Sample records for sewage sludge degradation

  1. Simulation of substrate degradation in composting of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jun [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Gao Ding, E-mail: gaod@igsnrr.ac.c [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Chen Tongbin; Zheng Guodi; Chen Jun; Ma Chuang; Guo Songlin [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Du Wei [Beijing GreenTech Environmental Engineering Company, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2010-10-15

    To simulate the substrate degradation kinetics of the composting process, this paper develops a mathematical model with a first-order reaction assumption and heat/mass balance equations. A pilot-scale composting test with a mixture of sewage sludge and wheat straw was conducted in an insulated reactor. The BVS (biodegradable volatile solids) degradation process, matrix mass, MC (moisture content), DM (dry matter) and VS (volatile solid) were simulated numerically by the model and experimental data. The numerical simulation offered a method for simulating k (the first-order rate constant) and estimating k{sub 20} (the first-order rate constant at 20 {sup o}C). After comparison with experimental values, the relative error of the simulation value of the mass of the compost at maturity was 0.22%, MC 2.9%, DM 4.9% and VS 5.2%, which mean that the simulation is a good fit. The k of sewage sludge was simulated, and k{sub 20}, k{sub 20s} (first-order rate coefficient of slow fraction of BVS at 20 {sup o}C) of the sewage sludge were estimated as 0.082 and 0.015 d{sup -1}, respectively.

  2. Eucalyptus development in degraded soil fertilized with sewage sludge and mineral fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, R. A. F.; Santos, E. B.; Alves, M. C.; Arruda, O. G.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the development of eucalyptus in a degraded Oxisol with mineral fertilizer and sewage sludge. The study was conducted in Selviria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. The culture of eucalyptus was planted in 2003 at 2.0 m x 1.5 m spacing, with application of 60 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (dry basis) and mineral fertilizer. After five years (2008) the area received biosolids and mineral fertilizer, and after five months, were evaluated for height and diameter at breast height of Eucalyptus. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments: T1 - control (without addition of inputs), T2 - Mineral fertilization (30 kg ha-1 N, 90 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 60 kg ha-1 K2O), T3 - Reapplication of 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis, T4 - Reapplication of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis. Before reapplication the biosolids plant height was higher in the eucalyptus with treatment 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (8.03 m) compared to control (5.75 m) and mineral fertilizer (5.91 m) and that treatment 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (6.34 m) did not differ from the previous three. For the diameter at breast height was the highest value for treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 (7.78 cm) compared to control (5.23 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm), and that of mineral fertilizer (5.96 cm) did not differ from all treatments. After reapplication of sludge plant height was higher in the eucalyptus treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (11.21 m) compared with control (7.51 m), mineral fertilizer (7.77 m) and 4 64 Mg ha-1 (8.07 m), which did not differ. The diameter at breast height had the same behavior before the application of biosolids in the highest value observed being 9.28 Mg ha-1 (8.46 cm) compared with control (5.75 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm) and that of mineral fertilizer (6.34 cm) did not differ from the others. Reapplication of the dose of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge in degraded Oxisol provided greater height and diameter at breast height from eucalyptus trees.

  3. Sewage sludge combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Werther; T. Ogada

    1999-01-01

    In the current review paper, various issues related to the combustion of sewage sludge are discussed. After briefly explaining the formation and treatment of sewage sludge, current and future sludge production are discussed. Thereafter, the four sludge disposal methods which are currently used, i.e. recycling in agriculture, landfilling, dumping into sea and incineration, are examined, and the future trend presented

  4. TRANSPORT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project was initiated with the overall objective of developing organized information pertaining to the costs of various sewage sludge transport systems. Transport of liquid and dewatered sludge by truck and rail and liquid sludge by barge and pipeline is included. The report...

  5. Sewage sludge effects on soil and plant quality in a degraded, semiarid grassland. [Bouteloua gracilis; Hilaria jamesii; Sitanion hystrix (Nutt. )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Fresquez; R. E. Francis; G. L. Dennis

    2009-01-01

    A major problem affecting grassland productivity in the semiarid southwestern USA is the low quantity of soil organic matter and plant-available N. In this study, dried, anaerobically digested sewage sludge was applied at three rates (22.5, 45, and 90 Mg Ha⁻¹) to a degraded semiarid grassland site to determine the effects of sludge on soil chemical and heavy metal properties,

  6. Comparing different methods of analysing sewage sludge, dewatered sewage sludge and sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaston Hoffmann; Daniel Schingnitz; Bernd Bilitewski

    2010-01-01

    The following article compares different ways of characterising sewage sludge. Against the background of sludge recycling in agriculture as well as treatment with subsequent phosphorus recovery in mind, the article starts by collating and evaluating the levels of phosphorus, heavy metals, chlorine and sulphur in sludge as reported in the literature. Sewage sludge from the sewage treatment plant at Kaditz

  7. Sewage sludge additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ingham, J.D.; Kalvinskas, J.J.; Mueller, W. A.

    1980-06-24

    A raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage is discussed. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank, for the purposes mentioned. Because the sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage, it is necessary to add carbon to the process. In accordance with this invention, instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  8. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  9. Sewage sludge treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  10. The use of biochar-amended composting to improve the humification and degradation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jining; L, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2014-09-01

    Wood biochar (6%, 12% and 18% of fresh sludge weight) adding to a sludge-and-straw composting system was investigated to assess the potential of biochar as a composting amendment. Organic degradation efficiency, temporal humification profile of the water-extractable organic fraction and solid organic matter, through spectroscopic, microscopic and elementary analysis were monitored. Fluorescent excitation and emission matrix indicated that concentrations of aqueous fulvic-acid-like and humic-acid-like compounds were, respectively, 13-26% and 15-30% higher in the biochar-amended treatments, than those in the control without biochar-amended. On the first day of sludge aerobic incubation, the presence of biochar resulted in increased oxygen uptake rates of 21-37% due to its higher nano-porosity and surface area. SEM indicated that, in the biochar-amended sludge, the dense microstructure on the sludge surface disintegrated into fragments with organic fraction degraded and water lost. Results indicated that 12-18%w/w addition of wood biochar to sludge composting was recommended. PMID:24656550

  11. Vermitechnology for sewage sludge recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meena Khwairakpam; Renu Bhargava

    2009-01-01

    The present paper is aimed at safe reuse and recycling of sewage sludge (SS) and production of good quality compost using vermicomposting. Three different earthworm species Eiseniafetida (E. fetida), Eudrilus eugeniae (E. eugeniae), Perionyx excavatus (P. excavatus) in individual and combinations were utilized to compare the suitability of worm species for composting of sewage sludge as well as the quality

  12. Re-inoculation strategies enhance the degradation of emerging pollutants in fungal bioaugmentation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Rodrguez, Carlos E; Lucas, Daniel; Barn, Enrique; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Rodrguez-Mozaz, Sara; Eljarrat, Ethel; Daz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barcel, Dami; Caminal, Glria; Vicent, Teresa

    2014-09-01

    The use of Trametes versicolor has been partially successful in the removal of some pharmaceuticals from sewage sludge in laboratory-scale biopile systems. The application of two strategies for the re-inoculation of biomass was assessed during the fungal bioaugmentation of non-sterile sludge (42-d treatment) as an approach to improve the elimination of pharmaceuticals and other groups of emerging pollutants. Globally, the re-inoculation of biopiles with blended mycelium exerted a major effect on the removal of pharmaceuticals (86%), brominated-flame-retardants (81%) and UV filters (80%) with respect to the re-inoculation with additional lignocellulosic substrate colonized by the fungus (69-67-22%). The performance was better than that of the analogous non-re-inoculated systems that were assayed previously for the removal of pharmaceuticals. The results demonstrate the ability of T. versicolor to remove a wide spectrum of emerging micropollutants under non-sterile conditions, while re-inoculation appears to be a useful step to improve the fungal treatment of sludge. PMID:24582425

  13. Modification of soil porosity after application of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Sort; J. M. Alcaiz

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the application of sewage sludge on soil porosity over 28 months is discussed here. Anaerobic sludges of urban refuse waters were applied on a degraded limestone soil in a mining land by two ways. First, a previous mixture of sludge and soil was carried out; this was then applied to the target land. Second, a direct application

  14. Theoretical basis for dewatering of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leino Reinola

    2007-01-01

    Sewage sludge is formed as a by-product of the treatment of raw sewage from domestic households, but may also include industrial and commercial effluent. There is currently substantial interest in generating energy from sewage sludges. Compare to the fossil fuels, the biomass energy has been experiencing a surge in interest in many countries of the world. Water is the main

  15. Treatment of sewage sludge using electrokinetic geosynthetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Glendinning; John Lamont-Black; Colin J. F. P. Jones

    2007-01-01

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge is one of the most problematical issues affecting wastewater treatment in the developed world. The traditional outlets for sewage sludge are to spread it on agricultural land, or to form a cake for deposit to landfill or incineration. In order to create a sludge cake, water must be removed. Existing dewatering technology based

  16. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  17. Complete survey of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krger, Oliver; Grabner, Angela; Adam, Christian

    2014-10-21

    The amount of sewage sludge produced worldwide is expected to further increase due to rising efforts in wastewater treatment. There is a growing concern against its direct use as fertilizer due to contamination of the sludge with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Incinerating the sludge degrades organic compounds almost completely and concentrates heavy metals and phosphorus. However, the sewage sludge ash (SSA) is almost completely disposed of and with it all resources are removed from the economic cycle. Comprehensive knowledge of the composition of SSA is crucial to assess the resource recovery potentials. We conducted a survey of all SSA emerging in Germany and determined the respective mass fractions of 57 elements over a period of one year. The median content of phosphorus was 7.9%, indicating an important recovery potential. Important trace elements were Zn (2.5 g/kg), Mn (1.3 g/kg), and Cu (0.9 g/kg). Mass fractions of technology metals such as V, Cr, Ga, Nb, and rare earths were comparatively low. Considering the possible use of SSA as secondary raw material for fertilizer production it should be noted that its Cd and U content (2.7 mg/kg and 4.9 mg/kg respectively) is significantly lower than that of rock phosphate based mineral fertilizers. PMID:25265150

  18. Biodrying of sewage sludge: kinetics of volatile solids degradation under different initial moisture contents and air-flow rates.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Manuel; Huiliir, Cesar

    2014-12-01

    This study focuses on the kinetics of the biodegradation of volatile solids (VS) of sewage sludge for biodrying under different initial moisture contents (Mc) and air-flow rates (AFR). For the study, a 3(2) factorial design, whose factors were AFR (1, 2 or 3L/minkgTS) and initial Mc (59%, 68% and 78% w.b.), was used. Using seven kinetic models and a nonlinear regression method, kinetic parameters were estimated and the models were analyzed with two statistical indicators. Initial Mc of around 68% increases the temperature matrix and VS consumption, with higher moisture removal at lower initial Mc values. Lower AFRs gave higher matrix temperatures and VS consumption, while higher AFRs increased water removal. The kinetic models proposed successfully simulate VS biodegradation, with root mean square error (RMSE) between 0.007929 and 0.02744, and they can be used as a tool for satisfactory prediction of VS in biodrying. PMID:25463779

  19. A Family Physician's Guide to Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Connop, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    The potential environmental and personal health effects from the agricultural uses of domestic sewage sludge may increasingly require the guidance of the family physician, especially in farming communities. This article summarizes the potential health hazards and outlines the tripartite risk phenomenonhazard identification, risk assessment, and social evaluation. For the agricultural use of dewatered sewage sludge, strict adherence to regulated procedures should not increase risk beyond that of agriculture generally. Confirmation by prospective epidemiological studies is recommended. PMID:21283298

  20. Lightweight aggregate from flyash and sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Nechvatal, T.M.; Heian, G.A.

    1991-10-15

    This patent describes a method of treating flyash and sewage sludge. It comprises: mixing flyash with sewage sludge having a high fuel value; agglomerating the mixture; drying the agglomerated mixture; heating the agglomerated mixture to a temperature less than the melting point of the mixture in a rotary kiln using the agglomerated mixture as the principal source of fuel in the kiln to form a porous nodular product; and recovering the nodular product from the kiln.

  1. Glass-ceramic from sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S SUZUKI; M. TANAKA; T KANEKO

    1997-01-01

    Glass-ceramic was produced by adding limestone to sewage sludge incinerated ash. Black glass was produced by melting a blended\\u000a ash batch at 1450C. For nucleation, this glass was reheated at 800C for 1 h, and reheated at 1100C for 2 h to form glass-ceramic.\\u000a The main components of sewage sludge incinerated ash are SiO2 and Al2O3. Because small amounts of

  2. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1985-08-30

    This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

  3. Potential priority pollutants in sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Eriksson; Nina Christensen; Jens Ejbye Schmidt; Anna Ledin

    2008-01-01

    Sewage sludge has been used as fertilizer for agricultural land over a long time. This is part of a sustainable practice utilizing and recycling the macronutrients back to land. During the last decades, questions have been raised concerning the risks related to heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) present in the sludge. Application on land used for agriculture is,

  4. The Composition of Fertilizing Value of Sewage Sludge.

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1932-01-01

    LIBRARY, A & hl COLLEGE. CAAYFUS. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS 3ULLETIN NO. 445 APRIL, 1932 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY The Composition and Fertilizing Value of Sewage Sludge... of Agriculture. - - - - - - - ian nologist ent dent Y' dry sbandry Sewage sludge is a by-product from the purification of the . sew-age at several hundred towns and cities of Texas. Two types of sewage sludge are produced: the digested sludge...

  5. Study of the pyrolysis liquids obtained from different sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Fonts; M. Azuara; G. Gea; M. B. Murillo

    2009-01-01

    Pyrolysis of sewage sludge in fluidized bed to produce bio-oil is under study as a useful way to valorise this waste. Sewage sludge is the waste produced in the wastewater treatment plants. Its composition may change due to the origin and to the non-standardized treatments in the wastewater treatment plants. The pyrolysis of three samples of anaerobically digested sewage sludge

  6. Sintering effect on cement bonded sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Ho Chen; Ing-Jia Chiou; Kuen-Sheng Wang

    2006-01-01

    Through foaming reaction, hydration reaction and pozzolanic effect, sewage sludge ash (SSA) was used as main material to produce a sewage sludge ash foamed lightweight material (SSAFLM). Firing tests were conducted at different temperatures. This was to study how the use of sewage sludge ash (SSA) improved the thermal properties and sintering effects of cement-base materials, and to evaluate the

  7. Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James T. Bachmaier; Kevin Aiello; Robert K. Bastian; Jing Jy Cheng; Weihsueh A. Chiu; Jenny Goodman; Rosemary Hogan; Andrea R. Jones; Sunita Kamboj; Thomas Lenhart; William R. Ott; Allan B. Rubin; Stephen N. Salomon; Duane W. Schmidt; Loren W. Setlow; C. Yu; A. B. Wolbarst

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee

  8. Treatment of sewage sludge using electrokinetic geosynthetics.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, Stephanie; Lamont-Black, John; Jones, Colin J F P

    2007-01-31

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge is one of the most problematical issues affecting wastewater treatment in the developed world. The traditional outlets for sewage sludge are to spread it on agricultural land, or to form a cake for deposit to landfill or incineration. In order to create a sludge cake, water must be removed. Existing dewatering technology based on pressure can only remove a very limited amount of this water because of the way in which water is bound to the sludge particles or flocs. Several researchers have shown that electrokinetic dewatering of sludge is more efficient than conventional hydraulically driven methods. This involves the application of a dc voltage across the sludge, driving water under an electrical gradient from positive (anode) electrode to negative (cathode) electrode. However, there have been several reasons why this technique has not been adopted in practice, not least because the, normally metallic, anode rapidly dissolves due to the acidic environment created by the electrolysis of water. This paper will describe experimentation using electrokinetic geosynthetics (EKG): polymer-based materials containing conducting elements. These have been used to minimise the problem of electrode corrosion and create a sludge treatment system that can produce dry solids contents in excess of 30%. It will suggest different options for the treatment of sludges both in situ in sludge lagoons and windrows, and ex situ as a treatment process. PMID:16635546

  9. Sewage Sludge ElectroDewatering TreatmentA Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pham-Anh Tuan; Sillanp Mika; Isosaari Pirjo

    2012-01-01

    Purification of municipal wastewater generates huge amounts of sewage sludge, which contains large quantities of water, biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances. It is widely known that sewage sludge usually has a poor dewaterability. A large amount of water in sludge directly translates into high transport and handling costs; therefore, sludge treatment and disposal usually requires over 50% of the operation

  10. Ozone treatment of organic micro-pollutants in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lahnsteiner, J; Vranitzky, R

    2010-01-01

    Organic micro-pollutants accumulate to a certain extent in sewage sludge and are therefore ecologically relevant if the sludge is to be reused in both agriculture and landscaping applications. This paper describes the degradation of endocrine-disrupting compounds and other micro-contaminants by means of ozone and ultrasonic treatment. One of the findings is that, as expected, aromatic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can be degraded easily by ozone. Thus it could be shown that, apart from enhanced VSS reduction and increased biogas production, sludge disintegration processes using ozone provide an additional benefit, i.e. the degradation of micro-pollutants, which is practically unattainable with ultrasonic treatment. PMID:20489266

  11. Removal of DEHP in composting and aeration of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanna K Marttinen; Kari Hnninen; Jukka A Rintala

    2004-01-01

    The potential of composting and aeration to remove bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from municipal sewage sludge was studied with two dewatered sludges: raw sludge and anaerobically digested sludge. Composting removed 58% of the DEHP content of the raw sludge and 34% of that of the anaerobically digested sludge during 85 days stabilisation in compost bins. A similar removal for the anaerobically

  12. Phosphate fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Franz

    2008-01-01

    Ashes from sewage sludge incineration are rich in phosphorus content, ranging between 4% and 9%. Due to the current methods of disposal used for these ashes, phosphorus, which is a valuable plant nutrient, is removed from biological cycling. This article proposes the possible three-stage processing of SSA, whereby more than 90% of phosphorus can be extracted to make an adequate

  13. Chemical fixation of sewage sludge derived ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farhana Mohamed; I. Y. Sam Cheng; Ruey S. Huang; Evelyn C. Santos

    1991-01-01

    Los Angeles processes sewage sludge by dehydration and combustion at its Hyperion Treatment Plant. The ash product is usually classified as hazardous because of its heavy metal content, and four readily?available fixing agents have been evaluated for possible use as stabilizers. The ash leachability was assessed before and after fixation using the California Waste Extraction Test. The leaching characteristics of

  14. SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION, HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel ef...

  15. FUEL SAVINGS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a result of a demonstration project partly sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the Indianapolis Center for Advanced Research, the City of Indianapolis, Indiana, realized a 34% fuel savings for sewage sludge incineration. At the sa...

  16. SEWAGE SLUDGE PATHOGEN TRANSPORT MODEL PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, raw or anaerobically digest...

  17. Preparation of biochar from sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Aurora; Mara Mndez, Ana; Gasc, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Biomass waste materials appropriate for biochar production include crop residues (both field residues and processing residues such as nut shells, fruit pits, bagasse, etc), as well as yard, food and forestry wastes, and animal manures. Biochar can and should be made from biomass waste materials and must not contain unacceptable levels of toxins such as heavy metals which can be found in sewage sludge and industrial or landfill waste. Making biochar from biomass waste materials should create no competition for land with any other land use optionsuch as food production or leaving the land in its pristine state. Large amounts of agricultural, municipal and forestry biomass are currently burned or left to decompose and release CO2 and methane back into the atmosphere. They also can pollute local ground and surface watersa large issue for livestock wastes. Using these materials to make biochar not only removes them from a pollution cycle, but biochar can be obtained as a by-product of producing energy from this biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product from wastewater treatment plants, and contains significant amounts of heavy metals, organic toxins and pathogenic microorganisms, which are considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Agricultural use, land filling and incineration are commonly used as disposal methods. It was, however, reported that sewage sludge applications in agriculture gives rise to an accumulation of harmful components (heavy metals and organic compounds) in soil. For this reason, pyrolysis can be considered as a promising technique to treat the sewage sludge including the production of fuels. The objective of this work is to study the advantages of the biochar prepared from sewage sludge.

  18. LOW-TEMPERATURE MICROWAVE PYROLYSIS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Wahi; A. Idris; M. A. Mohd; K. Khalid

    Microwave pyrolysis is proposed as one of several optional technologies for disposing and recycling sewage waste in Malaysia. In this study, sewage sludge was dried and pyrolyzed at low temperature (maximum 650C) in a single process at laboratory scale. Sewage sludge was placed in a quartz reactor, which was placed in a microwave cavity oven. The modified household microwave oven

  19. Metal transfer in vermicomposting of sewage sludge and plant wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Frank; Carl Klauck; Kohzoh I. Stonefield

    1983-01-01

    Sewage sludge is an urban waste that has a potential nutrient value for recycling into food production. A set of guidelines has been developed that prescribes the quality of sludge suitable for utilization on foodlands. A number of sewage sludges do not meet the criteria and are therefore not acceptable for direct foodland application. One of the options available for

  20. 40 CFR 60.4770 - Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit? 60.4770...SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability...4770 Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?...

  1. Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few health concerns because sufficient decay occurs before it can reach the public however, incineration, which is done in winter months, directly releases the 131I from sewage sludge to the atmosphere, and even though exposures to both workers and the public were found to be considerably lower than 1% of natural background, incineration of sludge in a pathway for public exposure. Although 131I was readily measurable in sewage sludge, only about 1% of the radioione administered to patients was found in the sludge. The fate of the remaining radioactivity has not been established; some may be in secondary and tertiary residuals, but it is quite likely that most passed through the plant and was discharged in dilute concentrations in plant emissions. The behavior of radioiodine and other radioactive materials released into municipal seweage systems, such as those from large medical facilities, is not yet well understood. PMID:9258296

  2. Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ashes for phosphorus recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Adam; B. Peplinski; M. Michaelis; G. Kley; F.-G. Simon

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for all living organisms and cannot be replaced. Municipal sewage sludge is a carrier of phosphorus, but also contains organic pollutants and heavy metals. A two-step thermal treatment is suggested, including mono-incineration of sewage sludge and subsequent thermochemical treatment of the ashes. Organic pollutants are completely destroyed by mono-incineration. The resulting sewage sludge ashes

  3. Urban energy mining from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kwon, E E; Yi, H; Kwon, H H

    2013-01-01

    This work showed that sewage sludge could be a strong candidate for biodiesel production. High lipid content (18-20%) with C(16-18)-carbon range was experimentally identified and measured. These lipids from sewage sludge were converted into biodiesel via the transesterification reaction with MgO-CaO/Al(2)O(3) derived from magnesium slag, and biodiesel conversion was ~98%. The experimental work enabled explaining that temperature is the main driving force for the transesterification reaction, which can be enhanced in the presence of CO(2). This also enables combination of esterification of free fatty acids and transesterification of triglycerides into a single process within 1 min in the temperature range of 350-500C. Sewage sludge residue after extracting lipids was also a good feedstock for recovering energy via thermo-chemical processes. The impact of CO(2) co-feed on the pyrolysis/gasification process of SS residue was also investigated in this work. The CO(2) injected into the thermo-chemical process remarkably increased the generation of CO by a factor of 2. Moreover, the introduction of CO(2) into the pyrolysis/gasification process enabled reducing condensable hydrocarbons (tar) by expediting cracking; thus, utilizing CO(2) as chemical feedstock for the gasification process not only leads to higher thermal efficiency but also has environmental benefits. PMID:23017593

  4. POTENTIAL EMISSIONS OF HAZARDOUS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory thermal decomposition studies were undertaken to evaluate potential organic emissions from sewage sludge incinerators. Precisely controlled thermal decomposition experiments were conducted on sludge spiked with mixtures of hazardous organic compounds, on the mixtures o...

  5. Metal partitioning and toxicity in sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson-Ekvall, C.E.A.; Morrison, G.M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Sanitary Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Over 20 years of research has failed to provide an unequivocal correlation between chemically extracted metals in sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil and either metal toxicity to soil organisms or crop uptake. Partitioning of metals between phases and species can provide a better estimation of mobility and potential bioavailability. Partition coefficients, K{sub D} for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sludge/water solution were determined considering the sludge/water solution as a three-phase system (particulate, colloidal and electrochemically available) over a range of pH values, ionic strengths, contact times and sludge/water ratios and compared with the KD values for sludge/water solution as a two-phase system (aqueous phase and particulate phase). Partitioning results were interpreted in terms of metal mobility from sludge to colloids and in terms of potential bioavailability from colloids to electrochemically available. The results show that both mobility and potential bioavailability are high for Zn, while Cu partitions into the mobile colloidal phase which is relatively non-bioavailable. Lead is almost completely bound to the solid phase, and is neither mobile nor bioavailable. A comparison between K, values and toxicity shows that Zn in sludge is more toxic than can be accounted for in the aqueous phase, which can be due to synergistic effects between sludge organics and Zn. Copper demonstrates clear synergism which can be attributed to the formation of lipid-soluble Cu complexes with known sludge components such as LAS, caffeine, myristic acid and nonylphenol.

  6. Metal transfer in vermicomposting of sewage sludge and plant wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario); Klauck, C.; Stonefield, K.I.

    1983-12-01

    Sewage sludge is an urban waste that has a potential nutrient value for recycling into food production. A set of guidelines has been developed that prescribes the quality of sludge suitable for utilization on foodlands. A number of sewage sludges do not meet the criteria and are therefore not acceptable for direct foodland application. One of the options available for such sludges is the production of compost and one of these composting processes involves worms (vermicomposting). This study looks at a pilot vermicomposting operation and follows metal concentrations by batch lot from the sewage sludge to the final commercial product.

  7. IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

    2004-10-05

    The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

  8. Microwave oxidation treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kwang V; Srinivasan, Asha; Liao, Ping H; Bailey, Sam

    2015-07-01

    Microwave-oxidation treatment of sewage sludge using various oxidants was studied. Two treatment schemes with a combination of hydrogen peroxide and ozone were examined: hydrogen peroxide and ozone were introduced into the sludge simultaneously, followed by microwave heating. The other involved the ozonation first, and then the resulting solution was subjected to microwave and hydrogen peroxide treatment. The set with ozonation followed by hydrogen peroxide plus microwave heating yielded higher soluble materials than those of the set with hydrogen peroxide plus ozone first and then microwave treatment. No settling was observed for all treatments in the batch operation, except ozone/microwave plus hydrogen peroxide set at 120C. The pilot-scale continuous-flow 915MHz microwave study has demonstrated that microwave-oxidation process is feasible for real-time industrial application. It would help in providing key data for the design of a full-scale system for treating sewage sludge and the formulation of operational protocols. PMID:26030695

  9. Lightweight aggregate made from sewage sludge and incinerated ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ing-Jia Chiou; Kuen-Sheng Wang; Ching-Ho Chen; Ya-Ting Lin

    2006-01-01

    In this study, sewage sludge ash (SSA), with similar characteristics to expansive clay, was used as the principal material and sewage sludge (SS) as the admixture to sinter lightweight aggregate and to study the influences of raw material composition on pelletising, sintering effect and aggregate properties. Results showed that both SS and SSA could be sintered to produce synthetic aggregates

  10. Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jianhong

    Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220spC) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This shows the fundamental importance of rapid processing. Rapid thermal conditioning may be incorporated into a wastewater treatment plant where biological treatment is used. For purposes of a concrete example, flow-sheets for the incorporation of the RTC process into the New York City Wards Island WPCP were prepared, and experimental data from the laboratory scale RTC test facility were used to set design parameters. A design incorporating nitrogen removal into the RTC flow sheet was also examined. ASPEN software was used to design the proposed processes and perform economic analyses. Cost estimates for these alternatives show a substantial advantage to implement RTC in comparison to present plant operation. About one third of the current sludge processing cost can be saved by incorporation of RTC into the Wards Island Plant. With nitrogen removal, the economics are even more attractive.

  11. Evaluation of bangkok sewage sludge for possible agricultural use.

    PubMed

    Pasda, Nuanjun; Panichsakpatana, Supamard; Limtong, Pitayakon; Oliver, Robert; Montange, Denis

    2006-04-01

    Bangkok (Thailand) covers more than 1500 km2 and has 10 million inhabitants. The disposal of wastewater is creating huge problems of pollution. The estimated amount of sewage sludge was estimated to be around 108 tonnes dry matter (DM) per day in 2005. In order to find a lasting way of disposal for this sewage sludge, the suitability of the sludge produced from three waste-water treatment plants for use as fertilizing material was investigated. Monthly samplings and analysis of sewage sludge from each plant showed that the composition of sludge varied according to the area of collection and period of sampling, and there was no link to rainfall cycle. Plant nutrient content was high (i.e. total N from 19 to 38 g kg(-1) DM) whereas organic matter content was low. The concentrations of heavy metals varied between sludge samples, and were sometimes higher than the E.U. or U.S. regulations for sewage sludge use in agriculture. Faecal coliforms were present in the sludge from one of the plants, indicating a possible contamination by night soil. In order to decrease this potentially pathogenic population the sewage sludge should be heated by composting. As the C/N ratio of sewage sludge was low (around 6) some organic by-products with high carbon content could be added as structural material to enhance the composting. PMID:16634231

  12. Sewage sludge composting maintains momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.

    1986-11-01

    The number of facilities composting municipal sludge is rising gradually in the U.S. after a dramatic surge between 1983 and 1985. Results of BioCycle's 1986 survey show a total of 178 municipalities and counties that are either operating or constructing plants, or that are in the bid, design, planning, or consideration stages. The total number in 1985 was 173, with four facilities shut down. In 1983, the first year a nationwide survey was conducted, there were 90. The aerated static pile method continues to lead the composting pack, with 53 operating facilities. Windrow composting comes in second, with 21 operating facilities. Five more in-vessel systems went into operation this year, bringing the total to eight. When it comes to facilities on the horizon, however, in-vessel is the category leader: there are 11 in-vessel projects under construction, 11 in the planning, design or bid stages, and 14 under consideration. Conversely, there are eight aerated static pile facilities under construction, 10 in the planning, design and bid stages, and 5.5 under consideration. Windrow composting operations comprise the third largest category, followed by aerated windrow composting.

  13. Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

  14. Usage of pumice as bulking agent in sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuandong; Li, Weiguang; Wang, Ke; Li, Yunbei

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the impacts of reused and sucrose-decorated pumice as bulking agents on the composting of sewage sludge were evaluated in the lab-scale reactor. The variations of temperature, pH, NH3 and CO2 emission rate, moisture content (MC), volatile solid, dissolved organic carbon, C/N and the water absorption characteristics of pumice were detected during the 25days composting. The MC of pumice achieved 65.23% of the 24h water absorptivity within the first 2h at the mass ratio of 0.6:1 (pumice:sewage sludge). Reused pumice increased 23.68% of CO2 production and reduced 21.25% of NH3 emission. The sucrose-decorated pumice reduced 43.37% of nitrogen loss. These results suggested that adding pumice and sucrose-decorated pumice in sludge composting matrix could not only adjust the MC of materials, but also improve the degradation of organic matters and reduce nitrogen loss. PMID:25913030

  15. Pretreatment followed by anaerobic digestion of secondary sludge for reduction of sewage sludge volume.

    PubMed

    Abe, Naoki; Tang, Yue-Qin; Iwamura, Makoto; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    The influence of two pretreatment methods, thermal treatment and low-pressure wet oxidation, on the sludge digestion efficiency was examined. Batch thermophilic anaerobic digestion was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the pretreatment methods in terms of volatile suspended solids (VSS) digestion efficiency and gas production. The results showed that the gas production was not proportional to the VSS degradation efficiency of either thermal treatment or low-pressure wet oxidation. Low-pressure wet oxidation treatment at 150 C along with 40% of the theoretical oxygen required to oxidize organic carbon gave the highest gas production and the VSS digestion efficiency of 77% at a VSS loading rate of 8 g l(-1) d(-1). The digestion efficiency was about 30% higher than that of thermophilic anaerobic digestion without sludge pretreatment. Sewage sludge could be treated effectively at a high VSS digestion efficiency with this pretreatment followed by thermophilic anaerobic digestion. PMID:23752385

  16. Biodegradation of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. F. Cheng; S. Y. Chen; J. G. Lin

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in the production of polyvinyl chloride to impart flexibility to the product. Because of its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, the presence of DEHP in sludge limits the application of sludge as a soil fertilizer. In this study, sludges were collected from three sewage treatment plants and thirteen wastewater treatment plants of different

  17. Stabilization of primary sewage sludge during vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Renuka; Garg, V K

    2008-05-30

    In India, over the last few decades, there has been a remarkable increase in sewage sludge production due to population increase and unplanned urbanization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform primary sewage sludge (PSS) amended with cow dung (CD) into value added product, i.e., vermicompost in laboratory scale experiments. Two approaches investigated in the study were: (1) evaluation of vermistabilization of PSS and CD mixtures after 15 weeks in terms of fertilizer quality of the products and; (2) growth and reproduction of Eisenia foetida up to 11 weeks in different vermireactors. In all the PSS and CD mixtures, a decrease in pH, TOC and C:N ratio, but increase in EC, TKN, TK and TP was recorded. The heavy metals' content in the vermicomposts was higher than initial mixtures. Maximum worm biomass was attained in 10% PSS+90% CD mixture while, the worm growth rate was highest in 30% PSS+70% CD feed mixture. It was inferred from the study that addition of 30-40% of PSS with CD had no adverse effect on the fertilizer value of the vermicompost as well as growth of Eisenia foetida. The results indicated that PSS could be converted into good quality manure by vermicomposting if mixed in appropriate ratio (30-40%) with cow dung. PMID:17950995

  18. USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FOR FOREST-TREE SEEDLING PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...

  19. CONTROL OF PATHOGENS AND VECTORS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes the federal requirements concerning pathogens in sewage sludge and septage destined for land application or surface disposal. t also provides guidance for meeting those requirements. he chapters of this document discuss why pathogen control is necessary, t...

  20. WINDROW AND STATIC PILE COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted on composting anaerobically digested and centrifuge dewatered sewage sludge from 1975 through 1980. Windrow and static pile composting processes were evaluated; new methods were employed using deeper windrows and aerated static piles were constructed withou...

  1. Absence of asbestos in municipal sewage sludge ashes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kusum J. Patel-Mandlik; Charles G. Manos; Donald J. Lisk

    1988-01-01

    In earlier studies, asbestos was found in sewage sludges in several cities in the United States using x-ray diffraction, high power light optical microscopy, polarized light microscopy or electron microscopy. In a number of cities in the United States, sewage sludge is incinerated at temperatures up to 1,000°C. Temperatures of 550°C or higher dehydroxylate the asbestos lattice resulting in alteration

  2. Organic markers in the lipidic fraction of sewage sludges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilie Jard; Laurence Mansuy; Pierre Faure

    2005-01-01

    The lipidic organic fraction of 48 sewage sludges that originated from food-processing, paper-mill and domestic (urban, small urban, and rural) wastewater-treatment plants of the Lorraine region (Northeast of France) was characterised by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (GC-MS).This study enables us to define an average organic composition typical of each group of sewage sludges. Linear alkyl benzenes (LABs) are

  3. [Enhancement of sewage sludge anaerobic digestibility by thermal hydrolysis pretreatment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-jun; Wang, Wei

    2005-01-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments of thermo-hydrolyzed sewage sludge are carried out to investigate the effects of thermal hydrolysis on the digestibility of sewage sludge. The results show that thermal hydrolysis pretreatment can facilitate the dissolving of organic solid in sludge, and soluble organics hydrolyzed into low molecular organics, in which volatile fat acids accounted for 30% - 40 % of soluble COD, so the digestibility of sewage sludge remarkably improved. The optimum pretreatment temperature and holding time were 170 degrees C and 30 minutes, under which the total COD removal rate enhanced from original 38.11% to 56.78%, and biogas production rate of COD in feeding sludge from 160mL/g to 250mL/g. PMID:15859411

  4. Textile mill effluent decolorization using crude dehydrated sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Dhaouadi; F. MHenni

    2008-01-01

    Crude dehydrated sewage sludge issued from an urban wastewater treatment plant (High-rate aeration, activated sludge process, Monastir, Tunisia) is used as an adsorbent for the decolorization of a textile mill effluent. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the crude material adsorption capability of the dye contained in wastewater. No treatment to modify any of the adsorbent properties

  5. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in municipal sewage sludge ashes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia C. Wszolek; Timothy Wachs

    1982-01-01

    Sludge ash residues from four cities that incinerate municipal sewage sludge were analyzed for isolated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Total amounts of PAHs in the ashes were in the range of 0.11g\\/g. The ash containing the highest amount also exhibited the greatest variety of PAHs.

  6. SPREADING LAGOONED SEWAGE SLUDGE ON FARMLAND: A CASE HISTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project demonstrated that land application is feasible and practical for a metropolitan treatment plant for disposal of a large volume (265,000 cu m) of stabilized, liquid sewage sludge stored in lagoons. The project involved transportation of sludge by semi-trailer tankers ...

  7. DIRECT THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE TO FUEL OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A disposal method for primary sewage sludge and industrial sludges which generates boiler fuel as a product and is energy self sufficient or energy-generating is described. The method involves direct liquefaction in a mild aqueous alkali above 250 degs. C and was demonstrated for...

  8. Influence of soil fertilization by sewage sludge on the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crops.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Baran, Stanis?aw

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was an evaluation of the influence of the addition of different sewage sludge doses on the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from fertilized soil. Sewage sludge was introduced into the soil in the following doses: 30, 75, 150, 300, and 600 Mg/ha. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was determined by means of HPLC-UV method. The addition of increasing doses of sludge into the soil resulted in a gradual increase in the amount of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contained therein. During the period of the study, continuous changes in the content of all the compounds studied were found in all the experimental variants. Finally, on the last day of the study, the highest degree of degradation (73%) of 16 PAHs' sum (US EPA) was noted for sludge doses of 30 and 300 Mg/ha. In the case of individual PAHs, the change in their content differed and clearly depended on the sewage sludge dose. The introduction of sewage sludge into the soil influenced the increase of the sum of 16 PAHs in the plants grown in this soil. The influence mentioned above depended on the sewage sludge dose and the plant species grown, as well as the PAH content in the soil. The evaluation of individual PAHs in plants showed an increase in their content with the increase of the amount of sewage sludge. A statistically significant increase in their content was most often observed for sewage sludge doses above 150 Mg/ha. Moreover, it was found that fertilization of the soil with sewage sludge resulted in pollution of the plants with PAHs of high molecular weight. PMID:16287643

  9. Sewage-sludge incineration: An overview of the technology

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkmann, W.K.; Forbess, R.G.

    1988-10-01

    Incineration is becoming more attractive as a way to dispose of sewage sludge. Technological advances make it possible to reduce sludge volume, maintain air quality, and often generate electricity to offset the cost of treatment. Both are described. The paper also describes auxiliary equipment: input subsystems, heat recovery, air emissions control, and ash handling. Recent advances which are described include feed sludge preparation, design improvements, air distribution systems, and pyrolysis technology.

  10. Fermentation of cellulose and fatty acids with enrichments from sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef U. Winter; Charles L. Cooney

    1980-01-01

    A mixed culture enriched from sewage sludge and anaerobic digestor effluent was able to degrade cellulose and acetate rapidly and quantitatively to methane and carbon dioxide. The maximum specific rate of gas production was 87 ml\\/gm cell-h, corresponding to a rate of cellulose utilization of 0.1 g\\/g cells-h. Acetate, an intermediate in cellulose degradation, was fermented much more rapidly than

  11. The Phytotoxicity Changes of Sewage Sludge-Amended Soils.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Malara, Anna; Jo?ko, Izabela; Lesiuk, Adam

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was the estimation of changes in the phytotoxicity of soils amended with sewage sludge with relation to Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba and Sorghum saccharatum. The study was realised in the system of a plot experiment for a period of 29months. Samples for analyses were taken at the beginning of the experiment, and then after 5, 17 and 29months. Two kinds of sewage sludge, with varying properties, were added to a sandy soil (soil S) or a loamy soil (soil L) at the dose of 90t/ha. The addition of sewage sludge to the soils at the start of the experiment caused a significant reduction of both seed germination capacity and root length of the test plants, the toxic effect being distinctly related to the test plant species. With the passage of time the negative effect of sewage sludge weakened, the extent of its reduction depending both of the kind of sewage sludge applied and on the type of soil. Phytotoxicity of the soils amended with the sewage sludges was significantly lower at the end of the experiment than at the beginning. The species of the plants grown on the soils also had a significant effect on their phytotoxicity. The greatest reduction of toxicity was observed in the soil on which no plants were grown (sandy soil) and in the soil under a culture of willow (loamy soil). Solid phase of sewage sludge-amended soils was characterised by higher toxicity than their extracts. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11270-012-1248-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:23002312

  12. Anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge and glycerol, focusing on process kinetics, microbial dynamics and sludge dewaterability.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P D; Astals, S; Lu, Y; Devadas, M; Batstone, D J

    2014-12-15

    Anaerobic codigestion (AcoD) is a proven option to significantly boost biogas production while utilizing existing digesters and infrastructure. The aim of the present research was to conduct an exhaustive study regarding anaerobic codigestion of mixed sewage sludge and crude glycerol considering impacts on organic load, hydraulic load, process performance and microbial community. The methane potential of crude glycerol varied from 370 mL CH4g(-1) VS to 483 mL CH4g(-1) VS for different samples tested. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of crude glycerol was 1.01 g VS L(-1), and the primary mechanism of inhibition was through overload from rapid fermentation rather than the presence of toxic compounds in the crude glycerol. In continuous operation over 200 days, feeding glycerol at up to 2% v/v, increased organic load by up to 70% and resulted in a 50% increase in methane production. Glycerol dosing resulted in no change in apparent dewaterability, with both codigestion and control reactors returning values of 22%-24%. Members of the phylum Thermotogae emerged as a niche population during AcoD of sewage sludge and glycerol; however there was no gross change in microbial community structure and only minimal changes in diversity. AcoD did not result in synergisms between sewage sludge and crude glycerol. Actually, at dose rate up to 2% v/v glycerol dosing is still an effective strategy to increase the organic loading rate of continuous anaerobic digesters with minimal impact of the hydraulic retention time. Nonetheless, the dose rate must be managed to: (i) prevent process inhibition and (ii) ensure sufficient degradation time to produce a stable biosolids product. PMID:25459224

  13. Occurrence of multiclass UV filters in treated sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Daz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barcel, Dami

    2011-08-01

    Many substances related to human activities end up in wastewater and accumulate in sewage sludge. So far, there is only one extensive survey on the occurrence of UV filter residues in sewage sludge. However, more data are required to draw a reliable picture of the fate and effects of these compounds in the environment. This study attempts to fill this gap through the determination of selected UV filters and derivatives namely 4-methylbenzylidenecamphor, benzophenone-3, octocrylene, ethylhexylmethoxycinnamate, ethylhexyldimethyl PABA, 4-hydroxybenzophenone, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, and 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone in treated sewage sludge. The target compounds were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction and after this, determined by ultra high resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The determination was fast and sensitive, affording limits of detection lower than 19 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) except for 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (60 ng g(-1) dw). Good recovery rates, especially given the high complexity of sludge matrix (between 70% and 102% except for 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (30%)) were achieved. The application of developed method allowed reporting for the first time the occurrence of two major degradation products of benzophenone-3 that have estrogenic activity in sewage sludge: 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone (in 5/15 WWTPs) and 4-hydroxybenzophenone (in 1/15 WWTPs). Results revealed the presence of UV filters in 15 wastewater treatment plants in Catalonia (Spain) at concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 9.17 ?g g(-1) dw. PMID:21530995

  14. Sewage sludge fertiliser use: implications for soil and plant copper evolution in forest and agronomic soils.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro-Domnguez, Nuria; Rigueiro-Rodrguez, Antonio; Mosquera-Losada, M Rosa

    2012-05-01

    Fertilisation with sewage sludge may lead to crop toxicity and environmental degradation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two types of soils (forest and agronomic), two types of vegetation (unsown (coming from soil seed bank) and sown), and two types of fertilisation (sludge fertilisation and mineral fertilisation, with a no fertiliser control) in afforested and treeless swards and in sown and unsown forestlands on the total and available Cu concentration in soil, the leaching of this element and the Cu levels in plant. The experimental design was completely randomised with nine treatments and three replicates. Fertilisation with sewage sludge increased the concentration of Cu in soil and plant, but the soil values never exceeded the maximum set by Spanish regulations. Sewage sludge inputs increased both the total and Mehlich 3 Cu concentrations in agronomic soils and the Cu levels in plant developed in agronomic and forest soils, with this effect pronounced in the unsown swards of forest soils. Therefore, the use of high quality sewage sludge as fertiliser may improve the global productivity of forest, agronomic and silvopastoral systems without creating environmental hazards. PMID:22425275

  15. Occurrence of ultrasonic cavitation in sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielewicz-Madej, E.; Sorys, P.

    2006-11-01

    The study revealed considerable differences in the susceptibility of the sludge to preliminary treatment by two kind of mixing and expressed as changes in the initial properties of the sludge and thus conditions for the occurrence of ultrasonic disintegration in particular sludge from wastewater treatment plants G, K andZ. The susceptibility of sludge to ultrasounds which depends on the sludge properties was explained by the higher COD of dissolved matter after ultrasonic disintegration of sludge.

  16. The production, use and quality of sewage sludge in Denmark

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, John [National Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 314, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark)]. E-mail: john.jensen@dmu.dk; Jepsen, Svend-Erik [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Strandgade 29, DK-1401 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    In Denmark, the production of municipal sewage sludge decreased from approximately 170,000 ton d.m. in 1994 to 140,000 ton d.m. in 2002. The sludge is handled and treated in a number of ways. The quality of Danish sludge has steadily improved since the middle of the 1980s, when the first set of quality criteria for heavy metals was introduced. In 1997, cut-off criteria for the organic pollutants, LAS, DEHP, nonylphenol and PAHs were introduced. Effective control from authorities, voluntary phasing out agreements with industry, improved source identification tools, better handling and after-care methods have in combination with higher waste duties led to a significant reduction in the sludge level of especially cadmium, mercury, chromium, LAS and nonylphenol. The increased quality demand has, nevertheless, also led to a minor reduction in the use of sewage sludge as organic fertiliser on agricultural land.

