning C.

    2002-06-01

    In order to determine appropriate application rates and to ensure low pollutant levels in sewage sludge, knowing the chemical composition of sewage sludge is of great importance in a land application program. The objective of this study is to evaluate the variability of selected chemical characteristics of sewage sludge from New Jersey publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). Measurements of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), NH4 + -N, P, K+, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn reported by 98 facilities in the 1996 and 1997 New Jersey Sludge Quality Assurance Regulations (SQAR) reports were statistically analyzed. Sewage sludge from Category 5 POTWs (greater than 10 percent industrial input) showed higher Cd, Cu, and Pb concentrations than Category 3 and Category 4 facilities (less than 10 percent industrial input). Even though only two years of data were analyzed, there was an indication that Cd and Pb concentrations in sewage sludge are decreasing with time. The yearly mean of only a few facilities exceeded the federal pollution concentration limits (40 CFR Part 503, Table 3). Phosphorus and Cd values showed the highest variability within facilities based on the coefficient of variation. Due to the variability of sewage sludge constituents, the use of the yearly rolling mean of nutrient concentrations to determine application rates was considered inadequate. An actual analysis of the sewage sludge to be applied is more appropriate to determine application rates than historical data.

  3. The application of sewage sludge as an expanding agent in the production of lightweight expanded clay aggregate mass.

    PubMed

    Latosi?ska, J; Zygad?o, M

    2011-10-01

    Sewage sludge can be used as an expanding agent in the production of lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA) mass. The addition of sewage sludge increases the total porosity and decreases the bulk density of a sinter. The addition of sewage sludge to a raw material used in the production of LECA enabled a decrease in the burning temperature for the maintained operational parameters of a lightweight aggregate. The optimum content of sewage sludge added to a raw material used in LECA production was 5% to 15% of dry mass. The addition of sewage sludge in an amount of 5% and 10% caused an increase in closed porosity. PMID:22329137

  4. Comparative assessment of municipal sewage sludge incineration, gasification and pyrolysis for a sustainable sludge-to-energy management in Greece.

    PubMed

    Samolada, M C; Zabaniotou, A A

    2014-02-01

    For a sustainable municipal sewage sludge management, not only the available technology, but also other parameters, such as policy regulations and socio-economic issues should be taken in account. In this study, the current status of both European and Greek Legislation on waste management, with a special insight in municipal sewage sludge, is presented. A SWOT analysis was further developed for comparison of pyrolysis with incineration and gasification and results are presented. Pyrolysis seems to be the optimal thermochemical treatment option compared to incineration and gasification. Sewage sludge pyrolysis is favorable for energy savings, material recovery and high added materials production, providing a 'zero waste' solution. Finally, identification of challenges and barriers for sewage sludge pyrolysis deployment in Greece was investigated. PMID:24290971

  5. National Sewage-Sludge Survey facility analytical results. Volume 1-4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS) is a questionnaire and analytical survey of Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) intended to produce national estimates of: (1) Concentrations of toxic contaminants in municipal sludge; (2) Sludge generation and treatment processes; (3) Sludge use and disposal practices and alternative use and disposal practices; and (4) Treatment and disposal costs. The survey will provide reliable, current data that can be used in the regulatory impact analysis (RIA) and aggregate risk analysis (ARA) to project impacts and benefits to support promulgation of the first round technical regulation for sewage sludge pollutants and use and disposal practices (40 CFR Part 503).

  6. Data-element dictionary 1988 sewage-sludge use and disposal: Questionnaire data base

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS) is a questionnaire and analytical survey of Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) intended to produce national estimates of: (1) Concentrations of toxic contaminants in municipal sludge; (2) Sludge generation and treatment processes; (3) Sludge use and disposal practices and alternative use and disposal practices; and (4) Treatment and disposal costs. The survey will provide reliable, current data that can be used in the regulatory impact analysis (RIA) and aggregate risk analysis (ARA) to project impacts and benefits to support promulgation of the first round technical regulation for sewage sludge pollutants and use and disposal practices (40 CFR Part 503).

  7. Fermentative and oxidative transformation of ferulate by a facultatively anaerobic bacterium isolated from sewage sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Grbi?-Gali?, D

    1985-01-01

    A facultatively anaerobic, gram-negative, non-sporeforming, motile rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from methanogenic consortia degrading 3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamate (ferulate). Consortia were originally enriched from a laboratory anaerobic digester fed sewage sludge. In the absence of exogenous electron acceptors and with the addition of 0.1% yeast extract, the isolated bacterium transformed ferulate under strictly anaerobic conditions (N2-CO2 gas phase). Ferulate (1.55 mM) was demethoxylated and dehydroxylated with subsequent reduction of the side chain, resulting in production of phenylpropinate and phenylacetate. Under aerobic conditions, the substrate was completely degraded, with transient appearance of caffeate as the first aromatic intermediate and beta-ketoadipate as an aliphatic intermediate. The pure culture has been tentatively assigned to the genus Enterobacter with the type strain DG-6 (ATCC 35929). Tentative pathways for both fermentative and oxidative degradation of ferulate are now proposed. Images PMID:4083873

  8. Comprehensive utilization of the pyrolysis products from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Xu, W Y; Wu, D

    2015-07-01

    Bio-oils were produced from pyrolysis of sewage sludge in a horizontal tubular furnace under the anoxic or anaerobic conditions, by varying operating parameters and moisture content (MC) of the feedstock. Physicochemical properties of the obtained bio-oil (such as density, acid value, kinematical viscosity, high heating value and flash point) were analysed and compared with Chinese fuel standards. Tend, RT and ? were found critical to control the yield and physico-chemical properties of bio-oil products. The relative importance of various parameters such as Tend, RT, ? and MC was determined and the optimum values for the lowest kinematic viscosity and acid value and the highest yield of the bio-oil were achieved using the orthogonal matrix method. The parameters 550°C, 45?min, 5°C?min(-1) and MC of 10% were found effective in producing the bio-oils with most of the desirable physico-chemical properties and yield. Benefit analysis was conducted to further optimize the operating parameters, considering pyrolysis treatment, comprehensive utilization of the pyrolysis products and final disposal of sewage sludge; the results showed the best economy of the pyrolysis parameters 450°C, 75?min, 3°C?min(-1) and MC of 10%. The char obtained under this condition may serve as a microporous liquid adsorbent, while the bio-oil may serve as a low grade fuel oil after upgrading it with conventional fuel oil and deacidification. Pyrolysis products may become economically competitive in addition to being environment friendly. PMID:25609547

  9. Mineralogy and leachability of gasified sewage sludge solid residues.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Ana Belén; Ferrasse, Jean-Henry; Chaurand, Perrine; Saveyn, Hans; Borschneck, Daniel; Roche, Nicolas

    2011-07-15

    Gasification of sewage sludge produces combustible gases as well as tar and a solid residue as by-products. This must be taken into account when determining the optimal thermal conditions for the gasification process. In this study, the influence of temperature, heating atmosphere and residence time on the characteristics of the gasified sewage sludge residues is investigated. ICP-AES analyses reveal that the major chemical elements in the char residues are phosphorus, calcium, iron and silicon. Heavy metals such as copper, zinc, chromium, nickel and lead are also present at relatively high levels - from 50 to more than 1000 mg/kg of dry matter. The major mineral phases' identification - before and after heating - as well as their morphology and approximate chemistry (XRD and SEM-EDX) demonstrate that a number of transformations take place during gasification. These are influenced by the reactor's temperature and the oxidative degree of its internal atmosphere. The copper-, zinc- and chromium-bearing phases are studied using chemometric tools, showing that the distribution of those metals among the mineral phases is considerably different. Finally, batch-leaching tests reveal that metals retained in the residue are significantly stabilized after thermal treatment to a higher or lower extent, depending on the thermal conditions applied. PMID:21592652

  10. Phosphorus losses from sewage sludge disposed on a field: evidence from storm event simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Vanden Bossche; J. M. Audic; A. Huyard; C. Gascuel-Odoux; F. Trolard; G. Bourrié

    2000-01-01

    Sewage sludge is used as fertilizer, owing to its nutrient contents. But little is known about the consequences of sludge disposal on erosion intensity and P losses from soil to runoff. This paper reports on a study of three simulated storm events (40 mm h-1 during 30 min), performed on a field supplied with liquid sludge (23 g L-1 of

  11. Aeration of anaerobically digested sewage sludge for COD and nitrogen removal: optimization at large-scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Parravicini; K. Svardal; R. Hornek; H. Kroiss

    2008-01-01

    The paper will report about the experiences matured at an Austrian large wastewater treatment plant of 720.000 population equivalents, where anaerobically digested sewage sludge is further stabilised under aerobic conditions. Enhanced stabilisation of the anaerobically digested sludge was required at the plant in order to get a permit for landfill disposal of the dewatered stabilized sludge. By implementing a post-aeration

  12. Heavy metal uptake by natural zeolite and metals partitioning in sewage sludge compost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A Zorpas; T Constantinides; A. G Vlyssides; I Haralambous; M Loizidou

    2000-01-01

    A major limitation of land application of sewage sludge compost is the potential high heavy metal content due to the metal content of the original sludge. Zeolites may be useful as metal scavengers in metal-rich sludges. The natural zeolite, clinoptilolite has the ability to take up heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). The aim of the

  13. Nitrogen transformations and losses during composting of sewage sludge with acidified sawdust in a laboratory reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunbei; Li, Weiguang

    2015-02-01

    Composting is one of the cost-saving ways for sewage sludge treatment to produce a ?nal product that is stable, and free of pathogens and plant seeds. However, the loss of nitrogen through ammonia emission not only reduces the agronomic value of the composting product, but also leads to air pollution and is potentially health threatening. Five mixtures of sewage sludge and acidified sawdust were co-composted for 22?days with different initial pH values (3.51, 4.45, 5.51, 6.48 and 7.56). Acidified sawdust was used as a pH regulator and also bulking agent during composting. Changes in physicochemical properties were characterised by the temperature, organic matter degradation, carbon dioxide emission and pH value. The results showed that regulating the initial pH of composting materials to 5.51~6.48 was the most effective way in reducing ammonia emissions. Compared with the control group, the cumulative ammonia emission was reduced by 52.1% and the nitrogen loss decreased from 44.7% to 24.8% with no adverse effects on organic matter degradation and microbial activity. PMID:25649403

  14. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Sewage Sludge by Gamma Irradiation with Pasteurization as a Tool for Hygienization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyadarshini, J.; Roy, P. K.; Mazumdar, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this research work, management of sewage sludge disposal on agricultural soils is addressed. The increasing amount of sewage sludge and more legislative regulation of its disposal have stimulated the need for developing new technologies to recycle sewage sludge efficiently. The research was structured along two main avenues, namely, the efficacy of the irradiation process for removing enteric pathogenic microorganisms and the potential of irradiated sludge as a soil amendment. This study investigated how application of irradiation with heat treatment reduced pathogens in sewage sludge. Raw and pasteurised Sewage sludge was treated at different dose treatment of 1.5, 3 and 5 kilogray (kGy) gamma irradiation individually and for 3 kGy sufficiency was achieved. Decrease in irradiation dose from 5 to 3 kGy was observed for pasteurised sludge resulting in saving of radiation energy. The presence of heavy metals in untreated sewage sludge has raised concerns, which decreases after irradiation.

  15. Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of dilute primary-treated sewage sludge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of remotely monitoring ocean dumping of waste products such as acid and sewage sludge is evaluated. The laboratory arrangement, solar simulator, and test results from three experiments conducted in the laboratory are described. Radiance and reflectance spectra are presented for primary-treated sewage sludge mixed with two types of base water. Results indicate that upwelled reflectance varies in a near-linear manner with concentration and that the sludge has a practically flat signal response between 420 and 970 nm. Well-defined upwelled reflectance spectra were obtained for the sewage-sludge mixtures at all wavelengths and concentrations. The spectral-reflectance values appeared to be influenced by the type of base water, but this influence was small, especially for the mixtures with low concentrations of sewage sludge.

  16. Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of dilute secondary-treated sewage sludge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, W. G.; Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), conducted a research program to evaluate the feasibility of remotely monitoring ocean dumping of waste products such as acid and sewage sludge. One aspect of the research program involved the measurements of upwelled spectral signatures for sewage-sludge mixtures of different concentrations in an 11600-liter tank. This paper describes the laboratory arrangement and presents radiance and reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared ranges for concentrations ranging from 9.7 to 180 ppm of secondary-treated sewage sludge mixed with two types of base water. Results indicate that upwelled radiance varies in a near-linear manner with concentration and that the sludge has a practically flat signal response between 420 and 970 nm. Reflectance spectra were obtained for the sewage-sludge mixtures at all wavelengths and concentrations.

  17. Increased biogas production at wastewater treatment plants through co-digestion of sewage sludge with grease trap sludge from a meat processing plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Luostarinen; S. Luste; M. Sillanpää

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of co-digesting grease trap sludge from a meat-processing plant and sewage sludge was studied in batch and reactor experiments at 35°C. Grease trap sludge had high methane production potential (918m3\\/tVSadded), but methane production started slowly. When mixed with sewage sludge, methane production started immediately and the potential increased with increasing grease trap sludge content. Semi-continuous co-digestion of the

  18. DETERMINATION AND PREDICTION OF CHEMICAL FORMS OF TRACE METALS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND SLUDGE-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of the research conducted under this project was to define the chemical equilibrium between trace metals and the soluble and insoluble organic and inorganic fractions of sewage sludges and sludge-amended soil. This report is divided according to tasks carrie...

  19. Modeling the Radiological Impact of Tritium in Sewage Sludge Being Used as Fertilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Venter, A.; Smith, G

    2005-07-15

    A study was undertaken to assess the radiological impact on humans via the foodchain resulting from the presence of tritium and C-14 in sewage sludge being used as fertilizer on agricultural land. The key endpoint of the assessment was the annual individual dose to an average member of potential critical groups. As part of the assessment, a model was developed to simulate the distribution of tritium between sewage sludge and effluent in the sewage treatment plant, the release of tritium upon sludge decomposition and subsequent uptake by plants and animals. The modeling assumptions, as well as key parameters and parameter values will be discussed in this paper.

  20. Determination of mercury in sewage sludge by direct slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baralkiewicz, Danuta; Gramowska, Hanka; Kózka, Ma?gorzata; Kanecka, Anetta

    2005-03-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) method was elaborated to the determination of Hg in sewage sludge samples with the use of KMnO 4+Pd modifier. The minimum sample amount required for slurry preparation with respect to sample homogeneity was evaluated by weighting masses between 3 and 30 mg directly into the autosampler cups. Validation of the proposed method was performed with the use of Certified Reference Materials of sewage sludge, CRM 007-040 and CRM 144R. Two sewage sludge samples from Poznañ (Poland) city were analysed using the present direct method and a method with sample digestion, resulting in no difference within statistical error.

  1. Effects of composting process and fly ash amendment on phytotoxicity of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lau, S S; Fang, M; Wong, J W

    2001-02-01

    With the increasingly growing global production of sewage sludge, evaluation of its applicability in agriculture and land restoration is essential. This study assessed the potential effects of composting process and fly ash amendment on soil-ameliorating properties of sewage sludge. The metal availability and phytotoxicity of ash-amended sludge compost (AS, mature sewage sludge compost mixed with fresh lagoon ash) and sludge-ash co-compost (SA, co-composted mixture of sewage sludge and lagoon ash) were compared. The results of this work suggested that both composts favored the applicability of sewage sludge for land application by reducing Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn availability. The SA co-compost stimulated seed germination at ash amendment rates of < or = 10%, whereas various treatments of AS compost inhibited germination at an extract dilution of 50%. Amendment of lagoon ash before or after sludge composting increased electrical conductivity (EC) and volatilization of NH4-N, but lowered availability of PO4-P. Together with the results of phytotoxicity, an optimal ash amendment rate of 5% for AS and 10% for SA were most desirable. Alkaline amendment prior to sludge composting was recommended, because it could be more effective in reducing soluble and plant-available metal concentrations through the composting process. PMID:11243320

  2. Interpreting the synergistic effect in combined ultrasonication-ozonation sewage sludge pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xinbo; Wang, Chong; Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Lin, Leonard; Ng, Wun Jern

    2014-10-01

    The sequential combination of ultrasonication and ozonation as sewage sludge treatment prior to anaerobic digestion was investigated. Synergistic volatile suspended solids (VSS) solubilization was observed when low energy ultrasonication (?12kJg(-1) TS) was followed by ozonation. 0.048gO3g(-1) TS ozonation induced the maximum VSS solubilization of 41.3% when the sludge was pre-ultrasonicated at 9kJg(-1) TS; while, the same ozone dosage applied without prior ultrasonication only induced 21.1% VSS solubilization. High molecular weight (MW) components (MW>500kDa) were found to be the main solubilization products when sludge was only ozonated. However, solubilization products by ozone were mainly in the form of low MW components (MW<27kDa) when sludge was pre-ultrasonicated. The high MW products generated by ultrasound were effectively degraded in the subsequent ozonation. Anaerobic biodegradability increased by 34.7% when ultrasonication (9kJg(-1) TS) and ozonation (0.036gO3g(-1) TS) were combined sequentially. The maximum methane production rate increased from 3.53 to 4.32, 4.21 and 4.54mL CH4d(-1) after ultrasonication, ozonation and ultrasonication-ozonation pre-treatments, respectively. PMID:25282627

  3. Oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1994-01-01

    Federal regulations banning ocean dumping of sewage sludge coupled with stricter regulations on the disposal of sewage sludge in landfills have forced municipalities, especially those in the northeast United States, to consider alternate methods for disposal of this solid waste. Coincineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) and sludge has proven to be economically attractive for both Europe and Japan, but has not yet proven to be a viable sludge disposal technology in the United States because of a history of operational problems in existing facilities. The most prevalent problem in coincinerating MSW and a dewatered sewage sludge (15 to 25% solids) is incomplete sludge combustion. Incomplete sludge combustion is primarily a function of sludge particle size, occurring when the surface of the sludge particle dries and hardens, while the inner mass is unaffected. This phenomenon is commonly referred to in the industry as the {open_quotes}hamburger effect.{close_quotes} In an effort to promote technology development in this area, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. teamed with the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate a new process being developed for the disposal of a dewatered sewage sludge, {open_quotes}Oxygen-Enriched Coincineration of MSW and Sewage Sludge.{close_quotes} This report provides a comprehensive summary of the pilot demonstration test program for oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge. This report describes the pilot test facility, instrumentation, and methods of data collection and data analyses; describes how the tests were executed; and discusses the test results. Recommendations for the future development of this technology in the current marketplace are also provided.

  4. Comparative performance of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion for high-solid sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Taira; Wang, Feng; Togari, Taketo; Uchida, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2013-12-01

    In local cities, many small sewage and waste treatment facilities are operated independently. To encourage processing by anaerobic digestion at a centralized sewage treatment plant (STP), high-solid sewage sludge is helpful because it reduces the energy and cost required for transporting the sludge from other STPs. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge at total solids concentrations (TS) of 7.5% and 10% were evaluated using laboratory-scale continuous reactors. Under the mesophilic condition, sewage sludge of 10% TS was successfully treated. Under the thermophilic condition, sewage sludge of 7.5% TS was not successfully treated when the total ammonia concentration was over 2000 mg N/L. Batch experiments showed that it takes a few weeks for the methane fermentation activity to recover after being inhibited. The effectiveness of adding easily biodegradable organic matter was confirmed. These results show that high-solid sewage sludge is suitable for small facilities by controlling the operating conditions. PMID:24096284

  5. Agronomic value of sewage sludge and corn cob biochar in an infertile Oxisol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deenik, J. L.; Cooney, M. J.; Antal, M. J., Jr.

    2013-12-01

    Disposal of sewage sludge and other agricultural waste materials has become increasingly difficult in urban environments with limited land space. Carbonization of the hazardous waste produces biochar as a soil amendment with potential to improve soil quality and productivity. A series of greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to assess the agrnomic value of two biochars made from domestic wastewater sludge and corn cob waste. The ash component of the sewage sludge biochar was very high (65.5%) and high for the corn cob (11.4%) biochars. Both biochars contained low concentrations of heavy metals and met EPA land application criteria. The sewage sludge biochar was a better liming material and source of mineral nutrients than the corn cob biochar, but the corn cob biochar showed the greatest increase in soil carbon and total nitrogen. Both biochar materials increased soil pH compared with soils not receiving biochar, but the sewage sludge biochar was a more effective liming material maintaining elevated soil pH throughout the 3 planting cycles. The sewage sludge biochar also showed the greatest increase in extractable soil P and base cations. In the first planting cycle, both biochars in combination with conventional fertilizers produced significantly higher corn seedling growth than the fertilized control. However, the sewage sludge biochar maintained beneficial effects corn seedling growth through the third planting cycle showing 3-fold increases in biomass production compared with the control in the third planting. The high ash content and associated liming properties and mineral nutrient contributions in the sewage sludge biochar explain benefits to plant growth. Conversion of sewage sludge waste into biochar has the potential to effectively address several environmental issues: 1) convert a hazardous waste into a valuable soil amendment, 2) reduce land and water contamination, and 3) improve soil quality and productivity.

  6. Mechanism of red mud combined with Fenton's reagent in sewage sludge conditioning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Jiakuan; Yu, Wenbo; Luo, Sen; Peng, Li; Shen, Xingxing; Shi, Yafei; Zhang, Shinan; Song, Jian; Ye, Nan; Li, Ye; Yang, Changzhu; Liang, Sha

    2014-08-01

    Red mud was evaluated as an alternative skeleton builder combined with Fenton's reagent in sewage sludge conditioning. The results show that red mud combined with Fenton's reagent showed good conditioning capability with the pH of the filtrate close to neutrality, indicating that red mud acted as a neutralizer as well as a skeleton builder when jointly used with Fenton's reagent. Through response surface methodology (RSM), the optimal dosages of Fe(2+), H2O2 and red mud were proposed as 31.9, 33.7 and 275.1 mg/g DS (dry solids), respectively. The mechanism of the composite conditioner could be illuminated as follows: (1) extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), including loosely bound EPS and tightly bound EPS, were degraded into dissolved organics, e.g., proteins and polysaccharides; (2) bound water was released and converted into free water due to the degradation of EPS; and (3) morphology of the conditioned sludge exhibited a porous structure in contrast with the compact structure of raw sludge, and the addition of red mud formed new mineral phases and a rigid lattice structure in sludge, allowing the outflow of free water. Thus, sludge dewatering performance was effectively improved. The economic assessment for a wastewater treatment plant of 370,000 equivalent inhabitants confirms that using red mud conditioning, combined with Fenton's reagent, leads to a saving of approximately 411,000 USD/y or 50.8 USD/t DS comparing with using lime and ordinary Portland cement combined with Fenton's reagent, and approximately 612,000 USD/y or 75.5 USD/t DS comparing with the traditional treatment. PMID:24810740

  7. Characterization of Polish sewage sludges with respect to fertility and suitability for land application.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-one varieties of sewage sludge from municipal, municipal-industrial and industrial areas were analysed for their suitability for agricultural purposes. The samples were taken from an agricultural area of Poland characterised by a low level of industrialisation. The sewage sludges were characterised for total organic carbon and nitrogen, pH, available phosphorous and potassium, cation exchange capacity, total exchangeable bases, the degree of base saturation, the total trace metals (such as Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn, Sr, V, Cr) and the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (16 PAHs from EPA list). The results showed that the studied sludges can potentially enhance soil's agronomic properties. However in a few cases, the pH, ratio of total organic carbon to total nitrogen (TOC/Nt) and electrical conductivity were the exceptions. Trace metal contents in the sewage sludge studied varied widely (statistical significant) as a result of the size of the sewage producing unit, and especially, the content of industrial sludge. The results obtained for PAHs in sewage sludge showed a clear differentiation in the content of PAHs, which ranged from 2,039 to 36,439 microg/kg. The predominant contribution of 3- and 4-ring PAHs was observed. In the case of 6 sewage sludges the PAH content twice exceeded the allowable value. PMID:16854795

  8. Restoration of acidic mine spoils with sewage sludge: II measurement of solids applied

    SciTech Connect

    Stucky, D.J.; Zoeller, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sewage sludge was incorporated in acidic strip mine spoils at rates equivalent to 0, 224, 336, and 448 dry metric tons (dmt)/ha and placed in pots in a greenhouse. Spoil parameters were determined 48 hours after sludge incorporation, Time Planting (P), and five months after orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) was planted, Time Harvest (H), in the pots. Parameters measured were: pH, organic matter content (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), electrical conductivity (EC) and yield. Values for each parameter were significantly different at the two sampling times. Correlation coefficient values were calculated for all parameters versus rates of applied sewage sludge and all parameters versus each other. Multiple regressions were performed, stepwise, for all parameters versus rates of applied sewage sludge. Equations to predict amounts of sewage sludge incorporated in spoils were derived for individual and multiple parameters. Generally, measurements made at Time P achieved the highest correlation coefficient and multiple correlation coefficient values; therefore, the authors concluded data from Time P had the greatest predictability value. The most important value measured to predict rate of applied sewage sludge was pH and some additional accuracy was obtained by including CEC in equation. This experiment indicated that soil properties can be used to estimate amounts of sewage sludge solids required to reclaim acidic mine spoils and to estimate quantities incorporated.

  9. Heavy metal speciation an uptake to durum wheat from sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Ketchum, L.H.; Frost, H.L.

    1998-07-01

    This project focused on detection of heavy metal accumulation in durum wheat from sewage sludge or commercial phosphate fertilizer application, using Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Four parts of the durum wheat plants were separated and analyzed (i.e., root, stem, leaves, and grain). Studies compared the metal uptake resulting from sewage sludge application and from commercial fertilizer. Sludges and fertilizers were applied in one application, except for one study which considered the effect of the same sludge dosage, except in two applications. The main objective of this research is to improve the grain quality by minimizing the accumulation of toxic elements in durum wheat.

  10. Heavy metal content of vegetables irrigated with mixtures of wastewater and sewage sludge in Zimbabwe: Implications for human health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Muchuweti; J. W. Birkett; E. Chinyanga; R. Zvauya; M. D. Scrimshaw; J. N. Lester

    2006-01-01

    There is growing public concern in Zimbabwe over the illegal cultivation of vegetables on soils amended with sewage sludge or irrigated with admixtures of sewage and sewage sludge. Excessive accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils may not only result in environmental contamination, but lead to elevated heavy metal uptake by crops, which may affect food quality and safety. The

  11. Distribution and levels of brominated flame retardants in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Karin; Warman, Kristofer; Oberg, Tomas

    2002-09-01

    One hundred and sixteen sewage sludge samples from 22 municipal wastewater treatment plants in Sweden were analysed for brominated flame retardants. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were in the range n.d.-450 ng/g wet weight, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) varied between n.d. and 220 ng/g wet weight, 2,4,6-tribromophenol was in the range n.d.-0.9 ng/g wet weight and polybrominated biphenyls were not detected (except for a possible analytical interference). There was a significant variation in the samples among plants. Influence from industries and other local sources can therefore be assumed. The correlation pattern indicated contribution from three different types of technical products; composed of either low-brominated PBDEs, decaBDE or TBBPA. PMID:12222774

  12. Chemical and microbial changes during autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shugen; Song, Fanyong; Zhu, Nanwen; Yuan, Haiping; Cheng, Jiehong

    2010-12-01

    Autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) is a promising process for sewage sludge stabilization. Batch experiments were conducted on sewage sludge collected from a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Shanghai, China, to evaluate the effectiveness of the ATAD system by determining changes in volatile suspended solids (VSSs) and to study its microbial diversity by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified by PCR. The digestion system achieved rapid degradation of the organic substrate at 55 degrees C. The VSS was removed by up to 45.3% and 50.4% at 216 h and 264 h, respectively, while NH(4)(+)-N, chemical oxidation demand and total organic carbon of supernatant as well as total nitrogen did not exhibit obvious declines after 168 h. The microbial diversity changed during the thermophilic process as thermophiles belonging to the Hydrogenophilaceae, Thermotogaceae, Clostridiaceae and the genus Ureibacillus replaced less temperature-tolerant microorganisms such as Sphingobacteriaceae and the genus Trichococcus. PMID:20696567

  13. SUMMARY REPORT ON CORROSIVITY STUDIES IN COINCINERATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corrosion probe exposures were conducted in the Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Incinerator to determine the effects of burning low-chloride sewage sludge with municipal refuse. Probes having controlled temperature gradients were used to measure corrosion rates for exposure times up to ...

  14. F- and H-area Sewage Sludge Application Sites: Groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Currently, no permit-required analytes exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites. Tritium and aluminum have been the primary nonpermit constituents exceeding standards at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. These constituents were not analyzed second quarter 1993. Other constituents also have exceeded standards at this site, but only sporadically, and none of those were analyzed second quarter 1993.

  15. Technical support document for reduction of pathogens and vector attraction in sewage sludge. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, J.B.

    1992-11-01

    The document provides a description of the components of disease risk in sewage sludge, the requirements for pathogen and vector attraction reduction, and a comparison of the requirements for Part 257 to those for Part 503.

  16. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    During second quarter 1992, the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) of Savannah River Plant were sampled and analyzed for constituents required quarterly by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076. None of these analytes exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria at either sewage sludge site. The F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site wells also were analyzed for a number of other constituents not required by the permit. Of these constituents, tritium exceeded the PDWS in wells FSS 2D and 3D. Lead exceeded the PDWS in well FSS 3D. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well FSS 4D, and manganese exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criterion in wells FSS 2D and 3D.

  17. EVALUATION OF A FLUIDIZED-BED SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR USING WOOD CHIPS FOR FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An environmental and technical evaluation was conducted on the Western Lake Superior Sanitary District waste treatment plant, which uses wood chips to incinerate sewage sludge in fluidized-bed combustors. The most important environmental factors for evaluation were determined to ...

  18. MICROBIALLY MEDIATED GROWTH SUPPRESSION AND DEATH OF SALMONELLA IN COMPOSTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of compost microflora in the suppression of salmonella regrowth in composted sewage sludge was investigated. Microbial inhibition studies of salmonella growth were conducted on nutrient agar, in composts that had been subjected to different temperatures in compost piles,...

  19. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Historically and currently, no permit-required analytes exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites except iron, lead, and manganese, which occur in elevated concentrations frequently in FSS wells and occasionally in HSS wells. Tritium and aluminum are the primary nonpermit constituents that exceed standards at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. Other constituents also exceed standards at this site but only sporadically.

  20. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    During second quarter 1992, the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) of Savannah River Plant were sampled and analyzed for constituents required quarterly by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076. None of these analytes exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria at either sewage sludge site. The F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site wells also were analyzed for a number of other constituents not required by the permit. Of these constituents, tritium exceeded the PDWS in wells FSS 2D and 3D. Lead exceeded the PDWS in well FSS 3D. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well FSS 4D, and manganese exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criterion in wells FSS 2D and 3D.

  1. EVALUATION OF METHODS TO MEASURE THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was undertaken to determine whether improvements were needed to increase the reliability of acute toxicity methodologies for mysid and juvenile Atlantic silverside waste characterization tests for municipal sewage sludge. Three new acute bioassays using mysids, larval fi...

  2. Waste paper and clinoptilolite as a bulking material with dewatered anaerobically stabilized primary sewage sludge (DASPSS) for compost production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonis A Zorpas; Dimitris Arapoglou; Karlis Panagiotis

    2003-01-01

    Environmental problems associated with sewage sludge disposal have prompted strict legislative actions over the past few years. At the same time, the upgrading and expansion of wastewater treatment plants have greatly increased the volume of sludge generated. The major limitation of land application of sewage sludge compost is the potential for high heavy metal content in relation to the metal

  3. Probabilistic risk assessment for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in sewage sludge used on agricultural soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diederik Schowanek; Helen David; Rosa Francaviglia; Jeremy Hall; Holger Kirchmann; Paul Henning Krogh; Nathalie Schraepen; Stephen Smith; Tanja Wildemann

    2007-01-01

    Deterministic and probabilistic risk assessments were developed for commercial LAS in agricultural soil amended with sewage sludge. The procedure done according to ILSI Europe’s Conceptual Framework [Schowanek, D., Carr, R., David, H., Douben, P., Hall, J., Kirchmann, H., Patria, L., Sequi, P., Smith, S., Webb, S.F., 2004. A risk-based methodology for deriving quality standards for organic contaminants in sewage sludge

  4. Vermistabilization of municipal sewage sludge amended with sugarcane trash using epigeic Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surindra Suthar

    2009-01-01

    Efforts have been made in this study to stabilize the sewage sludge mixed with sugarcane trash in four different proportions: 20% (T1); 40% (T2); 60% (T3) and 80% (T4), under laboratory conditions using epigeic earthworm (Oligochaeta) Eisenia fetida. The composting potential of worm was also evaluated in 100% sewage sludge treatment (T5). The changes in chemical properties of substrate was

  5. Growth and Heavy-Metal Uptake by Lettuce Grown in Soils Applied with Sewage Sludge Compost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. L. Zhao; Z. J. Mu; C. M. Cao; D. Y. Wang

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of sewage sludge compost (SSC) alone and applied with chemical fertilizer on growth and heavy-metal accumulations in lettuce grown on two soils, a Xanthi-Udic Ferralosol and a Typic Purpli-Udic Cambosol. The treatments included control; nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium (NPK) fertilizer; sewage sludge compost applied at the rates of 27.54 (SSC), 82.62 (3SSC), 165.24 (6SSC)

  6. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, Third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    During third quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and for base-neutral/acid semivolatile constituents. None of the analytical results exceeded standards.

