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Anaerobic degradation of phenol in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic phenol degrading consortia were selected in sewage sludge and culture conditions were improved to allow maximum degradation rates of 0.9 g\\/l·d. Phenol had to be added in two portions of 0.45 g\\/l at intervals of 12 h to keep the fermentation at stable conditions. From U-14C-phenol little benzoate and acetate were formed as intermediates under a N2:CO2 gas phase.

G. Knoll; J. Winter



Degradation of keratin substrates by fungi isolated from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four fungal species including two dermatophytes and two saprophytes were isolated from sewage sludge samples at Basrah (Iraq)\\u000a they were tested for their degradative ability towards three types of keratin substrates (human hair, chicken feathers and\\u000a wool). The rate of keratin degradation was expressed as weight loss over three weeks of incubation using a liquid culture\\u000a medium. Human hair had

Tawfik M. Muhsin; Rawa B. Hadi



Application of Municipal Sewage Sludge to Forest and Degraded Land  

SciTech Connect

The paper summarizes research done over a decade at the Savannah River Site and elsewhere in the South evaluating the benefits of land application of municipal wastes. Studies have demonstrated that degraded lands, ranging from borrow pits to mine spoils can be successfully revegetated using a mixture of composed municipal sewage sludge and other amendments. The studies have demonstrated a practical approach to land application and restoration.

D.H. Marx, C. R. Berry, and P. P. Kormanik



Simulation of substrate degradation in composting of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

To simulate the substrate degradation kinetics of the composting process, this paper develops a mathematical model with a first-order reaction assumption and heat/mass balance equations. A pilot-scale composting test with a mixture of sewage sludge and wheat straw was conducted in an insulated reactor. The BVS (biodegradable volatile solids) degradation process, matrix mass, MC (moisture content), DM (dry matter) and VS (volatile solid) were simulated numerically by the model and experimental data. The numerical simulation offered a method for simulating k (the first-order rate constant) and estimating k{sub 20} (the first-order rate constant at 20 {sup o}C). After comparison with experimental values, the relative error of the simulation value of the mass of the compost at maturity was 0.22%, MC 2.9%, DM 4.9% and VS 5.2%, which mean that the simulation is a good fit. The k of sewage sludge was simulated, and k{sub 20}, k{sub 20s} (first-order rate coefficient of slow fraction of BVS at 20 {sup o}C) of the sewage sludge were estimated as 0.082 and 0.015 d{sup -1}, respectively.

Zhang Jun [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Gao Ding, E-mail: [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Chen Tongbin; Zheng Guodi; Chen Jun; Ma Chuang; Guo Songlin [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Du Wei [Beijing GreenTech Environmental Engineering Company, Beijing 100080 (China)



Modification to degradation of hexazinone in forest soils amended with sewage sludge.  


Influences of one sewage sludge on degradation of hexazinone and formation of its major metabolites were investigated in four forest soils (A, B, C and D), collected in Zhejiang Province, China. In non-amended forest soils, the degradation half-life of hexazinone was 21.4, 30.4, 19.4 and 32.8 days in forest soil A, B, C and D, respectively. Degradation could start in soil A and C without lag period because the two soils had been contaminated by this herbicide for a long time, possibly leading to completion of acclimation period of hexazinone-degrading bacteria. In forest soils amended with sewage sludge, the degradation rate constant increased by 17.3% in soil A, 48.2% in soil B, 8.1% in soil C and 51.6% in soil D, respectively. The higher degradation rates (soil A and C) in non-amended soils accord with the lower rate increase in sewage sludge-amended soils. Under non-sterile conditions, biological mechanism accounted for 51.8-62.4% of hexazinone degradation in four soils. Under sterile conditions, the four soils had the similar chemical degradation capacity for hexazinone. In non-amended soil B, only one metabolite (B) was detected, while two metabolites (B and C) were found in sewage sludge-amended soil B. Similarly situated in agricultural soils, N-demethylation at 6-position of triazine ring, hydroxylation at the 4-positon of cyclohexyl group, and removal of the dimethylamino group with formation of a carbonyl group at 6-position of triazine ring appear to be the principal mechanism involved in hexazinone degradation in sewage sludge-amended forest soils. These data will improve understanding of the actual pollution risk as a result of forest soil fertilization with sewage sludge. PMID:22112800

Wang, Huili; Wang, Chengjun; Chen, Fan; Ma, Meiping; Lin, Zhenkun; Wang, Wenwei; Xu, Zhengti; Wang, Xuedong



Degradation of naturally contaminated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in municipal sewage sludge by electron beam irradiation.  


This study was to evaluate the degradation efficiency of naturally contaminated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sewage sludge by using electron beam irradiation as a function of the absorbed dose. Degradation efficiency of PAHs was near to 90% at the absorbed doses 5 kGy. The degradation of PAHs was "first order" reaction rates with respect to absorbed dose. The electron beam irradiation was found effective in means of removing PAHs in domestic wastewater. PMID:18491024

Chung, B Y; Cho, J Y; Song, C H; Park, B J



Degradation of Naturally Contaminated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Municipal Sewage Sludge by Electron Beam Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was to evaluate the degradation efficiency of naturally contaminated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sewage\\u000a sludge by using electron beam irradiation as a function of the absorbed dose. Degradation efficiency of PAHs was near to 90%\\u000a at the absorbed doses 5 kGy. The degradation of PAHs was “first order” reaction rates with respect to absorbed dose. The electron\\u000a beam irradiation

B. Y. Chung; J. Y. Cho; C. H. Song; B. J. Park



Short-term Effects of Sewage-Sludge Compost on a Degraded Mediterranean Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Mediterranean areas, often characterized by degraded soil due to recurrent fires and violent precipitation events, sewage sludge com- post could improve soil properties and stimulate plant succession pro- cesses. Most of the studies dealing with compost effects on soil properties only take into account the mineral horizon compartment, without studying compost effects on organic horizon properties. In this study,

Marie Larchevêque; Virginie Baldy; Nicolas Montès; Catherine Fernandez; Gilles Bonin; Christine Ballini



Eucalyptus development in degraded soil fertilized with sewage sludge and mineral fertilizer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to compare the development of eucalyptus in a degraded Oxisol with mineral fertilizer and sewage sludge. The study was conducted in Selviria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. The culture of eucalyptus was planted in 2003 at 2.0 m x 1.5 m spacing, with application of 60 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (dry basis) and mineral fertilizer. After five years (2008) the area received biosolids and mineral fertilizer, and after five months, were evaluated for height and diameter at breast height of Eucalyptus. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments: T1 - control (without addition of inputs), T2 - Mineral fertilization (30 kg ha-1 N, 90 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 60 kg ha-1 K2O), T3 - Reapplication of 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis, T4 - Reapplication of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis. Before reapplication the biosolids plant height was higher in the eucalyptus with treatment 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (8.03 m) compared to control (5.75 m) and mineral fertilizer (5.91 m) and that treatment 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (6.34 m) did not differ from the previous three. For the diameter at breast height was the highest value for treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 (7.78 cm) compared to control (5.23 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm), and that of mineral fertilizer (5.96 cm) did not differ from all treatments. After reapplication of sludge plant height was higher in the eucalyptus treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (11.21 m) compared with control (7.51 m), mineral fertilizer (7.77 m) and 4 64 Mg ha-1 (8.07 m), which did not differ. The diameter at breast height had the same behavior before the application of biosolids in the highest value observed being 9.28 Mg ha-1 (8.46 cm) compared with control (5.75 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm) and that of mineral fertilizer (6.34 cm) did not differ from the others. Reapplication of the dose of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge in degraded Oxisol provided greater height and diameter at breast height from eucalyptus trees.

Rodrigues, R. A. F.; Santos, E. B.; Alves, M. C.; Arruda, O. G.



Enhancement of pentachlorophenol degradation in soil through induced anaerobiosis and bioaugmentation with anaerobic sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

The addition of biologically active anaerobic sewage sludge, previously shown to dechlorinate chlorophenols, to soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) resulted in greatly enhanced rates of PCP degradation. The sludge was added to a soil at a rate of 5 g kg/sup -1/ (dry weight basis) and the mixture incubated anaerobically. Initial PCP concentrations of 10-30 mg kg/sup -1/ (ppm) were completely degraded within 28-35 days. In anaerobic soil without sludge or aerobic soil with or without sludge, PCP persisted, 55% and 90%, respectively, remaining after 56 days. Higher rates of sludge addition gave small differences in PCP degradation. PCP was degraded by sequential dechlorination, and the products of PCP degradation in soil-sludge mixtures were the same as observed in sludge alone. The sequence of products was PCP ..-->.. 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol ..-->.. 3,4,5-trichlorophenol ..-->.. 3,5-dichlorophenol ..-->.. 3-chlorophenol; 3,4-dichlorophenol was also observed. These results clearly demonstrate that the dechlorinating activity present in sludge could be transferred to soil through bioaugmentation.

Mikesell, M.D.; Boyd, S.A.



Microbial degradation of /sup 14/C-diphenylamine in a laboratory model sewage sludge system  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of the biodegradation of diphenylamine (DPA) in a laboratory model sewage system. Ten /sup 14/C-DPA and 7.5 mg unlabeled DPA in 5 mL acetone were added to 1.5 L sludge mixed liquor in the incubation flask to produce a solution containing DPA at the 5 ppm level. Extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Radioactive extracts were counted with a liquid scintillation spectrometer. DPA was degraded in the model sewage sludge system. Results using 3 different 1.5 L batches of sludge were virtually identical. With our extraction procedure, the average recovery of added radioactivity was 82%. When 300 mL of the sludge mixed liquor was boiled for 5 min before 24 h incubation with 5 ppm DPA, 98% of the radioactivity, as unchanged DPA, was recovered. Ninety-seven percent of the radioactivity, as unchanged DPA, was recovered from 300 mL of nutrient medium alone after 24 h incubation with DPA. These data indicate that the sludge microorganisms alone caused the degradation of DPA. (JMT)

Gardner, A.M.; Alvarez, G.H.; Ku, Y.



Application of municipal sewage sludge in forest and degraded land  


... year in the USA by the more than 15,000 publicly owned treatment plants and the ... is an excellent organic amendment and chemical fertilizer for various plants . ... nutrients found in sludges, and that forests are not major contributors to food ...



EPA Science Inventory

This project was initiated with the overall objective of developing organized information pertaining to the costs of various sewage sludge transport systems. Transport of liquid and dewatered sludge by truck and rail and liquid sludge by barge and pipeline is included. The report...



EPA Science Inventory

Samples of sewage sludge burned at one fluidized-bed and three multiple-hearth incinerators were subjected to laboratory flow reactor thermal decomposition testing under both pyrolytic and oxidative atmospheres. he laboratory test results indicated that biomass decomposition prod...


Composting Dewatered Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The test program described was designed to obtain the following basic information concerning the composting of a combination of primary and secondary dewatered sewage sludges: (1) effect of mixing; (2) effect of moisture content; (3) effect of recycling; ...



Adsorption and Fenton-like degradation of naphthalene dye intermediate on sewage sludge derived porous carbon.  


A sewage sludge derived porous carbon (SC), which was prepared by physicochemical activation and carbonization (600°C), was applied for the adsorption and degradation of 1-diazo-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid (1,2,4-Acid) in the presence of H(2)O(2) and the performance was compared to that of pure Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The prepared SC showed mesoporous structure with magnetic property, which made it favorable for solid-liquid separation application. Further experiments revealed that SC had a higher adsorption capacity and degradation efficiency of 1,2,4-Acid than bare Fe(3)O(4). The Langmuir and Freundlich model fitted the isotherm data and illustrated that the equilibrium adsorption amount of 1,2,4-Acid onto SC (95.1 mg g(-1)) was quadruple as large as that on Fe(3)O(4) (26.4 mg g(-1)). The subsequent degradation experiments were conducted at conditions (pH 5.0 in the presence of 15 mM H(2)O(2)) with regard to 1,2,4-Acid degradation efficiency and metal ions leach. The 120 min's treatment in SC/H(2)O(2) system achieved 94% of 1,2,4-Acid (from 150 mg L(-1) after adsorption equilibrium to 9 mg L(-1)) and 48.1% TOC reduction, far higher than the efficiency of 46% and 24.3% by using Fe(3)O(4) MNPs. Further analysis evidenced the co-catalytic effect of iron, carbon, silicon and aluminum, which existed in large quantities in sludge derived SC. The carbonaceous phase along with silica contributes to an increase in the dispersion of catalytic centers and an adsorbent to concentrate organic pollutant whereas the iron oxide as well as alumina provides the catalytic centers for a Haber-Weiss initiated reactions. PMID:23298740

Gu, Lin; Zhu, Nanwen; Guo, Huaqing; Huang, Shouqiang; Lou, Ziyang; Yuan, Haiping



The impact of intermediate thermal hydrolysis on the degradation kinetics of carbohydrates in sewage sludge.  


The purpose of this paper is to report the results, from laboratory-scale investigations, on the impact of intermediate thermal hydrolysis process (ITHP) on already digested sludge in general, and sludge carbohydrate content degradation process efficiency in particular. The ITHP performance data were compared with the performance of established conventional thermal hydrolysis process (THP). The degradation of sludge carbohydrates as a result of thermal pre-treatment and anaerobic digestion followed the first order kinetics. The overall sludge organic matter degradation kinetics rate constants indicated that the use of THP as an intermediate digestion step can enhance the already digested sludge organic matter degradation; further reducing the sludge mass and increasing its conversion to biogas. PMID:23584417

Shana, A; Ouki, S; Asaadi, M; Pearce, P; Mancini, G



Anaerobic bioprocessing of sewage sludge, focusing on degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic degradation of sludge amended with linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) was tested in a one stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and a two stage reactor system consisting of a CSTR as first step and upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor as the second step. Anaerobic removal of LAS was only observed at the second step but not at the

I. Angelidaki; L. Toräng; C. M. Waul; J. E. Schmidt


Microbial degradation of 14 C-diphenylamine in a laboratory model sewage sludge system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the biodegradation of diphenylamine (DPA) in a laboratory model sewage system. Ten ¹⁴C-DPA and 7.5 mg unlabeled DPA in 5 mL acetone were added to 1.5 L sludge mixed liquor in the incubation flask to produce a solution containing DPA at the 5 ppm level. Extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography\\/mass spectroscopy. Radioactive extracts

Albert M. Gardner; George H. Alvarez; Yuoh Ku



Aerobic degradation of phthalic acid by Comamonas acidovoran Fy1 and dimethyl phthalate ester by two reconstituted consortia from sewage sludge at high concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial degradation of phthalic acid (PA) and dimethyl phthalate ester (DMPE) under aerobic conditions was investigated using a pure species of bacteria and two consortia from sewage sludge. Five morphologically distinct microorganisms were obtained in pure culture and identified, and tested for the capability of degrading phthalate and DMPE. Comamonas acidovorans strain Fy-1 showed the highest ability to degrade high

Yingying Wang; Yanzhen Fan; Ji-Dong Gu



Organic chemicals in sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludges are residues resulting from the treatment of wastewater released from various sources including homes, industries, medical facilities, street runoff and businesses. Sewage sludges contain nutrients and organic matter that can provide soil benefits and are widely used as soil amendments. They also, however, contain contaminants including metals, pathogens, and organic pollutants. Although current regulations require pathogen reduction and

Ellen Z. Harrison; Summer Rayne Oakes; Matthew Hysell; Anthony Hay



Degradation of 17?-Estradiol by a Gram-Negative Bacterium Isolated from Activated Sludge in a Sewage Treatment Plant in Tokyo, Japan  

PubMed Central

A 17?-estradiol (E2)-degrading bacterium was isolated from activated sludge in a sewage treatment plant in Tokyo, Japan. The isolate was suggested to be a new Novosphingobium species. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analyses of the metabolites of E2 degradation suggested that no toxic products accumulated in the culture medium.

Fujii, Katsuhiko; Kikuchi, Shintaro; Satomi, Masataka; Ushio-Sata, Noriko; Morita, Naoki



Comparison of organic emissions from laboratory and full-scale thermal degradation of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

Samples of sewage sludge burned at one fluidized-bed and three multiple-hearth incinerators were subjected to laboratory flow reactor thermal decomposition testing under both pyrolytic and oxidative atmospheres. The laboratory test results indicated that biomass decomposition products, not toxic industrial contaminants, comprised the majority of the emissions. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, acrylonitrile, and acetonitrile were consistently the most environmentally significant products of thermal exposure. Comparison of the results from in the study with those obtained in the field was complicated by an apparent loss of volatile chlorocarbons from the sludge samples received for laboratory testing. However, quantitative comparison of emission factors derived from lab and field results for those compounds observed in both studies showed excellent correlation for the pyrolysis testing.

Tirey, D.A.; Striebich, R.C.; Dellinger, B.; Bostian, H.E.




EPA Science Inventory

Field and laboratory studies were conducted to characterize the chemical properties of municipal sewage sludges, to evaluate the fate of sludge components in soils, and to determine the distribution of trace metals in milling fractions of grains grown on sludge-treated soils....


Isolation and characterization of an anaerobic syntrophic benzoate-degrading bacterium from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anaerobic, motile, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium is described which degrades benzoate in coculture with an H2-utilizing organism and in the absence of exogenous electron acceptors such as O2, SO4=or NO3-. The bacterium was isolated from a municipal primary, anaerobic sewage digestor using anaerobic roll-tube medium with benzoate as the main energy source and in syntrophic association with an H2-utilizing sulfate-reducing

Douglas O. Mountfort; Marvin P. Bryant




EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Originally developed to support Phase I regulation for use or disposal of biosolids (sewage sludge). Data collected were used to estimate risks, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation. This is currently the only statistically designed surv...


Sewage Sludge Pathogen Transport Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, ra...



Incineration system for sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incineration system consists of a sludge dryer, a cyclone separator unit, an incomplete combustion incinerator, a complete combustion incinerator with a heat exchanger, a heat exchanger and so forth and comprises gas circulation passage involving the units above in order to burn sewage sludge economically without any additional fuel except for starting up thereof, with stable heat balancing in




Partial oxidation of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

A process is described comprising: (1) splitting a stream of dewatered sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 17-40 wt.% into a first stream and a second stream; (2) drying the first stream of dewatered sewage sludge to produce a stream of dried sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 75-99 wt.%: (3) grinding the dried sewage sludge from (2) to a particle size so that 100 wt% passes through ASTM E11 Standard Sieve Designation 1.40 mm; (4) mixing about 2-8 parts by dry weight aqueous slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel having a solids content of about 50-70 wt. % with each part by weight of said second stream of dewatered sewage sludge from (1); (5) heating the solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage slurry from (4) to a temperature of about 140-212 F; and mixing together 3-9 parts by dry weight of the solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage sludge slurry from (4) with each part by weight of dried sewage sludge from (2) to produce a pumpable fuel slurry comprising sewage sludge and solid carbonaceous fuel and having a solids content in the range of about 45-70 wt. %; and (6) reacting the fuel slurry from (5) in the reaction zone of a partial oxidation gas generator at a temperature in the range of about 1800-3500 F and a pressure in the range of about 1-35 atmospheres, and in the presence of free-oxygen containing gas, thereby producing a hot raw effluent gas stream of synthesis gas, reducing gas or fuel gas; (7) cooling, cleaning and purifying said raw effluent gas stream to produce a stream of fuel gas; (8) burning the fuel gas from (7) with air in a combustor of a gas turbine, and passing the hot exhaust gas through an expansion turbine which drives an electric generator; and (9) passing the hot exhaust gas from (8) in indirect heat exchange with water to produce steam for use in drying said first stream of dewatered sewage sludge in (2) and/or for heating said solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage slurry is (5) by indirect heat exchange.

McMahon, M.A.; Martin, M.C.; McKenzie, K.W.



Vermitechnology for sewage sludge recycling.  


The present paper is aimed at safe reuse and recycling of sewage sludge (SS) and production of good quality compost using vermicomposting. Three different earthworm species Eiseniafetida (E. fetida), Eudrilus eugeniae (E. eugeniae), Perionyx excavatus (P. excavatus) in individual and combinations were utilized to compare the suitability of worm species for composting of sewage sludge as well as the quality of the end product. The sewage sludge without blending can be directly converted into good quality fertilizer (vermicompost). Vermicomposting resulted in reduction in C/N ratio 25.6 to 6-9, TOC (25%) but increase in electrical conductivity (EC) (47-51%), total nitrogen (TN) (2.4-2.8 times), potassium (45-71%), calcium (49-62%), sodium (62-82%) and total phosphorous (TP) (1.5-1.8 times), which indicated that sewage sludge can be recycled as a good quality fertilizer. The present study also inferred that the application of sewage sludge in the agricultural fields after vermicomposting would not have any adverse effect as the heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) are now within the permissible limits. PMID:18515003

Khwairakpam, Meena; Bhargava, Renu



Sewage sludge treatment with lime.  


The article describes the application of lime as a method for treatment and hygienisation of sewage sludges with lime products such as quicklime, slake lime and dolomitic lime. As a result of the increase in temperature and pH-value during sludge and lime mixing most pathogenic vectors of disease (i.e. bacteria, worms, viruses and parasites) are reduced in concentration and viability to manufacture a safe product for further application on agricultural land. PMID:10842835

Herbst, B



Soil effects due to sewage sludge application in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials show that increased nutrients (mainly P) and heavy metals in soil due to agricultural use of sewage sludge have mainly to be expected when sludge is applied in too high amounts. The biological effects of heavy metals on plants are determined by their solubility which is increased by pH decrease and degradation of organic matter. Normally, it should

H. Häni; A. Siegenthaler; T. Candinas



Persistence of enteroviruses in sewage sludge*  

PubMed Central

Sewage from residential areas often contains viruses pathogenic for man and significant amounts are probably associated with solids in sewage sludge. Information on the survival of viruses in sewage sludge is necessary in order to develop guidelines for recycling programmes that involve spreading the sludge on land. In the present study, a number of enteroviruses were added to sewage sludge and the artificially contaminated sludges were tested for viruses at intervals over a 12-week period. Most of the viruses survived for many weeks at room temperature. It is clear that sewage sludge destined for land application should be adequately treated for virus inactivation. In interpreting these results, it should be borne in mind that the survival of hepatitis A virus might be similar. Recent reports about the reappearance of poliomyelitis in regions with immunization programmes should also be taken into consideration.

Subrahmanyan, T. P.



Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  


A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)



Stabilization of primary sewage sludge during vermicomposting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, over the last few decades, there has been a remarkable increase in sewage sludge production due to population increase and unplanned urbanization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform primary sewage sludge (PSS) amended with cow dung (CD) into value added product, i.e., vermicompost in laboratory

Renuka Gupta; V. K. Garg



Treatment and reuse of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge was treated using composting, fixed-bed and stirred anaerobic digesters. The treatment performance in terms of the physico chemical parameters, bacterial indicators and pathogenic forms were assessed. In addition, the biogas production rate was recorded in the case of anaerobic digesters. Composting of the sewage sludge increased its total solids from 39 to 93% after 6 weeks, while the

Fayza A. Nasr



Electron beam pretreatment of sewage sludge before anaerobic digestion.  


The pretreatment of waste-activated sludge (WAS) by electron beam irradiation was studied in order to improve anaerobic sludge digestion. The irradiation dose of the electron beam was varied from 0.5 to 10 kGy. Batch and continuous-flow stirred tank reactors (CFSTRs) were operated to evaluate the effect of the electron beam pretreatment on anaerobic sludge digestion. Approximately 30-52% of the total chemical oxygen demand (COD) content of the WAS was solubilized within 24 h after electron beam irradiation. A large quantity of soluble COD, protein, and carbohydrates leached out from cell ruptures caused by the electron beam irradiation. Volatile fatty acids production from the irradiated sludge was approx 90% higher than that of the unirradiated sludge. The degradation of irradiated sewage sludge was described by two distinct first-order decay rates (k1 and k2). Most initial decay reaction accelerated within 10 d, with an average k1 of 0.06/d for sewage sludge irradiated at all dosages. The mean values for the long-term batch first-order decay coefficient (k2) were 0.025/d for irradiated sewage sludge and 0.007/d for unirradiated sludge. Volatile solids removal efficiency of the control reactor fed with unirradiated sewage sludge at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 d was almost the same as that of the CFSTRs fed with irradiated sludge at an HRT of 10 d. Therefore, disintegration of sewage sludge cells using electron beam pretreatment could reduce the reactor solid retention time by half. PMID:12794296

Shin, Kyung-Sook; Kang, Ho


Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi


Characterization of Malaysian sewage sludge and nitrogen mineralization in three soils treated with sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies to determine the chemical composition of sewage sludges produced in Malaysia and the potentially mineralizable nitogen (No) and mineralization rate constant (k) of sewage sludge in three Malaysian soils are reported. Analyses of the sludges collected from 10 wastewater treatment plants in Malaysia are acidic in nature and the N. P, Ca, K and Mg contents is variable. The

A. B. Rosenani; D. R. Kala; C. I. Fauziah


Mechanical properties of dewatered sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties of dewatered, anaerobically digested sewage sludge were determined from soil laboratory tests. The sludge material is largely composed of organic clay sized-particles, a sizable fraction of which is in an active state of biological digestion which can continue over many years under field conditions. Moderately digested sludge material was found to have a typical specific gravity of

Brendan C. O’Kelly



The importance of pathogenic organisms in sewage and sewage sludge.  


Deficient sanitation poses a serious threat to human and animal health, involving complex relationships between environments, animals, refuse, food, pathogens, parasites, and man. However, by sanitizing and stabilizing the organic matter of sewage sludge, agriculture can utilize it to maintain soil, water, and air quality. As ingredients in soil amendments, such bioresidues are a source of nutrients for plants. Stabilization and sanitation of sewage sludge safely couple its recycling and disposal. This coupling becomes increasingly important as economic and environmental constraints make strategies for waste disposal more difficult to apply. The occurrence of viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and zooparasites in sewage sludge is reviewed in this article, and consequential epidemiologic concerns that arise from sewage sludge recycling is also addressed. PMID:11417676

Dumontet, S; Scopa, A; Kerje, S; Krovacek, K



Population dynamics of an introduced bacterium degrading chlorinated benzenes in a soil column and in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of the ß-Proteobacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain P51, which degrades chlorinated benzenes, to metabolize 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) under environmental conditions was tested by its release into two experimental systems. The first system consisted of laboratory scale microcosms which were operated with and without the addition of TCB and which were inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant. The second

Ronen Tchelet; Rainer Meckenstock; Patrick Steinle; Jan Roelof van der Meer



Sewage Sludge Pathogen Transport Model Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, ra...

J. F. Dawson K. E. Hain B. McClure R. E. Sheridan J. G. Yeager



Sewage Sludge Incinerator Fuel Reduction, Hartford, Connecticut.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel u...

A. J. Verdouw E. W. Waltz P. F. Gilbert



A Family Physician's Guide to Sewage Sludge  

PubMed Central

The potential environmental and personal health effects from the agricultural uses of domestic sewage sludge may increasingly require the guidance of the family physician, especially in farming communities. This article summarizes the potential health hazards and outlines the tripartite risk phenomenon—hazard identification, risk assessment, and social evaluation. For the agricultural use of dewatered sewage sludge, strict adherence to regulated procedures should not increase risk beyond that of agriculture generally. Confirmation by prospective epidemiological studies is recommended.

Connop, Peter J.



Lightweight aggregate from flyash and sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of treating flyash and sewage sludge. It comprises: mixing flyash with sewage sludge having a high fuel value; agglomerating the mixture; drying the agglomerated mixture; heating the agglomerated mixture to a temperature less than the melting point of the mixture in a rotary kiln using the agglomerated mixture as the principal source of fuel in the kiln to form a porous nodular product; and recovering the nodular product from the kiln.

Nechvatal, T.M.; Heian, G.A.



Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  


This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

Carlson, L.W.




EPA Science Inventory

Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested by using the Salmonella/microsome reverse mutation ...



Microsoft Academic Search

Dewatering of sewage sludge is an important part of proper sludge management practice. It is becoming a challenging issue for water industries as new regulations on sludge disposal are being imposed. In this paper, the application of mechanical thermal expression (MTE) to dewater sewage sludge and the conditioning of sludge by mixing with brown coal prior to MTE are investigated.

K. B. Thapa; S. A. Clayton; A. F. A. Hoadley


Co-digestion of grease trap sludge and sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Redirection of organic waste, from landfilling or incineration, to biological treatment such as anaerobic digestion is of current interest in the Malmö-Copenhagen region. One type of waste that is expected to be suitable for anaerobic digestion is sludge from grease traps. Separate anaerobic digestion of this waste type and co-digestion with sewage sludge were evaluated. The methane potential was measured

Å. Davidsson; C. Lövstedt; J. la Cour Jansen; C. Gruvberger; H. Aspegren



Vermistabilization of primary sewage sludge.  


An integrated composting-vermicomposting process has been developed for utilization of primary sewage sludge (PSS). Matured vermicompost was used as bulking material and a source of active microbial culture during aerobic activated composting (AAC). AAC resulted in sufficient enrichment of bulking material with organic matter after 20 cycles of recycling and mixing with PSS and produced materials acceptable for vermicomposting. Vermicomposting caused significant reduction in pH, volatile solids (VS), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), total organic carbon (TOC), C/N ratio and pathogens and substantial increase in electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) as compared to compost. Environmental conditions and stocking density have profound effects on vermicomposting. Temperature of 20°C with high humidity is favorable environmental condition for vermicomposting employing Eisenia fetida. Favorable stocking density range for vermiculture is 0.5-2.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 0.5 kg m(-2)) and for vermicomposting is 2.0-4.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 3.0 kg m(-2)), respectively. PMID:21036608

Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod



Extractabilities of heavy metals in chemically-fixed sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically-fixed sewage sludges, including lime-treated sludge (LS), lime–sodium silicate-treated sludge (LSS), cement-treated sludge (CS), and cement–sodium silicate-treated sludge (CSS), were produced from sewage sludge by bench processes using lime, cement, and sodium silicate as additives. The extractabilities of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn) in these chemically-fixed sludges were studied using sequential extraction and single extraction. For comparative objectives,

Ping-Chin Hsiau; Shang-Lien Lo



Study of the pyrolysis liquids obtained from different sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis of sewage sludge in fluidized bed to produce bio-oil is under study as a useful way to valorise this waste. Sewage sludge is the waste produced in the wastewater treatment plants. Its composition may change due to the origin and to the non-standardized treatments in the wastewater treatment plants. The pyrolysis of three samples of anaerobically digested sewage sludge

I. Fonts; M. Azuara; G. Gea; M. B. Murillo



Sewage sludge dehydration with biodegradable polyelectrolytes as flocculants. Final report. Pt. 1. Development of synthetic polyelectrolytes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Polyelectrolytes with improved degradability were to be developed for dehydration of uncontaminated sewage sludge. Part-project I investigated the synthesis of polymers. For this purpose, polyvinyl alcohol was functionalized into polyelectrolytes by ether...

H. Matuschewski U. Gohlke W. Jaeger



Sewage Sludge ElectroDewatering Treatment—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purification of municipal wastewater generates huge amounts of sewage sludge, which contains large quantities of water, biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances. It is widely known that sewage sludge usually has a poor dewaterability. A large amount of water in sludge directly translates into high transport and handling costs; therefore, sludge treatment and disposal usually requires over 50% of the operation

Pham-Anh Tuan; Sillanpää Mika; Isosaari Pirjo



Gold and platinoids in sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludges from German municipal wastewater treatment plants possess high gold concentrations (280 to 56,000 ?g\\/kg in dry matter) similar to some ore deposits which are being mined for gold. In addition, the sludges exhibit elevated platinum (<10 to 1,070 ?g\\/kg) and palladium values (38 to 4,700 ?g\\/kg), and low osmium (<3 to <51 ?g\\/kg), iridium (0.6 to 26.5 ?g\\/kg),

Bernd G. Lottermoser



Removal of DEHP in composting and aeration of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of composting and aeration to remove bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from municipal sewage sludge was studied with two dewatered sludges: raw sludge and anaerobically digested sludge. Composting removed 58% of the DEHP content of the raw sludge and 34% of that of the anaerobically digested sludge during 85 days stabilisation in compost bins. A similar removal for the anaerobically

Sanna K Marttinen; Kari Hänninen; Jukka A Rintala



Ozone treatment of organic micro-pollutants in sewage sludge.  


Organic micro-pollutants accumulate to a certain extent in sewage sludge and are therefore ecologically relevant if the sludge is to be reused in both agriculture and landscaping applications. This paper describes the degradation of endocrine-disrupting compounds and other micro-contaminants by means of ozone and ultrasonic treatment. One of the findings is that, as expected, aromatic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can be degraded easily by ozone. Thus it could be shown that, apart from enhanced VSS reduction and increased biogas production, sludge disintegration processes using ozone provide an additional benefit, i.e. the degradation of micro-pollutants, which is practically unattainable with ultrasonic treatment. PMID:20489266

Lahnsteiner, J; Vranitzky, R



Mechanical properties of dewatered sewage sludge.  


The mechanical properties of dewatered, anaerobically digested sewage sludge were determined from soil laboratory tests. The sludge material is largely composed of organic clay sized-particles, a sizable fraction of which is in an active state of biological digestion which can continue over many years under field conditions. Moderately digested sludge material was found to have a typical specific gravity of solids value of 1.55, and loss on ignition (LOI) value of 70% dry mass. Strongly digested sludge, produced by digesting the liquid sludge further at 35 degrees C in the laboratory, was found to have a lower LOI value of 55% dry mass, and a higher specific gravity of solids value of about 1.72. The maximum dry density of 0.56 tonne/m3 for the dried sludge material was produced using standard Proctor compaction at roughly 85% moisture content (54% solids content). Air-dried, compacted sludge material was tested in quick-undrained triaxial compression and vane shear. Undrained shear strength-moisture content plots are presented. Shear strength values measured in triaxial compression and vane shear were consistent. The effective angle of shearing resistance (phi') was determined from consolidated-undrained, triaxial compression tests on pasteurized, normally consolidated samples of the sludge material. The mechanical properties of the sludge material changed with the level of sludge digestion. The phi' value increased from 32 degrees for moderately digested sludge, to 37 degrees for strongly digested sludge. The effective cohesion of the sludge material remained zero throughout. The shrinkage, swelling and adhesion properties of the sludge material were also studied. Significant shrinkage occurred as the compacted material dried. The sludge material lost its adhesion below about 95% moisture content (51% solids content). Re-hydration of the dry material caused the bulk volume to double. PMID:15681178

O'Kelly, Brendan C



Synthetic Fibers as Indicators of Municipal Sewage Sludge, Sludge Products, and Sewage Treatment Plant Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of concerns regarding health, safety, and aesthetics, a test that identifies the presence of sewage sludge or its products (biosolids) in commercial materials such as soil conditioners and composts would be useful. This test could also trace the effluent plume from a sewage treatment plant. We have discovered that synthetic fibers serve as such an indicator. Synthetic fibers are

Daniel Habib; David C. Locke; Leonard J. Cannone




EPA Science Inventory

As a result of a demonstration project partly sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the Indianapolis Center for Advanced Research, the City of Indianapolis, Indiana, realized a 34% fuel savings for sewage sludge incineration. At the sa...


Sewage sludge incinerator fuel reduction, Hartford, Connecticut  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel efficient burning procedures and operator training further reduced that amount 51%. The Hartford plant originally used 122

A. J. Verdouw; E. W. Waltz; P. F. Gilbert




EPA Science Inventory

A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel ef...


Human Enteropathogen Load in Activated Sewage Sludge and Corresponding Sewage Sludge End Products?  

PubMed Central

This study demonstrated a significant reduction in the concentrations of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts, Giardia lamblia cysts, and spores of human-virulent microsporidia in dewatered and biologically stabilized sewage sludge cake end products compared to those of the respective pathogens in the corresponding samples collected during the sludge activation process.

Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Lucy, Frances E.; Tamang, Leena; Miraflor, Allen



Optimization study on sewage sludge conditioning using Moringa oleifera seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of sewage sludge is a main problem faced by local municipalities in Malaysia. Sludge conditioned with chemical polymer often termed as undesirable use for land application. However, using natural polymer will help to reduce the impact of this problem. In this study, optimization using Moringa oleifera seeds as a natural polymer in sewage sludge conditioning is highlighted. An earlier

Wai Kien Tat; Azni Idris; Megat Johari Megat Mohd Noor; Thamer A. Mohamed; Abdul Halim Ghazali; Suleyman A. Muyibi



LCMS determination of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and their carboxylic degradation products in influent and effluent water samples and sludges from sewage-treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) have been determined in samples of the influent and the effluent, and in the sludge, from sewage-treatment plants (STP). LAS and sulfophenyl carboxylate compounds (SPC) were isolated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with the polymeric phase Isolute ENV, then determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). The method enabled unequivocal identification of C10-C13 LAS by monitoring the

J. Riu; E. Martínez; D. Barceló; A. Ginebreda; L. L. Tirapu



40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7...




EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory thermal decomposition studies were undertaken to evaluate potential organic emissions from sewage sludge incinerators. Precisely controlled thermal decomposition experiments were conducted on sludge spiked with mixtures of hazardous organic compounds, on the mixtures o...


Metal transfer in vermicomposting of sewage sludge and plant wastes  

SciTech Connect

Sewage sludge is an urban waste that has a potential nutrient value for recycling into food production. A set of guidelines has been developed that prescribes the quality of sludge suitable for utilization on foodlands. A number of sewage sludges do not meet the criteria and are therefore not acceptable for direct foodland application. One of the options available for such sludges is the production of compost and one of these composting processes involves worms (vermicomposting). This study looks at a pilot vermicomposting operation and follows metal concentrations by batch lot from the sewage sludge to the final commercial product.

Frank, R. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario); Klauck, C.; Stonefield, K.I.



Mechanical disintegration of sewage sludge.  


Mechanical disintegration can be used for an accelerated and improved anaerobic digestion of excess sludge. The hydrolysis is the limiting step of this process. Mechanical disintegration can be used to disrupt the cell walls and to cause the release of the organic material from the cells. Particle size analysis describes the size reduction but is not suitable for characterising the release of the organic material and the cell disruption. Two biochemical methods were developed for these phenomena. One of the parameters provides information about the disruption of micro-organisms, the other one gives information about the release of organic material. Different ultrasonic homogenizers, a high pressure homogenizer and stirred ball mills were used for disintegration experiments using various parameters. The influences of a mechanical disintegration on the particle size and of the energy intensity on the disintegration were investigated. Further investigations had to detect the influence of the solid content on the disintegration results. For sludge with a higher solid content better results in terms of energy consumption could be achieved. An optimum of the bead diameter and the stress intensity in stirred ball mills could be detected. A comparison of the results of different methods of sludge disintegration shows that the investigated ultrasonic homogenizers are inferior to a high pressure homogenizer and a stirred ball mill in terms of energy consumption. PMID:11379090

Lehne, G; Müller, A; Schwedes, J




SciTech Connect

The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.



Phosphate fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA).  


Ashes from sewage sludge incineration are rich in phosphorus content, ranging between 4% and 9%. Due to the current methods of disposal used for these ashes, phosphorus, which is a valuable plant nutrient, is removed from biological cycling. This article proposes the possible three-stage processing of SSA, whereby more than 90% of phosphorus can be extracted to make an adequate phosphate fertilizer. SSA from two Swiss sewage sludge incinerators was used for laboratory investigations. In an initial step, SSA was leached with sulfuric acid using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2. The leaching time and pH required for high phosphorus dissolution were determined. Inevitably, dissolution of heavy metals takes place that would contaminate the fertilizer. Thus in a second step, leach solution has to be purified by having the heavy metals removed. Both ion exchange using chelating resins and sulfide precipitation turned out to be suitable for removing critical Cu, Ni and Cd. Thirdly, phosphates were precipitated as calcium phosphates with lime water. The resulting phosphate sludge was dewatered, dried and ground to get a powdery fertilizer whose efficacy was demonstrated by plant tests in a greenhouse. By measuring the weight of plants after 6 weeks of growth, fertilized in part with conventional phosphate fertilizer, fertilizer made from SSA was proven to be equal in its plant uptake efficiency. PMID:17919895

Franz, M



Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in Swedish sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat in veterinary medicine and human healthcare. Resistance genes can spread from animals, through the food-chain, and back to humans. Sewage sludge may act as the link back from humans to animals. The main aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in treated sewage sludge, in a

Leena Sahlström; Verena Rehbinder; Ann Albihn; Anna Aspan; Björn Bengtsson



Use of composted sewage sludge in growth media for broccoli  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the use of composted sewage sludge (CSS) as a binary component with peat (P) in growth media for a horticultural crop, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Botryti cv. Marathon), was evaluated. Four treatments were established, based on the addition of increasing quantities of composted sewage sludge to peat (0%, 15%, 30% and 50%, v\\/v). Physical, physico-chemical and chemical

M. D. Perez-Murcia; R. Moral; J. Moreno-Caselles; A. Perez-Espinosa; C. Paredes




EPA Science Inventory

The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, demonstrated that 34 to 70 percent of the fuel used for sewage sludge incineration could be saved. These savings were the result of study of how sewage sludge incineration in a multiple hearth incinerator works, adding instrumentation and contro...


Effects of sewage sludge application method on corn production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine the effects of land application of municipal sewage sludge to agricultural land in Upper Cumberland Region of the Tennessee valley. Treatments included single and annual applications of sewage sludge both surface applied and injected into the soil. The primary objective of the study was to determine the effects of different land application methods of

R. W. Cripps; S. K. Winfree; J. L. Reagan



40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE...



Metal sorption on soils as affected by the dissolved organic matter in sewage sludge and the relative calculation of sewage sludge application  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the influences of sewage sludge-derived organic matters on metal sorption and on the resultant sludge loading estimates, a batch experiment was conducted to compare the sorption of Ni, Cu and Pb in sewage sludge filtrates (1:20 sewage sludge to water) on eight soils and the adsorption of metals in a reference solution which had the same matrix as

Xiaoli Liu; Shuzhen Zhang; Wenyong Wu; Honglu Liu




Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we studied the total content of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn) in a soil treated with different sewage sludges and the distribution of these metals in the soil profile (0-50 cm) as a func- tion of the type and dose of sludge added, of the residence time of the sludge in the soil,

M. J. Sánchez-Martín; M. García-Delgado; L. F. Lorenzo; M. Sánchez-Camazano


Biodegradation of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in the production of polyvinyl chloride to impart flexibility to the product. Because of its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, the presence of DEHP in sludge limits the application of sludge as a soil fertilizer. In this study, sludges were collected from three sewage treatment plants and thirteen wastewater treatment plants of different

H. F. Cheng; S. Y. Chen; J. G. Lin


Digested sewage sludge solidification by converter slag for landfill cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technology for solidification of digested sewage sludge referred to as converter slag solidification (CSS) has been developed using converter slag as the solidifying agent and quick lime as the solidifying aid. The CSS technology was investigated by analyzing the physicochemical properties of solidified sludge and determining its microstructural characteristics. The feasibility of using solidified sludge as a landfill

Eung-Ho Kim; Jin-Kyu Cho; Soobin Yim




EPA Science Inventory

A methodology and accompanying model, SLDGFILL (sludge monofill), have been developed to assess the risk to human health posed by parasites, bacteria and viruses in municipal sewage sludge disposed of in sludge-only landfills (monofills). he following information is required for ...



Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage and sewage sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant were analyzed for 16 EPA-PAHs. This plant is a classic mechanical-biological treatment plant, consisting of activated sludge technology with additional chemical treatment for the removal of phosphorus compounds. The process of sewage sludge treatment is carried out in closed as well as open sludge digesters. Primary and mechanically thickened sludge

Maria Wlodarczyk-Makula



Simultaneous sewage sludge digestion and metal leaching—Effect of sludge solids concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sludge solids concentration on the simultaneous sewage sludge (mixture of primary and secondary sludge) digestion and metal leaching (SSDML) process was studied in shake flasks (500 ml capacity) and in laboratory bioreactors of 20 liters working volume. The bioreactor studies demonstrated that an increase in sludge solids concentration increased the sulfuric acid production rates in the range

R. D. Tyagi; J. F. Blais; N. Meunier; H. Benmoussa



PBDEs in Italian sewage sludge and environmental risk of using sewage sludge for land application.  


Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in sewage sludge samples collected from eight Italian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) between June 2009 and March 2010. Total PBDE concentrations ranged from 158.3 to 9427 ng g(-1) dw, while deca-BDE (BDE-209) (concentrations ranging from 130.6 to 9411 ng g(-1) dw) dominated the congener profile in all the samples, contributing between 77% and 99.8% of total PBDE. The suitability of using a magnetic particle enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) to analyse PBDEs in sewage sludge was also tested. The ELISA results, expressed as BDE-47 equivalents, were well correlated with those obtained by GC-NCI-MS, with correlation coefficients (r(2)) of 0.899 and 0.959, depending on the extraction procedure adopted. The risk assessment of PBDEs in sewage sludge addressed to land application was calculated. PEC(soil) values compared to the relative PNEC(soil) for penta and deca-BDE suggests that there is a low risk to the soil environment. PMID:22230090

Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Misuri, Lorenza; Lanciotti, Eudes; Sweetman, Andy; Laschi, Serena; Palchetti, Ilaria



Interaction of polyelectrolyte with digested sewage sludge and lignite in sludge dewatering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical conditioners, often known as skeleton builders, are commonly used for enhancing the rate and the extent of water removal of polyelectrolyte-flocculated sewage sludge. In this study, the interactions of two different cationic polyelectrolytes with lignite (a low rank coal) in conditioning of digested sewage sludge are investigated. Vacuum filtration tests, zeta potential measurements and floc population measurements are performed

K. B. Thapa; Y. Qi; A. F. A. Hoadley



Biogas production from Sludge of Sewage Treatment Plant at Haridwar (Uttarakhand)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas, a source of non-conventional energy is produced by fermentation of sludges. The sewage have collected through sewage pumping stations and treated in the primary and secondary treatment steps in sewage treatment plant at Jagjitpur, Hardwar. The Sewage Treatment Plant receives approximately 40 mld sewage from different pumping stations and 18 mld sewage is used for treatment at sewage treatment

D. S. Malik; Umesh Bharti



EPA Science Inventory

Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...


Sewage Sludge Incinerator Fuel Reduction at Nashville, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a report on the sewage sludge incineration fuel reduction program at the Nashville-Davidson County Metropolitan Government wastewater treatment plant in Nashville, Tennessee. Fuel usage was reduced over 40 percent by reprogramming the methods used...

A. J. Verdouw E. W. Waltz



Preliminary Investigation of Sewage Sludge Dumping off Delaware Bay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Requests from Region II Water Supply and Sea Resources Program, the shellfish sanitation agencies in the states of Region II, the shelfish industry and others interested in the pollution potential of sewage sludge, chemical wastes and other wastes being d...

R. W. Buelow B. H. Pringle J. L. Verber



Agricultural Utilization of Sewage Effluent and Sludge. An Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effluent and sewage sludge from municipal and industrial treatment plants is a source of water and nutrients for agricultural uses. Considering its potential, only a few instances of agricultural uses of waste water in crop production have been record...

J. P. Law




EPA Science Inventory

This document describes the federal requirements concerning pathogens in sewage sludge and septage destined for land application or surface disposal. t also provides guidance for meeting those requirements. he chapters of this document discuss why pathogen control is necessary, t...


Combustion kinetics of sewage sludge and combustible wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimated the kinetics of the mono- and co-combustion of sewage sludge pellets and combustible wastes such as municipal\\u000a solid waste (MSW) and refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Sewage sludge was manufactured into pellets with a diameter of 8, 12, or\\u000a 16 mm and a length of 30 mm. The RDF was composed of paper and plastics and was formed into

Ho-Soo Lee; Sung-Keun Bae



Toxicity evaluation of sewage sludges in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobically digested sewage sludges collected from four wastewater treatment plants located in Sha Tin, Tai Po, Yuen Long, and Shek Wu Hui in Hong Kong were subjected to chemical characterization and toxicity testing to provide preliminary assessment of their suitability for land application. All sewage sludges were slightly alkaline with pH range of 8.3–8.7. Electrical conductivity (EC; 0.69 dS m?1)

J. W. C Wong; K Li; M Fang; D. C Su



Study of evolution of PCDD\\/F in sewage sludge-amended soils for land restoration purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) in sewage sludge-amended soils used in the restoration of degraded lands, like quarries, has been studied. Two experiments were performed: one in the lab, under controlled conditions, and another in a quarry. Two different doses of sewage sludge were applied in both experiments (with two types of application in the

L. Molina; J. D??az-Ferrero; M. Coll; R. Mart??; F. Broto-Puig; L. Comellas; M. C. Rodr??guez-Larena



Preparing sewage sludge for land application or surface disposal: A guide for preparers of sewage sludge on the monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503  

SciTech Connect

The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general responsibilities. USEPA promulgated at 40 CFR Part 503 Phase 1 of the risk-based regulations that govern the final use or disposal of sewage sludge. The intent of the Federal program is to ensure that the use or disposal of sewage sludge occurs in a way that protects both human health and the environment. The Part 503 regulation establishes general requirements, pollutant limits, operational standards, and management practices, as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. These requirements apply to sewage sludge that is land applied, placed on a surface disposal site, or incinerated in a sewage sludge-only incinerator.

Not Available



Sorption and Degradation of Pentachlorophenol in Sludge-Amended Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sorption and degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by two alkaline and one acid soil was studied in the presence and absence of sewage sludge. The PCP concentrations used (0.1-10 mg/kg) included PCP rates expected with land application of normal municipa...

C. A. Bellin G. A. O'Connor Y. Jin




EPA Science Inventory

This project demonstrated that land application is feasible and practical for a metropolitan treatment plant for disposal of a large volume (265,000 cu m) of stabilized, liquid sewage sludge stored in lagoons. The project involved transportation of sludge by semi-trailer tankers ...



EPA Science Inventory

Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested using the Salmonella/microsomal activation assay, t...


Characterization of iron and Zinc in Albuquerque sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical forms of Fe and Zn present in anaerobically digested sewage sludge from Albuquerque, NM were identified and quantified. Water-soluble Fe and Zn were speciated based on charged and stability of metal complexes, and on their degree of association with soluble organics. Chemical forms of Fe and Zn present in the solid phase of the sludge were characterized with a

K. Knudtsen; G. A. OConnor



Concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in tropical soils amended with sewage sludge and composted sewage sludge.  


Sewage sludge may be used as an agricultural fertilizer, but the practice has been criticized because sludge may contain trace elements and pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of total and pseudototal extractants of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn, and to compare the results with the bioavailable concentrations of these elements to maize and sugarcane in a soil that was amended with sewage sludge for 13 consecutive years and in a separate soil that was amended a single time with sewage sludge and composted sewage sludge. The 13-year amendment experiment involved 3 rates of sludge (5, 10, and 20 t ha(-1)). The one-time amendment experiment involved treatments reflecting 50, 100, and 200 % of values stipulated by current legislation. The metal concentrations extracted by aqua regia (AR) were more similar to those obtained by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 3052 than to those obtained by EPA3051, and the strongest correlation was observed between pseudo(total) concentrations extracted by AR and EPA3052 and bioavailable concentrations obtained by Mehlich III. An effect of sewage sludge amendment on the concentrations of heavy metals was only observed in samples from the 13-year experiment. PMID:22810380

Nogueirol, Roberta Corrêa; de Melo, Wanderley José; Bertoncini, Edna Ivani; Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú



Residual effects of irrigating corn with digested sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The same corn hybrid (Zea mays L.) was grown during the last 3 years that Blount silt loam plots were irrigated with liquid, municipal sewage sludge and for the next succeeding 4 years after termination of applications. During the last year in which sludge was applied, leaves from maximum sludge-treated plots contained 112 mg Zn\\/kg and 7.1 mg Cd\\/kg. Four

T. D. Hinesly; E. L. Ziegler; G. L. Barrett



Study on the effect and mechanism of hydrothermal pretreatment of dewatered sewage sludge cake for dewaterability.  


In China, over 17 million tons dewatered sewage sludge cake (DSSC), with about 80% water content, was generated from wastewater treatment plants in 2010. High water content is the bottleneck of sludge treatment and disposal. In this study, the combination of hydrothermal and mechanical treatments has been chosen in order to improve sludge dewaterability. Sludge thermogravimetry analysis was conducted to determine 180 degrees C as the upper-limit hydrothermal temperature. Five temperatures (60, 80, 120, 150, 180 degrees C) were chosen to study the effects of hydrothermal treatment temperature and the holding time on dewaterability. The higher the hydrothermal temperature, the better was the dewaterability character. The water contents of solid products were positively correlated with the hydrothermal holding time at predetermined temperatures in this study. Degradation of macromolecules into acidic compounds could be the reason of pH decrease of separated liquid. Destruction of zoogloe and decomposition of organic matters improved the sludge dewaterability. Sludge dewaterability experiencing hydrothermal processes in this study was negatively correlated with extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) content. With the rising temperature, sludge flocculate disaggregated to small particles generally, this could also be one of the important reasons for sludge dewaterability. Implications: High water content is the bottleneck of sludge treatment and disposal. Up to now, only a small amount of research has been conducted to determine whether the dewaterability of dewatered sewage sludge cake can be improved by hydrothermal pretreatment. The mechanism of sludge dewaterability by hydrothermal pretreatment is uncertain. In this study, a new sludge disposal method and corresponding parameters were given. The mechanism of sludge dewaterability was analyzed extensively by extracellular polymeric substances, scanning electron microscope images, element contents, and caloric values, etc. This study will be helpful for knowing about sludge hydrothermal pretreatment technology and its mechanism. PMID:24010381

Zhu, Ying; Han, Zhe; Liu, Xiuyu; Li, Jing; Liu, Feng; Feng, Suping



The Phytotoxicity Changes of Sewage Sludge-Amended Soils.  


The aim of the present study was the estimation of changes in the phytotoxicity of soils amended with sewage sludge with relation to Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba and Sorghum saccharatum. The study was realised in the system of a plot experiment for a period of 29 months. Samples for analyses were taken at the beginning of the experiment, and then after 5, 17 and 29 months. Two kinds of sewage sludge, with varying properties, were added to a sandy soil (soil S) or a loamy soil (soil L) at the dose of 90 t/ha. The addition of sewage sludge to the soils at the start of the experiment caused a significant reduction of both seed germination capacity and root length of the test plants, the toxic effect being distinctly related to the test plant species. With the passage of time the negative effect of sewage sludge weakened, the extent of its reduction depending both of the kind of sewage sludge applied and on the type of soil. Phytotoxicity of the soils amended with the sewage sludges was significantly lower at the end of the experiment than at the beginning. The species of the plants grown on the soils also had a significant effect on their phytotoxicity. The greatest reduction of toxicity was observed in the soil on which no plants were grown (sandy soil) and in the soil under a culture of willow (loamy soil). Solid phase of sewage sludge-amended soils was characterised by higher toxicity than their extracts. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11270-012-1248-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:23002312

Oleszczuk, Patryk; Malara, Anna; Jo?ko, Izabela; Lesiuk, Adam



Reuse of water treatment works sludge to enhance particulate pollutant removal from sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempted to study the feasibility of reusing water treatment works sludge (“alum sludge”) to improve particulate pollutant removal from sewage. The main issues focused upon were: (1) the appropriate dosage of the alum sludge, (2) the appropriate operating conditions, and (3) the possible mechanisms for enhancement by adding alum sludge. Actual alum sludge and sewage were applied to

Xiao-Hong Guan; Guang-Hao Chen; Chii Shang



Fermentation of cellulose and fatty acids with enrichments from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixed culture enriched from sewage sludge and anaerobic digestor effluent was able to degrade cellulose and acetate rapidly and quantitatively to methane and carbon dioxide. The maximum specific rate of gas production was 87 ml\\/gm cell-h, corresponding to a rate of cellulose utilization of 0.1 g\\/g cells-h. Acetate, an intermediate in cellulose degradation, was fermented much more rapidly than

Josef U. Winter; Charles L. Cooney



Occurrence of multiclass UV filters in treated sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants.  


Many substances related to human activities end up in wastewater and accumulate in sewage sludge. So far, there is only one extensive survey on the occurrence of UV filter residues in sewage sludge. However, more data are required to draw a reliable picture of the fate and effects of these compounds in the environment. This study attempts to fill this gap through the determination of selected UV filters and derivatives namely 4-methylbenzylidenecamphor, benzophenone-3, octocrylene, ethylhexylmethoxycinnamate, ethylhexyldimethyl PABA, 4-hydroxybenzophenone, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, and 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone in treated sewage sludge. The target compounds were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction and after this, determined by ultra high resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The determination was fast and sensitive, affording limits of detection lower than 19 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) except for 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (60 ng g(-1) dw). Good recovery rates, especially given the high complexity of sludge matrix (between 70% and 102% except for 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (30%)) were achieved. The application of developed method allowed reporting for the first time the occurrence of two major degradation products of benzophenone-3 that have estrogenic activity in sewage sludge: 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone (in 5/15 WWTPs) and 4-hydroxybenzophenone (in 1/15 WWTPs). Results revealed the presence of UV filters in 15 wastewater treatment plants in Catalonia (Spain) at concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 9.17 ?g g(-1) dw. PMID:21530995

Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià



Sewage sludge fertiliser use: implications for soil and plant copper evolution in forest and agronomic soils.  


Fertilisation with sewage sludge may lead to crop toxicity and environmental degradation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two types of soils (forest and agronomic), two types of vegetation (unsown (coming from soil seed bank) and sown), and two types of fertilisation (sludge fertilisation and mineral fertilisation, with a no fertiliser control) in afforested and treeless swards and in sown and unsown forestlands on the total and available Cu concentration in soil, the leaching of this element and the Cu levels in plant. The experimental design was completely randomised with nine treatments and three replicates. Fertilisation with sewage sludge increased the concentration of Cu in soil and plant, but the soil values never exceeded the maximum set by Spanish regulations. Sewage sludge inputs increased both the total and Mehlich 3 Cu concentrations in agronomic soils and the Cu levels in plant developed in agronomic and forest soils, with this effect pronounced in the unsown swards of forest soils. Therefore, the use of high quality sewage sludge as fertiliser may improve the global productivity of forest, agronomic and silvopastoral systems without creating environmental hazards. PMID:22425275

Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mosquera-Losada, M Rosa



Volatilization, Plant Uptake and Mineralization of Nitrogen in Soils Treated with Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify the amount of ammonia volatilization taking place after application of sewage sludge to the soil surface, evaluate the movement of nitrogen and plant uptake from soils treated with sewage sludge,...

L. E. Sommers C. F. Parker G. J. Meyers



The production, use and quality of sewage sludge in Denmark  

SciTech Connect

In Denmark, the production of municipal sewage sludge decreased from approximately 170,000 ton d.m. in 1994 to 140,000 ton d.m. in 2002. The sludge is handled and treated in a number of ways. The quality of Danish sludge has steadily improved since the middle of the 1980s, when the first set of quality criteria for heavy metals was introduced. In 1997, cut-off criteria for the organic pollutants, LAS, DEHP, nonylphenol and PAHs were introduced. Effective control from authorities, voluntary phasing out agreements with industry, improved source identification tools, better handling and after-care methods have in combination with higher waste duties led to a significant reduction in the sludge level of especially cadmium, mercury, chromium, LAS and nonylphenol. The increased quality demand has, nevertheless, also led to a minor reduction in the use of sewage sludge as organic fertiliser on agricultural land.

Jensen, John [National Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 314, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark)]. E-mail:; Jepsen, Svend-Erik [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Strandgade 29, DK-1401 Copenhagen K (Denmark)



Enhanced soil sorption of methidathion using sewage sludge and surfactants.  


Batch experiments were carried out to examine the partitioning of an organophosphorus insecticide, methidathion, in non-amended agricultural soil and soil amended with urban sewage sludge and/or different types of surfactant. Kinetic data showed that sewage sludge significantly reduced adsorption rate, whereas amendment of the soil with the cationic surfactant tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TDTMA) at 10 x CMC (critical micellar concentration) increased the adsorption rate by a factor of 10. The adsorption isotherms were evaluated using the Freundlich model. The soil adsorption capacity for methidathion was enhanced by amendment with sewage sludge and even more significantly with TDTMA at 10 x CMC or combined with sewage sludge. TDTMA conferred a high hydrophobic character to the soil, enhancing the adsorption capacity of the rather hydrophobic methidathion. The amendment of soil both with sewage sludge and TDTMA combines the increased hydrophobicity with a higher surfactant retention by organic matter, due to an increase in cation exchange capacity, which promotes even more the adsorption capacity for the insecticide. An anionic surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, and the non-ionic Tween 80 only induced a slight modification in the kinetics and adsorption of methidathion. PMID:12916766

Sánchez, Lourdes; Romero, Esperanza; Sánchez-Rasero, Francisco; Dios, Gonzalo; Peña, Aránzazu



Forest land application of sewage sludge on the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

In 1980, a sewage sludge application study was initiated on the Savannah River Plant to evaluate the effects of sludge additions on nutrient cycling processes in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forest ecosystems and to determine whether or not such additions beneficially enhance forest productivity. Sewage sludge, either as a liquid anaerobic sludge at 0, 402, or 804 kg N/ha (360 and 720 lb/ac) containing approximately 7% N (oven dry) or a solid aerobic material at 632 kg N/ha (560 lb/ac) with approximately 1.3% N (oven dry), was applied to 1-, 3-, 8-, and 28-year-old loblolly pine stands on sandy and clayey upper coastal plain soils. A total of 525,000 gallons of liquid sludge and 560 tons of solid sludge was applied on 11.6 hectares (28.7 acres) of loblolly pine forest plots. Sludge additions were monitored to determine availability and movement so that potential impacts could be evaluated on water quality, nutrient and heavy metal cycling, soil and forest floor, understory vegetation, tree foliage, stand growth, biomass production, and wood quality. This study concluded that using liquid sludge at rates of 400 kg N/ha or less as a silvicultural treatment to fertilize pulp and sawtimber loblolly pine stands resulted in increased forest productivity without environmental or wood quality degradation. Application recommendations for stand age and loading rates for management purposes are addressed.

Davis, C.E. (comp.)



Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.  


A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate. PMID:23777667

Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei



Useful Ingredients Recovery from Sewage Sludge by using Hydrothermal Reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal treatment of sludge from a sewage treatment plant was conducted to obtain useful ingredients for culture of specific microbes which can reduce polysulfide ion into sulfide ion and/or hydrogen sulfide. Several additives such as acid, base, and oxidizer were added to the hydrothermal reaction of excess sludge to promote the production of useful materials. After hydrothermal treatment, reaction solution and precipitation were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and estimated the availability as nutrition in cultural medium. From the results of product analysis, most of organic solid in sewage was basically decomposed by hydrothermal hydrolysis and transformed into oily or water-soluble compounds. Bacterial culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) showed the good results in multiplication with medium which was obtained from hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge with magnesium or calcium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide.

Suzuki, Koichi; Moriyama, Mika; Yamasaki, Yuki; Takahashi, Yui; Inoue, Chihiro



Fate of triclosan in field soils receiving sewage sludge.  


The anti-microbial substance triclosan can partition to sewage sludge during wastewater treatment and subsequently transfer to soil when applied to land. Here, we describe the fate of triclosan in a one-year plot experiment on three different soils receiving sludge. Triclosan and methyl-triclosan concentrations were measured in soil samples collected monthly from three depths. A large fraction of triclosan loss appeared to be explained by transformation to methyl-triclosan. After 12 months less than 20% of the initial triclosan was recovered from each soil. However, the majority was recovered as methyl-triclosan. Most of the chemical recovered at the end of the experiment (both triclosan and methyl-triclosan) was still in the top 10 cm layer, although there was translocation to lower soil horizons in all three soils. Between 16.5 and 50.6% of the applied triclosan was unaccounted for after 12 months either as a consequence of degradation or the formation of non-extractable residues. PMID:22561896

Butler, E; Whelan, M J; Sakrabani, R; van Egmond, R



Volatile organic compound losses from sewage sludge-amended soils  

SciTech Connect

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) applied to soil in sludge have been assumed to disappear quickly and completely. The VOC behavior in sludge-amended soils has been studied previously only in laboratory systems where the sludged soil has been spiked with compounds of interest. Behavior in these systems may not necessarily represent compound behavior in field soils to which contaminated sludge is added. A series of laboratory microcosm experiments were designed therefore to investigate the behavior of toluene, ethyl benzene, o-, m-, and p-xylene applied to soil in contaminated sludge, and factors influencing loss processes. The VOC loss from sludge-amended soil was well described by a simple one step pseudo-first-order model but in certain soils was better described by a two step first-order model. Volatilization was the predominant loss process. Rates of loss depended on sludge application rate, method of sludge application, soil properties, and on compound characteristics. Experiments indicated that spiking sludge-amended soils gave a reasonable indication of VOC loss rates from systems amended with contaminated sludge at least over a period of 23 d. The majority of VOCs applied to soils in sludge volatilizes quickly to the atmosphere over a few to 10s of days with a small fraction lost more slowly. Potential for VOC crop uptake, livestock ingestion, and contamination of ground water is low under routine, managed applications of sewage sludge to agricultural land.

Wilson, S.C.; Jones, K.C.



Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture  

PubMed Central

The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary. Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds. More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation.

Petrik, Milivoj



Evaluation of forest trees growth after sewage sludge application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sewage sludge is extensively used in forest to improve soil properties. It is expected that sewage sludge rich in phosphorus, nitrogen and organic material enhance the germination of tree seedlings in poor soils. In Lithuania, the deforested soils are highly acid, and have a lack of nutrients, especially in exploited peat areas. Sewage sludge from industry contains beneficial components for the soils (such as organic matter, phosphorus, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, etc.). However, it is also rich in heavy metals, especially Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn. High heavy metals concentrations in soil can be phytotoxic and cause reduced plant growth or plant death. The main objectives of this research was to determine the influence of industrial sewage sludge in the forestry and to highlight the idea that industrial sewage sludge containing metals does not favour development of birch and pine trees. The study was performed in Taruskos experimental plot in Panevezys region (Lithuania), amended with industrial sewage sludge ten years ago was afforestated with birch and pine seedlings. In order to observe the effects of the amendment in accumulation the mentioned metals and tree growth we collected data from trees in amended plot and control plot. The results showed that soil parameters were improved in the amended plot, in comparing with control site (higher pH, organic matter and cation exchange capacity). However, the growth of investigated trees was slower (e.g. birch roots, shoot, stem and leaves biomass was 40, 7.4, 18.6, 22% smaller than in control site. In pine case: 30, 1.2, 17, 36%, respectively; the stem height of birch was 16% and pine - 12% smaller than in control site). This reduced growth can be related with heavy metals concentration load on soil and accumulation in trees. Cu and Cd concentrations were higher in soil amended with sewage sludge comparing with control site (60 and 36%, respectively). Also, in contaminated trees Cu and Cd concentrations were higher (Cu - 37% in birch and 27% in pine shoots; 6% in birch and 73% in pine roots; Cd was 3% in birch and 1.4% in pine shoots; 53% in birch and 24% in pine roots). Our results showed that the sewage sludge applied from industrial sources was not effective to improve tree growth, despite the fact, that it revealed positive effects on forest soil properties.

Vaitkutä--, Dovilé; Balträ--Naitä--, Edita; Booth, Colin A.; Fullen, Michael A.; Pereira, Paulo



Influence of bulking agent on sewage sludge composting process.  


Four types of compost, consisting of mixtures of Acacia dealbata (A) with sewage sludge (SS) were studied in a laboratory reactor. Composting time was 80 days and parameters monitored over this period included temperature, organic matter, pH, CO(2), O(2), C/N ratio, Kjeldahl-N, as well as maturity indexes. All the studied parameters were influenced by the bulking amount used. The highest profile temperature measured was for the A/SS 1/2 (w/w) mixture that reached a maxima temperature of 67 degrees C and lower maximum temperatures of 52, 48 and 46 degrees C were observed for A/SS 1/3, 1/1 and 1/0 composts, respectively. The kinetic model used showed that a descent of sewage sludge in the composting mixtures favored the enzyme-substrate affinity. However, an increase in depending on the parameters of the process factors was observed when the sewage sludge ratio was increased in mixtures. The optimal amounts of sewage sludge for co-composting with Acacia indicate that moderate amounts of sludge (1/1) would be the best compromise. PMID:19560348

Yañez, R; Alonso, J L; Díaz, M J



Biotechnology of intensive aerobic conversion of sewage sludge and food waste into fertilizer.  


Biotechnology for intensive aerobic bioconversion of sewage sludge and food waste into fertilizer was developed. The wastes were treated in a closed reactor under controlled aeration, stirring, pH, and temperature at 60 degrees C, after addition of starter bacterial culture Bacillus thermoamylovorans. The biodegradation of sewage sludge was studied by decrease of volatile solids (VS), content of organic carbon and autofluorescence of coenzyme F420. The degradation of anaerobic biomass was faster than biodegradation of total organic matter. The best fertilizer was obtained when sewage sludge was thermally pre-treated, mixed with food waste, chalk, and artificial bulking agent. The content of volatile solid and the content of organic carbon decreased at 24.8% and 13.5% of total solids, respectively, during ten days of bioconversion. The fertilizer was a powder with moisture content of 5%. It was stable, and not toxic for the germination of plant seeds. Addition of 1.0 to 1.5% of this fertilizer to the subsoil increased the growth of different plants tested by 113 to 164%. The biotechnology can be applied in larger scale for the recycling of sewage sludge and food wastes in Singapore. PMID:15259949

Wang, J Y; Stabnikova, O; Tay, S T L; Ivanov, V; Tay, J H



Exploitation of gold in a historic sewage sludge stockpile, Werribee, Australia: resource evaluation, chemical extraction and subsequent utilisation of sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludges are dewatered end products of human sewage waste and are recognised repositories of organic pollutants and heavy metals. They may be considered targets for economic extraction of Au because of the documented Au content of sewage sludges worldwide which are of the order of some ore deposits currently mined for Au. They are also highly nutrient enriched (nitrogen

Shane J. Reeves; Ian R. Plimer; David Foster



Evaluation on different forms of Moringa oleifera seeds dosing on sewage sludge conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different form of dosing using Moringa oleifera seeds in sewage sludge conditioning was studied. Settled activated sludge after clarification process was obtained from sludge holding tank in Sewage Treatment Plant, Taman Tun Dr. Ismail, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In this study, sludge conditioning with Moringa oleifera seeds in 3 different forms: dry powder, distilled water extracted and salt

Kien Tat Wai; Azni Idris; Megat Mohd Noor Megat Johari; Thamer A. Mohammad; Abdul Halim Ghazali; Suleyman A. Muyibi



Quinone Profiling of Bacterial Communities in Natural and Synthetic Sewage Activated Sludge for Enhanced Phosphate Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory quinones were used as biomarkers to study bacterial community structures in activated sludge reactors used for enhanced biological phosphate removal (EBPR). We compared the quinone profiles of EBPR sludges and standard sludges, of natural sewage and synthetic sewage, and of plant scale and laboratory scale systems. Ubiquinone (Q) and menaquinone (MK) components were detected in all sludges tested at




4-nonylphenol in Sewage Sludge: Accumulation of Toxic Metabolites from Nonionic Surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobically treated sewage sludge was found to contain extraordinarily high concentrations of 4-nonylphenol, a metabolite derived from nonionic surfactants of the nonylphenol polyethoxylate type. Concentrations in activated sewage sludge, in mixed primary and secondary sludge, and in aerobically stabilized sludge were substantially lower, suggesting that the formation of 4-nonylphenol is favored under mesophilic anaerobic conditions. Because 4-nonylphenol may be highly

Walter Giger; Paul H. Brunner; Christian Schaffner



Composting of anaerobic sludge: an economically feasible element of a sustainable sewage sludge management.  


An investigation into the feasibility of anaerobic sludge composting, as a sustainable treatment of sewage sludge management, was carried out under actual Slovenian environmental conditions. In order to demonstrate successful composting, five pilot plant experiments were performed during the summer and winter conditions. The first three experiments were performed with pile aeration, while experiments 4 and 5 were carried out by pile turning. Anaerobic sludge to bulking agent ratios were set at 1-6.4:1. The composting was successful and thermophilic temperature being achieved in all cases. In winter conditions, the composting process was prolonged; and low ambient temperatures had a significant impact in pile turning experiments. During winter, a temperature drop of 30 °C during turning of the material doubled the necessary time for an adequate composting process. Five scenarios were considered within an economic feasibility study and in the most favourable scenario, where 60% of compost was commercialised and 40% was used as landfill cover. The payback period in this scenario was 2.9 years. The study of compost quality showed that it can be used in variety of civil engineering applications, especially as a landfill cover and for recultivation of degraded areas. PMID:22562011

Cukjati, N; Zupan?i?, G D; Roš, M; Grilc, V



Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in selected sewage sludge in Nigeria.  