  17. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate. PMID:23777667

  18. Effect of Alkaline Fly Ash on Heavy Metal Speciation in Stabilized Sewage Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongling Zhang; Lina Sun; Guofeng Ma

    2011-01-01

    Mixing sewage sludge with coal fly ash could reduce the mobility of heavy metals in stabilized sewage sludge. In order to access the mobility and bioavailability of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni) in stabilized sewage sludge, five-step sequential extraction method was performed according to the modified Tessier method. The results showed that application of coal fly ash to

  19. Physical and chemical properties study of the activated carbon made from sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoge Chen; S Jeyaseelan; N Graham

    2002-01-01

    Preparation of activated carbon from sewage sludge is a promising way to produce a useful adsorbent for pollutants removal as well as to dispose of sewage sludge. The objective of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical properties of the activated carbon made from sewage sludge so as to give a basic understanding of its structure. The activated

  20. 40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from...SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability...Delegation of Authority 60.4780 What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt...

  1. Further insights into the activation process of sewage sludge-based precursors by alkaline hydroxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Angeles Lillo-Rdenas; Anna Ros; Enrique Fuente; Miguel A. Montes-Morn; Mara J. Martin; Angel Linares-Solano

    2008-01-01

    The present work extends previous activation results obtained with a sewage sludge to others and deepens into the study and characterisation of sewage sludge-based sorbents prepared by alkaline hydroxide activation. Results obtained show that different sewage sludges, whose compositions and treatments vary from each other, can be successfully activated by KOH. A wide range of porosities are achieved, being remarkable

  2. Useful Ingredients Recovery from Sewage Sludge by using Hydrothermal Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Moriyama, Mika; Yamasaki, Yuki; Takahashi, Yui; Inoue, Chihiro

    2006-05-01

    Hydrothermal treatment of sludge from a sewage treatment plant was conducted to obtain useful ingredients for culture of specific microbes which can reduce polysulfide ion into sulfide ion and/or hydrogen sulfide. Several additives such as acid, base, and oxidizer were added to the hydrothermal reaction of excess sludge to promote the production of useful materials. After hydrothermal treatment, reaction solution and precipitation were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and estimated the availability as nutrition in cultural medium. From the results of product analysis, most of organic solid in sewage was basically decomposed by hydrothermal hydrolysis and transformed into oily or water-soluble compounds. Bacterial culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) showed the good results in multiplication with medium which was obtained from hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge with magnesium or calcium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide.

  3. Bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ye-Ming; Lin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Qing-Ping; Chen, Zu-Liang

    2010-11-01

    Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was isolated from sewage sludge using the incubation in the Waksman liquor medium and the inoculation in Waksman solid plate. It was found that the optimum conditions of the bioleaching included solid concentration 2%, sulfur concentration 5 g?L-1 and cell concentration 10%. The removal efficiency of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zh in sewage sludge, which was obtained from waste treatment plant, Jinshan, Fuzhou, was 43.65%, 96.24%, 41.61% and 96.50% in the period of 410 days under the optimum conditions, respectively. After processing using the proposed techniques, the heavy metals in sewage sludge did meet the requirement the standards of nation.

  4. Behavior of PAHs from sewage sludge incinerators in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Min; Lee, Sang Bo; Kim, Jin Pil; Kim, Min Jung; Kwon, Oh Sang; Jung, Dong Il

    2009-02-01

    Although production of sewage sludge increases every year, its proper treatment has only been recently raised as a new issue, as current landfill and ocean dumping arrangements are expected to become increasingly difficult to manage in the future. The Korean Ministry of Environment plans to diversify its processing facilities and expand its processing systems by 2011, with the purpose of processing all sludge produced in Korea. According to this plan, incineration (including incineration of municipal wastes) will process 30% of the entire sewage sludge throughout the country in 2011. This study reviews the characteristics of PAH, which is one of the organic substances found in sewage sludge during the incinerating process. The total amount of PAH produced from sewage sludge incineration was found to be 6.103 mg/kg on average, and investigation performed on 16 PAHs of inlets and outlets of the air control devices at five full-scale incineration facilities showed that concentrations of the PAHs on the inlet and on the outlet ranged from 3.926 to 925.748 microg/m(3) and from 1.153 to 189.449 microg/m(3), respectively. In the case of the incineration facility fed with municipal waste (95%) and sewage sludge (5%), the total of the PAH emissions concentration was higher than that found at the incineration facilities used exclusively to treat sewage. The combustion of waste vinyl and plastics contained in municipal waste fed into the facility might contribute to the high levels of PAHs in the stack gas. However more investigation is needed on the production mechanism of PAHs at different operating conditions of the incineration facilities, such as the types of waste, and other relevant factors. PMID:18951779

  5. Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, Milivoj

    1954-01-01

    The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary. Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds. More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation. PMID:13160760

  6. Residual perfluorochemicals in the biochar from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyo; Ok, Yong Sik; Choi, Geun-Hyoung; Park, Byung-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Biochar has been recently considered as a candidate for soil amendment and soil remediation. Some pollutants have been screened in the biochar for safety purposes except for perfluorochemicals (PFCs). In this study, the contamination of biochars from plant residues and sewage sludge with perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was examined. The total residual concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in the sludge biochar were 15.8-16.9ng/g and these values did not decrease significantly after pyrolysis. On the other hand, these PFCs were not found in the biochar from plant sources. In conclusion, the use of the sludge biochar in the agricultural environment should be re-evaluated, since the concentrations of PFCs in the sewage sludge showed no significant decrease after thermal process. PMID:25989522

  7. Electrodialytic treatment for metal removal from sewage sludge ash from fluidized bed combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Pazos; G. M. Kirkelund; L. M. Ottosen

    2010-01-01

    Sewage sludge contains several potentially hazardous compounds such as heavy metals, PCBs, PAHs, etc. However, elements with high agricultural value (P, K or Ca) are also present. During the last years, the fluidized bed sludge combustor (FBSC) is considered an effective and novel alternative to treat sewage sludge. By its use, the high amount of sludge is reduced to a

  8. 68 FR 75531 - Standards for the Use or Disposal of Sewage Sludge; Final Agency Response to the National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-12-31

    ...new sewage sludge treatment...methods for analysis of sewage sludge matrices...sewage sludge samples, calling...limited data are available...incineration pathway analysis (USEPA 2003c...in sewage sludge) for the...source of data for use in...waterbody (a pond) and...

  9. Effect of Ultrasound on Dewaterability of Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Uk; Kim, Byoung-Il

    2003-09-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of ultrasound on the dewaterability of sewage sludge. The investigation involves laboratory experiments, which were conducted under a broad range of conditions, including energy levels of ultrasonic waves, treatment time, and pH. Results of the study show that ultrasound enhances dewaterability significantly. The degree of enhancement varies with sonication energy, treatment time, and the amount of treated sludge.

  10. Glazed Tiles Manufactured from Incinerated Sewage Sludge Ash and Clay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deng-Fong Lin; Huan-Lin Luo; Yeong-Nain Sheen

    2005-01-01

    Sewage sludge incineration is applied extensively in highly populated cities as a final sludge treatment. In this study, incinerated ash was utilized as an additive to clay to manufacture glaze tiles. Four different amounts of ash (0, 15, 30, and 45%) were added, and five glaze concentrations (0.03, 0.06, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 g\\/cm) were applied on the surface of

  11. Sewage sludge treatment using microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gui Q. Yin; Ping H. Liao; Kwang V. Lo

    2008-01-01

    A microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process using hydrogen peroxide (MW\\/H2O2-AOP) was used for the release of nutrients and the destruction of solids from secondary municipal sewage sludge in this study. Using a computer statistical software package for designing experiments and for data analyses, four factors including microwave heating temperature, heating time, hydrogen peroxide dosage, and sludge solids content were examined. Experiments

  12. Disinfection of Sewage Sludge Using Microwave Enhanced Advanced Oxidation Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Yu; K. V. Lo; P. H. Liao

    2009-01-01

    The microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW\\/H2O2-AOP) was used to treat municipal sewage sludge for pathogen destruction. Two levels of microwave heating temperatures of 55degC and 70degC, and six levels of hydrogen peroxide dosages (0% to 0.1%) were used. Fecal coliform concentrations were found below detection limit (1000 CFU\\/L) immediately after treatment when sludge was treated at 70degC with more

  13. Impact of food industrial waste on anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and pig manure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Murto; L Bjrnsson; B Mattiasson

    2004-01-01

    The performance of an anaerobic digestion process is much dependent on the type and the composition of the material to be digested. The effects on the degradation process of co-digesting different types of waste were examined in two laboratory-scale studies. In the first investigation, sewage sludge was co-digested with industrial waste from potato processing. The co-digestion resulted in a low

  14. The toxicity to plants of the sewage sludges containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Jo?ko, Izabela; Xing, Baoshan

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of sewage sludges containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with an outer diameter <10 nm (CNT10) or 40-60 nm (CNT60) to Lepidium sativum (cress), Sorghum saccharatum (sorgo), Solanum lycopersicon (tomato), Raphanus sativus (radish) and Cucumis sativus (cucumber). CNTs were also incubated in sewage sludge for 7 or 31 days to determine the effect of CNT aging on sewage sludge phytotoxicity. The influence of CNTs on 4 different sewage sludges was tested. The CNTs' influence on sludge toxicity varied with respect to the CNTs' outer diameter, type of sewage sludges and the plants tested. No significant influence of CNT concentration on phytotoxicity was noted. In the case of two sludges, a positive influence of CNTs on seed germination and root growth was observed. Depending on the CNTs' outer diameter, CNT aging decreased (CNT10) or increased (CNT60) sewage sludge phytotoxicity. PMID:21145166

  15. Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ashes for phosphorus recovery.

    PubMed

    Adam, C; Peplinski, B; Michaelis, M; Kley, G; Simon, F-G

    2009-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for all living organisms and cannot be replaced. Municipal sewage sludge is a carrier of phosphorus, but also contains organic pollutants and heavy metals. A two-step thermal treatment is suggested, including mono-incineration of sewage sludge and subsequent thermochemical treatment of the ashes. Organic pollutants are completely destroyed by mono-incineration. The resulting sewage sludge ashes contain P, but also heavy metals. P in the ashes exhibits low bioavailability, a disadvantage in farming. Therefore, in a second thermochemical step, P is transferred into mineral phases available for plants, and heavy metals are removed as well. The thermochemical treatment was investigated in a laboratory-scale rotary furnace by treating seven different sewage sludge ashes under systematic variation of operational parameters. Heavy metal removal and the increase of the P-bioavailability were the focus of the investigation. The present experimental study shows that these objectives have been achieved with the proposed process. The P-bioavailability was significantly increased due to the formation of new mineral phases such as chlorapatite, farringtonite and stanfieldite during thermochemical treatment. PMID:19036571

  16. EFFECTS OF USING SEWAGE SLUDGE ON AGRICULTURAL AND DISTURBED LANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accumulative effects of annual use of sewage sludge on composition of soils, plants, water, and animals that consume the plants is presented. Plant yields were increased and no evidence of phototoxicity from trace elements was observed. Phosphorus toxicity in soybeans develop...

  17. PRODUCTION OF NON-FOOD-CHAIN CROPS WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Feasibility and market potential were determined for non-food-chain crops cultivated using sewage sludge. Non-food-chain crops that are currently being sold on the open market or that have a good potential for marketability were selected. From a list of 20 crops, 3 were selected ...

  18. Properties, microstructure and leaching of sintered sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R Cheeseman; C. J Sollars; S McEntee

    2003-01-01

    Sewage sludge incinerator ash has been compacted and fired at different temperatures to produce a range of sintered ceramic materials. The effects of sintering temperature and pressing pressure on density, water adsorption and shrinkage have been determined and the microstructure of material sintered at 1040C for 1h characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy. Sintering produces potentially useful

  19. The thermal conductivity mechanism of sewage sludge ash lightweight materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuen-Sheng Wang; Chung-Jen Tseng; Ing-Jia Chiou; Min-Hua Shih

    2005-01-01

    The foaming reactions and the hydration and Pozzolanic effects of processed sewage sludge ash (SSA) allow it to be used as the main ingredient to make lightweight materials. The thermal conductivity of the SSA lightweight materials (SSALM), the SSA properties and how the mixing ratio of the materials influences the heat insulation properties are investigated. The results show that the

  20. SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION AT NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a report on the sewage sludge incineration fuel reduction program at the Nashville-Davidson County Metropolitan Government wastewater treatment plant in Nashville, Tennessee. Fuel usage was reduced over 40 percent by reprogramming the methods used for operating the incine...

  1. HELMINTH AND HEAVY METALS TRANSMISSION FROM ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses a study designed to determine the practical survival and transmission of the ova of the nematode worm Ascaris sp. through a modern sewage and sludge treatment process. Four large experiments and three smaller ones involving 178 specific pathogen free (SPF) p...

  2. PATHOGEN RISKS FROM APPLYING SEWAGE SLUDGE TO LAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Congress banned ocean dumping of municipal wastes in the late 1980s. In its place, EPA developed guidance (40 CFR Part 503) for land application of processed sewage sludge (biosolids), mainly for agricultural purposes (1). Public health and environmental concerns with processed...

  3. Use of Sewage Sludge Ash as Brick Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deng-Fong Lin; Chih-Huang Weng

    2001-01-01

    Brick manufactured from incinerated sewage sludge ash and clay is investigated. The results of Atterberg limits tests of molded ash-clay mixtures indicated that both plastic index and dry shrinkage decrease with an increasing amount of ash in the mixture. Results of tests indicated that the ash proportion and firing temperature were the two key factors determining the quality of brick.

  4. Evaluation of nitrogen availability in irradiated sewage sludge, sludge compost and manure compost

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Guang; Bates, T.E.; Voroney, R.P. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted during 2 yr to determine plant availability of organic N from organic wastes, and effects of gamma irradiation on organic N availability in sewage sludge. The wastes investigated were: digested, dewatered sewage sludge (DSS), irradiated sewage sludge (DISS), irradiated, composted sewage sludge (DICSS), and composted livestock manure (CLM). The annual application rates were: 10, 20, 30, and 40 Mg solids ha{sup {minus}1}. Fertilizer N was added to the control, to which no waste was applied, as well as to the waste applications to ensure approximately equal amounts of available N (110 kg N ha{sup {minus}1}) for all treatments. Lettuce, petunias, and beans were grown in 1990 and two cuts of lettuce were harvested in 1991. Crop yields and plant N concentrations were measured. Assuming that crop N harvested/available N applied would be approximately equal for the control and the waste treatments, the N from organic fraction of the wastes, which is as available as that in fertilizer, was estimated. With petunia in 1990 and the combination of first and second cut of lettuce in 1991, the percentage ranged from 11.2 to 29.7 in nonirradiated sludge, 10.1 to 14.0 in irradiated sludge, 10.5 to 32.1 in sludge compost and 10.0 to 19.7 in manure compost. Most often, the highest values were obtained with the lowest application rates. Yields of petunia and N concentrations in second cut lettuce in 1991 were lower with irradiated sludge than with nonirradiated sludge suggest that the availability of organic N in digested sludge may have been reduced after irradiation. Irradiation of sludge appears to have released NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. The availability of organic N, however, appears to have been reduced by irradiation by greater amount than the increase in NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. 41 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Direct thermochemical conversion of sewage sludge to fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    Molton, P.M.; Fassbender, A.G.; Brown, M.D.

    1985-08-01

    A disposal method for primary sewage sludge and industrial sludges which generates boiler fuel as a product and is energy self-sufficient or energy-generating is described. The method involves direct liquefaction in a mild aqueous alkali above 250 C and was demonstrated for about 100 hours in a reactor having a 50 pound per hour capacity. The boiler fuels recovered from the process were in the form of a water-insoluble oil, char, and gas and contained up to 73% of the energy from the input sludge. Analytical results show that most of the heavy metals from the sludge are concentrated in the char and remain in the ash residue when the char is burned. Burning the oil and char as fuel will generate gaseous pollutants from sulfur and nitrogen in the sludge which could be a problem in commercial versions of the process.

  6. Influence of sewage sludge addition on coal ash fusion temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    M. Belen Folgueras; R. Maria Diaz; Jorge Xiberta; M. Purificacion Garcia; J. Juan Pis [University of Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain). Department of Energy and Department of Materials Science

    2005-12-01

    The ash fusion characteristics of three types of bituminous coal (A, B, and C), one type of sewage sludge (W), and the corresponding coal-sewage sludge blends (10 and 50 wt % of sludge) were studied. The ash fusibility temperatures of samples in oxidizing atmosphere were measured, and their chemical and mineralogical compositions were determined. The addition of sludge to coal in certain proportions produces blends whose ashes have lower fusibility temperatures than those of coal and sludge. This is related to the differences in chemical composition and modes of elemental combination in both types of materials. The main differences are associated to the elements P, Fe, and Ca. As the sludge is much richer in Ca than the coals, the compositions of the blend ashes pass through low-temperature eutectic regions of the ternary phase diagrams SiO{sub 2}-CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}-CaO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. As a result, for the sludge-coal blend ashes series (one for each coal), the relationships between ash fusibility temperatures and the percentage of sludge ash in blend ashes fit to second-order polynomial functions. The minima of these functions, as well as some sludge-coal blend ashes, are located in the above-mentioned low fusion regions. Differing from coal ashes, in the sludge and 50 wt % blend ashes, the minerals calcium ferrite, larnite, and chloroapatite were found. 17 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of sewage sludge and slow pyrolyzed sewage sludge-derived biochar for adsorption of phenanthrene and pyrene.

    PubMed

    Zieli?ska, Anna; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated the sorption of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) by sewage sludges and sewage sludge-derived biochars. The organic carbon normalized distribution coefficient (logKOC for Cw=0.01 Sw) for the sewage sludges ranged from 5.62Lkg(-1) to 5.64Lkg(-1) for PHE and from 5.72Lkg(-1) to 5.75Lkg(-1) for PYR. The conversion of sewage sludges into biochar significantly increased their sorption capacity. The value of logKOC for the biochars ranged from 5.54Lkg(-1) to 6.23Lkg(-1) for PHE and from 5.95Lkg(-1) to 6.52Lkg(-1) for PYR depending on temperature of pyrolysis. The dominant process was monolayer adsorption in the micropores and/or multilayer surface adsorption (in the mesopores), which was indicated by the significant correlations between logKOC and surface properties of biochars. PYR was sorbed better on the tested materials than PHE. PMID:26093256

  8. FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. The energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. These...

  9. FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. he energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. hese f...

  10. Basic Study of Concrete Made Using Ash Derived from the Incinerating Sewage Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobutaka Sasaoka; Katsunori Yokoi; Takashi Yamanaka

    2006-01-01

    Sewage sludge incinerated ash is discharged as waste. Those are increasing with progress of a sewage enterprise every year. However, the reservation of the last disposal place for reclaiming the generated incineration ash is becoming quickly difficult. In this situation of sewage sludge processing, it is very important to promote more reducing and development of new reusing method. Recently, in

  11. Physicochemical characteristics of full scale sewage sludges with implications to dewatering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lene Haugaard Mikkelsen; Kristian Keiding

    2002-01-01

    An investigation was carried out for a variety of different sewage sludges in order to establish correlations between sludge composition, structure and dewatering properties. Results indicated that the fraction of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in sludges was the most important parameter with respect to sludge structure. With high EPS contents, sludges had a lower shear sensitivity and lower degree of

  12. Inactivation of bacteria in sewage sludge by gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Pandya, G A; Kapila, S; Kelkar, V B; Negi, S; Modi, V V

    1987-01-01

    The survival of certain bacterial cultures suspended in sewage sludge and exposed to gamma-radiation was studied. The inactivation patterns of most of the organisms were significantly different when irradiation was performed using sewage samples collected in the summer and monsoon seasons. The summer sample collected from the anaerobic digestor afforded significant protection to both Gram negative and Gram positive organisms. This was evident by the increase in dose required to bring about a 6 log cycle reduction in viable count of the bacterial cultures, when suspended in sewage samples instead of phosphate buffer. The observations made using monsoon digestor samples were quite different. This sewage sludge greatly enhanced inactivation by gamma-radiation in most cases. The effects of certain chemicals on the inactivation patterns of two organisms-Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexneri-were examined. Arsenate, mercury and lead salts sensitised S. typhi, while barium acetate and sodium sulphide protected this culture against gamma-radiation. In the case of Sh. flexneri, barium acetate and iodacetamide proved to be radioprotectors. The effects of some chemicals on the inactivation pattern of Sh. flexneri cells irradiated in sludge are also discussed. PMID:15092791

  13. Multielement analysis of municipal sewage sludge ashes: absorption of elements by cabbage grown in sludge ash-soil mixture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Keith Furr; Thomas F. Parkinson; Timothy Wachs; Carl A. Bache; Walter H. Gutenmann; Patricia C. Wszolek; Irene S. Pakkala; Donald J. Lisk

    1979-01-01

    The uptake of heavy metals and PCB's by cabbage grown on land treated with municipal sewage sludge was studied. Incineration of sludge before application to land eliminated most of the cadmium, mercury, nitrogen, and selenium concentrations; PCB's were not found in sludge ash samples. Though nickel and zinc concentrations in sludge ash were high, uptake of the two elements by

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentration changes in sewage sludge and organic municipal waste mixtures during composting and anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Siebielska, Izabela; Side?ko, Robert

    2015-05-01

    We determined the changes in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in a mixture of sewage sludge and the organic fraction of municipal waste during composting and during anaerobic digestion. The processes were carried out on a laboratory scale. The PCBs were analyzed in the waste samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We evaluated the rates at which the PCB concentrations decreased during composting and during anaerobic digestion and compared the PCB degradation kinetics during these processes. The most important conclusion of this work is that anaerobic digestion is much more effective than composting at removing PCBs from a mixture of sewage sludge and the organic fraction of municipal waste. PMID:25618191

  15. Fate of conjugated natural and synthetic steroid estrogens in crude sewage and activated sludge batch studies.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Rachel L; Scrimshaw, Mark D; Lester, John N

    2009-05-15

    Steroids are excreted from the human body in the conjugated form but are present in sewage influent and effluent as the free steroid, the major source of estrogenic activity observed in water courses. The fate of sulfate and glucuronide conjugated steroid estrogens was investigated in batch studies using activated sludge grown on synthetic sewage in a laboratory-scale Husmann simulation and crude sewage from the field. A clear distinction between the fate of sulfate and glucuronide conjugates was observed in both matrices, with sulfated conjugates proving more recalcitrant and glucuronide deconjugation preferential in crude sewage. For each conjugate, the free steroid was observed in the biotic samples. The degree of free steroid formation was dependent on the conjugate moiety, favoring the glucuronide. Subsequent degradation of the free steroid (and sorption to the activated sludge solid phase) was evaluated. Deconjugation followed the first order reaction rate with rate constants for 17alpha-ethinylestradiol 3-glucuronide, estriol l6alpha-glucuronide, and estrone 3-glucuronide determined as 0.32, 0.24, and 0.35 h respectively. The activated sludge solid retention time over the range of 3-9 days had 74 to 94% of sulfate conjugates remaining after 8 h. In contrast, a correlation between increasing temperature and decreasing 17alpha-ethinylestradiol 3-glucuronide concentrations in the activated sludge observed no conjugate present in the AS following 8 h at 22 degrees C Based on these batch studies and literature excretion profiles, a hypothesis is presented on which steroids and what form (glucuronide, sulfate, or free) will likely enter the sewage treatment plant. PMID:19544862

  16. MICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN COMPOSTING MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to identify the most important operational parameters which limit the growth and decomposition activity of composting sludge microbiota. Sensitive and nonselective biochemical methods of monitoring microbial biomass and activity were tested and used to stud...

  17. Thermochemical liquidization and anaerobic treatment of dewatered sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeki Sawayama; Seiichi Inoue; Tatsuo Yagishita; Tomoko Ogi; Shin-Ya Yokoyama

    1995-01-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge was thermochemically liquidized at 175C and the liquidized sludge was separated by centrifugation to 57.7% (w\\/w) supernatant [moisture, 92.3%; volatile solid (VS), 7.0%] and 42.3% precipitate (moisture, 71.6%; VS, 18.9%). The supernatant was successfully anaerobically digested. Biogas yield from the supernatant at organic loading concentrations of 1.92.2 g VS\\/l during 9 days' incubation was 440 ml\\/g-added VS

  18. Effect of the addition of rice straw on microbial community in a sewage sludge digester.

    PubMed

    Nakakihara, E; Ikemoto-Yamamoto, R; Honda, R; Ohtsuki, S; Takano, M; Suetsugu, Y; Watanabe, H

    2014-01-01

    Rice straw was added to a sewage sludge digester and its effects on methane production, dewatering characteristics, and microbial communities in the digested sludge were examined by a continuous digestion experiment under mesophilic conditions (35 C). Stable gas generation was monitored in all digestion experiments. Methane yield from raw sludge, chopped rice straw and softened rice straw were estimated to be 0.27, 0.18 and 0.26 NL/g total solids load, respectively. The capillary suction time of digested sludge was decreased by the addition of rice straw. Archaeal and bacterial communities in the sludge were elucidated by PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction--denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) targeting 16S rRNA genes. The Shannon index of DGGE profiles indicated that bacterial diversity increased with the addition of softened rice straw. DNA sequences of significant bands of the digested sludge were most closely related to Methanosaeta concilii (97.4% identity) and Methanoculleus bourgensis (100% identity). Meanwhile, those in the co-digested sludge with rice straw were most closely related to Methanosarcina barkeri (98.4% identity) and Methanoculleus bourgensis (99.3% identity). Although both Methanosaeta spp. and Methanosarcina spp. metabolize acetate to methane, Methanosarcina spp. have a competitive advantage at acetate concentrations of >70 mg/L. Results suggested that the quantity of acetate produced during rice straw degradation may change the archaeal community. PMID:25225928

  19. Utilization of stabilized and solidified sewage sludge as a daily landfill cover material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ha Ik Chung; Yong Soo Lee

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of stabilized and solidified sewage sludge for use as a daily landfill cover material, unconfined\\u000a compressive strength, CBR (California Bearing Ratio), hydraulic conductivity, rainfall drainage ability, and erosion resistance\\u000a were examined. In addition, material segregation of the solidified sewage sludge was investigated. The experiment results\\u000a showed that the solidified sewage sludge material had enough equipment transportability.

  20. Foam control in biopesticide production from sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A S Vidyarthi; M Desrosiers; R D Tyagi; J R Valro

    2000-01-01

    Several antifoam agents were evaluated for the ability to control foam in the production of Bacillus thuringiensis-based biopesticides using sewage sludge as a raw material. Experiments were conducted in shake flasks as well as in 15 l\\u000a fermentors with controlled parameters. Polypropylene glycol (PPG), the most commonly used antifoam agent in B. thuringiensis fermentation, inhibited cell growth, sporulation and decreased

  1. Heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash analyzed by thermogravimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Vogel; Christian Adam; Miriam Unger

    2011-01-01

    A high temperature (1000C) thermochemical process for heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash via the chloride pathway\\u000a was investigated by thermogravimetry\\/differential thermal analysis (TG\\/DTA). TG and DTA measurements gave information about\\u000a secession and evaporation of water, HCl, and heavy metal chlorides at different temperatures. Additionally, gaseous water\\u000a and hydrochloric acid which occurred in the process were detected by an

  2. Restoration of acidic mine spoils with sewage sludge: I revegetation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Stucky; J. H. Bauer; T. C. Lindsey

    1980-01-01

    An average of 685 dry metric ton\\/ha of sewage sludge containing a mean of 167, 829, 970, 448, 83, 610, and 4,819 kg\\/ha of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively, was incorporated into acidic strip mine spoils at the Palzo tract in southern Illinois. In April 1976, 16 combinations of forages were planted on seven field sites

  3. Analysis of selected emerging contaminants in sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Barcel; M. J. Garca-Galn; P. Guerra; A. Jelic; C. Postigo; E. Eljarrat; M. Farr; M. J. Lpez de Alda; M. Petrovic

    2009-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals, personal-care products, steroid sex hormones, illicit drugs, flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds are considered environmental emerging contaminants of particular concern, as many of them display endocrine-disrupting properties. These substances released as consequence of human activities enter the wastewater network after use in households and industry. Due to their physico-chemical properties, they tend to accumulate in sewage sludge during wastewater

  4. Aerobic biodegradation of selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in wastewater sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Stiborova, Hana; Vrkoslavova, Jana; Lovecka, Petra; Pulkrabova, Jana; Hradkova, Petra; Hajslova, Jana; Demnerova, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    Due to widespread accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in our surroundings, it is important to clarify their fate in the environment and the options of their elimination. The aim of this study was to monitor the biodegradation of the most frequent congeners (BDE 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209) under aerobic condition by indigenous microflora in 2 industrially contaminated sewage sludge samples. BDE 209 was detected as the predominating congener in concentrations 685 ng/g and 1403 ng/g dry weight in sewage sludge from WWTPs (waste water treatment plants) Hradec Kralove and Brno, respectively. The total amount of 10 lower PBDEs was 605 and 205 ng/g dry weight, respectively. The aerobic degradation was significantly enhanced by the addition of yeast extract and 4-bromobiphenyl. The total concentrations of all 11 PBDE congeners were lowered and their elimination was detected reaching 6278% of their initial amounts after 11 months of cultivation. The degradation of most abundant congener BDE 209 followed the first-order kinetics with constant detected between 2.77 10(?3) d(?1) and 3.79 10?(3)d(?1) and the half-lives of BDE 209 degradation ranged between 6.0 and 8.2 months. This work clearly demonstrates that both lower brominated PBDEs as well as the major representative BDE 209 could be successfully removed from municipally contaminated sludge under aerobic conditions. PMID:25463256

  5. THERMAL TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The thermal conditioning research program was conducted as part of an overall long-term sludge management study for the Los Angeles and Orange County metropolitan areas. The major goal of this portion of the study was to investigate the advantages of thermal conditioning of prima...

  6. DEWATERING MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGES SELECTING A PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using information and data obtained for an update of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's guidance document on dewatering municipal wastewater sludges, a sequential review is made of key considerations in selecting an optimum process. Included in the discussion are the prin...

  7. Utilization and Conversion of Sewage Sludge as Metal Sorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xu Dong; Li, Loretta Y.

    2013-04-01

    Most biosolids are disposed on land. With improvements in wastewater treatment processes and upgrading of treatment plants across Canada, biosolids generation will increase dramatically. These biosolids will need to be dealt with because they contain various contaminants, including heavy metals and several classes of emerging contaminants. A number of researchers have recently focused on preparation of sewage sludge-based adsorbents by carbonation, physical activation and chemical activation for decontamination of air and wastewater. These previous studies have indicated that sludge-based activated carbon can have good adsorption performance for organic substances in dye wastewater. The overall results suggest that activated carbon from sewage sludge can produce a useful adsorbent, while also reducing the amount of sewage sludge to be disposed. However, sludge-derived activated carbon has not been extensively studied, especially for adsorption of heavy metal ions in wastewater and for its capacity to remove emerging contaminants, such as poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs). Previous research has indicated that commercial activated carbons adsorb organic compounds more efficiently than heavy metal ions. 45 Activated carbon can be modified to enhance its adsorption capacity for special heavy metal ions,46 e.g. by addition of inorganic and organic reagents. The modifications which are successful for commercial activated carbon should also be effective for sludge-derived activated carbon, but this needs to be confirmed. Our research focuses on (a) investigation of techniques for converting sewage sludge (SS) to activated carbon (AC) as sorbents; (b) exploration of possible modification of the activated carbon (MAC) to improve its sorption capacity; (c) examination of the chemical stability of the activated carbon and the leachability of contaminants from activated carbon,; (d) comparison of adsorptivity with that of other sorbents. Based on XRD and FT-IR, we successfully converted SS to AC and further modified it to improve absorption. SSMAC has large specific surface areas based on the BET technique. Batch adsorption results indicate that metal adsorption for SSMAC > SSAC, with adsorption occurring within the first 5 minutes of contact. Comparison of the adsorptivity of various sorbents such as commercial activated carbon (CAC), mineral sorbents such as perlite, clinoptilolite and illite indicates that SSMAC CAC clinoptilolite > kaolite.

  8. Impact of treated sewage sludge application on phosphorus release kinetics in some calcareous soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alireza Hosseinpur; Hamed Pashamokhtari

    2008-01-01

    Treated sewage sludge contains significant amount of phosphorus and is widely used in agriculture. Kinetics of P release in\\u000a soils is a subject of importance in soil and environmental sciences. There are few studies about P release kinetics in treated\\u000a sewage sludge amended soils. For this purpose, sludge was mixed with ten soils at a rate equivalent to 100Mg sludgeha?1,

  9. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage and brewery sludge for biogas production and land application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Babel; J. Sae-Tang

    2009-01-01

    In Thailand, sewage sludge production from the Bangkok metropolitan area can reach up to 63,000 ton\\/y by 2010. The Beer-Thai Company, Thailand, produces beer and generates lots of sludge as waste. Sewage sludge and brewery sludge can be used to generate energy which could be saved on the fossil fuels conventionally used as a source of energy. The possibility was

  10. Leachate tests with sewage sludge contaminated by radioactive cesium.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Ikuo; Ogoshi, Masashi; Harada, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The sewer systems of eastern Japan have transported radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to wastewater treatment plants, where the radioisotopes have accumulated. To better understand the potential problems associated with the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills, leachate tests were conducted with radioactive incinerator ash, cement solidification incinerator ash, and dewatered sludge cake. Radioactivity was undetectable in the eluate from incinerator ash and dewatered sludge cake, but about 30% of the radioactivity initially in cement solidification incinerator ash appeared in the eluate during the leaching experiments. Moreover, modification of test conditions revealed that the presence of Ca(2+) ions and strong alkali in the water that contacted the incinerator ash enhanced leaching of cesium. Lastly, the capacity of pit soil to absorb radioactive cesium was estimated to be at least 3.0 Bq/g (dry). PMID:23947711

  11. Transformation Products and Human Metabolites of Triclocarban and Triclosan in Sewage Sludge Across the United States

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Removal of triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) from wastewater is a function of adsorption, abiotic degradation, and microbial mineralization or transformation, reactions that are not currently controlled or optimized in the pollution control infrastructure of standard wastewater treatment. Here, we report on the levels of eight transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in raw and treated sewage sludge. Two sample sets were studied: samples collected once from 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) representing nine states, and multiple samples collected from one WWTP monitored for 12 months. Time-course analysis of significant mass fluxes (? = 0.01) indicate that transformation of TCC (dechlorination) and TCS (methylation) occurred during sewage conveyance and treatment. Strong linear correlations were found between TCC and the human metabolite 2?-hydroxy-TCC (r = 0.84), and between the TCC-dechlorination products dichlorocarbanilide (DCC) and monochlorocarbanilide (r = 0.99). Mass ratios of DCC-to-TCC and of methyl-triclosan (MeTCS)-to-TCS, serving as indicators of transformation activity, revealed that transformation was widespread under different treatment regimes across the WWTPs sampled, though the degree of transformation varied significantly among study sites (? = 0.01). The analysis of sludge sampled before and after different unit operation steps (i.e., anaerobic digestion, sludge heat treatment, and sludge drying) yielded insights into the extent and location of TCC and TCS transformation. Results showed anaerobic digestion to be important for MeTCS transformation (3774%), whereas its contribution to partial TCC dechlorination was limited (0.42.1%). This longitudinal and nationwide survey is the first to report the occurrence of transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in sewage sludge. PMID:24932693

  12. Transformation products and human metabolites of triclocarban and triclosan in sewage sludge across the United States.

    PubMed

    Pycke, Benny F G; Roll, Isaac B; Brownawell, Bruce J; Kinney, Chad A; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Halden, Rolf U

    2014-07-15

    Removal of triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) from wastewater is a function of adsorption, abiotic degradation, and microbial mineralization or transformation, reactions that are not currently controlled or optimized in the pollution control infrastructure of standard wastewater treatment. Here, we report on the levels of eight transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in raw and treated sewage sludge. Two sample sets were studied: samples collected once from 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) representing nine states, and multiple samples collected from one WWTP monitored for 12 months. Time-course analysis of significant mass fluxes (?=0.01) indicate that transformation of TCC (dechlorination) and TCS (methylation) occurred during sewage conveyance and treatment. Strong linear correlations were found between TCC and the human metabolite 2'-hydroxy-TCC (r=0.84), and between the TCC-dechlorination products dichlorocarbanilide (DCC) and monochlorocarbanilide (r=0.99). Mass ratios of DCC-to-TCC and of methyl-triclosan (MeTCS)-to-TCS, serving as indicators of transformation activity, revealed that transformation was widespread under different treatment regimes across the WWTPs sampled, though the degree of transformation varied significantly among study sites (?=0.01). The analysis of sludge sampled before and after different unit operation steps (i.e., anaerobic digestion, sludge heat treatment, and sludge drying) yielded insights into the extent and location of TCC and TCS transformation. Results showed anaerobic digestion to be important for MeTCS transformation (37-74%), whereas its contribution to partial TCC dechlorination was limited (0.4-2.1%). This longitudinal and nationwide survey is the first to report the occurrence of transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in sewage sludge. PMID:24932693

  13. [Improvement of disintegration and anaerobic digestion for sewage sludge with ultrasonic generator].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Qun-Fang; Chen, Mao-Zhe; Du, Xue-Juan

    2008-10-01

    Ultrasonic generating trough was applied to study the impact of ultrasonic on conditioning of sewage sludge. There are few ultrasonic generators for sludge treatment specifically, so we designed a double-frequency ultrasonic generating trough which could adjust frequency, energy density and treating time flexibly. In the research characteristics of sewage sludge treated by single-frequency and double-frequency ultrasonic were compared. According to the results, the digestion biogas of the sewage sludge treated by ultrasonic increase obviously, and the digestion biogas increment of the sewage sludge treated by single-frequency is 40.93%, higher than that treated by double-frequency. But the SCOD of the sewage sludge treated by double-frequency is 23.5%, more than that treated by single-frequency. PMID:19143377

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Llll of... - Emission Limits and Standards for New Fluidized Bed Sewage Sludge Incineration Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60...Standards for New Fluidized Bed Sewage Sludge Incineration Units For the air...finish. Fugitive emissions from ash handling Visible emissions...

  15. Enhancing anaerobic fermentation of sewage sludge for increasing biogas generation.

    PubMed

    Bien, January B; Malina, Grzegorz; Bien, Jurand D; Wolny, Lidia

    2004-01-01

    The article presents results of biogas generation from sewage sludge after applying two pretreatment methods: sonification and thermal hydrolysis. Original results and literature data of the ultrasonic field influence on biogas generation were compared with literature data concerning effectiveness of the thermal hydrolysis. Sludge pretreatment by the ultrasonic field intensified the biogas production as the amounts of biogas was of ca. 20-24% higher, as compared to the nontreated sludge. The highest generation of biogas was observed after a shorter time. The degree of organic matter reduction was of 45-47%. The content of volatile fatty acids dropped down to 139 mg CH3COOH dm(-3) during 20 days. During the thermal pretreatment of sludge the amounts of generated biogas were ca. 25% higher, as compared to nontreated sludge. The maximum biogas production of 0.92 dm3 was observed in the day 9 of fermentation. To-date results indicate that efficiency of ultrasonic disintegration depends on sonification time, type of heads, as well as power and frequency transmitted to heads. PMID:15137710

  16. Balancing hygienization and anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Astals, S; Venegas, C; Peces, M; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2012-12-01

    The anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge was evaluated in terms of process efficiency and sludge hygienization. Four different scenarios were analyzed, i.e. mesophilic anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a 60 C or by an 80 C hygienization treatment. Digester performance (organic matter removal, process stability and biogas yield) and the hygienization efficiency (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA phages) were the main examined factors. Moreover, a preliminary economical feasibility study of each option was carried out throughout an energy balance (heat and electricity). The obtained results showed that both thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a hygienization step were able to produce an effluent sludge that fulfills the American and the European legislation for land application. However, higher removal efficiencies of indicators were obtained when a hygienization post-treatment was present. Regarding the energy balance, it should be noted that all scenarios have a significant energy surplus. Particularly, positive heat balances will be obtained for the thermophilic anaerobic digestion and for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by 60 C hygienization post-treatment if an additional fresh-sludge/digested sludge heat exchanger is installed for energy recovery. PMID:23063441

  17. Effects of the Basicity on the Comelting Conditions of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Fly Ash and Sewage Sludge Ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kae-Long Lin

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the basicity on the pouring point of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash-sewage sludge ash mixture is investigated. Four kinds of sewage sludge ash, which were collected from several primary and secondary sewage treatment plants and were produced by different processes and sludge conditioning alternatives, were used as modifiers. The results indicate that

  18. Vat dye sorption onto crude dehydrated sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Dhaouadi, H; M'henni, F

    2009-05-30

    In this work, sewage sludge is used as a textile dye adsorbent. A sample of crude dehydrated sewage sludge issued from an urban wastewater treatment plant (high-rate aeration, activated sludge process, Sahline, Tunisia) is utilized for vat dye retention. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the "efficiency" of the crude material on vat dye sorption. However, no treatment to modify any of the adsorbent properties was considered. Although the relatively low specific surface area (about 3.2m(2)g(-1)) compared to more conventional adsorbents, the used material shows very interesting retention capacities when used with water pollutants. The pseudo, first and second order kinetic models have been used to investigate the retention mechanism. When linearized, the pseudo-second order fit, for the both used dyes, in a better way the obtained experimental results than the pseudo-first order kinetic model. For equilibrium dye uptake amount it is found that the used material has a capacity (Langmuir Freundlich monolayer) of 73.1mg/g to fix the VAT RED 10 and 58.7 mg/g to fix the VAT ORANGE 11. PMID:18809247

  19. Phosphate recovery from sewage sludge in combination with supercritical water oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Stendahl; S. Jfverstrm

    Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) is an innovative and effective destruction method for organics in sewage sludge. The SCWO process leaves a slurry of inorganic ash in a pure water phase free from organic contaminants, which opens possibilities for a simple process to recover components like phosphates from the sewage sludge. In a continuous pilot plant for the SCWO process digested

  20. Study of cement-based mortars containing spanish ground sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pay; M. V. Borrachero; A. Bellver; E. Peris-Mora

    1997-01-01

    A study of cement based mortars containing spanish ground sewage sludge ash is presented. The influence of original and ground sewage sludge ash on mortars workability and compressive strength has been studied. An initial decrease of workability is observed when 30% of Portland cement is replaced by original ash. When ash grinding time increases a little increased of workability is

  1. Effect of heating temperature on the sintering characteristics of sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kae-Long Lin; Kung-Yuh Chiang; Deng-Fong Lin

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated and analyzed the effects of the heating temperature on the properties of the sintered sewage sludge ash. The results indicated that the water absorption rate of the sintered sewage sludge ash samples decreased when the firing temperature was increased from 800 to 900C. When the heating temperature reached 1000C, the absorption rate decreased significantly. The bulk density

  2. Sewage sludge incinerator ash effects on soil chemical properties and growth of lettuce and corn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Bierman; Carl J. Rosen

    1994-01-01

    Incineration reduces sewage sludge volume, but management of the resulting ash is an important environmental concern. A laboratory incubation study and greenhouse pot experiments with lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) were conducted to examine the potential for recycling elements in sewage sludge incinerator ash in agricultural systems. Ash rates in both the laboratory and greenhouse were

  3. LONG-TERM USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON AGRICULTURAL AND DISTURBED LANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents results from the last 2 years of a 15-year study of the long term use of sewage sludge on agricultural and disturbed lands. The three field studies discussed here include (1) the response of corn to repeated annual applications of sewage sludge, (2) the diffe...

  4. Investigations into the characteristics of oils produced from microwave pyrolysis of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Domnguez; J. A. Menndez; M. Inguanzo; J. J. Pis

    2005-01-01

    GCMS was used to determine the main components of high temperature oils obtained from the microwave pyrolysis of sewage sludge under different conditions. The effect of a multimode and a singlemode microwave oven and graphite and char as microwave absorbers on the pyrolysis process was investigated. The pyrolysis of sewage sludge was rapid with both absorbers, temperatures of up to

  5. Gasification of sewage sludge and other biomass for hydrogen production in supercritical water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiadong Xu; Michael Jerry Antal

    1998-01-01

    Digested sewage sludge and other biomass such as wood sawdust can be mixed with a corn starch gel to form a viscous paste. The paste can be delivered to a supercritical flow reactor by means of a cement pump. Different types of feedstocks are used in this work sewage sludge (up to 7.69 wt%) mixed in the corn starch paste.