  7. Land application of chemically treated sewage sludge. II. Effects on soil and plant heavy metal content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. K. Soon; T. E. Bates; J. R. Moyer

    1980-01-01

    Anaerobically digested sewage sludges resulting from treatment of sewage with Ca(OH)â, Alâ(SOâ)â, or FeClâ for phosphorus precipitation were applied to corn (Zea mays L.) and bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyess) grown on a soil having an initial pH of 7.3. Rates of sludge supplied 200, 400, 800, and and 1,600 kg N\\/ha each year for 5 years. Treatments with NHâNOâ supplying

  8. The determination of settling velocities for sewage sludge disposed at 106-Mile Site

    E-print Network

    Hernandez, Daniel Saul

    1991-01-01

    THE DBTERMZNATZON OF SETTLING VELOCZTZES FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE DZSPOSED AT 106-MILE SITE A Thesis by DANIEL SAUL HERNANDEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Civil Engineering THB DETERMZNATZON OF SBTTLZNG VELOCZTZES FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE DZSPOSBD AT 106-MZLE SZTB A Thesis by DANIEL SAUL HERNANDEZ Approved as to style and content by: James S. Bonner '(Chair...

  9. Characterization of Polish Sewage Sludges with Respect to Fertility and Suitability for Land Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PATRYK OLESZCZUK

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-one varieties of sewage sludge from municipal, municipal-industrial and industrial areas were analysed for their suitability for agricultural purposes. The samples were taken from an agricultural area of Poland characterised by a low level of industrialisation. The sewage sludges were characterised for total organic carbon and nitrogen, pH, available phosphorous and potassium, cation exchange capacity, total exchangeable bases, the degree

  10. Production and characterization of glazed tiles containing incinerated sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lin, D F; Chang, W C; Yuan, C; Luo, H L

    2008-01-01

    In this article, glaze with different colorants was applied to tile specimens manufactured by incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and clay. Improvements using different amounts of colorants, and glaze components and concentrations on tile bodies were investigated. Four different proportions of clay (by weight ratio) were replaced by ISSA. Tiles of size 12 cm x 6 cm x 1 cm were made and left in an electric furnace to make biscuit tiles at 800 degrees C. Afterwards, four colorants, Fe2O3 (red), V2O5 (yellow), CoCO3 (blue), and MnO2 (purple), and four different glaze concentrations were applied on biscuit tile specimens. These specimens were later sintered into glazed tiles at 1050 degrees C. The study shows that replacement of clay by sludge ash had adverse effects on properties of tiles. Water absorption increased and bending strength reduced with increased amounts of ash. However, both water absorption and bending strength improved for glazed ash tiles. Abrasion of grazed tiles reduced noticeably from 0.001 to 0.002 g. This implies glaze can enhance abrasion resistance of tiles. Effects like lightfastness and acid-alkali resistance improved as different glazes were applied on tiles. In general, red glazed tiles showed the most stable performance, followed by blue, yellow, and purple. PMID:17433656

  11. The fate of radionuclides in sewage sludge applied to land

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, H.L.; Van Miegroet, H.; Larsen, I.L.; Walzer, A.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Carlton, J.E. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge containing up to 12 pCi/g {sup 137}Cs, 20 pCi/g {sup 60}Co, and 300 ppm U was injected in a pasture (43 Mg/ha) and sprayed over a young pine plantation (34 Mg/ha). In the pasture, radionuclides were largely retained in the upper 15 cm of the soil, and only about 15% moved below 15 cm. Sludge rapidly infiltrated the soil on the pine plantation. One year after application, at least 85% of the {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and U were found in the upper 7 cm of the pine plantation, with only about 15% moving into the 7- to 15-cm strata. On-site total added radiation dose was 2 to 6 mrem/year. Radionuclides were not detected above background in soil solutions at {approximately}50 cm depth or in shallow down-gradient groundwater wells. Surface runoff from application areas did not have elevated radionuclide concentrations. Concentrations of these radionuclides increased slightly in vegetation on treated sites, and uranium was notably higher in earthworms. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Restoration of acidic mine spoils with sewage sludge: I revegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Stucky, D.J.; Bauer, J.H.; Lindsey, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    An average of 685 dry metric ton/ha of sewage sludge containing a mean of 167, 829, 970, 448, 83, 610, and 4,819 kg/ha of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively, was incorporated into acidic strip mine spoils at the Palzo tract in southern Illinois. In April 1976, 16 combinations of forages were planted on seven field sites on the Palzo tract. At the end of the first growing season percent cover of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), other perennial grasses, and legumes were measured. Other parameters determined were: sludge-spoil complex 0.1N HCl extractable Cd, Cu, Cr, Zn, Mn, Ni, and Pb, pH, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, and plant tissue Cd, Cu, Cr, Zn, Mn, Ni, and Pb. The initial pH of the spoil was approximately 3.0 and applications of sludge increased mean pH of sites to 4.4 to 5.5. The data indicated that a 65 and 80% cover at the end of the first growing season was achieved when the pH was 5.1 and 5.5, respectively. After the three growing seasons it was concluded that reed canary-grass (Phalaris araundinacea L.), switchgrass (Panicum vergattum L.), and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) were the three most successful species established. Between the end of growing seasons one and three, the three grasses increased percent areal cover from 27 to 94, 14.5 to 73, and 36.5 to 63.5%, respectively. Minimum pH tolerated by roots of reed canarygrass, switchgrass, and orchardgrass was 3.5, 3.7, and 4.2, respectively. The grasses were established in the presence of potentially toxic quantities of Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

  13. Soil microbial functional and fungal diversity as influenced by municipal sewage sludge accumulation.

    PubMed

    Fr?c, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Nwaichi, Eucharia Oluchi

    2014-09-01

    Safe disposal of municipal sewage sludge is a challenging global environmental concern. The aim of this study was to assess the response of soil microbial functional diversity to the accumulation of municipal sewage sludge during landfill storage. Soil samples of a municipal sewage sludge (SS) and from a sewage sludge landfill that was 3 m from a SS landfill (SS3) were analyzed relative to an undisturbed reference soil. Biolog EcoPlatesTM were inoculated with a soil suspension, and the Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon-Weaver index (H) were calculated to interpret the results. The fungi isolated from the sewage sludge were identified using comparative rDNA sequencing of the LSU D2 region. The MicroSEQ® ID software was used to assess the raw sequence files, perform sequence matching to the MicroSEQ® ID-validated reference database and create Neighbor-Joining trees. Moreover, the genera of fungi isolated from the soil were identified using microscopic methods. Municipal sewage sludge can serve as a habitat for plant pathogens and as a source of pathogen strains for biotechnological applications. PMID:25170681

  14. Soil Microbial Functional and Fungal Diversity as Influenced by Municipal Sewage Sludge Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Fr?c, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Nwaichi, Eucharia Oluchi

    2014-01-01

    Safe disposal of municipal sewage sludge is a challenging global environmental concern. The aim of this study was to assess the response of soil microbial functional diversity to the accumulation of municipal sewage sludge during landfill storage. Soil samples of a municipal sewage sludge (SS) and from a sewage sludge landfill that was 3 m from a SS landfill (SS3) were analyzed relative to an undisturbed reference soil. Biolog EcoPlatesTM were inoculated with a soil suspension, and the Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon-Weaver index (H) were calculated to interpret the results. The fungi isolated from the sewage sludge were identified using comparative rDNA sequencing of the LSU D2 region. The MicroSEQ® ID software was used to assess the raw sequence files, perform sequence matching to the MicroSEQ® ID-validated reference database and create Neighbor-Joining trees. Moreover, the genera of fungi isolated from the soil were identified using microscopic methods. Municipal sewage sludge can serve as a habitat for plant pathogens and as a source of pathogen strains for biotechnological applications. PMID:25170681

  15. Phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors: Occurrence and fate in wastewater and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Antonio; Peschka, Manuela; Borrull, Francesc; Pocurull, Eva; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Knepper, Thomas P

    2010-03-01

    The contamination of wastewater and sewage sludge has been examined for three phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil, active agents of Viagra, Levitra and Cialis, respectively. Sensitive quantification methods based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) have been developed to analyse these compounds in wastewater and sewage sludge. Effluent water of nine sewage treatment plants (STPs) has been analysed to assess the impact of the phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors on the environment. One municipal STP (Tarragona, Spain) has been thoroughly studied over the year 2008 (i) with respect to the distribution of these compounds among influent and sewage sludge and (ii) the elimination efficiency. The developed methods allowed quantification at trace concentrations. Sildenafil was present in all investigated samples at the low ng/L and ng/g range, respectively. Tadalafil was not detected or below the limit of detection (LOQ) in effluent water taken in Spain but in sewage sludge (12 ng/g - < LOQ). Vardenafil was present only in one sludge sample and between 5 ng/g and < LOQ in effluent water. The overall removal efficiency of the STP in Tarragona (Spain) is 68%, 69% and 80% for sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil, respectively. This study shows for the first time the determination of these compounds in wastewater and sewage sludge. PMID:19959201

  16. Effects of sewage sludge biochar on plant metal availability after application to a Mediterranean soil.

    PubMed

    Méndez, A; Gómez, A; Paz-Ferreiro, J; Gascó, G

    2012-11-01

    Pyrolytic conversion of sewage sludge into biochar could be a sustainable management option for Mediterranean agricultural soils. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of biochar from sewage sludge pyrolysis on soil properties; heavy metals solubility and bioavailability in a Mediterranean agricultural soil and compared with those of raw sewage sludge. Biochar (B) was prepared by pyrolysis of selected sewage sludge (SL) at 500°C. The pyrolysis process decreased the plant-available of Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb, the mobile forms of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb and also the risk of leaching of Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd. A selected Mediterranean soil was amended with SL and B at two different rates in mass: 4% and 8%. The incubation experiment (200 d) was conducted in order to study carbon mineralization and trace metal solubility and bioavailability of these treatments. Both types of amendments increased soil respiration with respect to the control soil. The increase was lower in the case of B than when SL was directly added. Metals mobility was studied in soil after the incubation and it can be established that the risk of leaching of Cu, Ni and Zn were lower in the soil treated with biochar that in sewage sludge treatment. Biochar amended samples also reduced plant availability of Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb when compared to sewage sludge amended samples. PMID:22732302

  17. Enhanced dewaterability of anaerobically digested sewage sludge using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans culture as sludge conditioner.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Ravindran, Balasubramani; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Kurade, Mayur B; Yu, Shuk-Man; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2014-10-01

    Role of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans culture in bioacidification and dewaterability of anaerobically digested sewage sludge (ADS) was investigated. A. ferrooxidans culture grown in 9K medium along with Fe(2+) produced iron flocculant containing, secondary iron minerals and biopolymeric substances as confirmed by FT-IR, XRD, and SEM-EDX. Bioacidification of ADS was performed using 10% (v/v) A. ferrooxidans culture, isolated cells and cell-free culture filtrate; and dewaterability was assessed using the capillary suction time (CST) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF). Isolated bacterial cells significantly (P<0.05) reduced the sludge dewaterability when supplemented with Fe(2+) while the whole culture and cell-free filtrate rapidly acidified the sludge without Fe(2+) and showed significant reduction of CST (71.3-73.5%) and SRF (84-88%). Results clearly indicated that the culture and filtrate of the A. ferrooxidans facilitated rapid sludge dewaterability while the cells supplemented with Fe(2+) also enhanced dewaterability but required 2-4 days. PMID:25064335

  18. Prevalence of respiratory adenovirus species B and C in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Bibby, Kyle; Peccia, Jordan

    2013-02-01

    Human adenovirus diversity in sewage sludge was assessed by Ion Torrent sequencing and annotation of partial adenovirus hexon genes. The most abundant species identified were HAdV-C (average 78%) and -B (average 20%), which are associated with respiratory infections. These findings reinforce the necessity to consider aerosol exposure to sewage-derived pathogens. PMID:25208697

  19. Prevalence of Respiratory Adenovirus Species B and C in Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Bibby, Kyle; Peccia, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Human adenovirus diversity in sewage sludge was assessed by Ion Torrent sequencing and annotation of partial adenovirus hexon genes. The most abundant species identified were HAdV-C (average 78%) and -B (average 20%), which are associated with respiratory infections. These findings reinforce the necessity to consider aerosol exposure to sewage-derived pathogens. PMID:25208697

  20. Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. ISCORS ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVITY IN SEWAGE SLUDGE: MODELING TO ASSESS RADIATION DOSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tran...

  3. Crop and soil responses to sewage sludge applied to reclaimed prime farmland

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Qiang; Barnhisel, R.I. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Improvements in reclamation of surface mined prime farmland may be obtained by adding sewage sludge to topsoil and subsoil. This prime farmland reclamation study was done in western Kentucky. The experiment was conducted to investigate effects of the sludge amendment to topsoil and subsoil on soil and crop responses. The experiment showed, in most cases at highest application rates, that the sludge addition significantly increased the soil organic matter, total N content, and available P levels. However, water holding capacity, CEC, and exchangeable cations were not significantly affected. Higher microbial populations and activates were also obtained. The wheat biomass, tiller number, tissue N, grain N, grain yield, and N removal in grain were well correlated with application rates of sewage sludge. Corn also responded positively to additions of sewage sludge. The corn ear-leaf N concentration, grain yield, and grain N removal increased with application rates of sewage sludge. Experiments indicated that topsoil and subsoil sewage sludge addition was beneficial practices in terms of increasing crop yield and improving some soil properties.

  4. Efficient, high-speed methane fermentation for sewage sludge using subcritical water hydrolysis as pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Tokumoto, Hayato; Ishii, Kyoko; Ishii, Ryo

    2009-06-01

    A novel biomass-energy process for the production of methane from sewage sludge using a subcritical water (sub-CW) hydrolysis reaction as pretreatment is proposed. The main substances of sewage sludge hydrolyzed by sub-CW at 513 K for 10 min were acetic acid, formic acid, pyroglutamic acid, alanine, and glycine. Fermentation experiments were conducted in an anaerobic-sludge reactor for two different samples: real sewage sludge and a model solution containing components typically produced by the sub-CW pretreatment of sewage sludge. In the experiment for the sub-CW pretreatment of sewage sludge, methane generation was twice that for non-pretreatment after 3 days of incubation. In the model experiment, the methane conversion was about 40% with the application of mixture of organic acids and amino acids after 5 days of incubation. Furthermore, the methane conversion was about 60% for 2 days when only organic acids, such as acetic acid and formic acid, were applied. Because acetic acid is the key intermediate and main precursor of the methanogenesis step, fermentation experiments were conducted in an anaerobic-sludge reactor with high concentrations of acetic acid (0.01-0.1M). Nearly 100% of acetic acid was converted to methane and carbon dioxide in 1-3 days. PMID:19254834

  5. Influence of earthworms and leaf litter on edaphic variables in sewage-sludge-treated soil microcosms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Hamilton; D. L. Dindal

    1989-01-01

    A series of 48 greenhouse soil microcosms were established and treated with combinations of sewage sludge, Acer saccharum leaves, and the earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris. The microcosms were incubated at constant moisture for 110 days. Samples were then taken and analysed for sludge depth, organic-matter content, and waterstable soil aggregates. Weights of surface leaves and weights and numbers

  6. Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment and disposal of sewage sludges. Citations discuss sludge digestion, dewatering, disinfection, stabilization, chlorination, and desulfurization. Topics include pretreatment programs, land disposal, incineration, and waste utilization. Environmental monitoring and protection, federal regulations, and legal aspects are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning sewage sludge dewatering techniques and equipment in industrial and municipal waste treatment systems. Topics include dewatering processes and control, activated sludge systems, fluidized bed systems, biological treatment, heavy metal recovery, and economic aspects. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Addressing Uncertainty in the ISCORS Multimedia Radiological Dose Assessment of Municipal Sewage Sludge and Ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Chiu; J. Bachmaier; R. Bastian; R. Hogan; T. Lenhart; D. Schmidt; A. Wolbarst; R. Wood; C. Yu

    2002-01-01

    Managing municipal wastewater at publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) leads to the production of considerable amounts of residual solid material, which is known as sewage sludge or biosolids. If the wastewater entering a POTW contains radioactive material, then the treatment process may concentrate radionuclides in the sludge, leading to possible exposure of the general public or the POTW workers. The

  9. Land application technique for the treatment and disposal of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Basri; F. Suja; O. Jaafar

    2002-01-01

    Some of the major concerns when applying sewage sludge to land include the potential effect on pH and cation exchange capacity; the mobility and the accumulation of heavy metals in sludge treated soil; the potential of applying too much nutrients and the problems associated with odors and insects. The main objective of this study is to identify the effects of

  10. Using bioleaching to remove metals from sewage sludge intended for land application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Nie

    2003-01-01

    Removal of heavy metal contaminants from sewage sludge is a necessity before it is used as an agricultural fertilizer (biosolid), due to environmental concerns and municipal, provincial and federal regulations. The bioleaching method is recommended as an economical and effective process for the removal of heavy metals from the Ashbridges Bay Treatment Plant (ABTP) sludge, some of them with concentrations

  11. INVESTIGATION OF ALLEGED HEALTH INCIDENTS ASSOCIATED WITH LAND APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELLEN Z. HARRISON; SUMMER RAYNE OAKES

    2002-01-01

    The majority of U.S. sewage sludges are disposed by application to land for use as a soil amendment. Class B sludges, containing a complex mix of chemical and biological contaminants, comprise the majority. Residents near land application sites report illness. Symptoms of more than 328 people involved in 39 incidents in 15 states are described. Investigation and tracking of the

  12. TOXICITY OF SEWAGE SLUDGE TO 'RHEPOXYNIUS ABRONIUS', A MARINE BENTHIC AMPHIPOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Relative toxicity of sewage sludges from six treatment plants was determined by the LC50 of sludge-sediment mixtures to the infaunal marine amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius. LC50s were measured as the increase in the percent total volatile solids (TVS) of the mixture due to the add...

  13. Mutagenic potential of plants grown on a soil amended with mutagenic municipal sewage sludge

    E-print Network

    Fiedler, Daniel Alain

    1988-01-01

    on municipal sewage sludge amended soil. INTRODUCTION. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE . . 1 LITERATURE REVIEW METALS . PATHOGENS. CHEMICALS. GENETIC DAMAGE BIOASSAY. PLANT UPTAKE. OBJECTIVES. . . . . . . . . 4 . . 4 . . 5 . . 5 . . 8 . . 9 . . 11... are not as likely to occur since plant uptake (Weber and Nrozek, 1979; Overcash et al. , 1986) and translocation of sludge-borne chemicals results in a chemical concentration less than that found in the original sludge itself. Overcash et al. (1986) studied...

  14. Ecotoxicological evaluation of sewage sludge using bioluminescent marine bacteria and rotifer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gyung Soo Park; Sang Hee Lee; Soung Yun Park; Seong Jin Yoon; Seung Min Lee; Chang Soo Chung; Gi-Hoon Hong; Suk Hyun Kim

    2005-01-01

    Bioassay using the marine bacteria,Vibrio fischeri and rotifer,Brachionus plicatilis, and chemical analyses were conducted to assess the toxicity of the various sewage sludges, one of the major ocean dumped\\u000a materials in the Yellow Sea of Korea. Sludge elutriates extracted by filtered seawater were used to estimate the ecotoxicity\\u000a of the sludge. Chemical characterization included the analyses of organic contents, heavy

  15. Organic matter transformations and kinetics during sewage sludge composting in a two-stage system.

    PubMed

    Kulikowska, Dorota; Klimiuk, Ewa

    2011-12-01

    The use of different proportions of rape straw and grass as amendments in the composting of dewatered sewage sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was tested in a two-stage system (first stage, an aerated bioreactor and second stage, a periodically turned windrow). The composition of feedstock affected the temperature and organic matter degradation in the bioreactor and the formation of humic substances, especially humic acids (HA), during compost maturation in the windrow. The total HA content (the sum of labile and stable HA) increased according to first-order kinetics, whereas labile HA content was constant and did not exceed 12% of total HA. ?logK of 1.0-1.1 indicated that HA was of R-type, indicating a low degree of humification. Temperature during composting was the main factor affecting polymerization of fulvic acids to HA and confirmed the value of the degree of polymerization, which increased only when thermophilic conditions were obtained. PMID:21978622

  16. Near-bottom pelagic bacteria at a deep-water sewage sludge disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Takizawa, M.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. Mixed cultures and bacterial isolates obtained from water overlying sediment core samples collected at the deep-water (2,500 m) municipal sewage disposal site were tested for the ability to grow under in situ conditions of temperature and pressure. The responses of cultures collected at a DWD-106 station heavily impacted by sewage sludge were compared with those of samples collected from a station at the same depth which was not contaminated by sewage sludge. Significant differences were observed in the ability of mixed bacterial cultures and isolates from the two sites to grow under deep-sea pressure and temperature conditions. The levels of sludge contamination were established by enumerating Clostridium perfringens, a sewage indicator bacterium, in sediment samples from the two sites. (Copyright (c) 1993, American Society for Microbiology.)

  17. Identification of Viral Pathogen Diversity in Sewage Sludge by Metagenome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    BIBBY, KYLE; PECCIA, JORDAN

    2013-01-01

    The large diversity of viruses that exist in human populations are potentially excreted into sewage collection systems and concentrated in sewage sludge. In the US, the primary fate of processed sewage sludge (class B biosolids) is application to agricultural land as a soil amendment. To characterize and understand infectious risks associated with land application, and to describe the diversity of viruses in human populations, shotgun viral metagenomics was applied to 10 sewage sludge samples from 5 wastewater treatment plants throughout the continental U.S, each serving between 100,000 and 1,000,000 people. Nearly 330 million DNA sequences were produced and assembled, and annotation resulted in identifying 43 (26 DNA, 17 RNA) different types of human viruses in sewage sludge. Novel insights include the high abundance of newly emerging viruses (e.g. Coronavirus HKU1, Klassevirus, and Cosavirus) the strong representation of respiratory viruses, and the relatively minor abundance and occurrence of Enteroviruses. Viral metagenome sequence annotations were reproducible and independent PCR-based identification of selected viruses suggests that viral metagenomes were a conservative estimate of the true viral occurrence and diversity. These results represent the most complete description of human virus diversity in any wastewater sample to date, provide engineers and environmental scientists with critical information on important viral agents and routes of infection from exposure to wastewater and sewage sludge, and represent a significant leap forward in understanding the pathogen content of class B biosolids. PMID:23346855

  18. Integrated drying and incineration of wet sewage sludge in combined bubbling and circulating fluidized bed units.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiyuan; Li, Yunyu; Lu, Qinggang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yao, Yao; Bao, Shaolin

    2014-12-01

    An original integrated drying and incineration technique is proposed to dispose of sewage sludge with moisture content of about 80% in a circulating fluidized bed. This system combines a bubbling fluidized bed dryer with a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. After drying, sewage sludge with moisture less than 20% is transported directly and continuously from the fluidized bed dryer into a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. Pilot plant results showed that integrated drying and incineration is feasible in a unique single system. A 100 t/d Sewage Sludge Incineration Demonstration Project was constructed at the Qige sewage treatment plant in Hangzhou City in China. The operational performance showed that the main operation results conformed to the design values, from which it can be concluded that the scale-up of this technique is deemed both feasible and successful. PMID:25263217

  19. Application of sewage sludge and intermittent aeration strategy to the bioremediation of DDT- and HCH-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qi; Lei, Mei; Chen, Tongbin; Yang, Jun; Wan, Xiaoming; Yang, Sucai

    2014-08-01

    Adding organic amendments to stimulate the biodegradation of pesticides is a subject of ongoing interest. The effect of sewage sludge on the bioremediation of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soil was investigated in bench scale experiments, and intermittent aeration strategy was also used in this study to form an anaerobic-aerobic cycle. Bioremediation of DDT and HCH was enhanced with the addition of sewage sludge and the intermittent aeration. The removal rates of HCH and DDT were raised by 16.8%-80.8% in 10 days. Sewage sludge increased the organic carbon content from 6.2 to 218 g/kg, and it could also introduce efficient degradation microbes to soil, including Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. and Sphingomonas sp. The unaerated phase enhanced the anaerobic dechlorination of DDT and HCH, and anaerobic removal rates of ?-HCH, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT accounted for more than 50% of the total removal rates, but the content of ?-HCH declined more in the aerobic phase. PMID:25108723

  20. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge with a hybrid process of low pressure wet oxidation and nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Blöcher, Christoph; Niewersch, Claudia; Melin, Thomas

    2012-04-15

    Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge will become increasingly important within the next decades due to depletion of mineral phosphorus resources. In this work a new process concept was investigated, which aims at realising phosphorus recovery in a synergistic way with the overall sewage sludge treatment scheme. This process combines a low pressure wet oxidation for sewage sludge decomposition as well as phosphorus dissolution and a nanofiltration process to separate phosphorus from heavy metals and obtain a clean diluted phosphoric acid, from which phosphorus can be recovered as clean fertiliser. It was shown that this process concept is feasible for sewage sludge for wastewater treatment plants that apply enhanced biological removal or precipitation with alumina salts for phosphorus removal. The critical parameter for phosphorus dissolution in the low pressure wet oxidation process is the iron concentration, while in the nanofiltration multi-valent cations play a predominant role. In total, a phosphorus recovery of 54% was obtained for an exemplary wastewater treatment plant. Costs of the entire process are in the same range as conventional sewage sludge disposal, with the benefit being phosphorus recovery and reduced emission of greenhouse gases due to avoidance of sludge incineration. PMID:22325934

  1. Effective water content reduction in sewage wastewater sludge using magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Ramnath; Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna

    2014-02-01

    The present work compares the use of three flocculants for sedimentation of sludge and sludge water content from sewage wastewater i.e. magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MION), ferrous sulfate (chemical) and Moringa crude extract (protein). Sludge water content, wet/dry weight, turbidity and color were performed for, time kinetics and large-scale experiment. A 30% reduction of the sludge water content was observed when the wastewater was treated with either protein or chemical coagulant. The separation of sludge from wastewater treated with MION was achieved in less than 5min using an external magnet, resulted in 95% reduction of sludge water content. Furthermore, MION formed denser flocs and more than 80% reduction of microbial content was observed in large volume experiments. The results revealed that MION is efficient in rapid separation of sludge with very low water content, and thus could be a suitable alternative for sludge sedimentation and dewatering in wastewater treatment processes. PMID:24378779

  2. Comparative assessment of municipal sewage sludge incineration, gasification and pyrolysis for a sustainable sludge-to-energy management in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Samolada, M.C. [Dept. Secretariat of Environmental and Urban Planning – Decentralized Area Macedonian Thrace, Taki Oikonomidi 1, 54008 Thessaloniki (Greece); Zabaniotou, A.A., E-mail: azampani@auth.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University Box 455, University Campus, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The high output of MSS highlights the need for alternative routes of valorization. • Evaluation of 3 sludge-to-energy valorisation methods through SWOT analysis. • Pyrolysis is an energy and material recovery process resulting to ‘zero waste’. • Identification of challenges and barriers for MSS pyrolysis in Greece was investigated. • Adopters of pyrolysis systems face the challenge of finding new product markets. - Abstract: For a sustainable municipal sewage sludge management, not only the available technology, but also other parameters, such as policy regulations and socio-economic issues should be taken in account. In this study, the current status of both European and Greek Legislation on waste management, with a special insight in municipal sewage sludge, is presented. A SWOT analysis was further developed for comparison of pyrolysis with incineration and gasification and results are presented. Pyrolysis seems to be the optimal thermochemical treatment option compared to incineration and gasification. Sewage sludge pyrolysis is favorable for energy savings, material recovery and high added materials production, providing a ‘zero waste’ solution. Finally, identification of challenges and barriers for sewage sludge pyrolysis deployment in Greece was investigated.

  3. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, fourth quarter 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-03-01

    Eleven sewage sludge application sites at the Savannah River Site (SRS) were originally the subject of a research program, begun in 1980, using domestic sewage sludge to reclaim borrow pits and to enhance forest productivity at SRS. Currently, the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites are the only remaining active sludge application sites. During fourth quarter 1991, samples from the four monitoring wells at the F-Area site (FSS series) and three monitoring wells at the H-Area site (HSS series) were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, and certain pesticides, herbicides, toxic metals, water quality indicators, and radionuclides. This report describes monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standards (PDWS) and the SRS flagging criteria.

  4. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sewage sludge from Shanghai, China: possible ecological risk applied to agricultural land.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Chen, Ling; Xia, Siqing

    2011-10-01

    Ideally, agricultural use is a treatment for the sewage sludge generated from municipal wastewater. However, this treatment probably causes ecological risks due to the occurrence of organic contaminants in sludge, which has attracted rising concerns recently. To assess the possible ecological risk, in this study, sewage sludge samples were collected from 28 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Shanghai, China for exploring the level and profile of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The mean concentration of ?18PBDE (sum of all target analytes except for BDE-209) was at the low end of global range. However, we found the highest reported BDE-209 levels (34,900 ng g(-1) dw) in sewage sludge/biosoilds to date. The annual mass loadings of penta-BDE, octa-BDE, and deca-BDE were 3.6, 0.6, and 763 kg through sludge, respectively. Following sludge application in agricultural land, the concentrations of penta-BDE, octa-BDE, and deca-BDE in soil were 0.19, 0.03, and 39.5 ng g(-1), respectively. Preliminary results indicate that the ecological risk of soil in organisms exposed to PBDEs was relatively low. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to explore the fate of PBDEs in sewage sludge due to no restriction on the usage and production of PBDEs products in China currently. PMID:21885085

  5. PAHs balance in solid and liquid phase of sewage sludge during fermentation process.

    PubMed

    W?odarczyk-Maku?a, Maria

    2008-12-01

    The results of the quantitative and qualitative analysis of PAHs both in sewage sludge and in supernatants before, during, and after methane fermentation process are presented in this paper. The investigations were carried out under laboratory scale in two series. The sludge samples originated from a municipal treatment plant. The process of fermentation was conducted using batch tests (a one-off batch supplemented with sludges). The content of 16 PAHs, listed by the US EPA, was determined using GC-MS technique. The aim of this investigation was to study changes in contribution groups of hydrocarbons (2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-ring) in relation to total concentration in PAHs. The objective of these investigations was to follow the changes in the PAHs content not only in sewage sludge (drymass) but also in supernatants (in the liquid phase), and to follow changes in concentration of PAHs during the methane fermentation process as well. The balance of PAHs load in sewage sludge and supernatants mixture was also calculated. An approximate two-fold decrease in dry matter of sludge was observed during the methane fermentation process. During sewage sludge digestion process 3- and 4-ring compounds were released from a solid phase to supernatants. PMID:18988097

  6. Transferring of components and energy output in industrial sewage sludge disposal by thermal pretreatment and two-phase anaerobic process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyi Yang; Xin Wang; Lei Wang

    2010-01-01

    For a better sewage sludge disposal and more efficient energy reclamation, transforming of components and energy in sludge by thermal and WAO pretreatment followed by two-phase anaerobic UASB process were studied in the pilot scale. Biogas outputs and the qualities and quantities of the effluent and solid residue were compared with a traditional anaerobic sludge digestion. Sludge components, including carbon,

  7. Improving material and energy recovery from the sewage sludge and biomass residues.

    PubMed

    Kliopova, Irina; Makarskien?, Kristina

    2015-02-01

    Sewage sludge management is a big problem all over the world because of its large quantities and harmful impact on the environment. Energy conversion through fermentation, compost production from treated sludge for agriculture, especially for growing energetic plants, and treated sludge use for soil remediation are widely used alternatives of sewage sludge management. Recently, in many EU countries the popularity of these methods has decreased due to the sewage sludge content (heavy metals, organic pollutions and other hazards materials). This paper presents research results where the possibility of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production from the separate fraction (10-40mm) of pre-composted materials - sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plant and biomass residues has been evaluated. The remaining fractions of pre-composted materials can be successfully used for compost or fertiliser production, as the concentration of heavy metals in the analysed composition is reduced in comparison with sewage sludge. During the experiment presented in this paper the volume of analysed biodegradable waste was reduced by 96%: about 20% of input biodegradable waste was recovered to SRF in the form of pellets with 14.25MJkg(-1) of the net calorific value, about 23% were composted, the rest - evaporated and discharged in a wastewater. The methods of material-energy balances and comparison analysis of experiment data have been chosen for the environmental impact assessment of this biodegradable waste management alternative. Results of the efficiency of energy recovery from sewage sludge by SRF production and burning, comparison analysis with widely used bio-fuel-sawdust and conclusions made are presented. PMID:25481696

  8. Molybdenum uptake by forage crops grown on sewage sludge -- Amended soils in the field and greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, M.B.; Richards, B.K.; Steenhuis, T.; Spiers, G.

    2000-06-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is a plant-available element in soils that can adversely affect the health of farm animals. There is a need for more information on its uptake into forage crops from waste materials, such as sewage sludge, applied to agricultural land. Field and greenhouse experiments with several crops grown on long-term sewage sludge-amended soils as well as soils recently amended with dewatered (DW) and alkaline-stabilized (ALK) sludges indicated that Mo supplied from sludge is readily taken up by legumes in particular. Excessive uptake into red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) was seen in a soil that had been heavily amended with sewage sludge 20 yr earlier, where the soil contained about 3 mg Mo/kg soil, three times the background soil concentration. The greenhouse and field studies indicated that Mo can have a long residual availability in sludge-amended soils. The effect of sludge application was to decrease Cu to Mo ratios in legume forages, canola (Brassica napus var. napus) and soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] below the recommended limit of 2:1 for ruminant diets, a consequence of high bioavailability of Mo and low uptake of Cu added in sludge. Molybdenum uptake coefficients (UCs) for ALK sludge were higher than for DW sludge, presumably due to the greater solubility of Mo measured in the more alkaline sludges and soils. Based on these UCs, it is tentatively recommended that cumulative Mo loadings on forages grown on nonacid soils should not exceed 1.0 kg/ha from ALK sludge or 4.0 kg/ha from DW sludge.