Levels of seven major perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and three perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) were analyzed for the first time in sludge from wastewater treatment plants from Nigeria. Measurements were performed using an analytical methodology using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS). The method detection limit and method quantification limit was 3pg/g and 9.5pg/g for both analytes (PFCAs and PFSAs) respectively. Typical recoveries ranged from 50% to 104% for spiked mass labeled internal standards of 1ng (absolute value) to 1g of sample. All sludge samples taken from industrial, domestic and hospital wastewater treatment plants contained measurable levels of PFASs. Levels of the quantified perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates concentrations ranged from 10 to 597 and 14 to 540pg/g, respectively. The concentrations were therefore lower compared to sewage sludge samples reported in other regions in the world. Perfluoroalkyl carboxylates with carbon chain having ?8 fluorinated carbons were detected in the analyzed sewage sludge samples at higher levels compared to carboxylates with <8 fluorinated carbon chain. The measured concentrations indicate that no PFAS point source for the 10 investigated sewage treatment plants existed. Furthermore the low levels in the four municipal sewage treatment plants in Lagos is a first indication that even in an African megacity like Lagos the PFASs release from households are low until now. The highest PFOS level was found in a hospital sewage sludge (539.6pg/g) possibly indicating (minor) release from medical equipment where some are known to contain PFOS. The PFASs in waste water sludge from a brewery warrant further investigations. PMID:23648329

Sindiku, Omotayo; Orata, Francis; Weber, Roland; Osibanjo, Oladele



Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

Robson, Stanley G.




PubMed Central

Economy and conservation have worked for years at the problem of profit from sewage. Mr. Weston notes that many American cities have potential by-products enough to make recovery worth trying. English cities have found the American Miles process profitable. It will at least lessen the cost of sewage disposal.

Weston, Robert Spurr



Alleviation of Environmental Pollution Using Nuclear Techniques Recycling of Sewage Water and Sludge in Agriculture: a Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture soil has always been the disposal site for sewage effluent and solid sewage sludge. In Egypt, the use of raw sewage effluent as a source of irrigation and fertilization has been practiced for almost 80 years at ElGabal ElAsfar farm. At Helwan sewage effluent has started to be used in agriculture since 1992. Raw sewage sludge and sewage water

Rawia A. El-Motaium


Impact of food industrial waste on anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and pig manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an anaerobic digestion process is much dependent on the type and the composition of the material to be digested. The effects on the degradation process of co-digesting different types of waste were examined in two laboratory-scale studies. In the first investigation, sewage sludge was co-digested with industrial waste from potato processing. The co-digestion resulted in a low

M Murto; L Björnsson; B Mattiasson



The toxicity to plants of the sewage sludges containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of sewage sludges containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with an outer diameter <10 nm (CNT10) or 40-60 nm (CNT60) to Lepidium sativum (cress), Sorghum saccharatum (sorgo), Solanum lycopersicon (tomato), Raphanus sativus (radish) and Cucumis sativus (cucumber). CNTs were also incubated in sewage sludge for 7 or 31 days to determine the effect of CNT aging on sewage sludge phytotoxicity. The influence of CNTs on 4 different sewage sludges was tested. The CNTs' influence on sludge toxicity varied with respect to the CNTs' outer diameter, type of sewage sludges and the plants tested. No significant influence of CNT concentration on phytotoxicity was noted. In the case of two sludges, a positive influence of CNTs on seed germination and root growth was observed. Depending on the CNTs' outer diameter, CNT aging decreased (CNT10) or increased (CNT60) sewage sludge phytotoxicity. PMID:21145166

Oleszczuk, Patryk; Jo?ko, Izabela; Xing, Baoshan



Baghouse Efficiency on a Multiple Hearth Incinerator Burning Sewage Sludge,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot-scale fabric filter (baghouse) was evaluated for its removal performance for 23 metals and for sulfur as well as for total particles when fitted to a multiple hearth incinerator burning sewage sludge. The small scale baghouse was installed to take...

R. C. Adams L. E. Keller E. V. Robb M. C. Vancil J. B. Farrell



Radiation processing of sewage and sludge. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the potential of using ionizing radiation to disinfect sewage and sludge, as well as the possibilities of recycling natural resources and their by-products. Presented here is a brief review on the development of radiolytic treatment of wastewaters with electron beam accelerators or 60Co gamma sources to eliminate organic and biological contaminants from liquid and solid wastes. Suitable

S. I. Borrely; A. C. Cruz; N. L. Del Mastro; M. H. O. Sampa; E. S. Somessari



Transport of Sewage Sludge in a Mixed Water Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge from four publicly-owned treatment works was sampled and characterized in terms of parameters affecting transport at the 106-mile deep ocean disposal site as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's site monitoring programme. Samples from treatment plants in Passaic Valley, Rahway, and Elizabeth, New Jersey and New York City were characterized in terms of dynamic size distribution, suspended

J. S. Bonner; A. N. Ernest; D. S. Hernandez; R. L. Autenrieth




EPA Science Inventory

Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air pollution control systems to municipal sewage sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment-wet scrubbers, fabric filters,...



EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses a study designed to determine the practical survival and transmission of the ova of the nematode worm Ascaris sp. through a modern sewage and sludge treatment process. Four large experiments and three smaller ones involving 178 specific pathogen free (SPF) p...


SNG from refuse and sewage sludge by the BIOGAS process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory, small pilot, and field work on the development of a process for the gasification of municipal solid wastes and sewage sludge has had a number of objectives. These include increasing the production of methane and the solids destruction efficiency; cost reduction; evaluating, selecting, and integrating unit operations; and improving the overall process design. Out of this work has evolved

S. Ghosh; D. L. Klass



Combustible gas production from sewage sludge with a downdraft gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, sewage sludge has particularly become an important problem all over the world because of its harmful impacts on the environment and living beings. It should be converted to combustible gas or useful energy in order to remove all its negative effects and to contribute to a significant portion of the power generation. In this study, combustible gas production from

Adnan Midilli; Murat Dogru; Colin R. Howarth; Mike J. Ling; Teoman Ayhan




EPA Science Inventory

Feasibility and market potential were determined for non-food-chain crops cultivated using sewage sludge. Non-food-chain crops that are currently being sold on the open market or that have a good potential for marketability were selected. From a list of 20 crops, 3 were selected ...



EPA Science Inventory

The accumulative effects of annual use of sewage sludge on composition of soils, plants, water, and animals that consume the plants is presented. Plant yields were increased and no evidence of phototoxicity from trace elements was observed. Phosphorus toxicity in soybeans develop...



EPA Science Inventory

Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...


Vermicomposting of sewage sludge: a new technology for Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Mexico 31% of the treatment plants have a flow less than 60 l\\/s. This study offers a simple and economical alternative through vermicomposting to resolve the management of sewage sludge and water hyacinth for these small treatment plants. This study was developed with laboratory and pilot scale systems. In the laboratory Eisenia foetida survival was quantified. They were fed

L. Cardosa Vigueros; E. Ramírez Camperos


Use of Sewage Sludge Ash as Brick Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brick manufactured from incinerated sewage sludge ash and clay is investigated. The results of Atterberg limits tests of molded ash-clay mixtures indicated that both plastic index and dry shrinkage decrease with an increasing amount of ash in the mixture. Results of tests indicated that the ash proportion and firing temperature were the two key factors determining the quality of brick.

Deng-Fong Lin; Chih-Huang Weng




EPA Science Inventory

This is a report on the sewage sludge incineration fuel reduction program at the Nashville-Davidson County Metropolitan Government wastewater treatment plant in Nashville, Tennessee. Fuel usage was reduced over 40 percent by reprogramming the methods used for operating the incine...


Disposal of Sewage Sludge Into a Sanitary Landfill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the results of a three-year demonstration study of the disposal of liquid sewage sludge and septic tank pumpings into solid waste at a sanitary landfill. Bench-scale laboratory studies were conducted to determine the moisture-absorbin...

R. Stone




EPA Science Inventory

Results of 8 field studies of long-term use of digested sewage on agricultural and disturbed lands are presented. The studies included: (1) response of corn grown on 3 soil types previously amended with annual sludge applications; (2) response of corn grown annually on Blount sil...


Effect of seeding during thermophilic composting of sewage sludge.  

PubMed Central

The effect of seeding on the thermophilic composting of sewage sludge was examined by measuring the changes in CO2 evolution rates and microbial numbers. Although the succession of thermophilic bacteria and thermophilic actinomycetes clearly reflected the effect of seeding, no clear difference was observed in the overall rate of composting or quality of the composted product.

Nakasaki, K; Sasaki, M; Shoda, M; Kubota, H



Effects of high temperature melting on the porosity and microstructure of slags from domestic sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage treatment plant sludges continue to pose great problems in terms of volume, odour and method of disposal. Thermal treatment of sewage sludge is considered as an attractive method in reducing sludge volume, which at the same time produces reusable by-products. Studies on high temperature melting of sewage sludge, above 1200ºC, show promising results where by stable and inert by-products

Z. Abu-Kaddourah; A. Idris; M. J. M. M. Noor; F. R. Ahmadun


Evaluation of nitrogen availability in irradiated sewage sludge, sludge compost and manure compost  

SciTech Connect

A field experiment was conducted during 2 yr to determine plant availability of organic N from organic wastes, and effects of gamma irradiation on organic N availability in sewage sludge. The wastes investigated were: digested, dewatered sewage sludge (DSS), irradiated sewage sludge (DISS), irradiated, composted sewage sludge (DICSS), and composted livestock manure (CLM). The annual application rates were: 10, 20, 30, and 40 Mg solids ha{sup {minus}1}. Fertilizer N was added to the control, to which no waste was applied, as well as to the waste applications to ensure approximately equal amounts of available N (110 kg N ha{sup {minus}1}) for all treatments. Lettuce, petunias, and beans were grown in 1990 and two cuts of lettuce were harvested in 1991. Crop yields and plant N concentrations were measured. Assuming that crop N harvested/available N applied would be approximately equal for the control and the waste treatments, the N from organic fraction of the wastes, which is as available as that in fertilizer, was estimated. With petunia in 1990 and the combination of first and second cut of lettuce in 1991, the percentage ranged from 11.2 to 29.7 in nonirradiated sludge, 10.1 to 14.0 in irradiated sludge, 10.5 to 32.1 in sludge compost and 10.0 to 19.7 in manure compost. Most often, the highest values were obtained with the lowest application rates. Yields of petunia and N concentrations in second cut lettuce in 1991 were lower with irradiated sludge than with nonirradiated sludge suggest that the availability of organic N in digested sludge may have been reduced after irradiation. Irradiation of sludge appears to have released NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. The availability of organic N, however, appears to have been reduced by irradiation by greater amount than the increase in NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. 41 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Wen, Guang; Bates, T.E.; Voroney, R.P. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)



Phosphine production potential of various wastewater and sewage sludge sources  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory incubation procedure followed by gas chromatographic detection was used to measure phosphine production potential in representative wastewater and sewage sludge sources. Phosphine production potential was determined by measuring the rate of phosphine formation in samples incubated under laboratory conditions over a seven day period when both electron donors and the targeted electron acceptor were not limiting factors. Results of their experiments showed that except the primary effluent and secondary effluent wastewater samples all other samples studied (influent wastewater, various type of sludge and sediment sources) produced phosphine. The minimum phosphine production potential value (0.39 pg/ml wastewater/day) was measured in composite influent wastewater samples while the maximum (268 pg/g wet sludge/day) was measured in sediment samples collected from an open-air sewage treatment plant.

Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.; Patrick, W.H. Jr. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Wetland Biogeochemistry Inst.; Devai, G.; Czegeny, I. [Lajos Kossuth Univ., Debrecen (Hungary). Dept. of Ecology




EPA Science Inventory

A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. he energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. hese f...



EPA Science Inventory

A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. The energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. These...


Determination and Prediction of Chemical Forms of Trace Metals in Sewage Sludge and Sludge-Amended Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective of the research conducted under this project was to define the chemical equilibrium between trace metals and the soluble and insoluble organic and inorganic fractions of sewage sludges and sludge-amended soil. This report is divided ...

A. L. Page G. Sposito L. J. Lund




EPA Science Inventory

Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage treatment is performed in an environmentally safe and costâ??effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by sp...


Comparison of dissolved organic matter from sewage sludge and sludge compost as electron shuttles for enhancing Fe(III) bioreduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Land utilization of sewage sludge and sludge compost is a common practice in many countries. Soils amended with sewage sludge\\u000a and sludge compost display different physicochemical properties, especially in terms of dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition\\u000a that affects the electron-donating capacity (EDC) of DOM in soils. The aim of this paper was to compare the EDC of DOM derived\\u000a from

De-Yin Huang; Li Zhuang; Wei-Dong Cao; Wei Xu; Shun-Gui Zhou; Fang-Bai Li




EPA Science Inventory

Research was conducted to identify the most important operational parameters which limit the growth and decomposition activity of composting sludge microbiota. Sensitive and nonselective biochemical methods of monitoring microbial biomass and activity were tested and used to stud...


Enhanced biohydrogen production from sewage sludge with alkaline pretreatment.  


Batch tests were carried out to analyze influences of the alkaline pretreatment and initial pH value on biohydrogen production from sewage sludge. Experimental results of the impact of different initial pH on biohydrogen production showed that both the maximal hydrogen yield occurred and that no methane was detected in the tests of at the initial pH of 11.0. The final pH decreased at the initial pH of 7.0-12.5 but increased atthe initial pH of 3.0-6.0, probably due to the combination of solubilized protein from sludge and the formation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ammonia during biohydrogen fermentation. The performance of biohydrogen production using the raw sludge and the alkaline pretreated sludge was then compared in batch fermentation tests atthe initial pH of 11.0. The hydrogen yield was increased from 9.1 mL of H2/g of dry solids (DS) of the raw sludge to 16.6 mL of H2/g of DS of the alkaline pretreated sludge. No methane and less carbon dioxide (0.8% of control) were present in the biohydrogen production from the alkaline pretreated sludge. These results clearly showed that biohydrogen production could be enhanced and maintained stable by the combination of the high initial pH and alkaline pretreatment. The mechanism of biohydrogen production from sewage sludge at high initial pH was therefore investigated because the results of this study were differentfrom previous studies of biohydrogen production. Results showed that protein was the major substrate for biohydrogen production from sewage sludge and that Eubacterium multiforme and Paenibacillus polymyxa were the dominant bacteria in biohydrogen production from alkaline pretreated sludge at an initial pH of 11.0. The combination of alkaline pretreatment and high initial pH could not only maintain a suitable pH range for the growth of dominant hydrogen-producing anaerobes but also inhibit the growth of hydrogen-consuming anaerobes. In addition, the changes in pH value, oxidation-reduction potential, VFAs and soluble COD during hydrogen fermentation were also discussed. PMID:15224755

Cai, Mulin; Liu, Junxin; Wei, Yuansong



Alternative fuel comprised of sewage sludge and a liquid hydrocarbon fuel oil  

SciTech Connect

An improved fuel composition is provided comprising in minor proportion a non-dewatered sewage sludge and in major proportion an organic fuel comprised of a hydrocarbon fuel oil. A method is also provided for the incineration of sewage sludge comprised of providing an admixture of a minor proportion of a non-dewatered sewage sludge and a major proportion of an organic fuel comprised of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel oil and incinerating the admixture.

Ashworth, R. A.



Effect of sewage sludge and cobalt treatments on tomato fruit yield, weight, and quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of increased concentrations of cobalt (Co) (0,50,100, and 200 mg Kg) and treatment with sewage sludge was investigated on the yield and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Ramy), grown in a calcareous soil. Anaerobically digested sewage sludge was applied at the rates of 2 and 4 g sewage sludge\\/100 g soil d.w., equivalent to 60 and

R. Moral; I. Gomez



The Effect of Microwave Radiation Treatment on Flowing Sewage Sludge in a Dynamic Manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impact on characters of flowing sewage sludge by microwave radiation in a dynamic manner was inspected. The changes in settling and vacuum filtration dewaterability of sewage sludge in 3 minutes of microwave radiation were investigated,influences on volatile suspended solid(VSS)dissolving ratio, COD in supernatant and micro-morphology of sewage sludge by microwave radiation were investigated as well. Low intensity radiation had little

Bo-zhi Ren; Bao-lin Hou; Xue-li Wu



Landfarming of municipal sewage sludge at Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The City of Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been applying municipal sanitary sludge to 9 sites comprising 90 ha on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) since 1983. Approximately 13,000,000 L are applied annually by spraying sludge (2 to 3% solids) under pressure from a tanker. Under an ongoing monitoring program, both the sludge and the soil in the application areas are analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radioactive parameters on a regular basis. Organic pollutants are analyzed in sludge on a semiannual basis and in the soil application areas on an annual basis. Inorganic parameters are analyzed daily (e.g., pH, total solids) or monthly (e.g., nitrogen, manganese) in sludge and annually in soil in application areas. Radionuclides (Co-60, Cs-137, I-131, Be-7, K-40, Ra-228, U-235, U-238) are scanned daily during application by the sewage treatment plant and analyzed weekly in composite sludge samples and annually in soil. Additionally, data on radioactive body burden for maximally exposed workers who apply the sludge show no detectable exposures. This monitoring program is comprehensive and is one of the few in the United States that analyzes radionuclides. Results from the monitoring program show heavy metals and radionuclides are not accumulating to levels in the soil application areas.

Tischler, M.L.; Pergler, C.; Wilson, M.; Mabry, D.; Stephenson, M.



Carbon dioxide adsorption in chemically activated carbon from sewage sludge.  


In this work, sewage sludge was used as precursor in the production of activated carbon by means of chemical activation with KOH and NaOH. The sludge-based activated carbons were investigated for their gaseous adsorption characteristics using CO2 as adsorbate. Although both chemicals were effective in the development of the adsorption capacity, the best results were obtained with solid NaOH (SBA(T16)). Adsorption results were modeled according to the Langmuir and Freundlich models, with resulting CO2 adsorption capacities about 56 mg/g. The SBA(T16) was characterized for its surface and pore characteristics using continuous volumetric nitrogen gas adsorption and mercury porosimetry. The results informed about the mesoporous character of the SBA(T16) (average pore diameter of 56.5 angstroms). The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of the SBA(T16) was low (179 m2/g) in comparison with a commercial activated carbon (Airpel 10; 1020 m2/g) and was mainly composed of mesopores and macropores. On the other hand, the SBA(T16) adsorption capacity was higher than that of Airpel 10, which can be explained by the formation of basic surface sites in the SBA(T16) where CO2 experienced chemisorption. According to these results, it can be concluded that the use of sewage-sludge-based activated carbons is a promising option for the capture of CO2. Implications: Adsorption methods are one of the current ways to reduce CO2 emissions. Taking this into account, sewage-sludge-based activated carbons were produced to study their CO2 adsorption capacity. Specifically, chemical activation with KOH and NaOH of previously pyrolyzed sewage sludge was carried out. The results obtained show that even with a low BET surface area, the adsorption capacity of these materials was comparable to that of a commercial activated carbon. As a consequence, the use of sewage-sludge-based activated carbons is a promising option for the capture of CO2 and an interesting application for this waste. PMID:23786147

de Andrés, Juan Manuel; Orjales, Luis; Narros, Adolfo; de la Fuente, María del Mar; Encarnación Rodríguez, María



Stabilization of heavy metals in sewage sludge composting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the stabilization of heavy metals in a sewage sludge composting process using kaoline addition. The results indicate that the temperature increased rapidly to the thermophilic phase (>55°C) at day 1. The additives enhanced the rate of biodegradation and microbial activity during the co- composting process. The changes in pH (ranging from 8 to 8.5) and electrical conductivity

K.-Y. Chiang; S.-D. Yoi; H. N. Lin; K.-S. Wang


Thermal Treatment of Municipal Sewage Sludges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thermal conditioning research program was conducted as part of an overall long-term sludge management study for the Los Angeles and Orange County metropolitan areas. The major goal of this portion of the study was to investigate the advantages of ther...

T. J. LeBrun L. D. Tortorici




EPA Science Inventory

The thermal conditioning research program was conducted as part of an overall long-term sludge management study for the Los Angeles and Orange County metropolitan areas. The major goal of this portion of the study was to investigate the advantages of thermal conditioning of prima...


Sewage sludge does not induce genotoxicity and carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Through a series of experiments, the genotoxic/mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of sewage sludge was assessed. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Group 1 - negative control; Group 2 - liver carcinogenesis initiated by diethylnitrosamine (DEN; 200 mg/kg i.p.); Group 3 and G4-liver carcinogenesis initiated by DEN and fed 10,000 ppm or 50,000 ppm of sewage sludge. The animals were submitted to a 70% partial hepatectomy at the 3rd week. Livers were processed for routine histological analysis and immunohistochemistry, in order to detect glutathione S-transferase positive altered hepatocyte foci (GST-P+ AHF). Peripheral blood samples for the comet assay were obtained from the periorbital plexus immediately prior to sacrificing. Polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) were analyzed in femoral bone-marrow smears, and the frequencies of those micronucleated (MNPCEs) registered. There was no sewage-sludge-induced increase in frequency of either DNA damage in peripheral blood leucocytes, or MNPCEs in the femoral bone marrow. Also, there was no increase in the levels of DNA damage, in the frequency of MNPCEs, and in the development of GST-P AHF when compared with the respective control group.

Silva, Paula Regina Pereira; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Dagli, Maria Lucia Zaidan; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento



Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge management: A review.  


In this article, 35 published studies on life cycle assessment (LCA) of sewage sludge were reviewed for their methodological and technological assumptions. Overall, LCA has been providing a flexible framework to quantify environmental impacts of wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and disposal processes for multiple scales, ranging from process selection to policy evaluation. The results of LCA are, in principle, unique to the goal and scope of each study, reflecting its local conditions and comparison between different LCAs is not intended. Furthermore, the assessments are limited by the methodological development of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) and the advancement of research in quantifying environmental emissions associated with wastewater and sewage sludge treatment processes. Thus, large discrepancies were found in the selection of the environmental emissions to be included and how they were estimated in the analysis. In order to reduce these choice uncertainties, consolidation of the modelling approach in the following area are recommended: quantification of fugitive gas emissions and modelling of disposal practices. Besides harmonization of the key technical assumptions, clear documentation of the modelling approach and the uncertainties associating with each assumption is encouraged so as to improve the integrity and robustness of assessment. PMID:24061046

Yoshida, Hiroko; Christensen, Thomas H; Scheutz, Charlotte



K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring reports, second quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

During second quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13, 173. This report includes the results of those analyses. None of the analyzed constituents exceeded the Primary Drinking Water Standard or the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria at either the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site or the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site.

Not Available



Detection of radionuclides originating from a nuclear power plant in sewage sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sewage sludge is a sensitive indicator of radionuclides entering the environment. Radionuclides originating in nuclear power stations have been detected in sludge found at wastewater treatment plants in communities near the power plants (NPP). The main co...

M. Puhakainen M. Suomela



Leachate tests with sewage sludge contaminated by radioactive cesium.  


The sewer systems of eastern Japan have transported radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to wastewater treatment plants, where the radioisotopes have accumulated. To better understand the potential problems associated with the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills, leachate tests were conducted with radioactive incinerator ash, cement solidification incinerator ash, and dewatered sludge cake. Radioactivity was undetectable in the eluate from incinerator ash and dewatered sludge cake, but about 30% of the radioactivity initially in cement solidification incinerator ash appeared in the eluate during the leaching experiments. Moreover, modification of test conditions revealed that the presence of Ca(2+) ions and strong alkali in the water that contacted the incinerator ash enhanced leaching of cesium. Lastly, the capacity of pit soil to absorb radioactive cesium was estimated to be at least 3.0 Bq/g (dry). PMID:23947711

Tsushima, Ikuo; Ogoshi, Masashi; Harada, Ichiro



Phytotoxicity and heavy metals speciation of stabilised sewage sludges.  


The presence of heavy metals in the sludges produced in wastewater treatment restricts plants growth and hence their use for agricultural purposes. This study looks at different types of sludges (aerobic, anaerobic, unstabilised and sludge from a waste stabilisation pond) and compares the distribution of the heavy metals that they contain according to the treatment that they have undergone. The sewage sludges were subjected to chemical characterisation and phytotoxicity testing (in absence of substrate) to provide a preliminary assessment of their suitability for land application. In addition, the total quantity of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ca, K, Fe, Mg, Ni, Na, Pb and Zn) was determined. The Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) method for heavy metal speciation was followed. It was confirmed that the total concentration of heavy metals did not exceed the limits set out by European legislation and that the stabilisation treatment undergone by the sludges strongly influenced the heavy metal distribution and the phases to which they were associated. The sludge extracts did not exert any significant adverse effect on the relative seed germination (RSG) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) or cress (Lepidium sativum L.), although the reduction in germination index (GI) indicates that some characteristics existed did have an adverse effect on root growth. PMID:15120869

Fuentes, Ana; Lloréns, Mercedes; Sáez, José; Aguilar, Maria Isabel; Ortuño, Juan F; Meseguer, Victor F



Oxisol decapitated recovery with green manure and sewage sludge: Effect on growth of Astronium fraxinifolium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incorrect use of land and large buildings in rural areas are causing changes to it, making them less productive and thus increasing the degraded areas. Techniques aimed at ecological restoration of degraded soils have been investigated. In recovery planning a degraded area, the great challenge to be achieved is the establishment of a A horizon, so that from then on, the process is catalyzed by the biosphere, and there may be other horizons, as the natural conditioning. In this sense the positive changes were investigated in an environment of decapitated Savannah Oxisol, which was removed a layer 8.5 m thick to build a hydroelectric power plant. For recovery, we used a native tree species, green manure, sewage sludge and grass. The studied soil is under human intervention techniques for recovery for seven years. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five treatments and five replications. The treatments were: 1-Control- bare soil (without management), 2-Astronium fraxinifolium Schott; 3-A. fraxinifolium + Canavalia ensiformis; 4- A. fraxinifolium + Raphanus sativus by 2005 was replaced in 2006 by Crotalaria juncea; 5- A. fraxinifolium + Brachiaria decumbens + sewage sludge (60 t ha-1, dry basis). We studied in 2010 and 2011 the development of tree species (stem diameter and plant height), the fresh and dry matter of green manures and B. decumbens. The results were analyzed by performing the variance analysis and Tukey test at 5% probability to compare averages. The rate of plant growth during the periods studied in the treatment with sewage sludge was higher than other treatments, so this is the most appropriate management for the recovery of degraded soil under study.

Souto Filho, S. N.; Marchini, D. C.; de Arruda, O. G.; Giácomo, R. G.; Alves, M. C.



Assessment of toxicity reduction after metal removal in bioleached sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge can be applied to land to supply and recycle organic matter and nutrients. Trace elements in sludge, however, may accumulate in the soil with repeated sludge applications. Reducing metal content may therefore reduce the adverse effects of sludge application. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of bioleaching technology in reducing metal content and toxicity

Agnès Y Renoux; Rajeshwar D Tyagi; Réjean Samson



Impact of landfill leachate on anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.  


The feasibility of mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of landfill leachate and sewage sludge was examined in a bench-scale experiment. Three complete-mix, flow-through digesters were operated in a semi-continuous mode. During both phases of research all digesters received 500 ml d(-1) of raw sludge and Reactor 1 was always the control reactor--fed sludge only. During Phase 1, leachate volumes less than 12% of the sludge volume were fed to Reactors 2 and 3. During Phase 2 larger amounts of leachate were added, exceeding 20% of sludge volume which led to an overall decrease in the hydraulic residence time of the digesters. All reactors achieved stable operation, which indicated that the co-digestion of sewage sludge and landfill leachate is feasible During Phase 1, an increase in the average daily methane production from 2.5 l d(-1) to 3.1 l d(-1) and 3.2 l d(-1) was observed; the biomethanation production (BMP) increased from 0.46 to 0.6 m3 - 0.7 m3 CH4 (kg VS rem.)(-1). The average volatile solids reduction (VSR) increased from 46.1% to 48.6% and 49.0%. In Phase 2, the total methane production in the control reactor was significantly higher, at 4.6 l d(-1), while the addition of larger, by volume, amounts of leachate, decreased the methane production to 4.3 l d(-1) and 4.2 l d(-1), respectively. The average BMP values were 0.8, 0.87, and 0.81 m3 CH4 (kg VS rem.)(-1), respectively. In Phase 2, leachate addition decreased the average VSR from 51% to 49% and 45.6%. After calculating that leachate addition to digesters would not increase heavy metal concentrations in the produced biosolids it was concluded that mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and landfill leachate is feasible, and provides a promising alternative to aerobic co-treatment. PMID:12803248

Hombach, S T; Oleszkiewicz, J A; Lagasse, P; Amy, L B; Zaleski, A A; Smyrski, K



Investigation into antimony mobility in sewage sludge fermentation.  


Antimony is distributed in the environment in inorganic and organic species with different solubility and mobility characters. Here we investigate the transformation of antimony in view of biomethylation during sewage sludge fermentation as a case study for an anaerobic environment. Our approach was to identify if antimony methylation follows the Challenger pathway by using isotopically enriched antimonite (123Sb(v)). The antimony source was subjected to methylation in sewage sludge, an anaerobic dominant methanogenic Archaea community. The antimony species were determined in the gas phase using cryotrapping (CT)-GC-ICP-MS, and in the medium (sewage slude) by hydride generation (HG) prior CT-GC-ICP-MS. The determined 123/121Sb isotope ratios in the volatile trimethylstibine and non-volatile methylantimony species indicated that the methylation follows the proposed methylation pathway. With this approach we were able to quantify 123Sb incorporation into monomethyl-, dimethyl- and trimethylantimony, respectively. The incorporation decreased with further methylation from 91% to 82% and 73%. Volatilisation as trimethystibine was generally lower than 0.1%, however, up to 0.8% of added antimony was found methylated to methylantimony species and mainly accumulated in the cell. Moreover, antimony biomethylation was enhanced by stimulation of the anaerobic communities of methanogenic Archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), with the methanogens showing a higher activity. PMID:16307071

Wehmeier, Silvia; Feldmann, Jörg



Balancing hygienization and anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge.  


The anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge was evaluated in terms of process efficiency and sludge hygienization. Four different scenarios were analyzed, i.e. mesophilic anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a 60 °C or by an 80 °C hygienization treatment. Digester performance (organic matter removal, process stability and biogas yield) and the hygienization efficiency (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA phages) were the main examined factors. Moreover, a preliminary economical feasibility study of each option was carried out throughout an energy balance (heat and electricity). The obtained results showed that both thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a hygienization step were able to produce an effluent sludge that fulfills the American and the European legislation for land application. However, higher removal efficiencies of indicators were obtained when a hygienization post-treatment was present. Regarding the energy balance, it should be noted that all scenarios have a significant energy surplus. Particularly, positive heat balances will be obtained for the thermophilic anaerobic digestion and for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by 60 °C hygienization post-treatment if an additional fresh-sludge/digested sludge heat exchanger is installed for energy recovery. PMID:23063441

Astals, S; Venegas, C; Peces, M; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Mata-Alvarez, J



Glazed tiles manufactured from incinerated sewage sludge ash and clay.  


Sewage sludge incineration is applied extensively in highly populated cities as a final sludge treatment. In this study, incinerated ash was utilized as an additive to clay to manufacture glaze tiles. Four different amounts of ash (0, 15, 30, and 45%) were added, and five glaze concentrations (0.03, 0.06, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 g/cm2) were applied on the surface of biscuit tiles to study the effects of ash additive and glaze concentration on properties of fired samples. Sewage sludge was dehydrated and incinerated into ash at 800 degrees C. Subsequently, tile specimens were manufactured and fired at 800 degrees C to make biscuit tiles. Fritted glazes and iron oxide were used as the fundamental glaze and colorant, respectively. Finally, glaze was applied on the surface of biscuit tiles and then fired at 1050 degrees C to sinter them into glazed tile specimens. Tests were performed to analyze properties, including water absorption, firing shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, abrasion resistance, bending resistance, acid-alkali resistance, and aging resistance on specimens of glaze tile. To further understand more about the microstructural behavior of glazed tile specimens, analysis of energy dispersive spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray were carried out in this study. PMID:15796106

Lin, Deng-Fong; Luo, Huan-Lin; Sheen, Yeong-Nain




Microsoft Academic Search

Technical and economic analyses of an irradiation plant for sewage sludge treatment determined that an appropriate place for the first sludge electron irradiator in Mexico would be the sewage water treatment plant located north of Toluca in the State of Mexico. This treatment plant is mainly used for domestic wastewater and produces an approximate volume of 70 ton d-1 liquid

Jaime MORENO; Arturo COLÍN; Miguel BALCÁZAR; Leticia TAVERA


Enzyme Activities in a Sandy Soil Amended with Sewage Sludge and Coal Fly Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies showed that coal fly ash could stabilize sewage sludge by reducing metal availability, but fly ash may cause an adverse effect on soil microbial activities. Therefore, an experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of amendment of soil with anaerobically digested dewatered sewage sludge, stabilised with alkaline coal fly ash, on soil enzyme activity and the implications for

K. M. Lai; D. Y. Ye; J. W. C. Wong



Process for utilizing a pumpable fuel from highly dewatered sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for disposing of sewage sludge comprising: (1) dewatering an aqueous slurry of sewage sludge having a solids content of at least about 3 wt. % to produce an aqueous slurry of sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 5 to 20 wt. %; (2) pressing and/or centrifuging the dewatered slurry of sewage sludge from (1) to produce amorphous sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 28 to 50 wt. %; (3) heating the amorphous sewage sludge from (2) in a closed pressure vessel at a temperature in the range of about 150 F to 510 F in the absence of air for a period in the range of about 3 seconds to 60 minutes and shearing the sewage sludge by a rotor/mixer operating at a speed in the range of about 15 to 100 rpm, thereby producing a pumpable slurry of sewage sludge having a viscosity in the range of about 400 to 1,500 centipoise when a measured at 200 F and a higher heating value in the range of about 5,000 to 9,500 Btu/lb, dry basis; and (4) burning said pumpable slurry from (3) in a partial oxidation gasifier, furnace, boiler, or incinerator to produce an effluent gas stream.

Khan, M.R.



Environmental monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and insoluble soap in Spanish sewage sludge samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we present a monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and insoluble soap performed on Spanish sewage sludge samples. This work focuses on finding statistical relations between LAS concentrations and insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples and variables related to wastewater treatment plants such as water hardness, population and treatment type. It is worth to mention that

Samuel Cantarero; Alberto Zafra-Gómez; Oscar Ballesteros; Alberto Navalón; Marco S. Reis; Pedro M. Saraiva; José L. Vílchez




Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of municipal sewage sludge solids concentration, leaching microorganisms (Thiobacillus thiooxidans or Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) and the addition of energy source (S or Fe(II)) on the bioleaching of metals from sewage sludge has been investigated under laboratory conditions using shake flasks. The results show that metal solubilization was better accomplished if additional energy source is supplemented to the microorganisms and

Ana T. Lombardi; Oswaldo Garcia Jr; Antonio A. Mozeto



Phytotoxicity and speciation of copper, zinc and lead during the aerobic composting of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content and speciation of heavy metals in composted sewage sludge is the main cause of negative impacts on environment and health of animal and human. An aerobic composting procedure was conducted to investigate the influences of some key parameters on phytotoxicity and speciation of Cu, Zn and Pb during sewage sludge composting. The pH value reached the optimal range

Miao-miao He; Guang-ming Tian; Xin-qiang Liang



Occurrence of multiclass UV filters in treated sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many substances related to human activities end up in wastewater and accumulate in sewage sludge. So far, there is only one extensive survey on the occurrence of UV filter residues in sewage sludge. However, more data are required to draw a reliable picture of the fate and effects of these compounds in the environment. This study attempts to fill this

Pablo Gago-Ferrero; M. Silvia Díaz-Cruz; Damià Barceló



Heavy metals in sludge from the sewage treatment plant of Rio de Janeiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The final disposal of sewage sludge on soils as a compost for agriculture increases heavy metal contamination in soils. This demands controlled use to avoid hazardous situations. This work measures the heavy metals content in sludge and its potential as a fertilizer in agriculture. Samples were collected from the Penha urban sewage plant, the largest in Rio de Janeiro. Heavy

Tomaz Langenbach; Wolfgang Pfeifer; Luiz Rodrigues Freire; Michele Sarpa; Sueli Paim



Nodulation and growth of subterranean clover ( Trifolium subterraneum L.) in soils previously treated with sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-year pot experiment testing the use of sewage sludges as fertilizers for subclover plants was carried out under greenhouse conditions. Two limed soil samples (leptosol and Luvisol) and two anaerobically digested sewage sludges (Evora and Belmonte) were used at the rates of 5, 10, 20 and 60 t ha?1, together with a standard mineral fertilizer-treated (PK) sample and an

E. M. Ferreira; I. V. Castro



Nitrogen contribution of sewage sludge to nutrition of crops, using nuclear techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land applications of municipal sewage sludges are being practised throughout the world. Their beneficial effects can include increases in crop yields, soil organic matter, cation exchange capacity, water-holding capacity and fertility in general. High levels of nitrogen and phosphorus and micronutrients make it an excellent fertilizer. At present, information on the availability of nitrogen and other nutrients from sewage sludge



Survival of Bacterial Indicator Species and Bacteriophages after Thermal Treatment of Sludge and Sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inactivation of naturally occurring bacterial indicators and bacteriophages by thermal treatment of a dewatered sludge and raw sewage was studied. The sludge was heated at 80°C, and the sewage was heated at 60°C. In both cases phages were significantly more resistant to thermal inactivation than bacterial indicators, with the exception of spores of sulfite-reducing clostridia. Somatic coliphages and phages

L. Moce-Llivina; Maite Muniesa; Hugo Pimenta-Vale; Francisco Lucena; Juan Jofre




Microsoft Academic Search

In light of an increased interest in the use of phage as a bacterial control agent, this study was conducted to determine if phage could be used to remove fecal coliforms from aquatic environments. A suspension was prepared from sewage sludge and tested for the presence of phage. Potential bacterial host strains were isolated from sewage sludge and brine water

Rene N. Beaudoin; Danielle R. DeCesaro; Debrah L. Durkee; Susan E. Barbaro



A Quantitative Study of Organic Carbon Decomposition and Nitrogen Transformations in Sewage Sludge-Soil Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A quantitative study of rate of sewage sludge decomposition in soil was made, with emphasis on the effect of soil moisture content and soil temperature on rate of release of CO2, NH4, and NO3. Sewage sludge was found to contain two families of organic com...