  6. Cadmium in sewage sludge in a Swedish region: sources and reduction opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annica Lindqvist-stblom; Mats Eklund

    2001-01-01

    To create a more sustainable future, one of the Swedish government's aims is to close the eco-cycles between urban consumption areas and arable land. Increasing the use of sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTPs) is one method of achieving this goal. However, the use of sewage sludge is often prohibited due to its high concentrations of cadmium. As

  7. Effects of sewage sludge blending on the coal combustion: a thermogravimetric assessment.

    PubMed

    Otero, M; Gmez, X; Garca, A I; Morn, A

    2007-11-01

    Combustion of urban sewage sludge together with coal in existing infrastructures may be a sustainable management option energetically interesting for these materials, usually considered wastes. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to study the combustion of a semianthracite coal and the modifications undergone when adding a small percentage (2%, 5%, 10%) of sewage sludge. Both Differential Scanning Calorimetric analysis and Differential Thermogravimetry burning profiles showed differences between coal and sewage sludge combustion. However, the effects of adding a percentage of sewage sludge equal or smaller than 10% was hardly noticeable in terms of heat release and weight loss during the coal combustion. This was further proved by non-isothermal kinetic analysis, which was used to evaluate the Arrhenius activation energy corresponding to the co-combustion of the blends. This work shows that thermogravimetric analysis may be used as an easy rapid tool to asses the co-combustion of sewage sludge together with coal. PMID:17624399

  8. [Effects of land utilization of sewage sludge on grass and soils].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Qixing; Chen, Tao; Ge, Yinghua; Tai, Peidong

    2003-03-01

    Effects of land disposal of sewage sludge on grass and soil environment were studied. The sewage sludge used was from Northern Shenyang Wastewater Treatment Plant. The results showed that contents of nutrient in the soil were increased after sewage sludge application, especially for organic matter. Grass biomass were increased and the green period were extended with a better growth of the lawn. The heavy metal contents in the soil were increased with Cd contents beyond 2nd grade national environmental quality standard for soils. However, Pb, Cu, Zn contents not accumulated heavily. Poa annua had better ability of absorbing and accumulating Pb from the sewage sludge. When the application rate of sewage sludge capacity was at 25, 30, 60 t.hm-2, Zoysia japonica expressed significant absorption and accumulation of Cd, Cu, Zn. PMID:12800658

  9. Pathway of radioisotopes from land surface to sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Helmut W.; Yokoo, Yoshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Radioactive surface contaminations will only partially remain at the original location - a fraction of the inventory will take part in (mainly terrestrial and aquatic) environmental transport processes. The probably best known and most important process comprises the food chain. Besides, the translocation of dissolved and particle-bound radioisotopes with surface waters plays an important role. These processes can have the effect of displacing large radioisotope amounts over considerable distances and of creating new sinks and hot spots, as it is already known for sewage sludge. We are reporting on a combined modeling and experimental project concerning the transport of I-131 and Cs-134/Cs-137 FDNPP 2011 depositions in the Fukushima Prefecture. Well-documented experimental data sets are available for surface deposition and sewage sludge concentrations. The goal is to model the pathway in between, involving surface runoff, transport in the sewer system and processes in the sewage treatment plant. Watershed runoff and sewer transport will be treated with models developed recently by us in other projects. For sewage treatment processes a new model is currently being constructed. For comparison and further validation, historical data from Chernobyl depositions and tracer data from natural and artificial, e.g. medical, isotopes will be used. First results for 2011 data from Fukushima Prefecture will be presented. The benefits of the study are expected to be two-fold: on one hand, the abundant recent and historical data will help to develop and improve environmental transport models; on the other hand, both data and models will help in identifying the most critical points in the envisaged transport pathways in terms of radiation protection and waste management.

  10. SEWAGE SLUDGE COMPOST FERTILIZER EFFECT ON MAIZE YIELD AND SOIL HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DELGADO ARROYO; Miguel ngel; PORCEL COTS; Rosario MIRALLES; BELTRN RODRGUEZ; Jos Valero; MARTN SNCHEZ

    2002-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the use of an organic residue (sewage sludge compost) for four years (1996-1999), to study effects of sewage compost on crop yield and chemical proper- ties of soil under field condition. Productivity studies showed that the greatest growth is ob- tained in mixed II treatment (12000 kg\\/ha sewage sludge compost plus 350 kg\\/ha urea) with

  11. Evaluation for Agricultural Usage with Speciation of Heavy Metals in a Municipal Sewage Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    zge Hanay; Halil Hasar; Nilfer Nacar Kocer; Sibel Aslan

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the agricultural usage of an anaerobically digested sludge in the contents and fractions\\u000a of heavy metals. Therefore, a sequential extraction scheme according to the BCRs (Community Bureau of Reference) guidelines\\u000a and total acid digestion were applied to sewage sludge samples. The results of total heavy metal concentrations in sewage\\u000a sludge showed that the

  12. Co-composting of sewage sludge and coal fly ash: nutrient transformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fang; J. W. C. Wong; K. K. Ma; M. H. Wong

    1999-01-01

    Co-composting of sewage sludge with coal fly ash was carried out for evaluating the effect of coal fly ash on nutrient transformations during sludge composting. Dewatered anaerobically-digested sewage sludge was mixed with sawdust used as a bulking agent at 2:1 (w\\/w), and the mixtures were amended with coal fly ash at 0, 10, 25 and 35% (w\\/w) and composted for

  13. Potentially toxic element release by fenton oxidation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J P; Asaadi, M; Clarke, B; Ouki, S

    2006-01-01

    The presence, in sewage sludge, of excess levels of the potentially toxic elements (PTE) copper, zinc, chromium, cadmium, nickel, lead and mercury, could impact on our ability to recycle these residues in the future. Far stricter limits on the levels of PTEs are likely in proposed legislation. A method involving the dosing of Fenton's reagent, a mixture of ferrous iron and hydrogen peroxide, under acidic conditions was evaluated for its potential to reduce metal levels. The [Fe]:[H2O2] (w/w) ratio was found to give a good indication of the percentage copper and zinc elution obtainable. Sites with no iron dosing as part of wastewater treatment required extra iron to be added in order to initiate the Fenton's reaction. A significant reduction, in excess of 70%, of the copper and zinc was eluted from both raw primary and activated sludge solid fractions. Cadmium and nickel could be reduced to below detection limits but elution of mercury, lead and chromium was less than 40%. The iron catalyst concentration was found to be a crucial parameter. This process has the potential to reduce the heavy metal content of the sludge and allow the recycling of sludge to continue in a sustainable manner. PMID:17087386

  14. Sewage sludge drying process integration with a waste-to-energy power plant.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, A; Bonfiglioli, L; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C

    2015-08-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is encountering increasing problems associated with its disposal. Several solutions have been proposed in the last years regarding energy and materials recovery from sewage sludge. Current technological solutions have relevant limits as dewatered sewage sludge is characterized by a high water content (70-75% by weight), even if mechanically treated. A Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) with good thermal characteristics in terms of Lower Heating Value (LHV) can be obtained if dewatered sludge is further processed, for example by a thermal drying stage. Sewage sludge thermal drying is not sustainable if the power is fed by primary energy sources, but can be appealing if waste heat, recovered from other processes, is used. A suitable integration can be realized between a WWTP and a waste-to-energy (WTE) power plant through the recovery of WTE waste heat as energy source for sewage sludge drying. In this paper, the properties of sewage sludge from three different WWTPs are studied. On the basis of the results obtained, a facility for the integration of sewage sludge drying within a WTE power plant is developed. Furthermore, energy and mass balances are set up in order to evaluate the benefits brought by the described integration. PMID:25959614

  15. Heavy metal speciation and phytotoxic effects of three representative sewage sludges for agricultural uses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Walter; F. Martnez; V. Cala

    2006-01-01

    The environmental impact of sewage sludges depends on the availability and phytotoxicity of their heavy metal. The influence of representative sludges (dewatered anaerobic, pelletization, and composted sludge) on the availability of heavy metals, and their effects on seed germination were compared. The total heavy metal concentrations were below the maximum permitted for land-applied waste and the differences among them were

  16. Aeration of anaerobically digested sewage sludge for COD and nitrogen removal: optimization at large-scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Parravicini; K. Svardal; R. Hornek; H. Kroiss

    2008-01-01

    The paper will report about the experiences matured at an Austrian large wastewater treatment plant of 720.000 population equivalents, where anaerobically digested sewage sludge is further stabilised under aerobic conditions. Enhanced stabilisation of the anaerobically digested sludge was required at the plant in order to get a permit for landfill disposal of the dewatered stabilized sludge. By implementing a post-aeration

  17. UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ASH (SSA) AS FINE AGGREGATE WITH LOCAL POZZOLANIC MATERIALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Zeedan; Z. S. El Den-Houssien; A. M. Kandeel

    The disposal of sewage sludge from waste water treatment presents highly complex problems to any municipality, due to increasingly stringent environment regulation and industrial growth that have markedly increased the disposal requirements the incineration only reduces the volume of the sludge and remaining the sludge ash. This study aims to investigate the effect of the substitution of cement and sand

  18. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Sosnowski; A Wieczorek; S Ledakowicz

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation of methane fermentation of sewage sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) as well as the cofermentation of both substrates under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. In the first experiment the primary sludge and thickened excess activated sludge were fed into a 40 dm3 bioreactor operated thermophilically. The second co-fermentation experiment was

  19. Occurrence, growth, and suppression of salmonellae in composted sewage sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, D; Burge, W D; Enkiri, N K

    1985-01-01

    Composted sewage sludge may be used to improve soil quality, but there remains some doubt concerning the microbiological safety of the product. Sewage sludge composts from 30 municipalities were sampled, and four samples (12%) contained salmonellae (two contained fewer than 0.3/g, and the other two had 21/g and 1.7 X 10(4)/g). All 30 composts were inoculated with salmonellae; the populations decreased at a specific death rate of about 0.15 h-1 over 24 h at 36 degrees C. In irradiation-sterilized composts inoculated with salmonellae, the salmonellae grew at a rate of 0.65 doublings per h for over 24 h. Growth and death rates were found to be moisture and flora associated. The growth or death rates for antibiotic-resistant salmonellae were not different from those of nonresistant strains. It was concluded that the active indigenous flora of compost establishes a homeostatic barrier to colonization by salmonellae, and in the absence of competing flora, reinoculated salmonellae may grow to potentially hazardous densities. The active microflora of moist composts eliminated contaminating salmonellae (10(5)/g) after 6 weeks. PMID:3909966

  20. Land application technique for the treatment and disposal of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zain, S M; Basri, H; Suja, F; Jaafar, O

    2002-01-01

    Some of the major concerns when applying sewage sludge to land include the potential effect on pH and cation exchange capacity; the mobility and the accumulation of heavy metals in sludge treated soil; the potential of applying too much nutrients and the problems associated with odors and insects. The main objective of this study is to identify the effects of sewage sludge application on the physical and chemical properties of sludge treated soil. Sewage sludge was applied to soil at various rates ranging from 0 L/m2 to 341 L/m2. In order to simulate the natural environment, the study was carried out at a pilot treatment site (5.2 m x 6.7 m) in an open area, covered with transparent roofing material to allow natural sunlight to pass through. Simulated rain was applied by means of a sprinkler system. Data obtained from sludge treated soil showed that the pH values decreased when the application rates were increased and the application period prolonged. The effect of sewage sludge on cation exchange capacity was not so clear; the values obtained for every application rate of sewage sludge did not indicate any consistent behaviour. The mobility of heavy metals in soils treated with sludge were described by observing the changes in the concentration of the heavy metals. The study showed that Cd has the highest mobility in sludge treated soil followed by Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni and Pb. PMID:12448482

  1. Separation of metals and phosphorus from incinerated sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Ito, A; Yamada, K; Ishikawa, N; Umita, T

    2013-01-01

    Microbial acidification of incinerated sewage sludge ash and dissolution of metals from the acidified ash were investigated using a semi-batch reactor at different solid retention times (SRTs). The average pH values ranged from 0.91 to 1.2 at SRTs longer than 10 days, whereas the reduction of SRT to 4 days resulted in an increase in the pH value to about 2. The dissolution efficiencies of Al, As, Cd, Cu and Mn were greater than 60% at a SRT of 4 days. Moreover, the effect of pH on precipitation of metals and P (dissolution of 80%) in the filtrate removed from the acidified sewage ash suspension, and the separation of phosphorus and the other metals in the filtrate using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or ferric ion, were examined. Although neutralisation of the filtrate to a pH of 5 simultaneously precipitated 100% of Al and 80% of P recovered from the acidified sewage ash, the addition of EDTA decreased their precipitation to 70 and 50%, respectively, at the same pH value, which would promote precipitation of P as calcium phosphate. Furthermore, neutralising to a pH of 2.5 after the addition of ferric ion precipitated P separately from Al and heavy metals. PMID:23752380

  2. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Sewage Sludge by Gamma Irradiation with Pasteurization as a Tool for Hygienization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyadarshini, J.; Roy, P. K.; Mazumdar, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this research work, management of sewage sludge disposal on agricultural soils is addressed. The increasing amount of sewage sludge and more legislative regulation of its disposal have stimulated the need for developing new technologies to recycle sewage sludge efficiently. The research was structured along two main avenues, namely, the efficacy of the irradiation process for removing enteric pathogenic microorganisms and the potential of irradiated sludge as a soil amendment. This study investigated how application of irradiation with heat treatment reduced pathogens in sewage sludge. Raw and pasteurised Sewage sludge was treated at different dose treatment of 1.5, 3 and 5 kilogray (kGy) gamma irradiation individually and for 3 kGy sufficiency was achieved. Decrease in irradiation dose from 5 to 3 kGy was observed for pasteurised sludge resulting in saving of radiation energy. The presence of heavy metals in untreated sewage sludge has raised concerns, which decreases after irradiation.

  3. Anaerobic degradation of paper mill sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Ratnieks; C. C Gaylarde

    1997-01-01

    The effect of pH adjustment and surfactant addition on the anaerobic degradation of sludge from a pulp and paper mill waste treatment plant was monitored by COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and EOX (Extractable Organic Halogen) analysis. COD decreased by 2964% and EOX by 2250%, in all treatments (including control, non-adjusted, sludges). Adjusting the initial pH to 7.0 with sodium bicarbonate,

  4. Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of dilute secondary-treated sewage sludge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, W. G.; Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), conducted a research program to evaluate the feasibility of remotely monitoring ocean dumping of waste products such as acid and sewage sludge. One aspect of the research program involved the measurements of upwelled spectral signatures for sewage-sludge mixtures of different concentrations in an 11600-liter tank. This paper describes the laboratory arrangement and presents radiance and reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared ranges for concentrations ranging from 9.7 to 180 ppm of secondary-treated sewage sludge mixed with two types of base water. Results indicate that upwelled radiance varies in a near-linear manner with concentration and that the sludge has a practically flat signal response between 420 and 970 nm. Reflectance spectra were obtained for the sewage-sludge mixtures at all wavelengths and concentrations.

  5. Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of dilute primary-treated sewage sludge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of remotely monitoring ocean dumping of waste products such as acid and sewage sludge is evaluated. The laboratory arrangement, solar simulator, and test results from three experiments conducted in the laboratory are described. Radiance and reflectance spectra are presented for primary-treated sewage sludge mixed with two types of base water. Results indicate that upwelled reflectance varies in a near-linear manner with concentration and that the sludge has a practically flat signal response between 420 and 970 nm. Well-defined upwelled reflectance spectra were obtained for the sewage-sludge mixtures at all wavelengths and concentrations. The spectral-reflectance values appeared to be influenced by the type of base water, but this influence was small, especially for the mixtures with low concentrations of sewage sludge.

  6. Determination of mercury in sewage sludge by direct slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baralkiewicz, Danuta; Gramowska, Hanka; Kzka, Ma?gorzata; Kanecka, Anetta

    2005-03-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) method was elaborated to the determination of Hg in sewage sludge samples with the use of KMnO 4+Pd modifier. The minimum sample amount required for slurry preparation with respect to sample homogeneity was evaluated by weighting masses between 3 and 30 mg directly into the autosampler cups. Validation of the proposed method was performed with the use of Certified Reference Materials of sewage sludge, CRM 007-040 and CRM 144R. Two sewage sludge samples from Pozna (Poland) city were analysed using the present direct method and a method with sample digestion, resulting in no difference within statistical error.

  7. DETERMINATION AND PREDICTION OF CHEMICAL FORMS OF TRACE METALS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND SLUDGE-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of the research conducted under this project was to define the chemical equilibrium between trace metals and the soluble and insoluble organic and inorganic fractions of sewage sludges and sludge-amended soil. This report is divided according to tasks carrie...

  8. Interpreting the synergistic effect in combined ultrasonication-ozonation sewage sludge pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xinbo; Wang, Chong; Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Lin, Leonard; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-12-01

    The sequential combination of ultrasonication and ozonation as sewage sludge treatment prior to anaerobic digestion was investigated. Synergistic volatile suspended solids (VSS) solubilization was observed when low energy ultrasonication (?12kJg(-1) TS) was followed by ozonation. 0.048gO3g(-1) TS ozonation induced the maximum VSS solubilization of 41.3% when the sludge was pre-ultrasonicated at 9kJg(-1) TS; while, the same ozone dosage applied without prior ultrasonication only induced 21.1% VSS solubilization. High molecular weight (MW) components (MW>500kDa) were found to be the main solubilization products when sludge was only ozonated. However, solubilization products by ozone were mainly in the form of low MW components (MW<27kDa) when sludge was pre-ultrasonicated. The high MW products generated by ultrasound were effectively degraded in the subsequent ozonation. Anaerobic biodegradability increased by 34.7% when ultrasonication (9kJg(-1) TS) and ozonation (0.036gO3g(-1) TS) were combined sequentially. The maximum methane production rate increased from 3.53 to 4.32, 4.21 and 4.54mL CH4d(-1) after ultrasonication, ozonation and ultrasonication-ozonation pre-treatments, respectively. PMID:25282627

  9. Anaerobic storage as a pretreatment for enhanced biodegradability of dewatered sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huacheng; He, Pinjing; Wang, Guanzhao; Shao, Liming; Lee, Duujong

    2011-01-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge is often stored still before further processing and final disposal. This study showed that anaerobic storage of dewatered sewage sludge could hydrolyze organic matter from the sludge matrix, and increase soluble organic acid content from 90 to 2400 mg/L and soluble organic carbon content from 220 to 1650 mg/L. Correspondingly, the contents of proteins, celluloses and hemicelluloses were reduced by 2-9%. Applying anaerobic storage markedly enhanced the efficiency of the subsequent bio-drying process on stored sludge. Correspondingly, biogas and odor gas were produced immediately after commencing the sludge storage. Anaerobic storage with odor control can be applied as a pretreatment process for dewatered sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants. PMID:20813521

  10. Occurrence of high-tonnage anionic surfactants in Spanish sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Cantarero, Samuel; Prieto, Carlos A; Lpez, Ignacio

    2012-03-01

    Agricultural application has become the most widespread method of sewage sludge disposal, being the most economical outlet for sludge and also recycling beneficial plant nutrients and organic matter to soil for crop production. As a matter of fact, the European Sewage Sludge Directive 86/278/EEC seeks to encourage the disposal of sewage sludge in agriculture applications and regulate its use to prevent harmful effects on the soil environment. At the present time, the sewage sludge Directive is under revision and a possible cut-off limit for some organic chemicals may be implemented. Linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), the main synthetic anionic surfactant, has been included in the draft list of chemicals to be limited. The present research work deals with the monitoring of LAS and soap in Spanish sewage sludge. The average concentration of LAS found in anaerobic sewage sludge samples was 8.06 g/kg, higher than the average values for European sludge. Besides, it has been also found that more than 55% of Spanish anaerobic sludge would not fulfil the limit proposed by the 3rd European Working paper on sludge. As a consequence, the implementation of the limit for LAS would make the disposal of most Spanish biosolids for agricultural applications almost impossible. Regarding the mechanisms why anionic surfactants are found in sludge, two surfactants are compared: LAS and soap, both readily biodegraded in aerobic conditions. Irrespective of the anaerobic biodegradability of soap, its concentration found in sludge is higher than LAS (only anaerobically biodegradable under particular conditions). The relevance of anaerobic biodegradation to assure environmental protection is discussed for this case. PMID:21652141

  11. Oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1994-01-01

    Federal regulations banning ocean dumping of sewage sludge coupled with stricter regulations on the disposal of sewage sludge in landfills have forced municipalities, especially those in the northeast United States, to consider alternate methods for disposal of this solid waste. Coincineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) and sludge has proven to be economically attractive for both Europe and Japan, but has not yet proven to be a viable sludge disposal technology in the United States because of a history of operational problems in existing facilities. The most prevalent problem in coincinerating MSW and a dewatered sewage sludge (15 to 25% solids) is incomplete sludge combustion. Incomplete sludge combustion is primarily a function of sludge particle size, occurring when the surface of the sludge particle dries and hardens, while the inner mass is unaffected. This phenomenon is commonly referred to in the industry as the {open_quotes}hamburger effect.{close_quotes} In an effort to promote technology development in this area, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. teamed with the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate a new process being developed for the disposal of a dewatered sewage sludge, {open_quotes}Oxygen-Enriched Coincineration of MSW and Sewage Sludge.{close_quotes} This report provides a comprehensive summary of the pilot demonstration test program for oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge. This report describes the pilot test facility, instrumentation, and methods of data collection and data analyses; describes how the tests were executed; and discusses the test results. Recommendations for the future development of this technology in the current marketplace are also provided.

  12. Mechanism of red mud combined with Fenton's reagent in sewage sludge conditioning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Jiakuan; Yu, Wenbo; Luo, Sen; Peng, Li; Shen, Xingxing; Shi, Yafei; Zhang, Shinan; Song, Jian; Ye, Nan; Li, Ye; Yang, Changzhu; Liang, Sha

    2014-08-01

    Red mud was evaluated as an alternative skeleton builder combined with Fenton's reagent in sewage sludge conditioning. The results show that red mud combined with Fenton's reagent showed good conditioning capability with the pH of the filtrate close to neutrality, indicating that red mud acted as a neutralizer as well as a skeleton builder when jointly used with Fenton's reagent. Through response surface methodology (RSM), the optimal dosages of Fe(2+), H2O2 and red mud were proposed as 31.9, 33.7 and 275.1mg/g DS (dry solids), respectively. The mechanism of the composite conditioner could be illuminated as follows: (1) extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), including loosely bound EPS and tightly bound EPS, were degraded into dissolved organics, e.g., proteins and polysaccharides; (2) bound water was released and converted into free water due to the degradation of EPS; and (3) morphology of the conditioned sludge exhibited a porous structure in contrast with the compact structure of raw sludge, and the addition of red mud formed new mineral phases and a rigid lattice structure in sludge, allowing the outflow of free water. Thus, sludge dewatering performance was effectively improved. The economic assessment for a wastewater treatment plant of 370,000 equivalent inhabitants confirms that using red mud conditioning, combined with Fenton's reagent, leads to a saving of approximately 411,000 USD/y or 50.8 USD/t DS comparing with using lime and ordinary Portland cement combined with Fenton's reagent, and approximately 612,000 USD/y or 75.5 USD/t DS comparing with the traditional treatment. PMID:24810740

  13. Heavy metal content of vegetables irrigated with mixtures of wastewater and sewage sludge in Zimbabwe: Implications for human health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Muchuweti; J. W. Birkett; E. Chinyanga; R. Zvauya; M. D. Scrimshaw; J. N. Lester

    2006-01-01

    There is growing public concern in Zimbabwe over the illegal cultivation of vegetables on soils amended with sewage sludge or irrigated with admixtures of sewage and sewage sludge. Excessive accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils may not only result in environmental contamination, but lead to elevated heavy metal uptake by crops, which may affect food quality and safety. The

  14. Accumulation of cadmium associated with sewage sludge by a marine amphipod crustacean.

    PubMed

    Caparis, M E; Rainbow, P S

    1994-12-01

    Cadmium bound to sewage sludge (5% mixture with littoral mud) is available to the deposit-feeding marine amphipod crustacean Corophium volutator (Pallas). The amphipod accumulates labelled cadmium from sludge in proportion to both duration of exposure and cadmium concentration of the sludge. Newly accumulated cadmium is added onto the existing cadmium body load without significant excretion. Thus, cadmium in association with sewage sludge dumped at sea may be absorbed and accumulated by deposit-feeding invertebrates, with the potential of being transferred along marine food chains. PMID:7801109

  15. Heavy metal speciation an uptake to durum wheat from sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Ketchum, L.H.; Frost, H.L.

    1998-07-01

    This project focused on detection of heavy metal accumulation in durum wheat from sewage sludge or commercial phosphate fertilizer application, using Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Four parts of the durum wheat plants were separated and analyzed (i.e., root, stem, leaves, and grain). Studies compared the metal uptake resulting from sewage sludge application and from commercial fertilizer. Sludges and fertilizers were applied in one application, except for one study which considered the effect of the same sludge dosage, except in two applications. The main objective of this research is to improve the grain quality by minimizing the accumulation of toxic elements in durum wheat.

  16. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge ash through an electrodialytic process.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Paula; Couto, Nazar; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2014-05-01

    The electrodialytic separation process (ED) was applied to sewage sludge ash (SSA) aiming at phosphorus (P) recovery. As the SSA may have high heavy metals contents, their removal was also assessed. Two SSA were sampled, one immediately after incineration (SA) and the other from an open deposit (SB). Both samples were ED treated as stirred suspensions in sulphuric acid for 3, 7 and 14 days. After 14 days, phosphorus was mainly mobilized towards the anode end (approx. 60% in the SA and 70% in the SB), whereas heavy metals mainly electromigrated towards the cathode end. The anolyte presented a composition of 98% of P, mainly as orthophosphate, and 2% of heavy metals. The highest heavy metal removal was achieved for Cu (ca. 80%) and the lowest for Pb and Fe (between 4% and 6%). The ED showed to be a viable method for phosphorus recovery from SSA, as it promotes the separation of P from the heavy metals. PMID:24656469

  17. NO x and N 2O emission characteristics from fluidised bed combustion of semi-dried municipal sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Snger; J Werther; T Ogada

    2001-01-01

    Incineration is one of the major methods for the disposal of sewage sludge. Currently, several plants are incinerating mechanically dewatered (wet) sludge (2040wt.% d.m.) or semi-dried sewage sludge (3055wt.% d.m.), although some plants burn dry sludge (with more than 80wt.% d.m.). Whereas significant information is available on NOx and N2O emissions characteristics of wet and dry sludge, not much has

  18. Extraction of raw sewage sludge containing iron phosphate for phosphorus recovery.

    PubMed

    Sano, Akira; Kanomata, Makoto; Inoue, Hiroki; Sugiura, Norio; Xu, Kai-Qin; Inamori, Yuhei

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to establish an alkali extraction technology for FePO(4)-containing sewage sludge obtained from a wastewater treatment system that includes phosphorous removal by iron electrolysis. By clarifying the extraction properties of phosphorous, organic matter, and inorganic matter, conditions for alkali extraction were optimized. As a result, it was suggested that unheated phosphorous extraction would be superior for FePO(4)-containing sewage sludge. And, extraction methods and sewage sludge properties were also compared, and the noteworthy result that extraction of metals can be suppressed to extremely low amounts with alkali extraction as compared with acid extraction was obtained. A new insight was also gained that, as compared with the use of incinerated ash reported in previous studies, alkali extraction was more efficient when raw sewage sludge was used. PMID:22921653

  19. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    During second quarter 1992, the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) of Savannah River Plant were sampled and analyzed for constituents required quarterly by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076. None of these analytes exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria at either sewage sludge site. The F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site wells also were analyzed for a number of other constituents not required by the permit. Of these constituents, tritium exceeded the PDWS in wells FSS 2D and 3D. Lead exceeded the PDWS in well FSS 3D. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well FSS 4D, and manganese exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criterion in wells FSS 2D and 3D.

  20. EVALUATION OF METHODS TO MEASURE THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was undertaken to determine whether improvements were needed to increase the reliability of acute toxicity methodologies for mysid and juvenile Atlantic silverside waste characterization tests for municipal sewage sludge. Three new acute bioassays using mysids, larval fi...

  1. EVALUATION OF A FLUIDIZED-BED SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR USING WOOD CHIPS FOR FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An environmental and technical evaluation was conducted on the Western Lake Superior Sanitary District waste treatment plant, which uses wood chips to incinerate sewage sludge in fluidized-bed combustors. The most important environmental factors for evaluation were determined to ...

  2. Proper Sanitization of Sewage Sludge: a Critical Issue for a Sustainable Society

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veronica Arthurson

    2008-01-01

    To attain the global goal of an environmentally sustainable society in which organic material is successfully recycled back to arable land, it is crucial to develop effective procedures for the treatment of sewage sludge. The term \\

  3. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Historically and currently, no permit-required analytes exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites except iron, lead, and manganese, which occur in elevated concentrations frequently in FSS wells and occasionally in HSS wells. Tritium and aluminum are the primary nonpermit constituents that exceed standards at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. Other constituents also exceed standards at this site but only sporadically.

  4. MICROBIALLY MEDIATED GROWTH SUPPRESSION AND DEATH OF SALMONELLA IN COMPOSTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of compost microflora in the suppression of salmonella regrowth in composted sewage sludge was investigated. Microbial inhibition studies of salmonella growth were conducted on nutrient agar, in composts that had been subjected to different temperatures in compost piles,...

  5. Organic Contaminants of Emerging Concern in Land-Applied Sewage Sludge (Biosolids)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARK J. LA GUARDIA; ROBERT C. HALE; ELLEN HARVEY; ELIZABETH O. BUSH; T. MATTESON MAINOR; MICHAEL O. GAYLOR

    2004-01-01

    Modern wastewater treatment greatly ameliorates the release to the aquatic environment of pollutants present in industrial and residential discharges. How- ever, the recycling of sewage sludge (also known as \\

  6. Leaching of phosphorus from incinerated sewage sludge ash by means of acid extraction followed by adsorption on orange waste gel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biplob Kumar Biswas; Katsutoshi Inoue; Hiroyuki Harada; Keisuke Ohto; Hidetaka Kawakita

    2009-01-01

    Ashes from sewage sludge incineration have a high phosphorus content, approximately 8% (W\\/W), which indicates a potential resource of the limiting nutrient. Incineration of sewage sludge with subsequent recovery of phosphorus is a relatively new sludge treatment technique. In this article, the leaching of phosphorus by using sulfuric acid as well as hydrochloric acid by means of several batch experiments

  7. Waste paper and clinoptilolite as a bulking material with dewatered anaerobically stabilized primary sewage sludge (DASPSS) for compost production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonis A Zorpas; Dimitris Arapoglou; Karlis Panagiotis

    2003-01-01

    Environmental problems associated with sewage sludge disposal have prompted strict legislative actions over the past few years. At the same time, the upgrading and expansion of wastewater treatment plants have greatly increased the volume of sludge generated. The major limitation of land application of sewage sludge compost is the potential for high heavy metal content in relation to the metal

  8. Feasibility of biohydrogen production by anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Hyoun Kim; Sun-Kee Han; Hang-Sik Shin

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludge for hydrogen production was performed in serum bottles under various volatile solids (VS) concentrations (0.55.0%) and mixing ratios of two substrates (0:100100:0, VS basis). Through response surface methodology, empirical equations for hydrogen evolution were obtained. The specific hydrogen production potential of food waste was higher than that of sewage sludge. However, hydrogen

  9. Analytical and spectroscopic characterization of humic acids extracted from sewage sludge, manure, and worm compost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Deiana; C. Gessa; B. Manunza; R. Seeber; R. Rausa

    1990-01-01

    Humic acids extracted from sewage sludges, manure, and worm compost have been characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Meaningful differences in the composition were revealed by FTIR, ¹H, ¹³C NMR, and visible spectroscopies. These differences allow a differentiation among the products depending on the source from which they were obtained. Humic acid extracted from sewage sludges contains the highest percentage

  10. Vermistabilization of municipal sewage sludge amended with sugarcane trash using epigeic Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surindra Suthar

    2009-01-01

    Efforts have been made in this study to stabilize the sewage sludge mixed with sugarcane trash in four different proportions: 20% (T1); 40% (T2); 60% (T3) and 80% (T4), under laboratory conditions using epigeic earthworm (Oligochaeta) Eisenia fetida. The composting potential of worm was also evaluated in 100% sewage sludge treatment (T5). The changes in chemical properties of substrate was

  11. Evaluation of leaching and ecotoxicological properties of sewage sludgefly ash mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Papadimitriou; I. Haritou; P. Samaras; A. I. Zouboulis

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this work were the evaluation of sewage sludge stabilization by mixing with fly ash, the examination of the physicochemical properties of the produced materials and their leachates and the assessment of their environmental impact by the evaluation of the ecotoxic characteristics. Different ratios of fly ash and sewage sludge (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:6, and 1:9) were mixed

  12. Limitations for heavy metal release during thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedikt Nowak; Libor Perutka; Philipp Aschenbrenner; Petra Kraus; Helmut Rechberger; Franz Winter

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate recycling from sewage sludge can be achieved by heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash (SSA) producing a fertilizer product: mixing SSA with chloride and treating this mixture (eventually after granulation) in a rotary kiln at 1000100C leads to the formation of volatile heavy metal compounds that evaporate and to P-phases with high bio-availability. Due to economical and ecological

  13. Probabilistic risk assessment for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in sewage sludge used on agricultural soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diederik Schowanek; Helen David; Rosa Francaviglia; Jeremy Hall; Holger Kirchmann; Paul Henning Krogh; Nathalie Schraepen; Stephen Smith; Tanja Wildemann

    2007-01-01

    Deterministic and probabilistic risk assessments were developed for commercial LAS in agricultural soil amended with sewage sludge. The procedure done according to ILSI Europes Conceptual Framework [Schowanek, D., Carr, R., David, H., Douben, P., Hall, J., Kirchmann, H., Patria, L., Sequi, P., Smith, S., Webb, S.F., 2004. A risk-based methodology for deriving quality standards for organic contaminants in sewage sludge

  14. Gasification of sewage sludge using a throated downdraft gasifier and uncertainty analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murat Dogru; Adnan Midilli; Colin R Howarth

    2002-01-01

    The most important objectives to gasify sewage sludge are to produce a clean gas of acceptable composition for synthesis or combustion, and to convert this solid resource into combustible-clean gas at high efficiency. The experiments of the gasification were conducted using a 5 kWe-throated downdraft gasifier. It was concluded that sewage sludge can be gasified to produce low-quality combustible gas,

  15. Mutagenic potential of plants grown on a soil amended with mutagenic municipal sewage sludge

    E-print Network

    Fiedler, Daniel Alain

    1988-01-01

    MUTAGENIC POTENTIAL OF PLANTS GROWN ON A SOIL AMENDED WITH MUTAGENIC MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE A Thesis by DANIEL ALAIN FIEDLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1988 Major Subject: Agronomy MUTAGENIC POTENTIAL OF PLANTS GROWN ON A SOIL AMENDED WITH MUTAGENIC MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE A Thesis by DANIEL ALAIN FIEDLER Approved as to sty1e and content by; Kirk W. Brown (Chairman...

  16. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, Third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    During third quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and for base-neutral/acid semivolatile constituents. None of the analytical results exceeded standards.

  17. Effects of sewage sludge compost and chemical fertilizer application on microbial biomass and N mineralization rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zaman; H. J. Di; K. Sakamoto; S. Goto; H. Hayashi; K. Inubushi

    2002-01-01

    To determine the effect of sewage sludge compost and chemical fertilizer application on the soil chemical properties, net N mineralization rates, CO2 evolution rates, microbial biomass C and N, a non-leaching experiment was conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25C) and moisture content (80% wHC) using 2 types of soils that had been previously treated with sewage sludge composts or

  18. Effects of N-enriched sewage sludge on soil enzyme activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R?dvan K?z?lkaya; Betl Bayrakl?

    2005-01-01

    Sewage sludge is increasingly used as an organic amendment to soil, especially to soil containing little organic matter. However, little is known about utility of this organic amendment with N-enriched or adjusted C:N ratios in soil. We studied the effects of adding of different doses (0, 100, 200 and 300tha?1) and C:N ratios (3:1, 6:1 and 9:1) of sewage sludge

  19. Irradiated sewage sludge for production of fennel plants in sandy soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. El-Motaium; M. A. Abo El-Seoud

    2007-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the impact of irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge applied to sandy soil\\u000a on the productivity of fennel plants (Foeniculum vulgare L.). Four rates of irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge application were used (20, 40, 60, and 80tha?1). Samples analysis included the biomass production at the vegetative and flowering stages, seed production, volatile oil

  20. Phosphorus recovery from digested sewage sludge as MAP by the help of metal ion separation.

    PubMed

    Gney, Kenan; Weidelener, Alexander; Krampe, Jrg

    2008-11-01

    This study was designed to solve metal ion influence problem on phosphorus recovery from digested sewage sludge as MAP. The experimental steps were proceeded to maximize MAP production and its quality. Used experimental steps were: All digested sewage sludge samples were taken from Stuttgart University sewage treatment plant for research and education (LFKW). Four different forms of LFKW digested sewage sludge were used as feeding sample. These were: original digested sludge, diluted digested sludge, centrifuged digested sludge and incinerated digested sludge. A Donnan membrane unit having a Nafion 117 (DuPont) cation exchange membrane was used to remove metal ions from the samples used. Highest metal ion removal efficiencies, which were 98%, 97%, and 80% for Al, Ca and Fe ions, respectively, were obtained from incinerated digested sludge run. Incinerated digested sludge run was used as preliminary step for MAP production and high quality MAP was produced. Produced MAP fulfils all requirements related with Dngemittelverordnung 2003 and it could be used as a fertilizer in Germany. PMID:18793789

  1. Influence of the Application of Sewage Sludge and Presence of Pesticides on the Development of the Microbial Population of the Soil and on the Transformation of Organic Carbon and Nutrient Elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Snchez; I. B. Estrada; O. Martnez; A. Aller; A. Morn

    The laboratory trial consisted in incubating sampl es of soil and soil treated with sewage sludge, with the application of organophosphate pes ticides with different active ingredients under controlled conditions of temperature and moisture. On the basis of a previous study of the influence o f the application of sludge on the degradation of pes ticides in the soil, a

  2. Comparison of sewage sludge toxicity to plants and invertebrates in three different soils.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Hollert, Henner

    2011-04-01

    Understanding the effect of soil type on the overall toxicity of sewage sludge is one of the most important issues concerning environmental risks associated with the sewage sludge land application. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of different soils (sandy, loamy and OECD soil) on sewage sludges toxicity in relation to plants (Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum, Sinapis alba) and an invertebrate species (Heterocypris incongruens). The most evident negative influence of sewage sludges on root growth was observed in the case of OECD soil. The EC(50) values determined on the basis of the root growth inhibition of all tested plants were in the range 0.1-6.4%, 0.03-9.4% and 6.6-22.1% (% of sewage sludgekg(-1) soil) for OECD, sandy and loamy soil, respectively. Soil type also affects the sewage sludge toxicity in relation to H. incongruens. The LC(50) (mortality) values ranged from 0.26% to 11.5% depending on the sludge tested. For EC(50) (growth inhibition) values ranged from 10.7% to 36.2%. PMID:21236465

  3. PAHs content of sewage sludge in Europe and its use as soil fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Suciu, Nicoleta A; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Trevisan, Marco

    2015-07-01

    The European Commission has been planning limits for organic pollutants in sewage sludge for 14years; however no legislation has been implemented. This is mainly due to lack of data on sewage sludge contamination by organic pollutants, and possible negative effects to the environment. However, waste management has become an acute problem in many countries. Management options require extensive waste characterization, since many of them may contain compounds which could be harmful to the ecosystem, such as heavy metals, organic pollutants. The present study aims to show the true European position, regarding the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content of sewage sludge, by comparing the Italian PAHs content with European Union countries, and at assessing the suitability of sewage sludge as soil fertilizer. The FOCUS Pearl model was used to estimate the concentration of benzo [a] pyrene (B(a)Pyr), the most toxic PAH in soil, and its exposure to organisms was then evaluated. The simulated B(a)Pyr and PAHs, expressed as B(a)Pyr, concentrations in soil were much lower than the B(a)Pyr's most conservative lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) for soil organisms. Furthermore, the results obtained indicate that it is more appropriate to apply 5tha(-1) sewage sludge annually than 15tha(-1) triennially. Results suggest, the EU maximum recommended limit of 6mgkg(-)(1) PAHs in sewage sludge, should be conservative enough to avoid groundwater contamination and negative effects on soil organisms. PMID:25872863

  4. Soil Microbial Functional and Fungal Diversity as Influenced by Municipal Sewage Sludge Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Fr?c, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Nwaichi, Eucharia Oluchi

    2014-01-01

    Safe disposal of municipal sewage sludge is a challenging global environmental concern. The aim of this study was to assess the response of soil microbial functional diversity to the accumulation of municipal sewage sludge during landfill storage. Soil samples of a municipal sewage sludge (SS) and from a sewage sludge landfill that was 3 m from a SS landfill (SS3) were analyzed relative to an undisturbed reference soil. Biolog EcoPlatesTM were inoculated with a soil suspension, and the Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon-Weaver index (H) were calculated to interpret the results. The fungi isolated from the sewage sludge were identified using comparative rDNA sequencing of the LSU D2 region. The MicroSEQ ID software was used to assess the raw sequence files, perform sequence matching to the MicroSEQ ID-validated reference database and create Neighbor-Joining trees. Moreover, the genera of fungi isolated from the soil were identified using microscopic methods. Municipal sewage sludge can serve as a habitat for plant pathogens and as a source of pathogen strains for biotechnological applications. PMID:25170681

  5. Soil microbial functional and fungal diversity as influenced by municipal sewage sludge accumulation.

    PubMed

    Fr?c, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Nwaichi, Eucharia Oluchi

    2014-09-01

    Safe disposal of municipal sewage sludge is a challenging global environmental concern. The aim of this study was to assess the response of soil microbial functional diversity to the accumulation of municipal sewage sludge during landfill storage. Soil samples of a municipal sewage sludge (SS) and from a sewage sludge landfill that was 3 m from a SS landfill (SS3) were analyzed relative to an undisturbed reference soil. Biolog EcoPlatesTM were inoculated with a soil suspension, and the Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon-Weaver index (H) were calculated to interpret the results. The fungi isolated from the sewage sludge were identified using comparative rDNA sequencing of the LSU D2 region. The MicroSEQ ID software was used to assess the raw sequence files, perform sequence matching to the MicroSEQ ID-validated reference database and create Neighbor-Joining trees. Moreover, the genera of fungi isolated from the soil were identified using microscopic methods. Municipal sewage sludge can serve as a habitat for plant pathogens and as a source of pathogen strains for biotechnological applications. PMID:25170681

  6. Geochemical investigation of an offshore sewage sludge deposit, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Kruge; A. Permanyer; J. Serra; D. Yu

    2010-01-01

    For 20 years ending in the 1990s the city of Barcelona discharged the products from a large primary sewage treatment plant directly into the Mediterranean Sea via underwater conduits. About ca. 3 million m3 of relict sewage sludge, rich in organic matter and heavy metals, has spread over an elongated area offshore, due to successive ruptures of the conduits. The

  7. Effect of coal ash residues on the microbiology of sewage sludge composting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fang; J. W. C. Wong; G. X. Li; M. H. Wong

    1997-01-01

    Alkaline coal ash residues (fly ash, FA, and lagoon ash, LA) which have been used as co-composting materials for sewage sludge to reduce the availability of trace metals, may have an adverse impact on the composting process. It is therefore the aim of the present study to evaluate the effect of FA and LA on the microbial activities of sewage

  8. Efficiency of sewage sludge treatment technologies to eliminating endocrine active compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gehring; D. Vogel; L. Tennhardt; D. Weltin; B. Bilitewski

    Hormonal disturbances caused by environmental pollutants have become one of the most important issues regarding environmental and human health. In order to investigate the efficiency of sewage sludge treatment technologies to eliminating endocrine active compounds (EACs) samplings have been carried out at 13 municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) and one co-fermentation facility in Germany. Laboratory experiments have been conducted simulating

  9. Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. PHOSPHORUS RECOVERY FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE - IDEAS FOR FURTHER STUDIES TO IMPROVE LEACHING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Levlin; B. Hultman

    Development of methods to recover phosphorus will make handling of sewage sludge more sustainable. In earlier studies sludge incineration ash and SCWO-residues have been leached with acid and base. Acid leaching gives a high degree of recovery but releases besides phosphate also the main part of other metals (including heavy metals). This gives a large separation problem and gives a

  12. Production of technical grade phosphoric acid from incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Donatello; D. Tong; C. R. Cheeseman

    2010-01-01

    The recovery of phosphorus from sewage sludge ash samples obtained from 7 operating sludge incinerators in the UK using a sulfuric acid washing procedure to produce a technical grade phosphoric acid product has been investigated. The influences of reaction time, sulfuric acid concentration, liquid to solid ratio and source of ISSA on P recovery have been examined. The optimised conditions

  13. Adsorption characteristics of dyes in columns of activated carbon prepared from paper mill sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenhong Li; Qinyan Yue; Peng Tu; Zuohao Ma; Baoyu Gao; Jinze Li; Xing Xu

    In this work, sludge-based activated carbon (SAC) was prepared from paper mill sewage sludge by physical activation with steam. The adsorption efficiency of SAC to cationic methylene blue (MB) and anionic reactive red 24 (RR 24) from aqueous solutions was investigated using fixed-bed adsorption column. The effects of influent dye concentration, particle size, adsorbent mass and flow rate on the

  14. Mechanical performance and capillary water absorption of sewage sludge ash concrete (SSAC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jamshidi; A. Jamshidi; N. Mehrdadi; F. Pacheco-Torgal

    2012-01-01

    Disposal of sewage sludge from waste water treatment plants is a serious environmental problem of increasing magnitude. Waste water treatment generates as much as 70g of dry solids per capita per day. Although one of the disposal solutions for this waste is through incineration, still almost 30% of sludge solids remain as ash. This paper presents results related to reuse

  15. Technological and environmental behavior of sewage sludge ash (SSA) in cement-based materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Cyr; Marie Coutand; Pierre Clastres

    2007-01-01

    Sewage sludge ash (SSA) is a waste material obtained from the incineration of wastewater sludge. The physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of SSA, and the evaluation of its use in cement-based materials, are presented in this paper. Results show that SSA is composed of irregular grains having a high specific surface area and thus leading to a significantly high water

  16. Mechanical performance and capillary water absorption of sewage sludge ash concrete (SSAC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jamshidi; A. Jamshidi; N. Mehrdadi; F. Pacheco-Torgal

    2011-01-01

    Disposal of sewage sludge from waste water treatment plants is a serious environmental problem of increasing magnitude. Waste water treatment generates as much as 70g of dry solids per capita per day. Although one of the disposal solutions for this waste is through incineration, still almost 30% of sludge solids remain as ash. This paper presents results related to reuse

  17. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning sewage sludge dewatering techniques and equipment in industrial and municipal waste treatment systems. Topics include dewatering processes and control, activated sludge systems, fluidized bed systems, biological treatment, heavy metal recovery, and economic aspects. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment and disposal of sewage sludges. Citations discuss sludge digestion, dewatering, disinfection, stabilization, chlorination, and desulfurization. Topics include pretreatment programs, land disposal, incineration, and waste utilization. Environmental monitoring and protection, federal regulations, and legal aspects are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. TOXICITY OF SEWAGE SLUDGE TO 'RHEPOXYNIUS ABRONIUS', A MARINE BENTHIC AMPHIPOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Relative toxicity of sewage sludges from six treatment plants was determined by the LC50 of sludge-sediment mixtures to the infaunal marine amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius. LC50s were measured as the increase in the percent total volatile solids (TVS) of the mixture due to the add...