  9. [Characteristics of speciation and evaluation of ecological risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge of Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng-Ran; Lei, Yong-Qian; Cai, Da-Chuan; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Rui; Pan, Jia-Chuan

    2014-02-01

    Contents of heavy metals in different sewage sludges were analyzed and the speciation distribution and bioavailability of heavy metals were investigated, and the risk assessment code (RAC) and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure for solid waste were used to evaluate the potential ecological risk and leaching toxicity risk of heavy metals in sludge samples, respectively. The results showed that contents of Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn were high and presented a great difference by different sources in sewage sludges. Most of heavy metals existed in non-residual fractions and percentages of the mobile fraction (acid soluble fraction) of heavy metals in acidic sludge were higher. According to the results of single extraction, 1 mol x L(-1) NaOAc solution (pH 5.0) and 0.02 mol x L(-1) EDTA + 0.5 mol x L(-1) NH4OAc solution (pH 4.6) were suitable for evaluating bioavailable heavy metals in acidic and alkaline sludge, respectively. Percentages of bioavailable heavy metals were higher with the stronger of sludge acidity. The mobile ability of heavy metals resulted in the high ecological risk of sludge samples, and the bioavailability of heavy metals caused acidic sludges with a very high ecological risk but alkaline sludges with the middle ecological risk. Leaching toxicity risk was very high in sludge samples except domestic sewage sludge. After the removal of bioavailable heavy metals, leaching toxicity risk of sludge samples was still high in spite of its decrease; however, part type of sludges could be implemented landfill disposal. PMID:24812965

  10. Effects on Ni and Cd speciation in sewage sludge during composting and co-composting with steel slag.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zheng-Zhong; Wang, Xiao-Li; Gou, Jian-Feng; Zhang, He-Fei; Wang, Hou-Cheng; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    Sewage sludge and industrial steel slag (SS) pose threats of serious pollution to the environment. The experiments aimed to improve the stabilizing effects of heavy metal Ni and Cd morphology in composting sludge. The total Ni and Cd species distribution and chemical forms in the compost sewage sludge were investigated with the use of compost and co-compost with SS, including degradation. The carbon/nitrogen ratio of piles was regulated with the use of sawdust prior to batch aerobic composting experiments. Results indicated that the co-composting with SS and organic matter humification can contribute to the formation of Fe and Mn hydroxides and that the humus colloid significantly changed Ni and Cd species distribution. The decreased content of Ni and Cd in an unstable state inhibited their biological activity. Conclusions were drawn that an SS amount equal to 7% of the dry sludge mass was optimal value to guarantee the lowest amount of Cd in an unstable state, whereas the amount was 14% for Ni. PMID:24616342

  11. Transformation of phosphorus during drying and roasting of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Rundong; Yin, Jing; Wang, Weiyun; Li, Yanlong; Zhang, Ziheng

    2014-07-01

    Sewage sludge (SS), a by-product of wastewater treatment, consists of highly concentrated organic and inorganic pollutants, including phosphorus (P). In this study, P with different chemical fractions in SS under different drying and roasting temperatures was investigated with the use of appropriate standards, measurements, and testing protocol. The drying and roasting treatment of SS was conducted in a laboratory-scale furnace. Two types of SS samples under different treatment temperatures were analyzed by (31)P NMR spectroscopy. These samples were dried by a vacuum freeze dryer at -50°C and a thermoelectric thermostat drying box at 105°C. Results show that the inorganic P (IP) content increased as the organic P content decreased, and the bio-availability of P increased because IP is a form of phosphorousthat can be directly absorbed by plants. (31)P NMR analysis results indicate the change in P fractions at different temperatures. Non-apatite P was the dominant form of P under low-temperature drying and roasting, whereas apatite P was the major one under high-temperature drying and roasting. Results indicate that temperature affects the transformation of P. PMID:24810201

  12. Detection of enteric viruses in sewage sludge and treated wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Schlindwein, A D; Rigotto, C; Simões, C M O; Barardi, C R M

    2010-01-01

    Sewage sludge and treated wastewater when contaminated with enteric virus and discharged into the environment, could pose a human health risk. The aim of study was to verify the presence and viability of enteric viruses in sewage sludge and treated wastewater at a local sewage plant in Florianopolis city, Brazil. Sewage sludge was concentrated by organic flocculation and polyethylene glycol precipitation and wastewater by electronegative membrane filtration and ultrafiltration by Centriprep Concentrator. Adenovirus (AdV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and Rotavirus (RV) were examined for all samples for 12 months and Poliovirus (PV) was also tested for in sewage sludge samples. AdV was the most prevalent in both kind of samples, followed by RV, PV (in sludge) and HAV. Viral viability by cell culture (ICC-PCR) was: AdV: 100%, HAV: 16.7%, PV: 91.7%, RV: 25% in sludge and AdV: 66.6%, HAV: 66.6% and RV: 0% in wastewater. IFA for AdV in sludge ranged from 70 to 300 FFU/ml. QPCR for AdV ranged from 4.6 x 10(4) to 1.2 x 10(6) and from 50 to 1.3 x 10(4) gc/ml in sludge and wastewater, respectively. HAV quantification in sludge ranged from 3.1 x 10(2) to 5.4 x 10(2) gc/ml. In conclusion, it was possible to correlate presence and viability of enteric viruses in the environmental samples analyzed. PMID:20107281

  13. Modeling human off-site aerosol exposures to polybrominated flame retardants emitted during the land application of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Chris; Yang, Wulin; Peccia, Jordan

    2013-10-01

    Elevated sewage sludge concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are due to their broad utilization in textiles and polymers, their resistance to biological degradation, and also their hydrophobic nature-which drives partitioning into wastewater solids. This study estimated the total U.S. emissions of PBDE due to sewage sludge land application and then determined the human inhalation exposure to sludge-associated PBDEs as a function meteorological conditions and downwind distances from an application site. These aerosol exposures have also been incorporated into pharmacokinetic models to predict contributions to steady-state body burden. Our results suggest that while the amount of PBDEs aerosolized during the land application process is small compared to aerosol emissions associated with product use, the application of sludges onto U.S. soils constitutes a major source of PBDEs entering the outdoor environment. Regarding aerosol exposure to nearby residents, the maximum daily inhalation dosages from a common land application scenario occur immediately after sewage sludges are applied and were 137, 27, 1.9, and 81pg/day for significant congeners PBDE-47, -99, -153 and 209 respectively. These doses are 1-2 orders of magnitude less than the standard daily inhalation exposure to the same PBDEs associated with home indoor air and are similar to doses from inhalation of urban and rural outdoor air. Under the worst-case atmospheric transport scenario, the dosages are reduced by approximately 1 order of magnitude when the setback distance between the sludge aerosolization source and human receptor is increased to 200m. Though the health implications of low-level exposures are not well-understood, these sludge-derived PBDE dosages contribute less than a tenth of 1% to the estimated total body burden of PBDE produced from inhalation of indoor and outdoor air, exposure to house dust, and exposure to PBDE from food and water intake. Overall, the inhalation of PBDE aerosols from sludge-applied fields does not represent a significant contribution to human exposure compared to other common indoor exposures. However, land application is a major environmental source of PBDEs and sludge health impact analyses should focus on the practice's impacts on other exposures, such as biomagnification in aquatic and terrestrial food webs. PMID:24157584

  14. Alteration of a Salt Marsh Bacterial Community by Fertilization with Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Hamlett, Nancy V.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of long-term fertilization with sewage sludge on the aerobic, chemoheterotrophic portion of a salt marsh bacterial community were examined. The study site in the Great Sippewissett Marsh, Cape Cod, Mass., consisted of experimental plots that were treated with different amounts of commercial sewage sludge fertilizer or with urea and phosphate. The number of CFUs, percentage of mercury- and cadmium-resistant bacteria, and percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were all increased in the sludge-fertilized plots. Preliminary taxonomic characterization showed that sludge fertilization markedly altered the taxonomic distribution and reduced diversity within both the total heterotrophic and the mercury-resistant communities. In control plots, the total heterotrophic community was fairly evenly distributed among taxa and the mercury-resistant community was dominated by Pseudomonas spp. In sludge-fertilized plots, both the total and mercury-resistant communities were dominated by a single Cytophaga sp. PMID:16347183

  15. Occurrence of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in sewage sludge from Shanghai: implications for source and environmental burden.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Nan; Chen, Ling; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    Sewage sludge is regarded as one important sink for hydrophobic pollutants, including hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), but the current pollution situation of HBCD in sludge from China is unknown, despite that many studies have reported its occurrence in other environmental compartments across China. In this study, we collected 27 sludge samples from Shanghai to investigate the occurrence and distribution, to examine the diastereoisomer profile and sources, and to provide advice for future pollution control. HBCD is ubiquitous in sludge with a mean concentration of 4.7ngg(-1) dry weight (dw) (range: 0.10-37.2ngg(-1) dw), lower than data from European countries and the United States. Sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) treating industrial wastewater contained high levels of HBCD. However, no significant relationships were found between HBCD and four parameters (total organic carbon, the percentage of industrial wastewater, capacity and sludge production of WWTPs). ?- and ?-HBCD were two main components with the corresponding contributions of 47.9% and 48.0%. Comparing with the annual production of HBCD in China, its storage in sewage sludge is extremely low (less than 0.002%), indicating future release of HBCD from waste polystyrene foam will be significant, and careful considerations should be taken during waste disposal. To our knowledge, this is the first report on HBCD in sewage sludge from China. PMID:25240774

  16. Feasibility of bioleaching combined with Fenton oxidation to improve sewage sludge dewaterability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changgeng; Zhang, Panyue; Zeng, Chenghua; Zeng, Guangming; Xu, Guoyin; Huang, Yi

    2015-02-01

    A novel joint method of bioleaching with Fenton oxidation was applied to condition sewage sludge. The specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and moisture of sludge cake (MSC) were adopted to evaluate the improvement of sludge dewaterability. After 2-day bioleaching, the sludge pH dropped to about 2.5 which satisfied the acidic condition for Fenton oxidation. Meanwhile, the SRF declined from 6.45×10(10) to 2.07×10(10)s(2)/g, and MSC decreased from 91.42% to 87.66%. The bioleached sludge was further conditioned with Fenton oxidation. From an economical point of view, the optimal dosages of H2O2 and Fe(2+) were 0.12 and 0.036mol/L, respectively, and the optimal reaction time was 60min. Under optimal conditions, SRF, volatile solids reduction, and MSC were 3.43×10(8)s(2)/g, 36.93%, and 79.58%, respectively. The stability and settleability of sewage sludge were both improved significantly. Besides, the results indicated that bioleaching-Fenton oxidation was more efficient in dewatering the sewage sludge than traditional Fenton oxidation. The sludge conditioning mechanisms by bioleaching-Fenton oxidation might mainly include the flocculation effects and the releases of extracellular polymeric substances-bound water and intercellular water. PMID:25662236

  17. Toxic effects of sewage sludges on freshwater edible fish Cirrhina mrigala

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, L.; Coutinho, C.; Rao, C.V. [St. Xavier`s College, Bombay (India)] [St. Xavier`s College, Bombay (India)

    1996-03-01

    Municipal sewage sludges have been advocated by several investigators as a suitable dietary supplement in aquaculture because of the protein contained in it. Other researchers discourage their usage for a variety of reasons, the most common being the presence of heavy metals and pesticides that accumulate in various organs, thereby hampering growth in fish. Settled sewage, if palatable however, would prove to be an excellent low-cost nutrient in intensive aquaculture farms. Sludges may be administered in the aqueous or dehydrated condition, and in either case would be suitable for even fry and fingerlings, if consumed soon after application because of the small particle size. The absence of reports on the effect of sewage sludges from the wastewater treatment plant on animals prompted this investigation, though heavy metal analysis revealed the presence of appreciable quantities of Zn, Cu, Pb and moderate amounts of Ni, Cr, Cd in aqueous activate-sludge. In this study the effect of activated sludge (AcS), raw sludge (RS) in acute and chronic bioassays and hydrated digested sludge (DS) and dehydrated (sun-dried) digested sludge (KS) in chronic feeding experiment on survival, behavior and whole body acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity of Cirrhina mrigala, a freshwater edible fish, were investigated.

  18. Effect of fly ash/sewage sludge mixtures and application rates on biomass production

    SciTech Connect

    Sajwan, K.S. [Savannah State College, GA (United States); Ornes, W.H.; Youngblood, T. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to assess the use of a sewage sludge/fly ash mixture in soils for increased growth and uptake of nutrients by Sorghum vulgaris var. sudanense Hitchc. (`sorgrass`), a sorghum-sundangrass hybrid plant. This experiment was conducted by using four sewage sludge-to-fly ash ratios (4:1, 4:2, 4:3, and 4:4) and six application rates of sewage sludge/fly ash mixtures to soil (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 400 tons/acre). The data in this study indicated that the availability of elements to plants varied depending on the mixture ratios and the application rates. All ratios of sewage sludge amended with fly ash generally improved plant growth and enhanced yield at application rates of 50-100 tons/acre but showed reduced growth and yield at higher application rates. The decrease in yield at higher application rates was probably due to the assimilation of high levels of boron which is phytotoxic. These various treatments of sewage sludge/fly ash ratios and rates of application often resulted in elevated concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, B, Cu, and Zn in both soil and plants. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. A spatial multicriteria decision making tool to define the best agricultural areas for sewage sludge amendment.

    PubMed

    Passuello, Ana; Cadiach, Oda; Perez, Yolanda; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Sewage sludge amendment on agricultural soils has recently become a practice of heightened interest, as a consequence of sewage sludge production increase. This practice has benefits to soil and crops, however it may also lead to environmental contamination, depending on the characteristics of the fields. In order to define the suitability of the different agricultural fields to receive sewage sludge, a spatial tool is proposed. This tool, elaborated in GIS platform, aggregates different criteria regarding human exposure and environmental contamination. The spatial tool was applied to a case study in the region of Catalonia (NE of Spain). Within the case study, each step of the tool development is detailed. The results show that the studied region has different suitability degrees, being the appropriate areas sufficient for receiving the total amount of sewage sludge produced. The sensitivity analysis showed that "groundwater contamination", "distance to urban areas", "metals concentration in soil" and "crop type" are the most important criteria of the evaluation. The developed tool successfully tackled the problem, providing a comprehensive procedure to evaluate agricultural land suitability to receive sewage sludge as an organic fertilizer. Also, the tool implementation gives insights to decision makers, guiding them to more confident decisions, based on an extensive group of criteria. PMID:21982027

  20. Ecological risks associated with the application of sewage sludge to non-agricultural ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, R.A.; Sample, B.E.; Luxmoore, R.J.; Tharp, M.L.; Barnthouse, L.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Daniel, F.B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Clean Water Act of 1977 directed EPA to establish standards for use and disposal of sewage sludge (biosolids). The application of biosolids to non-agricultural lands is becoming increasingly important as a method of waste disposal. Ecological endpoints at the population, community, and/or ecosystem level have not previously been emphasized in the development of regulatory standards for municipal sewage sludge. This risk assessment focuses on terrestrial endpoints in four ecosystem types to which substantial quantities of sludge have been applied or are expected to be applied in the future: northwest Douglas-fir forest, southeastern loblolly pine plantation, eastern deciduous forest, and semi-arid rangeland. Conceptual models suitable for all ecosystems were developed that depict the links among assessment endpoints. Estimates of risks to wildlife from contaminants and simulations of impacts of nitrogen in sewage sludge on the structure and function of forest communities are presented in detail elsewhere at this conference. This project overview integrates these two assessment components and adds contaminant risks to plants, soil invertebrates, and microbial processes and risk of leaching and erosion altered by biosolids application. Management practices and empirical measures of bioavailability are considered for each ecosystem. Concentrations of constitutents of sewage sludge used for the analyses have been obtained from the 1988 USEPA National Sewage Sludge Survey. Existing regulatory standards that are primarily human health-based are also evaluated for the adequacy of protection of ecological systems and populations. Predicted impacts of sewage sludge applications are presented, even if they may be regarded as benefits rather than risks.

  1. PROCEEDINGS: WORKSHOP ON EFFECTS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE QUALITY AND SOIL PROPERTIES ON PLANT UPTAKE OF SLUDGE-APPLIED TRACE CONSTITUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The workshop report summarizes the current research and understanding about transfer of contaminants from sewage sludge to the human food chain via land application. As such it addresses the important parameters in the system which can alter the rate and degree of movement of con...

  2. The effects of sewage sludge and sewage sludge biochar on PAHs and potentially toxic element bioaccumulation in Cucumis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Sardar; Qing, Huang; Reid, Brian J; Chao, Cai

    2014-06-01

    The presence of contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and potentially toxic elements (PTEs), including As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, restricts the application of sewage sludge (SS) to agricultural land. This research established that the conversion of SS to SS biochar (SSBC) significantly (p ? 0.01) decreased PAH and available PTE concentrations. Once added to soil both SS and SSBC significantly (p ? 0.05) decrease PAH availability. Bioaccumulation of PAHs into Cucumis sativa L. was reduced by both SSBC (44-57%) and (to a lesser extent 20-36%) by SS. Following addition to soil SSBC significantly (p ? 0.05) reduced available PTEs (except Cd), while SS significantly (p ? 0.05) increased PTE availability. As a consequence SSBC significantly (p ? 0.05) reduced PTE bioaccumulation (except Cd and Zn), while SS increased PTE bioaccumulation. These results suggest SSBC to be a candidate for soil amendment that offers advantages over SS in terms of PAH/PTE bioaccumulation mitigation. PMID:24360844

  3. Benthic distribution of sewage sludge indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-ocean dump site

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.T.; Anikis, M.S.; Colwell, R.R. (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (United States)); Knight, I.T. (James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Since 1986, sewage sludge from New York and northern New Jersey has been dumped 196 km off the coast of New Jersey at the Deep Water Municipal Sewage Sludge Disposal Site. This study determines the distribution of sludge contamination of the benthic environment in the area, by using Clostridium perfringens as an indicator. The counts of C. perfringens confirm a previous report that sewage sludge is reaching the ocean floor at the disposal site as a result of the sludge dumping. C. perfringes counts within the dump site and to the south and west of the dump site are considerably elevated compared to counts east of the site. The distribution pattern of C. perfringes is broadly consistent with the estimates of the sea floor area impacted in the most recent computer model. However, the area of maximum desposition of sludge may be slightly further north than predicted. Use of C. perfringens has proven to be an efficient and reliable method for tracing sewage contamination of deep ocean sediments. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. USE OF PINE BARK AND SEWAGE SLUDGE COMPOST AS COMPONENTS OF SUBSTRATES FOR PINUS PINEA AND CUPRESSUS ARIZONICA PRODUCTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Guerrero; J. M. Gascó; L. Hernández-Apaolaza

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of using pine bark and composted sewage sludge to produce alternative substrates was studied. The substrates tested were 1 and 2) pine bark fertilized with 1 and 4 g L of a slow-release NPK fertilizer (15 : 11 : 13) and 3) a substrate in which 15% (v\\/v) of the pine bark was replaced by composted sewage sludge.

  5. Clover and cress as indicator species of impacts from limed sewage sludge and landfill wastewater land application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Vasseur; M. J Fortin; J Cyr

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of cress and clover as bioindicators to evaluate the impact of limed sewage sludge and landfill wastewater application on soil. The use of these two species, and the subsequent parameters measured, were also compared for their effectiveness in evaluating potential effects. Sewage sludge was added to the soil at a rate of 23 mg ha?1

  6. Leaching of heavy metals (Cu, Ni and Zn) and organic matter after sewage sludge application to Mediterranean forest soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Montse Toribio; Joan Romanyà

    2006-01-01

    In Mediterranean dry and semiarid areas, soil organic matter is often depleted due to ancient and intensive human activity. Under these conditions the use of sewage sludge as a land reclamation technique may be a means to revert desertification processes and to enhance soil function and nutrient cycling. However, applications of heavy metal-contaminated sewage sludges can significantly increase potentially toxic

  7. Plant availability of heavy metals in a soil amended with a high dose of sewage sludge under drought conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inmaculada Pascual; M. Carmen Antolín; Carlos García; Alfredo Polo; Manuel Sánchez-Díaz

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of water deficit on soil heavy metal availability and metal uptake by ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.) plants grown in a soil amended with a high dose of rural sewage sludge. Three fertility treatments were applied: sewage sludge (SS), mineral fertilizer (M), and control (C); unamended). The levels of irrigation

  8. Modeling of the reburning process using sewage sludge-derived syngas.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian

    2012-04-01

    Gasification of sewage sludge can provide clean and effective reburning fuel for combustion applications. The motivation of this work was to define the reburning potential of the sewage sludge gasification gas (syngas). A numerical simulation of the co-combustion process of syngas in a hard coal-fired boiler was done. All calculations were performed using the Chemkin programme and a plug-flow reactor model was used. The calculations were modelled using the GRI-Mech 2.11 mechanism. The highest conversions for nitric oxide (NO) were obtained at temperatures of approximately 1000-1200K. The combustion of hard coal with sewage sludge-derived syngas reduces NO emissions. The highest reduction efficiency (>90%) was achieved when the molar flow ratio of the syngas was 15%. Calculations show that the analysed syngas can provide better results than advanced reburning (connected with ammonia injection), which is more complicated process. PMID:22079251

  9. Biological and ecophysiological reactions of white wall rocket (Diplotaxis erucoides L.) grown on sewage sludge compost.

    PubMed

    Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Bonin, Gilles; Massiani, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of sewage sludge compost on white wall rocket (Diplotaxis erucoides L.) compared with mineral fertilization and control (without any fertilizer) in a greenhouse experiment. The plants grown on the compost-amended soil showed a different growth dynamic: a significant delay in flowering and a bigger root system. Both the compost and the fertilization treatments increased biomass and seed yield. Heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni) distribution within the plant was in the following order: roots > leaves > stems, except for zinc which was homogeneously distributed. The balance of mineral nutrition was not affected by treatments. Zinc was the trace element which was most taken up. Unlike many species of Brassicaceae, white wall rocket is not a hyperaccumulator. Although sewage sludge compost improved plant growth, delay in flowering shows that it is necessary to take precautions when spreading sewage sludge in natural areas. PMID:11916052

  10. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report: Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Currently, iron, lead, and manganese are the only permit-required analytes that exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites. Tritium and aluminum are the nonpermit constituents exceeding standards. Other constituents have exceeded standards at this site previously, but only sporadically.

  11. Supercritical water gasification of sewage sludge: gas production and phosphorus recovery.

    PubMed

    Acelas, Nancy Y; López, Diana P; Brilman, D W F Wim; Kersten, Sascha R A; Kootstra, A Maarten J

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the feasibility of the gasification of dewatered sewage sludge in supercritical water (SCW) for energy recovery combined with P-recovery from the solid residue generated in this process was investigated. SCWG temperature (400°C, 500°C, 600°C) and residence time (15min, 30min, 60min) were varied to investigate their effects on gas production and the P recovery by acid leaching. The results show that the dry gas composition for this uncatalyzed gasification of sewage sludge in SCW mainly comprised of CO2, CO, CH4, H2, and some C2-C3 compounds. Higher temperatures and longer residence times favored the production of H2 and CH4. After SCWG, more than 95% of the P could be recovered from the solid residue by leaching with acids. SCWG combined with acid leaching seems an effective method for both energy recovery and high P recovery from sewage sludge. PMID:25463796

  12. Evaluation of the anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and tomato waste at mesophilic temperature.

    PubMed

    Belhadj, Siham; Joute, Yassine; El Bari, Hassan; Serrano, Antonio; Gil, Aida; Siles, José A; Chica, Arturo F; Martín, M Angeles

    2014-04-01

    Sewage sludge is a hazardous waste, which must be managed adequately. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion is a widely employed treatment for sewage sludge involving several disadvantages such as low methane yield, poor biodegradability, and nutrient imbalance. Tomato waste was proposed as an easily biodegradable co-substrate to increase the viability of the process in a centralized system. The mixture proportion of sewage sludge and tomato waste evaluated was 95:5 (wet weight), respectively. The stability was maintained within correct parameters in an organic loading rate from 0.4 to 2.2 kg total volatile solids (VS)/m(3) day. Moreover, the methane yield coefficient was 159 l/kg VS (0 °C, 1 atm), and the studied mixture showed a high anaerobic biodegradability of 95 % (in VS). Although the ammonia concentration increased until 1,864 ± 23 mg/l, no inhibition phenomenon was determined in the stability variables, methane yield, or kinetics parameters studied. PMID:24682875

  13. [Feasibility of sewage sludge used as filling material in permeable reactive barrier].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hu-yuan; Wang, Bao; Dong, Xing-ling; Fan, Zhi-ming; Ju, Yuan-yuan

    2010-05-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRB) have been used widely as an alternative technique to treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). Selection of the appropriate filling materials is the most important procedure to application of this treatment. Batch adsorption tests and bacteria culture batch tests were conducted to assess the possibility of sewage sludge served as filling material for PRB. Results from batch adsorption tests showed that the maximum adsorption capacities of the sewage sludge were 13.62 mg x g(-1) (Zn2+) and 15.60 mg x g(-1) (Cd2+). Bacteria culture batch tests indicated that SO4(2-) concentrations in reactors decreased from initial concentrations of 700 mg x L(-1) to below 300 mg x L(-1). Sulfate removal efficiency ranged from 60% to 70%. Fe and heavy metals, including Zn and Cd, were removed completely in two reactors. This study suggested that sewage sludge is a suitable filling material for PRB. PMID:20623865

  14. Long-term study of palladium in road tunnel dust and sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Leopold, K; Maier, M; Weber, S; Schuster, M

    2008-11-01

    The present work summarizes data about palladium contents of road tunnel dust from 1994 to 2007 and sewage sludge ash from 1972 to 2006. Since palladium is emitted from automotive catalytic converters as elemental particles, road dust is quiet useful to study traffic-related Pd emissions. Very high Pd values of up to 516 microg Pd kg(-1) were found in the road dust samples collected in 2007. Heavy metals of all urban emissions, also dental practice effluent, are enriched in sewage sludge ash and thus this matrix is useful for the documentation of palladium emission caused by the use of Pd alloys in dental medicine. In sewage sludge ash highest Pd contents of maximum 460 microg Pd kg(-1) were found in the years 1986-1997. In both matrices correlations of Pd content to Pd demand of industry are discussed. PMID:18355951

  15. Environmental application for GIS: Assessing Iskandar Malaysia's (IM) sewage sludge for potential biomass resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, M. R.; Shaharuddin, N.; Abdullah Halim, K.

    2014-02-01

    The low carbon scenario could be achieved through the identification of major sectors contributing to the emission of high greenhouse gases (GHG) into the atmosphere. Sewage treatment plant (STP) was ranked as one of the major sectors that emits methane gas (CH4) during treatment processes, including sludge treatment. Sludge treatment is also capital extensive with high operational cost. Thus, sewage sludge has been accepted as a nuisance in STP. However, many has claimed that, sludge produced contain organic matter that has the potential for biomass resource. Thus, it would be such a Žwaste? if sludge are directly disposed of into the landfill without utilizing them at its full potential. In order to do so, it is vital to be able to determine the amount of sludge production. This research was implemented in Iskandar Malaysia regions in the state of Johor. By using GIS tool, the regions that produced the most sewage sludge can be determined, and can be group as critical area. Result shows that Nusajaya produces the most, compared to other regions, which indicated Nusajaya as a densely populated region.

  16. [Oxidation buffer capacity of sewage sludge barrier for immobilization of heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hu-Yuan; Fan, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Bao; Ju, Yuan-Yuan

    2010-11-01

    Benefit from the microbial activities especially the anaerobic sulfate reduction processes, sewage sludge could be used as a barrier to immobilize the heavy metals leached from tailings. With respect to the redox reaction between sewage sludge and acid mine drainage (AMD), oxidation titration test was carried out to study the effect of oxidation buffer capacity (OBC) of sewage sludge on the immobilization of heavy metals. Test results showed that OBC of sludge suspensions was decreased slightly with the solid-liquid ratio of the suspensions, but increased with the anaerobic incubation time, and that more than 50% of OBC was contributed by the sludge existed in strongly-reduction conditions (Eh < or = - 150 mV). During oxidation titration test, Zn was released obviously when Eh > or = - 150 mV, while Cu and Pb released obviously when Eh > or = 150 mV. According to the test results, a mathematical model was established to predict the OBC consumption of the sludge barrier under AMD penetrating conditions. The simulation results showed that a sludge barrier with 2m thickness, even undergone 38 787-years oxidation by AMD under 10m water head, keep in a strongly-reduced condition and, therefore, promote an immobilization of heavy metals from AMD in the barrier. PMID:21250455

  17. Impact of chemically contaminated sewage sludge on the collard arthropod community

    SciTech Connect

    Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.; Lisk, D.J.

    1986-08-01

    Stress effects on a terrestrial arthropod community were evident in a study of collards grown in soil amended with chemically contaminated sewage sludge. Plant growth in the contaminated sludge was significantly reduced compared with growth in plots treated with relatively uncontaminated sludge from two small towns or with mature alone. Population densities of major arthropod taxa tended to be lower in plots of contaminated sludge than they were in uncontaminated sludge and manure plots. Species richness and diversity were also reduced in contaminated-sludge plots compared with those of uncontaminated sludge and manure treatments. In general, few differences were observed in plant growth and arthropod numbers between the uncontaminated-sludge treatment, or uncontaminated sludge treated with cadmium or with the insecticide dieldrin. Because cadmium and dieldrin were applied at dosages of cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) found in the contaminated sludge, results suggested that these two toxins were not responsible for the effects on plants and arthropods observed in the contaminated-sludge treatment. Results of this study indicated the potential for sludge-borne contaminants to suppress growth in crop plants and reduce abundance of their associated arthropods.

  18. Guidance for writing permits for the use or disposal of sewage sludge. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Section 405(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) directs the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop regulations containing guidelines for the use and disposal of sewage sludge. On February 19th, 1993, EPA published final regulations at 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 503 as the culmination of a major effort to develop technical standards in response to Section 405(d). These regulations govern three sewage sludge use and disposal practices: land application, surface disposal, and incineration. A key element in EPA's implementation of the Part 503 regulations is educating Agency and State personnel about these new requirements. Although the regulations are generally directly enforceable against all persons involved in the use and disposal of sewage sludge, they will also be implemented through permits issued to treatment works treating domestic sewage as defined in 40 CFR 122.22. Thus, the primary focus of the manual is to assist permit writers in incorporating the Part 503 requirements into permits; it serves as an update to the Guidance for Writing Case-by-Case Permit Conditions for Municipal Sewage Sludge (PB91-145508/HDM).

  19. Technical support document for the surface disposal of sewage sludge. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The document provides the technical background and justification for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) final regulation (40 CFR Part 503) covering the surface disposal of sewage sludge. The document summarizes current practices in land application and presents data supporting the risk assessment methodology used to derive human health and environmental risk-based limits for contaminants in sewage sludge placed on surface disposal sites. The management practices associated with surface disposal are outlined and the different pathways by which contaminants reach highly-exposed individuals (HEIs) through surface disposal are discussed.

  20. National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS), data element dictionary for the ASCII format databases

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-16

    A data element dictionary including ASCII database file structures, variable naming conventions, and unique identifier variables is provided for the ASCII formats of the Questionnaire, Data Conventions, and Analytical Databases for the 1988 National Sewage Sludge Use and Disposal Survey (NSSS). Data collected in the questionnaire component of the survey are contained in the Questionnaire Database. Revised questionnaire data, including regulatory analytical use or disposal practices, followup information from the Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs), and imputed values for missing or improbable responses which could not be resolved, are recorded in the Data Conventions Database. Chemical concentrations from sewage sludge samples collected just prior to disposal are recorded in the Analytical Database.

  1. Rheological measurements on different types of sewage sludge for pumping design.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Vincenzo; Lotito, Adriana Maria

    2014-05-01

    Sewage sludge pumping could represent an optimal solution to assure adequate treatment of sludge in centralized plants, with a consequent reduction of the environmental impact of sludge disposal (volume, odour, putrescence), because small wastewater treatment plants usually do not provide an adequate treatment due to high costs. An accurate knowledge of rheological parameters is required to compute head loss for pipeline design, but only few data are available. In order to circumvent the problem of the scarcity of sludge rheological data, we have performed tests on different types of sludge, with solids concentration and temperature in the typical range of a conventional wastewater treatment plant. Bingham rheological parameters and sludge thixotropy values have been processed by regression analysis to identify their dependence on solids concentration or temperature. The results of this study allow the definition of guidelines and optimal strategies for designers in order to reduce pumping costs. PMID:24681323

  2. Use of Municipal Sewage Sludge for Improvement of Forest Sites in the Southeast

    SciTech Connect

    Charles R. Berry

    1987-09-01

    In eight field experiments dried municipal sewage sludge was applied to forest sites before planting of seedlings. In all cases, tree growth was faster on sludge-amended plots than on plots that received fertilizer and lime or no amendment. In all studies, concentrations of total nitrogen in the soil were higher on sludge plots than on control or fertilizer plots, even on good forest sites. In seven of the eight studies, concentrations of phosphorus also were higher on sludge plots than on control or fertilizer plots. Nitrogen and phosphorus tended to be higher in foliage from trees growing on sludge plots. Deep subsoiling was beneficial regardless of soil amendment. Where weeds were plentiful at the outset, they became serious competitors on plots receiving sludge.