Y. P. Hsieh



Sewage Sludge Disposal in a Sanitary Landfill. Volume II. Description of Study and Technical Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second volume describes the results of work conducted on liquid sewage sludge and septic tank pumpings into solid waste at a sanitary landfill. Pilot plant lysimeters were used to investigate the effects of sewage and septic tank sludges on solid wast...



Irradiation of Sewage Sludge Using Cs-137: Irradiation of sewage sludge is a cost-competitive means to destroy bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. A report analyzing technical feasibility, operational considerations, and environmental impact concludes that sewage-sludge irradiation systems are cost competitive ...



Biological Degradation of Cyclophosphamide and Its Occurrence in Sewage Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutagenic and cancerogenic antineoplastic agent cyclophosphamide (CP) is released into sewage water by cancer patient excretion. To assess the biological degradability of CP two standardized test systems, the Zahn–Wellens\\/EMPA test (OECD 302B) and a laboratory scale sewage treatment plant, were used. In both test systems the agent exhibited only poor degradability. To verify the expected occurrence of CP in

T. Steger-Hartmann; K. Kümmerer; A. Hartmann



Near-bottom pelagic bacteria at a deep-water sewage sludge disposal site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. Mixed cultures and bacterial isolates obtained from water overlying sediment core samples collected at the deep-water (2,500 m) municipal sewage disposal site

M. Takizawa; W. L. Straube; R. T. Hill; R. R. Colwell



Fossil Fuel Biomarkers in Sewage Sludges: Environmental Significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fossil fuel biomarkers, or "molecular fossils," are specific organic substances found in coals, petroleums, and sedimentary rocks. They are formed during millions of years of sedimentary burial by geochemical alteration of biological molecules, such as cholesterol, under the effect of biodegradation, temperature, pressure, and mineral catalysis, to produce geochemically mature molecules, for example, aromatic steroids (Fig. 1). Since fossil fuel biomarkers have a very specific molecular structure betraying fossil fuel sources, such markers should be useful in assessing the fossil fuel contamination of various modern media such as soils, plants, waters, and modern sediments. Here the identification of fossil fuel biomarkers of high geothermal maturity in sewage sludges provides evidence of the contamination of sludges by petroleum products. The most likely sources of contamination are contaminated vegetal food, road dust, and soil particles carried by rain water.

Payet, C.; Bryselbout, C.; Morel, J.-L.; Lichtfouse, E.


Behavior of Ag nanoparticles in soil: Effects of particle surface coating, aging and sewage sludge amendment.  


This study addressed the relative importance of particle coating, sewage sludge amendment, and aging on aggregation and dissolution of manufactured Ag nanoparticles (Ag MNPs) in soil pore water. Ag MNPs with citrate (CIT) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coatings were incubated with soil or municipal sewage sludge which was then amended to soil (1% or 3% sludge (w/w)). Pore waters were extracted after 1 week and 2 and 6 months and analyzed for chemical speciation, aggregation state and dissolution. Ag MNP coating had profound effects on aggregation state and partitioning to pore water in the absence of sewage sludge, but pre-incubation with sewage sludge negated these effects. This suggests that Ag MNP coating does not need to be taken into account to understand fate of AgMNPs applied to soil through biosolids amendment. Aging of soil also had profound effects that depended on Ag MNP coating and sludge amendment. PMID:23911623

Whitley, Annie R; Levard, Clément; Oostveen, Emily; Bertsch, Paul M; Matocha, Chris J; Kammer, Frank von der; Unrine, Jason M



Basic Study of Concrete Made Using Ash Derived from the Incinerating Sewage Sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sewage sludge incinerated ash is discharged as waste. Those are increasing with progress of a sewage enterprise every year. However, the reservation of the last disposal place for reclaiming the generated incineration ash is becoming quickly difficult. In this situation of sewage sludge processing, it is very important to promote more reducing and development of new reusing method. Recently, in the construction industry, reusing technology that was used sewage sludge incinerated ash as aggregate for concrete products is developed. But there are many unknown points in the performance and durability of concrete. In this study, sewage sludge incinerated ash is used instead of natural aggregate for concrete. It is investigated about fresh characteristics, chloride content, strength, resistance to frost damage and drying shrinkage of concrete using sewage sludge incinerated ash. As the results of this research, the compressive strength increases with ratio of sewage sludge incinerated ash. And the relationship between the compressive strength and the dynamic modulus of elasticity can be comparatively expressed as the linear relationship. If this concrete includes proper air content, the resistance to frost damage is enough. The drying shrinkage is become larger with increase of substitute rate of sewage sludge incinerated ash.

Sasaoka, Nobutaka; Yokoi, Katsunori; Yamanaka, Takashi


Biological and abiotic losses of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soils freshly amended with sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

Sewage sludge containing typical indigenous concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was applied to several different soils in glass microcosms. Biologically active and sterilized soils were monitored for PAH content over a period of approximately 205 d. Agricultural soils with and without previous exposure to sewage sludge were tested, together with a forest soil and a soil from a major roadside. Loss of PAHs from a soil spike with a PAH standard solution was also investigated. Results indicate the PAH compounds with less than four benzene rings are susceptible to abiotic loss processes. However, losses by these mechanisms were insignificant for compounds with four or more benzene rings. Half-lives for the sludge-applied PAHs were derived and indicated a strong dependence of persistence on chemical structure. Half-lives for phenanthrene and benzo[ghi]perylene were between 83 and 193 d and 282 and 535 d, respectively. Mean half-lives correlate directly with log K[sub ow] and inversely with log water solubility. Behavior of PAHs was different in each soil, probably due to different soil characteristics and history of PAH exposure. The soil spiked with PAHs provided the lowest half-life values for most PAH compounds, suggesting a higher susceptibility of spiked PAHs to both abiotic and biological degradation.

Wild, S.R.; Jones, K.C. (Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom))



Enhancement in characteristics of sewage sludge and anaerobic treatability by electron beam pre-treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron beam was studied to enhance the biodegradability of sewage sludge. Changes in physicochemical characteristics of the sludge were examined with various irradiation doses, sludge thicknesses and exposure times. Irradiation thickness was suggested as the key factor affecting the efficiency of solublization of solid organic matter, whereas exposure time would be the most critical parameter in inducing cell lysis in sewage sludge. In addition, biogas production was improved as much as 22% when the sludge thickness was 0.5 cm with a dose of 7 kGy.

Park, Wooshin; Hwang, Moon-Hyun; Kim, Tak-Hyun; Lee, Myun-Joo; Kim, In S.



The Growth of Corn Seedlings in Alkaline Coal Fly Ash Stabilized Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to determine the amount ofcoal fly ash required to stabilize sewage sludge, without causing an adverse effect on the growth of Zea mays L. seedlings (corn) in a loamy soil receiving the ash-sludge mixtures amendment. Sludge was stabilized by mixing with fly ash at an amendment rate of 0, 5, 10, 35 and

D. C. Su; J. W. C. Wong



Actors and interpretations in an environmental controversy: the Swedish debate on sewage sludge use in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the Swedish debate on the sustainability of using sewage sludge as fertiliser in agriculture. Although the use of sludge as fertiliser presents potential resource and environmental advantages, it can have negative effects on people and soil productivity. Both proponents and opponents of agricultural application of sludge use environmental arguments to support their positions. By 1990, the Swedish

Magnus Bengtsson; Anne-Marie Tillman



Separation of metals and phosphorus from incinerated sewage sludge ash.  


Microbial acidification of incinerated sewage sludge ash and dissolution of metals from the acidified ash were investigated using a semi-batch reactor at different solid retention times (SRTs). The average pH values ranged from 0.91 to 1.2 at SRTs longer than 10 days, whereas the reduction of SRT to 4 days resulted in an increase in the pH value to about 2. The dissolution efficiencies of Al, As, Cd, Cu and Mn were greater than 60% at a SRT of 4 days. Moreover, the effect of pH on precipitation of metals and P (dissolution of 80%) in the filtrate removed from the acidified sewage ash suspension, and the separation of phosphorus and the other metals in the filtrate using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or ferric ion, were examined. Although neutralisation of the filtrate to a pH of 5 simultaneously precipitated 100% of Al and 80% of P recovered from the acidified sewage ash, the addition of EDTA decreased their precipitation to 70 and 50%, respectively, at the same pH value, which would promote precipitation of P as calcium phosphate. Furthermore, neutralising to a pH of 2.5 after the addition of ferric ion precipitated P separately from Al and heavy metals. PMID:23752380

Ito, A; Yamada, K; Ishikawa, N; Umita, T



Biochemical and physiological responses of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown on different sewage sludge amendments rates.  


Using sewage sludge, a biological residue from sewage treatment processes, in agriculture is an alternative disposal technique of waste. To study the biochemical and physiological responses of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown on different sewage sludge amendments (SSA) rates a field experiment was conducted by mixing sewage sludge at 0, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, 12 kg m(-2) rate to the agricultural soil. Rate of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance increased in plants grown at different SSA rate. Chlorophyll and protein contents also increased due to different SSA rates. Lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid, peroxidase activity and proline content increased, however, thiol and phenol content decreased in plants grown at different SSA rates. The study concludes that for rice plant sewage sludge amendment in soil may be a good option as plant has adequate heavy metal tolerance mechanism showed by increased rate of photosynthesis and chlorophyll content and various antioxidant levels. PMID:20414639

Singh, R P; Agrawal, M



Detection of Escherichia coli in sewage and sludge by polymerase chain reaction  

SciTech Connect

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a powerful tool in exploration of microbial activities and identities in environmental microbiology. High concentrations of humic acidlike substances in raw sewage and raw sludge have prevented the use of PCR with sewage and sludge samples. However, monitoring waste water and sludge by the PCR would lead to increased public health protection. In this study a rapid DNA extraction method and rapid purification procedure are combined with the PCR to detect Escherichia coli in sewage and sludge. The PCR is successfully used to amplify from both, a fragment of the E. coli uidAgene that codes for [beta]-D-glucuronidase. Because of their sensitivity and specificity, the PCR and nonradioactive gene probe techniques can be used to detect potentially pathogenic microorganisms in raw sewage and sludge, allowing for evaluation of the efficiency of treatments to remove pathogens.

Tsai, Yuli; Palmer, C.J.; Sangermano, L.R. (Environmental Sciences Lab., Fountain Valley, CA (United States))




EPA Science Inventory

The overall objective of the research conducted under this project was to define the chemical equilibrium between trace metals and the soluble and insoluble organic and inorganic fractions of sewage sludges and sludge-amended soil. This report is divided according to tasks carrie...


Increased biogas production at wastewater treatment plants through co-digestion of sewage sludge with grease trap sludge from a meat processing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of co-digesting grease trap sludge from a meat-processing plant and sewage sludge was studied in batch and reactor experiments at 35°C. Grease trap sludge had high methane production potential (918m3\\/tVSadded), but methane production started slowly. When mixed with sewage sludge, methane production started immediately and the potential increased with increasing grease trap sludge content. Semi-continuous co-digestion of the

S. Luostarinen; S. Luste; M. Sillanpää



The anaerobic treatment of sewage and granule formation in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.  


The granulation process was examined using synthetic wastewater containing glucose in a 1 liter laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The anaerobic biotransformation of glucose was investigated during the granulation process. Anaerobic unacclimated sludge and glucose were used as seed and primary substrate, respectively. Massive initial granules were developed after three months of start-up. The effect of operational parameters such as influent glucose concentrations, pH, Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) were also considered during granulation. The presence of a large concentration of sulphate in the sludge of a mesophilic (37 degrees C+/-1 degrees C) UASB reactor treating sewage resulted in severe process disturbance, with a complete inhibition of the propionate-degrading ability of the sludge. Severe inhibition of acetate removal was also observed, with concentrations of propionic acid and acetic acid in the reactor effluent of 1.72% and 18.88%, respectively. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is formed from the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter containing sulfate by sulfate-reducing bacteria. This gas is toxic at rate exceeding 2% tolerable by a reactor. The result shows the rate of hydrogen sulfide production was 3.8 %. PMID:17067129

Makni, H; Bettaieb, F; Dhaouadi, H; M'Henni, F; Bakhrouf, A



Comparative performance of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion for high-solid sewage sludge.  


In local cities, many small sewage and waste treatment facilities are operated independently. To encourage processing by anaerobic digestion at a centralized sewage treatment plant (STP), high-solid sewage sludge is helpful because it reduces the energy and cost required for transporting the sludge from other STPs. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge at total solids concentrations (TS) of 7.5% and 10% were evaluated using laboratory-scale continuous reactors. Under the mesophilic condition, sewage sludge of 10% TS was successfully treated. Under the thermophilic condition, sewage sludge of 7.5% TS was not successfully treated when the total ammonia concentration was over 2000mgN/L. Batch experiments showed that it takes a few weeks for the methane fermentation activity to recover after being inhibited. The effectiveness of adding easily biodegradable organic matter was confirmed. These results show that high-solid sewage sludge is suitable for small facilities by controlling the operating conditions. PMID:24096284

Hidaka, Taira; Wang, Feng; Togari, Taketo; Uchida, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Yutaka



Occurrence of high-tonnage anionic surfactants in Spanish sewage sludge.  


Agricultural application has become the most widespread method of sewage sludge disposal, being the most economical outlet for sludge and also recycling beneficial plant nutrients and organic matter to soil for crop production. As a matter of fact, the European Sewage Sludge Directive 86/278/EEC seeks to encourage the disposal of sewage sludge in agriculture applications and regulate its use to prevent harmful effects on the soil environment. At the present time, the sewage sludge Directive is under revision and a possible cut-off limit for some organic chemicals may be implemented. Linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), the main synthetic anionic surfactant, has been included in the draft list of chemicals to be limited. The present research work deals with the monitoring of LAS and soap in Spanish sewage sludge. The average concentration of LAS found in anaerobic sewage sludge samples was 8.06 g/kg, higher than the average values for European sludge. Besides, it has been also found that more than 55% of Spanish anaerobic sludge would not fulfil the limit proposed by the 3rd European Working paper on sludge. As a consequence, the implementation of the limit for LAS would make the disposal of most Spanish biosolids for agricultural applications almost impossible. Regarding the mechanisms why anionic surfactants are found in sludge, two surfactants are compared: LAS and soap, both readily biodegraded in aerobic conditions. Irrespective of the anaerobic biodegradability of soap, its concentration found in sludge is higher than LAS (only anaerobically biodegradable under particular conditions). The relevance of anaerobic biodegradation to assure environmental protection is discussed for this case. PMID:21652141

Cantarero, Samuel; Prieto, Carlos A; López, Ignacio



Heavy metal content of vegetables irrigated with mixtures of wastewater and sewage sludge in Zimbabwe: Implications for human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing public concern in Zimbabwe over the illegal cultivation of vegetables on soils amended with sewage sludge or irrigated with admixtures of sewage and sewage sludge. Excessive accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils may not only result in environmental contamination, but lead to elevated heavy metal uptake by crops, which may affect food quality and safety. The

M. Muchuweti; J. W. Birkett; E. Chinyanga; R. Zvauya; M. D. Scrimshaw; J. N. Lester



The use of Collembola avoidance tests to characterize sewage sludges as soil amendments.  


The ecotoxicological characterization of sewage sludge takes into account the additive, antagonistic and synergistic effects that occur as a result of multi-chemical interactions. Such an evaluation therefore is essential to complement the chemical analysis that, although required by law, is clearly insufficient. Using a tiered approach in the toxic evaluation of sewage sludge allows for characterization of toxicity in a timely manner. According to the literature, reproduction tests with Folsomia candida are suitable tools for the toxic assessment of organic sludges. Therefore, the inclusion of Collembola avoidance tests at a screening level (low tier), and acting as a trigger for longer-period tests (high tier; e.g. reproduction test), may provide a successful strategy, and may complement the currently proposed test battery. To evaluate the use of both avoidance and reproduction tests with collembolans in such a tiered approach, three sewage sludges (urban, olive and electroplating industries) were mixed in with a field-collected soil at different concentrations. Avoidance and reproduction tests were performed with the soil-sludge mixtures after 0, 4 and 12 weeks of incubation. The tests detected no toxicity in soil-sludge mixtures of urban and olive sludges at any incubation period. Mixtures with sludge from the electroplating industry induced toxicity only in the avoidance tests with freshly prepared and 4-week incubated samples. These results demonstrate the ability of Collembola avoidance tests to assess sewage sludge toxicity over time and its potential for hazardous sludge characterization at low tier levels. PMID:19850318

Natal-da-luz, T; Tidona, S; Van Gestel, C A M; Morais, P V; Sousa, J P



Effects of several applications of digested sewage sludge on soil and plants.  


Sewage sludge production has significantly increased during the last years in European Union (EU) countries, being primarily used for agricultural purposes. In this study, digested sewage sludge was applied to greenhouse soil over a three-year period (2001--2003), with three sludge treatments in the first two years (2, 4, and 6 kg m(-2)) and three more applications using a greater quantity in the last year (6, 8, and 10 kg m(-2)). The effects of sewage sludge application on soil and on a leafy crop (Lactuca sativa L.) were studied. Mineral elements, organic matter, pH, and heavy metals were measured in soil and plant tissues. Pathogen and indicator microorganism dynamics in soil were also determined after each sludge application. Results showed that sewage sludge applications increased organic matter, P, and N Ca content in soil. Furthermore, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cu content increased in soils, primarily after high doses of sludge. The highest yield value was obtained in the second-year harvest, since the last sludge application did not increase yield. Fecal coliform numbers decreased significantly one month after sludge application. However, total coliforms, Clostridium sulphite-reducers and Salmonella, were present in soils three months after sludge application. PMID:15717786

de las Heras, Jorge; Mañas, Pilar; Labrador, Juana



Anaerobic treatment of sewage sludge containing selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.  


The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors citalopram, sertraline, paroxetine, fluvoxamine and fluoxetine have been investigated in 10 l anaerobic lab-scale digesters with continuous stirring and mesophilic conditions at 37 °C to investigate whether they would be reduced or accumulated in sewage sludge depending on whether the bacteria present were able to use the SSRIs as a carbon source or not. The total SSRI concentration had a significant reduction in concentration during the anaerobic treatment process from theoretically 0.58 mg/l to 0.21 mg/l after 17 days. However, large differences in the reduction of the different compounds were found. Paroxetine and citalopram were found to be almost completely reduced at day 24 with reductions of 85% (citalopram) and 98% (paroxetine). Reductions of 32% (fluoxetine), 53% (fluvoxamine) and 38% (sertraline) indicate that these three compounds have a higher potential for accumulation. None metabolites of these compounds were found in the samples. PMID:22617041

Bergersen, Ove; Hanssen, Kine Østnes; Vasskog, Terje



Potential Health Hazards Associated with the Disposal of Sewage Sludge on Agricultural Soils in Western Oregon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field experiments were carried out to determine the extent of potential health hazards due to the persistence of fecal coliform bacteria in four Willamette Valley soils after application of anaerobically-digested sewage sludge. It was originally thought t...

C. Hagedorn



78 FR 34973 - Proposal for Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; Indiana  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan to control air pollutants from Sewage Sludge Incinerators (SSI). The Indiana Department of Environmental Management submitted...Plan meets applicable Clean Air Act requirements for subject SSI units. Once effective, this approval also makes the State...



78 FR 34918 - Direct Final Approval of Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...from ``Sewage Sludge Incinerators'' (SSI). The Indiana Department of Environmental...Air Act (Act) requirements for subject SSI units. Once effective, this approval also...111 and 129 of the Act, EPA promulgated SSI EGs and compliance schedules for the...



Nomination Guidance: 1992 Beneficial Sewage Sludge Use Awards Program for Operating Projects, Technology Development, Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides an overview of the Beneficial Sewage Sludge Use Awards Program for technology development, operating projects, and research. Categories of awards, nomination procedures and guidance for participation are included.



Nomination Guidance: Beneficial Sewage Sludge Use Awards Program for Operating Projects, Technology Development, Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the awards program is to encourage the development and use of cost-effective and environmentally safe sewage sludge beneficial use practices which recycle nutrients, improve soil conditions or otherwise conserve valuable natural resources. ...




EPA Science Inventory

The role of compost microflora in the suppression of salmonella regrowth in composted sewage sludge was investigated. Microbial inhibition studies of salmonella growth were conducted on nutrient agar, in composts that had been subjected to different temperatures in compost piles,...


F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report  

SciTech Connect

During second quarter 1992, the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) of Savannah River Plant were sampled and analyzed for constituents required quarterly by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076. None of these analytes exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria at either sewage sludge site. The F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site wells also were analyzed for a number of other constituents not required by the permit. Of these constituents, tritium exceeded the PDWS in wells FSS 2D and 3D. Lead exceeded the PDWS in well FSS 3D. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well FSS 4D, and manganese exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criterion in wells FSS 2D and 3D.

Not Available




EPA Science Inventory

Corrosion probe exposures were conducted in the Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Incinerator to determine the effects of burning low-chloride sewage sludge with municipal refuse. Probes having controlled temperature gradients were used to measure corrosion rates for exposure times up to ...


Extraction of raw sewage sludge containing iron phosphate for phosphorus recovery.  


The objective of the present study was to establish an alkali extraction technology for FePO(4)-containing sewage sludge obtained from a wastewater treatment system that includes phosphorous removal by iron electrolysis. By clarifying the extraction properties of phosphorous, organic matter, and inorganic matter, conditions for alkali extraction were optimized. As a result, it was suggested that unheated phosphorous extraction would be superior for FePO(4)-containing sewage sludge. And, extraction methods and sewage sludge properties were also compared, and the noteworthy result that extraction of metals can be suppressed to extremely low amounts with alkali extraction as compared with acid extraction was obtained. A new insight was also gained that, as compared with the use of incinerated ash reported in previous studies, alkali extraction was more efficient when raw sewage sludge was used. PMID:22921653

Sano, Akira; Kanomata, Makoto; Inoue, Hiroki; Sugiura, Norio; Xu, Kai-Qin; Inamori, Yuhei



Electrostatic Precipitator Efficiency on a Multiple Hearth Incinerator Burning Sewage Sludge,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot scale electrostatic precipitator (ESP) was evaluated for its removal performance of 23 metals and for sulfur containing particles when fitted to a multiple hearth incinerator burning sewage sludge. The small scale ESP was installed to take a slips...

R. C. Adams G. Bockol J. A. Maddox E. V. Robb



Agricultural Benefits and Environmental Changes Resulting from the Use of Digested Sewage Sludge on Field Crops.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project studied involved the possible agricultural benefits and environmental changes that would result from applying digested sewage sludge liquid to field crops. In addition, criteria are developed that can be used in selecting sites for this method...

T. D. Hinesly O. C. Braids J. E. Molina




EPA Science Inventory

An environmental and technical evaluation was conducted on the Western Lake Superior Sanitary District waste treatment plant, which uses wood chips to incinerate sewage sludge in fluidized-bed combustors. The most important environmental factors for evaluation were determined to ...


Health and Legal Implications of Sewage Sludge Compositing. Volume 1: Workshop Report. Volume 2: Position Papers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The two-volume report analyzes the pathogenic health risks associated with the production, distribution, and the use of composted sewage sludge, and recommends legal, institutional, and engineering measures to minimize such risks. Volume 2 contains nine p...

E. Epstein F. Guymont F. Passman J. Connery S. Marcus



Manual for Composting Sewage Sludge by the Beltsville Aerated-Pile Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In producing clean water from sewage, wastewater treatment plants also produce sludge. Most of the commonly used methods to dispose of this material are now considered to be either environmentally unacceptable, wasteful of energy, or very expensive. To ea...

G. B. Willson J. F. Parr E. Epstein P. B. Marsh R. L. Chaney



Evaluation of Health Hazards Associated with Solid Waste/Sewage Sludge Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes and evaluates the health hazards associated with municipal solid waste/sewage sludge composting by the windrow composting process. The occurrence and survival of pathogens, parasites, and indicator bacteria at various stages during t...

W. L. Gaby



Organic Contaminants of Emerging Concern in Land-Applied Sewage Sludge (Biosolids)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern wastewater treatment greatly ameliorates the release to the aquatic environment of pollutants present in industrial and residential discharges. How- ever, the recycling of sewage sludge (also known as \\




Effect of irrigation on the survival of total coliforms in three semiarid soils after amendment with sewage sludge.  


Sewage sludges are increasingly used in soil amendment programmes, although not without risk since they contain, among other potential hazards, high concentrations of total coliform bacteria. In this paper we have studied the effect of irrigation on the survival of total coliforms in three semiarid degraded soils with different agricultural practices. Fresh sewage sludge was added at 50 g kg(-1) soil, and incubated in both the presence and absence of irrigation. The absence of irrigation led to a sharp decrease in the number of total coliforms in all soils, with the bacteria disappearing in 40 days. Irrigation produced a substantial initial increase in the number of coliforms in the three soils, although after 80 days there was none growing in any of the soils. The results showed that there were significant differences in the survival of coliform bacteria due to the presence or absence of irrigation. PMID:17092698

García-Orenes, F; Roldán, A; Guerrero, C; Mataix-Solera, J; Navarro-Pedreño, J; Gómez, I; Mataix-Beneyto, J



Determination of dialkyldimethylammonium compounds and other cationic surfactants in sewage water and activated sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the extraction and clean-up of four groups of cationic surfactants in sewage water and activated sludge is reported. In the case of sewage water, this is based on the extraction of the acidified aqueous sample with chloroform, centrifugation, purification by back-extraction with water and clean-up by alumina column chromatography. Activated sludge was extracted with methanolic hydrochloric acid

K. Levsen; M. Emmrich; S. Behnert



Evaluation of leaching and ecotoxicological properties of sewage sludge–fly ash mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this work were the evaluation of sewage sludge stabilization by mixing with fly ash, the examination of the physicochemical properties of the produced materials and their leachates and the assessment of their environmental impact by the evaluation of the ecotoxic characteristics. Different ratios of fly ash and sewage sludge (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:6, and 1:9) were mixed

C. A. Papadimitriou; I. Haritou; P. Samaras; A. I. Zouboulis



Vermistabilization of municipal sewage sludge amended with sugarcane trash using epigeic Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts have been made in this study to stabilize the sewage sludge mixed with sugarcane trash in four different proportions: 20% (T1); 40% (T2); 60% (T3) and 80% (T4), under laboratory conditions using epigeic earthworm (Oligochaeta) Eisenia fetida. The composting potential of worm was also evaluated in 100% sewage sludge treatment (T5). The changes in chemical properties of substrate was

Surindra Suthar



Bioavailability and crop uptake of trace elements in soil columns amended with sewage sludge products  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the potential impact of long-term sewage sludge application on soil health, the equivalent of about 25 years of agronomic applications of low-metal (`EQ') sewage sludge products were made to greenhouse soil columns. After a 6-year period of `equilibration', during which time successive crops were grown with irrigation by simulated acid rain, the plant-available quantities of trace elements

M. B. McBride; B. K. Richards; T. Steenhuis



Probabilistic risk assessment for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in sewage sludge used on agricultural soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deterministic and probabilistic risk assessments were developed for commercial LAS in agricultural soil amended with sewage sludge. The procedure done according to ILSI Europe’s Conceptual Framework [Schowanek, D., Carr, R., David, H., Douben, P., Hall, J., Kirchmann, H., Patria, L., Sequi, P., Smith, S., Webb, S.F., 2004. A risk-based methodology for deriving quality standards for organic contaminants in sewage sludge

Diederik Schowanek; Helen David; Rosa Francaviglia; Jeremy Hall; Holger Kirchmann; Paul Henning Krogh; Nathalie Schraepen; Stephen Smith; Tanja Wildemann



Production and characterization of glazed tiles containing incinerated sewage sludge.  


In this article, glaze with different colorants was applied to tile specimens manufactured by incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and clay. Improvements using different amounts of colorants, and glaze components and concentrations on tile bodies were investigated. Four different proportions of clay (by weight ratio) were replaced by ISSA. Tiles of size 12 cm x 6 cm x 1 cm were made and left in an electric furnace to make biscuit tiles at 800 degrees C. Afterwards, four colorants, Fe2O3 (red), V2O5 (yellow), CoCO3 (blue), and MnO2 (purple), and four different glaze concentrations were applied on biscuit tile specimens. These specimens were later sintered into glazed tiles at 1050 degrees C. The study shows that replacement of clay by sludge ash had adverse effects on properties of tiles. Water absorption increased and bending strength reduced with increased amounts of ash. However, both water absorption and bending strength improved for glazed ash tiles. Abrasion of grazed tiles reduced noticeably from 0.001 to 0.002 g. This implies glaze can enhance abrasion resistance of tiles. Effects like lightfastness and acid-alkali resistance improved as different glazes were applied on tiles. In general, red glazed tiles showed the most stable performance, followed by blue, yellow, and purple. PMID:17433656

Lin, D F; Chang, W C; Yuan, C; Luo, H L



The fate of radionuclides in sewage sludge applied to land  

SciTech Connect

Municipal sewage sludge containing up to 12 pCi/g {sup 137}Cs, 20 pCi/g {sup 60}Co, and 300 ppm U was injected in a pasture (43 Mg/ha) and sprayed over a young pine plantation (34 Mg/ha). In the pasture, radionuclides were largely retained in the upper 15 cm of the soil, and only about 15% moved below 15 cm. Sludge rapidly infiltrated the soil on the pine plantation. One year after application, at least 85% of the {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and U were found in the upper 7 cm of the pine plantation, with only about 15% moving into the 7- to 15-cm strata. On-site total added radiation dose was 2 to 6 mrem/year. Radionuclides were not detected above background in soil solutions at {approximately}50 cm depth or in shallow down-gradient groundwater wells. Surface runoff from application areas did not have elevated radionuclide concentrations. Concentrations of these radionuclides increased slightly in vegetation on treated sites, and uranium was notably higher in earthworms. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

Boston, H.L.; Van Miegroet, H.; Larsen, I.L.; Walzer, A.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Carlton, J.E. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA))



Comparison of sewage sludge toxicity to plants and invertebrates in three different soils.  


Understanding the effect of soil type on the overall toxicity of sewage sludge is one of the most important issues concerning environmental risks associated with the sewage sludge land application. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of different soils (sandy, loamy and OECD soil) on sewage sludges toxicity in relation to plants (Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum, Sinapis alba) and an invertebrate species (Heterocypris incongruens). The most evident negative influence of sewage sludges on root growth was observed in the case of OECD soil. The EC(50) values determined on the basis of the root growth inhibition of all tested plants were in the range 0.1-6.4%, 0.03-9.4% and 6.6-22.1% (% of sewage sludgekg(-1) soil) for OECD, sandy and loamy soil, respectively. Soil type also affects the sewage sludge toxicity in relation to H. incongruens. The LC(50) (mortality) values ranged from 0.26% to 11.5% depending on the sludge tested. For EC(50) (growth inhibition) values ranged from 10.7% to 36.2%. PMID:21236465

Oleszczuk, Patryk; Hollert, Henner



Utilization of municipal sewage sludge as additives for the production of eco-cement.  


The effects of using dried sewage sludge as additive on cement property in the process of clinker burning were investigated in this paper. The eco-cement samples were prepared by adding 0.50-15.0% of dried sewage sludge to unit raw meal, and then the mixtures were burned at 1450 °C for 2 h. The results indicated that the major components in the eco-cement clinkers were similar to those in ordinary Portland cement. Although the C(2)S phase formation increased with the increase of sewage sludge content, it was also found that the microstructure of the mixture containing 15.0% sewage sludge in raw meal was significantly different and that a larger amount of pores were distributed in the clinker. Moreover, all the eco-cement pastes had a longer initial setting time and final setting time than those of plain cement paste, which increased as the sewage sludge content in the raw meal increased. All the eco-cement pastes had lower early flexural strengths, which increased as the sewage sludge content increased, while the compressive strengths decreased slightly. However, this had no significant effect on all the strengths at later stages. Furthermore, the leaching concentrations of all the types of eco-cement clinkers met the standard of Chinese current regulatory thresholds. PMID:22386820

Lin, Yiming; Zhou, Shaoqi; Li, Fuzhen; Lin, Yixiao



Application of ionizing radiation to the treatment of waste waters and sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the treatment of waste water and sewage sludge by ionizing radiation, ; opinion is varied as to its competitiveness with conventional methods. Past ; studies in this connection are reviewed. If polluting matter in sewage is ; irradiated and is changed to that of easy biological dissociation, it can lead to ; decrease of BOD or COD. To a;taln




Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available



Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)





Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This special edition of the journal is devoted entirely to the 2001 workshop that USEPA and USDA co-hosted on Emerging Pathogens and Disinfection Technologies for Sewage Sludge and Animal Manure. The purpose of the workshop was to review, discuss, and evaluate the effectiveness of current sewage slu...



Microsoft Academic Search

High investments, high dumping costs and high electrical energy consumption turn waste water treatment in small sewage plants an expensive process. Therefore, the University of Hohenheim and the company Thermo-System have developed a fully automatic low temperature solar drying plant allowing further stabilization and volume reduction of sewage sludge by continuous mixing and aerating. To test the potential of the

M. Bux; R. Baumann; S. Quadt; J. Pinnekamp; W. Mühlbauer




EPA Science Inventory

The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tran...


Restoration of acidic mine spoils with sewage sludge: I revegetation  

SciTech Connect

An average of 685 dry metric ton/ha of sewage sludge containing a mean of 167, 829, 970, 448, 83, 610, and 4,819 kg/ha of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively, was incorporated into acidic strip mine spoils at the Palzo tract in southern Illinois. In April 1976, 16 combinations of forages were planted on seven field sites on the Palzo tract. At the end of the first growing season percent cover of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), other perennial grasses, and legumes were measured. Other parameters determined were: sludge-spoil complex 0.1N HCl extractable Cd, Cu, Cr, Zn, Mn, Ni, and Pb, pH, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, and plant tissue Cd, Cu, Cr, Zn, Mn, Ni, and Pb. The initial pH of the spoil was approximately 3.0 and applications of sludge increased mean pH of sites to 4.4 to 5.5. The data indicated that a 65 and 80% cover at the end of the first growing season was achieved when the pH was 5.1 and 5.5, respectively. After the three growing seasons it was concluded that reed canary-grass (Phalaris araundinacea L.), switchgrass (Panicum vergattum L.), and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) were the three most successful species established. Between the end of growing seasons one and three, the three grasses increased percent areal cover from 27 to 94, 14.5 to 73, and 36.5 to 63.5%, respectively. Minimum pH tolerated by roots of reed canarygrass, switchgrass, and orchardgrass was 3.5, 3.7, and 4.2, respectively. The grasses were established in the presence of potentially toxic quantities of Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

Stucky, D.J.; Bauer, J.H.; Lindsey, T.C.



Field and laboratory evaluation of soil quality changes resulting from injection of liquid sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil quality changes resulting from repeated or single injection of liquid municipal sewage sludge were evaluated in terraced cropland in eastern Nebraska, USA. Differences in soil properties among sampling locations were explained primarily by two factors, landscape position and sludge injection. Selected chemical properties (pH, EC, NO3–N) did not generally differ between landscape positions, but soil organic matter (organic C

S Stamatiadis; J. W Doran; T Kettler



Keratinolytic fungi in sewage sludge applied to devastated urban soil. A preliminary experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The qualitative and quantitative (q\\/q) changes of keratinolytic fungi in soil mixtures with added sewage sludge were examined during a preliminary reclamation experiment. Sludge before land application was characterized by the weak growth of keratinolytic fungi. In devastated urban soil, abundant fungal growth was observed. Over a 19?month reclamation period, decreasing frequency of Chrysosporium concurrent with the enrichment of the

Krzysztof Ulfig; Marek Korcz



Molybdenum, Sulfur, and Other Trace Elements in Farm Soils and Forages After Sewage Sludge Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farm application of sewage sludge products (biosolids) can potentially increase soil concentrations of macronutrients [especially phosphorus (P)], micronutrients [including sulfur (S), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo)] and heavy metals. In the present study, sampling and elemental analysis by ICP of soils and forages from 13 farms in Upstate New York that had applied sludge showed some elements to be

M. B. McBride; J. Cherney



Influence of earthworms and leaf litter on edaphic variables in sewage-sludge-treated soil microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 48 greenhouse soil microcosms were established and treated with combinations of sewage sludge, Acer saccharum leaves, and the earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris. The microcosms were incubated at constant moisture for 110 days. Samples were then taken and analysed for sludge depth, organic-matter content, and waterstable soil aggregates. Weights of surface leaves and weights and numbers

W. E. Hamilton; D. L. Dindal



Study the surface color of sewage sludge mortar at high temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, with the help of digital image analysis method, the surface color changes of sludge ash mortar specimens at various elevated temperatures are studied. Moreover, the influences of temperatures on surface color changes of mortars are investigated. Selected portions of cement are replaced by three different amounts of sewage sludge ash and six varied temperatures are then assigned.