  20. Co-cropping for phyto-separation of zinc and potassium from sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi-Tang Wu; Liang Hei; J. W. C. Wong; Christophe Schwartz; Jean-Louis Morel

    2007-01-01

    The use of sewage sludge as a fertilizer and soil amendment has resulted in high concentrations of heavy metals in the soil limiting its use. The present study was carried out to find the possibility of phyto-separating toxic and beneficial elements from the sludge using suitable plants. Of the five plants tested the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii H achieved the greatest

  1. Molybdenum, Sulfur, and Other Trace Elements in Farm Soils and Forages After Sewage Sludge Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. McBride; J. Cherney

    2004-01-01

    Farm application of sewage sludge products (biosolids) can potentially increase soil concentrations of macronutrients [especially phosphorus (P)], micronutrients [including sulfur (S), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo)] and heavy metals. In the present study, sampling and elemental analysis by ICP of soils and forages from 13 farms in Upstate New York that had applied sludge showed some elements to be

  2. Addressing Uncertainty in the ISCORS Multimedia Radiological Dose Assessment of Municipal Sewage Sludge and Ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Chiu; J. Bachmaier; R. Bastian; R. Hogan; T. Lenhart; D. Schmidt; A. Wolbarst; R. Wood; C. Yu

    2002-01-01

    Managing municipal wastewater at publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) leads to the production of considerable amounts of residual solid material, which is known as sewage sludge or biosolids. If the wastewater entering a POTW contains radioactive material, then the treatment process may concentrate radionuclides in the sludge, leading to possible exposure of the general public or the POTW workers. The

  3. Identification of Viral Pathogen Diversity in Sewage Sludge by Metagenome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    BIBBY, KYLE; PECCIA, JORDAN

    2013-01-01

    The large diversity of viruses that exist in human populations are potentially excreted into sewage collection systems and concentrated in sewage sludge. In the US, the primary fate of processed sewage sludge (class B biosolids) is application to agricultural land as a soil amendment. To characterize and understand infectious risks associated with land application, and to describe the diversity of viruses in human populations, shotgun viral metagenomics was applied to 10 sewage sludge samples from 5 wastewater treatment plants throughout the continental U.S, each serving between 100,000 and 1,000,000 people. Nearly 330 million DNA sequences were produced and assembled, and annotation resulted in identifying 43 (26 DNA, 17 RNA) different types of human viruses in sewage sludge. Novel insights include the high abundance of newly emerging viruses (e.g. Coronavirus HKU1, Klassevirus, and Cosavirus) the strong representation of respiratory viruses, and the relatively minor abundance and occurrence of Enteroviruses. Viral metagenome sequence annotations were reproducible and independent PCR-based identification of selected viruses suggests that viral metagenomes were a conservative estimate of the true viral occurrence and diversity. These results represent the most complete description of human virus diversity in any wastewater sample to date, provide engineers and environmental scientists with critical information on important viral agents and routes of infection from exposure to wastewater and sewage sludge, and represent a significant leap forward in understanding the pathogen content of class B biosolids. PMID:23346855

  4. Soil phosphorus dynamics and phytoavailability from sewage sludge at different stages in a treatment stream

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. T. E. Smith; B. J. Cade-Menun; M. Tibbett

    2006-01-01

    The effect of different stages of sewage sludge treatment on phosphorus (P) dynamics in amended soils was determined using\\u000a samples of undigested liquid (UL), anaerobically digested liquid (AD) and dewatered anaerobically digested (DC) sludge. Sludges\\u000a were taken from three points in the same treatment stream and applied to a sandy loam soil in field-based mesocosms at 4,\\u000a 8 and 16t

  5. Sewage sludge stabilisation with calcium hydroxide: Effect on physicochemical properties and molecular composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franciszek Czechowski; Tadeusz Marcinkowski

    2006-01-01

    Raw primary sewage sludge (Wastewater Treatment Plant of Krotoszyn, SW Poland) and its mixtures with 3%d, 6%d, 9%d, 12%d and 24%d of calcium hydroxide were stabilised for 1 and 35 days. Changes of the sludge physicochemical properties and molecular composition, caused by alkaline agent in course of stabilisation process, are recognised. A basic physicochemical data on the sludge cake and

  6. Stabilization of Mine Tailings Using Fly Ash and Sewage Sludge Planted with Phalaris arundinacea L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clara Neuschtz; Maria Greger

    2010-01-01

    The impact of plants (Phalaris arundinacea L.) on the leakage of ammonium, cadmium, copper, nitrate, phosphate, and zinc from sulfidic mine tailings covered with wood\\u000a fly ash and sewage sludge was investigated. Either ash or sludge was placed in contact with the tailings, and ash layers of\\u000a either low or high compactness were used. It was revealed that an ash\\/sludge

  7. Thc continuous emission monitoring guidance for part 503 sewage sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-30

    The Envrionmental Protection Agency's guidance document for monitoring of total hydrocarbons (THCs) at sewage sludge incinerators was finalized in response to comments received from Federal, State and local government agencies. The document contains recommendations for compliance with these requirements. It addresses installation, calibration, operation, and maintenance procedures for sewage sludge incinerators in the following areas: (1) THC continuous emissions monitoring (CEM); (2) oxygen CEM; (3) moisture CEM; (4) quality assurance; and (5) recordkeeping and reporting. The document will provide guidance for both the interim and long-term sludge permitting programs.

  8. Analysis of the combustion and pyrolysis of dried sewage sludge by TGA and MS.

    PubMed

    Magdziarz, Aneta; Werle, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the combustion and pyrolysis processes of three sewage sludge were investigated. The sewage sludge came from three wastewater treatment plants. Proximate and ultimate analyses were performed. The thermal behaviour of studied sewage sludge was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). The samples were heated from ambient temperature to 800 C at a constant rate 10 C/min in air (combustion process) and argon flows (pyrolysis process). The thermal profiles presented in form of TG/DTG curves were comparable for studied sludges. All TG/DTG curves were divided into three stages. The main decomposition of sewage sludge during the combustion process took place in the range 180-580 C with c.a. 70% mass loss. The pyrolysis process occurred in lower temperature but with less mass loss. The evolved gaseous products (H2, CH4, CO2, H2O) from the decomposition of sewage sludge were identified on-line. PMID:24238993

  9. Studies on land application of sewage sludge and its limiting factors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Chen, Tao; Ge, Yinghua; Jia, Yongfeng

    2008-12-30

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of sewage sludge application on the heavy metal content in soils and grasses. The sewage sludge was obtained from Northern Shenyang Wastewater Treatment Plant, China, and applied at 0, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 150tha(-1). Native grasses Zoysia japonica and Poa annua were chosen as experimental plants. The experimental results showed that nutrient content of the soil, especially organic matter, was increased after sewage sludge application. The grass biomass was increased and the grass growing season was longer. Heavy metal concentrations in the soil also increased; however, the Zn content did not exceed the stringent Chinese environmental quality standard for soil. Pb and Cu did not exceed the standard for B grade soil, but Cd concentration in soil amended by sewage sludge has exceeded the B grade standard. Therefore, it is suggested that the sewage sludge produced from the wastewater treatment plant should not be applied to farmland, for which B grade soil or better is required. The sludge is suitable for application to forestry and grasslands or nurseries where food chain contamination with cadmium is not a concern. PMID:18456400

  10. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge with a hybrid process of low pressure wet oxidation and nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Blcher, Christoph; Niewersch, Claudia; Melin, Thomas

    2012-04-15

    Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge will become increasingly important within the next decades due to depletion of mineral phosphorus resources. In this work a new process concept was investigated, which aims at realising phosphorus recovery in a synergistic way with the overall sewage sludge treatment scheme. This process combines a low pressure wet oxidation for sewage sludge decomposition as well as phosphorus dissolution and a nanofiltration process to separate phosphorus from heavy metals and obtain a clean diluted phosphoric acid, from which phosphorus can be recovered as clean fertiliser. It was shown that this process concept is feasible for sewage sludge for wastewater treatment plants that apply enhanced biological removal or precipitation with alumina salts for phosphorus removal. The critical parameter for phosphorus dissolution in the low pressure wet oxidation process is the iron concentration, while in the nanofiltration multi-valent cations play a predominant role. In total, a phosphorus recovery of 54% was obtained for an exemplary wastewater treatment plant. Costs of the entire process are in the same range as conventional sewage sludge disposal, with the benefit being phosphorus recovery and reduced emission of greenhouse gases due to avoidance of sludge incineration. PMID:22325934

  11. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, fourth quarter 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-03-01

    Eleven sewage sludge application sites at the Savannah River Site (SRS) were originally the subject of a research program, begun in 1980, using domestic sewage sludge to reclaim borrow pits and to enhance forest productivity at SRS. Currently, the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites are the only remaining active sludge application sites. During fourth quarter 1991, samples from the four monitoring wells at the F-Area site (FSS series) and three monitoring wells at the H-Area site (HSS series) were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, and certain pesticides, herbicides, toxic metals, water quality indicators, and radionuclides. This report describes monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standards (PDWS) and the SRS flagging criteria.

  12. Alteration of a Salt Marsh Bacterial Community by Fertilization with Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Hamlett, Nancy V.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of long-term fertilization with sewage sludge on the aerobic, chemoheterotrophic portion of a salt marsh bacterial community were examined. The study site in the Great Sippewissett Marsh, Cape Cod, Mass., consisted of experimental plots that were treated with different amounts of commercial sewage sludge fertilizer or with urea and phosphate. The number of CFUs, percentage of mercury- and cadmium-resistant bacteria, and percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were all increased in the sludge-fertilized plots. Preliminary taxonomic characterization showed that sludge fertilization markedly altered the taxonomic distribution and reduced diversity within both the total heterotrophic and the mercury-resistant communities. In control plots, the total heterotrophic community was fairly evenly distributed among taxa and the mercury-resistant community was dominated by Pseudomonas spp. In sludge-fertilized plots, both the total and mercury-resistant communities were dominated by a single Cytophaga sp. PMID:16347183

  13. Feasibility of bioleaching combined with Fenton oxidation to improve sewage sludge dewaterability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changgeng; Zhang, Panyue; Zeng, Chenghua; Zeng, Guangming; Xu, Guoyin; Huang, Yi

    2015-02-01

    A novel joint method of bioleaching with Fenton oxidation was applied to condition sewage sludge. The specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and moisture of sludge cake (MSC) were adopted to evaluate the improvement of sludge dewaterability. After 2-day bioleaching, the sludge pH dropped to about 2.5 which satisfied the acidic condition for Fenton oxidation. Meanwhile, the SRF declined from 6.4510(10) to 2.0710(10) s2/g, and MSC decreased from 91.42% to 87.66%. The bioleached sludge was further conditioned with Fenton oxidation. From an economical point of view, the optimal dosages of H2O2 and Fe2+ were 0.12 and 0.036 mol/L, respectively, and the optimal reaction time was 60 min. Under optimal conditions, SRF, volatile solids reduction, and MSC were 3.4310(8) s2/g, 36.93%, and 79.58%, respectively. The stability and settleability of sewage sludge were both improved significantly. Besides, the results indicated that bioleaching-Fenton oxidation was more efficient in dewatering the sewage sludge than traditional Fenton oxidation. The sludge conditioning mechanisms by bioleaching-Fenton oxidation might mainly include the flocculation effects and the releases of extracellular polymeric substances-bound water and intercellular water. PMID:25662236

  14. Toxic effects of sewage sludges on freshwater edible fish Cirrhina mrigala

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, L.; Coutinho, C.; Rao, C.V. [St. Xavier`s College, Bombay (India)] [St. Xavier`s College, Bombay (India)

    1996-03-01

    Municipal sewage sludges have been advocated by several investigators as a suitable dietary supplement in aquaculture because of the protein contained in it. Other researchers discourage their usage for a variety of reasons, the most common being the presence of heavy metals and pesticides that accumulate in various organs, thereby hampering growth in fish. Settled sewage, if palatable however, would prove to be an excellent low-cost nutrient in intensive aquaculture farms. Sludges may be administered in the aqueous or dehydrated condition, and in either case would be suitable for even fry and fingerlings, if consumed soon after application because of the small particle size. The absence of reports on the effect of sewage sludges from the wastewater treatment plant on animals prompted this investigation, though heavy metal analysis revealed the presence of appreciable quantities of Zn, Cu, Pb and moderate amounts of Ni, Cr, Cd in aqueous activate-sludge. In this study the effect of activated sludge (AcS), raw sludge (RS) in acute and chronic bioassays and hydrated digested sludge (DS) and dehydrated (sun-dried) digested sludge (KS) in chronic feeding experiment on survival, behavior and whole body acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity of Cirrhina mrigala, a freshwater edible fish, were investigated.

  15. Effect of fly ash/sewage sludge mixtures and application rates on biomass production

    SciTech Connect

    Sajwan, K.S. [Savannah State College, GA (United States); Ornes, W.H.; Youngblood, T. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to assess the use of a sewage sludge/fly ash mixture in soils for increased growth and uptake of nutrients by Sorghum vulgaris var. sudanense Hitchc. (`sorgrass`), a sorghum-sundangrass hybrid plant. This experiment was conducted by using four sewage sludge-to-fly ash ratios (4:1, 4:2, 4:3, and 4:4) and six application rates of sewage sludge/fly ash mixtures to soil (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 400 tons/acre). The data in this study indicated that the availability of elements to plants varied depending on the mixture ratios and the application rates. All ratios of sewage sludge amended with fly ash generally improved plant growth and enhanced yield at application rates of 50-100 tons/acre but showed reduced growth and yield at higher application rates. The decrease in yield at higher application rates was probably due to the assimilation of high levels of boron which is phytotoxic. These various treatments of sewage sludge/fly ash ratios and rates of application often resulted in elevated concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, B, Cu, and Zn in both soil and plants. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. Combined effects of Fenton peroxidation and CaO conditioning on sewage sludge thermal drying.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Liu, Peng; Hu, Hongyun; Zhang, Qiang; Wu, Zhenyu; Yang, Jiakuan; Yao, Hong

    2014-12-01

    Joint application of Fenton's reagent and CaO can dramatically enhance sludge dewaterability, thus are also likely to affect subsequent thermal drying process. This study investigated the synergistic effects of the two conditioners on the thermal drying behavior of sewage sludge and the emission characteristics of main sulfur-/nitrogen-containing gases. According to the results, Fenton peroxidation combined with CaO conditioning efficiently promoted sludge heat transfer, reduced the amounts of both free and bound water, and created porous structure in solids to provide evaporation channels, thus producing significant positive effects on sludge drying performance. In this case, the required time for drying was shortened to one-third. Additionally, joint usage of Fenton's reagent and CaO did not increase the losses of organic matter during sludge drying process. Meanwhile, they facilitated the formation of sulfate and sulfonic acid/sulfone, leading to sulfur retention in dried sludge. Both of Fenton peroxidation and CaO conditioning promoted the oxidation, decomposition, and/or dissolution of protein and inorganic nitrogen in sludge pre-treatment. As a consequence, the emissions of sulfurous and nitrogenous gases from dewatered sludge drying were greatly suppressed. These indicate that combining Fenton peroxidation with CaO conditioning is a promising strategy to improve drying efficiency of sewage sludge and to control sulfur and nitrogen contaminants during sludge thermal drying process. PMID:25289973

  17. Influence of anaerobic co-digestion of sewage and brewery sludges on biogas production and sludge quality.

    PubMed

    Pecharaply, Athapol; Parkpian, Preeda; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2007-06-01

    This research investigated operating parameters and treatment efficiency for the digestion of sewage and brewery sludge. The prime objective of this study was to enhance the quality of treated sludge for use as agriculture fertilizer and to enhance biogas production, a by-product that can be used as an energy source. Three bench-scale completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) anaerobic digesters were operated at mesophilic condition (36+/-0.2 degrees C). A mixture of sewage and brewery sludge were used as substrates at ratios of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, based on wet weight basis (w/w). For each digester, the solids retention times (SRT) were 20 days. The organic loading and volatile solids loading were between 1.3-2.2 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/m3/day and 0.9-1.5 kg/m3/day, respectively. The digester fed with brewery sludge as co-substrate yielded higher treatment efficiency than sewage sludge alone. The removal efficiencies measured in terms of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and total chemical oxygen demands (TCOD) ranged from 40% to 75% and 22% to 35%, respectively. Higher SCOD and TCOD removal efficiencies were obtained when higher fractions of brewery sludge was added to the substrate mixture. Removal efficiency was lowest for sewage sludge alone. Measured volatile solid (VS) reduction ranged from 15% to 20%. Adding a higher fraction of brewery sludge to the mixture increased the VS reduction percentage. The biogas production and methane yield also increased with increase in brewery sludge addition to the digester mixture. The methane content present in biogas of each digester exceeded 70% indicating the system was functioning as an anaerobic process. Likewise the ratio of brewery sewage influenced not only the treatment efficiency but also improved quality of treated sludge by lowering number of pathogen (less than 2 MPN/g of dried sludge) and maintaining a high nutrient concentration of nitrogen (N) 3.2-4.2%, phosphorus (P) 1.9-3.2% and potassium (K) 0.95-0.96%. The heavy metals, chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) remaining in digested sludge were present at relatively high levels (Cr 1,849-4,230 and Cu 930-2,526 mg/kg dried sludge). The metals were present as organic matter-bound and sulfide-bound fractions that are not soluble and available. The digested sludge could be safely applied to soil as a plant nutrient source, without fecal coliforms or heavy metals risk. A sludge mixture ratio of 25:75 (sewage:brewery), which generated the higher nutrient concentrations (N=4.22%, P=3.20% and K=0.95%), biogas production and treatment efficiency meet the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) safety guidelines required for agricultural application. Biogas production and methane at the 25:75 ratio (sewage:brewery) yielded highest amount of VSremoved (0.65 m3/kg) and CODremoved (220 L/kg), respectively. PMID:17558772

  18. BEHAVIOR CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS) FOLLOWING A SEWAGE SLUDGE TREATMENT

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    especially Zn. Key words: heavy metals, accumulation, Brassica Napus, urban sludge, industrial sludge. 1. When purifying wastewater, heavy metals accumulate in the sludge. Thus, the sludge contains significant activities, heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cr) actually raise issues of particular concern. These non

  19. Thermoradiation treatment of sewage sludge to eliminate pathogens for safe use as fertilizer and animal feed supplement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. D. Sivinski; W. J. Whitfield

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes a research program titled ''Waste Resources ; Utilization'' using a new technique called thermoradiation to destroy pathogenic ; organisms in sewage sludge. The thermoradiated sewage sludge will be used to ; study the feasibility of use for safe land application as fertilizer and soil ; conditioner and use as a feed supplement for ruminant animals. Experiments to

  20. Influence of sewage sludge application on soil properties and on the distribution and availability of heavy metal fractions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Tsadilas; Theodora Matsi; N. Barbayiannis; D. Dimoyiannis

    1995-01-01

    The influence of sewage sludge application on some soil properties and on the growth of wheat and corn plants were studied with pot experiments. The distribution of heavy metals among the various soil fractions and their availability to plants were also investigated in relation to soil pH. The results showed that sewage sludge application significantly ifluenced pH, organic matter content,

  1. The important role of microwave receptors in bio-fuel production by microwave-induced pyrolysis of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Zuo; Yu Tian; Nanqi Ren

    2011-01-01

    Microwave receptor plays an important role in the microwave pyrolysis of sewage sludge in view of its significant influence on the yield and property of bio-fuel products. The yield and the chemical compositions of bio-fuels (gases and oils) obtained from sewage sludge mixed with different receptors (graphite, residue char, active carbon or silicon carbide) were investigated in this study by

  2. Plant availability of heavy metals in a soil amended with a high dose of sewage sludge under drought conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inmaculada Pascual; M. Carmen Antoln; Carlos Garca; Alfredo Polo; Manuel Snchez-Daz

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of water deficit on soil heavy metal availability and metal uptake by ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.) plants grown in a soil amended with a high dose of rural sewage sludge. Three fertility treatments were applied: sewage sludge (SS), mineral fertilizer (M), and control (C); unamended). The levels of irrigation

  3. Pulverized fuel ash products solve the sewage sludge problems of the wastewater industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk, G. [Rhenipal UK Ltd., Birkenhead (United Kingdom)] [Rhenipal UK Ltd., Birkenhead (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Sewage sludge recycling has become one of the predominant problems of the water industry. Not all types of sewage sludges are able to be recycled to farm land or into composting processes. Pulverized fuel ash is used as a major ingredient in a product called Rhenipal which is used to stabilize sewage sludge for recycling into a material for land reclamation, as a soil conditioner, as cover material for landfill and as a landfill engineering material. This article deals with the results achieved when applying rhenipal in a post-stabilization process to prepare landfill engineering material. The process is currently developed further and can be operated in a pre-stabilization mode, which will further improve the economical results shown for the post-stabilization method in this paper.

  4. Evaluation of the anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and tomato waste at mesophilic temperature.

    PubMed

    Belhadj, Siham; Joute, Yassine; El Bari, Hassan; Serrano, Antonio; Gil, Aida; Siles, Jos A; Chica, Arturo F; Martn, M Angeles

    2014-04-01

    Sewage sludge is a hazardous waste, which must be managed adequately. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion is a widely employed treatment for sewage sludge involving several disadvantages such as low methane yield, poor biodegradability, and nutrient imbalance. Tomato waste was proposed as an easily biodegradable co-substrate to increase the viability of the process in a centralized system. The mixture proportion of sewage sludge and tomato waste evaluated was 95:5 (wet weight), respectively. The stability was maintained within correct parameters in an organic loading rate from 0.4 to 2.2 kg total volatile solids (VS)/m(3) day. Moreover, the methane yield coefficient was 159 l/kg VS (0 C, 1 atm), and the studied mixture showed a high anaerobic biodegradability of 95 % (in VS). Although the ammonia concentration increased until 1,864 23 mg/l, no inhibition phenomenon was determined in the stability variables, methane yield, or kinetics parameters studied. PMID:24682875

  5. The application of the Biolog EcoPlate approach in ecotoxicological evaluation of dairy sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Gryta, Agata; Fr?c, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina

    2014-10-01

    An increasing amount of sewage sludge requires reasonable management, whereas its storage might be environmentally hazardous. Due to the organic matter and nutrient presence in sediments, it may be used as organic fertilizer. However, beyond the valuable contests, sewage sludge can also contain toxic or dangerous ingredients like heavy metals. Therefore, there is a need to develop methods for rapid assessment of sediment ecotoxicity that will determine its possible applicability in agriculture. The Biolog EcoPlate enables the metabolic profile diversity evaluation of microbial populations in environmental samples, which reflects the state of their activity. It is regarded as a modern technology that by means of biological properties allows quick characterization of the ecological status of environmental samples, such as sewage sludge. PMID:25119549

  6. Stabilization of sewage sludge by different biochars towards reducing freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Zieli?ska, Anna; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the effect of various biochars on the content of freely dissolved (Cfree) PAHs in sewage sludge. Apart from the evaluation of biochars obtained from various materials, the study also included the determination of the effects of biochar particle sizes and biochar production temperature on their ability to bind PAHs in sewage sludge. Increase in biochar dose caused a gradual reduction of Cfree PAHs content, but only up to the biochar dose of 5%. Depending on the kind of initial material from which the biochar was produced, the reduction of Cfree PAHs content in sewage sludge varied from 17.4% to 58.0%. Both the temperature and the particle size of biochar had an effect on PAH free concentration reduction. Biochars characterised by a low polarity index (O/C or (O+N)/C) reduced the level of Cfree PAHs better than biochars with a higher polarity index value. PMID:24495539

  7. Long-term study of palladium in road tunnel dust and sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Leopold, K; Maier, M; Weber, S; Schuster, M

    2008-11-01

    The present work summarizes data about palladium contents of road tunnel dust from 1994 to 2007 and sewage sludge ash from 1972 to 2006. Since palladium is emitted from automotive catalytic converters as elemental particles, road dust is quiet useful to study traffic-related Pd emissions. Very high Pd values of up to 516 microg Pd kg(-1) were found in the road dust samples collected in 2007. Heavy metals of all urban emissions, also dental practice effluent, are enriched in sewage sludge ash and thus this matrix is useful for the documentation of palladium emission caused by the use of Pd alloys in dental medicine. In sewage sludge ash highest Pd contents of maximum 460 microg Pd kg(-1) were found in the years 1986-1997. In both matrices correlations of Pd content to Pd demand of industry are discussed. PMID:18355951

  8. Residual and cumulative effects of soil application of sewage sludge on corn productivity.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Rosana Faria; Moriconi, Waldemore; Pazianotto, Ricardo Antnio Almeida

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of frequent and periodic applications of sewage sludge to the soil, on corn productivity. The experiment was carried out as part of an experiment that has been underway since 1999, using two types of sludge. One came from the Barueri Sewage Treatment Station (BS, which receives both household and industrial sludge) and the other came from the Franca Sewage Treatment Station (FS, which receives only household sludge). The Barueri sludge was applied from 1999 up to the agricultural year of 2003/2004. With the exception of the agricultural years of 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, the Franca sludge was applied up to 2008/2009. All the applications were made in November, with the exception of the first one which was made in April 1999. After harvesting the corn, the soil remained fallow until the next cultivation. The experiment was set up as a completely randomized block design with three replications and the following treatments: control without chemical fertilization or sludge application, mineral fertilization, and dose 1 and dose 2 of sludge (Franca and Barueri). The sludges were applied individually. Dose 1 was calculated by considering the recommended N application for corn. Dose 2 was twice dose 1. It was evident from this work that the successive application of sludge to the soil in doses sufficient to reach the productivity desired with the use of nitrogen fertilizers could cause environmental problems due to N losses to the environment and that the residual and cumulative effects should be considered when calculating the application of sludge to soil. PMID:24584586

  9. Prediction of full-scale dewatering results of sewage sludges by the physical water distribution.

    PubMed

    Kopp, J; Dichtl, N

    2001-01-01

    The dewaterability of sewage sludge can be described by the total solids concentration of the sludge cake and the polymer-demand for conditioning. The total solids concentration of the sludge cake depends on the physical water distribution. The various types of water in sewage sludge are mainly distinguished by the type and the intensity of their physical bonding to the solids. In a sewage sludge suspension four different types of water can be distinguished. These are the free water, which is not bound to the particles, the interstitial water, which is bound by capillary forces between the sludge flocs, the surface water, which is bound by adhesive forces and intracellular water. Only the share of free water can be separated during mechanical dewatering. It can be shown, that by thermo-gravimeteric measurement of the free water content, an exact prediction of full-scale dewatering results is possible. By separation of all free water during centrifugation the maximum dewatering result is reached. Polymer conditioning increases the velocity of the sludge water release, but the free water content is not influenced by this process. Furthermore it is not possible, to replace the measuring of the water distribution by other individual parameters such as ignition loss. PMID:11443955

  10. Environmental application for GIS: Assessing Iskandar Malaysia's (IM) sewage sludge for potential biomass resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, M. R.; Shaharuddin, N.; Abdullah Halim, K.

    2014-02-01

    The low carbon scenario could be achieved through the identification of major sectors contributing to the emission of high greenhouse gases (GHG) into the atmosphere. Sewage treatment plant (STP) was ranked as one of the major sectors that emits methane gas (CH4) during treatment processes, including sludge treatment. Sludge treatment is also capital extensive with high operational cost. Thus, sewage sludge has been accepted as a nuisance in STP. However, many has claimed that, sludge produced contain organic matter that has the potential for biomass resource. Thus, it would be such a waste? if sludge are directly disposed of into the landfill without utilizing them at its full potential. In order to do so, it is vital to be able to determine the amount of sludge production. This research was implemented in Iskandar Malaysia regions in the state of Johor. By using GIS tool, the regions that produced the most sewage sludge can be determined, and can be group as critical area. Result shows that Nusajaya produces the most, compared to other regions, which indicated Nusajaya as a densely populated region.

  11. Feedstock quality and growth of bioenergy crops fertilized with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Seleiman, Mahmoud F; Santanen, Arja; Stoddard, Frederick L; Mkel, Pirjo

    2012-11-01

    Sewage sludge is rich in essential plant nutrients, but its use is restricted for crop production due to the pollutants it contains, such as metalloids and heavy metals. Sludge is also very sticky and compact. Therefore, the objectives of this work were to evaluate (1) the impact of various amounts of sludge on bioenergy crop productivity and quality and (2) the use of peat as an adjuvant to reduce the stickiness, density and nutrient richness of the sludge. Three different applications of sludge were examined, high, low (50% of high) and low mixed with an equal volume of peat. The sludge-peat mix increased significantly leaf area and biomass accumulation of maize and hemp. High sludge and sludge-peat mix applications increased significantly the leaf area and biomass accumulation as well as the net photosynthesis of oilseed rape. High sludge application resulted in the highest heavy metal and metalloid accumulation in maize and hemp. Sludge-peat mix resulted in the highest heavy metal and metalloid accumulation in oilseed rape. However, the sludge-peat mix application provided the best feedstock quality in all three crops, since chloride, silicon and sulfur concentrations and ash content in plant material were the lowest of the three sludge treatments. PMID:22897833

  12. HS-SPME\\/GCMS analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted from municipal sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Urszula Kotowska; Maciej ?alikowski; Valery A. Isidorov

    The aim of the research involved identification and semi-quantitative determination of unknown volatile and semi-volatile\\u000a organic compounds emitted to air by sewage sludge formed in the process of municipal wastewater treatment in a sewage treatment\\u000a plant. Samples taken directly after completion of the technological process as well as the sludge stored on the premise of\\u000a the sewage treatment plant were

  13. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in biosolids\\/sewage sludge: the interface between analytical chemistry and regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Jones-Lepp; Rick Stevens

    2007-01-01

    Modern sanitary practices result in large volumes of human waste, as well as domestic and industrial sewage, being collected\\u000a and treated at common collection points, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In recognition of the growing use of sewage\\u000a sludge as fertilizers and soil amendments, and the scarcity of current data regarding the chemical constituents in sewage\\u000a sludge, the US National Research

  14. Chemical removal and recovery of phosphorus from excess sludge in a sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kato, K; Murotani, N; Matsufuji, H; Saitoh, M; Tashiro, Y

    2006-05-01

    We describe a process for the recovery of phosphorus from excess sludge in a sewage treatment plant that currently uses polyaluminium chloride for chemical phosphorus removal. Instead, we employed alkaline dissolution of excess sludge with calcium phosphate precipitation to recover phosphorus from sewage. The recovery ratio for phosphorus from sewage using the phosphorus recovery system is approximately 50%. In addition, the amount of excess sludge in the phosphorus recovery system is approximately half that of conventional chemical phosphorus removal. Alkaline dissolution of excess sludge resulted in dissolution of aluminium into the supernatant. Furthermore, since dissolved aluminium can be reused as a coagulant, the phosphorus recovery system could be used to economize coagulant consumption. Operation and maintenance costs of the phosphorus recovery system are 25.9 U.S. cents per 1 m3 of sewage compared to 32.0 U.S. cents per 1 m3 of sewage for conventional chemical phosphorus removal, representing a decrease of 20% in the operation and maintenance costs. PMID:16749618

  15. Conversion of sewage sludge into lipids by Lipomyces starkeyi for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Angerbauer, C; Siebenhofer, M; Mittelbach, M; Guebitz, G M

    2008-05-01

    The potential of accumulation of lipids by Lipomyces starkeyi when grown on sewage sludge was assessed. On a synthetic medium, accumulation of lipids strongly depended on the C/N ratio. The highest content of lipids was measured at a C/N-ratio of 150 with 68% lipids of the dry matter while at a C/N-ratio of 60 only 40% were accumulated. Within a pH range from 5.0 to 7.5 the highest lipid accumulation was found at pH 5.0 while the highest yield per litre was pH 6.5. Although sewage sludge had no inhibitory effects on growth or accumulation on L. starkeyi when added to synthetic medium, there was no significant growth on untreated sewage sludge. However, pretreatment of sludge by alkaline or acid hydrolysis, thermal or ultrasonic treatment lead to accumulation of lipids by L. starkeyi with highest values of 1 g L(-1) obtained with ultrasound pre-treatment. Based on the content of free fatty acids and phosphorus, lipids accumulated from sewage sludge could serve as a substrate for the production of biodiesel. PMID:17719773

  16. Alteration of a salt marsh bacterial community by fertilization with sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlett, N.V.

    1986-10-01

    The effects of long-term fertilization with sewage sludge on the aerobic, chemoheterotrophic portion of a salt marsh bacterial community were examined. The study site in the Great Sippewissett Marsh, Cap Cod, Mass., consisted of experimental plots that were treated with different amounts of commercial sewage sludge fertilizer or with urea and phosphate. The number of CFUs, percentage of mercury- and cadmium-resistant bacteria, and percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were all increased in the sludge-fertilized plots. Preliminary taxonomic characterization showed fertilization markedly altered the taxonomic distribution and reduced diversity within both the total heterotrophic and the mercury-resistant communities. In control plots, the total heterotrophic community was fairly evenly distributed among taxa and the mercury-resistant community was dominated by Pseudomonas spp. In sludge-fertilized plots, both the total and mercury-resistant communities were dominated by a single Cytophaga sp.

  17. Leaching of ashes from co-combustion of sewage sludge and woodPart I: Recovery of phosphorus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Pettersson; Lars-Erik mand; Britt-Marie Steenari

    2008-01-01

    Combustion of sewage sludge with subsequent recovery of phosphorus is a relatively new sludge treatment option. In the work described in this paper, recovery of phosphorus by acid leaching of fly ashes from co-combustion of sewage sludge with wood in a circulating fluidized bed combustor was investigated. The results showed that it is possible to find a pH range (0.51)

  18. Concentrations and specific loads of UV filters in sewage sludge originating from a monitoring network in Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ccile Plagellat; Thomas Kupper; Reinhard Furrer; Luiz Felippe de Alencastro; Dominique Grandjean; Joseph Tarradellas

    2006-01-01

    Many substances related to human activities end up in wastewater and accumulate in sewage sludge. The present study focuses on the analysis of widely used UV filters 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC), octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC), octocrylene (OC) and octyl-triazone (OT) in sewage sludge originating from a monitoring network in Switzerland. Mean concentrations in stabilised sludge from 14 wastewater treatment plants were 1780, 110,

  19. Heavy metal speciation and phytotoxic effects of three representative sewage sludges for agricultural uses.

    PubMed

    Walter, I; Martnez, F; Cala, V

    2006-02-01

    The environmental impact of sewage sludges depends on the availability and phytotoxicity of their heavy metal. The influence of representative sludges (dewatered anaerobic, pelletization, and composted sludge) on the availability of heavy metals, and their effects on seed germination were compared. The total heavy metal concentrations were below the maximum permitted for land-applied waste and the differences among them were small. The DTPA-extracted metal concentrations were rather different. The sequential extraction of the compost showed a slight increase in Cd and Cu availability, and a decrease in the availability of Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn. Pelletization increased the availability of Ni and slightly reduced that of Cr. The dewatering sludge led to greater availability of Cr and Mn but reduced the concentration of Cd. The three different sludges also affected seed germination and root elongation in different ways. The most serious adverse effects were caused by the dewatered sludge extract. PMID:16112313

  20. Rheological measurements on different types of sewage sludge for pumping design.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Vincenzo; Lotito, Adriana Maria

    2014-05-01

    Sewage sludge pumping could represent an optimal solution to assure adequate treatment of sludge in centralized plants, with a consequent reduction of the environmental impact of sludge disposal (volume, odour, putrescence), because small wastewater treatment plants usually do not provide an adequate treatment due to high costs. An accurate knowledge of rheological parameters is required to compute head loss for pipeline design, but only few data are available. In order to circumvent the problem of the scarcity of sludge rheological data, we have performed tests on different types of sludge, with solids concentration and temperature in the typical range of a conventional wastewater treatment plant. Bingham rheological parameters and sludge thixotropy values have been processed by regression analysis to identify their dependence on solids concentration or temperature. The results of this study allow the definition of guidelines and optimal strategies for designers in order to reduce pumping costs. PMID:24681323

  1. Use of Municipal Sewage Sludge for Improvement of Forest Sites in the Southeast

    SciTech Connect

    Charles R. Berry

    1987-09-01

    In eight field experiments dried municipal sewage sludge was applied to forest sites before planting of seedlings. In all cases, tree growth was faster on sludge-amended plots than on plots that received fertilizer and lime or no amendment. In all studies, concentrations of total nitrogen in the soil were higher on sludge plots than on control or fertilizer plots, even on good forest sites. In seven of the eight studies, concentrations of phosphorus also were higher on sludge plots than on control or fertilizer plots. Nitrogen and phosphorus tended to be higher in foliage from trees growing on sludge plots. Deep subsoiling was beneficial regardless of soil amendment. Where weeds were plentiful at the outset, they became serious competitors on plots receiving sludge.

  2. Evaluation of air pollution abatement systems for multiple-hearth sewage sludge incinerators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Annamraju; R. W. Gerstle; Y. M. Shah; M. L. Arora

    1986-01-01

    Capital and annual costs were calculated for the application of six different air-pollution-control system options to municipal sewage-sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air-pollution equipment - wet scrubbers, fabric filters, and electrostatic precipitators - applied to three different plant sizes (plants incinerating 36, 72, and 300 tons of dry sludge per day

  3. Effects of sewage sludge and toxic metals upon vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbionts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAMF) are common plant symbionts that increase the uptake of water, phosphate and other nutrients into their host plants. Enhanced uptake of ions could be detrimental to plants in sludge-amended soils. This study examined the role and response of VAMF in the uptake of toxic metals (Cu, Cd and Zn) common in sewage sludge. Examination of field-grown

  4. Characterisation of sewage sludge-derived organic matter: lipids and humic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vronique Rveill; Laurence Mansuy; milie Jard; velyne Garnier-Sillam

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of humic substances and lipids extracted from two sewage sludges (S1 and S2) resulting from different wastewater and sludge processes was studied. The humic acids were investigated using elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy and thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation coupled to gas chromatographymass spectrometry (THM-GCMS). The influence of lipid extraction prior to humic fractionation was also tested. The main

  5. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Municipal Sewage Sludge: A Case Study of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shamuyarira, Kudakwashe K.; Gumbo, Jabulani R.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals in high concentrations can cause health and environmental damage. Nanosilver is an emerging heavy metal which has a bright future of use in many applications. Here we report on the levels of silver and other heavy metals in municipal sewage sludge. Five towns in Limpopo province of South Africa were selected and the sludge from their wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was collected and analysed. The acid digested sewage sludge samples were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) methods. The concentrations of silver found were low, but significant, in the range 0.22 to 21.93 mg/kg dry mass. The highest concentration of silver was found in Louis Trichardt town with a concentration of 21.93 0.38 mg/kg dry mass while the lowest was Thohoyandou with a concentration of 6.13 0.12 mg/kg dry mass. A control sludge sample from a pit latrine had trace levels of silver at 0.22 0.01 mg/kg dry mass. The result showed that silver was indeed present in the wastewater sewage sludge and at present there is no DWAF guideline standard. The average Cd concentration was 3.10 mg/kg dry mass for Polokwane municipality. Polokwane and Louis Trichardt municipalities exhibited high levels of Pb, in excess DWAF guidelines, in sludge at 102.83 and 171.87 mg/kg respectfully. In all the WWTPs the zinc and copper concentrations were in excess of DWAF guidelines. The presence of heavy metals in the sewage sludge in excess of DWAF guidelines presents environmental hazards should the sludge be applied as a soil ameliorant. PMID:24595211

  6. Environmental Implication of Soils Amended with Anaerobically Digested Sewage Sludge in Hong Kong

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. C. Wong; K. C. Cheung; M. H. Wong

    2000-01-01

    Rainfall leaching soil column trials wereused to characterize the downward movement ofpotential contaminants through a sandy loam and sandysoil following the application of an anaerobicallydigested sewage sludge at the rates of 10 and 25%(v\\/v). Leachate pH did not vary significantly withsludge application except for sandy loam with 25%sludge, while initial electrical conductivity (EC) anddissolved organic carbon (DOC) increased linearly withsludge

  7. Interlaboratory comparison exercise for the analysis of PCDD/Fs in samples of digested sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Stevens, J L; Green, N J; Bowater, R J; Jones, K C

    2001-12-01

    Five UK laboratories participated in a study designed to explore the principal sources of interlaboratory variation in the analysis of PCDD/Fs in sewage sludge. Samples of wet sludge, dry sludge, toluene extract of sludge and cleaned extract of sludge were prepared by an organising laboratory. The samples were analysed in duplicate by each laboratory along with a solution of PCDD/F standards and reference sediment. Mean coefficients of variation between laboratories were 45% for the wet sludge, 33% for the dry sludge, 32% for the extract of sludge, 36% for the cleaned extract of sludge, 32% for the reference sediment and 28% for the standard solution. The results were subjected to statistical analysis, which showed that there was no specific part of the analysis that introduced a dominant part of the variation. The spread of data generated from the analysis of wet sludge samples was not appreciably greater than the spread for the analysis of cleaned extracts. Thus the drying, extraction and clean up processes in the PCDD/F analysis of wet sludge did not have a dramatic effect on the interlaboratory variation. PMID:11695627

  8. Sewage sludge combustion in the fluidized bed: Comparison of stationary and circulating fluidized bed techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Werther, J.; Ogada, T.; Phillippek, C. [Technical Univ. of Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents results of investigations concerning CO and NO{sub x} emissions during the incineration of different digested sewage sludge samples in stationary and circulating fluidized bed combustors. The stationary fluidized bed combustion rig is 9 m high while the circulating fluidized bed combustor has a total height of 15 m. Both combustors are 100 mm in diameter. The digested sewage sludges originated from different municipal wastewater treatment plants. They were fed into the combustors as either predried granulates with 6--13 wt.-% water contents or as a slurry with water contents between 70 and 80 wt.-%. For comparison, bituminous and brown coals were also investigated. Measurements from both combustors have shown that predried sludges yield much higher NO{sub x} emission levels than coals under equivalent combustion conditions. Combustion of wet sludges resulted in extremely low NO{sub x} emissions compared to predried sludges. Staged combustion of predried sludge granulates proved to be effective for lowering the emissions of NO{sub x}. Experiments with wet sludges showed no significant difference in CO and NO{sub x} emissions between stationary and circulating fluidized bed combustors although with predried sludges and coals, clearly lower NO{sub x} emissions were measured from the circulating fluidized bed test unit.

  9. Simultaneous determination of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in sewage sludge by slurry introduction ICP-OES method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danuta Bara?kiewicz; Anetta Han?; Hanka Gramowska

    2010-01-01

    In order to evaluate the slurry nebulisation method as an alternative method for analysis of sewage sludge, the metal content of sludge samples of different origins was determined. The concentrations of six elements: Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined by introducing the sludge as aslurry into an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Calibration was performed

  10. Phytotoxic effects of sewage sludge extracts on the germination of three plant species.

    PubMed

    Ramrez, Wilson A; Domene, Xavier; Andrs, Pilar; Alcaiz, Josep M

    2008-11-01

    In order to evaluate the ability of three types of extracts to explain the ecotoxicological risk of treated municipal sewage sludges, the OECD 208A germination test was applied using three plants (Lolium perenne L., Brassica rapa L., and Trifolium pratense L.). Three equivalent batches of sludge, remained as dewatered sludge, composted with plant remains and thermally dried, from an anaerobic waste water treatment plant were separated. Samples from these three batches were extracted in water, methanol, and dichloromethane. Plant bioassays were performed and the Germination Index (GI) for the three plants was evaluated once after a period of 10 days. Germination in extracts was always lower than the respective controls. The germination in composted sludge (GI 40.9-86.2) was higher than the dewatered (GI 2.9-45.8), or thermally dried sludges (GI 24.6-64.4). A comparison of the germination between types of extracts showed differences for dewatered sludge with the three plants, where the water and methanol extracts had significantly lower germination than the dichloromethane extract. A higher half maximal effective concentration (EC50) in composted extracts was established, mainly in the water extract (EC50 431-490 g kg(-1)). On the contrary, the germination was strongly inhibited in the water extract of the dewatered sludge (EC50 14 g kg(-1)). The germination was positively correlated with the degree of organic matter stability of the parent sludge, and an inverse correlation was detected for total nitrogen, hydrolysable nitrogen and ammonium content. It is concluded that the phytotoxic effect of the water extract is more closely related to hydrophilic substances rather than lipophilic ones, and care must be taken with dewatered sludge application, especially with their aqueous eluates. Results obtained in this work show the suitability of the use of sludge extracts in ecotoxic assays and emphasize the relevance of sewage sludge stabilization by post-treatment processes. PMID:18651217

  11. Project summary: Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, was required to construct advanced wastewater treatment facilities at the existing Belmont Wastewater Treatment Plant. The most cost effective site for these new treatment facilities was the 10 sludge lagoons containing 420,000 cubic meters (111 million gallons) of digested sewage sludge stored for up to 50 years. The project consisted of the following major tasks: (1) obtaining approval from regulatory agencies; (2) obtaining cooperation of landowners and farmers; (3) removing, transporting, and applying the lagooned sludge to soil; and (4) monitoring the impact on crops.