  3. Leaching of ashes from co-combustion of sewage sludge and wood—Part I: Recovery of phosphorus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Pettersson; Lars-Erik Åmand; Britt-Marie Steenari

    2008-01-01

    Combustion of sewage sludge with subsequent recovery of phosphorus is a relatively new sludge treatment option. In the work described in this paper, recovery of phosphorus by acid leaching of fly ashes from co-combustion of sewage sludge with wood in a circulating fluidized bed combustor was investigated. The results showed that it is possible to find a pH range (0.5–1)

  4. Growth, yield and physiology of Verticillium -inoculated pepper plants treated with ATAD and composted sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Pascual; I. Azcona; F. Morales; J. Aguirreolea; M. Sánchez-Díaz

    2009-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of sanitized sewage sludges, ATAD (aerobic thermophilic autothermic digestion) and composted, on Verticillium-induced wilt in pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Piquillo). Two doses of ATAD (15 and 30% v\\/v) and three of composted sludge (15, 30 and 45% v\\/v) were applied to a\\u000a peat-based potting mix. Unamended substrate was included

  5. Bioindicators to assess impacts of heavy metals in land-applied sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Horswell; T. W. Speir; A. P. van Schaik

    2003-01-01

    Soils from a pastoral farm that had received large amounts of heavy metal contaminated sewage sludge 6–10 years previously were investigated to determine the impact of heavy metals on Rhizobium. The 8ha application area was originally divided into five different-sized blocks (blocks 1–5), which received sludge at different times between 1991 and 1994. The response of a lux biosensor based

  6. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Municipal Sewage Sludge: A Case Study of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shamuyarira, Kudakwashe K.; Gumbo, Jabulani R.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals in high concentrations can cause health and environmental damage. Nanosilver is an emerging heavy metal which has a bright future of use in many applications. Here we report on the levels of silver and other heavy metals in municipal sewage sludge. Five towns in Limpopo province of South Africa were selected and the sludge from their wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was collected and analysed. The acid digested sewage sludge samples were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) methods. The concentrations of silver found were low, but significant, in the range 0.22 to 21.93 mg/kg dry mass. The highest concentration of silver was found in Louis Trichardt town with a concentration of 21.93 ± 0.38 mg/kg dry mass while the lowest was Thohoyandou with a concentration of 6.13 ± 0.12 mg/kg dry mass. A control sludge sample from a pit latrine had trace levels of silver at 0.22 ± 0.01 mg/kg dry mass. The result showed that silver was indeed present in the wastewater sewage sludge and at present there is no DWAF guideline standard. The average Cd concentration was 3.10 mg/kg dry mass for Polokwane municipality. Polokwane and Louis Trichardt municipalities exhibited high levels of Pb, in excess DWAF guidelines, in sludge at 102.83 and 171.87 mg/kg respectfully. In all the WWTPs the zinc and copper concentrations were in excess of DWAF guidelines. The presence of heavy metals in the sewage sludge in excess of DWAF guidelines presents environmental hazards should the sludge be applied as a soil ameliorant. PMID:24595211

  7. Heavy metals in cottontail rabbits on mined lands treated with sewage sludge. [Sylvilagus floridanua

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Dressler; G. L. Storm; W. M. Tzilkowski; W. E. Sopper

    2009-01-01

    Levels of heavy metals in soils, vegetation, and tissues of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) on a Pennsylvania strip-mined site treated with sewage sludge were compared with those from a non-treated mine site to determine increases due to treatment effect. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn were higher in vegetation on the sludge-treated site. Zinc was higher in femurs of cottontails

  8. Land application of sewage sludge with regard to cropping systems and pollution potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Higgins

    2009-01-01

    Aerobically digested liquid sewage sludge was applied to Sassafras sandy loam soils (Typic Hapludults), characteristic of the eastern coastal plain, for 3 consecutive years. Sludge was applied at rates of 0, 22.4, and 44.8 Mg of dry solids\\/ha in June of each year. Ground water, soil, and crops were monitored for 4 years to establish the effects of high rates

  9. Assessment of heavy metals in municipal sewage sludge: a case study of Limpopo province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Shamuyarira, Kudakwashe K; Gumbo, Jabulani R

    2014-03-01

    Heavy metals in high concentrations can cause health and environmental damage. Nanosilver is an emerging heavy metal which has a bright future of use in many applications. Here we report on the levels of silver and other heavy metals in municipal sewage sludge. Five towns in Limpopo province of South Africa were selected and the sludge from their wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was collected and analysed. The acid digested sewage sludge samples were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) methods. The concentrations of silver found were low, but significant, in the range 0.22 to 21.93 mg/kg dry mass. The highest concentration of silver was found in Louis Trichardt town with a concentration of 21.93 ± 0.38 mg/kg dry mass while the lowest was Thohoyandou with a concentration of 6.13 ± 0.12 mg/kg dry mass. A control sludge sample from a pit latrine had trace levels of silver at 0.22 ± 0.01 mg/kg dry mass. The result showed that silver was indeed present in the wastewater sewage sludge and at present there is no DWAF guideline standard. The average Cd concentration was 3.10 mg/kg dry mass for Polokwane municipality. Polokwane and Louis Trichardt municipalities exhibited high levels of Pb, in excess DWAF guidelines, in sludge at 102.83 and 171.87 mg/kg respectfully. In all the WWTPs the zinc and copper concentrations were in excess of DWAF guidelines. The presence of heavy metals in the sewage sludge in excess of DWAF guidelines presents environmental hazards should the sludge be applied as a soil ameliorant. PMID:24595211

  10. BEHAVIOR CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS) FOLLOWING A SEWAGE SLUDGE TREATMENT

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    especially Zn. Key words: heavy metals, accumulation, Brassica Napus, urban sludge, industrial sludge. 1 containing many organic components, well vis-à-vis metals. Among the main pollutants generated by industrial that industrial sludge had very high levels of Cr, Pb and Cd. These metals existed mainly under the form

  11. Effects of thermally pretreated temperature on bio-hydrogen production from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ben-Yi; Liu, Jun-Xin

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen can be obtained by anaerobic fermentation of sewage sludge. Therefore, in this paper the effects of thermally pretreated temperatures on hydrogen production from sewage sludge were investigated under different pre-treatment conditions. In the thermal pretreatment, some microbial matters of sludge were converted into soluble matters from insoluble ones. As a result, the suspended solid (SS) and volatile suspended solid (VSS) of sludge decreased and the concentration of soluble COD (SCOD) increased, including soluble carbohydrates and proteins. The experimental results showed that all of those pretreated sludge could produce hydrogen by anaerobic fermentation and the hydrogen yields under the temperatures of 121 degrees C and 50 degrees C were 12.23 ml/g VS (most) and 1.17 ml/g VS (least), respectively. It illuminated that the hydrogen yield of sludge was affected by the thermally pretreated temperatures. Additionally, the endurance of high hydrogen yield depended on the translation of microbial matters and inhibition of methanogens in the sludge. The temperatures of 100 degrees C and 121 degrees C (treated time, 30 min) could kill or inhibit completely the methanogens while the others could not. To produce hydrogen and save energy, 100 degrees C was chosen as the optimal temperature for thermal pretrcatment. The composition changes in liquid phase in the fermentation process were also discussed. The SCOD of sludge increased, which was affected by the pretreatment temperature. The production of volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic fermentation increased with the pretreatment temperature. PMID:20050540

  12. Byproducts Utilization Program: Sewage Sludge Irradiation Project. Progress report, July-December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Engineering support for a demonstration-scale irradiator design included assisting the City of Albuquerque in preparing a comprehensive site plan for their proposed sludge handling and treatment facilities. The solar sludge dryer has been delivered to SNLA. A preliminary sludge drying experiment indicated the importance of optimizing stirring and air flow. Installation of instrumentation and mechanical equipment continued. The Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids (SIDSS) was used to irradiate 23 tons of dried, digested sewage sludge for the New Mexico State University (NMSU) Department of Crop and Soil Sciences. Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) operations included irradiation of ground pork for Toxoplasma gondii inactivation experiments, irradiation of surgical supplies and soil samples. Beneficial Uses Shipping Systems (BUSS) cask activities included near completion of the two full-scale cask bodies. Work continued on the Cask Safety Analysis Report (SAR) including additional analyses to reconfigure the six strontium fluoride capsules and/or reduce the number of capsules accommodated. NMSU has indicated no regrowth of salmonellae occurred in the irradiated sludge stockpile, while salmonellae did regrow in the unirradiated stockpile. Analyses of raw and digested sewage sludge from the Albuquerque Waste Water Treatment Plant showed levels of Yersinia enterocolitica (a human pathogen of emerging significance) to be below detection limits.

  13. The potential application of activated carbon from sewage sludge to organic dyes removal.

    PubMed

    Graham, N; Chen, X G; Jayaseelan, S

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research work was to study the potential application of activated carbon from sewage sludge to organic dye removal. Methylene blue and crystal violet were the two dyes investigated in the present study. Three activated carbons were produced from the exclusive sewage sludge (referred to as DS), the sludge with the additive of coconut husk (DC) and sludge with the additive of peanut shell (DP) respectively. They were characterized by their surface area and porosity and their surface chemistry structure. Adsorption studies were performed by the batch technique to obtain kinetic and equilibrium data. The results show that the three sludge-derived activated carbons had a developed porosity and marked content of surface functional groups. They exhibited a rapid three-stage adsorption process for both methylene blue and crystal violet. Their adsorption capacities for the two dyes were high, the carbon DP performed best in the adsorption whereas the carbon DC performed worst. It is therefore concluded that the activated carbons made from sewage sludge and its mixtures are promising for dye removal from aqueous streams. PMID:11380186

  14. Characterization and environmental implications of nano- and larger TiO(2) particles in sewage sludge, and soils amended with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bojeong; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Colman, Benjamin P; Hochella, Michael F

    2012-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is the most extensively used engineered nanoparticle to date, yet its fate in the soil environment has been investigated only rarely and is poorly understood. In the present study, we conducted two field-scale investigations to better describe TiO(2) nano- and larger particles in their most likely route of entry into the environment, i.e., the application of biosolids to soils. We particularly concentrated on the particles in the nano-size regime due to their novel and commercially useful properties. First, we analyzed three sewage sludge products from the US EPA TNSSS sampling inventory for the occurrence, qualitative abundance, and nature of TiO(2) nano- and larger particles by using analytical scanning electron microscopy and analytical (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. Nano- and larger particles of TiO(2) were repeatedly identified across the sewage sludge types tested, providing strong evidence of their likely concentration in sewage sludge products. The TiO(2) particles identified were as small as 40 nm, and as large as 300 nm, having faceted shapes with the rutile crystal structure, and they typically formed small, loosely packed aggregates. Second, we examined surface soils in mesocosms that had been amended with Ag nanoparticle-spiked biosolids for the occurrence of TiO(2) particles. An aggregate of TiO(2) nanoparticles with the rutile structure was again identified, but this time TiO(2) nanoparticles were found to contain Ag on their surfaces. This suggests that TiO(2) nanoparticles from biosolids can interact with toxic trace metals that would then enter the environment as a soil amendment. Therefore, the long-term behavior of TiO(2) nano- and larger particles in sewage sludge materials as well as their impacts in the soil environment need to be carefully considered. PMID:22349742

  15. REPORT OF PYROLYSIS OF SEWAGE SLUDGES IN THE NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY METROPOLITAN AREA (PHASE I)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this work was to reduce the volume of municipal wastewater (sewage) sludge in a multiple-hearth furnance via starved air combustion (pyrolysis) to determine how it compared with incineration as an environmentally acceptable method of sludge disposal. Sludge was fir...

  16. Study on Immobilization Activated Sludge by Polyvinyl Alcohol-sodium Alginate - Calcium Nitrate in Domestic Sewage Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nie Qian; Jian Peichao; Liu Zhibin; Gu Fang

    2010-01-01

    Preparation conditions of immobilization activated sludge were studied with polyvinyl alcohol-sodium alginate as carrier and calcium nitrate as cross linking agent. Physical properties and removal effect of immobilization activated sludge were also investigated, where cross linking agent was boric acid, calcium chloride, calcium nitrate, respectively. The effect of sewage treatment was compared with activated sludge cross optimum linker calcium nitrate

  17. Microbial utilization and transformation of humic acid-like substances extracted from a mixture of municipal refuse and sewage sludge disposed of in a landfill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z Filip; W Pecher; J Berthelin

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to establish whether humic acid-like substances (HA) related to municipal refuse disposed of in a landfill can resist microbial degradation and if they contribute, in that way, to long-term stabilization of landfill refuse. Using a mixture of 0.1 M Na4P2O7 + 0.1 M NaOH, we extracted HA from municipal refuse mixed with sewage sludge

  18. Working to gain public acceptance of sewage sludge composting and use of liquid and dewatered sludge on land

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is (1) to examine those factors that especially spark the resistance and concern of citizens to land utilization and composting of sewage sludge and (2) to characterize essential ingredients that are invariably a part of the most successful systems for reducing the resistance and minimizing the concerns of these citizens. Experiences in the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area will be discussed which show how municipal authorities and/or their agents have worked with citizens. These discussions show how their efforts have either alleviated or increased citizen concern and resistance to sludge utilization and composting.

  19. SOIL TEMPERATURE AND SEWAGE SLUDGE EFFECTS ON PLANT AND SOIL PROPERTIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the influence of soil temperature and sewage sludge on growth and composition of corn (Zea mays L.). Changes in soil organic matter, extractable metals, pH, bulb density, aggregation, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus were deter...

  20. CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES ON INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND MANURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA and the USDA convened a three-day Workshop on Emerging Infectious Disease Agents and Issues Associated with Sewage Sludge, Animal Manures, and Other Organic By-Products on June 4-6, 2001 in Cincinnati, Ohio. The purpose of the workshop was to review and discuss the effe...

  1. DISPERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE DISCHARGED INTO NEW YORK BIGHT. PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA AND LABORATORY ANALYSES - 1975

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume contains data on the dispersion of sewage sludge subsequent to its disposal at a site near the apex of the New York Bight. Cruises were made in May, July, and October, 1975. An optical tracer method was used to measure the water column distribution of waste material f...

  2. Heavy metal balances of an Italian soil as affected by sewage sludge and Bordeaux mixture applications

    SciTech Connect

    Moolenaar, S.W. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands); Beltrami, P. [Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    Applications of sewage sludge and Bordeaux mixture (Bm) (a mixture of copper sulfate and lime) add heavy metals to the soil. At an experimental farm in the Cremona district (Italy), the authors measured current heavy metal contents in soil and their removal via harvested products. They also measured heavy metal adsorption by soil from this farm. With these data, projections were made of the long-term development of heavy metal (Cd, Cu, and Zn) contents in soil, crop removal, and leaching at different application rates of sewage sludge and Bm. These projections were compared with existing quality standards of the European Union (EU) and Italy with regard to soil and groundwater. The calculations reveal that the permitted annual application rates of sewage sludge and Bm are likely to result in exceedance of groundwater and soil standards. Sewage sludge applications, complying with the Italian legal limits, may pose problems for Cd, Cu, and Zn within 30, 70, and 100 yr, respectively. Furthermore, severe Cu pollution of integrated and especially organic (Bm only) vineyards is unavoidable with the currently allowed application rates of Bm. The results suggest that the current Italian soil protection policy as well as the EU policy are not conducive of a sustainable heavy metal management in agroecosystems.

  3. DISPERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE DISCHARGED INTO NEW YORK BIGHT. PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA - DECEMBER 1974

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume contains physical oceanographic data collected at the sewage sludge disposal site near the apex of the New York Bight December 18 through 21, 1974. An optical tracer method was used to measure the water column distribution of waste material with time after discharge. ...

  4. USE OF FLY ASH AND MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE: CHALLENGES, OPPORTUNITIES, AND FUTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilization of coal combustion by-products (CCBP) and municipal by-products, mainly sewage sludge (SS), as agricultural soil amendments is of considerable importance not only as an avenue to dispose these materials but also to explore the potential advantages as source of some plant nutrients and to...

  5. Evaluation of Emission of Greenhouse Gases from Soils Amended with Sewage Sludge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increase in concentrations of various greenhouse gases originated by various human activities, including agricultural origin, could contribute to climate change. Anthropogenic activities such as cultivation of flooded rice and application of waste materials, such as sewage sludge which are rich in ...

  6. Composting and evaluation of racetrack manure, grass clippings and sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Warman; W. C. Termeer

    1996-01-01

    Two experimental\\/demonstration composting operations were operated in 1993 and 1994. At one site, racetrack manure was composted by itself. At another site, composts were produced from mixtures of racetrack manure, grass clippings and sewage sludge on four specially constructed pads. These pads were lined with plastic to facilitate leachate collection in adjoining containment ditches. Different ratios of two types of

  7. EFFECTS OF HIGH TEMPERATURE MELTING ON FRACTIONATION OF HEAVY METALS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azni Idris; Katayon Saed

    2002-01-01

    Sewage sludge from aerobic treatment plant was found to contain high amounts of heavy metals. Research was carried out to investigate the speciation and leaching behavior of heavy metals when using high temperature melting technology for treatment. This was achieved by conducting a sequential chemical extraction procedure and EP-TOX leaching test. The thermal treatment led to increased shift of metals

  8. PRELIMINARY COMPARATIVE STUDY OF METHODS TO EXTRACT VIRUS FROM RAW AND PROCESSED SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two simple virus extraction techniques were compared to an EPA standard method for detection of human enteric viruses in raw sewage sludge and class A biosolids. The techniques were used to detect both indigenous and seeded virus from a plant that distributes class A material pr...

  9. A REVIEW OF TECHNIQUES FOR INCINERATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE WITH SOLID WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses the state of the art of co-incineration of municipal refuse and sewage sludge. European and American practice is described. Four co-incineration techniques are evaluated for thermodynamic and economic feasibility; pyrolysis, multiple hearth, direct drying, a...

  10. BENTHIC DISTRIBUTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE INDICATED BY CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRIGENS AT A DEEP-OCEAN DUMP SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clostridium perfrigens in sediment samples collected at the Deep Water Municipal Sewage Sludge Disposal Site (also called the 106-Mile Site), off the coast of New Jersey, was enumerated. he counts of C. perfrigens found in sediment samples collected within and to the southwest of...

  11. Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as forestry and farm crop fertilizer. References discuss degassed biomass, fertilizer-grade residues, compost fertilizers, biological conversion of organic wastes, organic environmental pollution, and iron salts. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Bodo [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany); Eder, Christian [CET, Christian Eder Technology, Eduard-Didion Strasse, D-66539 Neunkirchen (Germany); Grziwa, Peter [BISANZ Anlagenbau GmbH, Scheidter Strasse 2, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Horst, Juri [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany)], E-mail: horst@izes.de; Kimmerle, Klaus [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures - gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation - are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes.

  13. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Comparative goal-oriented assessment of conventional and alternative sewage sludge treatment options.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Jakob; Rechberger, Helmut

    2010-06-01

    Phosphorous (P) is a limited and non-substitutable resource. Sewage sludge contains significant amounts of P and is therefore a widely applied fertilizer. Due to its organic and inorganic contaminants, sewage sludge is also combusted in industrial facilities as well as in waste incinerators. This study compares five common methods and one novel alternative based on a thermo-chemical process to treat and dispose of sewage sludge with regard to environmental impact, resource recovery, and materials dissipation. The comparison is based on material flow analysis, energy balances, selected LCA impact analysis, and statistical entropy analysis. This work shows that the novel technology combines both advantages of the established practices: organic and inorganic pollutants are either destroyed or removed from the P containing material, and the P returned to the soil exhibits high plant-availability. The novel method also has low emissions. The additional energy requirements should be reduced. However, with regards to sewage sludge P recovery is more important than energy recovery. PMID:20219338

  17. Vermicomposting of industrially produced woodchips and sewage sludge utilizing Eisenia fetida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Maboeta; L. van Rensburg

    2003-01-01

    Adult Eisenia fetida were used to vermicompost woodchips (WC) and sewage sludge (SS) that are produced as waste product by platinum mines. The aims of the study were to examine the growth and reproductive success of the worms over 84 days to determine long-term feasibility of large-scale implementation and monitor the bioconcentration of heavy metals and the effects of microorganisms

  18. Influence of sewage sludge compost stability and maturity on carbon and nitrogen mineralization in soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Bernal; A. F. Navarro; M. A. Sánchez-Monedero; A. Roig; J. Cegarra

    1998-01-01

    Incubation experiments with soil were made to study C and N mineralization in a sewage sludge–cotton waste mixture at different stages of the composting process performed by the Rutgers static pile system. Three composting samples were selected: initial mixture (I); the end of the active phase (E); and the mature compost (M). The CO2-C evolved (as % of added C)

  19. EVALUATION OF 'WITHIN-VESSEL' SEWAGE SLUDGE COMPOSTING SYSTEMS IN EUROPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives were: (1) To update a review of the state of the art of sewage sludge composting in Europe; (2) to evaluate a European-designed, continuous, thermophilic, mechanical, aerobic, composting system in Germany; and (3) to compare its cost to those of the U.S. Department...

  20. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. During fourth quarter 1992, the FSS wells also were analyzed for a number of other constituents not required by the permit. Historically and currently, no permit-required analytes exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites except iron, lead, and manganese, which occur in elevated concentrations frequently in FSS wells. Lead concentrations exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards during fourth quarter 1992, an event that is concurrent with a change in sampling procedures. Tritium is the primary nonpermit constituent that exceeds standards at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. Other constituents also exceed standards at this site but only sporadically.

  1. Assessing the feasibility of land application of fly ash, sewage sludge and their mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S Sajwan; S Paramasivam; A. K Alva; D. C Adriano; P. S Hooda

    2003-01-01

    Land disposal of fly ash (FA) and sewage sludge (SS) is a major problem due largely to their potentially harmful constituents. Combined use of FA and SS however may help reduce the associated pollution potential. In this paper we summarize the results of several case studies designed to assess the feasibility of land application of FA with and without SS.

  2. Land application of sewage sludges: an appraisal of the US regulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Z. Harrison; Murray B. McBride; David R. Bouldin

    1999-01-01

    Current US federal regulations governing the land application of sewage sludges do not appear adequately protective of human health, agricultural productivity or ecological health. US standards are far less protective than those of many European countries and Canadian provinces. This is due to both policy choices such as a 'do no harm' philosophy applied in some northern European countries and

  3. Potential for land application of contaminated sewage sludge treated with fermented liquid from pineapple wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandhya Babel; Preeda Parkpian

    2009-01-01

    The suitability for land application of anaerobically digested sewage sludge treated with naturally fermented and Aspergillus niger (A. niger) fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes, in terms of changes in the forms and amount of heavy metals and nutrient and pathogen content, were investigated in this study. Leaching studies for fermented liquid at optimum conditions (pH and contact time with

  4. Trace metal concentration in durum wheat from application of sewage sludge and commercial fertilizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather L Frost; Lloyd H Ketchum

    2000-01-01

    Repetitive application of commercial fertilizer continually introduces potentially toxic trace metals to the soil. Such metallic elements are not biodegradable, accumulate in the soil, and are subsequently taken up by food crops. Sewage sludge, often disposed of in landfills, contains high nutrient and organic contents and is now being recycled and beneficially applied to agricultural land worldwide in increasing amounts.

  5. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SYNTHETIC ASPHALT PRODUCED FROM LIQUEFACTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Direct thermochemical liquefaction of primary undigested municipal sewage sludge was carried out to produce a low molecular weight steam-volatile oil, a high molecular weight synthetic asphalt, and a residual char cake. The latter product is capable of supplying the thermal energ...

  6. INTERACTIONS OF PATHOGENS AND IRRITANT CHEMICALS IN LAND-APPLIED SEWAGE SLUDGES (BIOSOLIDS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID L. LEWIS; DAVID K. GATTIE; MARC E. NOVAK; SUSAN SANCHEZ; CHARLES PUMPHREY

    2003-01-01

    Background Fertilisation ofland with processed sewage sludges, which often contain low levels ofpathogens, endotoxins, and trace amounts of industrial and household chemicals, has become common practice in Western Europe, the US, and Canada. Local governments, however, are increasingly restricting or banning the practice in response to residents reporting adverse health effects. These self-reported illnesses have not been studied and methods

  7. Interactions of pathogens and irritant chemicals in land-applied sewage sludges (biosolids)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L Lewis; David K Gattie; Marc E Novak; Susan Sanchez; Charles Pumphrey

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fertilisation of land with processed sewage sludges, which often contain low levels of pathogens, endotoxins, and trace amounts of industrial and household chemicals, has become common practice in Western Europe, the US, and Canada. Local governments, however, are increasingly restricting or banning the practice in response to residents reporting adverse health effects. These self-reported illnesses have not been studied

  8. EFFECTS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON THE CADMIUM AND ZINC CONTENT OF CROPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluates the available data on the effects on plants of single and repeated additions of Cd and Zn to soils in the form of sewage sludge. The concentrations of Cd and Zn in plants vary with (a) the species and cultivation grown, (b) environmental and management facto...

  9. MINIMIZATION OF MAJOR AIR POLLUTANTS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE FLUID BED INCINERATORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ky Dangtran; Troy Holst

    Emissions of major air pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and mercury (Hg) were studied at two sewage sludge fluidized bed combustion (FBC) plants. Both the North West Bergen (NWB) County Utility Authority and the Little Miami (LM) plants have air pollution control systems (APCS) that are of the wet type. Various operating conditions such as temperature, excess

  10. Ocean Disposal of New York City Sewage Sludge - A Multimedia Waste Management Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gift; D. Segar; J. Fava; H. Plugge; B. Rubin; W. Rue; S. Storms

    1984-01-01

    There are evolving discussions among both scientists and policy makers of the desirability of making waste management decisions based on comparison of potential effects in various available disposal media (ocean, land, or atmosphere). This represents a departure from our traditional media-by-media regulatory focus. A comprehensive Special Permit Application prepared to address the ocean disposal of New York City sewage sludge

  11. In situ biodiesel production from greasy sewage sludge using acid and enzymatic catalysts.

    PubMed

    Sangaletti-Gerhard, Naiane; Cea, Mara; Risco, Vicky; Navia, Rodrigo

    2015-03-01

    This study proposes to select the most appropriate sewage sludge (greasy, primary and secondary) for in situ transesterification and to compare the technical, economic and energetic performance of an enzymatic catalyst (Novozym®435) with sulfuric acid. Greasy sludge was selected as feedstock for biodiesel production due to its high lipid content (44.4%) and low unsaponifiable matter. Maximum methyl esters yield (61%) was reached when processing the wet sludge using sulfuric acid as catalyst and n-hexane, followed by dried-greasy sludge catalyzed by Novozym®435 (57% methyl esters). Considering the economic point of view, the process using acid catalyst was more favorable compared to Novozym®435 catalyst due to the high cost of lipase. In general, greasy sludge (wet or dried) showed high potential to produce biodiesel. However, further technical adjustments are needed to make biodiesel production by in situ transesterification using acid and enzymatic catalyst feasible. PMID:25528605

  12. Effects of sewage sludge and toxic metals upon vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbionts

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAMF) are common plant symbionts that increase the uptake of water, phosphate and other nutrients into their host plants. Enhanced uptake of ions could be detrimental to plants in sludge-amended soils. This study examined the role and response of VAMF in the uptake of toxic metals (Cu, Cd and Zn) common in sewage sludge. Examination of field-grown plants (after 5 years of sludge amendment) revealed that mycorrhizal colonization of Cirsium arvense and Barbarea vulgaris was not depressed. Greenhouse bioassays of VAMF colonization potential with corn and geranium produced similar results. Enumeration of VAMF spores revealed similar values in sludge-amended and unamended control plots. Colonization (both field and greenhouse observations) and spore numbers were lower in the urea-phosphate-amended plots compared to sludge-amended and control plots.

  13. Hydrogen production and microbial diversity in sewage sludge fermentation preceded by heat and alkaline treatment.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Daekeun; Lee, Tae-Jin

    2012-04-01

    Combined pretreatment of heat treatment with alkaline condition was applied to the sewage sludge in order to acquire the effective method for sludge solubilization and bio-hydrogen production. Solubilization ratio of the sludge with heat treatment at alkaline condition (pH 13) was as high as 85.0%, resulting in an increase of COD concentration in aqueous solution, but the ratio of sludge with heat treatment or alkaline treatment alone was 32.2% and 56.3%, respectively. During the fermentation of the pretreated sludge, a significant increase of hydrogen production was observed with a low strength of ammonia, showing that ammonia in the aqueous phase could inhibit bio-hydrogen production. Klebsiella, Enterobacter or Clostridium genus were mostly related on the hydrogen production. PMID:22306077

  14. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on chemical and physical properties of sewage sludge biochar.

    PubMed

    Khanmohammadi, Zahra; Afyuni, Majid; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of pyrolysis temperatures (300, 400, 500, 600 and 700°C) on properties of biochar produced from an urban sewage sludge. Biochar yield significantly decreased from 72.5% at 300°C to 52.9% at 700°C, whereas an increase in temperature increased the gas yield. Biochar pH and electrical conductivity increased by 3.8 and 1.4 dS m(-1), proportionally to the increment of temperature. Biochar produced at low temperatures had higher total nitrogen and total organic carbon content but a lower C/N ratio, calcium carbonate equivalent, and total P, K and Na contents. Total and diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (DTPA)-extractable concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, Cr and Pb increased with increment of temperature. Lower DTPA-extractable concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb were found in biochars compared to the sewage sludge. Pyrolysis decreased bulk density, whereas particle density and porosity increment was observed upon pyrolysis with increment of temperature. Sewage sludge saturated water content (?s ) was 130.4 g 100g(-1) and significantly greater than biochar, but biochar ?s significantly increased with temperature (95.7 versus 105.4 g 100g(-1) at 300 and 700°C, respectively). Pyrolysis decreased the biochar's water repellency, assessed by molarity of ethanol droplet (MED), compared to the sewage sludge. The lowest MED of 0.2 and water repellency rating of 3 were found for the biochar produced at 700°C. Based on our results and considering the energy consumption, pyrolysis temperature in the range of 300-400°C may be suggested for sewage sludge pyrolysis. PMID:25595292

  15. Enhanced power generation and energy conversion of sewage sludge by CEA-microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Abourached, Carole; Lesnik, Keaton Larson; Liu, Hong

    2014-08-01

    The production of methane from sewage sludge through the use of anaerobic digestion has been able to effectively offset energy costs for wastewater treatment. However, significant energy reserves are left unrecovered and effluent standards are not met necessitating secondary processes such as aeration. In the current study a novel cloth-electrode assembly microbial fuel cell (CEA-MFC) was used to generate electricity from sewage sludge. Fermentation pretreatment of the sludge effectively increased the COD of the supernatant and improved reactor performance. Using the CEA-MFC design, a maximum power density of 1200 mW m(-2) was reached after a fermentation pre-treatment time of 96 h. This power density represents a 275% increase over those previously observed in MFC systems. Results indicate continued improvements are possible and MFCs may be a viable modification to existing wastewater treatment infrastructure. PMID:24912141

  16. DEMONSTRATION OF ACCEPTABLE SYSTEMS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective was to demonstrate sludge application systems for farmland that would minimize any adverse effects on the environment and public health, achieve both urban and rural acceptance, and be generally beneficial for producer and receptor of the sludge. A comprehensive hea...

  17. EFFECTS ON CATTLE FROM EXPOSURE TO SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils, forages, and cattle grazing on a sludge disposal site were examined for trace metals and persistent organics. Soils at the disposal site had increased concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, and Pb. Forages from sludge applied soils had higher levels of Zn, Cd, Cu, and Ni and lo...

  18. CONVERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE TO OIL BY HYDROLIQUEFACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of converting municipal wastewater sludges into oil under hydrogen pressure. In a laboratory autoclave, raw and digested sludges were subjected to 14 MPa total pressure for 20 to 90 minutes. Aqueous suspensions were treated at a...

  19. The influence of ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles on the toxicity of sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Jo?ko, Izabela; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2013-01-01

    More and more often sewage sludges become the place of deposition of nanoparticles (NPs), the use of which in consumer products is increasing. In turn, the increasing amount of sewage sludges enforces the need for their utilization (e.g. through the application of sludges to the soil). Therefore, the presence of NPs in sewage sludges may create a new threat to the environment. Thus it becomes important to perform evaluation of the toxicity of sewage sludges in the context of their content of NPs. The objective of the study was to estimate the effect of nanoparticles of ZnO (nano-ZnO) and TiO2 (nano-TiO2) and their bulk counterparts (bZnO and bTiO2) on the toxicity of sewage sludges in relation to selected organisms (plants – Lepidium sativum and Sinapis alba, and microorganisms – Vibrio fischeri and 11 different strains from Microbial Assay for Risk Assessment – MARA). The study also involved the estimation of other factors that may have an effect on the phytotoxicity of NPs in sewage sludge: the size of the particles, the dose of the sewage sludge, the time of NP–sewage sludge contact and light conditions. The effect of both nano-ZnO and nano-TiO2 on the toxicity of the sludges is dependent on the kind of NPs and their concentration. Sludges containing NPs displayed a different level of toxicity from their bulk counterparts. All of the factors estimated (size of particles, dose of sludge, contact time and light conditions) had a significant effect on the phytotoxicity of NPs which was dependent both on the kind of the NPs and on that of the sewage sludge. Estimation of the leachate toxicity indicated a greater sensitivity of plants to the presence of NPs as compared to the sensitivity of microorganisms. Leachates caused a greater reduction of bioluminescence of V. fischeri in the presence of nano-TiO2 than nano-ZnO. Nano-ZnO caused a reduction of the toxicity of the sewage sludge leachates. PMID:24592447

  20. Combined mesophilic anaerobic and thermophilic aerobic digestion process: effect on sludge degradation and variation of sludge property.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiehong; Ji, Yuehong; Kong, Feng; Chen, Xian

    2013-12-01

    One-stage autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) is effective for the reduction of volatile solids (VSs) and pathogen in sewage sludges. A novel process of combining mesophilic (<35 °C) anaerobic digestion with a thermophilic (55 °C) aerobic digestion process (AN/TAD) occurred in a one-stage digester, which was designed for aeration energy savings. The efficiency of sludge degradation and variation of sludge properties by batch experiments were evaluated for the AN/TAD digester with an effective volume of 23 L for 30 days compared with conventional thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD). The AN/TAD system can efficiently achieve sludge stabilization on the 16th day with a VS removal rate of 38.1 %. The AN/TAD system was operated at lower ORP values in a digestion period with higher contents of total organic compounds, volatile fatty acids, protein, and polysaccharide in the soluble phase than those of the TAD system, which can rapidly decreased and had low values in the late period of digestion for the AN/TAD system. In the AN/TAD system, intracellular substances had lysis because of initial hydrolytic acidification. PMID:23996119

  1. Land application of sewage sludge: A guide for land appliers on the requirements of the federal standards for the use or disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated a regulation at 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 503 to ensure that sewage sludge is used or disposed of in a way that protects human health and the environment. Part 503 imposes requirements for the land application, surface disposal, and incineration of sewage sludge. The manual focuses on land application, providing guidance to land appliers of sewage sludge. The purpose of the document is to provide the land applier with sufficient guidance to comply fully with all applicable Part 503 requirements. The guidance is structured to first provide a general understanding of the Rule and its underlying principles, including definitions of sewage sludge, land application, and an explanation of who under the Rule is considered a land applier.