H. L. Luo; D. F. Lin



Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning sewage sludge dewatering techniques and equipment in industrial and municipal waste treatment systems. Topics include dewatering processes and control, activated sludge systems, fluidized bed systems, biological treatment, heavy metal recovery, and economic aspects. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)




Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) in Sewage Sludges, Soils and Sediments: Analytical Determination and Environmental Safety Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear Alkylbenzenesulphonates (LAS), a major anionic surfactant used in laundry products, can be measured specifically in the environment by instrumental analysis. In addition to a desulphonation-gas chromatography approach, a method based on high performance liquid chromatography has been developed. The main features of the methods are outlined, and LAS concentrations measured in sewage sludge, sediments and sludge amended soils are

H. De Henau; E. Mathijs; W. D. Hopping



Method for Thermal Design of Paddle Dryers: Application to Municipal Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental methodology was developed to improve the energy design of paddle dryers for sewage sludges. A laboratory batch dryer with a vertical agitator has been especially designed and instrumented to determine the heat flux densities. To determine the drying kinetic and the evaporation rates, the specific heat and the total heat of desorption of the sludge were measured using

P. Arlabosse; S. Chavez; D. Lecomte



Forest Land Application of Sewage Sludge on the Savannah River Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1980, a sewage sludge application study was initiated on the Savannah River Plant to evaluate the effects of sludge additions on nutrient cycling processes in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forest ecosystems and to determine whether or not such additio...

C. E. Davis



Sewage sludge-soil interactions as measured by plant and soil chemical composition. [Lactuca sativa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of sewage sludge on agricultural lands requires prior knowledge of the interactions among sludge, soil, and plant. A greenhouse experiment was conducted on three mineralogically different soils: a limed, volcanic ash-derived Andept (Akaka series, thixotropic, isomesic Typic Hydrandepts), and alkaline Vertisol (Lualualei series, very-fine, montmorillonitic, isohyperthermic Typic Chromusterts) and a limed, manganiferous Oxisol (Wahiawa series, clayey, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic

N. V. Hue; J. A. Silva; R. Arifin



Using bioleaching to remove metals from sewage sludge intended for land application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of heavy metal contaminants from sewage sludge is a necessity before it is used as an agricultural fertilizer (biosolid), due to environmental concerns and municipal, provincial and federal regulations. The bioleaching method is recommended as an economical and effective process for the removal of heavy metals from the Ashbridges Bay Treatment Plant (ABTP) sludge, some of them with concentrations

Jun Nie



Near-bottom pelagic bacteria at a deep-water sewage sludge disposal site  

SciTech Connect

The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. Mixed cultures and bacterial isolates obtained from water overlying sediment core samples collected at the deep-water (2,500 m) municipal sewage disposal site were tested for the ability to grow under in situ conditions of temperature and pressure. The responses of cultures collected at a DWD-106 station heavily impacted by sewage sludge were compared with those of samples collected from a station at the same depth which was not contaminated by sewage sludge. Significant differences were observed in the ability of mixed bacterial cultures and isolates from the two sites to grow under deep-sea pressure and temperature conditions. The levels of sludge contamination were established by enumerating Clostridium perfringens, a sewage indicator bacterium, in sediment samples from the two sites. (Copyright (c) 1993, American Society for Microbiology.)

Takizawa, M.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.



Organic matter transformations and kinetics during sewage sludge composting in a two-stage system.  


The use of different proportions of rape straw and grass as amendments in the composting of dewatered sewage sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was tested in a two-stage system (first stage, an aerated bioreactor and second stage, a periodically turned windrow). The composition of feedstock affected the temperature and organic matter degradation in the bioreactor and the formation of humic substances, especially humic acids (HA), during compost maturation in the windrow. The total HA content (the sum of labile and stable HA) increased according to first-order kinetics, whereas labile HA content was constant and did not exceed 12% of total HA. ?logK of 1.0-1.1 indicated that HA was of R-type, indicating a low degree of humification. Temperature during composting was the main factor affecting polymerization of fulvic acids to HA and confirmed the value of the degree of polymerization, which increased only when thermophilic conditions were obtained. PMID:21978622

Kulikowska, Dorota; Klimiuk, Ewa



The effect of sewage sludge on salt-marsh denitrifying bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge was applied biweekly to the soil surface of a shortSpartina alterniflora marsh in order to evaluate the marsh’s ability to assimilate the sludge nitrogen. After nine months there was a significant\\u000a decrease of the denitrification potential in the first 15cm of the soil profile. In laboratory experiments the sludge was\\u000a shown to have an immediate inhibitory effect on

Barry F. Sherr; William J. Payne



Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge with a hybrid process of low pressure wet oxidation and nanofiltration.  


Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge will become increasingly important within the next decades due to depletion of mineral phosphorus resources. In this work a new process concept was investigated, which aims at realising phosphorus recovery in a synergistic way with the overall sewage sludge treatment scheme. This process combines a low pressure wet oxidation for sewage sludge decomposition as well as phosphorus dissolution and a nanofiltration process to separate phosphorus from heavy metals and obtain a clean diluted phosphoric acid, from which phosphorus can be recovered as clean fertiliser. It was shown that this process concept is feasible for sewage sludge for wastewater treatment plants that apply enhanced biological removal or precipitation with alumina salts for phosphorus removal. The critical parameter for phosphorus dissolution in the low pressure wet oxidation process is the iron concentration, while in the nanofiltration multi-valent cations play a predominant role. In total, a phosphorus recovery of 54% was obtained for an exemplary wastewater treatment plant. Costs of the entire process are in the same range as conventional sewage sludge disposal, with the benefit being phosphorus recovery and reduced emission of greenhouse gases due to avoidance of sludge incineration. PMID:22325934

Blöcher, Christoph; Niewersch, Claudia; Melin, Thomas



F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, fourth quarter 1991  

SciTech Connect

Eleven sewage sludge application sites at the Savannah River Site (SRS) were originally the subject of a research program, begun in 1980, using domestic sewage sludge to reclaim borrow pits and to enhance forest productivity at SRS. Currently, the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites are the only remaining active sludge application sites. During fourth quarter 1991, samples from the four monitoring wells at the F-Area site (FSS series) and three monitoring wells at the H-Area site (HSS series) were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, and certain pesticides, herbicides, toxic metals, water quality indicators, and radionuclides. This report describes monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standards (PDWS) and the SRS flagging criteria.

Thompson, C.Y.



Ecotoxicity, phytotoxicity and extractability of heavy metals from different stabilised sewage sludges.  


The presence of heavy metals in the sludges produced in wastewater treatment plants restricts their use for agricultural purposes. This study compares different types of sludges (aerobic, anaerobic, unstabilised and sludge from a waste stabilisation pond) in order to assess the extractability of heavy metals using simple extraction, water and DTPA. The stabilisation treatment undergone by the sludges influenced the heavy metals extractability. The least mineralised sludges (unstabilised and aerobic) showed higher metal extractability. The sewage sludges were subjected to chemical characterisation and toxicity testing (ecotoxicity and phytotoxicity assays) in absence of substrate, to provide a preliminary assessment of their suitability for land application. The ecotoxicity assays confirmed that no sludge constituted a hazardous waste. The sludge extracts had significant adverse effect on the germination index (GI) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and cress (Lepidium sativum L.), a fact which indicates that some characteristics affected root growth. PMID:16427170

Fuentes, Ana; Lloréns, Mercedes; Sáez, José; Aguilar, M A Isabel; Pérez-Marín, Ana Belén; Ortuño, Juan F; Meseguer, Victor F



Microwave Thermal Hydrolysis Of Sewage Sludge As A Pretreatment Stage For Anaerobic Digestion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article focuses on the effects of microwave thermal hydrolysis on sewage sludge anaerobic digestion. Volatile suspended solid (VSS) and COD solubilization of treated sludge were investigated. It was found that the microwave hydrolysis provided a rapid and efficient process to release organics from sludge. The increase of organic dissolution ratio was not obvious when holding time was over 5 min. The effect of the VSS solubilization was mainly dependent on temperature. The highest value of VSS dissolving ratio, 36.4%, was obtained at 170 °C for 30 min. COD dissolving ratio was about 25% at 170 °C. BMP test of excess sludge and mixture of primary and excess sludge proved the increase of methane production. Total biogas production of microwave treated mixture sludge increased by 12.9% to 20.2% over control after 30 days digestion. For excess sludge, biogas production was 11.1% to 25.9% higher than untreated sludge.

Qiao, W.; Wang, W.; Xun, R.



Removal mechanisms and kinetics of trace tetracycline by two types of activated sludge treating freshwater sewage and saline sewage.  


Understanding the removal mechanisms and kinetics of trace tetracycline by activated sludge is critical to both evaluation of tetracycline elimination in sewage treatment plants and risk assessment/management of tetracycline released to soil environment due to the application of biosolids as fertilizer. Adsorption is found to be the primary removal mechanism while biodegradation, volatilization, and hydrolysis can be ignored in this study. Adsorption kinetics was well described by pseudo-second-order model. Faster adsorption rate (k? = 2.04 × 10(-2)?g min(-1) ?g(-1)) and greater adsorption capacity (qe = 38.8 ?g g(-1)) were found in activated sludge treating freshwater sewage. Different adsorption rate and adsorption capacity resulted from chemical properties of sewage matrix rather than activated sludge surface characteristics. The decrease of tetracycline adsorption in saline sewage was mainly due to Mg(2+) which significantly reduced adsorption distribution coefficient (Kd) from 12,990 ± 260 to 4,690 ± 180 L kg(-1). Species-specific adsorption distribution coefficients followed the order of Kd???>Kd???>Kd???. Contribution of zwitterionic tetracycline to the overall adsorption was >90 % in the actual pH range in aeration tank. Adsorption of tetracycline in a wide range of temperature (10 to 35 °C) followed the Freundlich adsorption isotherm well. PMID:23054779

Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong



Occurrence, partition and removal of pharmaceuticals in sewage water and sludge during wastewater treatment.  


During 8 sampling campaigns carried out over a period of two years, 72 samples, including influent and effluent wastewater, and sludge samples from three conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), were analyzed to assess the occurrence and fate of 43 pharmaceutical compounds. The selected pharmaceuticals belong to different therapeutic classes, i.e. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, lipid modifying agents (fibrates and statins), psychiatric drugs (benzodiazepine derivative drugs and antiepileptics), histamine H2-receptor antagonists, antibacterials for systemic use, beta blocking agents, beta-agonists, diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and anti-diabetics. The obtained results showed the presence of 32 target compounds in wastewater influent and 29 in effluent, in concentrations ranging from low ng/L to a few ?g/L (e.g. NSAIDs). The analysis of sludge samples showed that 21 pharmaceuticals accumulated in sewage sludge from all three WWTPs in concentrations up to 100 ng/g. This indicates that even good removal rates obtained in aqueous phase (i.e. comparison of influent and effluent wastewater concentrations) do not imply degradation to the same extent. For this reason, the overall removal was estimated as a sum of all the losses of a parent compound produces by different mechanisms of chemical and physical transformation, biodegradation and sorption to solid matter. The target compounds showed very different removal rates and no logical pattern in behaviour even if they belong to the same therapeutic groups. What is clear is that the elimination of most of the substances is incomplete and improvements of the wastewater treatment and subsequent treatments of the produced sludge are required to prevent the introduction of these micro-pollutants in the environment. PMID:21167546

Jelic, Aleksandra; Gros, Meritxell; Ginebreda, Antoni; Cespedes-Sánchez, Raquel; Ventura, Francesc; Petrovic, Mira; Barcelo, Damia



Alteration of a Salt Marsh Bacterial Community by Fertilization with Sewage Sludge  

PubMed Central

The effects of long-term fertilization with sewage sludge on the aerobic, chemoheterotrophic portion of a salt marsh bacterial community were examined. The study site in the Great Sippewissett Marsh, Cape Cod, Mass., consisted of experimental plots that were treated with different amounts of commercial sewage sludge fertilizer or with urea and phosphate. The number of CFUs, percentage of mercury- and cadmium-resistant bacteria, and percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were all increased in the sludge-fertilized plots. Preliminary taxonomic characterization showed that sludge fertilization markedly altered the taxonomic distribution and reduced diversity within both the total heterotrophic and the mercury-resistant communities. In control plots, the total heterotrophic community was fairly evenly distributed among taxa and the mercury-resistant community was dominated by Pseudomonas spp. In sludge-fertilized plots, both the total and mercury-resistant communities were dominated by a single Cytophaga sp.

Hamlett, Nancy V.



A spatial multicriteria decision making tool to define the best agricultural areas for sewage sludge amendment.  


Sewage sludge amendment on agricultural soils has recently become a practice of heightened interest, as a consequence of sewage sludge production increase. This practice has benefits to soil and crops, however it may also lead to environmental contamination, depending on the characteristics of the fields. In order to define the suitability of the different agricultural fields to receive sewage sludge, a spatial tool is proposed. This tool, elaborated in GIS platform, aggregates different criteria regarding human exposure and environmental contamination. The spatial tool was applied to a case study in the region of Catalonia (NE of Spain). Within the case study, each step of the tool development is detailed. The results show that the studied region has different suitability degrees, being the appropriate areas sufficient for receiving the total amount of sewage sludge produced. The sensitivity analysis showed that "groundwater contamination", "distance to urban areas", "metals concentration in soil" and "crop type" are the most important criteria of the evaluation. The developed tool successfully tackled the problem, providing a comprehensive procedure to evaluate agricultural land suitability to receive sewage sludge as an organic fertilizer. Also, the tool implementation gives insights to decision makers, guiding them to more confident decisions, based on an extensive group of criteria. PMID:21982027

Passuello, Ana; Cadiach, Oda; Perez, Yolanda; Schuhmacher, Marta



Modeling of the reburning process using sewage sludge-derived syngas  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasification provides an attractive method for sewage sludges treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasification generates a fuel gas (syngas) which can be used as a reburning fuel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reburning potential of sewage sludge gasification gases was defined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical simulation of co-combustion of syngases in coal fired boiler has been done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculation shows that analysed syngases can provide higher than 80% reduction of NO{sub x}. - Abstract: Gasification of sewage sludge can provide clean and effective reburning fuel for combustion applications. The motivation of this work was to define the reburning potential of the sewage sludge gasification gas (syngas). A numerical simulation of the co-combustion process of syngas in a hard coal-fired boiler was done. All calculations were performed using the Chemkin programme and a plug-flow reactor model was used. The calculations were modelled using the GRI-Mech 2.11 mechanism. The highest conversions for nitric oxide (NO) were obtained at temperatures of approximately 1000-1200 K. The combustion of hard coal with sewage sludge-derived syngas reduces NO emissions. The highest reduction efficiency (>90%) was achieved when the molar flow ratio of the syngas was 15%. Calculations show that the analysed syngas can provide better results than advanced reburning (connected with ammonia injection), which is more complicated process.

Werle, Sebastian, E-mail: [Institute of Thermal Technology, Silesian University of Technology at Gliwice, 44-100 Gliwice, Konarskiego 22 (Poland)



[Distribution of phosphorus fractions and bio-available phosphorus forms and their relationships in sewage sludge].  


To investigate the potential bioavailability and mobility of phosphorus (P) in sewage sludge, the Standards, Measurements and Testing (SMT) programme was employed to characterize the distribution of P in sewage sludge from different treatment stage of Jiangxinzhou WWTP. The results showed that the inorganic phosphorus (IP), accounting for 61%, was the predominant fraction of total phosphorus (TP), while the organic phosphorus (OP) in TP was only 15% to 35%. And the IP mainly distributed in the non-apatite inorganic phosphorus (NAIP) fraction, accounting for more than 60%. It suggested the high potential bioavailability and mobility of P in sewage sludge. The significant positive correlations between the contents of TP and the NAIP + OP indicated that the determination of TP could be used to estimate the potential bioavailability of P in sewage sludge. The correlations between the P fractions and the physical-chemical characteristics suggested that the LOI and pH would influence significantly on the potential mobility of P in sewage sludge. PMID:18763507

Wang, Chao; Feng, Shi-long; Wang, Pei-fang; Li, Xiao-chen; Zou, Li-min




EPA Science Inventory

The workshop report summarizes the current research and understanding about transfer of contaminants from sewage sludge to the human food chain via land application. As such it addresses the important parameters in the system which can alter the rate and degree of movement of con...


Microbiological Hazards Resulting from Application of Dairy Sewage Sludge: Effects on Occurrence of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to (1) examine the extent of bacterial contamination of soils subjected to exposure to dairy sewage sludge applied to soils as measured by determination of number of bacteria from the Escherichia coli family and (2) determine the effects of dairy sewage sludge and straw on populations of other microbial species present in gray–brown podzolic

Stefania Jezierska-Tys; Magdalena Fr?c; Jerzy Tys



Green energy at cement kiln in Cyprus—Use of sewage sludge as a conventional fuel substitute  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the results of a study concerning the utilization of sewage sludge as an alternative fuel at cement kilns, covering all process, health and safety and environmental matters, are presented. Trials have started in Vassiliko Cement Plant (Cyprus), on how to treat and utilize wet sewage sludge, of moisture content 65–70%, as an alternative fuel at the cement

A. Zabaniotou; C. Theofilou



The use of sewage sludge and horticultural waste to develop artificial soil for plant cultivation in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse pot experiments were performed with Ipomoea aquatica (Kang Kong) to evaluate artificial soil produced from poor fertility subsoil, horticultural compost, and sewage sludge. The addition of horticultural compost and sewage sludge to subsoil substantially improved plant growth, improved the physical properties of subsoil and enriched subsoil by essential nutrients for plants. The effect was enhanced when the two ingredients

O. Stabnikova; W.-K. Goh; H.-B. Ding; J.-H. Tay; J.-Y. Wang



Influence of sewage sludge application on soil properties and on the distribution and availability of heavy metal fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of sewage sludge application on some soil properties and on the growth of wheat and corn plants were studied with pot experiments. The distribution of heavy metals among the various soil fractions and their availability to plants were also investigated in relation to soil pH. The results showed that sewage sludge application significantly ifluenced pH, organic matter content,

C. D. Tsadilas; Theodora Matsi; N. Barbayiannis; D. Dimoyiannis



40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Llll of... - Summary of Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration...Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a Report Due date Contents...beginning and ending dates of report. 4. If a performance...the test, including any new operating limits...



Degradation of olestra, a non caloric fat replacer, by microorganisms isolated from activated sludge and other environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olestra is a non-caloric fat substitute consisting of fatty acids esterified to sucrose. Previous work has shown that olestra is not metabolized in the gut and is excreted unmodified in human feces. To better understand the fate of olestra in engineered and natural environments, aerobic bacteria and fungi that degrade olestra were enriched from sewage sludges, soils and municipal solid

David M. Lee; Roy M. Ventullo



Degradation of ethinyl estradiol by nitrifying activated sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation of ethinyl estradiol (EE2) by nitrifying activated sludge was studied with micro-organisms grown in a reactor with feedback of sludge fed with only a mineral salts medium containing ammonium as the sole energy source. Ammonium was oxidised by this sludge at a rate of 50 mg NH4+ g?1 DW h?1. This activated sludge was also capable of degrading EE2

J. S. Vader; C. G. van Ginkel; F. M. G. M. Sperling; J. de Jong; W. de Boer; J. S. de Graaf; M. van der Most; P. G. W. Stokman



Anaerobic co-digestion of fruit and vegetable wastes and primary sewage sludge.  


Anaerobic co-digestion of fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW) and primary sewage sludge was carried out in a fed-batch reactor having a volume of 21 under ambient temperature conditions. Three different proportions (25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 in terms ofVS) of fruit and vegetable wastes and primary sewage sludge were studied for an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.0 g VS/ l.d and with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 25 days. The reactor with 75% FVW and 25% sewage sludge (in terms of VS) showed better performance in terms of VS reduction and biogas yield when compared to other two proportions. PMID:21114101

Velmurugan, B; Arathy, E C; Hemalatha, R; Philip, Jerry Elsa; Alwar Ramanujam, R



Pulverized fuel ash products solve the sewage sludge problems of the wastewater industry  

SciTech Connect

Sewage sludge recycling has become one of the predominant problems of the water industry. Not all types of sewage sludges are able to be recycled to farm land or into composting processes. Pulverized fuel ash is used as a major ingredient in a product called Rhenipal which is used to stabilize sewage sludge for recycling into a material for land reclamation, as a soil conditioner, as cover material for landfill and as a landfill engineering material. This article deals with the results achieved when applying rhenipal in a post-stabilization process to prepare landfill engineering material. The process is currently developed further and can be operated in a pre-stabilization mode, which will further improve the economical results shown for the post-stabilization method in this paper.

Dirk, G. [Rhenipal UK Ltd., Birkenhead (United Kingdom)



Modeling of the reburning process using sewage sludge-derived syngas.  


Gasification of sewage sludge can provide clean and effective reburning fuel for combustion applications. The motivation of this work was to define the reburning potential of the sewage sludge gasification gas (syngas). A numerical simulation of the co-combustion process of syngas in a hard coal-fired boiler was done. All calculations were performed using the Chemkin programme and a plug-flow reactor model was used. The calculations were modelled using the GRI-Mech 2.11 mechanism. The highest conversions for nitric oxide (NO) were obtained at temperatures of approximately 1000-1200K. The combustion of hard coal with sewage sludge-derived syngas reduces NO emissions. The highest reduction efficiency (>90%) was achieved when the molar flow ratio of the syngas was 15%. Calculations show that the analysed syngas can provide better results than advanced reburning (connected with ammonia injection), which is more complicated process. PMID:22079251

Werle, Sebastian



Co-digestion of intermediate landfill leachate and sewage sludge as a method of leachate utilization.  


This study examines the co-digestion of intermediate landfill leachate and sewage sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Application of leachate as a co-fermentation component increased the concentrations of soluble organic compounds (expressed as total organic carbon), ammonium nitrogen, and alkalinity in the digester influents. The biogas yield obtained from the co-fermentation of a 20:1 sewage sludge: intermediate leachate mixture was 1.30 m(3) per kg of removed volatile solids (VS), while that from a 10:1 mixture was 1.24 m(3) per kg of removed VS. These values exceeded the biogas yield for the sludge alone by 13% and 8%, respectively. The leachate addition influenced the proportion of methane to a minor extent. Increased methane yields of 16.9% and 6.2% per kg of removed VS were found for the two sewage sluge:intermediate leachate mixtures, respectively. PMID:21167708

Montusiewicz, A; Lebiocka, M



Removal of antibiotics from water using sewage sludge- and waste oil sludge-derived adsorbents.  


Sewage sludge- and waste oil sludge-derived materials were tested as adsorbents of pharmaceuticals from diluted water solutions. Simultaneous retention of eleven antibiotics plus two anticonvulsants was examined via batch adsorption experiments. Virgin and exhausted adsorbents were examined via thermal and FTIR analyses to elucidate adsorption mechanisms. Maximum adsorption capacities for the 6 materials tested ranged from 80 to 300 mg/g, comparable to the adsorption capacities of antibiotics on various activated carbons (200-400 mg/g) reported in the literature. The performance was linked to surface reactivity, polarity and porosity. A large volume of pores similar in size to the adsorbate molecules with hydrophobic carbon-based origin of pore walls was indicated as an important factor promoting the separation process. Moreover, the polar surface of an inorganic phase in the adsorbents attracted the functional groups of target molecules. The presence of reactive alkali metals promoted reaction with acidic groups, formation of salts and their precipitation in the pore system. PMID:22673337

Ding, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Seredych, Mykola; Bandosz, Teresa J



A study on removal characteristics of copper from aqueous solution by sewage sludge and pomace ashes.  


In the present work, the abilities of sewage sludge and pomace ashes to remove copper (Cu(2+)) ions from aqueous solutions are compared. Batch adsorption experiments were performed in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of these materials. Effect of contact time, solution pH, ash concentration and temperature on the removal of Cu(2+) was investigated. The results of batch equilibrium studies showed that the solution pH was the key factor affecting the adsorption characteristics. In general, the amount of Cu removed increased as the solid concentration and pH increased, and then it remained constant over a wide pH region. The adsorption test of applying sewage sludge and pomace ashes into synthetic wastewater revealed that the adsorption data of these materials for copper ions were better fitted to the Langmuir isotherm since the correlation coefficients for the Langmuir isotherm were higher than that for the Freundlich isotherm. The estimated maximum capacities of copper adsorbed by sewage sludge and pomace ashes were 5.71 and 6.98 mg g(-1), respectively. Experimental results indicated that the adsorption was favorable at higher pH and higher temperature. Values of DeltaG degrees ranging from -4.64 to -5.13 kcal mol(-1) for sewage sludge ash and from -4.97 to -5.53 kcal mol(-1) for pomace ash suggest that the adsorption reaction is a physical process enhanced by the electrostatic effect. The values of DeltaH degrees and DeltaS degrees are, respectively, 4.27 kcal mol(-1) and 30.6 cal K(-1)mol(-1) for sewage sludge ash and 4.33 kcal mol(-1) and 31.3 cal K(-1)mol(-1) for pomace ash. The mechanisms of copper removal by these materials included adsorption and precipitation. The sewage sludge and pomace ashes are shown to be effective adsorbents for this metal. PMID:17822842

Bouzid, J; Elouear, Z; Ksibi, M; Feki, M; Montiel, A



Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in biosolids\\/sewage sludge: the interface between analytical chemistry and regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern sanitary practices result in large volumes of human waste, as well as domestic and industrial sewage, being collected\\u000a and treated at common collection points, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In recognition of the growing use of sewage\\u000a sludge as fertilizers and soil amendments, and the scarcity of current data regarding the chemical constituents in sewage\\u000a sludge, the US National Research

T. L. Jones-Lepp; Rick Stevens



Impact of chemically contaminated sewage sludge on the collard arthropod community  

SciTech Connect

Stress effects on a terrestrial arthropod community were evident in a study of collards grown in soil amended with chemically contaminated sewage sludge. Plant growth in the contaminated sludge was significantly reduced compared with growth in plots treated with relatively uncontaminated sludge from two small towns or with mature alone. Population densities of major arthropod taxa tended to be lower in plots of contaminated sludge than they were in uncontaminated sludge and manure plots. Species richness and diversity were also reduced in contaminated-sludge plots compared with those of uncontaminated sludge and manure treatments. In general, few differences were observed in plant growth and arthropod numbers between the uncontaminated-sludge treatment, or uncontaminated sludge treated with cadmium or with the insecticide dieldrin. Because cadmium and dieldrin were applied at dosages of cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) found in the contaminated sludge, results suggested that these two toxins were not responsible for the effects on plants and arthropods observed in the contaminated-sludge treatment. Results of this study indicated the potential for sludge-borne contaminants to suppress growth in crop plants and reduce abundance of their associated arthropods.

Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.; Lisk, D.J.



Guidance for writing permits for the use or disposal of sewage sludge. Draft report  

SciTech Connect

Section 405(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) directs the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop regulations containing guidelines for the use and disposal of sewage sludge. On February 19th, 1993, EPA published final regulations at 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 503 as the culmination of a major effort to develop technical standards in response to Section 405(d). These regulations govern three sewage sludge use and disposal practices: land application, surface disposal, and incineration. A key element in EPA's implementation of the Part 503 regulations is educating Agency and State personnel about these new requirements. Although the regulations are generally directly enforceable against all persons involved in the use and disposal of sewage sludge, they will also be implemented through permits issued to treatment works treating domestic sewage as defined in 40 CFR 122.22. Thus, the primary focus of the manual is to assist permit writers in incorporating the Part 503 requirements into permits; it serves as an update to the Guidance for Writing Case-by-Case Permit Conditions for Municipal Sewage Sludge (PB91-145508/HDM).

Not Available



Analytical and spectroscopic characterization of humic acids extracted from sewage sludge, manure, and worm compost  

SciTech Connect

Humic acids extracted from sewage sludges, manure, and worm compost have been characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Meaningful differences in the composition were revealed by FTIR, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C NMR, and visible spectroscopies. These differences allow a differentiation among the products depending on the source from which they were obtained. Humic acid extracted from sewage sludges contains the highest percentage of aliphatic carbon, associated with polysaccharides and proteinaceous structures, and has characteristics close to those of aquatic humic acids. On the other hand, humic acids from manure and worm compost are similar to the humic acids originating from soil.

Deiana, S.; Gessa, C.; Manunza, B.; Seeber, R. (Universita di Sassari (Italy)); Rausa, R. (Eniricerche S.p.A., Milanese (Italy))



Immobilization of selected heavy metals in sewage sludge by natural zeolites.  


This contribution presents the possibility of application of natural sorbent (Transcarpathian clinoptylolite (KL)) for immobilization of selected heavy metals in the sewage sludge. The influence of ion-exchange parameters (e.g. time, amount of zeolite) were discussed. Process of immobilization was performed using a static method (Batch). It was found that best possible conditions for immobilization of heavy metal ions were as follows: zeolite fraction 0.7-1.0mm, 5h of shaking, zeolite/sewage sludge ratio 2/98. PMID:18083511

Kosobucki, Przemys?aw; Kruk, Magdalena; Buszewski, Bogus?aw



Sewage sludge application effects on runoff water quality in a semiarid grassland  

SciTech Connect

One of the concerns of land application of sewage sludge (also referred to as biosolids) to rangeland is its effect on the amount and quality of runoff water. In this study, we applied three treatments consisting of 0, 22, and 41 Mg ha{sup -1} of municipal sewage sludge to Larim gravelly sandy loam (Ustollic Argiustoll) and Altvan sandy loam (Aridic Argiustoll) soils in paired plots on two slope gradients (8 and 15%). We used a one-time application of simulated rainfall for 30 min at a rate of 100 mm h{sup -1} and collected and analyzed the runoff. Results are described. 22 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Harris-Pierce, R.L.; Redente, E.F.; Barbarick, K.A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)



[Principal physicochemical properties of artificial soil composed of sewage sludge stabilized by fly ash].  


The pH, nutrients and heavy metals of stabilized sewage sludge were investigated by mixing municipal sewage sludge with alkaline fly ash and mine tailing. The results indicate that water-holding capacity of artificial soil III (FA : SS = 1 : 1) and II (FA : SS = 2 : 1) treatments were significantly higher than that of CK (brown meadow soil), while that of the IV (FA : SS = 1 : 2) treatment was similar to CK; The nutrients contents (organic matter, N, P, K) of stabilized sewage sludge were up to a high fertilizer level. Moreover, with decrease of the ratio of fly ash to sewage sludge, the nutrient content of artificial soils increased. Except total Ni content of III (FA : SS = 1 : 1) treatment was high (187.67 mg x kg(-1)), Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cr for all artificial soil treatments were all significant lower than control standards for pollutants in sludges and fly ash from Agricultural use (GB 4284-84, GB 8173-87). PMID:18828402

Zhang, Hong-Ling; Sun, Li-Na; Sun, Tie-Heng



[Effect of different sludge retention time (SRT) on municipal sewage sludge bioleaching continuous plug flow reaction system].  


A plug-flow bio-reactor of 700 L working volume for sludge bioleaching was used in this study. The reactor was divided into six sections along the direction of the sludge movement. Fourteen days of continuous operation of sludge bioleaching with different sludge retention time (SRT) under the condition of 1.2 m3 x h(-1) aeration amount and 4 g x L(-1) of microbial nutritional substance was conducted. During sludge bioleaching, the dynamic changes of pH, DO, dewaterability (specific resistance to filtration, SRF) of sewage sludge in different sections were investigated in the present study. The results showed that sludge pH were maintained at 5.00, 3.00, 2.90, 2.70, 2.60 and 2.40 from section 1 to section 6 and the SRF of sludge was drastically decreased from initial 0.64 x 10(13) m x kg(-1) to the final 0.33 x 10(13) m x kg(-1) when bioleaching system reached stable at hour 72 with SRT 2.5d. In addition, the sludge pH were maintained at 5.10, 4.10, 3.20, 2.90, 2.70 and 2.60, the DO value were 0.43, 1.47, 3.29, 4.76, 5.75 and 5.88 mg x L(-1) from section 1 to section 6, and the SRF of sludge was drastically decreased from initial 0.56 x 10(13) to the final 0.20 x 10(13) m x kg(-1) when bioleaching system reached stable at hour 120 with SRT 2 d. The pH value was increased to 3.00 at section 6 at hour 48 h with SRT 1.25 d. The bioleaching system imbalanced in this operation conditions because of the utilization efficiency of microbial nutritional substance by Acidibacillus spp. was decreased. The longer sludge retention time, the easier bioleaching system reached stable. 2 d could be used as the optimum sludge retention time in engineering application. The bioleached sludge was collected and dewatered by plate-and-frame filter press to the moisture content of dewatered sludge cake under 60%. This study would provide the necessary data to the engineering application on municipal sewage sludge bioleaching. PMID:22452209

Liu, Fen-Wu; Zhou, Li-Xiang; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Feng; Wang, Dian-Zhan



Alteration of a salt marsh bacterial community by fertilization with sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

The effects of long-term fertilization with sewage sludge on the aerobic, chemoheterotrophic portion of a salt marsh bacterial community were examined. The study site in the Great Sippewissett Marsh, Cap Cod, Mass., consisted of experimental plots that were treated with different amounts of commercial sewage sludge fertilizer or with urea and phosphate. The number of CFUs, percentage of mercury- and cadmium-resistant bacteria, and percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were all increased in the sludge-fertilized plots. Preliminary taxonomic characterization showed fertilization markedly altered the taxonomic distribution and reduced diversity within both the total heterotrophic and the mercury-resistant communities. In control plots, the total heterotrophic community was fairly evenly distributed among taxa and the mercury-resistant community was dominated by Pseudomonas spp. In sludge-fertilized plots, both the total and mercury-resistant communities were dominated by a single Cytophaga sp.

Hamlett, N.V.



Chemical composition of sewage sludges and analysis of their potential use as fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) was used to provide information concerning the chemical bonding of zinc and copper present in the sludge obtained from the Dayton, Ohio sewage treatment plant. The binding energy of the Zn 2Pââ electron in sludge when placed under a vacuum of 10⁻⁷ Torr was 1023.8 +- 0.2 eV and the binding energy of the

L. E. Sommers



Earthworm transport of heavy metals from sewage sludge: a micro-PIXE application in soil science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-PIXE was used to analyze earthworm fecal material and the linings of earthworm channels in the soil below a land area on which sewage sludge had been applied. Metals present in the sludge were identified both in fecal pellets and in the linings of the channels, at concentration markedly higher than in the soil matrix. PIXE elemental data in raster format were spatially analyzed during image analysis demonstrating in a quantitative manner the spatial correlations among elements transported by the earthworms.

Protz, R.; Teesdale, W. J.; Maxwell, J. A.; Campbell, J. L.; Duke, C.