  12. Determination of linear alkylbenzenesulfonates (LASs) in sewage sludge and carrots by capillary electrophoresisUV detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebeca Alzola; Begoa Pons; David Bravo; Adela Arranz

    2009-01-01

    A method based on capillary zone electrophoresis has been proposed in order to separate and determine four groups of linear alkylbenzenesulfonates in sewage sludge and carrots. The separation was carried out in a silica capillary of 50 cm 75 m at 25 kV using a sodium borate buffer solution of 100 mM which includes 40% of acetonitrile. The detection

  13. Trace metal bioavailability in municipal solid waste and sewage sludge composts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Pichtel; Mary Anderson

    1997-01-01

    A sequential extraction procedure was employed to determine the soil fractions, and assess plant availability of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in a Glynwood silt loam amended with five rates (0, 30, 60, 120 and 240 metric tons\\/ha) of composted municipal solid waste (CMSW) or composted sewage sludge (CSS) cropped to oats (Avena sativa). The application of the composts

  14. Comparative goal-oriented assessment of conventional and alternative sewage sludge treatment options.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Jakob; Rechberger, Helmut

    2010-06-01

    Phosphorous (P) is a limited and non-substitutable resource. Sewage sludge contains significant amounts of P and is therefore a widely applied fertilizer. Due to its organic and inorganic contaminants, sewage sludge is also combusted in industrial facilities as well as in waste incinerators. This study compares five common methods and one novel alternative based on a thermo-chemical process to treat and dispose of sewage sludge with regard to environmental impact, resource recovery, and materials dissipation. The comparison is based on material flow analysis, energy balances, selected LCA impact analysis, and statistical entropy analysis. This work shows that the novel technology combines both advantages of the established practices: organic and inorganic pollutants are either destroyed or removed from the P containing material, and the P returned to the soil exhibits high plant-availability. The novel method also has low emissions. The additional energy requirements should be reduced. However, with regards to sewage sludge P recovery is more important than energy recovery. PMID:20219338

  15. Total concentrations and chemical speciation of heavy metals in liquefaction residues of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingzhong Yuan; Huajun Huang; Guangming Zeng; Hui Li; Jingyu Wang; Chunfei Zhou; Huina Zhu; Xiaokai Pei; Zhifeng Liu; Zhantao Liu

    2011-01-01

    The risk (including bioavailability and eco-toxicity) of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr and Ni) in liquefaction residues (LR) of sewage sludge (SS) was estimated, according to both the speciation of heavy metals and the local environmental characteristics. The amount of organic matters in LR was lower than that in SS, resulting in a smaller calorific value, while the

  16. Determination of mobile heavy metal fraction in soil: Results of a pot experiment with sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enzo Lombi; Martin H. Gerzabek

    1998-01-01

    The development of a method using a chelating resin to assess heavy metal mobility in soil and the first results obtained from a pot experiment with sewage sludge additions were studied. The resin was Chelex 100 with the calcium (Ca)?form of the resin proving to be best suited for the extraction. The efficiency of recovery of the heavy metals from

  17. Influence of sewage sludge compost stability and maturity on carbon and nitrogen mineralization in soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Bernal; A. F. Navarro; M. A. Snchez-Monedero; A. Roig; J. Cegarra

    1998-01-01

    Incubation experiments with soil were made to study C and N mineralization in a sewage sludgecotton waste mixture at different stages of the composting process performed by the Rutgers static pile system. Three composting samples were selected: initial mixture (I); the end of the active phase (E); and the mature compost (M). The CO2-C evolved (as % of added C)

  18. Amendment Free, Mechanically Enhanced Biodrying & Composting of Dewatered Undigested Sewage Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lewis Naylor; Richard Nicoletti; Matthew Calderiso

    Biodrying of manure is not an uncommon practice, but few active sewage sludge projects at full scale have been reported in the literature. During biodrying, heat from the composting microbiology is used to drive off moisture. Pathogen kill can also be accomplished provided the compost energetics support the required temperatures. In some facilities, the operator can choose between retaining the

  19. A study on removal characteristics of copper from aqueous solution by sewage sludge and pomace ashes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bouzid; Z. Elouear; M. Ksibi; M. Feki; A. Montiel

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, the abilities of sewage sludge and pomace ashes to remove copper (Cu2+) ions from aqueous solutions are compared. Batch adsorption experiments were performed in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of these materials. Effect of contact time, solution pH, ash concentration and temperature on the removal of Cu2+ was investigated. The results of batch equilibrium studies

  20. Use of sewage sludge ash in asphaltic paving mixes in hot regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed H. Al Sayed; Ismail M. Madany; A. Rahman M. Buali

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments on the utilization of sewage sludge ash as a replacement for mineral filler in asphaltic paving mixes used in Bahrain. The physical and chemical properties of the waste were studied. Asphaltic concrete mixes containing the waste and a control were prepared. Five percentages by weight of bitumen were employed in order to determine

  1. Stabilization treatment of soft subgrade soil by sewage sludge ash and cement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Chen; Deng-Fong Lin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) is mixed with cement in a fixed ratio of 4:1 for use as a stabilizer to improve the strength of soft, cohesive, subgrade soil. Five different ratios (in wt%: 0%, 2%, 4%, 8%, and 16%) of ISSA\\/cement admixture are mixed with cohesive soil to make soil samples. In order to understand the

  2. Use of sewage sludge ash(SSA)-cement admixtures in mortars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Monz; J. Pay; M. V. Borrachero; A. Crcoles

    1996-01-01

    The chemical composition of sewage sludge ash (SSA) and their sized fractions are studied, some differences in chemical composition are observed. SEM studies show irregular shape of SSA particles and sized fractions, this shape has a decisive influence on workability of mortars. The effect of replacing 15% of portland cement by SSA and their sized fractions: coarse (SSAC) and medium

  3. Characterization of top phase oil obtained from co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and poplar sawdust.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Wu; Jin, Baosheng; Huang, Yaji; Sun, Yu

    2014-01-01

    To research the impact of adding sawdust on top phase oil, a sewage sludge and poplar sawdust co-pyrolysis experiment was performed in a fixed bed. Gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS) was used to analyze the component distribution of top phase oil. Higher heating value, viscosity, water content, and pH of the top phase oil product were determined. The highest top phase oil yield (5.13 wt%) was obtained from the mixture containing 15% poplar sawdust, while the highest oil yield (16.51 wt%) was obtained from 20% poplar sawdust. Top phase oil collected from the 15% mixture also has the largest amount of aliphatics and the highest higher heating value (28.6 MJ/kg). Possible reaction pathways were proposed to explain the increase in the types of phenols present in the top phase oil as the proportion of poplar sawdust used in the mixture increased. It can be concluded that synergetic reactions occurred during co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and poplar sawdust. The results indicate that the high ash content of the sewage sludge may be responsible for the characteristic change in the top phase oil obtained from the mixtures containing different proportions of sewage sludge and poplar sawdust. Consequently, co-pyrolysis of the mixture containing 15 % poplar sawdust can increase the yield and the higher heating value of top phase oil. PMID:24756683

  4. Lightweight properties and pore structure of foamed material made from sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuen-Sheng Wang; Ing-Jia Chiou; Ching-Ho Chen; Davin Wang

    2005-01-01

    Pore structure significantly affects the lightweight characteristics and thermal performance of materials. Therefore, in this study, sewage sludge ash (SSA) was used to make lightweight materials. Physical and chemical properties, and how the mixing proportions affected the foaming behavior were investigated, including the lightweight characteristics and pore structure of the materials produced. The experiments showed that the minimum required cement

  5. Properties and microstructure of lightweight aggregate produced from sintered sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Cheeseman; G. S. Virdi

    2005-01-01

    The properties of lightweight aggregate (LWA) manufactured from the ash produced by fluidised bed incineration of sewage sludge have been investigated. The ash was mixed with a clay binder, formed into approximately spherical pellets and rapidly sintered in a rotary tube furnace at temperatures between 1020 and 1080C. Selected physical properties of sintered ash pellets relevant to use as lightweight

  6. Simultaneous sewage sludge incineration and ash melting using coke as a fuel in Osaka, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Tsunemi, T.; Sasaki, S.

    1985-01-01

    A process that combusts sewage sludge and melts any ash has been demonstrated at the 36 t/d scale in Osaka, Japan. The slag produced from the process has potential beneficial uses as a construction material. The process performance and costs are discussed.

  7. Long-term study of palladium in road tunnel dust and sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Leopold; M. Maier; S. Weber; M. Schuster

    2008-01-01

    The present work summarizes data about palladium contents of road tunnel dust from 1994 to 2007 and sewage sludge ash from 1972 to 2006. Since palladium is emitted from automotive catalytic converters as elemental particles, road dust is quiet useful to study traffic-related Pd emissions. Very high Pd values of up to 516?g Pdkg?1 were found in the road dust

  8. Sewage sludge ash to phosphorus fertiliser: Variables influencing heavy metal removal during thermochemical treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Mattenberger; G. Fraissler; T. Brunner; P. Herk; L. Hermann; I. Obernberger

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge ash by a thermochemical process. The resulting detoxified ash was intended for use as a raw material rich in phosphorus (P) for inorganic fertiliser production. The thermochemical treatment was performed in a rotary kiln where the evaporation of relevant heavy metals was enhanced by

  9. Mechanical and physical properties of cement blended with sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Garcs; M. Prez Carrin; E. Garca-Alcocel; J. Pay; J. Monz; M. V. Borrachero

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the compatibility of sewage sludge ash (SSA) with various types of commercially available cements (CEM I and CEM II types, cements with several proportions of clinker). The behaviour of mortars fabricated with various percentages (1030% by weight) of the cement replaced by SSA has been analyzed in terms of workability, mechanical strength,

  10. A REVIEW OF TECHNIQUES FOR INCINERATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE WITH SOLID WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses the state of the art of co-incineration of municipal refuse and sewage sludge. European and American practice is described. Four co-incineration techniques are evaluated for thermodynamic and economic feasibility; pyrolysis, multiple hearth, direct drying, a...

  11. Adsorption of pesticides by sewage sludge, grape marc, spent mushroom substrate and by amended soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sonia Rodrguez-Cruz; Eliseo Herrero-Hernndez; Jos M. Ordax; Jess M. Marn-Benito; Khalid Draoui; Mara J. Snchez-Martn

    2011-01-01

    A comparative adsorption study of linuron, diazinon and myclobutanil, representing three classes of pesticides, by sewage sludge (SS), grape marc (GM) and spent mushroom substrate (SMS) and soils amended with these residues was carried out. The study assayed the effect of the nature of the residue, soil characteristics, pesticide properties and residue-soil incubation time on adsorption. Soil-residues were incubated outdoors

  12. Adsorption of pesticides by sewage sludge, grape marc, spent mushroom substrate and by amended soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sonia Rodrguez-Cruz; Eliseo Herrero-Hernndez; Jos M. Ordax; Jess M. Marn-Benito; Khalid Draoui; Mara J. Snchez-Martn

    2012-01-01

    A comparative adsorption study of linuron, diazinon and myclobutanil, representing three classes of pesticides, by sewage sludge (SS), grape marc (GM) and spent mushroom substrate (SMS) and soils amended with these residues was carried out. The study assayed the effect of the nature of the residue, soil characteristics, pesticide properties and residue-soil incubation time on adsorption. Soil-residues were incubated outdoors

  13. Land application of sewage sludges: an appraisal of the US regulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Z. Harrison; Murray B. McBride; David R. Bouldin

    1999-01-01

    Current US federal regulations governing the land application of sewage sludges do not appear adequately protective of human health, agricultural productivity or ecological health. US standards are far less protective than those of many European countries and Canadian provinces. This is due to both policy choices such as a 'do no harm' philosophy applied in some northern European countries and

  14. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Bodo [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany); Eder, Christian [CET, Christian Eder Technology, Eduard-Didion Strasse, D-66539 Neunkirchen (Germany); Grziwa, Peter [BISANZ Anlagenbau GmbH, Scheidter Strasse 2, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Horst, Juri [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany)], E-mail: horst@izes.de; Kimmerle, Klaus [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures - gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation - are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes.

  17. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Artificial Soil Solution Chemistry of the Stabilized Sewage Sludge by Alkaline Fly Ash and Mine Tailing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongling Zhang; Lina Sun; Tieheng Sun

    2009-01-01

    Stabilized sewage sludge (SS) by alkaline fly ash (FA) and mine tailing as artificial soil to be applied on the ecological rehabilitation at mining junkyard offers a potential viable utilization of the industrial by-product, as well as solves the shortage of soil resource in mine area. An incubation experiment with different ratio of SS and FA was conducted to evaluate

  19. Antibiotic Resistome and Its Association with Bacterial Communities during Sewage Sludge Composting.

    PubMed

    Su, Jian-Qiang; Wei, Bei; Ou-Yang, Wei-Ying; Huang, Fu-Yi; Zhao, Yi; Xu, Hui-Juan; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-06-16

    Composting is widely used for recycling of urban sewage sludge to improve soil properties, which represents a potential pathway of spreading antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes to soils. However, the dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the underlying mechanisms during sewage sludge composting were not fully explored. Here, we used high-throughput quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene based illumina sequencing to investigate the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities during a lab-scale in-vessel composting of sewage sludge. A total of 156 unique ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were detected encoding resistance to almost all major classes of antibiotics. ARGs were detected with significantly increased abundance and diversity, and distinct patterns, and were enriched during composting. Marked shifts in bacterial community structures and compositions were observed during composting, with Actinobacteria being the dominant phylum at the late phase of composting. The large proportion of Actinobacteria may partially explain the increase of ARGs during composting. ARGs patterns were significantly correlated with bacterial community structures, suggesting that the dynamic of ARGs was strongly affected by bacterial phylogenetic compositions during composting. These results imply that direct application of sewage sludge compost on field may lead to the spread of abundant ARGs in soils. PMID:26018772

  20. Sewage sludge and liquid pig manure as possible sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina S. Hlzel; Karin Schwaiger; Katrin Harms; Helmut Kchenhoff; Anne Kunz; Karsten Meyer; Christa Mller; Johann Bauer

    2010-01-01

    Within the last decades, the environmental spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria has become a topic of concern. In this study, liquid pig manure (n=305) and sewage sludge (n=111) used as agricultural fertilizers between 2002 and 2005 were investigated for the presence of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Bacteria were tested for their resistance against 40 chemotherapeutics

  1. Production of a solid fuel using sewage sludge and spent cooking oil by immersion frying.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhonghua; Zhang, Jing; Li, Zhanyong; Xie, Jian; Mujumdar, Arun S

    2012-12-01

    Sewage sludge and spent cooking oil are two main waste sources of modern Chinese cities. In this paper, the immersion frying method using spent cooking oil as the heating medium was applied to dry and convert wet sewage sludge into a solid fuel. The drying and oil uptake curves were plotted to demonstrate the fry-drying characteristics of the sewage sludge. Parametric studies were carried out to identify the governing parameters in the frying drying operation. It was found that at frying oil temperatures of 140-160C, the wet sewage sludge could be dried completely in 6-9 min and converted into a solid fuel with a high calorific value of 21.55-24.08 MJ/kg. The fuel structure, chemical components, pyrolysis and combustion characteristics were investigated and the experimental results showed the solid fuel had a porous internal structure and a low ignition temperature of 250C due to presence of oil. The frying drying mechanism was also discussed. PMID:23158688

  2. USE OF FLY ASH AND MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE: CHALLENGES, OPPORTUNITIES, AND FUTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilization of coal combustion by-products (CCBP) and municipal by-products, mainly sewage sludge (SS), as agricultural soil amendments is of considerable importance not only as an avenue to dispose these materials but also to explore the potential advantages as source of some plant nutrients and to...

  3. POTENTIAL OF GREENHOUSE GASES REDUCTION BY FUEL CROP CULTIVATION UTILIZING SEWAGE SLUDGE IN JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Ryo; Fukushi, Kensuke

    Potential of greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction was estimated and compared in six scenarios of fuel crop cultivation by utilizing sewage sludge in Japan. Bioethanol from corn and biodiesel fuel from soybean was selected as biofuel produced. When all the sludge discharged from sewage treatment plants in 18 major cities was utilized for soybean cultivation and subsequent biodiesel fuel production, produced biofuel corresponded to 4.0% of GHG emitted from sewage treatment in Japan. On the other hand, cultivation area for fuel crop cultivation was found to be the regulating factor. When fuel crop was cultivated only in abandoned agricultural fields, produced biofuel corresponded to 0.60% and 0.62%, respectively, in the case that corn and soybean was cultivated. Production of biodiesel fuel from soybean was estimated to have more net reduction potential than bioehanol production from corn when sludge production is limited, because required sewage sludge compost was 2.5-times larger in corn although reduction potential per crop area was 2-times larger in bioethanol production from corn.

  4. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SYNTHETIC ASPHALT PRODUCED FROM LIQUEFACTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Direct thermochemical liquefaction of primary undigested municipal sewage sludge was carried out to produce a low molecular weight steam-volatile oil, a high molecular weight synthetic asphalt, and a residual char cake. The latter product is capable of supplying the thermal energ...

  5. Fractal analysis of soil water hysteresis as influenced by sewage sludge application

    E-print Network

    Perfect, Ed

    Fractal analysis of soil water hysteresis as influenced by sewage sludge application G. Ojeda a,, E) and a loamy sand soil (Typic Haplustalf) from central Catalonia (NE Spain) was investigated using fractal analysis. First, we proposed a composite fractal model that covers both the low and high suction regimes

  6. 67 FR 40554 - STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-06-12

    ...of ground water was insignificant due to the extremely low solubility of dioxins in water and negligible leaching of dioxins...from their own farms where sewage sludge is land applied as a fertilizer or soil amendment. Members of such a farm family are at...

  7. BENTHIC DISTRIBUTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE INDICATED BY CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRIGENS AT A DEEP-OCEAN DUMP SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clostridium perfrigens in sediment samples collected at the Deep Water Municipal Sewage Sludge Disposal Site (also called the 106-Mile Site), off the coast of New Jersey, was enumerated. he counts of C. perfrigens found in sediment samples collected within and to the southwest of...

  8. Toxicity testing of wastewater and sewage sludge by biosensors, bioassays and chemical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marinella Farr; Dami Barcel

    2003-01-01

    Toxicity testing has grown steadily in recent years, being a useful tool in environmental risk assessment. This review highlights different bioassays and recently developed biosensors based on acute toxicity measurements. Emphasis is placed on the use of combined approaches involving chemical analysis for the characterization and identification of complex toxic wastewater effluents and sewage sludge. Fractionation schemes that combine sample

  9. DISPERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE DISCHARGED INTO NEW YORK BIGHT. PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA AND LABORATORY ANALYSES - 1975

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume contains data on the dispersion of sewage sludge subsequent to its disposal at a site near the apex of the New York Bight. Cruises were made in May, July, and October, 1975. An optical tracer method was used to measure the water column distribution of waste material f...

  10. DISPERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE DISCHARGED INTO NEW YORK BIGHT. PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA - DECEMBER 1974

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume contains physical oceanographic data collected at the sewage sludge disposal site near the apex of the New York Bight December 18 through 21, 1974. An optical tracer method was used to measure the water column distribution of waste material with time after discharge. ...

  11. Evaluation of Emission of Greenhouse Gases from Soils Amended with Sewage Sludge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increase in concentrations of various greenhouse gases originated by various human activities, including agricultural origin, could contribute to climate change. Anthropogenic activities such as cultivation of flooded rice and application of waste materials, such as sewage sludge which are rich in ...

  12. The influence of composting on the fertilizing value of an aerobic sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Garca; T. Hernandez; F. Costa

    1991-01-01

    The influence of composting on the fertilizing value of an aerobic sewage sludge and its action on ryegrass was studied. Soil P and K contents, cation-exchange capacity (CEC) and CEC\\/total organic carbon incresed with composting, while the percentage of phytotoxic substances diminished. The compost provided useful quantities of organic matter and macronutrients. The addition of uncomposted waste to the soil

  13. EVALUATION OF OXYGEN-ENRICHED MSW/SEWAGE SLUDGE CO-INCINERATION DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides an evaluation of a two-phased demonstration program conducted for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation Program, and the results thereof, of a recently developed method of sewage sludge managemen...

  14. EVALUATION OF OXYGEN-ENRICHED MSW/SEWAGE SLUDGE CO-INCINERATION DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides and evaluation of a two-phased demonstration program conducted for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation Program, and the results thereof, of a recently developed method of sewage sludge management. ...

  15. EVALUATION OF 'WITHIN-VESSEL' SEWAGE SLUDGE COMPOSTING SYSTEMS IN EUROPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives were: (1) To update a review of the state of the art of sewage sludge composting in Europe; (2) to evaluate a European-designed, continuous, thermophilic, mechanical, aerobic, composting system in Germany; and (3) to compare its cost to those of the U.S. Department...

  16. Interactions of pathogens and irritant chemicals in land-applied sewage sludges (biosolids)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L Lewis; David K Gattie; Marc E Novak; Susan Sanchez; Charles Pumphrey

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fertilisation of land with processed sewage sludges, which often contain low levels of pathogens, endotoxins, and trace amounts of industrial and household chemicals, has become common practice in Western Europe, the US, and Canada. Local governments, however, are increasingly restricting or banning the practice in response to residents reporting adverse health effects. These self-reported illnesses have not been studied

  17. INTERACTIONS OF PATHOGENS AND IRRITANT CHEMICALS IN LAND-APPLIED SEWAGE SLUDGES (BIOSOLIDS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID L. LEWIS; DAVID K. GATTIE; MARC E. NOVAK; SUSAN SANCHEZ; CHARLES PUMPHREY

    2003-01-01

    Background Fertilisation ofland with processed sewage sludges, which often contain low levels ofpathogens, endotoxins, and trace amounts of industrial and household chemicals, has become common practice in Western Europe, the US, and Canada. Local governments, however, are increasingly restricting or banning the practice in response to residents reporting adverse health effects. These self-reported illnesses have not been studied and methods

  18. Working to gain public acceptance of sewage sludge composting and use of liquid and dewatered sludge on land

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is (1) to examine those factors that especially spark the resistance and concern of citizens to land utilization and composting of sewage sludge and (2) to characterize essential ingredients that are invariably a part of the most successful systems for reducing the resistance and minimizing the concerns of these citizens. Experiences in the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area will be discussed which show how municipal authorities and/or their agents have worked with citizens. These discussions show how their efforts have either alleviated or increased citizen concern and resistance to sludge utilization and composting.

  19. Potential for land application of contaminated sewage sludge treated with fermented liquid from pineapple wastes.

    PubMed

    Del Mundo Dacera, Dominica; Babel, Sandhya; Parkpian, Preeda

    2009-08-15

    The suitability for land application of anaerobically digested sewage sludge treated with naturally fermented and Aspergillus niger (A. niger) fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes, in terms of changes in the forms and amount of heavy metals and nutrient and pathogen content, were investigated in this study. Leaching studies for fermented liquid at optimum conditions (pH and contact time with best metal removal efficiencies) were carried out for the removal of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn from sewage sludge, with citric acid as a reference. Using the same sludge before and after leaching, sequential fractionation studies were done to observe the effect of treatment on the forms of metals in sludge and their mobility and bioavailability. Results of laboratory scale studies revealed that leaching with all extractants at selected optimum conditions resulted in a decrease in heavy metals and pathogen content of the treated sludge, presence of sufficient amount of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and dominance of residual fractions in most metals, with sludge treated with A. niger, having the best quality. The results, therefore, indicate the high potential of the treated sludge for land application, with no harm from heavy metals released and no toxicity to the soil and groundwater. PMID:19232826

  20. Study on trace metal partitioning in pulverized combustion of bituminous coal and dry sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Cenni, R.; Gerhardt, T.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. for Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology] [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. for Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology; Frandsen, F. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Inst. for Chemical Engineering] [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Inst. for Chemical Engineering

    1998-12-31

    In Germany, the feasibility of co-combustion of sewage sludge in power plants is under evaluation. A study of the influence of co-firing of dry municipal sewage sludge on the behavior of the metals Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, zn during pulverized coal combustion is presented. Sewage sludge contains higher concentrations of the metals listed above than the reference coal, but a lower concentration of Cl, that enhances the volatility of many metals. Experiments were performed in a semi-industrial scale pulverized fuel combustion chamber. Ash was collected at four locations: bottom hopper, air preheater, cyclone, and bag filter. From the bottom hopper to the filter, the particle size decreased and ash particles were progressively enriched in volatile elements. Mass balances of the metals were performed and the enrichment trends on the ash collected at the different locations were calculated. Increasing the sewage sludge share in the blend caused a significant increase in the recovery rate in the solid phase. In spite of that, the calculated concentrations in the flue gas of Hg and zn increased. Sewage sludge co-firing influences the combustion process and the post-combustion environment in many ways. This study focuses on the effect of the different flue gas composition on the condensation temperature of metal species. The system was modeled by assuming thermodynamic equilibrium. The results indicated that the increasing recovery of Zn might be caused by enhanced condensation and the increasing recovery of Hg by adsorption on ash particles. The increasing recovery of the other metals seemed referable to failure in vaporization and it cannot be studied with an equilibrium approach.

  1. The influence of ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles on the toxicity of sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Jo?ko, Izabela; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2013-01-01

    More and more often sewage sludges become the place of deposition of nanoparticles (NPs), the use of which in consumer products is increasing. In turn, the increasing amount of sewage sludges enforces the need for their utilization (e.g. through the application of sludges to the soil). Therefore, the presence of NPs in sewage sludges may create a new threat to the environment. Thus it becomes important to perform evaluation of the toxicity of sewage sludges in the context of their content of NPs. The objective of the study was to estimate the effect of nanoparticles of ZnO (nano-ZnO) and TiO2 (nano-TiO2) and their bulk counterparts (bZnO and bTiO2) on the toxicity of sewage sludges in relation to selected organisms (plants Lepidium sativum and Sinapis alba, and microorganisms Vibrio fischeri and 11 different strains from Microbial Assay for Risk Assessment MARA). The study also involved the estimation of other factors that may have an effect on the phytotoxicity of NPs in sewage sludge: the size of the particles, the dose of the sewage sludge, the time of NPsewage sludge contact and light conditions. The effect of both nano-ZnO and nano-TiO2 on the toxicity of the sludges is dependent on the kind of NPs and their concentration. Sludges containing NPs displayed a different level of toxicity from their bulk counterparts. All of the factors estimated (size of particles, dose of sludge, contact time and light conditions) had a significant effect on the phytotoxicity of NPs which was dependent both on the kind of the NPs and on that of the sewage sludge. Estimation of the leachate toxicity indicated a greater sensitivity of plants to the presence of NPs as compared to the sensitivity of microorganisms. Leachates caused a greater reduction of bioluminescence of V. fischeri in the presence of nano-TiO2 than nano-ZnO. Nano-ZnO caused a reduction of the toxicity of the sewage sludge leachates. PMID:24592447

  2. Bioleaching of metals from sewage sludge: Elemental sulfur recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Ravishankar; J. F. Blais; H. Benmoussa; R. D. Tyagi

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metal leaching by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, one of the most promising sludge detoxification methods, uses elemental sulfur as a microbial energy substrate. The addition of elemental sulfur in a powdered form makes it impossible to recover unused sulfur and can promote microbial reacidification of disposed sludge. Hence, recoverable forms of sulfur are preferred. The purpose of the present study was

  3. EFFECTS ON CATTLE FROM EXPOSURE TO SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils, forages, and cattle grazing on a sludge disposal site were examined for trace metals and persistent organics. Soils at the disposal site had increased concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, and Pb. Forages from sludge applied soils had higher levels of Zn, Cd, Cu, and Ni and lo...

  4. Effects of long-term soil amendment with sewage sludges on soil humic acid thermal and molecular properties.

    PubMed

    Fernndez, Jos M; Hockaday, William C; Plaza, Csar; Polo, Alfredo; Hatcher, Patrick G

    2008-12-01

    Sewage sludges are frequently used as soil amendments due to their high contents of organic matter and nutrients, particularly N and P. However, their effects upon the chemistry of soil humic acids, one of the main components of the soil organic matter, need to be more deeply studied in order to understand the relation between organic matter structure and beneficial soil properties. Two sewage sludges subjected to different types of pre-treatment (composted and thermally dried) with very different chemical compositions were applied for three consecutive years to an agricultural soil under long-term field study. Thermal analysis (TG-DTG-DTA) and solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy were used to compare molecular and structural properties of humic acids isolated from sewage sludges, and to determine changes in amended soils. Thermally dried sewage sludge humic acids showed an important presence of alkyl and O/N-alkyl compounds (70%) while composted sludge humic acids comprised 50% aromatic and carbonyl carbon. In spite of important differences in the initial chemical and thermal properties of the two types of sewage sludges, the chemical and thermal properties of the soil humic acids were quite similar to one another after 3 years of amendment. Long-term application of both sewage sludges resulted in 80-90% enrichment in alkyl carbon and organic nitrogen contents of the soil humic acid fraction. PMID:18805567

  5. Analysis of the combustion of sewage sludge-derived fuel by a thermogravimetric method in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianguo; Du, Xuejuan; Yang, Shihui

    2010-07-01

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge are significant environmental problems in China. The reuse of sewage sludge for fuel could be an effective solution. The aim of this study was to characterize the behavior of sludge-derived fuel during combustion by a thermogravimetric method. The combustion profiles obtained showed four obvious weight loss regions. The results of dynamics analysis showed that first-order reactions together with Arrhenius' law explained reasonably well the different stages of weight loss in the samples. Three temperature regions (162-327 degrees C, 367-445 degrees C, and 559-653 degrees C for sawdust and 162-286 degrees C, 343-532 degrees C, and 609-653 degrees C for coal) in each derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) curve corresponded well with the Arrhenius equation. The reactivity of sludge was lower than that of samples containing sawdust, but higher than that of coal-containing samples. These data demonstrate that sludge-derived fuel has better combustion characteristics than sludge, sawdust, or coal. PMID:20356726

  6. Co-cropping for phyto-separation of zinc and potassium from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi-Tang; Hei, Liang; Wong, J W C; Schwartz, Christophe; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2007-08-01

    The use of sewage sludge as a fertilizer and soil amendment has resulted in high concentrations of heavy metals in the soil limiting its use. The present study was carried out to find the possibility of phyto-separating toxic and beneficial elements from the sludge using suitable plants. Of the five plants tested the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii H achieved the greatest removal of Zn, while shoots of Alocasia marorrhiza accumulated high content of K. Co-cropping these two plants on the sludge verified the previous observations on A. marorrhiza and the shoots of this plant could accumulate more than 120 g K kg(-1) dry matter in the median growth stage. Zn hyperaccumulated in Sedum's shoots to an extent more than 10 g kg(-1) dry matter; K concentrated five to ten times in the Alocasia's shoots which could be used as a good organic-K-fertilizer. Hence, the two elements were simultaneously phytoseparated and could be recycled. Furthermore, cultivation of plants in the sludge resulted in significant decreases in total Zn but kept the favorable agronomic characteristics of the sludge material, such as pH, organic matter content, and NPK concentrations and ameliorated its biological stability. These results suggest that simultaneous phyto-separation of toxic and beneficial elements from sewage sludge are possible by co-cropping using specific plants without the input of any chemicals. PMID:17449086

  7. Protecting effect of recycled urban wastes (sewage sludge and wastewater) on ryegrass against the toxicity of pesticides at high concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pea, Arnzazu; Mingorance, Ma Dolores; Guzmn, Ignacio; Snchez, Lourdes; Fernndez-Espinosa, Antonio J; Valds, Benito; Rossini-Oliva, Sabina

    2014-09-01

    Degraded landscapes, like those from abandoned mine areas, could be restored by revegetating them with appropriate plant species, after correction for acidity and improvement by adding exogenous organic material. Application of urban wastes to large areas of derelict land helps in the sustainable development of this landscape. However, the development of plant species in these soils could require in the future the management of possible pests or diseases by pesticide applications which could also affect plant yield. Therefore, ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was planted in a limed soil from the mining area of Riotinto (SW Spain), using an indoor pot experiment and the effects of amendment with sewage sludge, as well as irrigation with urban wastewater on plant uptake of the insecticide thiacloprid and the fungicide fenarimol were examined. Ryegrass biomass was reduced up to 3-fold by pesticide application. Fenarimol residues were the highest in soil, while those of thiacloprid were lower in soil and higher in ryegrass. Addition of sewage sludge and irrigation with wastewater led to a reduction of pesticide translocation to the aerial plant parts, representing a lower hazard to ryegrass quality grown in this mine soil. PMID:24797639

  8. Biological hydrogen production by anaerobic digestion of food waste and sewage sludge treated using various pretreatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungjin; Choi, Kwangkeun; Kim, Jong-Oh; Chung, Jinwook

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance the efficiency of anaerobic co-digestion with sewage sludge using pretreatment technologies and food waste. We studied the effects of various pretreatment methods (thermal, chemical, ultrasonic, and their combination) on hydrogen production and the characteristics of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) using sewage sludge alone and a mixture of sewage sludge and food waste. The pretreatment combination of alkalization and ultrasonication performed best, effecting a high solubilization rate and high hydrogen production (13.8mL H2/g VSSconsumed). At a food waste:pretreated sewage sludge ratio of 2:1 in the mixture, the peak hydrogen production value was 5.0L H2/L/d. As the production of hydrogen increased, propionate levels fell but butyrate concentrations rose gradually. PMID:23389715

  9. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    During second quarter 1995, samples from monitoring wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were analyzed for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) samples were analyzed for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 12,076. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permits. There were no constituents which exceeded the SCDHEC final Primary Drinking Water Standard in any well from the H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. There were also no constituents which were above the SRS Flag 2 criteria in any well at the three sites during second quarter 1995.

  10. Effect of organic calcium compounds on combustion characteristics of rice husk, sewage sludge, and bituminous coal: thermogravimetric investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lihui; Duan, Feng; Huang, Yaji

    2015-04-01

    Experiments were conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer to assess the enhancement of combustion characteristics of different solid fuels blended with organic calcium compounds (OCCs). Rice husk, sewage sludge, and bituminous coal, and two OCC were used in this study. Effect of different mole ratios of calcium to sulfur (Ca/S ratio) on the combustion characteristics were also investigated. Results indicated that combustion performance indexes for bituminous coal impregnated by OCC were improved, however, an inverse trend was found for sewage sludge because sewage sludge has lower ignition temperature and higher volatile matter content compared to those of OCC. For rice husk, effect of added OCC on the combustion characteristics is not obvious. Different solid fuels show different combustion characteristics with increases of Ca/S ratio. The maximum combustion performance indexes appear at Ca/S ratios of 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 for OCC blended with Shenhua coal, rice husk, and sewage sludge, respectively. PMID:25638405

  11. Resource recycling through artificial lightweight aggregates from sewage sludge and derived ash using boric acid flux to lower co-melting temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao-Hua Hu; Shen-Chih Hu; Yen-Pei Fu

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on artificial lightweight aggregates (ALWAs) formed from sewage sludge and ash at lowered co-melting temperatures using boric acid as the fluxing agent. The weight percentages of boric acid in the conditioned mixtures of sludge and ash were 13% and 22%, respectively. The ALWA derived from sewage sludge was synthesized under the following conditions: preheating at 400 C

  12. Occurrence of Listeria sp. and L. monocytogenes in sewage sludge used for land application: effect of dewatering, liming and storage in tank on survival of Listeria species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Garrec; F Picard-Bonnaud; A. M Pourcher

    2003-01-01

    The application of sewage sludge to agricultural land is widely used in France. To determine the impact of sludge treatments, concentrations of Listeria sp., Listeria monocytogenes and faecal indicators were monitored in five types of sludge from three sewage treatment plants in Angers (France) and its suburbs over a 1-year period. On the whole, bacteria were reduced in numbers through

  13. Production of pyrolytic liquids from industrial sewage sludges in an induction-heating reactor.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Tien; Chang, Jeng-Hung; Hsien, Kuo-Jung; Chang, Yuan-Ming

    2009-01-01

    With the application of induction-heating, the pyrolytic experiments have been carried out for three sewage sludges from the food processing factories in an externally heated fixed-bed reactor. The thermochemical characteristics of sludge samples were first analyzed. The results indicated that the calorific value had about 15 MJ/kg on an average, suggesting that it had a potential for biomass energy source. However, its nitrogen concentration was relatively high. From the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves, it showed that the pyrolysis reaction can be almost finished in the temperature range of 450-750 degrees C. The yields of resulting liquid and char products from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge were discussed for examining the effects of pyrolysis temperature (500-800 degrees C), heating rate (200-500 degrees C/min), and holding time (1-8 min). Overall, the variation of yield was not so significant in the experimental conditions for three sewage sludges. All results of the resulting liquid products analyzed by elemental analyzer, pH meter, Karl-Fischer moisture titrator and bomb calorimeter were in consistence with those analyses by FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the pyrolysis liquid products contained large amounts of water (>73% by weight) mostly derived from the bound water in the biosludge feedstocks and the condensation reactions during the pyrolysis reaction, and fewer contents of oxygenated hydrocarbons composing of carbonyl and nitrogen-containing groups, resulting in low pH and low calorific values. PMID:18656347

  14. Occurrence and point source characterization of perfluoroalkyl acids in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Alder, Alfredo C; van der Voet, Juergen

    2015-06-01

    The occurrence and levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) emitted from specific pollution sources into the aquatic environment in Switzerland were studied using digested sewage sludges from 45 wastewater treatment plants in catchments containing a wide range of potential industrial emitters. Concentrations of individual PFAAs show a high spatial and temporal variability, which infers different contributions from industrial technologies and activities. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was generally the predominant PFAA with concentrations varying between 4 and 2440?gkg(-1) (median 75?gkg(-1)). Elevated emissions were especially observed in catchments capturing discharges from metal plating industries (median 82?gkg(-1)), aqueous firefighting foams (median 215?gkg(-1)) and landfill leachates (median 107?gkg(-1)). Some elevated perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) levels could be attributed to emissions from textile finishing industries with concentrations up to 233?gkg(-1) in sewage sludge. Assuming sorption to sludge for PFOS and PFCAs of 15% and 2%, respectively, concentrations in wastewater effluents up to the low ?gL(-1) level were estimated. Even if wastewater may be expected to be diluted between 10 and 100 times by the receiving waters, elevated concentrations may be reached at specific locations. Although sewage sludge is a minor compartment for PFAAs in WWTPs, these investigations are helpful for the identification of hot-spots from industrial emitters as well as to estimate monthly average concentrations in wastewater. PMID:25176581

  15. Addressing Uncertainty in the ISCORS Multimedia Radiological Dose Assessment of Municipal Sewage Sludge and Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, W. A.; Bachmaier, J.; Bastian, R.; Hogan, R.; Lenhart, T.; Schmidt, D.; Wolbarst, A.; Wood, R.; Yu, C.

    2002-05-01

    Managing municipal wastewater at publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) leads to the production of considerable amounts of residual solid material, which is known as sewage sludge or biosolids. If the wastewater entering a POTW contains radioactive material, then the treatment process may concentrate radionuclides in the sludge, leading to possible exposure of the general public or the POTW workers. The Sewage Sludge Subcommittee of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS), which consists of representatives from the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Energy, and several other federal, state, and local agencies, is developing guidance for POTWs on the management of sewage sludge that may contain radioactive materials. As part of this effort, they are conducting an assessment of potential radiation exposures using the Department of Energy's RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) family of computer codes developed by Argonne National Laboratory. This poster describes several approaches used by the Subcommittee to address the uncertainties associated with their assessment. For instance, uncertainties in the source term are addressed through a combination of analytic and deterministic computer code calculations. Uncertainties in the exposure pathways are addressed through the specification of a number of hypothetical scenarios, some of which can be scaled to address changes in exposure parameters. In addition, the uncertainty in some physical and behavioral parameters are addressed through probabilistic methods.

  16. Experimental Research of the Oxygen-Enriched Combustion of Sewage Sludge and Coal in CFB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, S. W.; Lu, X. F.; Liu, H. Z.

    Sewage sludge is the by-products of sewage treatment, and it is a fuel of high moisture, high ash and low caloric. Oxygen-enriched combustion technology is one of the new and clean coal combustion technologies that can control pollutant emission, which makes CO2 separation, SO2 treatment become easier, and NOx emission reduced. In this paper, we carried out the experimental research on the advantages of oxygen-enriched combustion and the characteristics of sewage sludge in a CFB incinerator that the diameter of the furnace is 100 mm, It is an important foundation for the industrialized application of the oxygen-enriched combustion of sewage sludge and coal in CFB. Experimental analyzed on the combustion characteristics of three conditions in the oxygen concentration of 21%35%, which were the weight ratio of coal and sludge were 1?1, 1?2 and also the coal was given. Furthermore, the change of gas composition along with the change of oxygen content and the temperature of dense phase region was analyzed. The results showed that the combustion characteristics differ from the different mixing rate between coal and sludge in different oxygen atmosphere, when the fluidized air velocity was 1.56 m/s1.88 m/s, the combustion stability; When the amount of the fuel was constant, as the increase of the oxygen contents in the experimental atmosphere, the total air volume decreased, the furnace temperature increased gradually, the concentration of SO2 and NOx showed increasing trend, which is beneficial to the removal of SO2; The concentration of NOx was increased gradually as temperature of the fluidized bed increased.

  17. Contrasting effects of sewage sludge and commercial fertilizer on egg to adult development of two herbivorous insect species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirk J. Larsen; Amy L. Litsch; Susan R. Brewer; Douglas H. Taylor

    1994-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge containing heavy metals had a toxic effect on the development of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), one of two herbivorous insects commonly found in an Ohio old-field which had been subjected to long-term sewage sludge application. Soils were removed in 1992 from an old-field following 11 years of heavy nutrient enrichment (1978 to 1988) with

  18. Nematode communities under stress: the long-term effects of heavy metals in soil treated with sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Slavka S. Georgieva; Steve P. McGrath; David J. Hooper; Brian S. Chambers

    2002-01-01

    The long-term effects of Ni, Zn+Ni, Cu, Zn+Cu and Zn on the nematode communities in soil treated with sewage sludge were studied in an agroecosystem. The soil was a sandy loam with 9% clay, 1.64.0% organic matter (OM) and pH 5.87.2. Sewage sludge, artificially enriched with four concentrations of each heavy metal or combinations was applied in 1982 and again

  19. Simultaneous sorption of Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, and Cr on soils treated with sewage sludge supernatant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suduan Gao; William J. Walker; RANDY A. DAHLGREN I; Jeff Bold

    1997-01-01

    Disposal of sewage sludge creates the potential for heavy metal accumulation in the environment. This study assessed nine\\u000a soils currently used as Dedicated Land Disposal units (DLDs) for treatment and disposal of municipal sewage sludge in the\\u000a vicinity of Sacramento, California. Adsorption characteristics of these soils for Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, and Cr were studied\\u000a by simultaneously mixing these

  20. Determination of Sources and Emissions of Persistent Organic Contaminants by Means of Sewage Sludge: Results from a Monitoring Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Kupper; Luiz Felippe de Alencastro; Jean-Daniel Berset

    \\u000a Sewage sludge contains a plethora of organic pollutants. In the present chapter, the experiences with respect to the applicability\\u000a of sewage sludge as a matrix for the monitoring of persistent lipophilic contaminants released from the anthroposphere are\\u000a reported and discussed. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides,\\u000a phthalates, UV filters, biocides, synthetic fragrances, polybrominated flame retardants (BFRs) and

  1. Stability of Selected PAHs in Sewage Sludge/ Stabilno?? Wybranych Wwa W Osadach ?ciekowych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    W?odarczyk-Maku?a, Maria

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the investigations was to estimate the half-life of selected PAHs in sewage sludge. Five hydrocarbons selected from 16 PAHs- EPA were chosen. In this study, the quantity changes in the concentration 3- and 4-ring of PAHs in sewage sludges were investigated. Sewage sludges were stored under aerobic conditions for 12 weeks. At the same time the sewage sludges with the added sodium azide, in order to deactivate the microorganisms (abiotic samples), were also stored. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to qualify and quantify PAHs in 2-week intervals. Sewage sludges were taken from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Under experimental conditions the half-lives of individual compounds were diversed. In biotic samples halflife of hydrocarbons was in the range of 19 to 368 days. Half-life of PAHs in abiotic sewage sludges was in the range of 31 to 2961 days. The most persistent were phenanthrene. Celem bada? by?a ocena trwa?o?ci WWA w warunkach sk?adowania poprzez wyznaczenie czasu po?owicznego rozpadu. Okre?lono zmiany ilo?ciowe WWA w osadach przechowywanych w warunkach tlenowych przez 12 tygodni. W tych samych warunkach pozostawa?y tak?e osady, w ktrych zahamowano aktywno?? mikroorganizmw poprzez dodatek azydku sodu. Ilo?ciow? analiz? WWA prowadzono z wykorzystaniem zestawu GC-MS w odst?pach 2-tygodniowych rwnolegle w osadach biotycznych i abiotycznych. Oznaczano pi?? WWA (fluoren, fenentren, antracen, fluoranten, piren), ktre znajduj? si? w?rd 16 zwi?zkw podanych na li?cie EPA. Osady pobrano dwukrotnie z oczyszczalni ?ciekw komunalnych, ktre w praktyce kierowane s? na sk?adowisko. Zawarto?? pocz?tkowa WWA w osadach by?a na poziomie 346?g/kg.s.m. W warunkach prowadzonego eksperymentu czas po?owicznego rozk?adu by? zr?nicowany dla poszczeglnych zwi?zkw. W osadach aktywnych biologicznie czas po?owicznego rozpadu badanych w?glowodorw by? w granicach od 19 do 368 db. Czas po?owicznego rozpadu wyznaczony dla WWA w osadach nieaktywnych biologicznie pozostawa? w zakresie od 31 do 2961 db.