  2. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyan; Xiao, Ke; Liu, Jiyan; Wang, Thanh; Liu, Guorui; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-08-15

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were nominated as persistent organic pollutants candidate in the Stockholm Convention in 2011. In this study, the profiles, concentrations and spatial distributions of PCNs were analyzed in 30 sewage sludge samples from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. Concentrations of ?75PCNs in sludge samples were in the range of 1.05-10.9 ng/g dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 3.98 ng/g dw. The predominant homologues in the sludge were mono- to tetra-CNs, accounting for approximately 85% of total PCNs. The total toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) of dioxin-like PCN congeners ranged from 0.04 to 2.28 pg/g dw with a mean value of 0.36 pg/g dw, which were lower than the maximum permissible TEQ concentrations in sludge for land application in China. Levels of PCNs and TEQs in sludge were relatively higher in samples from highly industrialized and developed cities in eastern China, implying a possible link between PCN contamination and the local economic development, but more studies are warranted to corroborate this. Industrial sources might be important contributors of PCNs to sewage sludge in China. PMID:24880545

  3. Reductive dechlorination of chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons in sewage sludge and aquifer sediment microcosms.

    PubMed

    Balsiger, Christian; Holliger, Christof; Höhener, Patrick

    2005-10-01

    The reductive transformation of the 10 most-widely distributed fluorinated volatile compounds and of tetrachloroethene was investigated for up to 177 days under anaerobic conditions in sewage sludge and aquifer sediment slurries. Concentrations of parent compounds and of degradation products were identified by GC-MS. We observed transformation of CFC-11 to HCFC-21 and HCFC-31, of CFC-113 to HCFC-123a, chlorotrifluoroethene and trifluoroethene, of CFC-12 to HCFC-22, of HCFC-141b to HCFC-151b, and of tetrachloroethene to vinyl chloride and ethene. CFC-114, CFC-115, HCFC-142b, HFC-134a and HCFC-22 were not transformed. The results suggest that with both inocula studied here, hydrogenolysis is the primary reductive dechlorination reaction. CFC-113 was the only compound where a dichloro-elimination was observed, leading to the formation of chlorotrifluoroethene as temporal intermediate and to trifluoroethene as end product. The relative reduction rates of chlorofluoromethanes compared reasonably well with theoretical rates calculated based on thermochemical data according to the Marcus theory. Some of the accumulating HCFCs and haloethenes observed in this study are toxic and may be of practical relevance in anaerobic environments. PMID:16182853

  4. Metaproteome analysis of sewage sludge from membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Ramona; Benndorf, Dirk; Rapp, Erdmann; Reichl, Udo; Palese, Luigi Leonardo; Pollice, Alfieri

    2011-07-01

    Microbial dynamics and enzymatic activities of activated sludge processes are not completely understood yet. A better understanding about the biology is indispensable for further process optimization. Since proteins play a key role as catalysts in sludge processes, a protocol for protein extraction and analysis by 2-D PAGE was established. It is based on phenol extraction of alkaline extracts and on a subsequent precipitation with ammonium sulphate. 2-D protein patterns obtained from different sludges collected from membrane bioreactors showed--besides common spots--significant differences. Selected proteins were identified with nano-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. All membrane biological reactor (MBR) sludge samples investigated in this study contained elastase 3A, which implies that this human serine protease is a significant constituent of municipal wastewater. Although the identification of proteins from ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea was expected, the detection of a protein with homology to the marine bacterium Saprospira grandis in MBR1 was surprising. PMID:21604373

  5. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth quarter 1993 and summary 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standard in a single well of the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site during fourth quarter 1993. Aluminum, iron, and lead, reported in excess of the SRS Flag 2 criteria at both the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites during third quarter 1993, were not analyzed fourth quarter.

  6. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    During second quarter 1995, samples from monitoring wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were analyzed for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) samples were analyzed for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 12,076. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permits. There were no constituents which exceeded the SCDHEC final Primary Drinking Water Standard in any well from the H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. There were also no constituents which were above the SRS Flag 2 criteria in any well at the three sites during second quarter 1995.

  7. Effect of organic calcium compounds on combustion characteristics of rice husk, sewage sludge, and bituminous coal: Thermogravimetric investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lihui; Duan, Feng; Huang, Yaji

    2015-04-01

    Experiments were conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer to assess the enhancement of combustion characteristics of different solid fuels blended with organic calcium compounds (OCCs). Rice husk, sewage sludge, and bituminous coal, and two OCC were used in this study. Effect of different mole ratios of calcium to sulfur (Ca/S ratio) on the combustion characteristics were also investigated. Results indicated that combustion performance indexes for bituminous coal impregnated by OCC were improved, however, an inverse trend was found for sewage sludge because sewage sludge has lower ignition temperature and higher volatile matter content compared to those of OCC. For rice husk, effect of added OCC on the combustion characteristics is not obvious. Different solid fuels show different combustion characteristics with increases of Ca/S ratio. The maximum combustion performance indexes appear at Ca/S ratios of 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 for OCC blended with Shenhua coal, rice husk, and sewage sludge, respectively. PMID:25638405

  8. Thermal conductivity characteristics of dewatered sewage sludge by thermal hydrolysis reaction.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyoung Woon; Park, Keum Joo; Han, Seong Kuk; Jung, Hee Suk

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the thermal conductivity of sewage sludge related to reaction temperature for the optimal design of a thermal hydrolysis reactor. We continuously quantified the thermal conductivity of dewatered sludge related to the reaction temperature. As the reaction temperature increased, the dewatered sludge is thermally liquefied under high temperature and pressure by the thermal hydrolysis reaction. Therefore, the bound water in the sludge cells comes out as free water, which changes the dewatered sludge from a solid phase to slurry in a liquid phase. As a result, the thermal conductivity of the sludge was more than 2.64 times lower than that of the water at 20. However, above 200, it became 0.704 W/m* degrees C, which is about 4% higher than that of water. As a result, the change in physical properties due to thermal hydrolysis appears to be an important factor for heat transfer efficiency. Implications: The thermal conductivity of dewatered sludge is an important factor the optimal design of a thermal hydrolysis reactor. The dewatered sludge is thermally liquefied under high temperature and pressure by the thermal hydrolysis reaction. The liquid phase slurry has a higher thermal conductivity than pure water. PMID:25562934

  9. Sewage sludge application can induce changes in antioxidant status of nodulated alfalfa plants.

    PubMed

    Antolín, M Carmen; Muro, Iara; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel

    2010-03-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the oxidative stress produced by sewage sludge addition on nodulated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Aragón) plants. Two types of sludge were incorporated into substrate: anaerobic mesophilic digested (AM) and autothermal thermophilic aerobic digested (ATAD) sludge. Pots without sludge but with inoculated plants were used as control treatment for comparison. Results showed that sludge amended plants had increased tissue accumulation of heavy metals that induced oxidative stress. This is characterized by induction of the antioxidant enzymatic activities and alterations in the redox state of ascorbate. ATAD sludge application produced a reduction in nodulation, increased nodule antioxidant enzyme activities and decreased ascorbate/dehydroascorbate ratio. As a consequence, nodules of ATAD treatment suffered from oxidative damages as evidenced by high malondialdehyde levels. By contrast, AM application enhanced plant growth and no deleterious effects on nodulation were found. Nodules developed in AM sludge had increased antioxidant enzyme activities, ascorbate/dehydroascorbate ratio and improved capacity for thiol synthesis. Results clearly showed that nodulated alfalfa performed better in AM than in ATAD sludge and suggest that differential response appears to be mediated by plant ability to thiol synthesis and to maintenance of a more equilibrated antioxidant status. PMID:19959231

  10. Preference of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, for plants grown in sewage sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

    1987-08-01

    Since passage of the Clean Water Act in the 1970s, disposal of the millions of tonnes of sewage sludge generated annually has become a major concern of municipalities throughout the United States. With the range of other disposal options having narrowed in recent years, application of sludge to land is increasingly viewed as a practical and economical means to recycle this waste material. However, sludges from large cities with industries may be contaminated with various toxic chemicals, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), other organic chemicals, such as pesticides, and heavy metals. Sludge application to land thus has the potential adversely to affect biota and the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. The authors previously demonstrated marked reductions in fecundity and survival of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, on collard plants, Brassica oleracea var. sabellica, growing in soil treated with chemically contaminated sludge as compared to aphids on plants growing either in soil treated with uncontaminated sludge of soil conventionally fertilized. Reduced plant growth and increased restlessness in aphids in the contaminated sludge treatment were also observed. The purpose of the present study was to examine more closely the influence of sludge contaminants on aphid settling behavior as indicated by differential preference of M. persicae for leaves of its collard host grown under different soil conditions.

  11. Addressing Uncertainty in the ISCORS Multimedia Radiological Dose Assessment of Municipal Sewage Sludge and Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, W. A.; Bachmaier, J.; Bastian, R.; Hogan, R.; Lenhart, T.; Schmidt, D.; Wolbarst, A.; Wood, R.; Yu, C.

    2002-05-01

    Managing municipal wastewater at publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) leads to the production of considerable amounts of residual solid material, which is known as sewage sludge or biosolids. If the wastewater entering a POTW contains radioactive material, then the treatment process may concentrate radionuclides in the sludge, leading to possible exposure of the general public or the POTW workers. The Sewage Sludge Subcommittee of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS), which consists of representatives from the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Energy, and several other federal, state, and local agencies, is developing guidance for POTWs on the management of sewage sludge that may contain radioactive materials. As part of this effort, they are conducting an assessment of potential radiation exposures using the Department of Energy's RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) family of computer codes developed by Argonne National Laboratory. This poster describes several approaches used by the Subcommittee to address the uncertainties associated with their assessment. For instance, uncertainties in the source term are addressed through a combination of analytic and deterministic computer code calculations. Uncertainties in the exposure pathways are addressed through the specification of a number of hypothetical scenarios, some of which can be scaled to address changes in exposure parameters. In addition, the uncertainty in some physical and behavioral parameters are addressed through probabilistic methods.

  12. Occurrence and point source characterization of perfluoroalkyl acids in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Alder, Alfredo C; van der Voet, Juergen

    2015-06-01

    The occurrence and levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) emitted from specific pollution sources into the aquatic environment in Switzerland were studied using digested sewage sludges from 45 wastewater treatment plants in catchments containing a wide range of potential industrial emitters. Concentrations of individual PFAAs show a high spatial and temporal variability, which infers different contributions from industrial technologies and activities. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was generally the predominant PFAA with concentrations varying between 4 and 2440?gkg(-1) (median 75?gkg(-1)). Elevated emissions were especially observed in catchments capturing discharges from metal plating industries (median 82?gkg(-1)), aqueous firefighting foams (median 215?gkg(-1)) and landfill leachates (median 107?gkg(-1)). Some elevated perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) levels could be attributed to emissions from textile finishing industries with concentrations up to 233?gkg(-1) in sewage sludge. Assuming sorption to sludge for PFOS and PFCAs of 15% and 2%, respectively, concentrations in wastewater effluents up to the low ?gL(-1) level were estimated. Even if wastewater may be expected to be diluted between 10 and 100 times by the receiving waters, elevated concentrations may be reached at specific locations. Although sewage sludge is a minor compartment for PFAAs in WWTPs, these investigations are helpful for the identification of hot-spots from industrial emitters as well as to estimate monthly average concentrations in wastewater. PMID:25176581

  13. The Composition of Fertilizing Value of Sewage Sludge.

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1932-01-01

    . In the Imhoff type of process which produces digested sludge, the raw sludge is retained in closed tanks and undergoes 'an exten- sive decomposition. Bacteria and other organisms develop and break down the organic matter, converting the less resistant... in Table 6, which shows the net amount of nitrogen aken up by the plants, expressed in percentage of the amounts added. 'able 7 contains. the comparative availability of the nitrogen in the .arious materials, compared with that of nitrate of soda equal...

  14. Occurrence of Listeria sp. and L. monocytogenes in sewage sludge used for land application: effect of dewatering, liming and storage in tank on survival of Listeria species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Garrec; F Picard-Bonnaud; A. M Pourcher

    2003-01-01

    The application of sewage sludge to agricultural land is widely used in France. To determine the impact of sludge treatments, concentrations of Listeria sp., Listeria monocytogenes and faecal indicators were monitored in five types of sludge from three sewage treatment plants in Angers (France) and its suburbs over a 1-year period. On the whole, bacteria were reduced in numbers through

  15. Evolution of organic matter in a full-scale composting plant for the treatment of sewage sludge and biowaste by respiration techniques and pyrolysis-GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Pognani, Michele; Barrena, Raquel; Font, Xavier; Adani, Fabrizio; Scaglia, Barbara; Sánchez, Antoni

    2011-03-01

    A full-scale composting plant treating in two parallel lines sewage sludge and the source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW or biowaste) has been completely monitored. Chemical routine analysis proved not to be suitable for an adequate plant monitoring in terms of stabilization and characterization of the process and final compost properties. However, the dynamic respiration index demonstrated to be the most feasible tool to determine the progression of the degradation and stabilization of organic matter for both sewage sludge and OFMSW lines. Both lines exhibited an important degree of stabilization of organic matter using rapid and cumulative respiration indices. Pyrolysis-GC/MS was applied to the most important inputs, outputs, and intermediate points of the plant. It proved to be a powerful tool for the qualitative characterization of molecular composition of organic matter present in solid samples. A full characterization of the samples considered is also presented. PMID:21256004

  16. Experimental Research of the Oxygen-Enriched Combustion of Sewage Sludge and Coal in CFB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, S. W.; Lu, X. F.; Liu, H. Z.

    Sewage sludge is the by-products of sewage treatment, and it is a fuel of high moisture, high ash and low caloric. Oxygen-enriched combustion technology is one of the new and clean coal combustion technologies that can control pollutant emission, which makes CO2 separation, SO2 treatment become easier, and NOx emission reduced. In this paper, we carried out the experimental research on the advantages of oxygen-enriched combustion and the characteristics of sewage sludge in a CFB incinerator that the diameter of the furnace is 100 mm, It is an important foundation for the industrialized application of the oxygen-enriched combustion of sewage sludge and coal in CFB. Experimental analyzed on the combustion characteristics of three conditions in the oxygen concentration of 21%˜35%, which were the weight ratio of coal and sludge were 1?1, 1?2 and also the coal was given. Furthermore, the change of gas composition along with the change of oxygen content and the temperature of dense phase region was analyzed. The results showed that the combustion characteristics differ from the different mixing rate between coal and sludge in different oxygen atmosphere, when the fluidized air velocity was 1.56 m/s˜1.88 m/s, the combustion stability; When the amount of the fuel was constant, as the increase of the oxygen contents in the experimental atmosphere, the total air volume decreased, the furnace temperature increased gradually, the concentration of SO2 and NOx showed increasing trend, which is beneficial to the removal of SO2; The concentration of NOx was increased gradually as temperature of the fluidized bed increased.

  17. Characterization of sewage sludge and the use of brine shrimp for toxicity test

    SciTech Connect

    Pun, K.C.; Cheung, R.Y.H. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry; Wong, M.H. [Hong Kong Baptist Univ. (Hong Kong). Dept. of Biology

    1995-12-31

    Heavy metal contents (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) of digested sludges, collected from 4 sewage treatment works in Hong Kong were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, after sequentially extracted by 1 M KNO{sub 3}, 0.5 M KF, 0.1 M Na{sub 4}, P{sub 2}, O{sub 7} 0.1 M EDTA and 6 M HNO{sub 3} It was found that the major forms of Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were in the sulfide phase, organically bound phase, adsorbed phase and carbonate phase respectively. Nauplii larvae of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) was then used as bioindicator to test the toxicity, of the digested sludges. 20 individuals were placed into 1 liter seawater containing whole sample of the types of digested sludges at different concentrations, The toxicity of the 4 sludges, according to 48h-LC 50, were ranked as follows YL > TP > ST > SWH.

  18. Study Into Combustion of Sewage Sludge as Energetic Fuel / Badania Spalania OSADÓW ?CIEKOWYCH Jako Paliwa Energetycznego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka; ?roda, Katarzyna; Otwinowski, Henryk

    2013-12-01

    Along with the development of civilisation, it can be observed that the amount of waste of different type is growing and the preparation process for further usage of the waste or the utilization process differs. What is to be focused on is municipal sewage sludge which, due to its energetic properties, constitutes a valuable fuel. The problem of usage of municipal sewage sludge remains still unsolved, which stems both from the increasing amount of such waste, and from the lack of properly adjusted systems for thermal processing thereof. What is of an additional obstacle are the increasingly stricter legal regulations regarding disposal of sewage sludge after the year 2013; hence, it is necessary to consider various benefits resulting from thermal processing of such waste. This work presents an overview of methods of disposal of sewage sludge, taking into consideration, in particular, thermal methods including the process of combustion and co-combustion as a means of successful utilization. The research section of the work presents the results of study into the mechanism and kinetics of combustion of sewage sludge in various conditions of the process carried out in air flow. Combustion of sewage sludge has been compared against combustion of coal and biomass. Wraz z rozwojem cywilizacji zaobserwowa? mo?na post?puj?ce powstawanie ró?nego rodzaju odpadów ró?ni?cych si?, m.in. sposobem przygotowania do dalszego wykorzystania, czy procesem utylizacji. Na szczególn? uwag? zas?uguj? komunalne osady ?ciekowe, które z uwagi na w?a?ciwo?ci energetyczne stanowi? cenne paliwo. Problem wykorzystania komunalnych osadów ?ciekowych jest nadal otwarty, a wynika to zarówno z rosn?cej produkcji tych odpadów, jak i braku odpowiednio przystosowanych instalacji do termicznego ich przekszta?cania. Dodatkowym utrudnieniem s? zaostrzaj?ce si? przepisy prawne dotycz?ce sk?adowania osadów ?ciekowych po 2013 r. sk?aniaj?ce tym samym do rozwa?a? nad korzy?ciami p?yn?cymi z termicznej obróbki tych odpadów. W pracy przedstawiono przegl?d sposobów unieszkodliwiania osadów ?ciekowych ze szczególnym uwzgl?dnieniem metod termicznych, g?ównie spalania i wspó?spalania jako drogi do ich sukcesywnej utylizacji. W cz??ci badawczej pracy zaprezentowano wyniki bada? mechanizmu i kinetyki spalania osadów ?ciekowych w ró?nych warunkach procesu prowadzonego w strumieniu powietrza. Spalanie osadów ?ciekowych porównano ze spalaniem w?gla oraz biomasy.

  19. Stability of Selected PAHs in Sewage Sludge/ Stabilno?? Wybranych Wwa W Osadach ?ciekowych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    W?odarczyk-Maku?a, Maria

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the investigations was to estimate the half-life of selected PAHs in sewage sludge. Five hydrocarbons selected from 16 PAHs- EPA were chosen. In this study, the quantity changes in the concentration 3- and 4-ring of PAHs in sewage sludges were investigated. Sewage sludges were stored under aerobic conditions for 12 weeks. At the same time the sewage sludges with the added sodium azide, in order to deactivate the microorganisms (abiotic samples), were also stored. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to qualify and quantify PAHs in 2-week intervals. Sewage sludges were taken from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Under experimental conditions the half-lives of individual compounds were diversed. In biotic samples halflife of hydrocarbons was in the range of 19 to 368 days. Half-life of PAHs in abiotic sewage sludges was in the range of 31 to 2961 days. The most persistent were phenanthrene. Celem bada? by?a ocena trwa?o?ci WWA w warunkach sk?adowania poprzez wyznaczenie czasu po?owicznego rozpadu. Okre?lono zmiany ilo?ciowe WWA w osadach przechowywanych w warunkach tlenowych przez 12 tygodni. W tych samych warunkach pozostawa?y tak?e osady, w których zahamowano aktywno?? mikroorganizmów poprzez dodatek azydku sodu. Ilo?ciow? analiz? WWA prowadzono z wykorzystaniem zestawu GC-MS w odst?pach 2-tygodniowych równolegle w osadach biotycznych i abiotycznych. Oznaczano pi?? WWA (fluoren, fenentren, antracen, fluoranten, piren), które znajduj? si? w?ród 16 zwi?zków podanych na li?cie EPA. Osady pobrano dwukrotnie z oczyszczalni ?cieków komunalnych, które w praktyce kierowane s? na sk?adowisko. Zawarto?? pocz?tkowa WWA w osadach by?a na poziomie 346?g/kg.s.m. W warunkach prowadzonego eksperymentu czas po?owicznego rozk?adu by? zró?nicowany dla poszczególnych zwi?zków. W osadach aktywnych biologicznie czas po?owicznego rozpadu badanych w?glowodorów by? w granicach od 19 do 368 dób. Czas po?owicznego rozpadu wyznaczony dla WWA w osadach nieaktywnych biologicznie pozostawa? w zakresie od 31 do 2961 dób.

  20. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yuancai; Chen, Yuancai; Song, Wenzhe; Hu, Yongyou

    2014-09-15

    Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1-0.2 mgL(-1)) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH4/hg VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO2/hg VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic condition and PCP on microbial community. Furthermore, nucleotide sequencing indicated that the main microorganisms for PCP degradation might be related to Actinobacterium and Sphingomonas. These results provided insights into situ bioremediation of environments contaminated by PCP and had practical implications for the strategies of PCP degradation. PMID:25151236

  1. Modelling nitrogen leaching from sewage sludge application to arable land in the Lombardy region (northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Perego, Alessia; Acutis, Marco

    2013-09-01

    Sewage sludge can be used as fertiliser, offering the possibility of safely recycling this waste product as a resource in agricultural applications. As the environmental concerns related to waste recycling in agricultural applications are well-known, restrictions on the use of sewage sludge have been implemented by the EU and local authorities. This work aimed to evaluate the nitrogen leaching associated with the application of sludge and the effectiveness of the temporal restrictions on its application implemented to safeguard the environment in the Lombardy region of northern Italy (120 days in Nitrate Vulnerable Zones and 90 days elsewhere) using the CropSyst model which was first validated. The effects of fertilisation using four different sludge types on N leaching were simulated at five sites under cultivation with maize and rice crops; six different timing schemes for sludge application were tested, three of which involved dates that were in agreement (AT) with the regulation, while the other three were not in agreement (NAT). We detected a significant effect of the sludge type and application timing, whereas the effect of their interaction was never significant. The mean annual leaching was 22 to 154 kg N ha(-1). The higher the ammonium N content in the sludge was, the greater the potential for N leaching was found to be. For the maize crop, the distribution of sludge in the late fall period resulted in significantly greater N leaching (61 kg N ha(-1)) and led to lower yields (9 t DM ha(-1)) compared to late winter fertilisation (49 kg N ha(-1); 10 t DM ha(-1)), whereas no differences in N leaching or yield were detected between AT and NAT, which was also observed for the rice crop. Therefore, the applied temporal constraints did not always appear to be advantageous for protecting the environment from leaching. PMID:23751334

  2. FINE PARTICAL AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Wayne S. Seames; Art Fernandez

    2003-09-21

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and pulverized coal. The objective was to determine potential tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} mitigation through using a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel, such as municipal sewage sludge, and the emergence of other potential problems such as the emission of toxic fly ash particles. The work led to new insight into mechanisms governing the partitioning of major and trace metals from the combustion of sewage sludge, and mixtures of coal and sewage sludge. The research also showed that the co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge emitted fine particulate matter that might potentially cause greater lung injury than that from the combustion of either coal alone or municipal sewage sludge alone. The reason appeared to be that the toxicity measured required the presence of large amounts of both zinc and sulfur in particles that were inhaled. MSS provided the zinc while coal provided the sulfur. Additional research showed that the toxic effects could most likely be engineered out of the process, through the introduction of kaolinite sorbent downstream of the combustion zone, or removing the sulfur from the fuel. These results are consequences of applying ''Health Effects Engineering'' to this issue. Health Effects Engineering is a new discipline arising out of this work, and is derived from using a collaboration of combustion engineers and toxicologists to mitigate the potentially bad health effects from combustion of this biomass fuel.

  3. Acoustic tracking of ocean-dumped sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Proni, J R; Newman, F C; Sellers, R L; Parker, C

    1976-09-10

    With a modified 200-kilohertz acoustic echo sounder, it has been possible to detect and map sewage dumped into the ocean over several hours. The three-dimensional distribution of suspended material and its rate of diffusion are indicated after digital processing of the data. PMID:17735703

  4. Beneficial uses of nuclear byproducts/sewage sludge irradiation project. Progress report, October 1981-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Zak, B.D. (ed.)

    1982-12-01

    A cooperative agreement was made between Albuquerque and DOE during FY81 for sewage sludge irradiation in upgrading the sewage treatment facilities. Other potential sites for implementation of sludge irradiation technology were also considered. Sludge was irradiated in the SIDSS for agronomy and animal feeding experiments. Sludge was also irradiated for use on turf areas. Cooperative work was also performed on grapefruit irradiation for fruit fly disinfestation, and on irradiation of sugar cane waste (bagasse) for enhanced ruminant digestibility. Preliminary design work began on a shipping cask to accomodate WESF Cs-137 capsules. The shielding performance, steady-state thermal response, and response to specified regulatory accident sequences have been evaluated. Work has been initiated on pathogen survival and post-irradiation pathogen behavior. Agronomy field, greenhouse, and soil chemistry studies continue. Various field experiments are ongoing. The fifth year of a five-year program to evaluate the potential use of a sludge product as a range feed supplement for cows is now in its fifth year. In agricultural economics, a preliminary marketing plan has been prepared for Albuquerque.

  5. Co-digestion of solid poultry manure with municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Sebastian; Weatherley, Laurence

    2013-08-01

    The anaerobic digestion was investigated using mixed sewage sludge and poultry manure. The experiments showed that a 30% addition of poultry manure to the sewage sludge did not increase specific gas yield (376 dm(3)/kg VS versus 384 dm(3)/kg VS), however gas production rate as calculated per unit volume was 1.5 higher for sludge and manure mixture. The anaerobic digestion turned out to be inefficient in terms of pathogen treatment, since the reduction of Enterobacteriaceae reached only two logarithmic units. In the course of the digestion processes, nutrients were released to the supernatant, and longer SRT favored that phenomenon. The liquor after the digestion of sludge alone was rich in phosphates (348-358 gP/m(3)) and contained a lot of organic carbon (COD of 2705-6034 gO2/m(3)). Conversely, more ammonium nitrogen was found in the supernatant after co-digestion of sludge with manure (2094-2221 gN/m(3)). However, there was no evidence of ammonia inhibition. PMID:23747446

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Llll of... - Emission Limits and Standards for New Fluidized Bed Sewage Sludge Incineration Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration...and Standards for New Fluidized Bed Sewage...meters per run) Performance test (Method 5...of 100 ppm and a high-range span of...For the cylinder gas audit of...

  7. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN BIOSOLIDS/SEWAGE SLUDGES - THE INTERFACE BETWEEN ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY AND REGULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern sanitary practices result in large volumes of human waste, as well as domestic and industrial sewage, being collected and treated at common collection points, wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). In recognition of the growing use of sewage sludges as a fertilizers and as so...

  8. Devolatilization and ash comminution of two different sewage sludges under fluidized bed combustion conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Solimene, R.; Urciuolo, M.; Cammarota, A.; Chirone, R. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione (IRC) - CNR, Napoli (Italy); Salatino, P. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione (IRC) - CNR, Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Damonte, G.; Donati, C.; Puglisi, G. [ECODECO Gruppo A2A, Giussago (PV) (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Two different wet sewage sludges have been characterized under fluidized bed combustion conditions with reference to their devolatilization behavior and ash comminution with the aid of different and complementary experimental protocols. Analysis of the devolatilization process allowed to determine the size of fuel particle able to achieve effective lateral spreading of the volatile matter across the cross-section of medium-scale combustors. Primary fragmentation and primary ash particle characterization pointed out the formation of a significant amount of relatively large fragments. The mechanical properties of these fragments have been characterized by means of elutriation/abrasion tests using both quartz and sludge ash beds. (author)

  9. Environmental effects of using clay bricks produced with sewage sludge: leachability and toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Cusidó, Joan A; Cremades, Lázaro V

    2012-06-01

    Use of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants as a raw material for making clay bricks has been analyzed to be an option to dumping sludges into landfills. This alternative has been shown feasible and interesting due to the high rate of use of ceramic materials in the building sector. However, it meets with some environmental issues and some prejudices on the part of users. This work shows some leachability and toxicity tests (outgassing and offgassing) which demonstrate the environmental compatibility of these ceramic products to be used as building materials and even in deconstruction of the building once its useful life is ended. PMID:22265004

  10. Evaluation of biochemical and redox parameters in rats fed with corn grown in soil amended with urban sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Grotto, Denise; Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Sauer, Elisa; Garcia, Solange Cristina; de Melo, Wanderley José; Barbosa, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    The increased production of urban sewage sludge requires alternative methods for final disposal. A very promising choice is the use of sewage sludge as a fertilizer in agriculture, since it is rich in organic matter, macro and micronutrients. However, urban sewage sludge may contain toxic substances that may cause deleterious effects on the biota, water and soil, and consequently on humans. There is a lack of studies evaluating how safe the consumption of food cultivated in soils containing urban sewage sludge is. Thus, the aim of this paper was to evaluate biochemical and redox parameters in rats fed with corn produced in a soil treated with urban sewage sludge for a long term. For these experiments, maize plants were grown in soil amended with sewage sludge (rates of 5, 10 and 20 t/ha) or not (control). Four different diets were prepared with the corn grains produced in the field experiment, and rats were fed with these diets for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Biochemical parameters (glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) as well the redox state biomarkers such as reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase, glutathione peroxidase and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were assessed. Our results show no differences in the biomarkers over 1 or 2 weeks. However, at 4 weeks BuChE activity was inhibited in rats fed with corn grown in soil amended with sewage sludge (5, 10 and 20 t/ha), while MDA levels increased. Furthermore, prolonged exposure to corn cultivated in the highest amount per hectare of sewage sludge (8 and 12 weeks) was associated with an increase in MDA levels and a decrease in GSH levels, respectively. Our findings add new evidence of the risks of consuming food grown with urban sewage sludge. However, considering that the amount and type of toxic substances present in urban sewage sludge varies considerably among different sampling areas, further studies are needed to evaluate sludge samples collected from different sources and/or undergoing different types of treatment. PMID:23810366

  11. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Model Rule-Emission Limits and Standards for Existing Fluidized Bed Sewage Sludge Incineration Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Model Rule-Emission Limits and Standards for Existing Fluidized Bed Sewage Sludge...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES...Model Rule—Emission Limits and Standards for Existing Fluidized Bed Sewage...

  12. Degradation and environmental risk of surfactants after the application of compost sludge to the soil

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.M.; Martin, J.; Camacho-Munoz, D.; Santos, J.L.; Aparicio, I. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Escuela Politecnica Superior, University of Seville, C/Virgen de Africa 7, E-41011 Seville (Spain); Alonso, E., E-mail: ealonso@us.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Escuela Politecnica Superior, University of Seville, C/Virgen de Africa 7, E-41011 Seville (Spain)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Degradation of surfactants in soil amended with sewage sludge during 100 days. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature influences on the degradation of the studied compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall, the LAS degradation is faster than the NP compounds degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Therefore, the LAS presented lower environmental risk than the NP compounds. - Abstract: In this work, the degradation of anionic and non-ionic surfactants in agricultural soil amended with sewage sludge is reported. The compounds analysed were: linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) with a 10-13 carbon alkylic chain, and nonylphenolic compounds (NPE), including nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol ethoxylates with one and two ethoxy groups (NP1EO and NP2EO). The degradation studies were carried out under winter (12.7 Degree-Sign C) and summer (22.4 Degree-Sign C) conditions in Andalusia region. The concentration of LAS was reduced to 2% of the initial concentration 100 day after sludge-application to the soil. The half-life time measured for LAS homologues were ranged between 4 and 14 days at 12.7 Degree-Sign C and between 4 and 7 days at 22.4 Degree-Sign C. With regard to NPE compounds, after 8 and 4 days from the beginning of the experiment at 12.7 and 22.4 Degree-Sign C, respectively, their concentration levels were increased to 6.5 and 13.5 mg/kg dm (dry matter) as consequence of the degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylates. These concentration levels were reduced to 5% after 63 and 70 days for 12.7 Degree-Sign C and 22.4 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The half-life times measured for NPEs were from 8 to 16 days at 12.7 Degree-Sign C and from 8 to 18 days at 22.4 Degree-Sign C. Environmental risk assessment revealed that for LAS homologues no environment risk could be expected after 7 and 8 days of sludge application to the soil for 22.4 and 12.7 Degree-Sign C, respectively; however, potential toxic effects could be observed for the nonylphenolic compounds during the first 56 days after sludge application to the soil.

  13. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report. First quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. During first quarter 1993, no permit-required constituents exceeded standards at the two sites except iron, which was elevated in one KSS well and two PSS wells. Aluminum, not required by the permit, was the only other constituent that exceeded standards. Elevated levels of aluminum and iron at these two sites may be concurrent with a change in analytical methodology. As in previous quarters, chlordane concentrations did not exceed the detection limit in any of the wells.