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Over a 3-yr period 336 MT\\/ha of dried sewage sludge, from a municipal waste;treatment plant, was applied in liquid form to land subsequently used to grow corn. The sludge contained 115 mg Cd, 4,200 mg Zn and 538 mg Ni\\/kg dry matter and comprised the solids remaining after treatment of the waste waters of approximately 260 industries as well

D. J. Lisk; R. D. Boyd; J. N. Telford; J. G. Babish; G. S. Stoewsand; C. A. Bache; W. H. Gutenmann


Determination of polycyclic aromatic compounds and heavy metals in sludges from biological sewage treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The procedure of the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives in the sludges from biological sewage treatment plants has been worked out. The analysis included isolation of organic matter from sludges, separation of the extract into fractions of similar chemical character, qualitative–quantitative analysis of individual PAHs and their nitrogenated and oxygenated derivatives. Liquid–solid chromatography, solid-phase extraction and

Danuta Bodzek; Beata Janoszka; Cezary Dobosz; Lidia Warzecha; Micha? Bodzek



The study of partitioning of heavy metals during fluidized bed combustion of sewage sludge and coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Hg during the combustion tests of a dry granular sewage sludge on a fluidized bed combustor pilot (FBC) of about 0.3 MW was evaluated. The emissions of these heavy metals from mono-combustion were compared with those of co-combustion of the sludge with a bituminous coal. The effect of

I. Gulyurtlu; M. Helena Lopes; P. Abelha; I. Cabrita; J. F. Santos Oliveira



Oxidative treatment of digested sewage sludge with ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process to improve anaerobic biodegradation of wastewater treatment sludges is investigated. Recalcitrant organic compounds which are contained in biologically stabilized digested sludge become biodegradable by partial oxidation using ozone and ozone in combination with hydrogen peroxide respectively. By oxidation with ozone, cell walls of microorganisms were destroyed and cytoplasm dissolved in sludge water. Water insoluble substances with high molecular

A. Scheminski; R. Krull; D. C. Hempel


Byproducts Utilization Program: Sewage Sludge Irradiation Project. Progress report, July-December 1983  

SciTech Connect

Engineering support for a demonstration-scale irradiator design included assisting the City of Albuquerque in preparing a comprehensive site plan for their proposed sludge handling and treatment facilities. The solar sludge dryer has been delivered to SNLA. A preliminary sludge drying experiment indicated the importance of optimizing stirring and air flow. Installation of instrumentation and mechanical equipment continued. The Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids (SIDSS) was used to irradiate 23 tons of dried, digested sewage sludge for the New Mexico State University (NMSU) Department of Crop and Soil Sciences. Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) operations included irradiation of ground pork for Toxoplasma gondii inactivation experiments, irradiation of surgical supplies and soil samples. Beneficial Uses Shipping Systems (BUSS) cask activities included near completion of the two full-scale cask bodies. Work continued on the Cask Safety Analysis Report (SAR) including additional analyses to reconfigure the six strontium fluoride capsules and/or reduce the number of capsules accommodated. NMSU has indicated no regrowth of salmonellae occurred in the irradiated sludge stockpile, while salmonellae did regrow in the unirradiated stockpile. Analyses of raw and digested sewage sludge from the Albuquerque Waste Water Treatment Plant showed levels of Yersinia enterocolitica (a human pathogen of emerging significance) to be below detection limits.

Not Available



Characterization and environmental implications of nano- and larger TiO(2) particles in sewage sludge, and soils amended with sewage sludge.  


Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is the most extensively used engineered nanoparticle to date, yet its fate in the soil environment has been investigated only rarely and is poorly understood. In the present study, we conducted two field-scale investigations to better describe TiO(2) nano- and larger particles in their most likely route of entry into the environment, i.e., the application of biosolids to soils. We particularly concentrated on the particles in the nano-size regime due to their novel and commercially useful properties. First, we analyzed three sewage sludge products from the US EPA TNSSS sampling inventory for the occurrence, qualitative abundance, and nature of TiO(2) nano- and larger particles by using analytical scanning electron microscopy and analytical (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. Nano- and larger particles of TiO(2) were repeatedly identified across the sewage sludge types tested, providing strong evidence of their likely concentration in sewage sludge products. The TiO(2) particles identified were as small as 40 nm, and as large as 300 nm, having faceted shapes with the rutile crystal structure, and they typically formed small, loosely packed aggregates. Second, we examined surface soils in mesocosms that had been amended with Ag nanoparticle-spiked biosolids for the occurrence of TiO(2) particles. An aggregate of TiO(2) nanoparticles with the rutile structure was again identified, but this time TiO(2) nanoparticles were found to contain Ag on their surfaces. This suggests that TiO(2) nanoparticles from biosolids can interact with toxic trace metals that would then enter the environment as a soil amendment. Therefore, the long-term behavior of TiO(2) nano- and larger particles in sewage sludge materials as well as their impacts in the soil environment need to be carefully considered. PMID:22349742

Kim, Bojeong; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Colman, Benjamin P; Hochella, Michael F



Survival of pathogenic micro-organisms and parasites in excreta, manure and sewage sludge.  


The causative agents of many infectious diseases are excreted by the faecal route and also with other excretions or secretions of the body. Some pathogens are also excreted from clinically healthy animals, from those with latent infections and in cases of transmissible multifactorial diseases. In all types of livestock housing, the pathogens finally reach the floor with the installations for collecting manure as a solid or liquid. Under these conditions livestock owners do not realise that manure may contain pathogens, and therefore do not take precautions against possible spread of diseases by utilisation of manure. The pathogens do not survive very long in stored farmyard manure because of the temperatures and biological and biochemical activities prevailing in the middens. But the conditions in slurry are different because the temperature does not rise and biochemical activity is low. Therefore the pathogens survive for rather long periods in slurry. To avoid disease transfer by utilisation of manure and slurry as fertilisers, certain precautions are necessary and these are described in detail. The agricultural utilisation of municipal sewage sludge is common in many countries. However, these sludges contain pathogens which are excreted by the human population served by the sewers and sewage treatment plants. In the sewage purification processes most of the pathogens are reduced in number but not completely eliminated. They are enriched by sedimentation processes in the sewage sludge. To protect the livestock of farms utilising sewage sludge as fertiliser or for amending soils it is necessary to sanitise hygienically dubious sludges prior to their use. The epidemiological aspects of agricultural sludge utilisation are discussed and details of the available sanitation technologies are given. PMID:1782431

Strauch, D



Simultaneous NH 3 oxidation and N 2 production at reduced O 2 tensions by sewage sludge subcultured with chemolithotrophic medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ammonia oxidation rate by sewage sludge was determined as a function of the dissolved oxygen tension. Samples of sludge were taken from a domestic waste water treatment pilot plant in which sludge was completely retained by membrane filtration. The samples were subcultured chemolithotrophically in recycling reactors. The gas supplied was a mixture of pure argon and oxygen. The KO2

E. B. Muller; A. H. Stouthamer; H. W. van Verseveld




EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this work was to reduce the volume of municipal wastewater (sewage) sludge in a multiple-hearth furnance via starved air combustion (pyrolysis) to determine how it compared with incineration as an environmentally acceptable method of sludge disposal. Sludge was fir...


Changes in the chemical characteristics of water-extracted organic matter from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cow dung.  


The chemical changes of water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) from five different substrates of sewage sludge enriched with different proportions of cow dung after vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida were investigated using various analytical approaches. Results showed that dissolved organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, and C/N ratio of the substrates decreased significantly after vermicomposting process. The aromaticity of WEOM from the substrates enhanced considerably, and the amount of volatile fatty acids declined markedly, especially for the cow dung substrate. Gel filtration chromatography analysis showed that the molecular weight fraction between 10(3) and 10(6) Da became the main part of WEOM in the final product. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed that the proportion of H moieties in the area of 0.00-3.00 ppm decreased, while increasing at 3.00-4.25 ppm after vermicomposting. Fluorescence spectra indicated that vermicomposting caused the degradation of protein-like groups, and the formation of fulvic and humic acid-like compounds in the WEOM of the substrates. Overall results indicate clearly that vermicomposting promoted the degradation and transformation of liable WEOM into biological stable substances in sewage sludge and cow dung alone, as well as in mixtures of both materials, and testing the WEOM might be an effective way to evaluate the biological maturity and chemical stability of vermicompost. PMID:22230755

Xing, Meiyan; Li, Xiaowei; Yang, Jian; Huang, Zhidong; Lu, Yongsen



Microbial utilization and transformation of humic acid-like substances extracted from a mixture of municipal refuse and sewage sludge disposed of in a landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the research was to establish whether humic acid-like substances (HA) related to municipal refuse disposed of in a landfill can resist microbial degradation and if they contribute, in that way, to long-term stabilization of landfill refuse. Using a mixture of 0.1 M Na4P2O7 + 0.1 M NaOH, we extracted HA from municipal refuse mixed with sewage sludge

Z Filip; W Pecher; J Berthelin



Model ecosystem studies of lead and cadmium and of urban sewage sludge containing these elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental fate and effects of cadmium and lead were studied in a laboratory model ecosystem with a terrestrial\\/aquatic interface, using silica sand, Bloomfield soil (sandy loam) and Drummer soil (silty clay loam) as substrates. Applications were made directly to the substrates as lead and cadmium chloride and as sewage sludge as a source of heavy metals. The mobilization and

P. Y. Lu; R. L. Metcalf; R. Furman; R. Vogel; J. Hassett



Sewage Treatment Plant Sludge: A Source of Potential Microorganism for Citric Acid Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research emphasizes on the utilization of Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) sludge, which is an inexpensive and easily available raw material and a good source for growth of microorganisms because it has enough nutrients and trace elements. This can be considered as an alternative cost effective solution for waste management in addition to production of a value added product citric

Parveen Jamal; Zahangir Alam; M. Ramlan; M. Salleh; Munirah M. Akib


Microbially mediated cadmium sorption\\/desorption processes in soil amended with sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-compartment system was used to study the importance of microorganisms for Cd desorption from soil amended with sewage sludge and simultaneous resorption of the mobilized metal by soil constituents. Using this system made it possible to study the participation of microorganisms (Arthrobacter, Trichoderma), montmorillonite, humic acids, and iron oxides in resorption of the released Cd. A filter-sterilized water extract

Ma?gorzata Majewska; Ewa Kurek; Jerzy Rogalski



Soil Temperature and Sewage Sludge Effects on Plant and Soil Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A field experiment was conducted to determine the influence of soil temperature and sewage sludge on growth and composition of corn (Zea mays L.). Changes in soil organic matter, extractable metals, pH, bulb density, aggregation, fecal coliform, and fecal...

C. C. Sheaffer A. M. Decker R. L. Chaney G. C. Stanton D. C. Wolf



Fractal analysis of soil water hysteresis as influenced by sewage sludge application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of three types of surface applied sewage sludge from the same lot (fresh, composted, and thermally dried) on the water retention properties of a loam soil (Udic Calciustept) and a loamy sand soil (Typic Haplustalf) from central Catalonia (NE Spain) was investigated using fractal analysis. First, we proposed a composite fractal model that covers both the low and

G. Ojeda; E. Perfect; J. M. Alcañiz; O. Ortiz



Total metal concentrations and partitioning of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of the BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure to sewage sludge samples collected at an urban wastewater treatment plant (Domžale, Slovenia) is reported. The total concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn and their concentrations in fractions after extraction were determined by flame or electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, ETAAS) under optimised measurement conditions. Total acid digestion including

Janez Š?an?ar; Radmila Mila?i?; Marjeta Stražar; Olga Burica




Microsoft Academic Search

Background Fertilisation ofland with processed sewage sludges, which often contain low levels ofpathogens, endotoxins, and trace amounts of industrial and household chemicals, has become common practice in Western Europe, the US, and Canada. Local governments, however, are increasingly restricting or banning the practice in response to residents reporting adverse health effects. These self-reported illnesses have not been studied and methods




Interactions of pathogens and irritant chemicals in land-applied sewage sludges (biosolids)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fertilisation of land with processed sewage sludges, which often contain low levels of pathogens, endotoxins, and trace amounts of industrial and household chemicals, has become common practice in Western Europe, the US, and Canada. Local governments, however, are increasingly restricting or banning the practice in response to residents reporting adverse health effects. These self-reported illnesses have not been studied

David L Lewis; David K Gattie; Marc E Novak; Susan Sanchez; Charles Pumphrey



Land application of sewage sludges: an appraisal of the US regulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current US federal regulations governing the land application of sewage sludges do not appear adequately protective of human health, agricultural productivity or ecological health. US standards are far less protective than those of many European countries and Canadian provinces. This is due to both policy choices such as a 'do no harm' philosophy applied in some northern European countries and

Ellen Z. Harrison; Murray B. McBride; David R. Bouldin



Use of Composted Sewage Sludge as Horticultural Growth Media: Effects on Germination and Trace Element Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing demand for growth media for greenhouse horticultural uses, the rising new uses of substrates, and the scarcity and cost of traditional sources, such as sphagnum peat moss in Mediterranean countries, have focused research on new substrate materials. Use of composted sewage sludges as a component of growth media could be a feasible alternative, with the benefit of their

Raul Moral; Concepción Paredes; Belen Rufete




EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses the state of the art of co-incineration of municipal refuse and sewage sludge. European and American practice is described. Four co-incineration techniques are evaluated for thermodynamic and economic feasibility; pyrolysis, multiple hearth, direct drying, a...



EPA Science Inventory

A field experiment was conducted to determine the influence of soil temperature and sewage sludge on growth and composition of corn (Zea mays L.). Changes in soil organic matter, extractable metals, pH, bulb density, aggregation, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus were deter...


Production of a solid fuel using sewage sludge and spent cooking oil by immersion frying.  


Sewage sludge and spent cooking oil are two main waste sources of modern Chinese cities. In this paper, the immersion frying method using spent cooking oil as the heating medium was applied to dry and convert wet sewage sludge into a solid fuel. The drying and oil uptake curves were plotted to demonstrate the fry-drying characteristics of the sewage sludge. Parametric studies were carried out to identify the governing parameters in the frying drying operation. It was found that at frying oil temperatures of 140-160°C, the wet sewage sludge could be dried completely in 6-9 min and converted into a solid fuel with a high calorific value of 21.55-24.08 MJ/kg. The fuel structure, chemical components, pyrolysis and combustion characteristics were investigated and the experimental results showed the solid fuel had a porous internal structure and a low ignition temperature of 250°C due to presence of oil. The frying drying mechanism was also discussed. PMID:23158688

Wu, Zhonghua; Zhang, Jing; Li, Zhanyong; Xie, Jian; Mujumdar, Arun S




EPA Science Inventory

The objectives were: (1) To update a review of the state of the art of sewage sludge composting in Europe; (2) to evaluate a European-designed, continuous, thermophilic, mechanical, aerobic, composting system in Germany; and (3) to compare its cost to those of the U.S. Department...


Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as forestry and farm crop fertilizer. References discuss degassed biomass, fertilizer-grade residues, compost fertilizers, biological conversion of organic wastes, organic environmental pollution, and iron salts. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)




Influence of sewage sludge compost stability and maturity on carbon and nitrogen mineralization in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incubation experiments with soil were made to study C and N mineralization in a sewage sludge–cotton waste mixture at different stages of the composting process performed by the Rutgers static pile system. Three composting samples were selected: initial mixture (I); the end of the active phase (E); and the mature compost (M). The CO2-C evolved (as % of added C)

M. P. Bernal; A. F. Navarro; M. A. Sánchez-Monedero; A. Roig; J. Cegarra




EPA Science Inventory

This volume contains data on the dispersion of sewage sludge subsequent to its disposal at a site near the apex of the New York Bight. Cruises were made in May, July, and October, 1975. An optical tracer method was used to measure the water column distribution of waste material f...



EPA Science Inventory

This volume contains physical oceanographic data collected at the sewage sludge disposal site near the apex of the New York Bight December 18 through 21, 1974. An optical tracer method was used to measure the water column distribution of waste material with time after discharge. ...


Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available



Heavy metal balances of an Italian soil as affected by sewage sludge and Bordeaux mixture applications  

SciTech Connect

Applications of sewage sludge and Bordeaux mixture (Bm) (a mixture of copper sulfate and lime) add heavy metals to the soil. At an experimental farm in the Cremona district (Italy), the authors measured current heavy metal contents in soil and their removal via harvested products. They also measured heavy metal adsorption by soil from this farm. With these data, projections were made of the long-term development of heavy metal (Cd, Cu, and Zn) contents in soil, crop removal, and leaching at different application rates of sewage sludge and Bm. These projections were compared with existing quality standards of the European Union (EU) and Italy with regard to soil and groundwater. The calculations reveal that the permitted annual application rates of sewage sludge and Bm are likely to result in exceedance of groundwater and soil standards. Sewage sludge applications, complying with the Italian legal limits, may pose problems for Cd, Cu, and Zn within 30, 70, and 100 yr, respectively. Furthermore, severe Cu pollution of integrated and especially organic (Bm only) vineyards is unavoidable with the currently allowed application rates of Bm. The results suggest that the current Italian soil protection policy as well as the EU policy are not conducive of a sustainable heavy metal management in agroecosystems.

Moolenaar, S.W. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands); Beltrami, P. [Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza (Italy)



Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in dewatering waste products. Included are techniques for sewage waste as well as industrial, mining, petroleum, and municipal waste sludge. Dewatering processes, device design, and performance evaluations are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available



Sewage sludge effects on carbon dioxide?carbon production from a desurfaced soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desurfaced soils are found near cities in the Pampean Region of Argentina because A horizons were used for brick production. These soils are not suitable for agriculture. Application of sewage sludge is a tool for improving soil productivity, but its effects on the environment are not thoroughly understood. Production of carbon dioxide (C02)?carbon (C) in the field from a desurfaced

R. Alvarez; M. Alconada; R. Lavado



Toxicity testing of wastewater and sewage sludge by biosensors, bioassays and chemical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity testing has grown steadily in recent years, being a useful tool in environmental risk assessment. This review highlights different bioassays and recently developed biosensors based on acute toxicity measurements. Emphasis is placed on the use of combined approaches involving chemical analysis for the characterization and identification of complex toxic wastewater effluents and sewage sludge. Fractionation schemes that combine sample

Marinella Farré; Damià Barceló



Effects of the application of heated sewage sludge on soil nutrient supply to plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported that heating sewage sludge significantly changes the rate of N mineralization. The present study was undertaken to examine the extent to which these changes affect plant growth and nutrient supply after application to different soils. A pot experiment in which komatsuna plants (Brassica campestris L. var. rapa) were grown in a Fluvisol or an Arenosol indicated that

Naoki Moritsuka; Kaori Matsuoka; Shingo Matsumoto; Tsugiyuki Masunaga; Kensuke Matsui; Toshiyuki Wakatsuki



Management Plan for Wastewater Sludge by Metropolitan Denver, Sewage Disposal District No. 1, Denver, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary is made of the full report. The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District No. 1 (Metro) has proposed to construct the necessary facilities to transport sludge to a site in Adams County for air drying in earthen basins, stockpiling in above-gr...

M. A. Gansecki




EPA Science Inventory

Municipal sewage sludge has been reported to be useful in reclaiming strip-mined soils for revegetation and row crop agriculture. Commercial methods using top soil replacement, lime and fertilizer have also been reported to be successful in reclaiming (revegetating) strip-mined s...


Distribution of Different Fractions of Heavy Metals in Desert Sandy Soil Amended with Composted Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to assess different fractions and surface accumulation of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Ni in desert sandy soil amended with two rates of composted sewage sludge (20 and 40 -1 ) were applied to the surface of soil columns. A sequential extraction method was used to determine the soil fractions and surface accumulation of Zn, Cu,

Eid Morsy Khaled




EPA Science Inventory

Clostridium perfrigens in sediment samples collected at the Deep Water Municipal Sewage Sludge Disposal Site (also called the 106-Mile Site), off the coast of New Jersey, was enumerated. he counts of C. perfrigens found in sediment samples collected within and to the southwest of...



EPA Science Inventory

In producing clean water from sewage, wastewater treatment plants also produce sludge. Most of the commonly used methods to dispose of this material are now considered to be either environmentally unacceptable, wasteful of energy, or very expensive. To ease this situation, a rela...


Heat and Mass Transfer During Fry-Drying of Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep-frying, which consists of immersing a wet material in a large volume of hot oil, presents a process easily adaptable to dry rather than cook materials. A suitable material for drying is sewage sludge, which may be dried using recycled cooking oils (RCO) as frying oil. One advantage is that this prepares both materials for convenient disposal by incineration.This study

C. Peregrina; P. Arlabosse; D. Lecomte; V. Rudolph




EPA Science Inventory

This report provides and evaluation of a two-phased demonstration program conducted for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation Program, and the results thereof, of a recently developed method of sewage sludge management. ...


Application of hydroxypropyl[?]cyclodextrin to evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon losses during sewage sludges composting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the present study were to test the application of the non-exhaustive extraction technique (NEET) with hydroxypropyl[?]cyclodextrin (HPCD) for the evaluation of the content of potentially bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fraction as well as the evaluation of changes in the content of this fraction during composting of municipal sewage sludges. A possibility to apply this method for

Patryk Oleszczuk




Microsoft Academic Search

The Rhodes BioSURE? Process is a low cost active treatment system for acid mine drainage (AMD) waters (Rose et al., 2002). Central to this process is biological sulphate reduction (BSR) using primary sewage sludge (PSS) as the electron donor and organic carbon source, with the concomitant reduction of sulphate to sulphide and production of alkalinity. To optimise the design, operation

HS van Wageningen; SW Sötemann; MC Wentzel



EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA and the USDA convened a three-day Workshop on Emerging Infectious Disease Agents and Issues Associated with Sewage Sludge, Animal Manures, and Other Organic By-Products on June 4-6, 2001 in Cincinnati, Ohio. The purpose of the workshop was to review and discuss the effe...


Exposure Analysis for Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In February 1993, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the Standards for the Use or Disposal of Sewage Sludge (40 CFR Part 503). This regulation lists management practices and pollutant limits that protect public health and the environ...



Hydrogen production from sewage sludge via a fixed bed gasifier product gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective pursued in this work is to investigate the hydrogen production potential from sewage sludge by applying downdraft gasification technique. An experimental study was conducted using a pilot scale (5kWe) throated downdraft gasifier. During the experiments, all data were recorded with an analog to digital (ATD) converter linked to a computer for every 15s. The flow rates of

Adnan Midilli; Murat Dogru; Galip Akay; Colin R Howarth




Microsoft Academic Search

Large quantities of several waste products such as sewage sludge, wood ash (a by-product of the tim- ber industry) and meat flour from non-ruminant animals (waste that has lost its traditional market) are currently generated. In this study we evaluated mixtures comprised of these waste products in terms of their recycling value for agronomic purposes. After preliminary studies, we concluded

M. Y. Pousada; A. Núñez; S. Seoane



EPA Science Inventory

This report evaluates the available data on the effects on plants of single and repeated additions of Cd and Zn to soils in the form of sewage sludge. The concentrations of Cd and Zn in plants vary with (a) the species and cultivation grown, (b) environmental and management facto...


Vermicomposting of industrially produced woodchips and sewage sludge utilizing Eisenia fetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult Eisenia fetida were used to vermicompost woodchips (WC) and sewage sludge (SS) that are produced as waste product by platinum mines. The aims of the study were to examine the growth and reproductive success of the worms over 84 days to determine long-term feasibility of large-scale implementation and monitor the bioconcentration of heavy metals and the effects of microorganisms

M. S. Maboeta; L. van Rensburg



Sewage sludge handling with phosphorus utilization – life cycle assessment of four alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four handling options for sewage sludge were studied from an environmental system's perspective using life cycle assessment. The studied options were restoration of mining areas, composting with other biomaterials for use on golf courses, hygienisation through storage for agricultural use, and supercritical water oxidation with phosphorus recovery. The results are discussed in terms of impact on global warming, acidification, eutrophication,

Kristin Johansson; Maria Perzon; Morgan Fröling; Agnes Mossakowska; Magdalena Svanström



Evaluation of leaching and ecotoxicological properties of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this work were the evaluation of sewage sludge stabilization by mixing with fly ash, the examination of the physicochemical properties of the produced materials and their leachates and the assessment of their environmental impact by the evaluation of the ecotoxic characteristics. Different ratios of fly ash and sewage sludge (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:6, and 1:9) were mixed for 48 and 72 h. After mixing, the liquid phase of the produced materials was analyzed for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, while the solid residue was dried and tested for the leaching characteristics by the application of TCLP and EN 12457-2 standard leaching methods. Furthermore, the produced leachates were analyzed for their content of specific metals, while their ecotoxicological characteristics were determined by the use of toxicity bioassays, using the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia magna. The phytotoxicity of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures was also determined by utilizing seeds of three higher plants (one monocotyl and two dicotyls). The mixtures exhibited low metal leaching in all cases, while the ecotoxic properties increased with the increase of fly ash/sewage sludge ratio. The phytotoxicity testing showed increased root length growth inhibition.

C.A. Papadimitriou; I. Haritou; P. Samaras; A.I. Zouboulis [Technological Educational Institute of West Macedonia, Kozani (Greece)



Potential Ground Water Pollution from Sewage Sludge Application on Agricultural Land.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Corn for silage was grown for three years on land treated with either annual applications or a single application of limed, dewatered sewage sludge at six rates of application. Yields of silage, heavy metal uptake, soil heavy metals, soil nitrates and soi...

R. W. Wengel G. F. Griffin



The tri-trophic transfer of Zn from the agricultural use of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An agricultural soil in Southern England was amended with two annual applications of sewage sludge at rates of 0, 10 and 15 t ha?1 dry solids. Soil concentrations of Zn reached 31.1 ?g g?1 and the subsequent uptake was measured in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum), grain aphids (Sitobion avenae) and a predatory carabid beetle (Bembidion lampros) in order to test

L. Winder; G. Merrington; I. Green



Sewage sludge and liquid pig manure as possible sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the last decades, the environmental spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria has become a topic of concern. In this study, liquid pig manure (n=305) and sewage sludge (n=111) – used as agricultural fertilizers between 2002 and 2005 – were investigated for the presence of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Bacteria were tested for their resistance against 40 chemotherapeutics

Christina S. Hölzel; Karin Schwaiger; Katrin Harms; Helmut Küchenhoff; Anne Kunz; Karsten Meyer; Christa Müller; Johann Bauer



Study of Aerobic Stabilization Techniques for Sewage Sludge Composting (Untersuchung Aerober Stabilisierungsverfahren zur Schlammverrottung).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are several systems for the composting of sewage sludge. Within the framework of this research work a systematical survey of all systems currently in operation was made by means of a questionnaire. Data on the technology, economy and the final produ...

F. Bickel W. Bidlingmaier



Insurance regarding radical uncertainty: approaches in France and in Germany for sewage sludge land spreading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to now, economic literature regarding the product safety has studied foreseeable risks that are known by producers. However, the literature has not analysed which liability rule and insurance schemes are efficient for radical uncertainty. This paper addresses this topic through insurance schemes in France and Germany for sewage sludge spreading. Section 1 gives an overview of economic literature regarding

Sylvie Lupton



Composting and evaluation of racetrack manure, grass clippings and sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experimental\\/demonstration composting operations were operated in 1993 and 1994. At one site, racetrack manure was composted by itself. At another site, composts were produced from mixtures of racetrack manure, grass clippings and sewage sludge on four specially constructed pads. These pads were lined with plastic to facilitate leachate collection in adjoining containment ditches. Different ratios of two types of

P. R. Warman; W. C. Termeer



Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification.  


Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures--gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation--are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes. PMID:17919896

Gross, Bodo; Eder, Christian; Grziwa, Peter; Horst, Juri; Kimmerle, Klaus



Speciation of heavy metals during co-composting of sewage sludge with lime  

Microsoft Academic Search

During composting the humification of organic matter will have a significant effect on the physicochemical form of existence of heavy metals. Therefore the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of co-composting sewage sludge with lime on heavy metal speciation and the changes in DTPA extractable metals. Metal speciation was conducted to evaluate the redistribution of Cu, Mn, Ni,

J. W. C. Wong; A. Selvam




Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of different amendments on the potential for inhibition of heavy metal mobility during the sewage sludge composting process. These amendments, including lime, coal fly ash, and natural zeolite, were selected on the basis of their reutilization, potential efficiency and market-price. Experimental results indicated that the physicochemical characteristics of the matured co-compost with different amendments, including

Kung-Yuh Chiang; Huang-Jiuun Huang; Chin-Nun Chang


Evaluation of leaching and ecotoxicological properties of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures.  


The objectives of this work were the evaluation of sewage sludge stabilization by mixing with fly ash, the examination of the physicochemical properties of the produced materials and their leachates and the assessment of their environmental impact by the evaluation of the ecotoxic characteristics. Different ratios of fly ash and sewage sludge (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:6, and 1:9) were mixed for 48 and 72 h. After mixing, the liquid phase of the produced materials was analyzed for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, while the solid residue was dried and tested for the leaching characteristics by the application of TCLP and EN 12457-2 standard leaching methods. Furthermore, the produced leachates were analyzed for their content of specific metals, while their ecotoxicological characteristics were determined by the use of toxicity bioassays, using the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia magna. The phytotoxicity of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures was also determined by utilizing seeds of three higher plants (one monocotyl and two dicotyls). The mixtures exhibited low metal leaching in all cases, while the ecotoxic properties increased with the increase of fly ash/sewage sludge ratio. The phytotoxicity testing showed increased root length growth inhibition. PMID:17583693

Papadimitriou, C A; Haritou, I; Samaras, P; Zouboulis, A I



Evaluation of Emission of Greenhouse Gases from Soils Amended with Sewage Sludge  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increase in concentrations of various greenhouse gases originated by various human activities, including agricultural origin, could contribute to climate change. Anthropogenic activities such as cultivation of flooded rice and application of waste materials, such as sewage sludge which are rich in ...


Extractability and fractionation of heavy metals in chemically treated sewage sludges.  


Four chemically treated sludges, lime-treated (LS), lime/sodium silicate-treated (LSS), cement-treated (CS), and cement/sodium silicate-treated (CSS) were produced form the chemical treatment of aerobic digested sewage sludge cake, using lime, cement, and sodium silicate as additives. Ex tractability and fractionation of the heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn) in these products and untreated sludge (S) were investigated using sequential extraction, single extraction, and 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance analysis (13C-NMR). These approaches revealed that chemical treatment of sewage sludge makes sludge Cu, Pb, and Cr more extractable. It was attributed to the irreversible dissolution of a portion of organics at very high pH during chemical treatment of sludge. The enhanced extraction of some metals having higher affinity to organics, e.g. Cu and Pb, from the chemically treated sludges was due to their complexion with the above soluble organics. PMID:11794688

Hsiao, P C; Lo, S L



Environmental assessment of sewage sludge recycling options and treatment processes in Tokyo.  


Tokyo has historically suffered from a shortage of final disposal sites for the treated sewage sludge. Given this situation, sludge recycling and incineration have been promoted to reduce the volume of treated sludge conveyed to the disposal site, and the recycling options have changed since the late 1990s. This study aims to revisit the sewage sludge treatment and recycling processes in Tokyo and to evaluate different recycling options (brick, aggregate, refuse derived fuel and slag) from the energy consumption perspective by clarifying the complex flow of treated sludge within Tokyo's 23 wards. The study also estimates environmental loads associated with the operation of the whole sludge management system in the area. The environmental loads include: (1) total energy consumption and (2) gas emissions (greenhouse and acidification gases). The estimation was carried out for the years 1995, 1997, 1999 and 2001, during which a drastic change in recycling options occurred. The results indicated that the production of refuse derived fuel was the most energy consuming recycling option while aggregate production is the least energy consuming. They also showed that despite the increasing sludge volume, the energy consumption associated with the operation of the whole system decreased during the period while the gas emissions increased. PMID:18439814

Hara, K; Mino, T



Advanced sewage treatment process with excess sludge reduction and phosphorus recovery.  


An advanced sewage treatment process has been developed, in which excess sludge reduction by ozonation and phosphorus recovery by crystallization process are incorporated to a conventional anaerobic/oxic (A/O) phosphorus removal process. The mathematical model was developed to describe the mass balance principal at a steady state of this process. Sludge ozonation experiments were carried out to investigate solubilization characteristics of sludge and change in microbial activity by using sludge cultured with feed of synthetic sewage under A/O process. Phosphorus was solubilized by ozonation as well as organics, and acid-hydrolyzable phosphorus (AHP) was the most part of solubilized phosphorus for phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) containing sludge. At solubilization of 30%, around 70% of sludge was inactivated by ozonation. The results based on these studies indicated that the proposed process configuration has potential to reduce the excess sludge production as well as to recover phosphorus in usable forms. The system performance results show that this system is practical, in which 30% of solubilization degree was achieved by ozonation. In this study, 30% of solubilization was achieved at 30 mgO(3)/gSS of ozone consumption. PMID:15743637

Saktaywin, W; Tsuno, H; Nagare, H; Soyama, T; Weerapakkaroon, J



Land Application of Treated Sewage Sludge: Community Health and Environmental Justice  

PubMed Central

Background: In the United States, most of the treated sewage sludge (biosolids) is applied to farmland as a soil amendment. Critics suggest that rules regulating sewage sludge treatment and land application may be insufficient to protect public health and the environment. Neighbors of land application sites report illness following land application events. Objectives: We used qualitative research methods to evaluate health and quality of life near land application sites. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with neighbors of land application sites and used qualitative analytic software and team-based methods to analyze interview transcripts and identify themes. Results: Thirty-four people in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia responded to interviews. Key themes were health impacts, environmental impacts, and environmental justice. Over half of the respondents attributed physical symptoms to application events. Most noted offensive sludge odors that interfere with daily activities and opportunities to socialize with family and friends. Several questioned the fairness of disposing of urban waste in rural neighborhoods. Although a few respondents were satisfied with the responsiveness of public officials regarding sludge, many reported a lack of public notification about land application in their neighborhoods, as well as difficulty reporting concerns to public officials and influencing decisions about how the practice is conducted where they live. Conclusions: Community members are key witnesses of land application events and their potential impacts on health, quality of life, and the environment. Meaningful involvement of community members in decision making about land application of sewage sludge will strengthen environmental health protections.

McDonald, Mary Anne; Wing, Steve; Muhammad, Naeema



Effects of sewage sludge and toxic metals upon vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbionts  

SciTech Connect

Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAMF) are common plant symbionts that increase the uptake of water, phosphate and other nutrients into their host plants. Enhanced uptake of ions could be detrimental to plants in sludge-amended soils. This study examined the role and response of VAMF in the uptake of toxic metals (Cu, Cd and Zn) common in sewage sludge. Examination of field-grown plants (after 5 years of sludge amendment) revealed that mycorrhizal colonization of Cirsium arvense and Barbarea vulgaris was not depressed. Greenhouse bioassays of VAMF colonization potential with corn and geranium produced similar results. Enumeration of VAMF spores revealed similar values in sludge-amended and unamended control plots. Colonization (both field and greenhouse observations) and spore numbers were lower in the urea-phosphate-amended plots compared to sludge-amended and control plots.

Arnold, P.T.



Sorption of benzimidazole anthelmintics to dissolved organic matter surrogates and sewage sludge.  


The sorption coefficients of four rarely studied zwitterionic pharmaceuticals (benzimidazoles: fenbendazole, albendazole, thiabendazole and flubendazole) and four metabolites of fenbendazole to various dissolved organic matter surrogates (humic acid, sodium dodecyl sulfate micelle, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin and liposomes made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), and sewage sludge) were measured to extend the available sorption coefficients and eventually to evaluate their environmental fate in soil and water environment. For the entire range of dissolved organic matters, the more hydrophobic fenbendazole and albendazole had higher sorption coefficients than thiabendazole and flubendazole, indicating that the traditional hypothesis of hydrophobic interaction holds for zwitterionic benzimidazole anthelmintics. However, the sorption coefficients of a given benzimidazole to selected dissolved organic matters (DOMs) varied within an order of magnitude. The measured K(oc) values decreased in the order of fenbendazole, albendazole, thiabendazole and flubendazole for sewage sludge and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin whereas the orders were different for the other DOM surrogates, implying the hydrophilic nature of sewage sludge. This was also supported by the (N+O)/C elemental ratio of the sewage sludge sample used in this study. The correlations between log K(oc) and log K(ow) were weak (r(2)=0.28-0.64) and the magnitude of the sorption coefficients to the hydrophilic organic matters (hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin and sewage sludge) were similar to or slightly smaller than those for the hydrophobic organic matters (humic acids and liposome). This suggests that specific hydrophilic interactions also play a significant role in the sorption of moderately hydrophobic benzimidazoles to organic matters. PMID:20452640

Kim, Hyo-Jung; Lee, Dong Soo; Kwon, Jung-Hwan



Gaseous emissions from ceramics manufactured with urban sewage sludge during firing processes.  


The re-use of sewage sludge without any treatment as primary material-mixed with clays-in order to obtain structural ceramics for buildings has been successfully improved. In the Ecobrick project, the firing of a mixture of specific percentages of three components (clays, sludges and forest debris) resulted in a lighter and more thermal and acoustic insulating brick, compared with conventional clay-bricks. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission from the manufacturing of ceramics is the most important aspect to control. In the Ecobrick project VOC emissions were monitored by using a bench-scale furnace. The study was conducted using an EPA recommended sampling train and portable sampling tubes that were thermally desorbed and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Drying of raw sewage-sludge and firing processes were considered separately. In this paper, we present VOC emissions coming from the firing step of the Ecobrick production. PMID:12737969

Cusidó, J A; Cremades, L V; González, M



Spatial distribution of dynamics characteristic in the intermittent aeration static composting of sewage sludge.  