  2. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yuancai; Chen, Yuancai; Song, Wenzhe; Hu, Yongyou

    2014-09-15

    Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1-0.2 mgL(-1)) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH4/hg VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO2/hg VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic condition and PCP on microbial community. Furthermore, nucleotide sequencing indicated that the main microorganisms for PCP degradation might be related to Actinobacterium and Sphingomonas. These results provided insights into situ bioremediation of environments contaminated by PCP and had practical implications for the strategies of PCP degradation. PMID:25151236

  3. Occurrence, distribution and potential affecting factors of antibiotics in sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plants in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhui; Shi, Yali; Gao, Lihong; Liu, Jiemin; Cai, Yaqi

    2013-02-15

    The occurrence and distribution of eight quinolones, nine sulfonamides, and five macrolides were investigated in sewage sludge from 45 wastewater treatment plants in 23 cities in China. Among all the antibiotics considered, quinolones were the dominant antibiotics detected in all samples [total concentrations up to 8905 ?g/kg, dry weight (dw)], followed by macrolides (85.1 ?g/kg, dw), and sulfonamides (22.7 ?g/kg, dw). High concentrations of quinolones in sewage sludge indicated that antibiotics are widely used and extensive pollutants in China. Significant differences were observed for the total concentrations of antibiotics in sludge samples among the 45 WWTPs. To evaluate the potential factors affecting the antibiotic levels in sewage sludge, wastewater and sludge characteristics, as well as the operational conditions and treatment techniques in WWTPs were investigated. The results indicated that the antibiotic levels in sewage sludge depend to a great extent on wastewater characteristics. Significant correlation between total organic carbon (TOC) and total concentrations of antibiotics was also found in studied WWTPs, indicating that TOC could affect the sludge adsorption capability to the antibiotics to some extent. Moreover, the relation between treatment techniques and the total concentrations of antibiotics in sludge showed that antibiotic levels in sludge increased with longer solid retention time. PMID:23340024

  4. Characterization of sewage sludge and the use of brine shrimp for toxicity test

    SciTech Connect

    Pun, K.C.; Cheung, R.Y.H. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry; Wong, M.H. [Hong Kong Baptist Univ. (Hong Kong). Dept. of Biology

    1995-12-31

    Heavy metal contents (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) of digested sludges, collected from 4 sewage treatment works in Hong Kong were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, after sequentially extracted by 1 M KNO{sub 3}, 0.5 M KF, 0.1 M Na{sub 4}, P{sub 2}, O{sub 7} 0.1 M EDTA and 6 M HNO{sub 3} It was found that the major forms of Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were in the sulfide phase, organically bound phase, adsorbed phase and carbonate phase respectively. Nauplii larvae of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) was then used as bioindicator to test the toxicity, of the digested sludges. 20 individuals were placed into 1 liter seawater containing whole sample of the types of digested sludges at different concentrations, The toxicity of the 4 sludges, according to 48h-LC 50, were ranked as follows YL > TP > ST > SWH.

  5. Atmospheric emissions of elements or particles from the parkway sewage-sludge incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, R.R.; Zoller, W.H.; Gorden, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    Concentrations of about 30 elements were measured in dry sludge, fly ash, and suspended particulate matter from the stack of a fluidized-bed sewage incinerator equipped with a Centuri scrubber, a secondary scrubber, a gas cooler, and a demister. Although there is some enrichment of volatile elements on the suspended particles with respect to the sludge, the particulate emissions of elements observed in this study are quite small compared with other sources, e.g., the following: Pb, 2g/day; Cd, 0.17 g/day; Se 0.1 g/day; and Sb, 0.028 g/day from a sludge reactor burning approximately 600 kg of sludge per hour. Based on previous work the most significant of the toxic elements measured from this source is Hg vapor at a rate of approximately 50 g/day.

  6. Chesapeake Bay nutrient pollution: contribution from the land application of sewage sludge in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Land, Lynton S

    2012-11-01

    Human health concerns and the dissemination of anthropogenic substances with unknown consequences are the reasons most often given why disposal of municipal sewage sludge in landfills or using the organic waste as biofuel is preferable to land application. But no "fertilizer" causes more nitrogen pollution than sludge when applied according to Virginia law. Poultry litter is the only other "fertilizer" that causes more phosphorus pollution than sludge. Cost savings by the few farmers in Virginia who use sludge are far less than the costs of the nitrogen pollution they cause. A ban on the land application of all forms of animal waste is very cost-effective and would reduce Chesapeake Bay nutrient pollution by 25%. PMID:22831861

  7. Residual effects of sewage-sludge application on plant and soil-profile chemical composition

    SciTech Connect

    Hue, N.V.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term effects on plant and soil-profile chemical composition imposed by a residential sewage sludge were studied on an Oxisol from Hawaii. Sludge was applied at 0, 45, 90, and 180 Mg/ha in 1983. An NPK-fertilized treatment was included for comparison. Sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) was grown as a test crop in the 1983-84 and 1986-87 seasons. Soil samples for chemical analysis were taken in 1987 at three depths: 0-23 cm, 23-46 cm, and 46-69 cm. Beneficial effects of sludge, measured 3 years after application (beginning of the 1986's planting), were evident by large yield increases on sludge-amended soils relative to the unamended and the NPK-fertilized soils. The first cutting produced approximately 5 Mg/ha of dry matter from the sludge treatments, regardless of rate, as compared with 3 and 1.5 Mg/ha from the NPK and the 0 treatments. Regrowths showed similar effect, though less dramatic; average yields were 2.6 Mg/ha with sludge and 1.6 Mg/ha without. Heavy-metal concentrations in plants were generally unaffected by sludge applications; probably because (i) heavy-metal contents of the sludge were low, and (ii) soil pH was increased by sludge. Remarkable increases in pH, exchangeable Ca and extractable P, and resultant decreases in exchangeable Al, in all three soil layers of sludge-amended soils suggest that surface application of a low heavy-metal sludge could serve to correct subsoil acidity and enhance subsoil P availability.

  8. Modelling nitrogen leaching from sewage sludge application to arable land in the Lombardy region (northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Perego, Alessia; Acutis, Marco

    2013-09-01

    Sewage sludge can be used as fertiliser, offering the possibility of safely recycling this waste product as a resource in agricultural applications. As the environmental concerns related to waste recycling in agricultural applications are well-known, restrictions on the use of sewage sludge have been implemented by the EU and local authorities. This work aimed to evaluate the nitrogen leaching associated with the application of sludge and the effectiveness of the temporal restrictions on its application implemented to safeguard the environment in the Lombardy region of northern Italy (120 days in Nitrate Vulnerable Zones and 90 days elsewhere) using the CropSyst model which was first validated. The effects of fertilisation using four different sludge types on N leaching were simulated at five sites under cultivation with maize and rice crops; six different timing schemes for sludge application were tested, three of which involved dates that were in agreement (AT) with the regulation, while the other three were not in agreement (NAT). We detected a significant effect of the sludge type and application timing, whereas the effect of their interaction was never significant. The mean annual leaching was 22 to 154 kg N ha(-1). The higher the ammonium N content in the sludge was, the greater the potential for N leaching was found to be. For the maize crop, the distribution of sludge in the late fall period resulted in significantly greater N leaching (61 kg N ha(-1)) and led to lower yields (9 t DM ha(-1)) compared to late winter fertilisation (49 kg N ha(-1); 10 t DM ha(-1)), whereas no differences in N leaching or yield were detected between AT and NAT, which was also observed for the rice crop. Therefore, the applied temporal constraints did not always appear to be advantageous for protecting the environment from leaching. PMID:23751334

  9. EU landfill waste acceptance criteria and EU Hazardous Waste Directive compliance testing of incinerated sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Donatello; M. Tyrer; C. R. Cheeseman

    2010-01-01

    A hazardous waste assessment has been completed on ash samples obtained from seven sewage sludge incinerators operating in the UK, using the methods recommended in the EU Hazardous Waste Directive. Using these methods, the assumed speciation of zinc (Zn) ultimately determines if the samples are hazardous due to ecotoxicity hazard. Leaching test results showed that two of the seven sewage

  10. Infrared wave analysis after hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitation as effective method of confirming sewage sludge destruction.

    PubMed

    Gr?bel, Klaudiusz; Machnicka, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of disintegration of sewage sludge cells microorganisms were characterized using biochemical parameters such as COD, phosphate, ammonium nitrogen and proteins. The investigated process was additionally assessed using the coefficient DD (Degree of Disintegration). It has been demonstrated that a 30-min of hydrodynamic and ultrasonic disintegration causes the soluble COD value increased about 300 mg /L and 190 mg /L (average), while the degree of disintegration reached 24% and 21%, respectively. The efficiency of sewage sludge hydrodynamic and ultrasonic disintegration was confirmed by increased release of phosphate (V) (from 4 to 54 mg PO?(3-) /L and to 50 mg PO?(3-) /L, respectively), ammonium nitrogen (from 1.5 to 4 mg N-NH?(+) /L and to 3.5 mg N-NH?(+) /L, respectively) and proteins (from 5 to 70 mg/L and to 60 mg/L, respectively). The effectiveness of surplus activated sludge disintegration was tested in the infrared spectrum. Changes in absorbance at the specified wavelength attest to a release of i.e., amines, amino acids, amide groups (proteins), phosphates, ammonium salts of carboxylic acid, etc. during disintegration time. Revealing these chemical groups in over-sludge liquids attests to a destructive influence of hydrodynamic and ultrasonic cavitation on activated sludge microorganisms and effective cells lysis. PMID:24117089

  11. Antibacterial potency of housefly larvae extract from sewage sludge through bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chaocheng; Zhou, Lixiang

    2013-09-01

    Use of the fly to convert sewage sludge into nutrient-rich soil conditioner and amendment is an attractive approach for sludge bioconversion. During this process, fecal coliforms, an indicating pathogen, in sludge were reduced to 5.3 x 10(2) most probable number/g dry solid from initial 3.32 x 10(6) MPN/g dry solid. It was also found that the extract of larvae grown in sludge during bioconversion have an observable inhibitory effect against bacteria compared to larvae grown in wheat bran as measured by minimum bacterial concentration tests. In vitro antimicrobial assay tests over time also showed that the extract had strong inhibitory efficiencies of ca. 99% against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens, while the efficiency was 69% and 57% against Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively. The observed pathogenic bacterial cell membrane damage was found to be responsible for the phenomenon mentioned above, with nuclear acids leaching out quickly and alkaline phosphatase increasing in the outer membrane, followed by an increase of beta-galactosidase in the inner membrane. Clearly, housefly larvae extract from sewage sludge through bioconversion possesses antibacterial potency against pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24520734

  12. Environmental assessment of supercritical water oxidation and other sewage sludge handling options.

    PubMed

    Svanstrm, Magdalena; Frling, Morgan; Olofsson, Mattias; Lundin, Margareta

    2005-08-01

    Sustainable development relies on the eco-efficient use of all flows in society; more value created out of each resource unit. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) can be used for treatment of wet organic waste. The technology has been under development for over 20 years but has not yet been fully commercialized. SCWO allows for complete oxidation of all organics in sewage sludge and almost complete recovery of the inherent energy, essentially without harmful emissions. In this paper, a life-cycle assessment (LCA) of sewage sludge SCWO (Aqua-Critox) is presented and the results are compared with LCA results for other sludge handling options: agricultural use, co-incineration with municipal solid waste, incineration with subsequent phosphorus extraction (Bio-Con) and sludge fractionation with phosphorus recovery (Cambi-KREPRO). For SCWO, beneficial utilization of the heat of reaction is of crucial importance for the outcome. The electricity consumed by pumping and the nitrous oxide produced are other important parameters. The best sludge handling option from an environmental point of view depends on what aspect is considered more important in the impact assessment. Regarding global warming, the energy recovery methods perform better than agricultural use. PMID:16200986

  13. Beneficial uses of nuclear byproducts/sewage sludge irradiation project. Progress report, October 1981-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Zak, B.D. (ed.)

    1982-12-01

    A cooperative agreement was made between Albuquerque and DOE during FY81 for sewage sludge irradiation in upgrading the sewage treatment facilities. Other potential sites for implementation of sludge irradiation technology were also considered. Sludge was irradiated in the SIDSS for agronomy and animal feeding experiments. Sludge was also irradiated for use on turf areas. Cooperative work was also performed on grapefruit irradiation for fruit fly disinfestation, and on irradiation of sugar cane waste (bagasse) for enhanced ruminant digestibility. Preliminary design work began on a shipping cask to accomodate WESF Cs-137 capsules. The shielding performance, steady-state thermal response, and response to specified regulatory accident sequences have been evaluated. Work has been initiated on pathogen survival and post-irradiation pathogen behavior. Agronomy field, greenhouse, and soil chemistry studies continue. Various field experiments are ongoing. The fifth year of a five-year program to evaluate the potential use of a sludge product as a range feed supplement for cows is now in its fifth year. In agricultural economics, a preliminary marketing plan has been prepared for Albuquerque.

  14. Human pathogenic viruses at sewage sludge disposal sites in the Middle Atlantic region.

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, S M; Adams, W N; O'Malley, M L; Lear, D W

    1984-01-01

    Human enteric viruses were detected in samples of water, crabs, and bottom sediments obtained from two sewage sludge disposal sites in the Atlantic Ocean. Viruses were isolated from sediments 17 months after the cessation of sludge dumping. These findings indicate that, under natural conditions, viruses can survive for a long period of time in the marine environment and that they may present potential public health problems to humans using these resources for food and recreation. The isolation of viruses in the absence of fecal indicator bacteria reinforces previous observations on the inadequacy of these bacteria for predicting the virological quality of water and shellfish. PMID:6334495

  15. Devolatilization and ash comminution of two different sewage sludges under fluidized bed combustion conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Solimene, R.; Urciuolo, M.; Cammarota, A.; Chirone, R. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione (IRC) - CNR, Napoli (Italy); Salatino, P. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione (IRC) - CNR, Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Damonte, G.; Donati, C.; Puglisi, G. [ECODECO Gruppo A2A, Giussago (PV) (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Two different wet sewage sludges have been characterized under fluidized bed combustion conditions with reference to their devolatilization behavior and ash comminution with the aid of different and complementary experimental protocols. Analysis of the devolatilization process allowed to determine the size of fuel particle able to achieve effective lateral spreading of the volatile matter across the cross-section of medium-scale combustors. Primary fragmentation and primary ash particle characterization pointed out the formation of a significant amount of relatively large fragments. The mechanical properties of these fragments have been characterized by means of elutriation/abrasion tests using both quartz and sludge ash beds. (author)

  16. Mass balance of anionic surfactants through up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket based sewage treatment plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arvind Kumar Mungray; Pradeep Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The outcome of a 21-month monitoring study on anionic surfactants (AS) at five (2770ML\\/d) up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) based sewage treatment plants (STPs) is described. The average removals of AS were around 830%. Appreciable concentrations of AS were being discharged to the watercourse (average 4.30mg\\/L; range 3.604.91mg\\/L). On an average dried sludge contained 1452mg AS\\/kg dry weight. Mass balance

  17. Integration of NIRS and PCA techniques for the process monitoring of a sewage sludge anaerobic digester.

    PubMed

    Reed, James P; Devlin, Desmond; Esteves, Sandra R R; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan J

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the use of Hotelling's T(2) control charts as the basis of a process monitor for sewage sludge anaerobic digestion. Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy was used to produce partial least squares regression models of volatile fatty acids, bicarbonate alkalinity and volatile solids. These were utilised in a series of principle component analysis models along with spectral data from digestate and feedstock samples to produce a pseudo steady state model, which was then used with an independent test set to evaluate the system. The system was able to identify disturbances to the digester due to a temporary alteration of the type of feedstock to the digester and separately, halving of the hydraulic retention time of the digester. It could also provide advance warning of disturbances to the digester. This technique could be used to improve the performance of sewage sludge anaerobic digesters by enabling optimisation of the process. PMID:23454801

  18. Gamma-ray-computed tomography to investigate compaction on sewage-sludge-treated soil.

    PubMed

    Pires, Luiz F; de Macedo, Jose R; de Souza, Manoel D; Bacchi, Osny O S; Reichardt, Klaus

    2003-07-01

    Soil compaction is one of the fundamental parameters to evaluate the environmental impact of agricultural machinery traffic on soils. Compaction causes modifications on soil physical properties such as changes in porosity and structure that are related to soil water movement and gas exchange The objective of this work was to evaluate soil surface sealing after sewage-sludge application, and the influence of agricultural machinery traffic, through computed tomography. A first generation tomograph was used having a 137Cs source and a 3 in x 3 in NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal detector coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Image analysis and tomographic unit profiles could successfully be used for the detection of soil surface sealing and soil compaction due to machinery traffic associated to sewage-sludge application. PMID:12878118

  19. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and orange peel waste.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Antonio; Siles Lpez, Jos Angel; Chica, Arturo Francisco; Martn, M Angeles; Karouach, Fadoua; Mesfioui, Abdelaziz; El Bari, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic digestion is a treatment that is widely applied for sewage sludge management but has several disadvantages such as low methane yield, poor biodegradability and nutrient imbalance. In this paper, we propose orange peel waste as an easily biodegradable co-substrate to improve the viability of the process. Sewage sludge and orange peel waste were mixed at a proportion of 70:30 (wet weight), respectively. The stability was maintained within correct parameters throughout the process, while the methane yield coefficient and biodegradability were 165 L/kg volatile solids (VS) (0 degrees C, 1 atm) and 76% (VS), respectively. The organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.4 to 1.6kg VS/m3 d. Nevertheless, the OLR and methane production rate decreased at the highest loads, suggesting the occurrence of an inhibition phenomenon. PMID:24645472

  20. Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated sewage sludge by different composting processes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui; Wu, Qi-Tang; Zeng, Qiao-Yun; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Frard, Jean-Franois

    2007-04-01

    The efficiency of four different composting processes to bioremediate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated sewage sludge was investigated. Prior to composting, sewage sludge coming from the Datansha wastewater treatment plant, Guangzhou, China, was mixed with rice straw to obtain a C/N ratio of 13:1. After 56 days of composting, the total concentrations of 16 PAHs (Sigma(PAHs)) ranged from 1.8 to 10.2 mg kg(-1) dry weight, decreasing in order of inoculated-manual turned compost (IMTC)>manual turned compost (MTC)>continuous aerated compost (CAC)>intermittent aerated compost (IAC), exhibiting removal rates of 64%, 70%, 85% and 94%, respectively. Individual PAHs were generally removed in similar rates. IAC treatment showed a higher removal rate of high molecular weight PAHs and carcinogenic PAHs comparing to the other composting processes. PMID:17029776

  1. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report: Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Iron and lead, permit-required constituents, and aluminum presently exceed SRS flagging standards in samples from the two sites. Elevated concentrations of metals at these sites, not reported during 1992, may be the reflection of a recent change in analytical methodology.

  2. Effect of liming on the distribution of heavy metals in untreated industrial sewage sludge produced in Pakistan for the cultivation of Sorghum bicolor (L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Khan Jamali; Tasneem Gul Kazi; Mohammad Bilal Arain; Hassan Imran Afridi; Nusrat Jalbani; Jameel A. Baig; Abdul Niaz

    2008-01-01

    The recycling of sewage sludge on agriculture land represents an alternative, advantageous, disposal of this waste material.\\u000a The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using industrial sewage sludge, produced in Pakistan, as a\\u000a fertiliser. Agricultural soil amended with 25% (w\\/w) sewage sludge with or without lime treatment was used for growing a variety\\u000a of sorghum

  3. Aeration of anaerobically digested sewage sludge for COD and nitrogen removal: optimization at large-scale.

    PubMed

    Parravicini, V; Svardal, K; Hornek, R; Kroiss, H

    2008-01-01

    The paper will report about the experiences at an Austrian large wastewater treatment plant of 720,000 population equivalents, where anaerobically digested sewage sludge is further stabilised under aerobic conditions. Enhanced stabilisation of the anaerobically digested sludge was required at the plant in order to get a permit for landfill disposal of the dewatered stabilized sludge. By implementing a post-aeration treatment (SRT approximately 6d; 36 degrees C) after anaerobic digestion the organic content of the anaerobically well digested sludge can be decreased by 16%. Investigations on site showed that during digested sludge post-aeration anoxic phases for denitrification are needed to provide stable process conditions. In this way the pH value can be kept in a more favourable range for micro-organisms and concrete structures. Additionally, inhibition of the biological process due to nitrite accumulation can be avoided. By optimising the aeration/pause ratio approximately 45% of total nitrogen in digested sludge can be removed. This significantly improves nitrogen removal efficiency at the wastewater treatment plant. NH(4)-removal occurs mainly through nitritation and denitritation with an efficiency of 98%. The costs/benefit analysis shows that post-aeration of digested sludge results in an increase of total annual costs for wastewater treatment of only 0.84%, corresponding to 0.19 Euro/pe/a. Result of molecular biological analyses (DGGE) indicate that all four ammonium-oxidizing bacteria species present in activated sludge can survive anaerobic digestion, but only two of them can adapt in the digested sludge post-aeration tanks. Additionally, in the post-aerated digested sludge a further ammonium-oxidizing bacteria species was identified. PMID:18235180

  4. The growth of Agropyron elongatum in an artificial soil mix from coal fly ash and sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. C. Wong; D. C. Su

    1997-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using an artificial soil medium produced from alkaline coal fly ash and sewage sludge for the growth of Agropyron elongatum (tall wheat grass). Sludge was amended with ash at an application rate of 0, 5, 10, 35 and 50% (w\\/w). Each mixture was then mixed with a loamy soil at

  5. Magnesium deficiency in Douglas-fir and Grand fir growing on a sandy outwash soil amended with sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Harrison; Charles L. Henry; Dongsen Xue

    1994-01-01

    Soil and plant samples were collected from chlorotic plantations of Grand fir (Abies grandis) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in Winter, 1989. The soils had been amended in 1981 with an average of 300 dry Mg ha-1 of municipal sewage sludge. The sludge amendment resulted in an N application rate of approximately 8000 kg ha-1. Foliage analysis indicated a severe Mg

  6. Electrokinetic phosphorus recovery from packed beds of sewage sludge ash: yield and energy demand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Sturm; Harald Weigand; Clemens Marb; Wilfried Wei; Bernd Huwe

    2010-01-01

    The static lifetime of primary phosphate stocks is estimated as one century. Thus, the exploitation of secondary phosphorus\\u000a sources becomes increasingly important. This study focussed on the feasibility of an electrokinetic phosphorus recovery from\\u000a sewage sludge ash (P-content ~5wt%). Packed bed experiments were conducted under varied electric conditions with and without\\u000a acid pre-treatment and employing porous and ion exchange materials

  7. Microbial fuel cell enables phosphate recovery from digested sewage sludge as struvite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabian Fischer; Christle Bastian; Manuel Happe; Eric Mabillard; Nicolas Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    Orthophosphate was mobilized from iron phosphate (FePO4) contained in digested sewage sludge by microbial fuel cell power. FePO4 was reduced through electrons and protons obtained from metabolic activity of Escherichia coli. The process yielded up to 82% or 600mg\\/l. Optical emission spectroscopy was used for phosphate dosage. 31P NMR showed a singlet at ?p=3.72ppm indicating that orthophosphate (H3PO4, HPO4-, HPO42-

  8. Characterization of Phosphorus in Sewage Sludge from Different Sources by Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xi-Ling Peng; Ling Chen; Zi-Wen Lv; Guan-Jun Hao; Hai-Lan Fang

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the distribution and dynamics of phosphorus (P) in soils for environmental protection and agronomical usage, P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P NMR) was used to characterize the contents and chemical properties of P in sewage sludge from 13 wastewater treatment plants in Shanghai. The samples were extracted with 0.25 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) \\/ 0.05 M sodium ethylenediamietetraacetic

  9. Chemical reactions during the preparation of P and NPK fertilizers from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ashes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Vogel; Christian Adam; Burkhard Peplinski; Stephan Wellendorf

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper we show how P and NPK fertilizers can be prepared from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ashes (SSA) and which chemical reactions occur during these post-treatment steps. The SSA used for this investigation was treated thermochemically at a temperature of 1,000C in a rotary kiln after the addition of calcium chloride hydrate or magnesium chloride hydrate to

  10. Sewage sludge nutrient solubilization using a single-stage microwave treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winnie I. Chan; Wayne T. Wong; Ping H. Liao; Kwang V. Lo

    2007-01-01

    The effects of an advanced oxidation process combining microwave, hydrogen peroxide and acid hydrolysis in a single stage (MW\\/H2O2\\/H-AOP) on the process efficiency of sewage sludge treatment and nutrient recovery were investigated. At lower temperature regimes (6080C), the soluble phosphate was substantially higher in a two-stage process than in a single stage MW\\/H2O2\\/H-AOP process. However, higher soluble phosphate concentration was

  11. Experimental investigation and modeling of gasification of sewage sludge in the circulating fluidized bed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Petersen; J. Werther

    2005-01-01

    Experiments of sewage sludge gasification were performed in a circulating fluidized bed of pilot plant scale (15m height, 0.1m i.d.). For the examination of the influence of the air ratio, gasification temperature, feeding height and fluidization velocity several screening tests were conducted. To understand better the results from the screening experiments, axial profiles of the gas composition were measured. As

  12. The deep-ocean option for the disposal of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin V Angel

    1988-01-01

    Present methods of disposal of high-bulk low-toxicity wastes, such as sewage sludge, into shallow marine environments are beginning to be questioned by many environmentalists. The alternative options generally considered all have environmental costs. A novel approach of discharging such wastes as slurries into the deep ocean at depths of 4,000 m close to the abyssal sea bed is considered. Such

  13. Enzyme activities as indicators of the stabilization of sewage sludges composting with Eisenia foetida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Benitez; R. Nogales; C. Elvira; G. Masciandaro; B. Ceccanti

    1999-01-01

    Evolution of earthworm (Eisenia foetida, Savigny) biomass and changes in enzyme activities during 18 weeks of sewage sludge vermicomposting were studied. With time, hydrolase (?-glucosidase, urease, BAA-hydrolysing protease and phosphatase) and dehydrogenase (DH-ase) activities decreased as available organic compounds (water-soluble carbon) decreased. A high correlation among all enzyme activities and between each activity and the water-soluble carbon (WSC) led to

  14. Hydrolysis and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Del Borghi; A. Converti; E. Palazzi; M. Del Borghi

    1999-01-01

    An attempt is presented and discussed to adapt a well-known process successfully employed in the U.S.A. for the simultaneous treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSWOF) and sewage sludge to the particular situation of water works in Italy. It consists of preliminary domestic grinding of MSWOF, its discharge into the sewer, screening, and final digestion of the

  15. Effect of milling and acid washing on the pozzolanic activity of incinerator sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Donatello; A. Freeman-Pask; M. Tyrer; C. R. Cheeseman

    2010-01-01

    Incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA) is a problematic waste that contains significant levels of phosphates, primarily in the form of whitlockite (Ca3(PO4)2). Phosphate is a valuable finite resource, and a number of studies have shown that it can be extracted from ISSA by acid washing. This produces an acid washed residue that has potential to be used in construction products.

  16. Reusing sewage sludge ash as adsorbent for copper removal from wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shih-Cheng Pan; Chin-Chi Lin; Dyi-Hwa Tseng

    2003-01-01

    The sewage sludge ash (SSA) can potentially be used for removal of heavy metals from wastewater due to its similar chemical composition to that of fly ash and blast-furnace slag. This study investigated the adsorptive characteristics of SSA including specific surface area, cation-exchange capacity (CEC), and pH of zero point of charge (pHZPC). In addition, the adsorption isotherms of SSA

  17. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations concerning the removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge ash by chlorination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Fraissler; M. Jller; H. Mattenberger; T. Brunner; I. Obernberger

    2009-01-01

    Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were performed in order to determine the removal behaviour of the heavy metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn from sewage sludge ash by adding Cl and performing a thermal treatment process. FactSage 5.3.1 and ChemSheet 1.5 are thermodynamic equilibrium calculation programs which were used to design a multicomponent thermodynamic system on the basis of the

  18. Influence of the fineness of sewage sludge ash on the mortar properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shih-Cheng Pan; Dyi-Hwa Tseng; Chih-Chiang Lee; Chau Lee

    2003-01-01

    Sewage sludge ash (SSA) is a recycled material and can be used in cement mortar as pozzolan. To improve the mortar properties, this research utilized mechanical grinding to adjust the fineness of SSA. Finely ground SSA with Blaine fineness of 5001000 m2\\/kg was added to mortar to replace 20% of portland cement. The initial and final setting times of SSAcement

  19. Crystalline phase control of glass ceramics obtained from sewage sludge fly ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young Jun Park; Soon Ok Moon; Jong Heo

    2003-01-01

    Different types of glasses and glass-ceramics were made using fly ash from sewage sludge incinerators. The optimum nucleation condition was heating at 760C for 1 h. Crystallization of the nucleated specimen in the region of 10501200C resulted in the formation of two crystalline phases, i.e. anorthite and diopside. The relative fractions of these two phases changed with crystallization temperature. Specimens

  20. Occurrence of organic contaminants in sewage sludges from eleven wastewater treatment plants, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quan-Ying Cai; Ce-Hui Mo; Qi-Tang Wu; Qiao-Yun Zeng; Athanasios Katsoyiannis

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the occurrence of 43 semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) listed as priority pollutants by both China and the United States Environmental Protection Agency, in sewage sludges collected from eleven wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of mainland and Hong Kong, China. Thirty-six SVOCs were detected by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (GCMS) and at least 14 in each sample.

  1. Comparison of sewage sludge- and pig manure-derived biochars for hydrogen sulfide removal.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling; Sun, Tonghua

    2014-09-01

    Biochars derived from pig manure and sewage sludge were evaluated for their abilities to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from gas phase. The pig manure biochar had higher capacities for H2S sorption than sewage sludge biochar in both dynamic and static systems, and moisture improves H2S removal. Increasing the biochar moisture to 25 wt% and 100 wt% in the static system increased the pig manure biochar removal capacities by 15.9% and 58.9%, respectively, compared to the dry biochar (0 wt% moisture). The sewage sludge biochar similarly increased the removal by 1.04 and 3.30 times for 25 wt% and 100 wt% moisture, respectively. The catalytic conversion to elemental S(0) and SO4(2)(-) was the main route of H2S removal. The complete oxidation of H2S into SO4(2)(-) mainly occurred on the biochar surface, while H2S underwent incomplete oxidation into elemental S(0) in the biochar pores. The SO4(2)(-) was the dominant form in both biochars, especially for the pig manure biochar which contained 53.9% of the total sulfur at 100 wt% moisture. The SO4(2)(-) was mainly present as CaSO4 precipitate in the sewage sludge biochar, while SO4(2)(-) in the pig manure biochar was mostly soluble (K, Na)2SO4. The results indicated the waste biomass can be converted into value-added biochar as a sorbent for H2S, especially at high moisture that promotes complete oxidation of H2S into SO4(2)(-). Strong alkalinity and rich inorganic minerals originated in the biochar play an important role in its high H2S sorption ability and the final sulfur forms. PMID:24997932

  2. Discriminating inhibitory from enhancing effects in respirometry assays from metal polluted-sewage sludge amended soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Montserrat; E. Mart; J. Sierra; M. A. Garau; R. Cruaas

    2006-01-01

    A respirometric experiment was used to assess the toxicity of a toxic element polluted-sewage sludge on two soil samples (SN and SO) differing, mainly, in their organic composition, texture and carbonate content. The essayed rates were 1.67, 3.34, 8.35 and 16.7% (dry weight basis), corresponding to total Zn, Cr and Ba concentrations ranging from 371, 105 and 514 to 3711,

  3. An ozone\\/hydrogen peroxide\\/microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process for sewage sludge treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guiqing Yin; Ping Huang Liao; Kwang Victor Lo

    2007-01-01

    Solids destruction and nutrients release from sewage sludge were investigated using thermal destruction and\\/or oxidation processes. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ozone (O3) and a combination of both were used for the oxidation processes performed at ambient temperature. Thermal destruction using microwave (MW) alone without an oxidant was also conducted. Microwave enhanced advanced oxidation processes (MW-AOP), such as MW\\/O3, MW\\/H2O2 and MW\\/H2O2\\/O3,

  4. Organic Contaminants in Canadian Municipal Sewage Sludge. Part I. Toxic or Endocrine-Disrupting Phenolic Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HING-BIU LEE; THOMAS E. PEART

    The occurrence of toxic or endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS), pentachlorophenol (PCP), hexachlorophene (HCP), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in 35 sewage sludge samples collected from cities across Canada is documented. Samples were extracted by supercritical car- bon dioxide and the phenols were converted into their acetyl derivatives using published

  5. Analysis of Organic Pollutants in Sewage Sludges from the Valencian Community (Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Gomez-Rico; I. Aracil; A. Fullana

    2007-01-01

    Seventeen sewage sludges were studied to analyse, with the minimum number of steps, the organic pollutants that the European\\u000a Union proposes to be controlled for land application. The compounds determined were a selection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons\\u000a (PAHs); a selection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP); nonylphenolic compounds, including\\u000a nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol ethoxylates with 1 and 2 ethoxy groups

  6. Calorimetric studies of solid wastes, sewage sludge, wastewaters and their effects on soil biodegradation processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Dziejowski; I. Bia?obrzewski

    2011-01-01

    Calorimetric studies of solid wastes, sewage sludge, wastewaters and their environmental effects focus on three main research\\u000a areas. The first research area involves determination of selected thermal and physical parameters characterizing the above\\u000a substances, such as specific heat, thermal conductivity and others. The second area covers processes of total or gradual destruction\\u000a of the examined substances at a fixed composition

  7. Degradation of naproxen and carbamazepine in spiked sludge by slurry and solid-phase Trametes versicolor systems.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Rodrguez, Carlos E; Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Caminal, Gloria

    2010-04-01

    Growth and activity of the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor on sewage sludge were assessed in bioslurry and solid-phase systems. Bioslurry cultures with different loads of sludge (10%, 25% and 38%, w/v) were performed. A lag phase of at least 2 d appeared in the 25 and 38%-cultures, however, the total fungal biomass was higher for the latter and lower for the 10%-culture after 30 d, as revealed by ergosterol determination. Detectable laccase activity levels were found in the 10 and 25%-cultures (up to 1308 and 2588 AUL(-1), respectively) while it was negligible in the 38%-culture. Important levels of ergosterol and laccase were obtained over a 60 d period in sludge solid-phase cultures amended with different concentrations of wheat straw pellets as lignocellulosic bulking material. Degradation experiments in 25%-bioslurry cultures spiked with naproxene (NAP, analgesic) and carbamazepine (CBZ, antiepileptic) showed depletion of around 47% and 57% within 24h, respectively. Complete depletion of NAP and around 48% for CBZ were achieved within 72 h in sludge solid cultures with 38% bulking material. CBZ degradation is especially remarkable due to its high persistence in wastewater treatment plants. Results showed that T. versicolor may be an interesting bioremediation agent for elimination of emerging pollutants in sewage sludge. PMID:20031398

  8. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A., III

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water (6- to 21-m depth) from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (<5-m depth) from sludge-treated spoil (pH 5.9) were not elevated relative to untreated spoil (pH 4.4). In contrast, concentrations of nitrate were elevated in vadose water samples from sludge-treated spoil, frequently exceeding 10 mg/L. Downgradient decreases in nitrate to less than 3 mg/L and increases in sulfate concentrations in underlying ground water could result from oxidation of pyrite by nitrate. Thus, sewage sludge added to pyritic spoil can increase the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

  9. REVEGETATING STRIP-MINED LAND WITH MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three sites representative of abandoned, barren bituminous and anthracite mines were treated with various types of municipal sludge at high and low application rates and broadcast seeded with a mixture of grasses and legumes. A monitoring system was installed at each demonstratio...

  10. Internal energies of combustion of samples of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkins, R.P.T.; Landau, R.; Plichta, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    Characteristic values of the internal energies of combustion of a variety of dried industrial and domestic sludge samples were obtained using a PARR combustion calorimeter. Values are reported on an as received, moisture-free, and ash-free basis. 8 references.

  11. Sewage sludge ash characteristics and its potential applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Pan; D. H. Tseng

    This study investigated the characteristics of SSA in Taiwan area. The potential applications of SSA reuse were also evaluated. Four major characteristics of SSA, including chemical compositions, pozzolanic properties, physical properties, and surface properties were analyzed. Experimental results found that SSA was a complex mixture of burnt residues of sludge biomass and minerals. The major chemical compositions of SSA were

  12. RECLAMATION OF A LANDFILL WITH DIGESTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Calumet land reclamation project developed design criteria for applying liquid fertilizer (sludge) to land and demonstrated the beneficial and economic use of it in raising crops. The scope of the project included developing a pipeline system to transport liquid fertilizer to...

  13. Occurrence of synthetic musks in Korean sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Lee, In-Seok; Kim, Un-Jung; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2010-03-01

    Six polycyclic musks (PCMs) and five nitro musks (NMs) were analyzed in dewatered sludge samples from 13 municipal, 4 livestock and 1 pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in South Korea. 1,3,4,6,7,8-Hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-(g)-2-benzopyran (HHCB; Galaxolide), Abbalide), and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN; Tonalide, Fixolide) were the two predominant PCMs in the sludge samples, at concentrations ranging from 0.52 to 82.0mg/kg dry weight (dw) and 0.12 to 28.8mg/kg (dw), respectively, suggesting the extensive use of these two PCMs in South Korea. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed the different usage patterns of PCMs between livestock cultivating farm and household. The levels of HHCB and AHTN in the effluent discharged from the WWTPs were lower than the threshold effect levels derived for fish, suggesting low potential risks to aquatic organisms. Nevertheless, the calculated discharge of synthetic musks (SMs) from sludge in each target WWTP ranged from 36 to 10,961g/d. These results indicate the necessity of conducting monitoring studies in marine ecosystems due to ocean disposal of sludge, particularly focused on the two prevailing PCMs. PMID:20053421

  14. EFFECTS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON CORN SILAGE AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted to determine the impact of heavy metals in sludge-fertilized corn silage on the food and feed chain when the silage containing up to 5.26 mg Cd/kg was fed to dairy goats and feeder lambs. Neither health nor performance of the goats or lambs were significant...

  15. Image parameters for maturity determination of a composted material containing sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujawa, S.; Nowakowski, K.; Tomczak, R. J.; Boniecki, P.; Dach, J.

    2013-07-01

    Composting is one of the best methods for management of sewage sludge. In a reasonably conducted composting process it is important to early identify the moment in which a material reaches the young compost stage. The objective of this study was to determine parameters contained in images of composted material's samples that can be used for evaluation of the degree of compost maturity. The study focused on two types of compost: containing sewage sludge with corn straw and sewage sludge with rapeseed straw. The photographing of the samples was carried out on a prepared stand for the image acquisition using VIS, UV-A and mixed (VIS + UV-A) light. In the case of UV-A light, three values of the exposure time were assumed. The values of 46 parameters were estimated for each of the images extracted from the photographs of the composted material's samples. Exemplary averaged values of selected parameters obtained from the images of the composted material in the following sampling days were presented. All of the parameters obtained from the composted material's images are the basis for preparation of training, validation and test data sets necessary in development of neural models for classification of the young compost stage.

  16. Towards understanding the effects of additives on the vermicomposting of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Xing, Meiyan; Lv, Baoyi; Zhao, Chunhui; Yang, Jian

    2015-03-01

    This work evaluated the effects of additives on the chemical properties of the final products (vermicompost) from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and the adaptable characteristics of Eisenia fetida during the process. An experimental design with different ratios of sewage sludge and the additives (cattle dung or pig manure) was conducted. The results showed that the vermicomposting reduced total organic carbon and the quotient of total organic carbon to total nitrogen (C/N ratio) of the initial mixtures and enhanced the stability and agronomical value of the final products. Notably, principal component analysis indicated that the additives had significant effects on the characteristics of the vermicomposts. Moreover, the vermibeds containing cattle dung displayed a better earthworm growth and reproduction than those with pig manure. Additionally, redundancy analysis demonstrated that electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and C/N ratio played crucial roles on earthworm growth and reproduction. In all, the additives with high C/N ratio, pH buffering capacity, and low EC are recommended to be used for vermicomposting of sewage sludge. PMID:25328094

  17. Co-pyrolysis of coal/biomass and coal/sewage sludge mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, C.; Ruediger, H.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and sewage sludge are attracting increasing interest in power plant technology as a source of carbon-dioxide-neutral fuels. A new way to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels could be the co-combustion or co-gasification of coal and biomass or coal and sewage sludge. In both cases, pyrolysis is the first step in the technical process. In order to obtain detailed information about the pyrolysis of coal/biomass and coal/sewage sludge mixtures as well as unblended fuels, the Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik and Dampfkesselwesen (IVD) at the University of Stuttgart has carried out investigations using an electrically heated entrained flow reactor. The test runs provided information about fuel conversion efficiency, pyrolysis gas and tar yield, and composition of pyrolysis gas and tar. Besides gas and tar analysis investigations regarding the path of trace elements, like heavy metals, alkali, chlorine and nitrogen components, during the pyrolysis process varying different parameters have been carried out. The fuel nitrogen distribution between pyrolysis gas, tar, and char has been analyzed, as well as the ash composition, and, thus, the release of mineral components during pyrolysis.

  18. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with shredded grass from public green spaces.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Taira; Arai, Sayuri; Okamoto, Seiichiro; Uchida, Tsutomu

    2013-02-01

    Adding greenery from public spaces to the co-digestion process with sewage sludge was evaluated by shredding experiments and laboratory-scale batch and continuous mesophilic anaerobic fermentation experiments. The ratio of the shredded grass with 20mm or less in length by a commercially available shredder was 93%. The methane production was around 0.2NL/gVS-grass in the batch experiment. The continuous experiment fed with sewage sludge and shredded grass was stably operated for 81days. The average methane production was 0.09NL/gVS-grass when the TS ratio of the sewage sludge and the grass was 10:1. This value was smaller than those of other reports using grass silage, but the grass species in this study were not managed, and the collected grass was just shredded and not ensiled before feeding to the reactor for simple operation. The addition of grass to a digester can improve the carbon/nitrogen ratio, methane production and dewaterability. PMID:23334025

  19. Experimental study of the bio-oil production from sewage sludge by supercritical conversion process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Guanyi; Li, Yanbin; Yan, Beibei; Pan, Donghui

    2013-11-01

    Environment-friendly treatment of sewage sludge has become tremendously important. Conversion of sewage sludge into energy products by environment-friendly conversion process, with its energy recovery and environmental benefits, is being paid significant attention. Direct liquefaction of sewage sludge into bio-oils with supercritical water (SCW) was therefore put forward in this study, as de-water usually requiring intensive energy input is not necessary in this direct liquefaction. Supercritical water may act as a strong solvent and also a reactant, as well as catalyst promoting reaction process. Experiments were carried out in a self designed high-pressure reaction system with varying operating conditions. Through orthogonal experiments, it was found that temperature and residence time dominated on bio-oil yield compared with other operating parameters. Temperature from 350 to 500C and reaction residence time of 0, 30, 60min were accordingly investigated in details, respectively. Under supercritical conversion, the maximum bio-oil yield could achieve 39.73%, which was performed at 375C and 0min reaction residence time. Meanwhile, function of supercritical water was concluded. Fuel property analysis showed the potential of bio-oil application as crude fuel. PMID:23816312

  20. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    During third quarter 1992, the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) were sampled and analyzed for constituents required quarterly by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076. The F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site wells also were analyzed for a number of other constituents not required by the permit. Mercury exceeded the Primary Drinking Water Standard (PDWS) in one analysis from well FSS 2D, and tritium exceeded the PDWS in wells FSS 2D and 3D. The mercury result above PDWS is considered suspect because it was not supported by a reanalysis from the same sample or by historical data. Iron exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criterion in wells FSS 3D, lead exceeded its criterion in wells FSS 3D and HSS 3D, and manganese exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells FSS 2D and 3D.