  14. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and orange peel waste.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Antonio; Siles López, José Angel; Chica, Arturo Francisco; Martín, M Angeles; Karouach, Fadoua; Mesfioui, Abdelaziz; El Bari, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic digestion is a treatment that is widely applied for sewage sludge management but has several disadvantages such as low methane yield, poor biodegradability and nutrient imbalance. In this paper, we propose orange peel waste as an easily biodegradable co-substrate to improve the viability of the process. Sewage sludge and orange peel waste were mixed at a proportion of 70:30 (wet weight), respectively. The stability was maintained within correct parameters throughout the process, while the methane yield coefficient and biodegradability were 165 L/kg volatile solids (VS) (0 degrees C, 1 atm) and 76% (VS), respectively. The organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.4 to 1.6kg VS/m3 d. Nevertheless, the OLR and methane production rate decreased at the highest loads, suggesting the occurrence of an inhibition phenomenon. PMID:24645472

  15. Anaerobic co-digestion of swine and poultry manure with municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Sebastian; Doma?ski, Jaros?aw; Weatherley, Laurence

    2014-02-01

    The anaerobic digestion of municipal sewage sludge (SS) with swine manure (SM) and poultry manure (PM) was undertaken. It was found that a mixture of sewage sludge with a 30% addition of swine manure gave around 400 dm(3)/kg VS of biogas, whereas the maximal biogas yield from ternary mixture (SS:SM:PM=70:20:10 by weight) was only 336 dm(3)/kg VS. An inhibition of methanogenesis by free ammonia was observed in poultry manure experiments. The anaerobic digestion was inefficient in pathogen inactivation as the reduction in the number of E. coli an Enterobacteriaceae was only by one logarithmic unit. A substantial portion of pathogens was also released into the supernatant. PMID:24280622

  16. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report: Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Iron and lead, permit-required constituents, and aluminum presently exceed SRS flagging standards in samples from the two sites. Elevated concentrations of metals at these sites, not reported during 1992, may be the reflection of a recent change in analytical methodology.

  17. Effect of liming on the distribution of heavy metals in untreated industrial sewage sludge produced in Pakistan for the cultivation of Sorghum bicolor (L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Khan Jamali; Tasneem Gul Kazi; Mohammad Bilal Arain; Hassan Imran Afridi; Nusrat Jalbani; Jameel A. Baig; Abdul Niaz

    2008-01-01

    The recycling of sewage sludge on agriculture land represents an alternative, advantageous, disposal of this waste material.\\u000a The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using industrial sewage sludge, produced in Pakistan, as a\\u000a fertiliser. Agricultural soil amended with 25% (w\\/w) sewage sludge with or without lime treatment was used for growing a variety\\u000a of sorghum

  18. The evaluation of sewage sludge and compost toxicity to Heterocypris incongruens in relation to inorganic and organic contaminants content.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2007-12-01

    Sewage sludges and the composts were evaluated chemically and ecotoxicologically to determine their suitability as fertilizers for land application. Four municipal sewage sludges with various properties and pollutant contents were composted in aerobic conditions for 76 days. The content of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Zn) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (14 from US EPA List) was analyzed in the sewage sludges and composts as well as together with their physico-chemical properties (total organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, available forms of magnesium, phosphorus and potassium, cations content, cation exchange capacity, total of exchangeable bases). To evaluate the toxicity of the materials, bioassays with crustacean Heterocypris incongruens (Ostracodtoxkit test) were performed. Neither physical-chemical properties nor heavy metal content underwent any significant changes during the composting process. However, composting significantly influenced the range of losses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The magnitude and the ranges of changes in the toxicity H. incongruens were found to be dependent on the tested parameter as well as on sewage sludge type and its dose. It was noted that composting could even increase the toxicity of sewage sludges. Sewage sludge toxicity was mainly determined by the presence of heavy metals, although for some sludges the contribution of organic pollutants as well as the synergistic activity of several factors could not be excluded. According to proposed classification (on the basis of Ostracodtoxkit test) only one sewage sludge/compost was suitable for land application. The studies conducted provide interesting information pointing to the necessity to supplement chemical studies with biological assays. PMID:18000849

  19. Changes in chemical and biological parameters during co-composting of anaerobically digested sewage sludges with lignocellulosic material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Negre; Chiara Mozzetti Monterumici; Daniela Vindrola; Giuseppe Piccone

    2011-01-01

    This study reports a pilot experiment of composting of anaerobically digested sewage sludges deriving from the production of biogas in a wastewater treatment plant. Two composting piles (about 15 m each) were prepared by mixing 50% and 30% (v\\/v) sludges with lignocellulosic material. The composting process was monitored through determination of the main physicochemical properties. The stability of the composts

  20. CONTROL OF PATHOGENS AND VECTOR ATTRACTION IN SEWAGE SLUDGE (1999 EDITION) (EPA/625/R-92/013)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Properly treated sewage sludge (biosolids) is used as a soil conditioner and partial fertilizer in the United States and many other countries. While sludge has beneficial plant nutrients and soil-conditioning properties, if it is not treated. It may also contain bacteria, viruses...

  1. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Dactylis glomerata L. growing in a calcareous soil amended with sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Ortiz; J. M. Alcañiz

    2006-01-01

    The total and DTPA-extractable concentrations of Pb, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr and Cd were measured in a calcareous soil amended with different doses of sewage sludge under field conditions. The same metals were also measured in the roots and leaves of Dactylis glomerata at the end of the first vegetative period after the sludge was added. The root concentrations of

  2. Effect of municipal sewage sludge application on growth of two reclamation shrub species in copper mine spoils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Sabey; B. L. Webb; R. L. Pendleton

    2009-01-01

    One-year old transplants of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.) and mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana (Rybd.) Beetle) were grown for 9 mo in large greenhouse pots containing copper mine spiol material amended with one of three rates of municipal sewage sludge. Sludge was thoroughly mixed with the soils in some pots and concentrated around the root plug

  3. Effects of activated sludge on the degradation of chlorate in soils under varying environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunxiao Jiang; Huashou Li; Chuxia Lin

    2009-01-01

    Incubation experiments were conducted to examine the effects of activated sludge on degradation of chlorate in soils. The results show that application of activated sludge could significantly promote the decomposition of soil chlorate though the degradation rate of chlorate did not necessarily increase with increasing application rate of the sludge. The effectiveness of activated sludge on soil chlorate degradation was

  4. Mercury speciation in sediments at a municipal sewage sludge marine disposal site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Shoham-Frider; G. Shelef; N. Kress

    2007-01-01

    Mercury speciation was performed in excess activated sewage sludge (ASS) and in marine sediments collected at the AAS disposal site off the Mediterranean coast of Israel in order to characterize the spatial and vertical distribution of different mercury species and assess their environmental impact. Total Hg (HgT) concentrations ranged between 0.19 and 1003ng\\/g at the polluted stations and 5.7 and

  5. Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment processes and disposal of sewage sludges. Topics include resource and energy recovery operations, land disposal, composting, ocean disposal, and incineration. Digestion, dewatering, and disinfection are among the pretreatment processes discussed. Environmental aspects, including the effects on soils, plants, and animals, are also presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Calorimetric studies of solid wastes, sewage sludge, wastewaters and their effects on soil biodegradation processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Dziejowski; I. Bia?obrzewski

    2011-01-01

    Calorimetric studies of solid wastes, sewage sludge, wastewaters and their environmental effects focus on three main research\\u000a areas. The first research area involves determination of selected thermal and physical parameters characterizing the above\\u000a substances, such as specific heat, thermal conductivity and others. The second area covers processes of total or gradual destruction\\u000a of the examined substances at a fixed composition

  7. Organic Contaminants in Canadian Municipal Sewage Sludge. Part I. Toxic or Endocrine-Disrupting Phenolic Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HING-BIU LEE; THOMAS E. PEART

    The occurrence of toxic or endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS), pentachlorophenol (PCP), hexachlorophene (HCP), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in 35 sewage sludge samples collected from cities across Canada is documented. Samples were extracted by supercritical car- bon dioxide and the phenols were converted into their acetyl derivatives using published

  8. Combustion Characteristics of Sewage Sludge Using a Pressurized Fluidized Bed Incinerator with Turbocharger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Murakami; A. Kltajlma; Y. Suzuki; H. Nagasawa; T. Yamamoto; T. Koseki; H. Hirose; S. Okamoto

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a A new type of sewage sludge incinerator that combines a pressurized fluidized bed combustor and a turbocharger driven by flue\\u000a gas was proposed. This plant has four main advantages. (l) The combustion rate can be improved since the oxygen partial pressure\\u000a in the combustor is increased by the pressurization. The incinerator volume can be substantially smaller than that of an

  9. Enzyme activities as indicators of the stabilization of sewage sludges composting with Eisenia foetida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Benitez; R. Nogales; C. Elvira; G. Masciandaro; B. Ceccanti

    1999-01-01

    Evolution of earthworm (Eisenia foetida, Savigny) biomass and changes in enzyme activities during 18 weeks of sewage sludge vermicomposting were studied. With time, hydrolase (?-glucosidase, urease, BAA-hydrolysing protease and phosphatase) and dehydrogenase (DH-ase) activities decreased as available organic compounds (water-soluble carbon) decreased. A high correlation among all enzyme activities and between each activity and the water-soluble carbon (WSC) led to

  10. Long-chain perfluorinated chemicals in digested sewage sludges in Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongwen Sun; Andreas C. Gerecke; Walter Giger; Alfredo C. Alder

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on the occurrence of long-chain perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in anaerobically stabilized sewage sludges from 20 municipal WWTPs using current and historic samples to evaluate the levels of PFCs and to identify the relative importance of commercial and industrial sources. A quantitative analytical method was developed based on solvent extraction of the analytes and a LC-MS\\/MS system. For

  11. Behavior of chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, mercury, and lead during the pyrolysis of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer C. Kistler; Fritz. Widmer; Paul H. Brunner

    1987-01-01

    Raw and digested sewage sludge samples were pyrolyzed in order to investigate the partitioning of selected heavy metals during anoxic thermal treatment. Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb were retained quantitatively in the char at temperatures up to 750 °C. Cd compounds were reduced to Cd°, which was volatilized at T > 600 °C. Hg was completely evaporated at the

  12. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations concerning the removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge ash by chlorination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Fraissler; M. Jöller; H. Mattenberger; T. Brunner; I. Obernberger

    2009-01-01

    Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were performed in order to determine the removal behaviour of the heavy metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn from sewage sludge ash by adding Cl and performing a thermal treatment process. FactSage 5.3.1 and ChemSheet 1.5 are thermodynamic equilibrium calculation programs which were used to design a multicomponent thermodynamic system on the basis of the

  13. Illicit and abused drugs in sewage sludge: method optimization and occurrence.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Nicola; Postigo, Cristina; de Alda, Miren Lopez; Barcelo, Damia

    2013-12-27

    A sensitive and reliable method for the determination of 20 abused and illicit drugs and their metabolites in sewage sludge has been developed and validated. To the authors' knowledge, nine out of the 20 selected analytes, namely, cocaethylene, ephedrine, heroin, alprazolam, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), its metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD, and the cannabinoids ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD), are investigated for the first time in this matrix. In the optimized approach, freeze-dried sewage sludge samples were extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction, and the extracts were further cleaned-up by solid phase extraction. Analytes were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Method limits of quantification were below 3.3ng/g d.w. for all compounds but cannabinoids (8.2-22.5ng/g d.w.). Method repeatability was below 14% for most compounds. Overall method recoveries were low due to the presence of matrix interferences that could not be completely eliminated and suppressed the ionization of the target analytes between 26% and 89%. However, extraction losses and matrix effects were satisfactorily corrected through the use of isotopically labeled analogs as surrogate standards, ensuring reliable results. The method was applied to the analysis of various sewage sludge samples. Cannabinoids, methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) were the most ubiquitous and abundant compounds, showing maximum concentrations above 100ng/g d.w. in all cases (up to 579ng/g d.w. in the case of THC). This work is the first evidence of the presence of the cannabinoids CBN, CBD, and THC in sewage sludge. PMID:24275487

  14. Discriminating inhibitory from enhancing effects in respirometry assays from metal polluted-sewage sludge amended soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Montserrat; E. Martí; J. Sierra; M. A. Garau; R. Cruañas

    2006-01-01

    A respirometric experiment was used to assess the toxicity of a toxic element polluted-sewage sludge on two soil samples (SN and SO) differing, mainly, in their organic composition, texture and carbonate content. The essayed rates were 1.67, 3.34, 8.35 and 16.7% (dry weight basis), corresponding to total Zn, Cr and Ba concentrations ranging from 371, 105 and 514 to 3711,

  15. Microbial hydrogen production with Bacillus coagulans IIT-BT S1 isolated from anaerobic sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shireen Meher Kotay; Debabrata Das

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans strain IIT-BT S1 isolated from anaerobically digested activated sewage sludge was investigated for its ability to produce H2 from glucose-based medium under the influence of different environmental parameters. At mid-exponential phase of cell growth, H2 production initiated and reached maximum production rate in the stationary phase. The maximal H2 yield (2.28molH2\\/molglucose) was recorded at an initial glucose concentration

  16. [Effects of sewage sludge compost on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of turfgrass].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Tang, Feng-De; Yi, Yan-Li

    2014-09-01

    The effects of different dosages (0, 0.8%, 2%, 6% and 10%) of sewage sludge compost on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of three turfgrass, i. e., Festuca arundinacea, Lolium perenne and Poa pratensis were studied. The results showed that the dosage of 6% had the optimal effects. The plant height, leaf area and dry biomass of three turfgrass increased significantly with the increasing sewage sludge compost dosage, while the root/shoot ratio decreased obviously. Compared with the control, the plant height of F. arundinacea, L. perenne and P. pratensis increased by 64.9%-180.8%, 97.3%-200.9% and 39.1%-156.5%, the leaf area per plant increased by 91.3%-417.4%, 186.4%-394.9% and 164.6%-508.3% and the dry biomass per plant increased by 333.4%-867.6%, 138.4%-445.1% and 316.3%-669.2%, respectively. With the increasing dosage of sewage sludge compost, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and water use efficiency (WUE) of F. arundinacea increased first and decreased then, the Pn, Tr and WUE of P. pratensis showed a significantly increasing trend, while the Ci decreased after an initial increase, and the Pn and WUE of L. perenne increased gradually, while the Ci and Tr decreased after a gradual increase. With the in- creasing sewage sludge dosage, the contents of chlorophyll a and b of the three turfgrass species increased markedly, and then decreased when the dosage was more than 6%, but the ratio of chlorophyll a/b was little changed. PMID:25757308

  17. RECLAMATION OF A LANDFILL WITH DIGESTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Calumet land reclamation project developed design criteria for applying liquid fertilizer (sludge) to land and demonstrated the beneficial and economic use of it in raising crops. The scope of the project included developing a pipeline system to transport liquid fertilizer to...

  18. A METHOD FOR CONCENTRATING VIRUSES RECOVERED FROM SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buffered 10% beef extract eluates of primary, activated, and anaerobic mesophilically digested sludges were concentrated 20-fold by the Katzenelson organic flocculation procedure after diluting the beef extract in the eluates to a final concentration of 3%. The weighted mean reco...

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FREE LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS CONTENT FOR SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA guidelines for disposal of solid waste to landfills require that the waste contain no "free liquids", where the absence of free liquids is demonstrated by the EPA-prescribed pain filter liquids test (PFLT). his requirement applies to wastewater treatment sludges disposed to l...

  20. EFFECTS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON CORN SILAGE AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted to determine the impact of heavy metals in sludge-fertilized corn silage on the food and feed chain when the silage containing up to 5.26 mg Cd/kg was fed to dairy goats and feeder lambs. Neither health nor performance of the goats or lambs were significant...

  1. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A., III

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water (6- to 21-m depth) from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (<5-m depth) from sludge-treated spoil (pH 5.9) were not elevated relative to untreated spoil (pH 4.4). In contrast, concentrations of nitrate were elevated in vadose water samples from sludge-treated spoil, frequently exceeding 10 mg/L. Downgradient decreases in nitrate to less than 3 mg/L and increases in sulfate concentrations in underlying ground water could result from oxidation of pyrite by nitrate. Thus, sewage sludge added to pyritic spoil can increase the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

  2. Impact of feedstock properties and operating conditions on sewage sludge gasification in a fixed bed gasifier.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian

    2014-10-01

    This work presents results of experimental studies on the gasification process of granulated sewage sludge in a laboratory fixed bed gasifier. Nowadays, there is a large and pressing need for the development of thermal methods for sewage sludge disposal. Gasification is an example of thermal method that has several advantages over the traditional combustion. Gasification leads to a combustible gas, which can be used for the generation of useful forms of final energy. It can also be used in processes, such as the drying of sewage sludge directly in waste treatment plant. In the present work, the operating parameters were varied over a wide range. Parameters, such as air ratio ? = 0.12 to 0.27 and the temperature of air preheating t = 50 °C to 250 °C, were found to influence temperature distribution and syngas properties. The results indicate that the syngas heating value decreases with rising air ratio for all analysed cases: i.e. for both cold and preheated air. The increase in the concentration of the main combustible components was accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of carbon dioxide. Preheating of the gasification agent supports the endothermic gasification and increases hydrogen and carbon monoxide production. PMID:24938298

  3. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and strawberry extrudate under mesophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Antonio; Siles, José A; Chica, Arturo F; Martín, M Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The biomethanization of sewage sludge has several disadvantages such as low methane yield, poor biodegradability and nutrient imbalance. In this paper, a sewage sludge and strawberry extrudate mixture in a proportion of 40:60 (wet weight) is proposed to improve the viability of the process. The addition of an easily biodegradable co-substrate enhanced the nutrient balance and diluted the heavy metals and inhibitors from sewage sludge. Two different experimental set-ups at lab and semi-pilot scale were employed in order to ensure the reproducibility and significance of the obtained values. Co-digestion improved the stability of the process by decreasing the alkalinity to a mean value of 3215 ± 190 mg CaCO?/L, while maintaining the pH within the optimal range for anaerobic digestion. The methane yield coefficient and biodegradability were 176 L/kg VS (total volatile solids) (0°C, 1 atm) and 81% (VS), respectively. Kinetic parameters decreased at the highest loads, suggesting the occurrence of a slowing down phenomenon. A quality organic amendment with a heavy metal content lower than the limits established under European legislation for agricultural applications was obtained from the digestate of the proposed treatment. PMID:25189839

  4. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    During third quarter 1992, the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) were sampled and analyzed for constituents required quarterly by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076. The F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site wells also were analyzed for a number of other constituents not required by the permit. Mercury exceeded the Primary Drinking Water Standard (PDWS) in one analysis from well FSS 2D, and tritium exceeded the PDWS in wells FSS 2D and 3D. The mercury result above PDWS is considered suspect because it was not supported by a reanalysis from the same sample or by historical data. Iron exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criterion in wells FSS 3D, lead exceeded its criterion in wells FSS 3D and HSS 3D, and manganese exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells FSS 2D and 3D.

  5. Sampling of tar from sewage sludge gasification using solid phase adsorption.

    PubMed

    Ortiz González, Isabel; Pérez Pastor, Rosa Ma; Sánchez Hervás, José Ma

    2012-06-01

    Sewage sludge is a residue from wastewater treatment plants which is considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Gasification technology is a potential source of renewable energy that converts the sewage sludge into gases that can be used to generate energy or as raw material in chemical synthesis processes. But tar produced during gasification is one of the problems for the implementation of the gasification technology. Tar can condense on pipes and filters and may cause blockage and corrosion in the engines and turbines. Consequently, to minimize tar content in syngas, the ability to quantify tar levels in process streams is essential. The aim of this work was to develop an accurate tar sampling and analysis methodology using solid phase adsorption (SPA) in order to apply it to tar sampling from sewage sludge gasification gases. Four types of commercial SPA cartridges have been tested to determine the most suitable one for the sampling of individual tar compounds in such streams. Afterwards, the capacity, breakthrough volume and sample stability of the Supelclean™ ENVI-Carb/NH(2), which is identified as the most suitable, have been determined. Basically, no significant influences from water, H(2)S or NH(3) were detected. The cartridge was used in sampling real samples, and comparable results were obtained with the present and traditional methods. PMID:22526666

  6. Image parameters for maturity determination of a composted material containing sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujawa, S.; Nowakowski, K.; Tomczak, R. J.; Boniecki, P.; Dach, J.

    2013-07-01

    Composting is one of the best methods for management of sewage sludge. In a reasonably conducted composting process it is important to early identify the moment in which a material reaches the young compost stage. The objective of this study was to determine parameters contained in images of composted material's samples that can be used for evaluation of the degree of compost maturity. The study focused on two types of compost: containing sewage sludge with corn straw and sewage sludge with rapeseed straw. The photographing of the samples was carried out on a prepared stand for the image acquisition using VIS, UV-A and mixed (VIS + UV-A) light. In the case of UV-A light, three values of the exposure time were assumed. The values of 46 parameters were estimated for each of the images extracted from the photographs of the composted material's samples. Exemplary averaged values of selected parameters obtained from the images of the composted material in the following sampling days were presented. All of the parameters obtained from the composted material's images are the basis for preparation of training, validation and test data sets necessary in development of neural models for classification of the young compost stage.

  7. Artificial neural networks for modeling ammonia emissions released from sewage sludge composting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boniecki, P.; Dach, J.; Pilarski, K.; Piekarska-Boniecka, H.

    2012-09-01

    The project was designed to develop, test and validate an original Neural Model describing ammonia emissions generated in composting sewage sludge. The composting mix was to include the addition of such selected structural ingredients as cereal straw, sawdust and tree bark. All created neural models contain 7 input variables (chemical and physical parameters of composting) and 1 output (ammonia emission). The ? data file was subdivided into three subfiles: the learning file (ZU) containing 330 cases, the validation file (ZW) containing 110 cases and the test file (ZT) containing 110 cases. The standard deviation ratios (for all 4 created networks) ranged from 0.193 to 0.218. For all of the selected models, the correlation coefficient reached the high values of 0.972-0.981. The results show that he predictive neural model describing ammonia emissions from composted sewage sludge is well suited for assessing such emissions. The sensitivity analysis of the model for the input of variables of the process in question has shown that the key parameters describing ammonia emissions released in composting sewage sludge are pH and the carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N).

  8. Food waste co-digestion with sewage sludge--realising its potential in the UK.

    PubMed

    Iacovidou, Eleni; Ohandja, Dieudonné-Guy; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2012-12-15

    The application of anaerobic co-digestion of food waste with sewage sludge, although well established in many European countries, is still in its infancy in the UK. This process has many benefits to offer, with a successful application often associated with increased renewable energy potential, outweighing constraints associated with the variability of food waste and its handling requirements prior to co-digestion. With both regulations and water infrastructures designed and constructed on the basis of linear views and sectorial requirements and conditions and technologies from the past in many parts of the world, in the UK, sewage sludge and food waste digestion operations are also under very different regulatory and management regimes. With sustainability requiring that we do not address single issues in isolation, but through a systems approach that delivers integrated solutions, co-digestion of food waste with sewage sludge could become such a solution. If carefully applied, co-digestion can deliver beneficial synergies for the water industry and authorities responsible for food waste management. The collaboration of all relevant stakeholders and regulators to support changes to current regulatory frameworks to enable this, is proposed as the way forward, particularly as their complexity has been identified as the major hurdle to the implementation of co-digestion in the UK. PMID:22940124

  9. Bioanalytical characterization of dioxin-like activity in sewage sludge from Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Yu, Gang; Wang, Bin; Fiedler, Heidelore; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shubo

    2009-05-01

    In this preliminary study, the bioanalytical characterization of dioxin-like activity in the sludge of all the nine municipal sewage treatment plants from Beijing city was studied using chemically activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) assay. The influence of heating period in winter, sewage and sludge treatment processes on the occurrence of dioxin-like activity was also discussed. For the use of clean coal and natural gas, heating did not have significant influence on the occurrence level of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like-PCBs in this study. Anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic sewage treatment process did not show a good performance in the reduction of dioxin-like activity which is useful in the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen. Anaerobic digestion of sludge increased the concentration of PCDD/Fs from 30.1 to 68.3pgCALUX-TEQg(-1)d.w., and total dioxin-like activity from 32.2 to 69.3pgCALUX-TEQg(-1)d.w. This cost-effective and quick test is useful for large developing countries like China in monitoring programs to obtain baseline data about the scale of contamination caused by dioxin-like activity. It is also a useful component in the monitoring capacity building of dioxins. PMID:19201008

  10. Two-stage biogas production by co-digesting molasses wastewater and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Yeol; Yun, Jeonghee; Kim, Tae Gwan; Wee, Daehyun; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of co-digesting molasses wastewater and sewage sludge in a two-stage hydrogen- and methane-producing system. The highest energy was recovered at the 21-h hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the first hydrogenic reactor and at 56-h HRT of the secondary methanogenic reactor. Hence, the two-stage system recovered 1,822 kJ from 1 L of the mixed wastes (19.7: hydrogenic reactor plus, 1,802 kJ L(-1): methanogenic reactor). Despite the overloaded VFA-run with a short HRT of 56 h, the GAC-CH4 reactor increased methane production rate and yields due to enhanced pH buffer capacity. An RNA-based community analysis showed that the Ethanoligenens and Methanosaeta dominated the hydrogen and methane bioreactor, respectively. The two-stage system of co-digesting molasses and sewage sludge is particularly cost-effective due to non-pretreatment of sewage sludge. PMID:24871275

  11. Fast microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of sewage sludge for bio-oil production.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qinglong; Peng, Peng; Liu, Shiyu; Min, Min; Cheng, Yanling; Wan, Yiqin; Li, Yun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2014-11-01

    In this study, fast microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of sewage sludge was investigated for bio-oil production, with HZSM-5 as the catalyst. Pyrolysis temperature and catalyst to feed ratio were examined for their effects on bio-oil yield and composition. Experimental results showed that microwave is an effective heating method for sewage sludge pyrolysis. Temperature has great influence on the pyrolysis process. The maximum bio-oil yield and the lowest proportions of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds in the bio-oil were obtained at 550°C. The oil yield decreased when catalyst was used, but the proportions of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds were significantly reduced when the catalyst to feed ratio increased from 1:1 to 2:1. Essential mineral elements were concentrated in the bio-char after pyrolysis, which could be used as a soil amendment in place of fertilizer. Results of XRD analyses demonstrated that HZSM-5 catalyst exhibited good stability during the microwave-assisted pyrolysis of sewage sludge. PMID:25260179

  12. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with shredded grass from public green spaces.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Taira; Arai, Sayuri; Okamoto, Seiichiro; Uchida, Tsutomu

    2013-02-01

    Adding greenery from public spaces to the co-digestion process with sewage sludge was evaluated by shredding experiments and laboratory-scale batch and continuous mesophilic anaerobic fermentation experiments. The ratio of the shredded grass with 20mm or less in length by a commercially available shredder was 93%. The methane production was around 0.2NL/gVS-grass in the batch experiment. The continuous experiment fed with sewage sludge and shredded grass was stably operated for 81days. The average methane production was 0.09NL/gVS-grass when the TS ratio of the sewage sludge and the grass was 10:1. This value was smaller than those of other reports using grass silage, but the grass species in this study were not managed, and the collected grass was just shredded and not ensiled before feeding to the reactor for simple operation. The addition of grass to a digester can improve the carbon/nitrogen ratio, methane production and dewaterability. PMID:23334025

  13. Root penetration of sealing layers made of fly ash and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Neuschütz, Clara; Stoltz, Eva; Greger, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Fly ash and sewage sludge are suggested materials for constructing sealing layers covering mine tailings impoundments. Little is known, however, of their effect on vegetation or resistance to root penetration. We investigate: (i) the ability of different plant species to grow in sealing layers comprising fly ash and sewage sludge, (ii) the impact on plant growth of freshly hardened fly ash compared to aged and leached ash, and (iii) the plant stress response to fly ashes of different properties. A 6-mo greenhouse study using birch (Betula pendula Roth.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), and willow (Salix viminalis L.) demonstrated that no roots could grow into a compacted layer consisting only of ash, while a 6:4, ash-sludge mixture admitted roots into the upper part and a 1:9, ash-sludge mixture was totally penetrated (to 15 cm in depth) by roots of willow and Scots pine. Freshly hardened ash prevented root growth more effectively than aged ash did, as was observed in tests using reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.). Furthermore, extracts of highly alkaline ash were more toxic to pea in a 48-h toxicity test than less alkaline ash was. However, stress responses to diluted ash extracts of lower pH, measured as enzyme capacities in dwarf bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), were more related to the metal and ion contents. Root penetration of sealing layers is most effectively prevented if little sewage sludge is added, and if ash of high alkalinity is chosen. PMID:16825445

  14. Probabilistic risk assessment for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in sewage sludge used on agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Schowanek, Diederik; David, Helen; Francaviglia, Rosa; Hall, Jeremy; Kirchmann, Holger; Krogh, Paul Henning; Schraepen, Nathalie; Smith, Stephen; Wildemann, Tanja

    2007-12-01

    Deterministic and probabilistic risk assessments were developed for commercial LAS in agricultural soil amended with sewage sludge. The procedure done according to ILSI Europe's Conceptual Framework [Schowanek, D., Carr, R., David, H., Douben, P., Hall, J., Kirchmann, H., Patria, L., Sequi, P., Smith, S., Webb, S.F., 2004. A risk-based methodology for deriving quality standards for organic contaminants in sewage sludge for use in agriculture-conceptual Framework. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 40 (3), 227-251], consists of three main steps. First, the most sensitive endpoint was determined. This was found to be the chronic ecotoxicity of LAS to soil invertebrates and plants. Additional endpoints, such as potential for plant uptake and transfer in the food chain, leaching to groundwater, surface erosion run-off, human health risk via drinking water, plant consumption and soil ingestion were also systematically evaluated but were all assessed to be of little toxicological significance. In the second step, a back-calculation was conducted from the Predicted No-Effect Concentration in soil (PNECsoil) to a safe level of LAS in sludge (here called 'Sludge Quality Standard'; SQS). The deterministic approach followed the default agricultural soil exposure scenario in the EU-Technical Guidance Document (TGD). The SQS for LAS was calculated as 49 g/kg sludge Dry Matter (DM). In order to assess the potential variability as a result of varying agricultural practices and local environmental conditions, two probabilistic exposure assessment scenarios were also developed. The mean SQS was estimated at 55 and 27.5 g/kg DM for the homogeneous soil mixing and soil injection scenarios, respectively. In the final step, the resulting SQS values were evaluated for consistency and relevance versus available information from agricultural experience and field tests. No build-up, adverse impact on soil fertility, agronomic performance, or animal/human health have been reported for agricultural fields which have received sludge with high LAS levels for up to 30 years. Distribution statistics of LAS concentrations in anaerobically digested sewage sludge measured across Europe were created (mean value: 5.56 g LAS/kg sludge DM). When compared to the above mean SQS values, adequate risk characterisation ratios of 0.08-0.2 were found. The 'ecological risk' parameter calculated for anaerobic sludge from the probabilistic approaches was below 3%. A regulatory Limit Value for LAS of 2.60 g/kg sludge DM was originally proposed in the 3rd Draft of the Working Document on Sludge [CEC, 2000b. Working Document on Sludge. Third Draft, Brussels 27 April 2000, DG. Environment, 18 p.]. The current assessment, based on an updated dataset and a refined assessment procedure, suggests that the need for a limit value for LAS in sewage sludge cannot be substantiated on a risk basis. PMID:17967498

  15. Priority and emerging pollutants in sewage sludge and fate during sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Mailler, R; Gasperi, J; Chebbo, G; Rocher, V

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims at characterizing the quality of different treated sludges from Paris conurbation in terms of micropollutants and assessing their fate during different sludge treatment processes (STP). To achieve this, a large panel of priority and emerging pollutants (n=117) have been monitored in different STPs from Parisian wastewater treatment plants including anaerobic digestion, thermal drying, centrifugation and a sludge cake production unit. Considering the quality of treated sludges, comparable micropollutant patterns are found for the different sludges investigated (in mg/kg DM - dry matter). 35 compounds were detected in treated sludges. Some compounds (metals, organotins, alkylphenols, DEHP) are found in every kinds of sludge while pesticides or VOCs are never detected. Sludge cake is the most contaminated sludge, resulting from concentration phenomenon during different treatments. As regards treatments, both centrifugation and thermal drying have broadly no important impact on sludge contamination for metals and organic compounds, even if a slight removal seems to be possible with thermal drying for several compounds by abiotic transfers. Three different behaviors can be highlighted in anaerobic digestion: (i) no removal (metals), (ii) removal following dry matter (DM) elimination (organotins and NP) and iii) removal higher than DM (alkylphenols - except NP - BDE 209 and DEHP). Thus, this process allows a clear removal of biodegradable micropollutants which could be potentially significantly improved by increasing DM removal through operational parameters modifications (retention time, temperature, pre-treatment, etc.). PMID:24797622

  16. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Model Rule-Summary of Reporting Requirements for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Requirements for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a 6 Table 6 to Subpart MMMM of Part 60 Protection of Environment ...Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60, Subpt. MMMM, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart MMMM of Part 60—Model...

  17. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Model Rule-Summary of Reporting Requirements for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Requirements for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a 6 Table 6 to Subpart MMMM of Part 60 Protection of Environment ...Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60, Subpt. MMMM, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart MMMM of Part 60—Model...