Spatial differences and temporal changes in biological activity characteristics were investigated in a static reactor using intermittent aeration during the sewage sludge composting process. Pumice was proposed as a bulking agent in the composting of sewage sludge. Variations in temperature, moisture, oxygen level, volatile solids, specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) were determined during 28 days of composting. The peak temperature in the upper region of the reactor was 10°C higher than that at the bottom. The moisture level in the middle region was significantly higher than that of other positions. Analysis of SOUR and DHA indicated that the lowest level of sludge stability was at the bottom region. These spatial and temporal differences in biochemical dynamics in the static system could extend the composting period and affect product uniformity. PMID:21377869

Wang, Ke; Li, Weiguang; Guo, Jianhua; Zou, Jinlin; Li, Yunbei; Zhang, Lei



Effect of sewage sludge on the adsorption of polychlorinated biphenyls by three New Mexico soils  

SciTech Connect

The adsorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) (54% Cl) by three low-organic matter New Mexico soils amended with sewage sludge was determined by batch equilibration. Adsorption isotherm data were described by the Freundilich equation. An increase in adsorption with increased organic C content was observed. However, for a given organic C content, adsorption in soils preconditioned with sewage sludge differed from soils amended with sludge at the time of adsorption analysis. Adsorption was greater in a clay soil than in two sandy loams. Differences in organic C content described 56.5% of the variance in the Freundlich K constants for PCB retention across all treatments. Incorporating the factor of clay content or specific surface area into the regression analysis accounted for 79.1% of the variance in K. Freundlich constants normalized for organic C content (K/sub oc/) were not cosntant across treatments.

Fairbanks, B.C.; O'Conner, G.A.




EPA Science Inventory

A study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of converting municipal wastewater sludges into oil under hydrogen pressure. In a laboratory autoclave, raw and digested sludges were subjected to 14 MPa total pressure for 20 to 90 minutes. Aqueous suspensions were treated at a...


Assessment of the mutagenic potency of sewage sludges contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by an Ames sludges for fluctuation assay.  


The mutagenicity of crude extracts and subfractions of two samples of a reference sewage sludge material and two sewage sludges from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), one urban and the other one urban mixed with industrial, was assessed using an Ames fluctuation assay based on 384-well microtiter plates with liquid cultures. Crude extracts of sludges were obtained by ultrasonic extraction with dichloromethane/methanol, and further column fractionation yielded two fractions, one of which containing mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Quantitative analysis performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry gave sum concentrations of the 16 PAHs listed as priority pollutants by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency at levels between 1,305 and 2,442 microg/kg. Subjecting crude extracts and column fractions to the mutagenicity assay with Salmonella strains TA98 and TA 100 provided good qualitative correlation between the presence of mutagenic PAH and the induction of gene mutations. In general, the crude extracts and the PAH-fractions induced positive responses in the assay with both bacterial strains on metabolic activation by S9 rat-liver homogenate, whereas direct-acting mutagens were not detectable. In the assay with the real sludge samples of two different WWTPs, TA98 proved to be more sensitive than TA100; however, similar sensitivities of the tester strains were observed for two reference sewage sludge materials of the same origin. The outcomes of the Ames fluctuation assay demonstrated its performance as a cost-effective and relatively rapid screening tool to assess the genotoxic potential of complex environmental samples. PMID:14587895

Pérez, Sandra; Reifferscheid, Georg; Eichhorn, Peter; Barceló, Damià



Relationship between photosynthetic capacity, nitrogen assimilation and nodule metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown with sewage sludge.  


Sewage sludge has been used as N fertilizer because it contains some of inorganic N, principally as nitrate and ammonium ions. However, sewage sludge addition to legumes could result in impaired nodule metabolism due to the presence of inorganic N from sludge. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine the effects of sewage sludge on growth, photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation and nodule metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Aragón). Plants were grown in pots with a mixture of perlite and vermiculite (2:1, v/v). The experiment included three treatments: (1) plants inoculated with rhizobia and amended with sewage sludge at rate of 10% (w/w) (RS); (2) plants inoculated with rhizobia without any amendment (R); and (3) non-inoculated plants fed with ammonium nitrate (N). N(2)-fixing plants had lower growth and sucrose phosphate synthase activity but higher photosynthesis than nitrate-fed plants because they compensated the carbon cost of the rhizobia. However, sewage sludge-treated plants evidenced a loss of carbon sink strength due to N(2) fixation by means of decreased photosynthetic capacity, leaf chlorophylls and N concentration in comparison to untreated plants. Sewage sludge did no affect nodulation but decreased nodule enzyme activities involved in carbon and N metabolisms that may lead to accumulation of toxic N-compounds. PMID:20591568

Antolín, M Carmen; Fiasconaro, M Laura; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel



Analysis of the combustion of sewage sludge-derived fuel by a thermogravimetric method in China.  


The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge are significant environmental problems in China. The reuse of sewage sludge for fuel could be an effective solution. The aim of this study was to characterize the behavior of sludge-derived fuel during combustion by a thermogravimetric method. The combustion profiles obtained showed four obvious weight loss regions. The results of dynamics analysis showed that first-order reactions together with Arrhenius' law explained reasonably well the different stages of weight loss in the samples. Three temperature regions (162-327 degrees C, 367-445 degrees C, and 559-653 degrees C for sawdust and 162-286 degrees C, 343-532 degrees C, and 609-653 degrees C for coal) in each derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) curve corresponded well with the Arrhenius equation. The reactivity of sludge was lower than that of samples containing sawdust, but higher than that of coal-containing samples. These data demonstrate that sludge-derived fuel has better combustion characteristics than sludge, sawdust, or coal. PMID:20356726

Jiang, Jianguo; Du, Xuejuan; Yang, Shihui



Disinfection of municipal sewage sludges in installation equipped with electron accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growing awareness of environment pollution hazards causes more and more stringent waste disposal regulations in many countries which stimulate searching for new methods of waste disposal, the best of which is recycling them after suitable treatment. Sludges from municipal sewage treatment plants contain organic and inorganic components valuable as soil fertilizer, so if disinfected they can be beneficially recycled in agriculture instead of being burdensome waste. Investigations performed in many countries showed that irradiation with a suitable dose of gamma or electron beam radiation makes sewage sludges sanitary safe and usable as soil fertilizer immediately after treatment. This paper describes some results of investigations performed in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology and the Institute of Environmental Protection in Warsaw on the influence of 10 MeV electron beam on bacteria, parasites and parasite eggs present in sewage sludges from different municipal sewage treatment plants in Poland. Basic design parameters of the industrial installation elaborated on the basis of those experiments are presented, too.

Chmielewski, A. G.; Zimek, Z.; Bryl-Sandelewska, T.; Kosmal, W.; Kalisz, L.; Ka?mierczuk, M.



Sewage sludge addition to food waste synergistically enhances hydrogen fermentation performance.  


The effect of sewage sludge (SWS) addition on the H2 fermentation of food waste (FW) was investigated. It was found that a slight addition of SWS (10:1=FW:SWS on a COD basis) significantly enhanced the H2 fermentation performance, not only increasing the total amount of H2 produced but accelerating the whole reaction, shortening the lag period, and increasing the H2 production rate. Substrate degradation and microbial germination were also facilitated by SWS addition. A simple calculation reveals that the increased amount of H2 production derived mostly from FW, indicating that SWS addition synergistically enhanced H2 fermentation performance. This was attributed to the existence of Fe and Ca at much higher concentrations in the SWS compared to the FW. The batch process treating a mixture of FW and SWS was repeated and showed an average H2 yield of 2.11 ± 0.20 mol H2/mol hexose(added), which was 13% higher than that of FW treated alone. PMID:21571523

Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Mi-Sun; Shin, Hang-Sik



Biological hydrogen production by anaerobic digestion of food waste and sewage sludge treated using various pretreatment technologies.  


The purpose of this study was to enhance the efficiency of anaerobic co-digestion with sewage sludge using pretreatment technologies and food waste. We studied the effects of various pretreatment methods (thermal, chemical, ultrasonic, and their combination) on hydrogen production and the characteristics of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) using sewage sludge alone and a mixture of sewage sludge and food waste. The pretreatment combination of alkalization and ultrasonication performed best, effecting a high solubilization rate and high hydrogen production (13.8 mL H2/g VSSconsumed). At a food waste:pretreated sewage sludge ratio of 2:1 in the mixture, the peak hydrogen production value was 5.0 L H2/L/d. As the production of hydrogen increased, propionate levels fell but butyrate concentrations rose gradually. PMID:23389715

Kim, Seungjin; Choi, Kwangkeun; Kim, Jong-Oh; Chung, Jinwook



Addressing Uncertainty in the ISCORS Multimedia Radiological Dose Assessment of Municipal Sewage Sludge and Ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managing municipal wastewater at publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) leads to the production of considerable amounts of residual solid material, which is known as sewage sludge or biosolids. If the wastewater entering a POTW contains radioactive material, then the treatment process may concentrate radionuclides in the sludge, leading to possible exposure of the general public or the POTW workers. The Sewage Sludge Subcommittee of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS), which consists of representatives from the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Energy, and several other federal, state, and local agencies, is developing guidance for POTWs on the management of sewage sludge that may contain radioactive materials. As part of this effort, they are conducting an assessment of potential radiation exposures using the Department of Energy's RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) family of computer codes developed by Argonne National Laboratory. This poster describes several approaches used by the Subcommittee to address the uncertainties associated with their assessment. For instance, uncertainties in the source term are addressed through a combination of analytic and deterministic computer code calculations. Uncertainties in the exposure pathways are addressed through the specification of a number of hypothetical scenarios, some of which can be scaled to address changes in exposure parameters. In addition, the uncertainty in some physical and behavioral parameters are addressed through probabilistic methods.

Chiu, W. A.; Bachmaier, J.; Bastian, R.; Hogan, R.; Lenhart, T.; Schmidt, D.; Wolbarst, A.; Wood, R.; Yu, C.



Recent Developments in the Sandia Laboratories' Sewage Sludge Irradiation Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pathogen reduction studies have shown that a 1 Mrad treatment (or less at elevated temperatures) is very effective in eliminating pathogenic bacteria and viable parasite ova in liquid sludges. Heat is effective in reducing levels not only of pathogenic ba...

H. D. Sivinski J. R. Brandon M. E. Morris K. S. Neuhauser R. L. Ward



A Method for Concentrating Viruses Recovered from Sewage Sludges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Buffered 10% beef extract eluates of primary, activated, and anaerobic mesophilically digested sludges were concentrated 20-fold by the Katzenelson organic flocculation procedure after diluting the beef extract in the eluates to a final concentration of 3...

G. Berg D. Berman R. S. Safferman



Survival of faecal coliforms and hygiene risks in soils treated with municipal sewage sludges.  


An incubation experiment was conducted to monitor effect of sewage sludge application on changes in numbers of faecal coliforms in soils over time after sludge application and evaluate the hygiene risks. Soil faecal coliform counts were made after 1, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 84 days of incubation. The faecal coliform counts in the sludge-treated soils decreased substantially with time and were similar to those in the untreated controls after incubation for 56 days. Land application of air-dried sludges increased the hygiene risks due to the re-growth of faecal coliforms, and the counts of faecal coliforms in soil treated with air dried sludge from Suzhou (91% DM) were 50 times higher than in soils with fresh dewatered sludge from Suzhou (15% DM) after 7 days of incubation. The main factors affecting the changes in faecal coliform counts were sludge type and incubation time. Sludge type determined the faecal coliform counts and the ability of the faecal coliforms to re-establish, and indigenous microorganisms competed with the faecal coliforms for nutrients during the incubation process. PMID:16528588

Sun, Y H; Luo, Y M; Wu, L H; Li, Z G; Song, J; Christie, P


Relationship between pollutant content and ecotoxicity of sewage sludges from Spanish wastewater treatment plants.  


Chemical and ecotoxicological properties of 28 sewage sludge samples from Spanish wastewater treatment plants were studied in order to assess their suitability for agricultural purposes. Sludge samples were classified into five categories according to specific treatment processes in terms of digestion (aerobic/anaerobic) and drying (mechanical/thermal). Composted samples, as indicative of the most refined process, were also considered. Sludges were subjected to physical-chemical characterization, being the sludge stabilization degree respirometrically assessed. The concentrations of seven metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Hg) and organic substances (phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds) were determined. Finally, two ecotoxicological tests were performed: i) Microtox® toxicity test with Vibrio fischeri, and ii) root elongation test with Allium cepa, Lolium perenne and Raphanus sativus seeds. Significant differences were found in the following parameters: dry matter, electrical conductivity, nitrogen, organic matter and its stability, phytotoxicity and ecotoxicity, depending on the sludge treatment. In turn, no significant differences were found between categories in the concentrations of most metals and organic pollutants, with the exception of free phenolic compounds. Furthermore, no correlation between total heavy metal burden and ecotoxicity was observed. However, a good correlation was found between phenolic compounds and most ecotoxicological tests. These results suggest that sludge stability (conditioned by sludge treatment) might have a greater influence on sludge ecotoxicity than the pollutant load. Composting was identified as the treatment resulting in the lowest toxicity. PMID:22483948

Roig, Neus; Sierra, Jordi; Nadal, Martí; Martí, Esther; Navalón-Madrigal, Pedro; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L



Application of the severity parameter for predicting viscosity during hydrothermal processing of dewatered sewage sludge for a commercial PFBC plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dewatered sewage sludge (approximately 80% water, but with low fluidity) was liquidized by hydrothermal treatment in order to make coal–water paste (CWP) for use in a pressurized-fluidized-bed-combustion (PFBC) power plant. Prediction of the viscosity of the dewatered sewage sludge during batch reactor hydrothermal liquefaction is important in order to avoid inputting excess energy. A single parameter, the severity parameter, has

Takashi Yanagida; Shinji Fujimoto; Tomoaki Minowa



Effect of Metal-Rich Sewage Sludge Application on the Bacterial Communities of Grasslands  

PubMed Central

The effect of long-term application of heavy metal-laden sewage sludge on the total heterotrophic aerobic and the cadmium-resistant soil bacterial communities was studied. Gram-positive bacteria were completely absent from resistant communities. These findings suggest that this group is highly susceptible to Cd. Shannon's diversity indices estimated for total communities did not reveal negative effects on the communities that developed in the presence of sludge. However, Cd-resistant communities isolated from long-term sludge-amended soils were more diverse than the resistant communities from a control sample, suggesting that adaptation to Cd as a stressor had occurred in the presence of sludge constituents. This higher diversity was attributed to Cd resistance in pseudomonads and gram-negative fermenters. Resistance did not develop by dissemination of Cd resistance plasmids, because these were rarely detected in the genomes of resistant strains.

Barkay, Tamar; Tripp, Susan C.; Olson, Betty H.



Chesapeake Bay nutrient pollution: contribution from the land application of sewage sludge in Virginia.  


Human health concerns and the dissemination of anthropogenic substances with unknown consequences are the reasons most often given why disposal of municipal sewage sludge in landfills or using the organic waste as biofuel is preferable to land application. But no "fertilizer" causes more nitrogen pollution than sludge when applied according to Virginia law. Poultry litter is the only other "fertilizer" that causes more phosphorus pollution than sludge. Cost savings by the few farmers in Virginia who use sludge are far less than the costs of the nitrogen pollution they cause. A ban on the land application of all forms of animal waste is very cost-effective and would reduce Chesapeake Bay nutrient pollution by 25%. PMID:22831861

Land, Lynton S



Levels and distribution patterns of short chain chlorinated paraffins in sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plants in China.  


Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are listed as persistent organic pollutant candidates in the Stockholm Convention and are receiving more and more attentions worldwide. In general, concentrations of contaminants in sewage sludge can give an important indication on their pollution levels at a local/regional basis. In this study, SCCPs were investigated in sewage sludge samples collected from 52 wastewater treatment plants in China. Concentrations of total SCCPs (?SCCPs) in sludge were in the range of 0.80-52.7 ?g/g dry weight (dw), with a mean value of 10.7 ?g/g dw. Most of SCCPs in the sludge samples showed a similar congener distribution patterns, and C(11) and Cl(7,8) were identified as the dominant carbon and chlorine congener groups. Significant linear relationships were found among different SCCP congener groups (r(2) ? 0.9). High concentrations of SCCPs in sewage sludge imply that SCCPs are widely present in China. PMID:22035930

Zeng, Lixi; Wang, Thanh; Ruan, Ting; Liu, Qian; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin




SciTech Connect

This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and pulverized coal. The objective was to determine potential tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} mitigation through using a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel, such as municipal sewage sludge, and the emergence of other potential problems such as the emission of toxic fly ash particles. The work led to new insight into mechanisms governing the partitioning of major and trace metals from the combustion of sewage sludge, and mixtures of coal and sewage sludge. The research also showed that the co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge emitted fine particulate matter that might potentially cause greater lung injury than that from the combustion of either coal alone or municipal sewage sludge alone. The reason appeared to be that the toxicity measured required the presence of large amounts of both zinc and sulfur in particles that were inhaled. MSS provided the zinc while coal provided the sulfur. Additional research showed that the toxic effects could most likely be engineered out of the process, through the introduction of kaolinite sorbent downstream of the combustion zone, or removing the sulfur from the fuel. These results are consequences of applying ''Health Effects Engineering'' to this issue. Health Effects Engineering is a new discipline arising out of this work, and is derived from using a collaboration of combustion engineers and toxicologists to mitigate the potentially bad health effects from combustion of this biomass fuel.

Jost O.L. Wendt; Wayne S. Seames; Art Fernandez



Isotopic distribution of carbon from sewage sludge and eutrophication in the sediments and food web of estuarine ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable isotope ratios (δ¹³C) from samples of water, sediments, and biota traced the behavior of organic carbon for 3 summer months in estuarine mesocosms (three controls, three with added sewage sludge, three with added inorganic nutrients). Isotope ratios proved to be a useful quantitative tracer for sewage carbon as well as for the fresh phytoplanktonic carbon produced during nutrient fertilization.

Patrick J. Gearing; Juanita N. Gearing; James T. Maughan; Candace A. Oviatt



Ground-Water Quality near a Sewage-Sludge Recycling Site and a Landfill near Denver, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the City and County of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the gro...

S. G. Robson




EPA Science Inventory

Modern sanitary practices result in large volumes of human waste, as well as domestic and industrial sewage, being collected and treated at common collection points, wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). In recognition of the growing use of sewage sludges as a fertilizers and as so...


Infrared wave analysis after hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitation as effective method of confirming sewage sludge destruction.  


The efficiency of disintegration of sewage sludge cells microorganisms were characterized using biochemical parameters such as COD, phosphate, ammonium nitrogen and proteins. The investigated process was additionally assessed using the coefficient DD (Degree of Disintegration). It has been demonstrated that a 30-min of hydrodynamic and ultrasonic disintegration causes the soluble COD value increased about 300 mg /L and 190 mg /L (average), while the degree of disintegration reached 24% and 21%, respectively. The efficiency of sewage sludge hydrodynamic and ultrasonic disintegration was confirmed by increased release of phosphate (V) (from 4 to 54 mg PO(3-) 4/L and to 50 mg PO(3-) 4/L, respectively), ammonium nitrogen (from 1.5 to 4 mg N-NH(+) 4/L and to 3.5 mg N-NH(+) 4/L, respectively) and proteins (from 5 to 70 mg/L and to 60 mg/L, respectively). The effectiveness of surplus activated sludge disintegration was tested in the infrared spectrum. Changes in absorbance at the specified wavelength attest to a release of i.e., amines, amino acids, amide groups (proteins), phosphates, ammonium salts of carboxylic acid, etc. during disintegration time. Revealing these chemical groups in over-sludge liquids attests to a destructive influence of hydrodynamic and ultrasonic cavitation on activated sludge microorganisms and effective cells lysis. PMID:24117089

Gr?bel, Klaudiusz; Machnicka, Alicja



Beneficial uses of nuclear byproducts/sewage sludge irradiation project. Progress report, October 1981-March 1982  

SciTech Connect

A cooperative agreement was made between Albuquerque and DOE during FY81 for sewage sludge irradiation in upgrading the sewage treatment facilities. Other potential sites for implementation of sludge irradiation technology were also considered. Sludge was irradiated in the SIDSS for agronomy and animal feeding experiments. Sludge was also irradiated for use on turf areas. Cooperative work was also performed on grapefruit irradiation for fruit fly disinfestation, and on irradiation of sugar cane waste (bagasse) for enhanced ruminant digestibility. Preliminary design work began on a shipping cask to accomodate WESF Cs-137 capsules. The shielding performance, steady-state thermal response, and response to specified regulatory accident sequences have been evaluated. Work has been initiated on pathogen survival and post-irradiation pathogen behavior. Agronomy field, greenhouse, and soil chemistry studies continue. Various field experiments are ongoing. The fifth year of a five-year program to evaluate the potential use of a sludge product as a range feed supplement for cows is now in its fifth year. In agricultural economics, a preliminary marketing plan has been prepared for Albuquerque.

Zak, B.D. (ed.)



Devolatilization and ash comminution of two different sewage sludges under fluidized bed combustion conditions  

SciTech Connect

Two different wet sewage sludges have been characterized under fluidized bed combustion conditions with reference to their devolatilization behavior and ash comminution with the aid of different and complementary experimental protocols. Analysis of the devolatilization process allowed to determine the size of fuel particle able to achieve effective lateral spreading of the volatile matter across the cross-section of medium-scale combustors. Primary fragmentation and primary ash particle characterization pointed out the formation of a significant amount of relatively large fragments. The mechanical properties of these fragments have been characterized by means of elutriation/abrasion tests using both quartz and sludge ash beds. (author)

Solimene, R.; Urciuolo, M.; Cammarota, A.; Chirone, R. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione (IRC) - CNR, Napoli (Italy); Salatino, P. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione (IRC) - CNR, Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Damonte, G.; Donati, C.; Puglisi, G. [ECODECO Gruppo A2A, Giussago (PV) (Italy)



Environmental effects of using clay bricks produced with sewage sludge: leachability and toxicity studies.  


Use of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants as a raw material for making clay bricks has been analyzed to be an option to dumping sludges into landfills. This alternative has been shown feasible and interesting due to the high rate of use of ceramic materials in the building sector. However, it meets with some environmental issues and some prejudices on the part of users. This work shows some leachability and toxicity tests (outgassing and offgassing) which demonstrate the environmental compatibility of these ceramic products to be used as building materials and even in deconstruction of the building once its useful life is ended. PMID:22265004

Cusidó, Joan A; Cremades, Lázaro V



Microbial characteristics of a methanogenic phenol-degrading sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial properties of a methanogenic granular phenol-degrading sludge were characterized using the 16S rRNA\\/DNA-based techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, cloning, DNA sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The sludge was sampled from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor, which removed 98% of phenol (up to 1260mg\\/l) in wastewater at 268C with 12 hours of hydraulic retention. Based

T. Zhang; S. Z. Ke; Y. Liu; H. P. Fang



RecoPhos: full-scale fertilizer production from sewage sludge ash.  


The substitution potential of sewage sludge for German primary phosphate imports has been estimated as 40%. Yet, a marketable option for the full scale recovery has been lacking. This study focuses on a full-scale process for the manufacture of a P-fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA) adapted from the production of Triple Superphosphate. Given (i) conformity of the input with phosphate ores mined from sedimentary deposits, (ii) comparability of the product with a commercially available P-fertilizer regarding contaminant levels, P-fractionation and yield effects, and (iii) compliance of the output with the German Fertilizer Ordinance the RecoPhos P 38 fertilizer was discharged from the waste legislation regime. The fertilizer is currently being produced at a rate of 1000 tonnes per month and sold at a competitive price. PMID:22878049

Weigand, Harald; Bertau, Martin; Hübner, Wilfried; Bohndick, Fred; Bruckert, Axel



Detection and quantification of viable Ascaris sp. and other helminth eggs in sewage sludge.  


Some epidemiologic studies conducted in developing countries demonstrated a high incidence of enteroparasites, Ascaris sp. being the most prevalent. Therefore, the use of sewage sludge in agriculture may pose risks to human health. In order to protect public health, a Brazilian regulation has established standards regarding its use in rural areas. The objective of this study was to quantify Ascaris sp. and other helminth eggs in sewage sludge from five wastewater treatment plants from a dense metropolitan region, and also to check compliance with the law. The analysis was carried according to USEPA 2003 . A rich parasitological fauna was found, with a prevalence of the eggs of Ascaris sp. (9.55%). The samples analyzed presented a large variety of helminth eggs, and Ascaris sp. proved to be the most prevalent which put in evidence that its application poses public health concerns. PMID:23072414

Bastos, Veridiana Karmann; Cutolo, Silvana Audra; Doria, Maria do Carmo Oliveira; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe



Gasification of sewage sludge and other biomass for hydrogen production in supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

Digested sewage sludge and other biomass such as wood sawdust can be mixed with a corn starch gel to form a viscous paste. The paste can be delivered to a supercritical flow reactor by means of a cement pump. Different types of feedstocks are used in this work sewage sludge (up to 7.69 wt%) mixed in the corn starch paste. When rapidly heated in a flow reactor at pressures above the critical pressure of water (22 MPa) the paste vaporizes. A packed bed of carbon catalyst in the reactor operating at 650 C causes the tarry vapors to react with water, producing hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and some methane with a trace of carbon monoxide. Thus the authors describe a practical method for the total, supercritical steam reforming of biomass to produce hydrogen at high pressure. The steam reforming process produces effectively no tar. Its only products are a hydrogen rich gas, and a clean water, which can be recycled.

Xu, X.; Antal, M.J. Jr. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)



High-rate composting of barley dregs with sewage sludge in a pilot scale bioreactor.  


The feasibility of high-rate composting of barley dregs and sewage sludge was examined using a pilot scale bioreactor. A central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the mix ratio of barley dregs/sewage sludge and moisture content. The performance of the bioreactor was monitored as a function of carbon decomposition rate (CDR) and total volatile solids (TVS) loss rate. The optimum range of mix ratio and moisture content was found to be 35-40% and 55-60%, respectively. High CO2 evolution rate (CER) and TVS loss rate were observed after 3 days of the composting and the compost was matured/stable after 7 days. Cardinal temperature model with inflection (CTMI) was used to analyze the compost stability with respect to CER as a parameter of composting efficiency. After examining the phytotoxicity, the compost can be promoted for land application. PMID:17606369

Lu, Li-An; Kumar, Mathava; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Lin, Jih-Gaw



Effect of liming on the distribution of heavy metals in untreated industrial sewage sludge produced in Pakistan for the cultivation of Sorghum bicolor (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recycling of sewage sludge on agriculture land represents an alternative, advantageous, disposal of this waste material.\\u000a The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using industrial sewage sludge, produced in Pakistan, as a\\u000a fertiliser. Agricultural soil amended with 25% (w\\/w) sewage sludge with or without lime treatment was used for growing a variety\\u000a of sorghum

Mohammad Khan Jamali; Tasneem Gul Kazi; Mohammad Bilal Arain; Hassan Imran Afridi; Nusrat Jalbani; Jameel A. Baig; Abdul Niaz



Ultrasonic treatment on activated sewage sludge from petro-plant for reduction.  


In this essay, the influences of low frequency ultrasound (20 kHz) on dewater ability and anaerobic digestion behaviors of activated sewage sludge, obtained from Yangzi Water Treatment Plant, Yangzi Petrochemical Corporation, were discussed. Ultrasound pretreatment could enhance the filtration progress and decrease the moisture content of the sludge from 99% to 80%. Together with flocculant, the ultrasound pretreatment decreased the specific filtration resistance (SFR) of the sludge from 3.59 x 10(12) m/kg to 1.18 x 10(12) m/kg and saved about 25-50% of the flocculant dosage. Bound water of the sludge was measured by dilatometer. After 2-4 min treatment of ultrasound under intensity of 400 W/m(2), the bound water of sludge decreased from 16.7 g/g (dry base) to above 2.0 g/g (dry base). Ultrasound pretreatment could also enhance digestion and reduce digestion time. To the same resolution ratio, such as 49%, the digestion time of sludge with ultrasound pretreatment was 7 days less than that without ultrasound. Proper ultrasound pretreatment could also improve the dewater ability of the digested sludge, the final moisture of which was 73.7%. PMID:17055018

Yin, Xuan; Lu, Xiaoping; Han, Pingfang; Wang, Yanru



Life cycle GHG emissions of sewage sludge treatment and disposal options in Tai Lake Watershed, China.  


The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge generate considerable amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pose environmental and economic challenges to wastewater treatment in China. To achieve a more informed and sustainable sludge management, this study conducts a life cycle inventory to investigate the GHG performances of six scenarios involving various sludge treatment technologies and disposal strategies. These scenarios are landfilling (S1), mono-incineration (S2), co-incineration (S3), brick manufacturing (S4), cement manufacturing (S5), and fertilizer for urban greening (S6). In terms of GHG emissions, S2 demonstrates the best performance with its large offset from sludge incineration energy recovery, followed by S4 and S6, whereas S1 demonstrates the poorest performance primarily because of its large quantity of methane leaks. The scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. In most scenarios, GHG performance could be improved by using waste gas or steam from existing facilities for drying sludge. Furthermore, considering the GHG performance along with economic, health, and other concerns, S6 is recommended. We thus suggest that local governments promote the use of composted sludge as urban greening fertilizers. In addition, the use of sludge with 60% water content, in place of the current standard of 80%, in wastewater treatment plants is proposed to be the new standard for Tai Lake Watershed in China. PMID:23410857

Liu, Beibei; Wei, Qi; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun



Emission characteristics of granulated fuel produced from sewage sludge and coal slime.  


The neutralization of wastewater treatment residues is an issue for many countries. The European Union (EU) legal regulations have limited the use of the residues in agriculture and implemented a ban for their disposal. Therefore, urgent action should be taken to find solutions for the safe disposal of sewage sludge. The problem refers in particular to the new EU member countries, including Poland, where one can now observe an intensive development of sewage system networks and new sewage treatment plants. At the same time, these countries have few installations for thermal sewage sludge utilization (e.g., there is only one installation of that type in Poland). Simultaneously, there are many coal-fired mechanical stoker-fired boilers in some of these countries. This paper presents suggestions for the production of granulated fuel from sewage sludge and coal slime. Additionally, among others, lime was added to the fuel to decrease the sulfur compounds emission. Results are presented of research on fuel with two average grain diameters (approximately 15 and 35 mm). The fuel with such diameters is adapted to the requirements of the combustion process taking place in a stoker-fired boiler. The research was aimed at identifying the behavior of the burning fuel, with special attention paid to its emission properties (e.g., to the emissions of oxides of nitrogen [NO(x)], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and carbon monoxide [CO], among others). The concentration and emission values were compared with similar results obtained while burning hard coal. The combustion process was carried out in a laboratory stand where realization of the large-scale tests is possible. The laboratory stand used made simulation possible for a wide range of burning processes in mechanical stoker-fired boilers. PMID:21243903

Wzorek, Ma?gorzata; Kozio?, Micha?; Scierski, Waldemar



Processing of sewage sludge: Dependence of sludge dewatering efficiency on amount of flocculant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper presents results of experimental dewatering of stabilized sludge analysis and study. The experiments were carried out at a small waste water treatment plant (15,000 population equivalent). Experiment focused on impact of consumption of flocculant and centrifuge load on quality of dewatered sludge and centrate. Dry solids in dewatered sludge and content of undissolved particles in the centrate were observed

Jaroslav Borá?; Lucie Houdková; Thomas Elsäßer



Soil Contamination by some Organic Micropollutants Related to Sewage Sludge Spreading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present publication is to give some information on soil contamination by 4 different micropollutant classes due to sewage sludge spreading.The soil under reserch shown an accumulation of light molecular weight PAHs and PCBs, DEHP and 4-NP just after spreading, but one month later the con-centration of these micropollutant groups fall to the concentration detected just before

P. Diercxsens; J. Tarradellas



A kinetic study of a membrane anaerobic reactor (MAR) for treatment of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of kinetic models (Monod, Contois and Chen & Hashimoto) and overall microbial kinetic on the membrane anaerobic reactor (MAR) for treatment of sewage sludge was investigated. The system consists of a cross-flow ultrafiltration membrane and six steady states were attained over a range of mixed liquor suspended solids of 12,760–21,800 mg\\/l. The results of all six steady states

A. G. Liew Abdullah; A. Idris; F. R. Ahmadun; B. S. Baharin; F. Emby; M. J. Megat Mohd Noor; A. H. Nour



Low biodegradability of fluoxetine HCl, diazepam and their human metabolites in sewage sludge-amended soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  The European Union banned disposal of sewage sludge (SS) at sea in Europe in 1998. Since that time, the application rate of\\u000a SS to land has risen significantly and is set to rise further. Fifty-two percent of SS was disposed to land in the UK in 2000.\\u000a Land application is, thus, possibly an important transport route for

Clare H. Redshaw; Martin P. Cooke; Helen M. Talbot; Steve McGrath; Steven J. Rowland



Solubility of Trace Elements and Heavy Metals from Stabilized Sewage Sludge by Fly Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stabilized sewage sludge (SS) by fly ash (FA) and alkaline mine tailing as artificial soil, to be applied on the ecological\\u000a rehabilitation at mining junkyard, offers a potential viable utilization of the industrial by-product, as well as solves the\\u000a shortage of soil resource in mine area. In this study, trace element and heavy metal soil solution concentrations arising\\u000a from fly

Zhang Hongling; Sun Lina; Sun Tieheng



Mercury speciation in sediments at a municipal sewage sludge marine disposal site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury speciation was performed in excess activated sewage sludge (ASS) and in marine sediments collected at the AAS disposal site off the Mediterranean coast of Israel in order to characterize the spatial and vertical distribution of different mercury species and assess their environmental impact. Total Hg (HgT) concentrations ranged between 0.19 and 1003ng\\/g at the polluted stations and 5.7 and

E. Shoham-Frider; G. Shelef; N. Kress



Enzyme activities as indicators of the stabilization of sewage sludges composting with Eisenia foetida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolution of earthworm (Eisenia foetida, Savigny) biomass and changes in enzyme activities during 18 weeks of sewage sludge vermicomposting were studied. With time, hydrolase (?-glucosidase, urease, BAA-hydrolysing protease and phosphatase) and dehydrogenase (DH-ase) activities decreased as available organic compounds (water-soluble carbon) decreased. A high correlation among all enzyme activities and between each activity and the water-soluble carbon (WSC) led to

E. Benitez; R. Nogales; C. Elvira; G. Masciandaro; B. Ceccanti



Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment processes and disposal of sewage sludges. Topics include resource and energy recovery operations, land disposal, composting, ocean disposal, and incineration. Digestion, dewatering, and disinfection are among the pretreatment processes discussed. Environmental aspects, including the effects on soils, plants, and animals, are also presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available



Toxicity of xenobiotics during sulfate, iron, and nitrate reduction in primary sewage sludge suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect and persistence of six organic xenobiotics was tested under sulfate-, iron-, and nitrate-reducing conditions in primary sewage sludge suspensions. The xenobiotics tested were acenaphthene, phenanthrene, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB) added to initial analytical concentrations of 54–117mgL?1. The suspensions were incubated at 30°C for 15 weeks and rates of sulfate, iron, and

Lars Elsgaard



The Concentration of Mild-Extracted Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sewage Sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluates the content of the mild-solvent extracted fraction of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Ten compounds from the US EPA list (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chryzene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene oraz indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene) were chosen. The compounds were extracted with n-butanol from 11 sewage sludges that differed both in the total PAH content and in their physicochemical properties. On

Patryk Oleszczuk; Stanis?aw Baran



The deep-ocean option for the disposal of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present methods of disposal of high-bulk low-toxicity wastes, such as sewage sludge, into shallow marine environments are beginning to be questioned by many environmentalists. The alternative options generally considered all have environmental costs. A novel approach of discharging such wastes as slurries into the deep ocean at depths of 4,000 m close to the abyssal sea bed is considered. Such

Martin V Angel



Phosphorus sorption and availability in soils amended with animal manures and sewage sludge.  


Soils that receive large applications of animal wastes and sewage sludge are vulnerable to releasing environmentally significant concentrations of dissolved P available to subsurface flow owing to the gradual saturation of the soil's P sorption capacity. This study evaluated P sorption (calculated from Langmuir isotherms) and availability of P (as CaCl2-P and resin P) in soils incubated for 20 d with poultry litter, poultry manure, cattle slurry, municipal sewage sludge, or KH2PO4, added on a P-equivalent basis (100 mg P kg(-1)). All the P sources had a marked negative effect on P sorption and a positive effect on P availability in all soils. In the cattle slurry- and KH2PO4-treated soils, the decreases in P sorption maximum (19-66%) and binding energy (25-89%) were consistently larger than the corresponding decreases (7-41% and 11-30%) in poultry litter-, poultry manure-, and sewage sludge-treated soils. The effects of cattle slurry and KH2PO4 on P availability were, in most cases, larger than those of the other P sources. In the poultry litter, poultry manure, and sewage sludge treatments, the increase in soil solution P was inversely related (R2 = 0.75) to the input of Ca from these relatively high Ca (13.5-42 g kg(-1)) sources. Correlation analyses implied that the magnitude of the changes in P sorption and availability was not related to the water-extractable P content of the P sources. Future research on the sustainable application of organic wastes to agricultural soils needs to consider the non-P- as well as P-containing components of the waste. PMID:12809313

Siddique, Muhammad Tariq; Robinson, J Stephen


DTG-DTAstudy of sewage sludge used in the sorption of Cd2+ and Co2+  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out for evaluating the retention behavior\\u000a of sanitary sewage in relation to cadmium and cobalt ions in an ascendant\\u000a continuous-flow reactor. It was found that the studied sludge presented a\\u000a high assimilation of the metals, probably due to the presence of anionic groups,\\u000a which favors adsorption and complexation processes. Thermal analyses of the\\u000a samples showed

A. J. M. Barros; S. Prasad; V. D. Leite; A. G. Souza; G. Marino; Crislene R. S. Morais; Marta M. Conceição



Transformation and availability of nutrients and heavy metals during integrated composting-vermicomposting of sewage sludges.  