  1. Bioanalytical characterization of dioxin-like activity in sewage sludge from Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Yu, Gang; Wang, Bin; Fiedler, Heidelore; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shubo

    2009-05-01

    In this preliminary study, the bioanalytical characterization of dioxin-like activity in the sludge of all the nine municipal sewage treatment plants from Beijing city was studied using chemically activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) assay. The influence of heating period in winter, sewage and sludge treatment processes on the occurrence of dioxin-like activity was also discussed. For the use of clean coal and natural gas, heating did not have significant influence on the occurrence level of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like-PCBs in this study. Anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic sewage treatment process did not show a good performance in the reduction of dioxin-like activity which is useful in the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen. Anaerobic digestion of sludge increased the concentration of PCDD/Fs from 30.1 to 68.3pgCALUX-TEQg(-1)d.w., and total dioxin-like activity from 32.2 to 69.3pgCALUX-TEQg(-1)d.w. This cost-effective and quick test is useful for large developing countries like China in monitoring programs to obtain baseline data about the scale of contamination caused by dioxin-like activity. It is also a useful component in the monitoring capacity building of dioxins. PMID:19201008

  2. Anaerobic wastewater treatment of concentrated sewage using a two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket anaerobic filter system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maha M. Halalsheh; Zainab M. Abu Rumman; Jim A. Field

    2010-01-01

    A two-stage pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket anaerobic filter (UASB-AF) reactors system treating concentrated domestic sewage was operated at 23C and at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15 and 4 h, respectively. Excess sludge from the downstream AF stage was returned to the upstream UASB reactor. The aim was to obtain higher sludge retention time (SRT) in the UASB

  3. Fate of heavy metals after application of sewage sludge and woodash mixtures to short-rotation willow coppice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Dimitriou; J. Eriksson; A. Adler; P. Aronsson; T. Verwijst

    2006-01-01

    Short-rotation willow coppice (SRWC), grown on farmland in Sweden for energy-biomass production, was fertilised with sewage sludge and woodash mixtures on the basis of the permitted annual phosphorus supply. Two identical experiments were conducted in central Sweden, on two newly harvested commercial SRWC fields. The maximum legally permitted amount of the sludge-ash mixture, sludge only, ash only, and twice the

  4. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Content in Shoots and Leaves of Willow ( Salix viminalis ) Cultivated on the Sewage Sludge-Amended Soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patryk Oleszczuk; Stanis?aw Baran

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the uptake of 16 PAHs by willow (Salix viminalis) from soil amended with contaminated sewage sludge. Uptake experiments were conducted on field plots using sludge applications\\u000a of 0, 30, 75, 150, 300, and 600 Mg ha?1. The total PAH content of control soil and sludge were 49.6 ?g kg?1 and 5713

  5. Influence of activated carbon and biochar on phytotoxicity of air-dried sewage sludges to Lepidium sativum.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Rycaj, Marcin; Lehmann, Johannes; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2012-06-01

    The goal of the research was to determine the phytotoxicity (using Lepidium sativum) of two activated carbon/biochar-amended sewage sludges. Apart from the impact of the AC/biochar dose, the influence of biochar particle diameter (<300, 300-500 and >500 ?m) and the influence of the contact time (7, 60, 90 days) between AC/biochar and sewage sludges on their phytotoxicity was also assessed. No negative impact of sewage sludges on seed germination was observed (P>0.05). The application of AC or biochar to the sludges positively affected root growth by reducing the harmful effect by 7.8 to 42% depending on the material used. Furthermore, the reduction range clearly depended on the type of sewage sludge. No differences were observed in the inhibition of the toxic effect between both biochar types used and the biochar particle size. The extension of the contact time between AC/biochar and sewage sludges had a negative impact on root growth. PMID:22516757

  6. Priority and emerging pollutants in sewage sludge and fate during sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Mailler, R; Gasperi, J; Chebbo, G; Rocher, V

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims at characterizing the quality of different treated sludges from Paris conurbation in terms of micropollutants and assessing their fate during different sludge treatment processes (STP). To achieve this, a large panel of priority and emerging pollutants (n=117) have been monitored in different STPs from Parisian wastewater treatment plants including anaerobic digestion, thermal drying, centrifugation and a sludge cake production unit. Considering the quality of treated sludges, comparable micropollutant patterns are found for the different sludges investigated (in mg/kg DM - dry matter). 35 compounds were detected in treated sludges. Some compounds (metals, organotins, alkylphenols, DEHP) are found in every kinds of sludge while pesticides or VOCs are never detected. Sludge cake is the most contaminated sludge, resulting from concentration phenomenon during different treatments. As regards treatments, both centrifugation and thermal drying have broadly no important impact on sludge contamination for metals and organic compounds, even if a slight removal seems to be possible with thermal drying for several compounds by abiotic transfers. Three different behaviors can be highlighted in anaerobic digestion: (i) no removal (metals), (ii) removal following dry matter (DM) elimination (organotins and NP) and iii) removal higher than DM (alkylphenols - except NP - BDE 209 and DEHP). Thus, this process allows a clear removal of biodegradable micropollutants which could be potentially significantly improved by increasing DM removal through operational parameters modifications (retention time, temperature, pre-treatment, etc.). PMID:24797622

  7. Mathematical model investigation of long-term transport of ocean-dumped sewage sludge related to remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, C. Y.; Modena, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    An existing, three-dimensional, Eulerian-Lagrangian finite-difference model was modified and used to examine the transport processes of dumped sewage sludge in the New York Bight. Both in situ and laboratory data were utilized in an attempt to approximate model inputs such as mean current speed, horizontal diffusion coefficients, particle size distributions, and specific gravities. The results presented are a quantitative description of the fate of a negatively buoyant sewage sludge plume resulting from continuous and instantaneous barge releases. Concentrations of the sludge near the surface were compared qualitatively with those remotely sensed. Laboratory study was performed to investigate the behavior of sewage sludge dumping in various ambient density conditions.

  8. Co-firing of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge in the rotary O'Connor combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Ettehadieh, B.; Lee, S.Y. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Resource Energy Systems Div., Pittsburgh, PA (US))

    1989-01-01

    Co-firing of wet sewage sludge, with approximately 90% moisture, and municipal solid waste (MSW) was studied in a waste-to-energy plant which uses the rotary O'Connor combustor. The test results indicate that the rotary O'Connor combustor is capable of efficient MSW and sewage sludge co-incineration with mix ratios of up to 11:1. Combustion and heat recovery efficiencies, fly ash and bottom ash properties, flue gas CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} HCl, HF and trace heavy metal concentrations and particulate loadings were measured both with and without sludge addition and compared to each other. The test results confirm continued performance of the process with the burning of sewage sludge.

  9. Isotopic distribution of carbon from sewage sludge and eutrophication in the sediments and food web of estuarine ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Gearing, P.J.; Gearing, J.N.; Maughan, J.T.; Oviatt, C.A. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Stable isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 13}C) from samples of water, sediments, and biota traced the behavior of organic carbon for 3 summer months in estuarine mesocosms (three controls, three with added sewage sludge, three with added inorganic nutrients). Isotope ratios proved to be a useful quantitative tracer for sewage carbon as well as for the fresh phytoplanktonic carbon produced during nutrient fertilization. Sewage sludge sedimented within hours of its addition, and approximately 50% remained in sediments after 99 days. The sludge was not inert, but was biologically oxidized at rates similar to those of phytoplankton carbon. Its residence time in the water column was too short for uptake by zooplankton, but it was readily assimilated by some benthic organisms. Fresh phytoplanktonic carbon from nutrient-induced blooms was isotopically heavy and thus distinguishable from old primary production (fixed before the experiment). It flowed through the pelagic and benthic food webs more extensively and more uniformly than did sludge carbon.

  10. Comparison of methods for the preparation of sewage sludge samples prior to the spectrophotometric determination of phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, S.A.; Jenniss, S.W.; Ciuffo, M.; Alberts, R.

    1986-01-01

    Three procedures for the preparation of sewage sludge samples prior to the colorimetric determination of phosphorus as molybdenum blue were evaluated. Using samples of the US EPA's municipal digested sludge as a reference material, sulfuric acid/ammonium persulfate digestion, muffle furnace ignition followed by extraction of the ash with hydrochloric acid, and direct extraction of the sewage sludge with sodium bicarbonate solution were compared in terms of phosphorus recovery as determined by colorimetric measurements. On the basis of phosphorus recovery, the samples prepared by muffle furnace ignition/hydrochloric acid extraction of the ash showed the best accuracy and precision. This procedure was also superior in terms of the time and effort expended in the preparation of the sewage sludge samples.

  11. Metabolic consequences of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.L. Jr. (Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA); Landrigan, P.J.; Glueck, C.J.; Zack, M.M. Jr.; Liddle, J.A.; Burse, V.W.; Housworth, W.J.; Needham, L.L.

    1980-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were discovered in sewage sludge used for fertilizer in Bloomington, Indiana. The PCB had been discharged into the municipal sewage system by an electrical capacitor manufacturing plant. To study the epidemiology and metabolic consequences of PCB exposure an epidemiologic and clinical survey was conducted. Mean serum PCB levels were 17.4 ppB in 89 sludge users, 75.1 ppB in 18 workers with occupational exposure to PCB, 33.6 ppB in 19 members of those workers' families, and 24.4 ppB in 22 community residents without unusual exposure to PCB. In sludge users PCB levels were associated positively with per cent performance of garden care (p = 0.035) and negatively with wearing gloves while gardening (p = 0.021), but were not significantly associated with the amount of sludge used or the duration of exposure. In no groups were chloracne or systemic symptoms of PCB toxicity noted, nor were significant correlations found between PCB levels and tests of hematologic, hepatic, or renal function. Plasma triglyceride levels increased significantly with serum PCB concentrations in both alcohol drinkers and nondrinkers (r = 0.541, n = 36, p < 0.001 for nondrinkers). These data indicate that PCB may alter lipid metabolism at levels of exposure and bioaccumulation insufficient to produce overt symptoms.

  12. Concentration and speciation of heavy metals in six different sewage sludge-composts.

    PubMed

    Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui; Wu, Qi-Tang; Zeng, Qiao-Yun; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios

    2007-08-25

    This study presents the concentrations and speciation of heavy metals (HMs) in six different composts of sewage sludges deriving from two wastewater treatment plants in China. After 56 days of sludge composting with rice straw at a low C/N ratio (13:1), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were enriched in sludge composts, exhibiting concentrations that varied from 0.75 to 2.0, 416 to 458, 66 to 168 and 1356 to 1750mgkg(-1) dry weight (d.w.), respectively. The concentrations increased by 12-60% for Cd, 8-17% for Cu, 15-43% for Pb and 14-44% for Zn compared to those in sewage sludges. The total concentrations of individual or total elements in the final composts exceeded the maximum permissible limits proposed for compost or fertilizer. In all the final composts, more than 70% of total Cu was associated with organic matter-bound fraction, while Zn was mainly concentrated in exchangeable and Fe-Mn oxide-bound fractions which implied the high mobility and bioavailability. Continuously aerated composting treatment exhibited better compost quality and lower potential toxicity of HMs, whereas inoculant with microorganism and enzyme spiked during composting had no obvious advantage on humification of organic matter and on reducing HM mobility and bioavailability. PMID:17350165

  13. Heavy metal concentrations in earthworms from soil amended with sewage sludge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Chaney, R.L.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    Metal concentrations in soil may be elevated considerably when metal-laden sewage sludge is spread on land. Metals in earthworms (Lumbricidae) from agricultural fields amended with sewage sludge and from experimental plots were examined to determine if earthworms are important in transferring metals in soil to wildlife. Earthworms from four sites amended with sludge contained significantly (P . < 0.05) more Cd (12 times), Cu (2.4 times), Zn (2.0 times), and Pb (1.2 times) than did earthworms from control sites, but the concentrations detected varied greatly and depended on the particular sludge application. Generally, Cd and Zn were concentrated by earthworms relative to soil, and Cu, Pb, and Ni were not concentrated. Concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb in earthworms were correlated (P < 0.05) with those in soil. The ratio of the concentration of metals in earthworms to the concentration of metals in soil tended to be lower in contaminated soil than in clean soil. Concentrations of Cd as high as 100 ppm (dry wt) were detected in earthworms from soil containing only 2 ppm Cd. These concentrations are considered hazardous to wildlife that eat worms. Liming soil decreased Cd concentrations in earthworms slightly (P < 0.05) but had no discernible effect on concentrations of the other metals studied. High Zn concentrations in soil substantially reduced Cd concentrations in earthworms.

  14. Nitrous oxide emissions after sewage sludge fertilization of a bio-energy plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedenrud, Anna; Achberger, Christine; Klemedtsson, Leif; Lindroth, Anders

    2013-04-01

    The use of sewage sludge as fertilizer after harvest of bio-energy plantations gives rise to high emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). N2O is a powerful greenhouse gas with a global warming potential almost 300 times larger than that of carbon dioxide and an atmospheric life-span of over 100 years. Plantations of e.g. willow (Salix) and poplar (Populus) species are today grown and used for bio-energy purposes. They could serve as carbon and nitrogen sinks, thus lowering greenhouse gas emissions and helping to mitigate a change in climate. However, since N2O is such a powerful greenhouse gas it can have a large impact on the total emission of greenhouse gases from a bio-energy plantation. The magnitude of N2O emissions after fertilization using sludge from sewage treatment plants is therefore important to investigate. This study concerns N2O emissions from a conventionally grown bio-energy plantation of Salix. The aim of the study was to investigate the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer after harvest, and its effect on emissions of N2O from the soil ecosystem. The field site is a Salix plantation in south-western Sweden, a representative site in management practices and abiotic conditions. Emissions of N2O were monitored using automatic chambers (height 1.05 m, volume 0.2625 m3) and a trace gas analyzer (TGA100, Campbell Scientific, USA) during approximately one (1) year. After harvest, N2O emissions from control plots without application of sewage sludge (non-fertilized plots) were compared to plots with sewage sludge application (fertilized plots). Preliminary results show that emissions of N2O were continuously very low throughout the measurement period, except for peak emissions after harvest and fertilization. These peak emissions of N2O were observed at both fertilized and non-fertilized plots in connection to the fertilization events. The results indicate that heavy precipitation could be the cause of induced emissions of N2O at non-fertilized plots. Some fertilized plots also showed smaller emission peaks several weeks after fertilization, whereas none of the non-fertilized plots showed this emission pattern. Annual emissions have also been calculated for fertilized and non-fertilized plots, and the results will be presented at the conference. Preliminary results indicate higher annual emissions from fertilized plots.

  15. Tar-free fuel gas production from high temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leguan; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Zhiquan; Liu, Shiming; Cheng, Gong; He, Piwen; Sun, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Pyrolysis of sewage sludge was studied in a free-fall reactor at 1000-1400 C. The results showed that the volatile matter in the sludge could be completely released to gaseous product at 1300 C. The high temperature was in favor of H2 and CO in the produced gas. However, the low heating value (LHV) of the gas decreased from 15.68 MJ/Nm(3) to 9.10 MJ/Nm(3) with temperature increasing from 1000 C to 1400 C. The obtained residual solid was characterized by high ash content. The energy balance indicated that the most heating value in the sludge was in the gaseous product. PMID:24220150

  16. Fractions composition study of the pyrolysis oil obtained from sewage sludge treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Silva, R V S; Romeiro, G A; Veloso, M C C; Figueiredo, M K-K; Pinto, P A; Ferreira, A F; Gonalves, M L A; Teixeira, A M; Damasceno, R N

    2012-01-01

    In this work the parameters of Low Temperature Conversion--LTC were applied in a centrifuged sludge from a sewage treatment plant located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Before the conversion, the sludge was dried and analyzed by TGA to observe its behavior with increasing temperature. The chemical composition of the crude pyrolysis oil was analyzed by FTIR, 1H NMR and GC-MS. The results showed that the oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, oxygenated and nitrogenated compounds. Using a catalytic treatment it was possible to fractionate the oil where the predominant constituents were hydrocarbons showing that the cracking was effective. An important result was the difference between the calorific value of dry sludge (10 MJ kg(-1)), the pyrolysis oil (36 MJ kg(-1)) and one of the fractions separated by catalytic cracking (40 MJ kg(-1)) when compared with commercial diesel (45 MJ kg(-1)). PMID:22029957

  17. Optimizing chemical conditioning for odour removal of undigested sewage sludge in drying processes.

    PubMed

    Vega, Esther; Moncls, Hctor; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael; Martin, Maria J

    2015-03-01

    Emission of odours during the thermal drying in sludge handling processes is one of the main sources of odour problems in wastewater treatment plants. The objective of this work was to assess the use of the response surface methodology as a technique to optimize the chemical conditioning process of undigested sewage sludges, in order to improve the dewaterability, and to reduce the odour emissions during the thermal drying of the sludge. Synergistic effects between inorganic conditioners (iron chloride and calcium oxide) were observed in terms of sulphur emissions and odour reduction. The developed quadratic models indicated that optimizing the conditioners dosage is possible to increase a 70% the dewaterability, reducing a 50% and 54% the emission of odour and volatile sulphur compounds respectively. The optimization of the conditioning process was validated experimentally. PMID:25438118

  18. Improving sewage sludge ultrasonic pretreatment under pressure by changing initial pH.

    PubMed

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour, Carine; Ratsimba, Berthe; Delmas, Henri

    2013-10-15

    This work aimed at understanding the combined effect of sludge pH, temperature, and external pressure on the efficiency of sewage sludge ultrasound (US) pretreatment. Based on the evolution of both the degree of sludge disintegration (DDCOD) and pH, application of 40mgNaOH/gTS during 30min was selected for chemical pretreatment. Mechanical and thermal effects induced by cavitation contributed in similar proportion to sludge disruption, but the role of the latter effect tended to be weakened after mild alkalisation of sludge. When applying external pressure, DDCOD was always improved, by about 10% at the optimal value of 2bar. The optimal combination was an addition of 40 mgNaOH/gTS prior to adiabatic sonication at 2bar, resulting in a DDCOD value of about 46% at 75,000kJ/kgTS (as compared to 35% for sole US) for the investigated mixed sludge. Very short time US application yielded a drastic reduction of the volume mean particle size, mainly due to the erosion and disruption of large flocs (>90?m), yet this was not sufficient to initiate significant subsequent COD solubilisation under stirring. PMID:23831677

  19. Possibilities for a Phosphorus Recovery from Sewage Sludge Ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Schaum; Peter Cornel; Norbert Jardin

    The elution behaviour of phosphorus and metals at different pH-values was examined in laboratory-scale experiments with ashes from different full-scale sludge incineration plants. The elution of ashes with water alone caused no significant release of phosphorus, while depending on the ash origin and formation, a phosphorus release of 30 - 50 % was measured by use of caustic soda. With

  20. Factors affecting decay of Salmonella Birkenhead and coliphage MS2 during mesophilic anaerobic digestion and air drying of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Tania; Rouch, Duncan A; Thurbon, Nerida; Smith, Stephen R; Deighton, Margaret A

    2015-06-01

    Factors affecting the decay of Salmonella Birkenhead and coliphage, as representatives of bacterial and viral pathogens, respectively, during mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) and air drying treatment of anaerobically digested sewage sludge were investigated. Controlled concentrations of S. Birkenhead were inoculated into non-sterile, autoclaved, ?-irradiated and nutrient-supplemented sludge and cultures were incubated at 37 C (MAD sludge treatment temperature) or 20 C (summer air drying sludge treatment temperature). Nutrient limitation caused by microbial competition was the principal mechanism responsible for the decay of S. Birkenhead by MAD and during air drying of digested sludge. The effects of protease activity in sludge on MS2 coliphage decay in digested and air dried sludge were also investigated. MS2 coliphage showed a 3.0-3.5 log10 reduction during incubation with sludge-protease extracts at 37 C for 25 h. Proteases produced by indigenous microbes in sludge potentially increase coliphage inactivation and may therefore have a significant role in the decay of enteric viruses in sewage sludge. The results help to explain the loss of viability of enteric bacteria and viral pathogens with treatment process time and contribute to fundamental understanding of the various biotic inactivation mechanisms operating in sludge treatment processes at mesophilic and ambient temperatures. PMID:26042978

  1. Environmental & economic life cycle assessment of current & future sewage sludge to energy technologies.

    PubMed

    Mills, N; Pearce, P; Farrow, J; Thorpe, R B; Kirkby, N F

    2014-01-01

    The UK Water Industry currently generates approximately 800GWh pa of electrical energy from sewage sludge. Traditionally energy recovery from sewage sludge features Anaerobic Digestion (AD) with biogas utilisation in combined heat and power (CHP) systems. However, the industry is evolving and a number of developments that extract more energy from sludge are either being implemented or are nearing full scale demonstration. This study compared five technology configurations: 1 - conventional AD with CHP, 2 - Thermal Hydrolysis Process (THP) AD with CHP, 3 - THP AD with bio-methane grid injection, 4 - THP AD with CHP followed by drying of digested sludge for solid fuel production, 5 - THP AD followed by drying, pyrolysis of the digested sludge and use of the both the biogas and the pyrolysis gas in a CHP. The economic and environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) found that both the post AD drying options performed well but the option used to create a solid fuel to displace coal (configuration 4) was the most sustainable solution economically and environmentally, closely followed by the pyrolysis configuration (5). Application of THP improves the financial and environmental performance compared with conventional AD. Producing bio-methane for grid injection (configuration 3) is attractive financially but has the worst environmental impact of all the scenarios, suggesting that the current UK financial incentive policy for bio-methane is not driving best environmental practice. It is clear that new and improving processes and technologies are enabling significant opportunities for further energy recovery from sludge; LCA provides tools for determining the best overall options for particular situations and allows innovation resources and investment to be focused accordingly. PMID:24060290

  2. Assessment of a potential agricultural application of Bangkok-digested sewage sludge and finished compost products.

    PubMed

    Sreesai, Siranee; Peapueng, Panadda; Tippayamongkonkun, Taninporn; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2013-09-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the levels of plant nutrients, heavy metals, parasites and fecal coliform bacteria in Bangkok-produced sewage sludge and finished compost products for potential agricultural application, as well as to compare the quality of compost under different composting conditions. The results indicated that digested sewage sludge had high fertilizing values for organic matter (19.01 0.09%), total nitrogen (2.17 0.07%), total phosphorus (2.06 0.06%) and total potassium (1.16 0.22%), but it was contaminated with human pathogens, including fecal coliform bacteria, viable helminthes egg and active forms of parasite cysts. Thus, fresh sewage sludge should not be disposed on land unless it has undergone pathogen reduction. It is proven that the quality of the sludge mixed with grass clippings at a ratio of 6:1 volume/volume after having passed a windrow composting process for 8 weeks can be classified as class A biosolids as the levels of remaining fecal coliforms were < 3 most probable number g(-1) dry solid and all human parasites were destroyed. Concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium in the finished compost were 16.53 1.25%, 1.39 0.06%, 0.42 0.10% and 1.53 0.05% respectively. The total copper concentration was rather high (2291.31 121.77 mg kg(-1)), but all heavy metal concentrations were also well below the United States Environmental Protection Agency pollutant limits for land application. The finished compost products can be considered as a soil conditioner as they have relatively low essential plant nutrient concentrations. It is recommended to be initially used for gardening and landscaping to ensure safety utilization. PMID:23836101

  3. Analysis of organic pollutants in sewage sludges from the Valencian community (Spain).

    PubMed

    Gomez-Rico, M F; Font, R; Aracil, I; Fullana, A

    2007-04-01

    Seventeen sewage sludges were studied to analyse, with the minimum number of steps, the organic pollutants that the European Union proposes to be controlled for land application. The compounds determined were a selection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); a selection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP); nonylphenolic compounds, including nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol ethoxylates with 1 and 2 ethoxy groups (NP1EO + NP2EO); extractable organic halides (EOX); and linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) with an alkylic chain of 10 to 13 carbon atoms. The results were compared with the proposed regulatory limit values, and it was observed that NP + NP1EO + NP2EO and LAS exceeded the maximums in most samples, and DEHP exceeded some of them, whereas PAHs, PCBs, and EOX almost always went beyond the limits. The values obtained are similar to those from other countries, and it can be said that it is difficult to comply with the limits for NP + NP1EO + NP2EO and LAS in many of them, although this latter parameter was not considered in the study carried out by Leschber (2004) concerning the toxicity of sewage sludge. Statistical multivariant analysis was used to look for some relationship between the results of pollutants and the characteristics of the samples, and it was found that the ratio of NP1EO + NP2EO to NP was related to sludge treatment at the sewage plant. At the same time, it was seen that the higher values of organic pollutants belonged to digested sludges. PMID:17384980

  4. RECOVERY OF PHOSPHORUS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE AND SLUDGE ASHES ? APPLICATIONS IN GERMANY AND NORTHERN EUROPE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ute Berg; Christian Schaum

    Phosphorus recovery from wastewater must become a predominant goal of all industrialised countries to face the finiteness of the resources of this essential nutrient. Therefore, among other sources, wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) as important phosphate sinks should be used for P-recovery. The article summarises the potentials of phosphorus recovery from sludge and residuals from sludge incineration as well as from

  5. Phytotreatment of sewage sludge contaminated by heavy metals and PAHs by co-planting Sedum alfredii and Alocasia marorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Qiu, J R; Guo, X F; Cai, Q Y; Liu, W; Zhang, M W; Wei, Z B; Wu, Q T

    2014-01-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals and organic pollutants in municipal sewage sludge are key factors limiting its use in agriculture. The objectives of this study were to decrease the heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sewage sludge by phytotreatment and to determine, in a field experiment, whether co-planting is more effective than using a mono-crop of Sedum alfredii. Four treatments were used in the plot experiment: no sludge, no plants, S. alfredii and co-planting S. alfredii and Alocasia marorrhiza. The results showed that co-planting produced tubers and shoots of A. marorrhiza that were suitable as a safe animal feed and good organic K fertilizer, respectively. Co-planting was more effective than mono-planting at reducing concentrations of total Zn and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn, Cd, and Cu in the sludge. Co-planting decreased the concentrations of DTPA-extractable heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in the sludge significantly compared with the unplanted sludge. Decreases of 87, 75, 85, 31, and 64% were obtained for B[a]P and DTPA-extractable Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb, respectively, compared with the fresh sludge. These results indicate that co-planting can reduce significantly the environmental risks associated with heavy metals and B[a]P in sewage sludge for further disposal. PMID:24912211

  6. Field study on the uptake and translocation of PBDEs by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in soils amended with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Helian; Qu, Ronghui; Yan, Liangguo; Guo, Weilin; Ma, Yibing

    2015-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted to explore the effects of different sewage sludge amendment strategies on the accumulation and translocation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soil-wheat systems. Two types of application methods (single or annual application) and four annual application rates (5, 10, 20, and 40 t ha(-1) year(-1)) were investigated. BDE 209 was detected in all of the sewage sludge amended soils and different parts of wheat plants collected from the contaminated soils. However, the other seven PBDE congeners (BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 99, BDE 100, BDE 153, BDE 154, and BDE 183) were not detected or were only observed at very low levels. A single application of sewage sludge in large quantities would likely increase accumulation of BDE 209 in soil and its subsequent uptake and translocation by wheat. The concentrations of BDE 209 in soils, wheat roots and straws increased with the increasing sewage sludge application rate. There is a negative correlation between the root accumulation factors (the ratios of concentrations in wheat roots to those in soils) and soil total organic carbon (R(2)=0.84,P<0.05), demonstrating that the bioavailability of BDE 209 was controlled by the soil total organic carbon. BDE 209 concentrations in the grains from the sewage sludge amended soils were not significantly different from those of the control soils, suggesting that atmospheric deposition was the main source of BDE 209 detected in the grains. PMID:25563166

  7. Availability and distribution of heavy metals, nitrogen, and phosphorus from sewage sludge in the plant-soil-water continuum

    SciTech Connect

    Rappaport, B.D.; Scott, J.D.; Martens, D.C.; Reneau, R.B.; Simpson, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    Research was conducted during 1984 and 1985 to determine Cd, Cu, N, Ni, P, and Zn availabilities to barley (Hordeum vulgare) and corn (Zea mays) grown on four sludge-amended soils. An aerobically digested sewage sludge, which was dewatered for approximately 2 years on sandbeds, was obtained from a sewage-treatment plant with major industrial inputs. A 14-day anaerobic N incubation study indicated that mineralization of sludge organic N varied from 9.2% at the 42 Mg ha(-1) sludge rate to 4.2% at the 210 Mg ha(-1) rate. This relatively low percentage of N mineralized from the sludge may reflect the inhibitory effects of the high sludge-metal levels on N transformations and the changes in sludge composition during long-term dewatering on sandbeds. Sludge application increased crop yields, except where the amounts of N mineralized from the sludge was inadequate to supply the N requirement of the crop. Crop yields were not decreased by either metal phytotoxity or P deficiency on the four sludge-amended soils.

  8. Recovery of phosphorus as struvite from sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huacheng; He, Pinjing; Gu, Weimei; Wang, Guanzhao; Shao, Liming

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an element vital for all living organisms, yet the world's reserves of phosphate rock are becoming depleted. This study investigated an effective P recovery method from sludge ash via struvite precipitation. Results showed that more than 95% of the total P content was extracted from sludge ash by applying 0.5 mol/L HCl at a liquid/solid ratio of 50 mL/g. Although heavy metal leaching also occurred during P extraction, cation exchange resin efficiently removed the heavy metals from the P-rich solution. Orthogonal tests showed that the optimal parameters for P precipitation as struvite would be a Mg:N:P molar ratio of 1.6:1.6:1 at pH 10.0. X-ray diffraction analysis validated the formation of struvite. Further investigations revealed that the harvested precipitate had a high struvite content (97%), high P bioavailability (94%), and low heavy metal content, which could be considered a high quality fertilizer. PMID:23513698

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY: CONTROL OF PATHOGENS AND VECTOR ATTRACTION IN SEWAGE SLUDGE (INCLUDING DOMESTIC SEWAGE) UNDER 40 CFR PART 503

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes the federal requirements concerning pathogens in sewage sludge applied to land or placed on a surface disposal site, and it provides guidance concerning those requirements. The document is intended for: (1) Owners and operators of treatment works treati...

  10. Degradation properties of protein and carbohydrate during sludge anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yang, Anqi

    2015-09-01

    Degradation of protein and carbohydrate is vital for sludge anaerobic digestion performance. However, few studies focused on degradation properties of protein and carbohydrate. This study investigated detailed degradation properties of sludge protein and carbohydrate in order to gain insight into organics removal during anaerobic digestion. Results showed that carbohydrate was more efficiently degraded than protein and was degraded prior to protein. The final removal efficiencies of carbohydrate and protein were 49.7% and 32.2%, respectively. The first 3days were a lag phase for protein degradation since rapid carbohydrate degradation in this phase led to repression of protease formation. Kinetics results showed that, after initial lag phase, protein degradation followed the first-order kinetic with rate constants of 0.0197 and 0.0018d(-1) during later rapid degradation phase and slow degradation phase, respectively. Carbohydrate degradation also followed the first-order kinetics with a rate constant of 0.007d(-1) after initial quick degradation phase. PMID:26025350

  11. Leachability of Heavy Metals from Lightweight Aggregates Made with Sewage Sludge and Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Na

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight aggregate (LWA) production with sewage sludge and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash is an effective approach for waste disposal. This study investigated the stability of heavy metals in LWA made from sewage sludge and MSWI fly ash. Leaching tests were conducted to find out the effects of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge (MSWI FA/SS) ratio, sintering temperature and sintering time. It was found that with the increase of MSWI FA/SS ratio, leaching rates of all heavy metals firstly decreased and then increased, indicating the optimal ratio of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge was 2:8. With the increase of sintering temperature and sintering time, the heavy metal solidifying efficiencies were strongly enhanced by crystallization and chemical incorporations within the aluminosilicate or silicate frameworks during the sintering process. However, taking cost-savings and lower energy consumption into account, 1100 C and 8 min were selected as the optimal parameters for LWA sample- containing sludge production. Furthermore, heavy metal leaching concentrations under these optimal LWA production parameters were found to be in the range of Chinas regulatory requirements. It is concluded that heavy metals can be properly stabilized in LWA samples containing sludge and cannot be easily released into the environment again to cause secondary pollution. PMID:25961800

  12. Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sewage sludge aerobic compost in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, H-t; Zheng, H-x; Chen, T-b; Zheng, G-d; Gao, D

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludge is an important contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the carbon budget of organic solid waste treatment and disposal. In this case study, total GHG emissions from an auto-control sludge compost system, including direct and indirect emissions and replaceable reduction due to sludge compost being reused as fertilizer, were quantified. The results indicated that no methane generation needed to be considered in the carbon debit because of the advantages of auto-control for monitoring and maintenance of appropriate conditions during the composting process. Indirect emissions were mainly from electricity and fossil fuel consumption, including sludge transportation and mechanical equipment use. Overall, the total carbon replaceable emission reduction owing to sludge being treated by composting rather than landfill, and reuse of its compost as fertilizer instead of chemical fertilizer, were calculated to be 0.6204 tCO2e t(-1) relative to baseline. Auto-control compost can facilitate obtaining certified emission reduction warrants, which are essential to accessing financial support with the authentication by the Clean Development Mechanism. PMID:24647175

  13. Phosphorus in manure and sewage sludge more recyclable than in soluble inorganic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Kahiluoto, H; Kuisma, M; Ketoja, E; Salo, T; Heikkinen, J

    2015-02-17

    Phosphorus (P) flow from deposits through agriculture to waterways leads to eutrophication and depletion of P reserves. Therefore, P must be recycled. Low and unpredictable plant availability of P in residues is considered to be a limiting factor for recycling. We identified the determinants for the plant-availability of P in agrifood residues. We quantified P in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and in field soil fractions with different plant availabilities of P as a response to manure and sewage sludge with a range of P capture and hygienization treatments. P was more available in manure and in sludge, when it was captured biologically or with a moderate iron (Fe)/P (1.6), than in NPK. Increasing rate of sludge impaired P recovery and high Fe/P (9.8) prevented it. Anaerobic digestion (AD) reduced plant-availability at relevant rates. The recovery of P was increased in AD manure via composting and in AD sludge via combined acid and oxidizer. P was not available to plants in the sludge hygienized with a high calcium/P. Contrary to assumed knowledge, the recyclability of P in appropriately treated residues can be better than in NPK. The prevention of P sorption in soil by organic substances in fertilizers critically enhances the recyclability of P. PMID:25569114

  14. Nitrogen fertilizer and sewage sludge effects on hybrid poplars. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, S.R.; Senesac, G.P.; Naylor, L.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments conducted in the greenhouse compared the growth and nutrient and heavy metal uptake in two clones of hybrid poplar grown in soil amended with nitrogen fertilizer or sewage sludge. In addition, poplar responses to weed competition and to rooting prior to planting were investigated. Both fertilizer and sludge application increased poplar stem biomass. Weeds reduced poplar biomass. The large difference in root biomass of the two poplar clones may account for different effects weed and sludge application had on nutrient and heavy metal uptake in each clone. The relatively small root biomass of I-45/51 increased with increasing sludge application, as did the uptake of nutrients and heavy metals. The relatively large root biomass of clone NE-510 was reduced when weeds were present, as was nutrient and heavy metal uptake. Other results suggest that poplars with low root-to-stem ratios may be most affected by weed competition, especially after their first year, and that nitrogen fertilization may alleviate effects of weeds on their growth. Poplars grown in sludge-amended soil did not accumulate more of any nutrient or heavy metal studied compared to those grown in nitrogen-fertilized soil. 17 refs., 5 figs., 57 tabs.

  15. Soil improvement with coal ash and sewage sludge: a field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Junfeng; Zhou, Xuewu; Sun, Daisheng; Fang, Jianguo; Liu, Zhijun; Li, Zhongmin

    2008-02-01

    A field experimental study was carried out successfully to improve the quality of the sandy soil by adding coal ash and sewage sludge. One ha of barren sandy soil field was chosen for the experiment in Shanghe County, Shandong Province, China. For soil amelioration and tree planting, two formulas of the mixture:coal ash, sewage sludge and soil, in ratios of 20:10:70 and 20:20:60, respectively, were used. Poplar trees were planted in pits filled with soils with additives (mixture of ash and sludge) as well as in the original sandy soil. In the 19th months after the trees were planted, the soils with additives were sampled and analyzed. The results show that the barren sandy soil was greatly improved after mixing with coal ash and sludge. The improved soils have remarkably higher nutrient concentrations, better texture, smaller bulk density, higher porosity and mass moisture content, and higher content of fine-grained minerals. During the first 22 months after planting, the annual increase in height of the trees grown in the soil with additives (4.78 m per year) was 55% higher than that of the control group (3.07 m per year), and the annual increase in diameter at the breast height (1.3 m) was 33 % higher (43.03 vs. 32.36 mm). Trees planted in soils with additives appeared healthier and shed leaves later than those in the control group. As the volume of the additives (30-40% in both formulas) is less than that of the sandy soil in and around the tree pits, it appears that the use of coal ash and sludge for tree planting and soil amelioration is environmentally safe even though the additives have relatively high heavy metal concentrations.

  16. Occurrence and analysis of parabens in municipal sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Albero, Beatriz; Prez, Rosa Ana; Snchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Tadeo, Jos Luis

    2012-11-15

    A rapid method for determination of seven parabens and two chlorinated by-products in sewage sludge was developed based on matrix solid-phase dispersion and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The analytical procedure showed good recoveries that ranged from 80 to 125%, with relative standard deviations lower than 12% and low detection limits, ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 ng g(-1) dry weight. The developed method was applied to the analysis of sewage sludge collected during 2010 in 19 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in various urban, industrial or rural zones in Madrid (Spain). Methylparaben was found in most of the WWTPs sampled (95%) at levels between 5.1 and 26.2 ng g(-1) dry weight and propylparaben was detected in 74% of the WWTPs at levels up to 44.1 ng g(-1) dry weight. In order to study the temporal variation of parabens and two chlorinated parabens during a four-year period, sludge samples were collected from 3 selected WWTPs. The levels of methylparaben encountered were rather constant throughout the sampling period whereas propylparaben levels slightly increased. In one of the WWTPs monitored, isopropylparaben was found at the beginning of the sampling period but its content decreased and was not detected in the 2010 sampling. PMID:22640822

  17. Effect of sewage sludge-borne cadmium on crop production and on soil and plant composition

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Solaimani, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    Teller sandy loan (fine-loamy, mixed, thermic, Udic Agriustolls) and Norge loam (fine-silty, mixed, thermic, Udic Paleustolls) were used in a greenhouse study with rates of cadmium (Cd) in sewage sludge. Two sewage sludges were mixed to produce a range of Cd treatments of 7 to 120 mg Cd kg/sup -1/ in a 44 mt ha/sup -1/ sludge treatment rate. Application depths of 0 to 15 cm and 15 to 30 cm for grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and soybean (Glycine max) for two successive crops were included as experimental variables. Statistical design was a lattice square with five replications. Fresh and dry weights of plant materials were determined and analyzed for total content of Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cd after digestion. Soil samples from 0 to 7.5, 7.5 to 15, and 15 to 30 cm depths were taken after the second crop was harvested and analyzed for DTPA extractable Fe, Zn, and Cd. The soil pH and percent organic matter were determined, also, and compared to original soil analysis.

  18. Effects of Adding Sewage Sludge and Urea-Phosphate Fertilizers to the Great Sippewissett Salt Marsh, Falmouth, MA on Heavy Metals and Microbial N-Cycling

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Effects of Adding Sewage Sludge and Urea-Phosphate Fertilizers to the Great Sippewissett Salt Marsh, microbes, nitrogen cycle, sewage sludge, urea phosphate fertilizer, heavy metals INTRODUCTION Pollution of nitrogen gas in the atmosphere. Salt marshes have been used as disposal sites because they act as filters

  19. Effects of past sewage sludge additions on heavy metal availability in light textured soils: implications for crop yields and metal uptakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Bhogal; F. A Nicholson; B. J Chambers; M. A Shepherd

    2003-01-01

    The effect of heavy metal additions in past sewage sludge applications on soil metal availability and the growth and yield of crops was evaluated at two sites in the UK. At Gleadthorpe, sewage sludges enriched with salts of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) had been applied to a loamy sand in 1982 and additionally naturally contaminated Zn and

  20. EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGAL INOCULATION ON Eucalyptus globulus SEEDLINGS AND SOME SOIL ENZYME ACTIVITIES UNDER APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AMENDMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Csar Arriagada; Patricio Pacheco; Guillermo Pereira; Angela Machuca; Marysol Alvear; Juan Antonio Ocampo

    2009-01-01

    The sewage sludge (SS) represents a source of organic matter although its increasing accumulation need a suitable environmental treatment. Our study analyzed the effect of the interaction between sewage sludge (doses 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g per 100 g of soil) and Eucalyptus globulus nursery seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi as a fertilizers alternative and evaluate

  1. Characterization of an indigenous iron-oxidizing bacterium and its effectiveness in bioleaching heavy metals from anaerobically digested sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Gu, X Y; Wong, J W C

    2004-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to isolate the indigenous iron-oxidizing bacterium and compare its effectiveness in bioleaching of heavy metals from fresh anaerobically digested sludge and aged sludge which had undergone a storage period in a sludge holding tank. An acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain ANYL-1 was successfully isolated from the sludge collected from a wastewater treatment plant at Yuen Long district in Hong Kong. It was a Gram negative, non-motile rod shaped bacterium which used ferrous iron, elemental sulfur or thiosulfate as energy source, but did not utilize tetrathionate or glucose as energy source. The optimal temperature and pH for its growth and iron oxidation were 30-35 degrees C and pH 2.0-2.5, respectively. When it was used in the bioleaching of anaerobically digested sewage sludge, an inhibition on metal solubilization was observed in fresh sludge except for Zn whose dissolution was solely a chemical process. Compared to the 3 and 4 days required for solubilization of Cu and Cr respectively from the sludge sample collected after the sludge holding tank (Sludge SHT), 6 days were required to bioleach Cu and Cr from fresh sludge (Sludge AD). The fresh sewage sludge posed an unfavorable condition for bioleaching of heavy metals from anaerobically digested sludge as reflected by the prolonged bioleaching time. Therefore, further studies were needed to understand the inhibitory effects in the fresh anaerobically digested sludge and develop measures to remove it in order to improve the heavy metal bioleaching efficiency. PMID:15366556

  2. Study on a novel reactor of sludge process reduction for domestic sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Xie, En; Xu, Xiao-Yi; Luo, Gu-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory-scale novel Sludge Reduction Reactor with Arc Guide Plate (SRR) for sludge process reduction was developed in this study. Pollutant removal efficiency and biomass yield for domestic sewage treatment in the Anaerobic/Anoxic/Oxic-SRR (A2/O-SRR) process were compared with performances in a control A2/O process. One of the competitive advantages in the SRR was that part of the inert suspended solids (ISS) could be separated and discharged out of system with flux at the bottom of the SRR. Mixed liquid volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) in the A2/O-SRR system also could be steadily kept at a good level under a relatively long solid retention time. The average MLVSS/mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) ratio of 77.5% in the A2/O-SRR was higher than that in the A2/O process. Average removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and NH4(+) showed little difference, while total phosphorous (TP) removal efficiency in the A2/O-SRR decreased slightly (81.89% in the A2/O-SRR and 86.50% in the A2/O process) due to the reduction of sludge discharge. The A2/O-SRR system demonstrated a considerable sludge reduction effect, with the sludge reduction ratio of 43.8%, lower solid volume index and higher dehydrogenase activity (DHA) value in comparison to the control A2/O system. The mainly mechanisms of sludge reduction in the SRR have been proved to be the uncoupling effect under the condition of anaerobic/oxic circulation and the sludge lysis with the lack of substrate. PMID:24191494

  3. Feasibility of growing hardwood species on a borrow pit amended with either fertilizer and lime or sewage sludge. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Previous research on other sites showed that 15 tons/A of dried sewage sludge followed by subsoiling is sufficient to promote rapid growth of pines and sweetgum on borrow pits. During the past year, data have been obtained from this experiment showing that 30 tons/A of sewage sludge, well incorporated and followed by subsoiling, will promote very rapid first-year growth of green ash, yellow poplar, sycamore, and sawtooth oak. Loblolly pine and sweetgum also grew well as in previous studies. In most cases, seedlings of these species grew significantly faster with sewage sludge than with 1000 lbs./Aof 10-10-10 fertilizer and 2 tons/A of lime. Yellow poplar and sycamore grew the faster of all species, attaining heights during the first growing season of 134 and 209 cms, respectively. Sweetgum, green ash, and sawtooth oak all attained heights over 100 cms.

  4. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: Preliminary feasibility evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano [University of Trento, Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it [Insubria University of Varese, Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: The aim is to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a solar greenhouse. The system allows the exploitation of heat available from OFMSW aerobic process. Another aim is to face the problem of OFMSW treatment, in particular food waste. Energy and mass balances are presented for a case study. - Abstract: In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications.

  5. U.S. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY)-SPONSORED EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF WASTEWATER AND SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1975 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has sponsored 11 epidemiological studies of the potential health effects associated with the treatment and disposal of sewage and sewage sludge. Three of these have been occupational exposure studies: One of sewage treatment pla...

  6. Sewage treatment in a combined up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tawfik; A. Ohashi; H. Harada

    2006-01-01

    The performance of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) in combination with down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system for sewage treatment at an average wastewater temperature of 15C has been investigated for 6 months. The results showed that a combined system operated at a total HRT of 10.7h and total SRT of 88 days represents a cost effective sewage treatment process. The

  7. Use of sewage sludge ash (SSA)-cement admixtures in mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Monzo, J.; Paya, J.; Borrachero, M.V.; Corcoles, A. [Univ. Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria de la Construccion] [Univ. Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria de la Construccion

    1996-09-01

    The chemical composition of sewage sludge ash (SSA) and their sized fractions are studied; some differences in chemical composition are observed. SEM studies show irregular shape of SSA particles and sized fractions, this shape has a decisive influence on workability of mortars. The effect of replacing 15% of portland cement by SSA and their sized fractions: coarse (SSAC) and medium (SSAM) obtained by sieving on compressive (R{sub c}) and flexural (R{sub f}) strength of mortars was investigated. The study reveals an enhancement of strength when ashes are used, due to probably, pozzolanic properties of SSA.

  8. Determination of phosphate phases in sewage sludge ash-based fertilizers by Raman microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christian; Adam, Christian; McNaughton, Don

    2013-09-01

    The chemical form of phosphate phases in sewage sludge ash (SSA)-based fertilizers was determined by Raman microspectroscopy. Raman mapping with a lateral resolution of 5 5 ?m(2) easily detected different compounds present in the fertilizers with the help of recorded reference spectra of pure substances. Quartz and aluminosilicates showed Raman bands in the range of 450-520 cm(-1). Phosphates with apatite structure and magnesium triphosphate were determined at around 960 and 980 cm(-1), respectively. Furthermore, calcium/magnesium pyrophosphates were detected in some samples. PMID:24067643

  9. Problem of radioactive ash and sewage sludge management in the population areas of the Chernobyl zone

    SciTech Connect

    Basharin, A.V.; Kavkhuta, G.A.; Rozdyalovskaya, L.F.; Ivansky, I.I. [Belarus Academy of Science, Minsk (Belarus). Inst. of Radioecological Problems

    1995-12-31

    The Chernobyl accident has brought about an unprecedented health risk to the population in the area of nuclear fall-out and has created unusual radioactive decontamination and waste management problems. One of them which has proven to be self-dependent is radioactively contaminated municipal domestic wastes, in particular sewage sludge arising from waste water treatment and ash wastes produced by domestic heating facilities from the use of local contaminated fire-wood and peat. This paper`s intention is to show the present situation and outline the actions being taken to carry out the recommendations in the field of management and regulation.