  18. Influence of activated carbon and biochar on phytotoxicity of air-dried sewage sludges to Lepidium sativum.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Rycaj, Marcin; Lehmann, Johannes; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2012-06-01

    The goal of the research was to determine the phytotoxicity (using Lepidium sativum) of two activated carbon/biochar-amended sewage sludges. Apart from the impact of the AC/biochar dose, the influence of biochar particle diameter (<300, 300-500 and >500 ?m) and the influence of the contact time (7, 60, 90 days) between AC/biochar and sewage sludges on their phytotoxicity was also assessed. No negative impact of sewage sludges on seed germination was observed (P>0.05). The application of AC or biochar to the sludges positively affected root growth by reducing the harmful effect by 7.8 to 42% depending on the material used. Furthermore, the reduction range clearly depended on the type of sewage sludge. No differences were observed in the inhibition of the toxic effect between both biochar types used and the biochar particle size. The extension of the contact time between AC/biochar and sewage sludges had a negative impact on root growth. PMID:22516757

  19. Quantification of metals in sewage sludges by X-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enzweiler, J.; de Moraes, M. P. G.; Mincato, R. L.

    2003-05-01

    The application of sewage sludge on soils is a common practice, but the heavy metals should be determined before disposal. Sewage sludges composition is mainly organic and the amount of heavy metals is variable. Usual methods for heavy metals determination are based on dissolution of the sample. The results depend, partially, on the efficiency of the dissolution of the heavy metals, which may vary from sample to sample. We studied the feasibility of analyzing pressed pellets of sludges by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WD-XRF), with fumdamental parameters matrix effects correction. Several ways of introducing the carbon content in the corrections were tested. Accuracy was evaluated by analysis of four international certificate reference materials. Results were within or very close to the confidence interval of the available certified values for most elements (Al, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Se, Si, V, Zn). Other metals, like Cd and Hg were below the detection limits (15 and 9 mg kg^{-l}, respectively). Despite the limitation concerning the proper matrix correction, the uncertainty of the XRF results is probably similar to the methods normally used in sludge analysis, with the advantage that sample preparation is much faster.

  20. Heavy metal concentrations in earthworms from soil amended with sewage sludge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Chaney, R.L.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    Metal concentrations in soil may be elevated considerably when metal-laden sewage sludge is spread on land. Metals in earthworms (Lumbricidae) from agricultural fields amended with sewage sludge and from experimental plots were examined to determine if earthworms are important in transferring metals in soil to wildlife. Earthworms from four sites amended with sludge contained significantly (P . < 0.05) more Cd (12 times), Cu (2.4 times), Zn (2.0 times), and Pb (1.2 times) than did earthworms from control sites, but the concentrations detected varied greatly and depended on the particular sludge application. Generally, Cd and Zn were concentrated by earthworms relative to soil, and Cu, Pb, and Ni were not concentrated. Concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb in earthworms were correlated (P < 0.05) with those in soil. The ratio of the concentration of metals in earthworms to the concentration of metals in soil tended to be lower in contaminated soil than in clean soil. Concentrations of Cd as high as 100 ppm (dry wt) were detected in earthworms from soil containing only 2 ppm Cd. These concentrations are considered hazardous to wildlife that eat worms. Liming soil decreased Cd concentrations in earthworms slightly (P < 0.05) but had no discernible effect on concentrations of the other metals studied. High Zn concentrations in soil substantially reduced Cd concentrations in earthworms.

  1. Comparison of methods for the preparation of sewage sludge samples prior to the spectrophotometric determination of phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, S.A.; Jenniss, S.W.; Ciuffo, M.; Alberts, R.

    1986-01-01

    Three procedures for the preparation of sewage sludge samples prior to the colorimetric determination of phosphorus as molybdenum blue were evaluated. Using samples of the US EPA's municipal digested sludge as a reference material, sulfuric acid/ammonium persulfate digestion, muffle furnace ignition followed by extraction of the ash with hydrochloric acid, and direct extraction of the sewage sludge with sodium bicarbonate solution were compared in terms of phosphorus recovery as determined by colorimetric measurements. On the basis of phosphorus recovery, the samples prepared by muffle furnace ignition/hydrochloric acid extraction of the ash showed the best accuracy and precision. This procedure was also superior in terms of the time and effort expended in the preparation of the sewage sludge samples.

  2. Mathematical model investigation of long-term transport of ocean-dumped sewage sludge related to remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, C. Y.; Modena, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    An existing, three-dimensional, Eulerian-Lagrangian finite-difference model was modified and used to examine the transport processes of dumped sewage sludge in the New York Bight. Both in situ and laboratory data were utilized in an attempt to approximate model inputs such as mean current speed, horizontal diffusion coefficients, particle size distributions, and specific gravities. The results presented are a quantitative description of the fate of a negatively buoyant sewage sludge plume resulting from continuous and instantaneous barge releases. Concentrations of the sludge near the surface were compared qualitatively with those remotely sensed. Laboratory study was performed to investigate the behavior of sewage sludge dumping in various ambient density conditions.

  3. Isotopic distribution of carbon from sewage sludge and eutrophication in the sediments and food web of estuarine ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Gearing, P.J.; Gearing, J.N.; Maughan, J.T.; Oviatt, C.A. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Stable isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 13}C) from samples of water, sediments, and biota traced the behavior of organic carbon for 3 summer months in estuarine mesocosms (three controls, three with added sewage sludge, three with added inorganic nutrients). Isotope ratios proved to be a useful quantitative tracer for sewage carbon as well as for the fresh phytoplanktonic carbon produced during nutrient fertilization. Sewage sludge sedimented within hours of its addition, and approximately 50% remained in sediments after 99 days. The sludge was not inert, but was biologically oxidized at rates similar to those of phytoplankton carbon. Its residence time in the water column was too short for uptake by zooplankton, but it was readily assimilated by some benthic organisms. Fresh phytoplanktonic carbon from nutrient-induced blooms was isotopically heavy and thus distinguishable from old primary production (fixed before the experiment). It flowed through the pelagic and benthic food webs more extensively and more uniformly than did sludge carbon.

  4. Investigation on the evolution of N-containing organic compounds during pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ke; Liu, Wu-Jun; Qian, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-09-16

    Pyrolysis is an emerging technology for the disposal of huge amounts of sewage sludge. However, the thermochemical decomposition mechanism of organic compounds in sludge is still unclear. We adopt a novel online TG-FTIR-MS technology to investigate the pyrolysis of sludge. The sludge samples were pyrolyzed from 150 to 800 °C with heating rates of 10, 50, and 200 K min(-1). We found for the first time that the heating rate of pyrolysis can significantly change the species of liquid organic compounds produced, but cannot change the gaseous species produced under the same conditions. The contents of produced gas and liquid compounds, most of which were produced at 293-383 °C, are influenced by both the heating rate and temperature of pyrolysis. The results also showed that heterocyclic-N, amine-N, and nitrile-N compounds are obtained from the decomposition of N-compounds in sludge, such as pyrrolic-N, protein-N, amine-N, and pyridinic-N. Heterocyclic-N compounds are the dominant N-containing products, which can be due to the thermochemical decomposition of pyridine-N and pyrrole-N, whereas fewer amine-N compounds are produced during the pyrolysis. A mechanism for the decomposition of N-containing compounds in sludge is proposed based on the obtained data. PMID:25141119

  5. The odour of digested sewage sludge--determination and its abatement by air stripping.

    PubMed

    Winter, P; Jones, N; Asaadi, M; Bowman, L

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a project to investigate the odour of sewage sludge after anaerobic digestion. The impact of air stripping on the odour of liquid sludge and on the quality of the dewatered product was evaluated at a full-scale sludge treatment installation. A continuous and a batch air-stripping mode were tested. Odour samples were collected during air stripping from the liquid sludge and from the biosolids surface during long term storage. The biosolids were also analysed for hedonic tone and for their potential odour expressed as an odour unit per unit mass. The odour emission profiles for continuous and batch air stripping demonstrated a reduction in the overall (time weighted) emissions during a 24 hr-period compared with emissions from the quiescent liquid storage tank. The averaged specific odour emission rate (Esp) of the biosolids derived from the continuous process was only 13% of the Esp of the biosolids derived from unaerated liquid sludge during the first month of storage. The results of the total potential odour and the hedonic tone of the biosolids underpin the beneficial effects of the air stripping. Odour dispersion modelling showed a noticeable reduction in overall odour impact from the sludge centre when air stripping was applied. The reduction was primarily associated with the reduced odour from stockpiled biosolids. The continuous air-stripping mode appeared to provide the greatest benefits in terms of odour impact from site operations. PMID:15237624

  6. Phytoextraction of Zn and Cu from sewage sludge and impact on agronomic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Xiaomei, Liu; Qitang, Wu; Banks, M K; Ebbs, S D

    2005-01-01

    The presence of elevated concentrations of heavy metals limits the usage of sewage sludge as a fertilizer and soil amendment. Experiments were carried out to examine the extent to which seven plant species phytoextracted Zn and Cu from dewatered sludge. The hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens and Sedum alfredii showed the greatest removal of Zn, while shoots and tubers of two species of Alocasia showed the greatest Cu removal. Cultivation of plants in the sludge resulted in significant decreases in total Zn and changes in the partitioning of Zn between soil pools. However, Cu levels were largely unchanged and remained associated predominantly with the organic matter pool. Agronomic characteristics of the sludge material, such as pH, organic matter content, and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentrations, did not change significantly during the four-month growth period, indicating that subsequent crops could be sustained by this material. These results suggest that Zn can be phytoextracted from sludge material, provided the rate of metal uptake exceeds the rate of mobilization to the exchangeable fraction. Since there was no appreciable accumulation of Zn and Cu in seeds of Zea mays in this study, some tissues from sludge-grown plants could potentially be used as animal fodder. PMID:15792302

  7. Optimizing chemical conditioning for odour removal of undigested sewage sludge in drying processes.

    PubMed

    Vega, Esther; Monclús, Hèctor; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael; Martin, Maria J

    2015-03-01

    Emission of odours during the thermal drying in sludge handling processes is one of the main sources of odour problems in wastewater treatment plants. The objective of this work was to assess the use of the response surface methodology as a technique to optimize the chemical conditioning process of undigested sewage sludges, in order to improve the dewaterability, and to reduce the odour emissions during the thermal drying of the sludge. Synergistic effects between inorganic conditioners (iron chloride and calcium oxide) were observed in terms of sulphur emissions and odour reduction. The developed quadratic models indicated that optimizing the conditioners dosage is possible to increase a 70% the dewaterability, reducing a 50% and 54% the emission of odour and volatile sulphur compounds respectively. The optimization of the conditioning process was validated experimentally. PMID:25438118

  8. Microbiological hazards resulting from application of dairy sewage sludge: effects on occurrence of pathogenic microorganisms in soil.

    PubMed

    Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Frac, Magdalena; Tys, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) examine the extent of bacterial contamination of soils subjected to exposure to dairy sewage sludge applied to soils as measured by determination of number of bacteria from the Escherichia coli family and (2) determine the effects of dairy sewage sludge and straw on populations of other microbial species present in gray-brown podzolic soil. The gray-brown podzolic soil was formed from heavy loamy sand, which is characterized by the following granulometric composition: a sand fraction, 65%; a silt fraction, 19%; and a silt and clay fraction; 16%. The brown soil was formed from silt-loam and characterized by the following granulometric composition of silty-clay deposit: sand fraction, 8%; silt fraction, 48%; and clay and silt fraction, 46%. In dairy sewage sludge the total bacteria number as defined by Alef and Nannipieri (1995) was 51 x 10(4) colony-forming units (cfu)/ kg dry matter (dm), fungi total number 10 x 10(3) cfu/ kg dm, and E. coli bacteria 9.5 x 10(3) most probable number (MPN)/kg dm. In dairy sewage sludge mixed with straw, total number of bacteria and total number of fungi decreased to 10(3) and 10(2), respectively. Competition for nitrogen, glucose, and lactose and organic acids such as acetic and succinic with soil microorganisms, as well as soil conditions such as lack of oxygen, lower soil pH, and temperature, may account for the reduction in the number of E. coli bacteria in soils to which dairy sewage sludge was applied. Dairy sewage sludge may provide a beneficial impact on soil environment and adversely affect microorganisms such that dairy sewage sludge may be used as a safe organic fertilizer. PMID:20706944

  9. Nitrous oxide emissions after sewage sludge fertilization of a bio-energy plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedenrud, Anna; Achberger, Christine; Klemedtsson, Leif; Lindroth, Anders

    2013-04-01

    The use of sewage sludge as fertilizer after harvest of bio-energy plantations gives rise to high emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). N2O is a powerful greenhouse gas with a global warming potential almost 300 times larger than that of carbon dioxide and an atmospheric life-span of over 100 years. Plantations of e.g. willow (Salix) and poplar (Populus) species are today grown and used for bio-energy purposes. They could serve as carbon and nitrogen sinks, thus lowering greenhouse gas emissions and helping to mitigate a change in climate. However, since N2O is such a powerful greenhouse gas it can have a large impact on the total emission of greenhouse gases from a bio-energy plantation. The magnitude of N2O emissions after fertilization using sludge from sewage treatment plants is therefore important to investigate. This study concerns N2O emissions from a conventionally grown bio-energy plantation of Salix. The aim of the study was to investigate the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer after harvest, and its effect on emissions of N2O from the soil ecosystem. The field site is a Salix plantation in south-western Sweden, a representative site in management practices and abiotic conditions. Emissions of N2O were monitored using automatic chambers (height 1.05 m, volume 0.2625 m3) and a trace gas analyzer (TGA100, Campbell Scientific, USA) during approximately one (1) year. After harvest, N2O emissions from control plots without application of sewage sludge (non-fertilized plots) were compared to plots with sewage sludge application (fertilized plots). Preliminary results show that emissions of N2O were continuously very low throughout the measurement period, except for peak emissions after harvest and fertilization. These peak emissions of N2O were observed at both fertilized and non-fertilized plots in connection to the fertilization events. The results indicate that heavy precipitation could be the cause of induced emissions of N2O at non-fertilized plots. Some fertilized plots also showed smaller emission peaks several weeks after fertilization, whereas none of the non-fertilized plots showed this emission pattern. Annual emissions have also been calculated for fertilized and non-fertilized plots, and the results will be presented at the conference. Preliminary results indicate higher annual emissions from fertilized plots.

  10. Fundamental Combustion Characteristics of Sewage Sludge in Fluidized Bed Incinerator with Turbocharger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Takahiro; Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nagasawa, Hidekazu; Yamamoto, Takafumi; Koseki, Takami; Hirose, Hitoshi; Ochi, Shuichi

    An epoch-making incineration plant, which is equipped with a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor coupled to a turbocharger, for the recovery of the energy contained in sewage sludge is proposed. This plant has three main advantages. (1) A pressure vessel is unnecessary because the maximum operating pressure is 0.3 MPa (absolute pressure). The material cost for plant construction can be reduced. (2) CO2 emissions originating from power generation can be decreased because the FDF (Forced Draft Fan) and the IDF (Induced Draft Fan) are omitted. (3) Steam in the flue gas becomes a working fluid of the turbocharger, so that in addition to the combustion air, the surplus air is also generable. Therefore, this proposed plant will not only save energy but also the generate energy. The objective of this study is to elucidate the fundamental combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge using a lab-scale pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC). The tested fuels are de-watered sludge and sawdust. The temperature distribution in the furnace and N2O emissions in the flue gas are experimentally clarified. As the results, for sludge only combustion, the temperature in the sand bed decreases by drying and pyrolysis, and the pyrolysis gas burns in the freeboard so that the temperature rises. On the other hand, the residual char of sawdust after pyrolysis burns stably in the sand bed for the co-firing of sludge and sawdust. Thus the temperature of the co-firing is considerably higher than that of the sludge only combustion. N2O emissions decreases with increasing freeboard temperature, and are controlled by the temperature for all experimental conditions. These data can be utilize to operation the demonstration plant.

  11. Environmental & economic life cycle assessment of current & future sewage sludge to energy technologies.

    PubMed

    Mills, N; Pearce, P; Farrow, J; Thorpe, R B; Kirkby, N F

    2014-01-01

    The UK Water Industry currently generates approximately 800GWh pa of electrical energy from sewage sludge. Traditionally energy recovery from sewage sludge features Anaerobic Digestion (AD) with biogas utilisation in combined heat and power (CHP) systems. However, the industry is evolving and a number of developments that extract more energy from sludge are either being implemented or are nearing full scale demonstration. This study compared five technology configurations: 1 - conventional AD with CHP, 2 - Thermal Hydrolysis Process (THP) AD with CHP, 3 - THP AD with bio-methane grid injection, 4 - THP AD with CHP followed by drying of digested sludge for solid fuel production, 5 - THP AD followed by drying, pyrolysis of the digested sludge and use of the both the biogas and the pyrolysis gas in a CHP. The economic and environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) found that both the post AD drying options performed well but the option used to create a solid fuel to displace coal (configuration 4) was the most sustainable solution economically and environmentally, closely followed by the pyrolysis configuration (5). Application of THP improves the financial and environmental performance compared with conventional AD. Producing bio-methane for grid injection (configuration 3) is attractive financially but has the worst environmental impact of all the scenarios, suggesting that the current UK financial incentive policy for bio-methane is not driving best environmental practice. It is clear that new and improving processes and technologies are enabling significant opportunities for further energy recovery from sludge; LCA provides tools for determining the best overall options for particular situations and allows innovation resources and investment to be focused accordingly. PMID:24060290

  12. Co-composting of distillery and winery wastes with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, M A; Paredes, C; Moral, R; Moreno-Caselles, J; Pérez-Murcia, M D; Pérez-Espinosa, A; Bernal, M P

    2007-01-01

    The winery and distillery wastes (grape stalk and marc (GS and GM, respectively), wine lees (WL) and exhausted grape marc (EGM)) are produced in great amounts in the Mediterranean countries, where their treatment and disposal are becoming an important environmental problem, mainly due to their seasonal character and some characteristics that make their management difficult and which are not optimised yet. Composting is a treatment widely used for organic wastes, which could be a feasible option to treat and recycle the winery and distillery wastes. In this experiment, two different piles (pile 1 and 2) were prepared with mixtures of GS, GM, EG and sewage sludge (SS) and composted in a pilot plant by the Rutgers static pile composting system. Initially, GS, GM and EGM were mixed, the pile 1 being watered with fresh collected vinasse (V). After 17 days, SS was added to both piles as a nitrogen and microorganisms source. During composting, the evolution of temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, total organic C, total N, humic acid-like C and fulvic acid-like C contents, C/N ratio, cation exchange capacity and germination index of the mixtures were studied. The addition of V in pile 1 produced higher values of temperature, a greater degradation of the total organic C, higher electrical conductivity values and similar pH values and total N contents than in pile 2. The addition of this effluent also increased the cation exchange capacity and produced a longer persistence of phytotoxicity. However, both piles showed a stabilised organic matter and a reduction of the phytotoxicity at the end of the composting process. PMID:17849994

  13. Growth of chrysanthemums in sewage sludge amended media

    E-print Network

    Schlutt, Edward Frederick

    1979-01-01

    the concenltr ation of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn in the first crop grown of rye (Secale cereale, L. ) gh ? d C~Sh h' 1, L. h h ~Sh sudanese, P. SLapf. ) with the highest metal concentration correspond"'ng to the highest sludge rate applied. Jones et al. (45) also... reported increases in Cd& Cu, Pb, and Zn con- centration in the harvested foliage of commom bermudagrass d t 1, '. 1 B 11 h d g-" tCBL Kunth, ). However, Stucky and Newman (87) and Boswell (10) found the maximum concentrations of Cd, Cn, Mn, Pb, and r...

  14. [Sewage sludge conditioning by bioleaching-dual PAC and PAM addition].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Geng; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Liu, Yong-Gang

    2010-09-01

    Bioleaching-dual polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and polyacrylamide (PAM) addition was used to condition sewage sludge. The results showed that FeSO4 x 7H2O addition improved the bioleaching rate obviously with a fixed sulfur power dosage of 3 g x L(-1); when the FeSO4 x 7H2O dosage was 8 g x L(-1), the bioleaching lasted 1.5 d to decrease the sludge pH below 2. Bioleaching improved the sludge dewaterability significantly with a specific resistance to filtration (SRF) reduction of 77.52% from 6.45 x 10(10)s2 x g(-10 to 1.45 x 10(10)s2 x g(-1), but the bioleached sludge was still difficult to be dewatered. After adjusting the bioleached sludge pH to 6, PAC and PAM were used to enhance conditioning of the bioleached sludge. The results indicated that the optimal dosage was 200 mg x L(-1) for PAC or 50 mg x L(-1) for PAM when single chemical was used. When PAC and PAM were dually used, the optimal dosages of PAC and PAM were 100 mg x L(-1) and 25 mg x L(-1), respectively; SRF and moisture of sludge cake reduced to 2.02 x 10(8) s2 x g(-1) and 74.81%, respectively, showing good dewaterability of the treated sludge. Compared with the single use of PAC and PAM, the dual use of PAC and PAM showed the advantages of lower cost and better conditioning effect. PMID:21072934

  15. Effects of temperature and composite alumina on pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Jin, Baosheng; Wu, Wei; Zuo, Wu; Zhang, Ya; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Yaji

    2015-04-01

    An interactive dual-circulating fluidized bed system has been proposed in which the pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) and incineration of biomass proceed simultaneously, and alumina is used as the bed material and heat carrier. The alumina coated with biomass ash would mix with sewage sludge in the pyrolysis reactor of this device. It is important to know the influence of composite alumina (CA) on the pyrolysis progress. Sewage sludge was pyrolyzed in a fixed bed reactor from 400 to 600°C using CA as catalyst. The effects of temperature and CA additive ratio on the products were investigated. The product yields and component distribution of non-condensable gas were more sensitive to the change of temperature, and the maximum liquid yield of 48.44wt.% and maximum Useable Energy of Liquid of 3871kJ/kg sludge were observed at 500°C with 1/5 CA/SS (mass ratio). The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results showed that the increase of temperature enhanced devolatilization of organic matter and promoted cyclization and aromatization of aliphatics. The presence of CA could strengthen secondary cracking and interaction among primary products from different organic compounds, such as acid-amine condensation, and reduce the content of oxygenated compounds. When the CA additive amount exceeded a certain proportion, the aromatization was clearly strengthened. The effects of CA on decomposition of fatty acids and formation of aromatics were similar to that of temperature. This means that the reaction temperature could be lowered by introducing CA, which has a positive effect on reducing energy consumption. PMID:25872704

  16. Adsorption/desorption of copper by a sandy soil amended with various rates of manure, sewage sludge, and incinerated sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Alva, A K; Baugh, T J; Paramasivam, S; Sajwan, K S

    2005-01-01

    Organic amendments are sometimes applied to agricultural soils to improve the physical, chemical, and microbiological properties of the soils. The organic fractions in these soil amendments also influence metal reaction, particularly the adsorption and desorption of metals, which, in turn, determine the bioavailability of the metals and hence their phytotoxicities. In this study, a Quincy fine sandy (mixed, mesic, Xeric Torripsamments) soil was treated with 0 to 160 g kg(-1) rates of either manure, sewage sludge (SS), or incinerated sewage sludge (ISS) and equilibrated in a greenhouse at near field capacity moisture content for 100 days. Following the incubation period, the soil was dried and adsorption of copper (Cu) was evaluated in a batch equilibration study at either 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg L(-1) Cu concentrations in a 0.01M CaCl2 solution. The desorption of adsorbed Cu was evaluated by three successive elutions in 0.01M CaCl2. Copper adsorption increased with an increase in manure rates. At the highest rate of manure addition (160 g kg(-1) soil), Cu adsorption was two-fold greater than that by the unamended soil at all rates of Cu additions. With increasing rates of Cu additions, the adsorption of Cu decreased from 99.4 to 77.6% of Cu applied to the 160 g kg(-1) manure amended soil. The desorption of Cu decreased with an increase in rate of manure amendment. Effects of sewage sludge amendments on Cu adsorption were somewhat similar to those as described for manure additions. Likewise, the desorption of Cu was the least at the high rate of SS addition (160 g kg(-1)), although at the lower rates there was not a clear indication of the rate effects. In contrast to the above two amendments, the ISS amendment had the least effect on Cu adsorption. At the highest rate of ISS amendment, the Cu adsorption was roughly 50% of that at the similar rate of either manure or SS amendments, across all Cu rates. PMID:16047889

  17. Availability and distribution of heavy metals, nitrogen, and phosphorus from sewage sludge in the plant-soil-water continuum

    SciTech Connect

    Rappaport, B.D.; Scott, J.D.; Martens, D.C.; Reneau, R.B.; Simpson, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    Research was conducted during 1984 and 1985 to determine Cd, Cu, N, Ni, P, and Zn availabilities to barley (Hordeum vulgare) and corn (Zea mays) grown on four sludge-amended soils. An aerobically digested sewage sludge, which was dewatered for approximately 2 years on sandbeds, was obtained from a sewage-treatment plant with major industrial inputs. A 14-day anaerobic N incubation study indicated that mineralization of sludge organic N varied from 9.2% at the 42 Mg ha(-1) sludge rate to 4.2% at the 210 Mg ha(-1) rate. This relatively low percentage of N mineralized from the sludge may reflect the inhibitory effects of the high sludge-metal levels on N transformations and the changes in sludge composition during long-term dewatering on sandbeds. Sludge application increased crop yields, except where the amounts of N mineralized from the sludge was inadequate to supply the N requirement of the crop. Crop yields were not decreased by either metal phytotoxity or P deficiency on the four sludge-amended soils.

  18. Field study on the uptake and translocation of PBDEs by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in soils amended with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Helian; Qu, Ronghui; Yan, Liangguo; Guo, Weilin; Ma, Yibing

    2015-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted to explore the effects of different sewage sludge amendment strategies on the accumulation and translocation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soil-wheat systems. Two types of application methods (single or annual application) and four annual application rates (5, 10, 20, and 40 t ha(-1) year(-1)) were investigated. BDE 209 was detected in all of the sewage sludge amended soils and different parts of wheat plants collected from the contaminated soils. However, the other seven PBDE congeners (BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 99, BDE 100, BDE 153, BDE 154, and BDE 183) were not detected or were only observed at very low levels. A single application of sewage sludge in large quantities would likely increase accumulation of BDE 209 in soil and its subsequent uptake and translocation by wheat. The concentrations of BDE 209 in soils, wheat roots and straws increased with the increasing sewage sludge application rate. There is a negative correlation between the root accumulation factors (the ratios of concentrations in wheat roots to those in soils) and soil total organic carbon (R(2)=0.84,P<0.05), demonstrating that the bioavailability of BDE 209 was controlled by the soil total organic carbon. BDE 209 concentrations in the grains from the sewage sludge amended soils were not significantly different from those of the control soils, suggesting that atmospheric deposition was the main source of BDE 209 detected in the grains. PMID:25563166

  19. Phosphorus in manure and sewage sludge more recyclable than in soluble inorganic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Kahiluoto, H; Kuisma, M; Ketoja, E; Salo, T; Heikkinen, J

    2015-02-17

    Phosphorus (P) flow from deposits through agriculture to waterways leads to eutrophication and depletion of P reserves. Therefore, P must be recycled. Low and unpredictable plant availability of P in residues is considered to be a limiting factor for recycling. We identified the determinants for the plant-availability of P in agrifood residues. We quantified P in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and in field soil fractions with different plant availabilities of P as a response to manure and sewage sludge with a range of P capture and hygienization treatments. P was more available in manure and in sludge, when it was captured biologically or with a moderate iron (Fe)/P (1.6), than in NPK. Increasing rate of sludge impaired P recovery and high Fe/P (9.8) prevented it. Anaerobic digestion (AD) reduced plant-availability at relevant rates. The recovery of P was increased in AD manure via composting and in AD sludge via combined acid and oxidizer. P was not available to plants in the sludge hygienized with a high calcium/P. Contrary to assumed knowledge, the recyclability of P in appropriately treated residues can be better than in NPK. The prevention of P sorption in soil by organic substances in fertilizers critically enhances the recyclability of P. PMID:25569114

  20. Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sewage sludge aerobic compost in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, H-t; Zheng, H-x; Chen, T-b; Zheng, G-d; Gao, D

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludge is an important contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the carbon budget of organic solid waste treatment and disposal. In this case study, total GHG emissions from an auto-control sludge compost system, including direct and indirect emissions and replaceable reduction due to sludge compost being reused as fertilizer, were quantified. The results indicated that no methane generation needed to be considered in the carbon debit because of the advantages of auto-control for monitoring and maintenance of appropriate conditions during the composting process. Indirect emissions were mainly from electricity and fossil fuel consumption, including sludge transportation and mechanical equipment use. Overall, the total carbon replaceable emission reduction owing to sludge being treated by composting rather than landfill, and reuse of its compost as fertilizer instead of chemical fertilizer, were calculated to be 0.6204 tCO2e t(-1) relative to baseline. Auto-control compost can facilitate obtaining certified emission reduction warrants, which are essential to accessing financial support with the authentication by the Clean Development Mechanism. PMID:24647175

  1. Nitrogen fertilizer and sewage sludge effects on hybrid poplars. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, S.R.; Senesac, G.P.; Naylor, L.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments conducted in the greenhouse compared the growth and nutrient and heavy metal uptake in two clones of hybrid poplar grown in soil amended with nitrogen fertilizer or sewage sludge. In addition, poplar responses to weed competition and to rooting prior to planting were investigated. Both fertilizer and sludge application increased poplar stem biomass. Weeds reduced poplar biomass. The large difference in root biomass of the two poplar clones may account for different effects weed and sludge application had on nutrient and heavy metal uptake in each clone. The relatively small root biomass of I-45/51 increased with increasing sludge application, as did the uptake of nutrients and heavy metals. The relatively large root biomass of clone NE-510 was reduced when weeds were present, as was nutrient and heavy metal uptake. Other results suggest that poplars with low root-to-stem ratios may be most affected by weed competition, especially after their first year, and that nitrogen fertilization may alleviate effects of weeds on their growth. Poplars grown in sludge-amended soil did not accumulate more of any nutrient or heavy metal studied compared to those grown in nitrogen-fertilized soil. 17 refs., 5 figs., 57 tabs.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY: CONTROL OF PATHOGENS AND VECTOR ATTRACTION IN SEWAGE SLUDGE (INCLUDING DOMESTIC SEWAGE) UNDER 40 CFR PART 503

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes the federal requirements concerning pathogens in sewage sludge applied to land or placed on a surface disposal site, and it provides guidance concerning those requirements. The document is intended for: (1) Owners and operators of treatment works treati...

  3. Nitrate content of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) after fertilization with sewage sludge and irrigation with treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Castro, E; Mañas, M P; De Las Heras, J

    2009-02-01

    A romaine-type lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was cultivated over three crop seasons (spring 2005, spring 2006 and autumn-winter 2006) in six 36 m(2) plots in Alcázar de San Juan, Spain. A drip irrigation system was used to water all plots: five plots with drinking water and one plot with wastewater from the activated sludge system of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). One drinking water-irrigated plot was not fertilized (control). Five different treatments were applied to the soil: three organic mixtures (sewage sludge, sewage sludge mixed with pine bark and municipal solid waste with composted sludge) and a conventional fertilizer were applied to the four plots irrigated with drinking water. The last plot was irrigated with treated wastewater. The treatments were tested for their effect on plant growth and nitrate concentration in vegetable tissue. An increase in fresh weight in the lettuce was linked to the dosage of sewage sludge. The highest nitrate level was observed in the sewage sludge treatment in all crops and seasons, although, in general, all values were below the maximum limits established by the European Commission for nitrate content in fresh romaine lettuce. In the third crop season, a significant increase in nitrate content was observed in lettuce from organic treatments. Nitrate concentration in lettuce from irrigated treated wastewater was higher than control, although significant differences were not found. PMID:19680887

  4. Effect of cofiring coal and biofuel with sewage sludge on alkali problems in a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    SciTech Connect

    K.O. Davidsson; L.-E. Aamand; A.-L. Elled; B. Leckner [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Department of Energy and Environment

    2007-12-15

    Cofiring experiments were performed in a 12 MW circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuel combinations were biofuel (wood+straw), coal+biofuel, coal+sewage sludge+biofuel, and sewage sludge+biofuel. Limestone or chlorine (PVC) was added in separate experiments. Effects of feed composition on bed ash and fly ash were examined. The composition of flue gas was measured, including on-line measurement of alkali chlorides. Deposits were collected on a probe simulating a superheater tube. It was found that the fuel combination, as well as addition of limestone, has little effect on the alkali fraction in bed ash, while chlorine decreases the alkali fraction in bed ash. Sewage sludge practically eliminates alkali chlorides in flue gas and deposits. Addition of enough limestone to coal and sludge for elimination of the SO{sub 2} emission does not change the effect of chlorine. Chlorine addition increases the alkali chloride in flue gas, but no chlorine was found in the deposits with sewage sludge as a cofuel. Cofiring of coal and biofuel lowers the alkali chloride concentration in the flue gas to about a third compared with that of pure biofuel. This is not affected by addition of lime or chlorine. It is concluded that aluminum compounds in coal and sludge are more important than sulfur to reduce the level of KCl in flue gas and deposits. 24 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. A statistical comparison of protein and carbohydrate characterisation methodology applied on sewage sludge samples.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Julie; Vedrenne, Fabien; Denis, Cécile; Mottet, Alexis; Déléris, Stephane; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Cacho Rivero, Jesús Andrés

    2013-04-01

    Biochemical characterization of organic matter is becoming of key importance in wastewater treatment. The main objectives are to predict organic matter properties, such as granulation or flocculation, and hence treatment performance. Although standardized methods do exist for some organic molecules, such as volatile fatty acids or lipids, there are no standard methods to measure proteins and carbohydrates content, both biochemical families being the main components of sewage sludge. Consequently, the aim of the present work is to investigate the efficiency of several colorimetric methods to determine proteins and carbohydrates content as well as their compatibility with the sludge matrices. The different methods have been evaluated based on statistical criteria such as sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, rightness, and specificity using standard molecules such as Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), glucose, cellulose and a certified reference product. The Lowry and the Dubois methods have been shown to be the best compromise for the considered criteria after having been tested on sewage sludge samples obtained from different locations in a wastewater treatment plant. In average, the measured volatile fatty acids, lipids, proteins and carbohydrates contents represented 80 ± 7% (% volatile solids) of the organic matter. Proteins and carbohydrates represented in average 69 ± 3%. This study underlined that the choice of a relevant methodology is of great importance for organic matter measurement. PMID:23357791

  6. Fecal coliform population dynamics associated with the thermophilic stabilization of treated sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Chris; Peccia, Jordan

    2012-10-26

    The inactivation of fecal coliforms in anaerobic batch reactors has been investigated at the thermophilic temperatures of 50, 55 and 60 °C. Throughout inactivation experiments at each temperature, individual colonies were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA gene sequencing to illustrate how the diversity of fecal coliforms is affected by thermophilic treatment. Results indicate that even though fecal coliforms in raw sewage sludge are comprised of several different bacterial species, each with variable temperature induced decay rates, the overall inactivation of fecal coliforms in raw sewage sludge was found to follow a first-order relationship. No tailing was observed across the range of fecal coliform concentrations measured. Fecal coliforms in raw sludge contained six different genera of bacteria and were 62% enriched in E. coli. Within 1.5 log removal of fecal coliform concentration by thermophilic treatment, the populations had shifted to, and remained at 100% E. coli. Subsequent inactivation rates measured in isolated fecal coliform strains confirmed that E. coli cells isolated post-treatment were more thermotolerant than E. coli and non-E coli bacteria isolated prior to thermal treatment. Overall, this study describes the potential enrichment of thermotolerant E. coli in biosolids fecal coliforms and demonstrates that while thermotolerant species are present at the end of treatment, pure first-order approximations are appropriate for estimating residence times to reduce fecal coliforms to levels promulgated in U.S. Class A biosolids standards. PMID:22955448

  7. Chemical and toxicological characterization of the bricks produced from clay/sewage sludge mixture.

    PubMed

    Geri?, Marko; Gajski, Goran; Oreš?anin, Višnja; Kollar, Robert; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize chemical properties of clay bricks containing 20 % of sewage sludge. After detection of potentially hazardous metals, we simulated precipitation exposure of such material to determine the amount of heavy metals that could leach out of the bricks. Metals, such as copper, zinc, nickel, cobalt, chromium, etc., were detected in leachate in low concentrations. Moreover, human peripheral blood lymphocytes were exposed to brick leachate for 24 h in order to evaluate its possible negative impact on human cells and genome in vitro. Cytotoxicity tests showed no effect on human peripheral blood lymphocytes viability after exposure to brick's leachate. On the contrary, the alkaline comet assay showed slight but significant increase in DNA damage with all three parameters tested. As we might predict, interactions of several heavy metals in low concentrations could be responsible for DNA damaging effect. In that manner, our findings suggest that leachates from sewage sludge-produced bricks may lead to adverse effects on the exposed human population, and that more stabile bricks should be developed to minimize leaching of heavy metals into the environment. Bricks with lower percentage of the sludge may be one of the solutions to reduce the toxic effect of the final product. PMID:22702811

  8. Effects of Adding Sewage Sludge and Urea-Phosphate Fertilizers to the Great Sippewissett Salt Marsh, Falmouth, MA on Heavy Metals and Microbial N-Cycling

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Effects of Adding Sewage Sludge and Urea-Phosphate Fertilizers to the Great Sippewissett Salt Marsh, microbes, nitrogen cycle, sewage sludge, urea phosphate fertilizer, heavy metals INTRODUCTION Pollution of nitrogen gas in the atmosphere. Salt marshes have been used as disposal sites because they act as filters

  9. The effect of long-term sewage sludge application on Zn, Cu, Ni and Pb levels in a clay loam soil under pasture grass in Zimbabwe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Nyamangara; J. Mzezewa

    1999-01-01

    Although sewage sludge provides nutrients for plant growth, its continual use over extended periods can result in the accumulation of heavy metals to levels detrimental to the environment. A study was conducted to determine the concentration of EDTA-extractable Zn, Cu, Ni and Pb in a Gleyic Lixisol that had been amended with sewage sludge for more than 19 years in

  10. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1993 and 1993 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. No constituent exceeded either the final Primary Drinking Water Standards or the SRS Flag 2 criteria during fourth quarter 1993. Iron, lead, and manganese were the only permit- required analytes that exceeded standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites in 1993. Tritium, aluminum, and other constituents not included in the permit have exceeded standards at this site previously, but only sporadically. These constituents were not analyzed fourth quarter 1993.

  11. Feasibility of growing hardwood species on a borrow pit amended with either fertilizer and lime or sewage sludge. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Previous research on other sites showed that 15 tons/A of dried sewage sludge followed by subsoiling is sufficient to promote rapid growth of pines and sweetgum on borrow pits. During the past year, data have been obtained from this experiment showing that 30 tons/A of sewage sludge, well incorporated and followed by subsoiling, will promote very rapid first-year growth of green ash, yellow poplar, sycamore, and sawtooth oak. Loblolly pine and sweetgum also grew well as in previous studies. In most cases, seedlings of these species grew significantly faster with sewage sludge than with 1000 lbs./Aof 10-10-10 fertilizer and 2 tons/A of lime. Yellow poplar and sycamore grew the faster of all species, attaining heights during the first growing season of 134 and 209 cms, respectively. Sweetgum, green ash, and sawtooth oak all attained heights over 100 cms.

  12. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application sites groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    During first quarter 1995, samples from monitoring wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were analyzed for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) samples were analyzed for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 12,076. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permits. The only constituent that exceeded the SCDHEC final Primary Drinking Water Standard in any well was lead which was found in wells HSS 3D and PSS 3D. Aluminum and iron were above Flag 2 criteria in one or more wells in the three sites during first quarter 1995.

  13. Sediment toxicity to a marine infaunal amphipod: cadmium and its interaction with sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, R.C.; Ditsworth, G.R.; Schults, D.W.; Lamberson, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium to the marine infaunal amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius, was determined separately in sediment and seawater. Most cadmium added to test sediment was bound to particles and less than 5% was dissolved in interstitial water. The LC50 based on cadmium concentration in interstitial water was similar to the LC50 based on cadmium concentration in seawater without sediment. Cadmium in interstitial water, rather than that bound to particles, therefore appears responsible for acute sediment toxicity to this species. The addition of small quantities of sewage sludge or an increase in the proportion of the fine fraction of sediment particles significantly reduced the toxicity of cadmium in sediment. Binding of cadmium by sediment particles may explain the presence of phoxocephalid amphipods at sites where sewage and metal pollution occur together.

  14. Simulation of co-incineration of sewage sludge with municipal solid waste in a grate furnace incinerator.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hai; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2012-03-01

    Incineration is one of the most important methods in the resource recovery disposal of sewage sludge. The combustion characteristics of sewage sludge and an increasing number of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants provide the possibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was used to verify the feasibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW, and predict the effect of co-incineration. In this study, wet sludge and semi-dried sludge were separately blended with MSW as mixed fuels, which were at a co-incineration ratios of 5 wt.% (wet basis, the same below), 10 wt.%, 15 wt.%, 20 wt.% and 25 wt.%. The result indicates that co-incineration of 10 wt.% wet sludge with MSW can ensure the furnace temperature, the residence time and other vital items in allowable level, while 20 wt.% of semi-dried sludge can reach the same standards. With lower moisture content and higher low heating value (LHV), semi-dried sludge can be more appropriate in co-incineration with MSW in a grate furnace incinerator. PMID:22119515

  15. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: Preliminary feasibility evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano [University of Trento, Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it [Insubria University of Varese, Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The aim is to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a solar greenhouse. • The system allows the exploitation of heat available from OFMSW aerobic process. • Another aim is to face the problem of OFMSW treatment, in particular food waste. • Energy and mass balances are presented for a case study. - Abstract: In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications.

  16. An ultrasonic assisted extraction method to release heavy metals from untreated sewage sludge samples.

    PubMed

    Kazi, T G; Jamali, M K; Siddiqui, A; Kazi, G H; Arain, M B; Afridi, H I

    2006-04-01

    A rapid ultrasound accelerated sequential extraction procedure has been used to develop sequential extraction proposed by BCR protocol (the community Bureau of Reference now the European Union "Measurement and Testing Programme"). The effects of the ultrasonic treatment on the extraction of Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni and Zn from untreated sewage sludge collected from industrial site of Hyderabad city (Pakistan) were compared with those obtained from conventional sequentional extraction procedure of modified BCR protocol. In BCR method, each extraction steps takes 10h, where as with the use of compromise sonication conditions in ultrasonic bath, steps 1-3 of the sequential extraction (excluding the hydrogen peroxide digestion in step 3, which was not performed with sonication) could be completed in 30, 30 and 30 min, respectively. Extractable Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni contents were obtained by both comparable methodologies were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), while for Cu and Zn Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used. The validations of both methods were compared by the analysis of certified reference material of soil amended with sewage sludge (BCR 483). According to statistical evaluation of the results, the proposed accelerated extraction method is valid alternative to conventional shaking with much shorter extraction time with p value <0.05. The overall metal recoveries in steps 1-3 (excluding residual step) were 95-100% of those obtained with the conventional BCR protocol, except for Cu extracted (91.6%) as related to indicative values of Cu in BCR 483 obtained in 1-3 steps. The results of the partitioning study of untreated industrial waste water sewage sludge, indicate that more easily mobilized forms (acid exchangeable) were predominant for Cd and Zn, in contrast, the largest amount of Pb and Cr was associated with the iron/manganese oxide and organic matter/sulphide fractions. PMID:16293286

  17. The effect of sewage urban and industrial sludge on the development of wheat and colza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasoued, Najla; Bilal, Essaid; Rejeb, Saloua; Guénole-Bilal, Issam; Rejeb, Nejib

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of two types of sludge from sewage treatment urban and industrial plants on the wheat and colza. These sludge is made at different doses (5, 25, 50 and 100 t / ha). We are therefore interested in the growth and absorption of heavy metals by plants and follow the fate of the latter in the ground to prevent pollution events and toxicity. The soil is characterized by an alkaline pH; conductivity ranging from 1.06 to 1.52mmho/cm resulting low salinity and soil saturation is between 30.4 and 31.8ml/100g. The sand is the most representative size fraction in this soil which is a sandy loam soil texture. The percentages of limestone in the different horizons are less than 5% so it is a non-calcareous soil, with organic matter content very low. Contents of total nitrogen are relatively low. The C/N ratio is about 7 at the first horizon (0-10cm) indicates that organic matter will be quickly mineralized. The mean levels of heavy metals found in the soil are organized in the following order: Fe >> Mn> Zn> Pb> Cu> Ni> Co> Cd mean concentrations of heavy metals introduced by the sludge. With the addition of sludge, there is a parallel increase in the number of ears and an increased number of grains per m². The ears and grains also increases with increasing dose of sludge, whatever the type of sludge made. The increase in the number of grains with the addition of sludge has the consequence of decrease in PMG this can be explained by the decrease in weight and grain quality response to stress. The numbers of feet of wheat increases dice the contribution of 5t/ha sludge, this increase is more pronounced with the addition of urban sludge. The leaf area increases with the contribution of sludge as well as for urban or industrial sludge's. The leaf surface of this crop varies between 15.77cm2 of the oldest leaf to 3.78cm2 for the youngest leaf in the control soil. The leaf surface increases by 10cm² for 5BI and 11cm² 5BU. We noted that the young leaf appears to 5BI and 25BI, but it is not yet developed with input from 50t/ha to 100t/ha. This developmental delay may be due to toxicity effect more pronounced with industrial sludge. The effects of the contribution of sludge are manifested by a significant increase in the weight gains of the whole plant, these results in a variation of the ratio of the aerial part and root (PA / R) which tends to increase with the increase the dose sludge made. In all cases, the increase in leaf weight gain following a contribution of mud is still perceptible from the low inputs applied with a more significant effect with the provision of urban sludge. The important contribution of sludge rich in heavy metals causes stress in plants. We found a high content of Ni, Pb and Zn in these plants.

  18. Treatment of anaerobic digestion effluent of sewage sludge using soilless cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchimura, Koki; Sago, Yuki; Kamahara, Hirotsugu; Atsuta, Yoichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

    2014-02-01

    Soilless cultivation was carried out using anaerobic digestion effluent of sewage sludge as liquid fertilizer, with a preparation which cultures microorganisms in nutrient solution. As a result, ammonium ions contained in the effluent were nitrified into nitrate ions by the microorganisms. And then, Japanese mustard spinach (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) was cultivated by soilless cultivation system. The plants were grown well using microbial nutrient solution, which similar to the plants using conventional inorganic nutrient solution. In contrast, the plants were grown poorly using the effluent as liquid fertilizer without microorganisms.

  19. U.S. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY)-SPONSORED EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF WASTEWATER AND SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1975 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has sponsored 11 epidemiological studies of the potential health effects associated with the treatment and disposal of sewage and sewage sludge. Three of these have been occupational exposure studies: One of sewage treatment pla...

  20. Utilization of solar energy in sewage sludge composting: fertilizer effect and application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiqun; Yu, Fang; Liang, Shengwen; Wang, Zongping; Liu, Zizheng; Xiong, Ya

    2014-11-01

    Three reactors, ordinary, greenhouse, and solar, were constructed and tested to compare their impacts on the composting of municipal sewage sludge. Greenhouse and solar reactors were designed to evaluate the use of solar energy in sludge composting, including their effects on temperature and compost quality. After 40 days of composting, it was found that the solar reactor could provide more stable heat for the composting process. The average temperature of the solar reactor was higher than that of the other two systems, and only the solar reactor could maintain the temperature above 55°C for more than 3 days. Composting with the solar reactor resulted in 31.3% decrease in the total organic carbon, increased the germination index to 91%, decreased the total nitrogen loss, and produced a good effect on pot experiments. PMID:25080055

  1. Comparative study of two extraction methods for enteric virus recovery from sewage sludge by molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Schlindwein, A D; Simões, C M O; Barardi, C R M

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two nucleic acid extraction methods for the recovery of enteric viruses from activated sludge. Test samples were inoculated with human adenovirus (AdV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), poliovirus (PV) and rotavirus (RV) and were then processed by an adsorption-elution-precipitation method. Two extraction methods were used: an organic solvent-based method and a silica method. The organic-based method was able to recoup 20% of the AdV, 90% of the RV and 100% of both the PV and HAV from seeded samples. The silica method was able to recoup 1.8% of the AdV and 90% of the RV. These results indicate that the organic-based method is more suitable for detecting viruses in sewage sludge. PMID:19722079

  2. Changes at an activated sludge sewage treatment plant alter the numbers of airborne aerobic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Nadeesha L; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2005-11-01

    In 1976, the activated sludge sewage treatment plant in Edmonton, Canada, was surveyed to determine the numbers of culturable airborne microorganisms. Many changes have been made at the plant to reduce odors and improve treatment efficiency, so in 2004 another survey was done to determine if these changes had reduced the bioaerosols. Covering the grit tanks and primary settling tanks greatly reduced the numbers of airborne microbes. Changing the design and operation of indoor automated sampling taps and sinks also reduced bioaerosols. The secondary was expanded and converted from a conventional activated sludge process using coarse bubble aeration to a biological nutrient removal system using fine bubble aeration. Although the surface area of the secondary more than doubled, the average number of airborne microorganisms in this part of the plant in 2004 was about 1% of that in 1976. PMID:16209882

  3. [Thermophiles and their working mechanisms in degrading excess sludge: a review].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue; Wang, Yun-Long; Yang, Shang-Yuan; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Guo-Fang; Chen, Ying-Xu

    2012-07-01

    Activated sludge process is widely used in treating a wide variety of wastewater, but the by-product is the large amount of excess sludge. To treat the excess sludge properly could spend 25%-60% of the total cost of wastewater treatment, while improperly treating the sludge could cause serious secondary pollution. Therefore, the reduction of excess sludge is becoming a rising challenge. Using thermophiles to degrade excess sludge is a way easy in operation and inexpensive in maintenance, being a promising method in application. This paper reviewed the recent progress in the researches of sludge-degrading thermophiles, their working mechanisms, and the enzymes from thermophiles, such as thermophilic proteolytic enzymes and thermophilic lipases which play an important role in the degradation of sludge. The factors affecting the degradation of sludge by thermophiles were summarized, and the perspectives for the further research on the application of thermophiles in digesting sludge were discussed. PMID:23173483

  4. Particulate and colloidal silver in sewage effluent and sludge discharged from British wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew C; Jürgens, Monika D; Lawlor, Alan J; Cisowska, Iwona; Williams, Richard J

    2014-10-01

    Differential filtration was used to measure silver (>2 nm) entering and leaving nine sewage treatment plants (STPs). The mean concentration of colloidal (2-450 nm) silver, which includes nanosilver, was found to be 12 ng L(-1) in the influent and 6 ng L(-1) in the effluent. For particulate silver (>450 nm) the mean values were 3.3 ?g L(-1) for influent and 0.08 ?g L(-1) for effluent. Thus, removal was around 50% and 98% for colloidal and particulate silver respectively. There was no significant difference in performance between the different types of STP investigated (three examples each of activated sludge, biological filter and biological filter with tertiary treatment located across England, UK). In addition, treated sewage sludge samples (biosolids) were taken from several STPs to measure the total silver likely to be discharged to soils. Total silver was 3-14 mg kg(-1) DW in the sludge (median 3.6), which if the sludge were added at the recommended rate to soil, would add 11 ?g kg(-1) yr(-1) to the top 20 cm soil layer. Predicted concentrations using the LF2000-WQX model for all the rivers of England and Wales for nanosilver were typically in the 0-1 ng L(-1) range but levels up to 4 ng L(-1) are possible in a high discharge and low flow scenario. Predicted concentrations for the total particulate forms were mostly below 50 ng L(-1) except for a high discharge and low flow scenario where concentrations could reach 135 ng L(-1). PMID:25048887

  5. Environmental and plant effects of sewage sludge application to forests and pastures

    SciTech Connect

    Van Miegroet, H.; Boston, H.L.; Johnson, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    Digested sewage sludge was applied to pastures and tree plantations at 19 to 44 Mg/ha (dry weight) as part of a municipal sludge disposal program. The sludge had low concentrations of heavy metals and traces of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 60/Co. Monitoring of soils, soil solutions, and runoff indicated that N, P, heavy metals, and radionuclides were largely retained in the upper 15cm of the soil. Soil solutions had elevated NO/sub 3//sup /minus// concentrations often >100 mg/L, but no significant increases in groundwater NO/sub 3//sup /minus// were found during the first year. Runoff from active sites had elevated concentrations of NO/sub 3//sup /minus// (20--30 mg/L), soluble P (1 mg/L), BOD/sub 5/ (5--30 mg/L), and fecal coliform (up to 14,000 colonies per 100 ml), not unlike runoff from pastures with cattle. Enrichment of organic N (2 times), available (inorganic) N (5 to 10 times), and Bray-P in the upper soils persisted for several years following sludge application. Sludge increased vegetation N concentrations from 1.5% to 2.3% and P concentrations from 0.16% to 0.31%. With the exception of Zn, heavy metals did not accumulate substantially in the vegetation. The sludge addition increased the survival and growth of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.). For a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation future growth improvements are expected based on elevated foliar N concentrations. 37 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Immobilization of heavy metals in sewage sludge by using subcritical water technology.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wansheng; Liu, Chunguang; Ding, Dahu; Lei, Zhongfang; Yang, Yingnan; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhenya

    2013-06-01

    Heavy metals (HMs) immobilization in sewage sludge was investigated by using subcritical water technology (SCWT) in this study. The characteristics of sludge and toxicity of HMs were analyzed after SCWT process. The results showed that besides large reduction in sludge volume, SCWT had some positive effect on HMs dissolution into liquid phase, while the majority of HMs was still accumulated in solid phase. The direct toxicity and bioavailability of HMs in sludge was greatly decreased with no toxicity fractions of HMs highly increased. Pb was always at low risk level and the risk of other HMs was greatly reduced from low risk to no risk after SCWT treatment. Moreover, the leaching toxicity of HMs declined after SCWT and the best result was obtained at 280°C with the metal concentrations in leachate decreased by 97.46%, 93.91%, 86.14%, 73.67%, 71.93% and 10.71% for Cu, Cd, Zn, Cr, Ni and Pb, respectively. PMID:23570779

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sewage sludge and treated biosolids: effect factors and mass balance.

    PubMed

    Kim, M; Guerra, P; Theocharides, M; Barclay, K; Smyth, S A; Alaee, M

    2013-11-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been consistently detected in sewage sludge and treated biosolids. Two hundred and eighty-eight samples including primary sludge (PS), waste biological sludge (WBS) and treated biosolids from fifteen wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Canada were analyzed to investigate the factors affecting accumulation of PBDEs in sludge and biosolids. Factors examined included environmental/sewershed conditions and operational parameters of the WWTPs. PBDE concentrations in PS, WBS and treated biosolids were 230-82,000 ng/g, 530-8800 ng/g and 420-6000 ng/g, respectively; BDE-209,-99, and -47 were the predominant congeners. Concentrations were influenced by industrial input, leachate, and temperature. Several examinations including the measurement of BDE-202 indicated minimal debromination during wastewater treatment. Estimated solids-liquid distribution coefficients were moderately correlated to hydraulic retention time, solids loading rate, mixed liquor suspended solids, solids retention time, and removal of organic solids, indicating that PBDE partitioning to solids can be optimized by WWTPs' operational conditions. Solids treatment type strongly affected PBDE levels in biosolids: 1.5 times increase after solids digestion, therefore, digestion efficiency could be a potential factor for variability of PBDEs concentration. In contrast, alkaline treatment reduced PBDE concentrations in biosolids. Overall, mass balance approaches confirmed that PBDEs were removed from the liquid stream through partitioning to solids. Variability of PBDE levels in biosolids could result in different PBDEs burdens to agricultural land, and different exposure levels to soil organisms. PMID:24091190

  8. Combined ultrasonication and thermal pre-treatment of sewage sludge for increasing methane production.

    PubMed

    Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Tian, Xinbo; Wang, Chong; Lin, Li Leonard; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the combination of ultrasonic and thermal treatment of sewage sludge (SS). The combination involved ultrasonicating a fraction of the sludge and thermal treatment at various temperatures and this resulted in solubilization of proteins and carbohydrates, and so contributing to increased COD solubilization. During the treatment, SCOD, soluble proteins and carbohydrates increased from 760 mg L(-1) to 10,200 mg L(-1), 110 mg L(-1) to 2,900 mg L(-1) and 60 mg L(-1) to 630 mg L(-1), respectively. It was found ultrasonication of only a fraction of the sludge (>20%) followed by thermal treatment led to significant improvement compared to thermal and ULS treatments applied on their own. At 65°C, the kinetic of solubilization was improved and the hyper-thermophilic treatment time could be reduced to a few hours when ultrasonication was used first. A linear correlation (R(2) = 95%) was found between the SCOD obtained after ultrasonication pre-treatment and anaerobic biodegradability. The combined treatment resulted in 20% increase in biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of the pre-treated sludge. PMID:25560267

  9. Relationship between electrical and rheological properties of sewage sludge - Impact of temperature.

    PubMed

    Ségalen, C; Dieudé-Fauvel, E; Clément, J; Baudez, J C

    2015-04-15

    Rheological properties are key criteria for sewage sludge management but are difficult to determine in situ. Because the literature often links rheological characteristics to surface charges of particles that interact, the underlying electrostatic interactions could be key characteristics explaining the rheological behavior of sludge. This paper analyzed the impact of temperature on both rheological and electrical properties. Both liquid and solid properties appear to be related to electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements because they obey the same relationships with the same activation energies. Infinite viscosity follows an Arrhenius law with temperature, whereas the storage modulus shows VTF (Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher) behavior. Sludge electrical behavior can be modeled by an equivalent 2-branch parallel circuit whose respective impedances follow Arrhenius and VTF relationships. More interestingly, resistors are proportional to (dissipative) viscous characteristics, whereas capacitances are proportional to the (storage) elastic modulus. These similarities and relationships underlie the same interactions that seem to be involved in both rheological and electrical properties. These interdependences are quite logical but open new insights into sludge characterization. PMID:25634652

  10. Effects of carbonization and solvent-extraction on change in fuel characteristics of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Woo; Jang, Cheol-Hyeon

    2011-09-01

    Urban sewage sludge was carbonized at 300-500°C for 1h, and combustible components were extracted through the solvent-extraction process. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) was used as the solvent for extraction, and the extraction temperature was fixed at 360°C. The atomic ratios of the solvent-extracted sludge of CS300 (ECS300) were shown to be 1.04 for H/C and 0.11 for O/C, which represented the characteristics of its coal band. Thus, its coal band was similar to that of a high-rank fuel such as bituminous coal. FT-IR analysis showed that the absorbance band of ECS300 was considerably different from that of dried sludge (RS) or the carbonized sludge at 300°C (CS300) but similar to that of coal, although the ash content absorbance band of 800-1200 cm(-1) was of very low intensity. The combustion profile showed that combustion of ESC300 occurred at a temperature higher than the ignition temperature (T(i)) or maximum weight loss rate (DTG(max)) of coal. PMID:21683585

  11. Microbial degradation of 4-monobrominated diphenyl ether with anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yang-hsin; Chou, Hsi-Ling; Peng, Yu-Huei

    2012-04-30

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardant additives for many plastic and electronic products. Owing to their ubiquitous distribution in the environment, multiple toxicity to humans, and increasing accumulation in the environment, the fate of PBDEs is of serious concern for public safety. In this study, the degradation of 4-monobrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-3) in anaerobic sludge and the effect of carbon source addition were investigated. BDE-3 can be degraded by two different anaerobic sludge samples. The by-products, diphenyl ether (DE) and bromide ions, were monitored, indicating the reaction of debromination within these anaerobic samples. Co-metabolism with glucose facilitated BDE-3 biodegradation in terms of kinetics and efficiency in the Jhongsing sludge. Through the pattern of amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments in denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), the composition of the microbial community was analyzed. Most of the predominant microbes were novel species. The fragments enriched in BDE-3-degrading anaerobic sludge samples are presumably Clostridium sp. This enrichment coincides with the H(2) gas generation and the facilitation of debromination during the degradation process. Findings of this study provide better understanding of the biodegradation of brominated DEs and can facilitate the prediction of the fate of PBDEs in the environment. PMID:22370205

  12. Degradation of corticosteroids during activated sludge processing.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Aoi; Kitaichi, Yuko; Uchikura, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory tests of the decomposition of corticosteroids during activated sludge processing were investigated. Corticosteroid standards were added to activated sludge, and aliquots were regularly taken for analysis. The corticosteroids were extracted from the samples using a solid-phase extraction method and analyzed LC-MS. Ten types of corticosteroids were measured and roughly classified into three groups: 1) prednisolone, triamcinolone, betamethasone, prednisolone acetate, and hydrocortisone acetate, which decomposed within 4?h; 2) flunisolide, betamethasone valerate, and budesonide of which more than 50% remained after 4?h, but almost all of which decomposed within 24?h; and 3) triamcinolone acetonide, and fluocinolone acetonide of which more than 50% remained after 24?h. The decomposed ratio was correlated with each corticosteroid's Log?P, especially groups 2) and 3). PMID:24390495

  13. PLANT UPTAKE OF CADMIUM, ZINC, AND MANGANESE FROM FOUR CONTRASTING SOILS AMENDED WITH Cd-ENRICHED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Ramachandran; T. J. DSouza

    2002-01-01

    Studies on the uptake of cadmium, zinc and manganese from Cd-enriched sewage sludge (0–80 mg Cd kg) amended Ultisol, Alfisol, Entisol and Vertisol by maize (Zea mays L.) followed by mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) revealed that in general, there was a progressive reduction in the dry matter yield of both the crops due to enhanced Cd concentrations in the soil-sludge mixture in

  14. A Study for the Thermal Treatment of Dehydrated Sewage Sludge with Gas-Agitated Double Screw Type Dryer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hey-Suk Kim; Mi-Soo Shin; Dong-Soon Jang; Eun-Soo Na

    2005-01-01

    A specially designed dryer has been developed for the thermal treatment of dehydrated, highly viscous sewage sludge with moisture content more than 80 wt.% by an gas-agitated, double-screw type dryer system. The treatment capacity of sludge dryer was about 100 kg\\/h. It consists of burner, feeding hopper, hot gas supplying ducts with double screw conveyor, damper and outlets of drying

  15. Physical characteristics of alkaline stabilized sewage sludge (N-viro soil) and their effects on soil physical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Logan; B. J. Harrison

    1995-01-01

    The N-Viro process for alkaline stabilization of municipal sewage sludge combines dewatered sludge with one or more alkaline industrial byproducts and destroys pathogens by a combination of high pH, heat, and drying. The final product, N-Viro Soil, is a soil-like material that is being used as an agricultural lime substitute, soil amendment, and soil substitute. Physical characteristics of 28 N-Viro

  16. Biological treatment of sewage treatment plant sludge by pure bacterial culture with optimum process conditions in a stirred tank bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Z. Alam; Suleyman A. Muyibi; P. Jamal

    2007-01-01

    Biological treatment of sewage treatment plant (STP) sludge by potential pure bacterial culture (Bacillus sp.) with optimum process conditions for effective biodegradation and bioseparation was carried out in the laboratory. The effective and efficient bioconversion was evaluated with the treatment of pure bacterial culture and existing microbes (uninnoculated) in sludge. The optimum process conditions i.e., temperature, 40°C; pH, 6; inoculum,

  17. Potential for increased human foodborne exposure to PCDD/F when recycling sewage sludge on agricultural land.

    PubMed

    Rideout, Karen; Teschke, Kay

    2004-06-01

    Sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment is used in agriculture as a nutrient source and to aid in moisture retention. To examine the potential impact of sludge-amended soil on exposures to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from plant and animal foods, we conducted a review of published empirical data from international sources. Levels of PCDD/F in municipal sewage sludge ranged from 0.0005 to 8300 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ)/g. Background levels in soil ranged from 0.003 to 186 pg TEQ/g. In sludge-amended soils, levels of PCDD/F ranged from 1.4 to 15 pg TEQ/g. Studies that measured levels before and after sludge treatment showed an increase in soil concentration after treatment. Relationships between PCDD/F levels in soil and resulting concentrations in plants were very weakly positive for unpeeled root crops, leafy vegetables, tree fruits, hay, and herbs. Somewhat stronger relationships were observed for plants of the cucumber family. In all cases, large increases in soil concentration were required to achieve a measurable increase in plant contamination. A considerably stronger positive relationship was observed between PCDD/F in feed and resulting levels in cattle tissue, suggesting bioaccumulation. Although PCDD/Fs are excreted in milk, no association was found between feed contamination and levels of PCDD/Fs measured in milk. There is a paucity of realistic data describing the potential for entry of PCDD/Fs into the food supply via sewage sludge. Currently available data suggest that sewage sludge application to land used for most crops would not increase human exposure. However, the use of sludge on land used to graze animals appears likely to result in increased human exposure to PCDD/F. PMID:15198915

  18. Chemical and sewage sludge co-incineration in a full-scale MSW incinerator: toxic trace element mass balance.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Grosso, Mario; Giugliano, Michele; Campolunghi, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    Co-incineration of sludges with MSW is a quite common practice in Europe. This paper illustrates a case of co-incineration of both sewage sludges and chemical sludges, the latter obtained from drinking water production, in a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant located in northern Italy and equipped with a grate furnace, and compares the toxic trace elements mass balance with and without the co-incineration of sludges. The results show that co-incineration of sewage and chemical sludges does not result in an increase of toxic trace elements the total release in environment, with the exception of arsenic, whose total release increases from 1 mg t(fuel) (-1) during standard operation to 3 mg t(fuel) (-1) when sludges are co-incinerated. The increase of arsenic release is, however, attributable to the sole bottom ashes, where its concentration is five times higher during sludge co-incineration. No variation is observed for arsenic release at the stack. This fact is a further guarantee that the co-incineration of sludges, when performed in a state-of-the-art WTE plant, does not have negative effects on the atmospheric environment. PMID:22584266

  19. Insight into the roles of earthworm in vermicomposting of sewage sludge by determining the water-extracts through chemical and spectroscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Lv, Baoyi; Zhang, Jie; Xing, Meiyan

    2014-02-01

    This work illustrated the effects of earthworm in vermicomposting (Eisenia fetida) by determining the water-extracts through chemical and spectroscopic methods. A field experiment with sludge as the only feed was subjected to vermicomposting and the control (without worms) for three weeks. Compared to the control, vermicomposting resulted in lower pH and water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) along with higher electrical conductivity (EC). Moreover, vermicomposting caused nearly two times higher content of water-extractable nitrate (WEN-NO3(-)) than the control. Furthermore, fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) revealed that vermicomposting promoted the hydrolysis/transformation of macromolecular organic matters and accelerated the degradation of polysaccharide-like and protein-like materials. Fluorescence spectroscopy also reflected vermicomposting led to higher humification degree than the control. In all, this study supplies a new view to assess the roles of earthworm in vermicomposting of sewage sludge by evaluating the water extracts. PMID:24384315

  20. Population size of indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii in long-term field experiments with sewage sludge cake, metal-amended liquid sludge or metal salts: Effects of zinc, copper and cadmium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amar Chaudri; Steve McGrath; Paul Gibbs; Brian Chambers; Colin Carlton-Smith; Jeffrey Bacon; Colin Campbell; Mark Aitken

    2008-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence, and therefore continuing concern, as to whether metals in sewage sludge are deleterious to soil microbial processes and long-term agricultural productivity. Nine field experiments with sewage sludge cakes, three with metal-amended liquid sludges and three with inorganic metal salts were set up across Britain in 1994 to give individual metal dose–response treatments to try to answer