  10. Glass-ceramics from vitrified sewage sludge pyrolysis residues and recycled glasses.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, E; Dal Maschio, R

    2011-11-01

    Pyrolysis of urban plant sewage sludge has been demonstrated to be an effective way to produce fuel gas. However, a complete disposal of this particular waste is not achieved if the solid residues from the treatment are not considered. In this paper we discuss the feasibility an integrated pyrolysis/vitrification/sintering approach, aimed at a "full" disposal: the pyrolysis residues are first converted into a glass, then transformed into glass-ceramics, by simple viscous flow sintering treatments, with or without additions of inexpensive recycled glasses and kaolin clay. The obtained products were demonstrated to constitute an alternative to natural stones, in terms of both mechanical strength and chemical stability. PMID:21802272

  11. Removal of personal care compounds from sewage sludge in reed bed container (lysimeter) studies Effects of macrophytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xijuan Chen; Udo Pauly; Stefan Rehfus; Kai Bester

    2009-01-01

    Sludge reed beds have been used for dewatering (draining and evapotranspiration) and mineralisation of sludge in Europe since 1988. Although reed beds are considered as a low cost and low contamination method in reducing volume, breaking down organic matter and increasing the density of sludge, it is not yet clear whether this enhanced biological treatment is suitable for degradation of

  12. The effect of sewage urban and industrial sludge on the development of wheat and colza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasoued, Najla; Bilal, Essaid; Rejeb, Saloua; Gunole-Bilal, Issam; Rejeb, Nejib

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of two types of sludge from sewage treatment urban and industrial plants on the wheat and colza. These sludge is made at different doses (5, 25, 50 and 100 t / ha). We are therefore interested in the growth and absorption of heavy metals by plants and follow the fate of the latter in the ground to prevent pollution events and toxicity. The soil is characterized by an alkaline pH; conductivity ranging from 1.06 to 1.52mmho/cm resulting low salinity and soil saturation is between 30.4 and 31.8ml/100g. The sand is the most representative size fraction in this soil which is a sandy loam soil texture. The percentages of limestone in the different horizons are less than 5% so it is a non-calcareous soil, with organic matter content very low. Contents of total nitrogen are relatively low. The C/N ratio is about 7 at the first horizon (0-10cm) indicates that organic matter will be quickly mineralized. The mean levels of heavy metals found in the soil are organized in the following order: Fe >> Mn> Zn> Pb> Cu> Ni> Co> Cd mean concentrations of heavy metals introduced by the sludge. With the addition of sludge, there is a parallel increase in the number of ears and an increased number of grains per m. The ears and grains also increases with increasing dose of sludge, whatever the type of sludge made. The increase in the number of grains with the addition of sludge has the consequence of decrease in PMG this can be explained by the decrease in weight and grain quality response to stress. The numbers of feet of wheat increases dice the contribution of 5t/ha sludge, this increase is more pronounced with the addition of urban sludge. The leaf area increases with the contribution of sludge as well as for urban or industrial sludge's. The leaf surface of this crop varies between 15.77cm2 of the oldest leaf to 3.78cm2 for the youngest leaf in the control soil. The leaf surface increases by 10cm for 5BI and 11cm 5BU. We noted that the young leaf appears to 5BI and 25BI, but it is not yet developed with input from 50t/ha to 100t/ha. This developmental delay may be due to toxicity effect more pronounced with industrial sludge. The effects of the contribution of sludge are manifested by a significant increase in the weight gains of the whole plant, these results in a variation of the ratio of the aerial part and root (PA / R) which tends to increase with the increase the dose sludge made. In all cases, the increase in leaf weight gain following a contribution of mud is still perceptible from the low inputs applied with a more significant effect with the provision of urban sludge. The important contribution of sludge rich in heavy metals causes stress in plants. We found a high content of Ni, Pb and Zn in these plants.

  13. Enhanced dewaterability of sewage sludge in the presence of Fe(II)-activated persulfate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Guangyin; Lu, Xueqin; Zhao, Youcai; Chai, Xiaoli; Niu, Dongjie

    2012-07-01

    The potential benefits of Fe(II)-activated persulfate oxidation on sludge dewatering and its mechanisms were investigated in this study. Capillary suction time (CST) was used to evaluate sludge dewaterability. Both extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and viscosity were determined in an attempt to explain the observed changes in sludge dewaterability. The optimal conditions to give preferable dewaterability characteristics were found to be persulfate (S(2)O(8)(2-)) 1.2 mmol/gVSS, Fe(II) 1.5 mmol/gVSS, and pH 3.0-8.5, which demonstrated a very high CST reduction efficiency (88.8% reduction within 1 min). It was further observed that both soluble EPS and viscosity played relatively negative roles in sludge dewatering, whereas no correlation was established between sludge dewaterability and bound EPS. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra also revealed that soluble EPS of sludge were degraded and sludge flocs were ruptured by persulfate oxidation, which caused the release of water in the intracellular pace and subsequent improvement of its dewaterability. PMID:22542138

  14. Production of technical grade phosphoric acid from incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA).

    PubMed

    Donatello, S; Tong, D; Cheeseman, C R

    2010-01-01

    The recovery of phosphorus from sewage sludge ash samples obtained from 7 operating sludge incinerators in the UK using a sulfuric acid washing procedure to produce a technical grade phosphoric acid product has been investigated. The influences of reaction time, sulfuric acid concentration, liquid to solid ratio and source of ISSA on P recovery have been examined. The optimised conditions were the minimum stoichiometric acid requirement, a reaction time of 120 min and a liquid to solid ratio of 20. Under these conditions, average recoveries of between 72% and 91% of total phosphorus were obtained. Product filtrate was purified by passing through a cation exchange column, concentrated to 80% H(3)PO(4) and compared with technical grade H(3)PO(4) specifications. The economics of phosphate recovery by this method are briefly discussed. PMID:20434899

  15. Environmental and economic life cycle assessment for sewage sludge treatment processes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinglan; Hong, Jingmin; Otaki, Masahiro; Jolliet, Olivier

    2009-02-01

    Life cycle assessment for sewage sludge treatment was carried out by estimating the environmental and economic impacts of the six alternative scenarios most often used in Japan: dewatering, composting, drying, incineration, incinerated ash melting and dewatered sludge melting, each with or without digestion. Three end-of-life treatments were also studied: landfilling, agricultural application and building material application. The results demonstrate that sewage sludge digestion can reduce the environmental load and cost through reduced dry matter volume. The global warming potential (GWP) generated from incineration and melting processes can be significantly reduced through the reuse of waste heat for electricity and/or heat generation. Equipment production in scenarios except dewatering has an important effect on GWP, whereas the contribution of construction is negligible. In addition, the results show that the dewatering scenario has the highest impact on land use and cost, the drying scenario has the highest impact on GWP and acidification, and the incinerated ash melting scenario has the highest impact on human toxicity due to re-emissions of heavy metals from incinerated ash in the melting unit process. On the contrary, the dewatering, composting and incineration scenarios generate the lowest impact on human toxicity, land use and acidification, respectively, and the incinerated ash melting scenario has the lowest impact on GWP and cost. Heavy metals released from atmospheric effluents generated the highest human toxicity impact, with the effect of dioxin emissions being significantly lower. This study proved that the dewatered sludge melting scenario is an environmentally optimal and economically affordable method. PMID:18650077

  16. Soil and pasture P concentration in a Fraxinus excelsior L. silvopastoral system fertilised with different types of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreiro-Domnguez, Nuria; Nair, Vimala; Rigueiro-Rodrguez, Antonio; Rosa Mosquera-Losada, Mara

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, sewage sludge should be stabilised before using as fertiliser in agriculture. Depending on the stabilisation process that is used, sewage sludge has different characteristics, nutrient contents and soil nutrient incorporation rates. Sewage sludge is usually applied on a plant-available N or total metal concentration basic, and therefore, P concentrations can be well above crop needs. Leaching of excess P can threaten surface and ground waters with eutrophication. In this context, recent studies have demonstrated that the implementation of agroforestry systems could reduce the P leaching risk compared with conventional agricultural systems due to the different localisation of tree and crop roots which enhance nutrient uptake. The aim of this study was to evaluate during three consecutive years the effect of municipal sewage sludge stabilised by anaerobic digestion, composting, and pelletisation on concentration of P in soil and pasture compared to control treatments (mineral and no fertilisation) in a silvopastoral system established under Fraxinus excelsior L. in Galicia (Spain). The results showed that at the beginning of the study, the fertilisation with mineral increased more the total and available P in soil than the fertilisation with sewage sludge probably because the sludge nutrient release rate is slower than those from mineral fertilisers. The increment of soil available P caused by the mineral fertiliser implied an improvement of the P concentration in the pasture. However, in the last year of the experiment it was observed a positive effect of the fertilisation with pelletised sludge on the concentration of P in pasture compared with the composted sludge and the mineral fertiliser probably due to the annual application of this type of sludge. Therefore, the establishment of silvopastoral systems and their fertilisation with pelletized sludge should be recommended because the pelletized sludge increases the concentration of P in the pasture and reduces the application and storage costs due to its lower proportion of water than the other types of sludge tested. At the same time, the integration of trees in agricultural areas decreases the problem of environmental impact resulting from addition of organic and inorganic fertilisers on soils.

  17. Environmental and plant effects of sewage sludge application to forests and pastures

    SciTech Connect

    Van Miegroet, H.; Boston, H.L.; Johnson, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    Digested sewage sludge was applied to pastures and tree plantations at 19 to 44 Mg/ha (dry weight) as part of a municipal sludge disposal program. The sludge had low concentrations of heavy metals and traces of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 60/Co. Monitoring of soils, soil solutions, and runoff indicated that N, P, heavy metals, and radionuclides were largely retained in the upper 15cm of the soil. Soil solutions had elevated NO/sub 3//sup /minus// concentrations often >100 mg/L, but no significant increases in groundwater NO/sub 3//sup /minus// were found during the first year. Runoff from active sites had elevated concentrations of NO/sub 3//sup /minus// (20--30 mg/L), soluble P (1 mg/L), BOD/sub 5/ (5--30 mg/L), and fecal coliform (up to 14,000 colonies per 100 ml), not unlike runoff from pastures with cattle. Enrichment of organic N (2 times), available (inorganic) N (5 to 10 times), and Bray-P in the upper soils persisted for several years following sludge application. Sludge increased vegetation N concentrations from 1.5% to 2.3% and P concentrations from 0.16% to 0.31%. With the exception of Zn, heavy metals did not accumulate substantially in the vegetation. The sludge addition increased the survival and growth of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.). For a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation future growth improvements are expected based on elevated foliar N concentrations. 37 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Application of acidic thermal treatment for one- and two-stage anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Takashima, M; Tanaka, Y

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of acidic thermal treatment (ATT) was examined in a 106-day continuous experiment, when applied to one- or two-stage anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge (4.3% TS). The ATT was performed at 170 C and pH 5 for 1 hour (sulfuric acid for lowering pH). The one-stage process was mesophilic at 20 days hydraulic retention time (HRT), and incorporated the ATT as pre-treatment. The two-stage process consisted of a thermophilic digester at 5 days HRT and a mesophilic digester at 15 days HRT, and incorporated the ATT as interstage-treatment. On average, VSS reduction was 48.7% for the one-stage control, 65.8% for the one-stage ATT, 52.7% for the two-stage control and 67.6% for the two-stage ATT. Therefore, VSS reduction was increased by 15-17%, when the ATT was combined in both one- and two-stage processes. In addition, the dewaterability of digested sludge was remarkably improved, and phosphate release was enhanced. On the other hand, total methane production did not differ significantly, and color generation was noted in the digested sludge solutions with the ATT. In conclusion, the anaerobic digestion with ATT can be an attractive alternative for sludge reduction, handling, and phosphorus recovery. PMID:21099053

  19. Combined ultrasonication and thermal pre-treatment of sewage sludge for increasing methane production.

    PubMed

    Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Tian, Xinbo; Wang, Chong; Lin, Li Leonard; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the combination of ultrasonic and thermal treatment of sewage sludge (SS). The combination involved ultrasonicating a fraction of the sludge and thermal treatment at various temperatures and this resulted in solubilization of proteins and carbohydrates, and so contributing to increased COD solubilization. During the treatment, SCOD, soluble proteins and carbohydrates increased from 760 mg L(-1) to 10,200 mg L(-1), 110 mg L(-1) to 2,900 mg L(-1) and 60 mg L(-1) to 630 mg L(-1), respectively. It was found ultrasonication of only a fraction of the sludge (>20%) followed by thermal treatment led to significant improvement compared to thermal and ULS treatments applied on their own. At 65C, the kinetic of solubilization was improved and the hyper-thermophilic treatment time could be reduced to a few hours when ultrasonication was used first. A linear correlation (R(2) = 95%) was found between the SCOD obtained after ultrasonication pre-treatment and anaerobic biodegradability. The combined treatment resulted in 20% increase in biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of the pre-treated sludge. PMID:25560267

  20. Relationship between electrical and rheological properties of sewage sludge - Impact of temperature.

    PubMed

    Sgalen, C; Dieud-Fauvel, E; Clment, J; Baudez, J C

    2015-04-15

    Rheological properties are key criteria for sewage sludge management but are difficult to determine in situ. Because the literature often links rheological characteristics to surface charges of particles that interact, the underlying electrostatic interactions could be key characteristics explaining the rheological behavior of sludge. This paper analyzed the impact of temperature on both rheological and electrical properties. Both liquid and solid properties appear to be related to electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements because they obey the same relationships with the same activation energies. Infinite viscosity follows an Arrhenius law with temperature, whereas the storage modulus shows VTF (Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher) behavior. Sludge electrical behavior can be modeled by an equivalent 2-branch parallel circuit whose respective impedances follow Arrhenius and VTF relationships. More interestingly, resistors are proportional to (dissipative) viscous characteristics, whereas capacitances are proportional to the (storage) elastic modulus. These similarities and relationships underlie the same interactions that seem to be involved in both rheological and electrical properties. These interdependences are quite logical but open new insights into sludge characterization. PMID:25634652

  1. Obtaining edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers from different sewage sludges. Effects on soil biological properties.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Morgado, Bruno; Gmez, Isidoro; Parrado, Juan; Garca-Martnez, Ana M; Aragn, Carlos; Tejada, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    We studied the influence of six edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers (BSs) manufactured by the pH-stat method from different sewage sludge (SS): SS1 (an anaerobic mature sludge, one year old), SS2 (an aerobic young sludge, without maturation) and SS3 (an aerobic mature sludge, four months old), not previously autoclaved (A) and autoclaved (B), by analysing their effects on soil biological properties. Soil enzymatic activities were measured at 1, 3, 5, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days of the incubation period, whereas the 16S rDNA-DGGE profiles were determined at 0, 5 and 60 days. The enzymatic activities were significantly stimulated. The highest stimulation was found in the B2 treatment followed by B3, A2, A3, B1 and A1 treatments. Increasing the number of lower molecular weight proteins in the BS enhances the stimulation of soil enzymatic activities. The application of BS caused at 5 days of the incubation period temporal variations in the soil bacterial community structure. PMID:25732482

  2. Applications of sewage sludge ash and nano-SiO 2 to manufacture tile as construction material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Chen; D. F. Lin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, various portions of potters clay and porcelain clay were replaced with incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) to manufacture sludge ash tile specimens. We used these tiles to investigate the effect of introducing nano-SiO2 particles as strengthening additives in the clayISSA materials. Percentages of ISSA in the porcelain or potters clay-based materials ranged from 0% to 50%, and

  3. Physical characteristics of alkaline stabilized sewage sludge (N-viro soil) and their effects on soil physical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Logan; B. J. Harrison

    1995-01-01

    The N-Viro process for alkaline stabilization of municipal sewage sludge combines dewatered sludge with one or more alkaline industrial byproducts and destroys pathogens by a combination of high pH, heat, and drying. The final product, N-Viro Soil, is a soil-like material that is being used as an agricultural lime substitute, soil amendment, and soil substitute. Physical characteristics of 28 N-Viro

  4. Concentrations and specific loads of polycyclic musks in sewage sludge originating from a monitoring network in Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kupper; J. D. Berset; R. Etter-Holzer; R. Furrer; J. Tarradellas

    2004-01-01

    Polycyclic musks (HHCB, AHTN, ADBI, AHDI, ATII) and a metabolite of HHCB (HHCBlactone) were analyzed in sewage sludge samples within the framework of a monitoring network in Switzerland. Mean values in stabilised sludge from 16 wastewater treatment plants were 20.3 mg\\/kgd.m. for HHCB, 7.3 mg\\/kgd.m. for AHTN and 1.8 mg\\/kgd.m. for HHCBlactone, respectively. Contents of ADBI, AHDI and ATII were

  5. Long-term changes in soil and plant metal concentrations in an acidic dredge disposal site receiving sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Palazzo; C. M. Reynolds

    1991-01-01

    A long-term experiment was conducted to determine the distribution of sludge-borne metals applied to a revegetated acidic dredge spoil disposal site. The initial soil was infertile and highly acidic (pH 2.4). Sewage sludge and lime were applied in 1974 at the rates of 100 and 23 mt ha-1, respectively, and tilled into the soil to a depth of 20 cm.

  6. Effect of sanitized and non-sanitized sewage sludge on soil microbial community and the physiology of pepper plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Pascual; M. Avils; J. Aguirreolea; M. Snchez-Daz

    2008-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of sanitized (Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digested, ATAD)\\u000a and non-sanitized (Anaerobic Mesophile Digested) sewage sludge on the activity and functional diversity of soil microbial\\u000a community and the physiology of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Piquillo). ATAD and anaerobic mesophile sludges were applied to soils at three rates (3, 6 and 12g

  7. Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) biomass production in a calcareous soil amended with sewage sludge compost and irrigated with sewage water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lag, A.; Gomez, I.; Navarro-Pedreo, J.; Melendez, I.; Perez Gimeno, A.; Soriano-Disla, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    Energy use is one of the most important current global issues. Traditional energetic resources are limited and its use generates environmental problems, i.e. Global Warming, thus it is necessary to find alternative ways to produce energy. Energy crops represent one step towards sustainability but it must be coupled with appropriate land use and management adapted to local conditions. Moreover, positive effects like soil conservation; economical improvement of rural areas and CO2 storage could be achieved. Treated sewage water and sewage sludge compost were used as low-cost inputs for nutrition and irrigation, to cultivate cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) a perennial Mediterranean crop. The aim of the present field experiment was to ascertain the optimum dose of compost application to obtain maximum biomass production. Four compost treatments were applied by triplicate (D1=0; D2=30; D3=50; D4=70 ton/ha) and forty eight cardoon plants were placed in each plot, 12 per treatment, in a calcareous soil (CLfv; WRB, 2006) plot, located in the South East of Spain, in semi-arid conditions. The experiment was developed for one cardoon productive cycle (one year); soil was sampled three times (October, April and July). Soil, compost and treated sewage irrigation water were analyzed (physical and chemical properties). Stalk, capitula and leave weight as well as height and total biomass production were the parameters determined for cardoon samples. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) at p=0,05 significance level were performed to detect differences among treatments for each sampling/plot and to study soil parameters evolution and biomass production for each plot/dose. Several statistical differences in soil were found between treatments for extractable zinc, magnesium and phosphorus; as well as Kjeldahl nitrogen and organic carbon due to compost application, showing a gradual increase of nutrients from D1 to D4. However, considering the evolution of soil parameters along time, pH was the only with marked and significant decreasing trend from the first to the last sampling period. Mean cardoon biomass production in D1subplot was 13 ton/ha which differed significantly from D4 production, which was about 20 ton/ha. Hence, the maximum biomass production was obtained with the maximum compost dose. The results show that compost amendment increased cardoon biomass production, probably due to the improvement of soil properties, especially plant nutrient availability. No significant differences were found in soil parameters along time, with the exception of pH. However, longer test time is needed to evaluate long term effects in soil and to check the maintenance of biomass productivity. References Fernadez J., Curt, M.D., Aguado P.L. Industrial applications of Cynara cardunculus for energy and other uses. Industrial Crops and Product 24 (2006) pp 222-229. WRB (2006). World Reference Base for Soil Resources (2nd ed.). World Soil Resources Report 103, FAO, Rome, Italy (2006) 133 pp. Casado, J.; Sells, S.; Navarro, J.; Bustamante, M.A.; Mataix, J.; Guerrero, C.; Gomez, I. Evaluation of composted sewage sludge as nutricional source for horticulturals soils. Waste Management 26 (2006). pp 946-952. Acknowledgements: The author gratefully acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Science for a research fellowship (AP2007-01641).

  8. Emission characteristics of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing odorous compounds during different sewage sludge chemical conditioning processes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Luo, Guang-Qian; Hu, Hong-Yun; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Jia-Kuan; Yao, Hong

    2012-10-15

    Chemical conditioners are often used to enhance sewage sludge dewaterability through altering sludge properties and flocs structure, both affect odorous compounds emissions not only during sludge conditioning but also in subsequent sludge disposal. This study was to investigate emission characteristics of ammonia (NH(3)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) generated from sewage sludge conditioned by three representative conditioners, i.e., organic polymers, iron salts and skeleton builders, F-S (Fenton's reagent and skeleton builders) composite conditioner. The results demonstrate that polyacrylamide (PAM) has an insignificant effect on emission characteristics of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing odorous compounds, because the properties, sulfur and nitrogen speciations are similar in PAM-conditioned sludge and raw sludge (RS). Significant increases of SO(2) and H(2)S emissions in the H(2)SO(4) conditioning process were observed due to the accelerated decomposition of sulfur-containing amino acids in acidic environment. Fenton peroxidation facilitates the formation of COS. CaO can reduce sulfur-containing gases emission via generation of calcium sulfate. However, under strong alkaline conditions, free ammonia or protonated amine in sludge can be easily converted to volatile ammonia, resulting in a significant release of NH(3). PMID:22902143

  9. Population size of indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii in long-term field experiments with sewage sludge cake, metal-amended liquid sludge or metal salts: Effects of zinc, copper and cadmium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amar Chaudri; Steve McGrath; Paul Gibbs; Brian Chambers; Colin Carlton-Smith; Jeffrey Bacon; Colin Campbell; Mark Aitken

    2008-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence, and therefore continuing concern, as to whether metals in sewage sludge are deleterious to soil microbial processes and long-term agricultural productivity. Nine field experiments with sewage sludge cakes, three with metal-amended liquid sludges and three with inorganic metal salts were set up across Britain in 1994 to give individual metal doseresponse treatments to try to answer

  10. Acetic acid recovery from a hybrid biological-hydrothermal treatment process of sewage sludge - a pilot plant study.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J; Dare, P; Estcourt, G; Gapes, D; Lei, R; McDonald, B; Wijaya, N

    2015-03-01

    A two-stage process consisting of anaerobic fermentation followed by sub-critical wet oxidation was used to generate acetic acid from sewage sludge at pilot scale. Volatile fatty acids, dominated by propionic acid, were produced over 4-6 days in the 2,000 L fermentation reactor, which also achieved 31% solids reduction. Approximately 96% of the carbon was retained in solution over the fermentation stage. Using a 200 L wet oxidation reactor operating in batch mode, the second stage achieved 98% volatile suspended solids (VSS) destruction and 67% total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) destruction. Acetic acid produced in this stage was recalcitrant to further degradation and was retained in solution. The gross yield from VSS was 16% for acetic acid and 21% for volatile fatty acids across the process, higher than reported yields for wet oxidation alone. The pilot plant results showed that 72% of the incoming phosphorus was retained in the solids, 94% of the nitrogen became concentrated in solution and 41% of the carbon was converted to a soluble state, in a more degradable form. Acetic acid produced from the process has the potential to be used to offset ethanol requirements in biological nutrient removal plants. PMID:25768220

  11. Microbial fuel cell enables phosphate recovery from digested sewage sludge as struvite.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Fabian; Bastian, Christle; Happe, Manuel; Mabillard, Eric; Schmidt, Nicolas

    2011-05-01

    Orthophosphate was mobilized from iron phosphate (FePO(4)) contained in digested sewage sludge by microbial fuel cell power. FePO(4) was reduced through electrons and protons obtained from metabolic activity of Escherichia coli. The process yielded up to 82% or 600 mg/l. Optical emission spectroscopy was used for phosphate dosage. (31)P NMR showed a singlet at ?(p)=3.72 ppm indicating that orthophosphate (H(3)PO(4), HPO(4)(-), HPO(4)(2-) and PO(4)(3-)) was recovered. The phosphate containing supernatant solution was reacted with stoichiometric amounts of MgCl(2) and NH(4)OH to precipitate struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4)6H(2)O). The crystalline fertilizer was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy comprising elemental analysis, revealing a composition accuracy of ? 90% and the absence of any toxic metals such as As, Cd, Pb, or Cr. The phosphate extraction is also a means to reduce the volume of digested sewage sludge while increasing the heat of combustion. This study represents a concept for sustainable decentralized phosphate recycling. PMID:21411312

  12. Recycling and recovery routes for incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA): a review.

    PubMed

    Donatello, Shane; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2013-11-01

    The drivers for increasing incineration of sewage sludge and the characteristics of the resulting incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) are reviewed. It is estimated that approximately 1.7 milliontonnes of ISSA are produced annually world-wide and is likely to increase in the future. Although most ISSA is currently landfilled, various options have been investigated that allow recycling and beneficial resource recovery. These include the use of ISSA as a substitute for clay in sintered bricks, tiles and pavers, and as a raw material for the manufacture of lightweight aggregate. ISSA has also been used to form high density glass-ceramics. Significant research has investigated the potential use of ISSA in blended cements for use in mortars and concrete, and as a raw material for the production of Portland cement. However, all these applications represent a loss of the valuable phosphate content in ISSA, which is typically comparable to that of a low grade phosphate ore. ISSA has significant potential to be used as a secondary source of phosphate for the production of fertilisers and phosphoric acid. Resource efficient approaches to recycling will increasingly require phosphate recovery from ISSA, with the remaining residual fraction also considered a useful material, and therefore further research is required in this area. PMID:23820291

  13. Chemical reduction of odour in fresh sewage sludge in the presence of ferric hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Su, Lianghu; Zhao, Youcai

    2013-01-01

    To assess the potential of ferric hydroxide (FH) to reduce odour emission from dewatered sewage sludge with a moisture of approximately 86%, odour reduction was evaluated using an electronic nose and measurements of odorous compounds (hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and volatile fatty acids (VFAs)). The sulphur species including sulphate, acid-volatile sulphide (AVS), Cr(II)-reducible sulphide (CRS) and elemental sulphur (ES), were analysed by a modified cold diffusion sequential extraction method before and after anaerobic incubation. Within 32 days, 69.3, 83.8 and 88.6% of the odour (or 81.3, 93.7 and 97.5% of hydrogen sulphide) were eliminated, respectively, at the rates of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.25% (wt) of FH. The sulphur species analysis indicated that FeS, FeS2 and a small portion of S0 were formed by FH-sulphide reaction. This study also found that the relationship between odour and H2S concentrations could be well expressed by Steven's law. We believe that FH can be a cost-effective reagent for sludge odour control in sewage treatment processes. PMID:23530327

  14. Application of magnetically modified sewage sludge ash (SSA) in ionic dye adsorption.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shao-Hua; Hu, Shen-Chih

    2014-02-01

    Incineration is a traditional method of treating sewage sludge and the disposal of derived ash is a problem of secondary waste treatment. In this study, sewage sludge ash (SSA) was coated with ferrite through a ferrite process and then used as an adsorbent for ionic dyes (methylene blue [MB] and Procion Red MX-5B [PR]). The modified SSA possessed surface potential that provided electrostatic attraction toward MB and PR. Adsorbent FA10 (named on the basis of being produced from 10 g of SSA in the ferrite process) was used for the adsorption of MB. Ideal pH for adsorption was 9.0 and maximum adsorption capacity based on Langmuir isotherm equation was 22.03 mg/g. Adsorbent FA2.5 (named on the basis of being produced from 2.5 g of SSA in the ferrite process) was used for PR adsorption. Ideal pH for adsorption was 3.0 and the maximum adsorption capacity (calculated as above) was 28.82 mg/g. Kinetic results reveal that both MB and PR adsorption fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model better than the pseudo-first-order model. The values of activation energy calculated from rate constants were 61.71 and 9.07 kJ/mol for MB and PR, respectively. PMID:24654383

  15. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: preliminary feasibility evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications. PMID:24656467

  16. Activated carbons obtained from sewage sludge by chemical activation: gas-phase environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Boualem, T; Debab, A; Martnez de Yuso, A; Izquierdo, M T

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity for toluene and SO2 of low cost activated carbons prepared from sewage sludge by chemical activation at different impregnation ratios. Samples were characterized by proximate and ultimate analyses, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption. Because of the low carbon content of the raw material, the development of porosity in the activated carbons was mainly of a mesoporous nature, with surface areas lower than 300 m(2)/g. The study of gas-phase applications for activated carbons from sewage sludge was carried out using both an organic and an inorganic compound in order to screen for possible applications. Toluene adsorption capacity at saturation was around 280 mg/g, which is a good level of performance given the high ash content of the activated carbons. However, dynamic experiments at low toluene concentration presented diffusion problems resulting from low porosity development. SO2 adsorption capacity is associated with average micropore size, which can be controlled by the impregnation ratio used to prepare the activated carbons. PMID:24747937

  17. The Effect of paper mill waste and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mndez, Ana; Barriga, Sandra; Guerrero, Francisca; Gasc, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    In general, Mediterranean soils have low organic matter content, due to the climate characteristics of this region and inadequate land management. Traditionally, organic wastes such as manure are used as amendment in order to improve the soil quality, increasing soil fertility by the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and other plant nutrients in the soil. In the last decade, other anthropogenic organic wastes such as sewage sludge or paper waste materials have been studied as soil amendments to improve physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. The objective of the present work was to study the influence of waste from a paper mill and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter. For this reason, soil organic matter evolution was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the derivative (dTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal analytical techniques have the advantage of using full samples without pre-treatments and have been extensively used to study the evolution of organic matter in soils, to evaluate composting process or to study the evolution of organic matter of growing media.

  18. Simulation of water removal process and optimization of aeration strategy in sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hai-Bin; Chen, Tong-Bin; Gao, Ding; Zheng, Guo-Di; Chen, Jun; Pan, Tian-Hao; Liu, Hong-Tao; Gu, Run-Yao

    2014-11-01

    Reducing moisture in sewage sludge is one of the main goals of sewage sludge composting and biodrying. A mathematical model was used to simulate the performance of water removal under different aeration strategies. Additionally, the correlations between temperature, moisture content (MC), volatile solids (VS), oxygen content (OC), and ambient air temperature and aeration strategies were predicted. The mathematical model was verified based on coefficients of correlation between the measured and predicted results of over 0.80 for OC, MC, and VS, and 0.72 for temperature. The results of the simulation showed that water reduction was enhanced when the average aeration rate (AR) increased to 15.37 m(3) min(-1) (6/34 min/min, AR: 102.46 m(3) min(-1)), above which no further increase was observed. Furthermore, more water was removed under a higher on/off time of 7/33 (min/min, AR: 87.34 m(3) min(-1)), and when ambient air temperature was higher. PMID:25233360

  19. Effects of sewage sludge compost application on crops and cropland in a 3-year field study.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yongjie; Liu, Yangsheng

    2005-06-01

    Composted sewage sludge can be applied to cropland to supply nutrients and improve soil physical properties. However, farmers are much concerned about heavy metal accumulation in cropland and heavy metal availability for crops. A 3-year field study was carried out in this study to investigate the effects of sewage sludge compost (SSC) application on the heavy metal accumulation in cropland soil, rapeseed germination and plumelet development, and yields of barley and Chinese cabbage, compared with conventional mineral fertilization. In addition, the availability of heavy metals for barley and Chinese cabbage was examined. Experimental results showed that SSC application produced little effects on rapeseed germination and stimulated the rape plumelet development at lower application rates (<150 ton ha(-1)). Heavy metals (Cu and Zn) were accumulated in the topsoil (0-20 cm), the barley grains and the cabbage leaves. The yields of barley and Chinese cabbage generated positive response to the SSC application. Addition of mineral N-P-K fertilizers into SSC could further increase the crop yield. Considering the heavy metals accumulation in cropland soil and their availability for crops, SSC should be applied to cropland at a limited application rate (<150 ton ha(-1)). PMID:15857637

  20. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-04-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from the three monitoring wells at the K-Area site (KSS series) and the three monitoring wells at the Par Pond site (PSS series) were analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13, 173 and for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. This report describes monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the SRS flagging criteria. During fourth quarter 1992, no constituents analyzed exceeded the PDWS or the SRS Flag 2 criteria at the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. In the KSS well series, the field measurement for alkalinity ranged as high as 26 mg/L in well KSS 1D. Alkalinity measurements were zero in the PSS wells. Historical and current water-level elevations at the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site indicate that the groundwater flow directions are south to southwest (SRS grid coordinates).

  1. Hydrologic effects of storing liquified sewage sludge on strip-mined land, Fulton County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    The water table near four sewage storage basins in a strip-mined area of western Illinois, has risen about 10 feet since the basins were constructed in 1971. Two dimensional modeling of ground-water flow in the mine spoil indicates that the rise is caused by leakage from one storage basin. The hydrologic-parameter values producing the best fit between computed and observed head values are 0.000007 feet per second for the hydraulic conductivity of the mine spoil, 0.0000000004 feet per second for recharge from the leaking basin. The model indicates the volume of water leaking from the basin is 91,600 cubic yards per year. The principal components of the sewage sludge after the solids have been removed are alkalinity, nitrogen, phosphorous, and chloride. Components in higher concentrations near the basins were sodium, alkalinity, and chloride. Because the sodium and chloride concentrations in the sludge were too low to cause the higher concentrations in the ground water, the strip-mine spoil used in constructing the basins was considered to be the major source of these constituents. This spoil has been moved from its original location and unweathered surfaces exposed, which allowed dissolution of carbonate and chloride and release of sodium through cation exchange. (USGS)

  2. Production of bio-fuels by high temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge using conventional and microwave heating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Domnguez; J. A. Menndez; M. Inguanzo; J. J. Ps

    2006-01-01

    The pyrolysis of sewage sludge was investigated using microwave and electrical ovens as the sources of heat, and graphite and char as microwave absorbers. The main objective of this work was to maximize the gas yield and to assess its quality as a fuel and as a source of hydrogen or syngas (H2+CO). Both gases were produced in a higher

  3. Effect of composting process on phytotoxicity and speciation of copper, zinc and lead in sewage sludge and swine manure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    He Miaomiao; Li Wenhong; Liang Xinqiang; Wu Donglei; Tian Guangming

    2009-01-01

    The concentration and bioavailability of heavy metals in composted organic wastes have negative environmental impacts following land application. Aerobic composting procedures were conducted to investigate the influences of selected parameters on heavy metal speciation and phytotoxicity. Results showed that both of sewage sludge (SSC) and swine manure (SMC) composting systems decreased the pH, the content of organic matter (OM) and

  4. Comparison of Four Methods for Digestion of Sewage Sludge Samples for Analysis of Metals by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas H. Christensen; Lissi R. Pedersen; Jens C. H. R. Tjell

    1982-01-01

    Four digestion methods were examined for the determination of cobalt, nickel, chromium, cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, manganese, iron, potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium in sewage sludge samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The four methods examined were: (1) dry ashing followed by digestion with aqua regia, (2) digestion with aqua regia, (3) digestion with nitric acid, and (4) digestion with nitric

  5. Heavy Metal and Microbial Contamination of Valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) Roots Grown in Soil Treated with Sewage Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. Weightman

    2007-01-01

    Contamination with heavy metals and microbes of roots of Valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) grown in either unamended soil (US) or sewage sludge-amended soil (SSAS) were studied in two seasons in the UK. The concentrations of heavy metals found in the washed roots from SSAS were greater than the concentrations found in roots from the US plots by 480, 2800, 215,

  6. Distribution, movement and plant availability of trace metals in soils amended with sewage sludge composts: application to low metal loadings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Planquart; G. Bonin; A. Prone; C. Massiani

    1999-01-01

    Three soils, representative of various physicochemical properties, an acid soil from a granitic arena with a sandy texture, a calcareous soil with a sandy silty texture and a clayey and silty one, were used in a lysimetric experiment to evaluate the ecotoxicological risks associated with the disposal of sewage sludge composts (SSC) containing trace metal contents below the recommended limit

  7. Removal of heavy metals from a metaliferous water solution by Typha latifolia plants and sewage sludge compost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Manios; E. I. Stentiford; P. Millner

    2003-01-01

    Typha latifolia plants, commonly known as cattails, were grown in a mixture of mature sewage sludge compost, commercial compost and perlite (2:1:1 by volume). Four Groups (A, B, C and D) were irrigated (once every two weeks) with a solution containing different concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Zn, where in the fifth (group M) tap water was used. At the

  8. Effects of different applications of sewage sludge on crops of a cultivated site located in the East part of Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, A.; Duering, R.; Felix-Henningsen, P.; Raus, L.; Ailincai, C.; Jitareanu, G.

    2009-04-01

    Investigations were carried out in order to determine the effects of sewage sludge application on soil and plants. In the course, plots with an area of 100 sq.m were treated with different fertilization systems (mineral fertilization, organic fertilization, and mineral and organic fertilization). The organic component consisted of sewage sludge in different amounts with a maximum of 30 tons dry substance per ha. Furthermore three tillage systems were installed (conventional tillage system, minimal tillage system and no-tillage system). The content in heavy metals was affect by both fertilization and tillage systems. Winter wheat and rape where sewage sludge was applied, showed a clear increase of Zn and Cd compared to the untreated plots, both in plants and seeds. The increases of applied sewage sludge increased also the contents in both Zn and Cd in plants and seeds of these crops. The effect of the tillage systems on the contents of these heavy metals, shows different results. A higher content of Cd in crops occurred in the no-tillage system and a higher content in Zn was found in crops of the minimal tillage system. A lesser content of Cd and Zn occurred generally in crops of the conventional tillage system. The results of this one-year experiment up to now show no significant negative effects for the food chain according to the present laws and regulations in Romania.

  9. Assessing the tolerance to heavy metals of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolated from sewage sludge-contaminated soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Coral del Val; J. M Barea; C Azcn-Aguilar

    1999-01-01

    Different fungal ecotypes were isolated from soils which had received long-term applications of metal-contaminated sewage sludge with the aim of studying the degree of tolerance and adaptation to heavy metals of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The development and structural aspects of AM colonization produced by the different fungal isolates were studied using two host plants, Allium porrum and Sorghum bicolor,

  10. Solubility of ion and trace metals from stabilized sewage sludge by fly ash and alkaline mine tailing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongling ZHANG; Lina SUN; Tieheng SUN

    2008-01-01

    Stabilized sewage sludge (SS) by fly ash (FA) and alkaline mine tailing as artificial soil, to be applied on the ecological rehabilitation at mining junkyards, offers a potentially viable utilization of the industrial by-product, as well as solves the shortage of soil resource in the mine area. An incubation experiment with different ratios of SS and FA was conducted to

  11. Removal of nickel and cadmium from aqueous solutions by sewage sludge ash: Study in single and binary systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Elouear; J. Bouzid; N. Boujelben

    2009-01-01

    Sewage sludge ash can potentially be used for the removal of metal ions from wastewater because its chemical composition is similar to that of fly ash. The aim of this work was to investigate the adsorptive characteristics of this material, including specific surface area and pH of zero point of charge (pHzpc), and to assess the possibility of removing nickel

  12. Sewage sludge ash to phosphorus fertiliser (II): Influences of ash and granulate type on heavy metal removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Mattenberger; G. Fraissler; M. Jller; T. Brunner; I. Obernberger; P. Herk; L. Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Ashes from monoincineration of sewage sludge suggest themselves as an ideal base for inorganic fertiliser production due to their relatively high phosphorus (P)-content. However, previously they need to be detoxified by reducing their heavy metal content. The core process considered in this paper consists of three steps: mixing of the ashes with suitable chlorine-containing additives, granulation of the mixture and

  13. Reuse of sewage sludge ashes (SSA) in cement mixtures: the effect of SSA on the workability of cement mortars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Monz; J. Pay; M. V. Borrachero; I. Girbs

    2003-01-01

    The influence of sewage sludge ash (SSA) on workability of cement mortars has been studied. The irregular morphology of SSA particles produced a decrease of mortar workability. A nonlinear reduction of workability in mortars containing SSA was observed, but when SSA content in mortars was increased the workability reduction was less significant. A superplasticizer is used in order to compensate

  14. Mechanical behavior of mortars containing sewage sludge ash (SSA) and Portland cements with different tricalcium aluminate content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Monzo; J. Paya; M. V. Borrachero; E. Peris-Mora

    1999-01-01

    The influence of sewage sludge ash (SSA) on cement mortars strength has been studied. To evaluate better the increase of strength compared to control mortar, relative compressive strength gain (CSGr) and flexural strength gain (FSGr) were calculated. The experience shows that SSA behaves as an active material, producing an increase of compressive strength compared to control mortar, probably due to

  15. PHYTOTOXICITY OF SALTS IN COMPOSTED SEWAGE SLUDGE AND CORRELATION WITH SODIUM CHLORIDE, CALCIUM NITRATE, AND MAGNESIUM NITRATE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Cai; Ding Gao

    2011-01-01

    The phytotoxicity of salts in composted sewage sludge (CSS) was evaluated. Concentrations of sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) were present at levels that would induce salt stress in plants. Nutrient imbalances were also found that would adversely affect the use of CSS as a growth medium. To further understand the phytotoxic nature of these salts, sodium

  16. THE US POSITION AND FATE OF PATHOGENS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND THE US 40CFR503 REGULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews the pathogenic microorganisms that may be found in sewage sludge and the commonly employed Class A and B treatment processes for controlling pathogens. It notes how extensively they are used and discusses issues and concerns with them. Preliminary findings of a...

  17. HIGHLIGHTS, INSIGHTS, AND PERSPECTIVES ON INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND ANIMAL MANURE IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this chapter is: 1) Highlight the core principles and findings from the Workshop on Emerging Infectious Disease Agents and Issues Associated With Sewage Sludge, Animal Manures and Other Organic By-Products held June 4-6, 2001, Cincinnati, Ohio, so that all readers,...

  18. Application of hydrothermal oxidation and alkaline hydrothermal gasification for the treatment of sewage sludge and pharmaceutical wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jude A. Onwudili; Pushpa Radhakrishnan; Paul T. Williams

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal treatment involving the oxidation and gasification of sewage sludge and pharmaceutical wastewater samples has been carried out in batch autoclave reactor. The efficiency of the oxidation processes measured in terms of total organic carbon (TOC) and total solids (TS) removal showed that effective sample treatments were achieved at moderately low temperatures of 350450C. More than 90% TOC removal was

  19. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles during Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater and Post-Treatment Processing of Sewage Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Turney, Terence W.; Naidu, Ravi; Miller, Bradley W.; Scheckel, Kirk G. (U. South Australia); (EPA); (Monash)

    2013-01-14

    The rapid development and commercialization of nanomaterials will inevitably result in the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment. As NPs often exhibit physical and chemical properties significantly different from those of their molecular or macrosize analogs, concern has been growing regarding their fate and toxicity in environmental compartments. The wastewater-sewage sludge pathway has been identified as a key release pathway leading to environmental exposure to NPs. In this study, we investigated the chemical transformation of two ZnO-NPs and one hydrophobic ZnO-NP commercial formulation (used in personal care products), during anaerobic digestion of wastewater. Changes in Zn speciation as a result of postprocessing of the sewage sludge, mimicking composting/stockpiling, were also assessed. The results indicated that 'native' Zn and Zn added either as a soluble salt or as NPs was rapidly converted to sulfides in all treatments. The hydrophobicity of the commercial formulation retarded the conversion of ZnO-NP. However, at the end of the anaerobic digestion process and after postprocessing of the sewage sludge (which caused a significant change in Zn speciation), the speciation of Zn was similar across all treatments. This indicates that, at least for the material tested, the risk assessment of ZnO-NP through this exposure pathway can rely on the significant knowledge already available in regard to other 'conventional' forms of Zn present in sewage sludge.

  20. Achieving waste to energy through sewage sludge gasification using hot slags: syngas production

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongqi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    To relieve the environmental issues of sewage sludge (SS) disposal and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in China, we proposed an integrated method for the first time to simultaneously deal with these two problems. The hot slags below 920?C could act as a good heat carrier for sludge gasification and the increasing CO2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmospheres enhanced the production of CO and H2 at 400800?C. Three stages of syngas release were clearly identified by Gaussian fittings, i.e., volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon reaction. Additionally, the effect of sulfur retention of slags and the synergy effect of the stabilization of toxic elements in the solid residuals were discovered in this study. Furthermore, a novel prototype of multiple industrial and urban systems was put forward, in which the produced CO?+?H2 could be utilized for direct reduced iron (DRI) production and the solid residuals of sludge ash and glassy slags would be applied as cementitious materials. For a steel plant with an annual production of crude steel of 10 million tons in China, the total annual energy saving and GHG emission reduction achieved are 3.31*105 tons of standard coal and 1.74*106 tons of CO2, respectively. PMID:26074060