Transformation and availability of nutrients and some heavy metals were assessed during the integrated composting-vermicomposting of both primary sewage sludge (PSS) and waste activated sewage sludge (WAS) using matured vermicompost as indigenous bulking material and employing Eisenia fetida as earthworm species. Vermicomposting resulted in significant increase in total N (TN) (PSS: 41.7-64.6%, F=11.6, P<0.05; WAS: 36.4-58.6%, F=6.4, P<0.05), water soluble N (WSN) (PSS: 37.1-50.5%, F=30.1, P<0.05; WAS: 40.1-53.0%, F=27.6, P<0.05), total P (TP) (PSS: 39.9-69.8%, F=27.1, P<0.05; WAS: 32.2-56.6%, F=21.4, P<0.05) and water soluble P (WSP) (PSS: 25.2-34.3%, F=163.9, P<0.05; WAS: 24.1-34.2%, F=144.3, P<0.05) as compared to the initial compost material depending on different experimental conditions. The study demonstrated that the vermicomposting significantly improved the availability of nutrients in sewage sludges. In addition, vermicomposting considerably reduced the availability of heavy metals except Fe and Mn, presumably by forming organic-bound complexes in spite of several fold increase in their total content. The environmental conditions (i.e., temperature and relative humidity), in general, showed significant effect on the transformation and availability of nutrients and heavy metals. There was no effect of earthworm density on the transformation and availability of heavy metals and nutrients except N and P, possibly due to prior exposure during acclimation period in sewage sludge. PMID:22277776

Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod



Fermentative hydrogen production with Clostridium butyricum CGS5 isolated from anaerobic sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Clostridium butyricum strain, isolated from hydrogen-producing sewage sludge, was examined for its ability to produce H2 from sucrose-based medium under different medium composition, pH, and carbon substrate concentration. The strain, designated as C. butyricum CGS5, grew and produced hydrogen efficiently on iron-containing medium. Hydrogen started to evolve when cell growth entered mid-exponential phase and reached maximum production rate at

Wen-Ming Chen; Ze-Jing Tseng; Kuo-Shing Lee; Jo-Shu Chang



Arsenic chemistry in municipal sewage sludge as affected by redox potential and pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This laboratory experiment systematically examines As speciation and solubility in sewage sludge suspensions as affected by pH and redox potential (Eh). Under oxidizing conditions, As solubility was low with the major portion of soluble As present as organic species; dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) was always the dominant organic species. Under moderately reducing conditions (0–100mV), arsenite was the major inorganic As species

A. A Carbonell-Barrachina; A Jugsujinda; F Burlo; R. D Delaune; W. H Patrick



Chemical reactions during the preparation of P and NPK fertilizers from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper we show how P and NPK fertilizers can be prepared from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ashes (SSA) and which chemical reactions occur during these post-treatment steps. The SSA used for this investigation was treated thermochemically at a temperature of 1,000°C in a rotary kiln after the addition of calcium chloride hydrate or magnesium chloride hydrate to

Christian Vogel; Christian Adam; Burkhard Peplinski; Stephan Wellendorf



Reduction of microbial density level in sewage sludge through pH adjustment and ultrasonic treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This work investigated the effects of using ultrasound and pH-value adjustment on the microbial density levels in sewage sludge, with total coliform and heterotrophic-plate-count (HPC) bacteria as the microbial indices. Application of ultrasound at a high intensity level could sufficiently disinfect both the total coliform and HPC bacteria. Adjustment of pH value could also disinfect the micro-organisms in the

D. s. Jean; Bv. Chang; G. s. Liao; G. w. Tsou; D. j. Lee


Organic Contaminants in Canadian Municipal Sewage Sludge. Part II. Persistent Chlorinated Compounds and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five sewage sludge samples collected across Canada were analyzed for 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 17 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven selected chlorinated compounds. Samples were prepared by accelerated solvent extraction and standard column cleanup procedures using silica gel and Florisil. Gas chromatography with electron-capture detection was used for the determination of PCBs. Gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry with elec-

Jagmohan Kohli; Hing-Biu Lee; Thomas E. Peart


Chemical properties and enzyme activity in a sewage sludge-treated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soil sample was taken from the top 0–20 cm at Jaboticabal county, São Paulo State, Brazil, air dried, sieved to 5 mm, and placed into pots (2700 g per pot). Sewage sludge was air-dried, ground to 2 mm, and thoroughly mixed to the top 0–10 cm soil of each pot, which were irrigated with distilled water in a total volume equivalent to the last

Wanderley José de Melo; Marcos Omir Marques; Manoel Evaristo Ferreira; Gabriel Maurício Peruca de Melo; Valéria Peruca de Melo



Levels and distributions of polychlorinated biphenyls in sewage sludge of urban wastewater treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been measured in sewage sludge samples from 8 urban wastewater treatment plants in Beijing, China. The PCB congeners were analyzed by isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography\\/high resolution mass spectrometry method. The concentration of PCBs ranged from 65.6 to 157 ng\\/g dry weight (dw), with a mean value of 101 ng\\/g dw. The dioxin-like

Li GUO; Bing ZHANG; Ke XIAO; Qinghua ZHANG; Minghui ZHENG



Behaviour and occurrence of estrogens in municipal sewage treatment plants — II. Aerobic batch experiments with activated sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic batch experiments containing a diluted slurry of activated sludge from a real sewage treatment plant (STP) near Frankfurt\\/Main were undertaken, in order to investigate the persistence of natural estrogens and contraceptives under aerobic conditions. The batch experiments showed that while in contact with activated sludge the natural estrogen 17?-estradiol was oxidized to estrone, which was further eliminated in the

T. A Ternes; P Kreckel; J Mueller



The growth of Agropyron elongatum in an artificial soil mix from coal fly ash and sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse experiment was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using an artificial soil medium produced from alkaline coal fly ash and sewage sludge for the growth of Agropyron elongatum (tall wheat grass). Sludge was amended with ash at an application rate of 0, 5, 10, 35 and 50% (w\\/w). Each mixture was then mixed with a loamy soil at

J. W. C. Wong; D. C. Su



Effects of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LASs) in Sewage Sludge–Amended Soils on Nutrient Contents of Broccoli Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge is used in agriculture as a fertilizer and an organic amendment to improve physical and chemical soil properties. However, sludge contains organic compounds, such as surfactants, which may be toxic in the soil–plant system. The effects on plants of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), a group of anionic surfactants that are widely used in detergent products, have not been

Daniel Prats; Raul Moral; Concepcion Paredes; Victor León




Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the sludge resistant to step and transient hydraulic shock loads have been investigated into two types of sludge, flocculent against granular, in the UASB reactors treating sewage with high solids contents. In this experiment, decreasing in the HRT (step shock loads) was used to examine how far the HRT can be further reduced without considerable change in

Tarek Sabry



Reclamation of a landfill with digested sewage sludge. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Calumet land reclamation project developed design criteria for applying liquid fertilizer (sludge) to land and demonstrated the beneficial and economic use of it in raising crops. The scope of the project included developing a pipeline system to transport liquid fertilizer to the application site, determining yields, analyzing plant tissue of the crops grown, observing the soil changes effected by

R. R. Rimkus; R. O. Carlson; D. B. Wunderlich




EPA Science Inventory

Buffered 10% beef extract eluates of primary, activated, and anaerobic mesophilically digested sludges were concentrated 20-fold by the Katzenelson organic flocculation procedure after diluting the beef extract in the eluates to a final concentration of 3%. The weighted mean reco...



EPA Science Inventory

Studies were conducted to determine the impact of heavy metals in sludge-fertilized corn silage on the food and feed chain when the silage containing up to 5.26 mg Cd/kg was fed to dairy goats and feeder lambs. Neither health nor performance of the goats or lambs were significant...


Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine  

SciTech Connect

Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (< 5-m depth) from sludge-treated spoil (pH 5.9) were not elevated relative to untreated spoil (pH 4.4). In contrast, concentrations of nitrate were elevated in vadose water samples from sludge-treated spoil, frequently exceeding 10 mg/L. Downgradient decreases in nitrate to less than 3 mg/L and increases in sulfate concentrations in underlying ground water could result from oxidation of pyrite by nitrate. Thus, sewage sludge added to pyritic spoil can increase the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

Cravotta, C.A. III [Geological Survey, Lemoyne, PA (United States)



Time-trends of metals and organic contaminants in sewage sludge.  


The occurrence of chemicals in sludge from sewage treatment plants (STPs) is of concern for human health and the environment. Legislations and regulations are put in place to minimize the release of harmful chemicals into the environment and arable land, e.g. via application of sewage sludge. Temporal trends analysis of sludge contaminants can be used to assess the effectiveness of such actions. Such analyses can be performed retrospectively, using sludge stored in environmental specimen banks, to investigate new or emerging environmental contaminants. The present study provides data from time-trend analyses of metals, persistent organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and other organic compounds in sludge from Swedish. The analysis showed that sludge is a suitable matrix for time-trend studies and it can take on average 12 years (range, 5-26 years) to track an annual change of ±10% (with a power of 80%). Statistically significant trends were found for 18 out of the 77 compounds subjected to analysis, of which 75% showed decreasing trends. Triclosan and the antibiotic norfloxacin followed the same trend as the national recorded usage and decreased annually by 65% and 60%, respectively. The opposite was true for the methylsiloxanes, which showed an annual average increase of about 30%. A downward trend (about 20% year?¹) was observed for the polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs 154 and 183), while PBDE 209 increased by 16%. Further measurements are required to determine if the substitution of PBDEs by chlorinated paraffins or organophosphorus compounds have resulted in increased concentrations of the latter in sludge. PMID:22763293

Olofsson, Ulrika; Bignert, Anders; Haglund, Peter



Food waste co-digestion with sewage sludge--realising its potential in the UK.  


The application of anaerobic co-digestion of food waste with sewage sludge, although well established in many European countries, is still in its infancy in the UK. This process has many benefits to offer, with a successful application often associated with increased renewable energy potential, outweighing constraints associated with the variability of food waste and its handling requirements prior to co-digestion. With both regulations and water infrastructures designed and constructed on the basis of linear views and sectorial requirements and conditions and technologies from the past in many parts of the world, in the UK, sewage sludge and food waste digestion operations are also under very different regulatory and management regimes. With sustainability requiring that we do not address single issues in isolation, but through a systems approach that delivers integrated solutions, co-digestion of food waste with sewage sludge could become such a solution. If carefully applied, co-digestion can deliver beneficial synergies for the water industry and authorities responsible for food waste management. The collaboration of all relevant stakeholders and regulators to support changes to current regulatory frameworks to enable this, is proposed as the way forward, particularly as their complexity has been identified as the major hurdle to the implementation of co-digestion in the UK. PMID:22940124

Iacovidou, Eleni; Ohandja, Dieudonné-Guy; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos



Decline in PCDD and PCDF levels in sewage sludges from Catalonia (Spain)  

SciTech Connect

Nineteen sewage sludges from rural and urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Catalonia (Spain) were analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs using HRGC-HRMS to determine the present levels of contamination. Total I-TEQ values for these samples ranged from 7 to 160 pg/g, with a mean value of 55 pg/g and a median value of 42 pg/g. Moreover, archived sewage sludge samples collected and stored between 1979 and 1987 from 15 WWTPs were analyzed to gain some insight into temporal trends and possible variations in source inputs. Total I-TEQ values for archived samples ranged from 29 to 8300 pg/g, with a mean value of 620 pg/g and a median value of 110 pg/g. The findings show that contemporary sewage sludge PCDD/F concentrations have declined since the 1980s. In addition to the variations in PCDD and PCDF concentrations, there were also some changes in the isomeric patterns. These variations in levels and isomeric patterns could reflect changes in PCDD and PCDF sources to the environment over time.

Eljarrat, E.; Caixach, J.; Rivera, J. (C.S.I.C., Barcelona (Spain). Mass Spectrometry Lab.)



Sampling of tar from sewage sludge gasification using solid phase adsorption.  


Sewage sludge is a residue from wastewater treatment plants which is considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Gasification technology is a potential source of renewable energy that converts the sewage sludge into gases that can be used to generate energy or as raw material in chemical synthesis processes. But tar produced during gasification is one of the problems for the implementation of the gasification technology. Tar can condense on pipes and filters and may cause blockage and corrosion in the engines and turbines. Consequently, to minimize tar content in syngas, the ability to quantify tar levels in process streams is essential. The aim of this work was to develop an accurate tar sampling and analysis methodology using solid phase adsorption (SPA) in order to apply it to tar sampling from sewage sludge gasification gases. Four types of commercial SPA cartridges have been tested to determine the most suitable one for the sampling of individual tar compounds in such streams. Afterwards, the capacity, breakthrough volume and sample stability of the Supelclean™ ENVI-Carb/NH(2), which is identified as the most suitable, have been determined. Basically, no significant influences from water, H(2)S or NH(3) were detected. The cartridge was used in sampling real samples, and comparable results were obtained with the present and traditional methods. PMID:22526666

Ortiz González, Isabel; Pérez Pastor, Rosa Ma; Sánchez Hervás, José Ma



Experimental study of the bio-oil production from sewage sludge by supercritical conversion process.  


Environment-friendly treatment of sewage sludge has become tremendously important. Conversion of sewage sludge into energy products by environment-friendly conversion process, with its energy recovery and environmental benefits, is being paid significant attention. Direct liquefaction of sewage sludge into bio-oils with supercritical water (SCW) was therefore put forward in this study, as de-water usually requiring intensive energy input is not necessary in this direct liquefaction. Supercritical water may act as a strong solvent and also a reactant, as well as catalyst promoting reaction process. Experiments were carried out in a self designed high-pressure reaction system with varying operating conditions. Through orthogonal experiments, it was found that temperature and residence time dominated on bio-oil yield compared with other operating parameters. Temperature from 350 to 500°C and reaction residence time of 0, 30, 60min were accordingly investigated in details, respectively. Under supercritical conversion, the maximum bio-oil yield could achieve 39.73%, which was performed at 375°C and 0min reaction residence time. Meanwhile, function of supercritical water was concluded. Fuel property analysis showed the potential of bio-oil application as crude fuel. PMID:23816312

Wang, Yan; Chen, Guanyi; Li, Yanbin; Yan, Beibei; Pan, Donghui



Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with shredded grass from public green spaces.  


Adding greenery from public spaces to the co-digestion process with sewage sludge was evaluated by shredding experiments and laboratory-scale batch and continuous mesophilic anaerobic fermentation experiments. The ratio of the shredded grass with 20mm or less in length by a commercially available shredder was 93%. The methane production was around 0.2NL/gVS-grass in the batch experiment. The continuous experiment fed with sewage sludge and shredded grass was stably operated for 81days. The average methane production was 0.09NL/gVS-grass when the TS ratio of the sewage sludge and the grass was 10:1. This value was smaller than those of other reports using grass silage, but the grass species in this study were not managed, and the collected grass was just shredded and not ensiled before feeding to the reactor for simple operation. The addition of grass to a digester can improve the carbon/nitrogen ratio, methane production and dewaterability. PMID:23334025

Hidaka, Taira; Arai, Sayuri; Okamoto, Seiichiro; Uchida, Tsutomu



Root penetration of sealing layers made of fly ash and sewage sludge.  


Fly ash and sewage sludge are suggested materials for constructing sealing layers covering mine tailings impoundments. Little is known, however, of their effect on vegetation or resistance to root penetration. We investigate: (i) the ability of different plant species to grow in sealing layers comprising fly ash and sewage sludge, (ii) the impact on plant growth of freshly hardened fly ash compared to aged and leached ash, and (iii) the plant stress response to fly ashes of different properties. A 6-mo greenhouse study using birch (Betula pendula Roth.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), and willow (Salix viminalis L.) demonstrated that no roots could grow into a compacted layer consisting only of ash, while a 6:4, ash-sludge mixture admitted roots into the upper part and a 1:9, ash-sludge mixture was totally penetrated (to 15 cm in depth) by roots of willow and Scots pine. Freshly hardened ash prevented root growth more effectively than aged ash did, as was observed in tests using reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.). Furthermore, extracts of highly alkaline ash were more toxic to pea in a 48-h toxicity test than less alkaline ash was. However, stress responses to diluted ash extracts of lower pH, measured as enzyme capacities in dwarf bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), were more related to the metal and ion contents. Root penetration of sealing layers is most effectively prevented if little sewage sludge is added, and if ash of high alkalinity is chosen. PMID:16825445

Neuschütz, Clara; Stoltz, Eva; Greger, Maria



Probabilistic risk assessment for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in sewage sludge used on agricultural soil.  


Deterministic and probabilistic risk assessments were developed for commercial LAS in agricultural soil amended with sewage sludge. The procedure done according to ILSI Europe's Conceptual Framework [Schowanek, D., Carr, R., David, H., Douben, P., Hall, J., Kirchmann, H., Patria, L., Sequi, P., Smith, S., Webb, S.F., 2004. A risk-based methodology for deriving quality standards for organic contaminants in sewage sludge for use in agriculture-conceptual Framework. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 40 (3), 227-251], consists of three main steps. First, the most sensitive endpoint was determined. This was found to be the chronic ecotoxicity of LAS to soil invertebrates and plants. Additional endpoints, such as potential for plant uptake and transfer in the food chain, leaching to groundwater, surface erosion run-off, human health risk via drinking water, plant consumption and soil ingestion were also systematically evaluated but were all assessed to be of little toxicological significance. In the second step, a back-calculation was conducted from the Predicted No-Effect Concentration in soil (PNECsoil) to a safe level of LAS in sludge (here called 'Sludge Quality Standard'; SQS). The deterministic approach followed the default agricultural soil exposure scenario in the EU-Technical Guidance Document (TGD). The SQS for LAS was calculated as 49 g/kg sludge Dry Matter (DM). In order to assess the potential variability as a result of varying agricultural practices and local environmental conditions, two probabilistic exposure assessment scenarios were also developed. The mean SQS was estimated at 55 and 27.5 g/kg DM for the homogeneous soil mixing and soil injection scenarios, respectively. In the final step, the resulting SQS values were evaluated for consistency and relevance versus available information from agricultural experience and field tests. No build-up, adverse impact on soil fertility, agronomic performance, or animal/human health have been reported for agricultural fields which have received sludge with high LAS levels for up to 30 years. Distribution statistics of LAS concentrations in anaerobically digested sewage sludge measured across Europe were created (mean value: 5.56 g LAS/kg sludge DM). When compared to the above mean SQS values, adequate risk characterisation ratios of 0.08-0.2 were found. The 'ecological risk' parameter calculated for anaerobic sludge from the probabilistic approaches was below 3%. A regulatory Limit Value for LAS of 2.60 g/kg sludge DM was originally proposed in the 3rd Draft of the Working Document on Sludge [CEC, 2000b. Working Document on Sludge. Third Draft, Brussels 27 April 2000, DG. Environment, 18 p.]. The current assessment, based on an updated dataset and a refined assessment procedure, suggests that the need for a limit value for LAS in sewage sludge cannot be substantiated on a risk basis. PMID:17967498

Schowanek, Diederik; David, Helen; Francaviglia, Rosa; Hall, Jeremy; Kirchmann, Holger; Krogh, Paul Henning; Schraepen, Nathalie; Smith, Stephen; Wildemann, Tanja



40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Model Rule-Summary of Reporting Requirements for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Requirements for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a 6 Table 6 to Subpart MMMM of Part 60 Protection of Environment ...Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60, Subpt. MMMM, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart MMMM of Part 60âModel...




SciTech Connect

This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process.

Jost O.L. Wendt



Organic Contaminants from Sewage Sludge Applied to Agricultural Soils. False Alarm Regarding Possible Problems for Food Safety? (8 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background   Sewage sludge produced in wastewater treatment contains large amounts of organic matter and nutrients and could, therefore,\\u000a be suitable as fertiliser. However, with the sludge, besides heavy metals and pathogenic bacteria, a variety of organic contaminants\\u000a can be added to agricultural fields. Whether the organic contaminants from the sludge can have adverse effects on human health

Christian Grøn; Karin von Arnold



Fate of heavy metals after application of sewage sludge and wood–ash mixtures to short-rotation willow coppice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-rotation willow coppice (SRWC), grown on farmland in Sweden for energy-biomass production, was fertilised with sewage sludge and wood–ash mixtures on the basis of the permitted annual phosphorus supply. Two identical experiments were conducted in central Sweden, on two newly harvested commercial SRWC fields. The maximum legally permitted amount of the sludge-ash mixture, sludge only, ash only, and twice the

I. Dimitriou; J. Eriksson; A. Adler; P. Aronsson; T. Verwijst



Influence of activated carbon and biochar on phytotoxicity of air-dried sewage sludges to Lepidium sativum.  


The goal of the research was to determine the phytotoxicity (using Lepidium sativum) of two activated carbon/biochar-amended sewage sludges. Apart from the impact of the AC/biochar dose, the influence of biochar particle diameter (<300, 300-500 and >500 ?m) and the influence of the contact time (7, 60, 90 days) between AC/biochar and sewage sludges on their phytotoxicity was also assessed. No negative impact of sewage sludges on seed germination was observed (P>0.05). The application of AC or biochar to the sludges positively affected root growth by reducing the harmful effect by 7.8 to 42% depending on the material used. Furthermore, the reduction range clearly depended on the type of sewage sludge. No differences were observed in the inhibition of the toxic effect between both biochar types used and the biochar particle size. The extension of the contact time between AC/biochar and sewage sludges had a negative impact on root growth. PMID:22516757

Oleszczuk, Patryk; Rycaj, Marcin; Lehmann, Johannes; Cornelissen, Gerard



Extraction and determination of sulfonamides, macrolides, and trimethoprim in sewage sludge.  


Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was optimized and validated for the determination of sulfonamide and macrolide antimicrobials and trimethoprim in sewage sludge samples. A mixture of water/methanol (50:50, v/v) was found as the most efficient extraction solvent. A temperature of 100 degrees C and a pressure of 100 bar were chosen for extraction. Two cycles of 5 min each efficiently extracted at least 97% of the total extractable amount of all studied analytes from activated sludge. The limits of quantification (S/N= 10) varied between 3 and 41 microg/kg dry weight (dw) and the relative recoveries ranged between 78 and 142%. Additionally, the influence of pH and different LC/MS/MS systems on the absolute recoveries was assessed. Of the investigated antimicrobials sulfapyridin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, azithromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin were detected in municipal sewage sludge samples. Concentrations in activated sludge ranged up to 197 microg/kgdw. In comparison, results obtained by ultrasonic solvent extraction were significantly lower for sulfonamides and in tendency lower for macrolides. PMID:16106697

Göbel, Anke a; Thomsen, Angela; McArdell, Christa S; Alder, Alfredo C; Giger, Walter; Theiss, Nicole; Löffler, Dirk; Ternes, Thomas A



Investigation of sewage sludge stabilization potential by the addition of fly ash and lime.  


The aim of this work was the examination of stabilization potential of sewage sludge by the addition of fly ash and/or lime and the investigation of the effect of stabilization time on the properties of produced mixtures. Five samples were prepared by mixing fly ash, sewage sludge and lime in various ratios and the mixtures were stabilized for a period of 35 d. The addition of alkaline agents resulted in the increase of sample pH up to 12, the increase of total solids content to about 50% and the reduction of the organic fraction of the solids. The produced samples presented inhibition effects to seed germination and root length growth of three higher plants (one monocotyl and two dicotyls); however, samples with high sludge content resulted in negligible seed germination inhibition at prolonged stabilization times. The standard TCLP leaching procedure was applied in all the produced samples in order to evaluate the extraction potential of certain metallic elements; the content of metals in the eluates was varied, depending upon their speciation and form. Eluates presented significant inhibition to the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence, while the lowest inhibition was detected for the samples containing higher sludge content. These samples potentially could be applied as soil amendment, offering an efficient method for the combined utilization of two different solid wastes; however, low dosages of fly ash should be used for the production of a stabilized material presenting negligible effects with respect to its phytotoxic and ecotoxic properties. PMID:18093729

Samaras, P; Papadimitriou, C A; Haritou, I; Zouboulis, A I



Evaluation of emission of greenhouse gases from soils amended with sewage sludge.  


Increase in concentrations of various greenhouse gases and their possible contributions to the global warming are becoming a serious concern. Anthropogenic activities such as cultivation of flooded rice and application of waste materials, such as sewage sludge which are rich in C and N, as soil amendments could contribute to the increase in emission of greenhouse gases such as methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) into the atmosphere. Therefore, evaluation of flux of various greenhouse gases from soils amended with sewage sludge is essential to quantify their release into the atmosphere. Two soils with contrasting properties (Candler fine sand [CFS] from Florida, and Ogeechee loamy sand [OLS] from Savannah, GA) were amended with varying rates (0, 24.7, 49.4, 98.8, and 148.3 Mg ha(-1)) of 2 types of sewage sludge (industrial [ISS] and domestic [DSS] origin. The amended soil samples were incubated in anaerobic condition at field capacity soil water content in static chamber (Qopak bottles). Gas samples were extracted immediately after amending soils and subsequently on a daily basis to evaluate the emission of CH(4), CO(2) and N(2)O. The results showed that emission rates and cumulative emission of all three gases increased with increasing rates of amendments. Cumulative emission of gases during 25-d incubation of soils amended with different types of sewage sludge decreased in the order: CO(2) > N(2)O > CH(4). The emission of gases was greater from the soils amended with DSS as compared to that with ISS. This may indicate the presence of either low C and N content or possible harmful chemicals in the ISS. The emission of gases was greater from the CFS as compared to that from the OLS. Furthermore, the results clearly depicted the inhibitory effect of acetylene in both soils by producing more N(2)O and CH(4) emission compared to the soils that did not receive acetylene at the rate of 1 mL g(-1) soil. Enumeration of microbial population by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and most probable number (MPN) procedure at the end of 25-d incubation demonstrated a clear relationship between microbial activity and the emission of gases. The results of this study emphasize the need to consider the emission of greenhouse gases from soils amended with organic soil amendments such as sewage sludge, especially at high rates, and their potential contribution to global warming. PMID:18172810

Paramasivam, S; Fortenberry, Gamola Z; Julius, Afolabi; Sajwan, Kenneth S; Alva, A K



Evaluation of the efficiency and throughput of a gamma irradiator treating municipal sewage sludge.  


Sludge Hygienisation Research Irradiator (SHRI) Facility at Vadodara (India) has been disinfecting liquid sewage sludge with (60)Co gamma rays since 1992. At some point, the radiation process was modified from its originally designed closed-loop system to an open-loop system. Dosimetry experiments were performed to estimate absorbed doses to the sludge for different periods of irradiation of a 15m(3) batch in an open-loop irradiation process. The paper reports the dosimetry results and evaluated operational parameters of the irradiator, namely, effective dose rate in the open-loop system, irradiation efficiency, and throughput. Also, the open-loop system and the closed-loop system are compared in terms of the effective dose rate. PMID:21215648

Benny, P G; Shah, M R; Sabharwal, S



A high-level disinfection standard for land applying sewage sludges (biosolids).  

PubMed Central

Complaints associated with land-applied sewage sludges primarily involve irritation of the skin, mucous membranes, and the respiratory tract accompanied by opportunistic infections. Volatile emissions and organic dusts appear to be the main source of irritation. Occasionally, chronic gastrointestinal problems are reported by affected residents who have private wells. To prevent acute health effects, we recommend that the current system of classifying sludges based on indicator pathogen levels (Class A and Class B) be replaced with a single high-level disinfection standard and that methods used to treat sludges be improved to reduce levels of irritant chemicals, especially endotoxins. A national opinion survey of individuals impacted by or concerned about the safety of land-application practices indicated that most did not consider the practice inherently unsafe but that they lacked confidence in research supported by federal and state agencies.

Gattie, David K; McLaughlin, Tara J



Cadmium from soil amended with sewage sludge: effects and residues in swine.  

PubMed Central

Liquid digested sewage sludge from a Chicago waste treatment plant was applied to experimental corn plots starting in 1968. The treatment plant received a high proportion of industrial effluent and the sludge averaged about 200 ppm Cd (dry weight). Corn grain harvested from the plots in 1974 was fed to growing swine for 56 days, and other swine were permitted to forage on the plots during the winters of 1975-76 and 1976-77. The sludge-fertilized corn contained higher concentrations of nutrient and toxic elements, but did not interfere with swine performance. Minor changes in hepatic microsomal oxidases and red blood cells accompanied significant increases in renal Cd and decreases in hepatic Fe. Swine foraging on these plots ingested considerable amounts of sludge soil and accumulated significantly higher concentrations of renal Cd. At lower rates of sludge application the swine outperformed those foraging both on control plots and those receiving heavy sludge applications in terms of weight gain, in-utero piglet survival, blood hemoglobin, and tissue Fe concentrations.

Hansen, L G; Hinesly, T D



Improving sewage sludge ultrasonic pretreatment under pressure by changing initial pH.  


This work aimed at understanding the combined effect of sludge pH, temperature, and external pressure on the efficiency of sewage sludge ultrasound (US) pretreatment. Based on the evolution of both the degree of sludge disintegration (DDCOD) and pH, application of 40 mgNaOH/gTS during 30 min was selected for chemical pretreatment. Mechanical and thermal effects induced by cavitation contributed in similar proportion to sludge disruption, but the role of the latter effect tended to be weakened after mild alkalisation of sludge. When applying external pressure, DDCOD was always improved, by about 10% at the optimal value of 2 bar. The optimal combination was an addition of 40 mgNaOH/gTS prior to adiabatic sonication at 2 bar, resulting in a DDCOD value of about 46% at 75,000 kJ/kgTS (as compared to 35% for sole US) for the investigated mixed sludge. Very short time US application yielded a drastic reduction of the volume mean particle size, mainly due to the erosion and disruption of large flocs (>90 ?m), yet this was not sufficient to initiate significant subsequent COD solubilisation under stirring. PMID:23831677

Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour, Carine; Ratsimba, Berthe; Delmas, Henri



Degradation of naproxen and carbamazepine in spiked sludge by slurry and solid-phase Trametes versicolor systems.  


Growth and activity of the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor on sewage sludge were assessed in bioslurry and solid-phase systems. Bioslurry cultures with different loads of sludge (10%, 25% and 38%, w/v) were performed. A lag phase of at least 2 d appeared in the 25 and 38%-cultures, however, the total fungal biomass was higher for the latter and lower for the 10%-culture after 30 d, as revealed by ergosterol determination. Detectable laccase activity levels were found in the 10 and 25%-cultures (up to 1308 and 2588 AUL(-1), respectively) while it was negligible in the 38%-culture. Important levels of ergosterol and laccase were obtained over a 60 d period in sludge solid-phase cultures amended with different concentrations of wheat straw pellets as lignocellulosic bulking material. Degradation experiments in 25%-bioslurry cultures spiked with naproxene (NAP, analgesic) and carbamazepine (CBZ, antiepileptic) showed depletion of around 47% and 57% within 24h, respectively. Complete depletion of NAP and around 48% for CBZ were achieved within 72 h in sludge solid cultures with 38% bulking material. CBZ degradation is especially remarkable due to its high persistence in wastewater treatment plants. Results showed that T. versicolor may be an interesting bioremediation agent for elimination of emerging pollutants in sewage sludge. PMID:20031398

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Caminal, Gloria



[Comparative studies on vermicomposting of sewage sludge with two epigeic earthworms].  


A comparative study was conducted two epigeic species earthworms (Bimastus parvus and Eisenia foetida) for the evaluation of their efficacy in vermicomposting of sewage sludge. The various changes studied during pot experiments were the physiochemical properties of the sewage sludge, sludge reduction and earthworm biomass. Vermicomposting resulted that both epigeic species earthworms showed same capability among sewage sludge mineralization and decomposition rate and reduction. By the end of experiment, the pH value declined to 6.27 with B. parvus and 7.07 with E. foetida, but both epigeic species earthworms showed same mineralization and decomposition rate. B. parvus produced 31.96%, 5.76% and 17.91% increases in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium as well as 44.14% and 30.69% decreases in C/N and C/P ratios as compared to initial after 30 days of inoculation. In contrast, E. foetida produced 35.48% and 11.58% increases in nitrogen and potassium as well as 10.12%, 46.73% and 20.50% decreases in phosphorus, C/N and C/P ratios as compared to initial after 30 days of earthworm activity. At the same time, both epigeic species earthworms resulted in significant reduction in heavy metal content. The reduction in heavy metal content for B. parvus and E. foetida was found in the order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr and Cu > Zn > Ph > Cr. At the end of experiment, the weight and cocoons of B. parvus and E. foetida showed significant increase, which the growth rate and the reproductive rate were 76%-86% and 156%-131% respectively. PMID:20623864

Chen, Xue-min; Huang, Kui; Fu, Xiao-yong; Ni, Shao-ren



Assessment of a potential agricultural application of Bangkok-digested sewage sludge and finished compost products.  


A study was conducted to investigate the levels of plant nutrients, heavy metals, parasites and fecal coliform bacteria in Bangkok-produced sewage sludge and finished compost products for potential agricultural application, as well as to compare the quality of compost under different composting conditions. The results indicated that digested sewage sludge had high fertilizing values for organic matter (19.01 ± 0.09%), total nitrogen (2.17 ± 0.07%), total phosphorus (2.06 ± 0.06%) and total potassium (1.16 ± 0.22%), but it was contaminated with human pathogens, including fecal coliform bacteria, viable helminthes egg and active forms of parasite cysts. Thus, fresh sewage sludge should not be disposed on land unless it has undergone pathogen reduction. It is proven that the quality of the sludge mixed with grass clippings at a ratio of 6:1 volume/volume after having passed a windrow composting process for 8 weeks can be classified as class A biosolids as the levels of remaining fecal coliforms were < 3 most probable number g(-1) dry solid and all human parasites were destroyed. Concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium in the finished compost were 16.53 ± 1.25%, 1.39 ± 0.06%, 0.42 ± 0.10% and 1.53 ± 0.05% respectively. The total copper concentration was rather high (2291.31 ± 121.77 mg kg(-1)), but all heavy metal concentrations were also well below the United States Environmental Protection Agency pollutant limits for land application. The finished compost products can be considered as a soil conditioner as they have relatively low essential plant nutrient concentrations. It is recommended to be initially used for gardening and landscaping to ensure safety utilization. PMID:23836101

Sreesai, Siranee; Peapueng, Panadda; Tippayamongkonkun, Taninporn; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong



Interactions of pathogens and irritant chemicals in land-applied sewage sludges (biosolids)  

PubMed Central

Background Fertilisation of land with processed sewage sludges, which often contain low levels of pathogens, endotoxins, and trace amounts of industrial and household chemicals, has become common practice in Western Europe, the US, and Canada. Local governments, however, are increasingly restricting or banning the practice in response to residents reporting adverse health effects. These self-reported illnesses have not been studied and methods for assessing exposures of residential communities to contaminants from processed sewage sludges need to be developed. Methods To describe and document adverse effects reported by residents, 48 individuals at ten sites in the US and Canada were questioned about their environmental exposures and symptoms. Information was obtained on five additional cases where an outbreak of staphylococcal infections occurred near a land application site in Robesonia, PA. Medical records were reviewed in cases involving hospitalisation or other medical treatment. Since most complaints were associated with airborne contaminants, an air dispersion model was used as a means for potentially ruling out exposure to sludge as the cause of adverse effects. Results Affected residents lived within approximately 1 km of land application sites and generally complained of irritation (e.g., skin rashes and burning of the eyes, throat, and lungs) after exposure to winds blowing from treated fields. A prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus infections of the skin and respiratory tract was found. Approximately 1 in 4 of 54 individuals were infected, including 2 mortalities (septicaemia, pneumonia). This result was consistent with the prevalence of S. aureus infections accompanying diaper rashes in which the organism, which is commonly found in the lower human colon, tends to invade irritated or inflamed tissue. Conclusions When assessing public health risks from applying sewage sludges in residential areas, potential interactions of chemical contaminants with low levels of pathogens should be considered. An increased risk of infection may occur when allergic and non-allergic reactions to endotoxins and other chemical components irritate skin and mucus membranes and thereby compromise normal barriers to infection.

Lewis, David L; Gattie, David K; Novak, Marc E; Sanchez, Susan; Pumphrey, Charles



Recovery of phosphorus as struvite from sewage sludge ash.  


Phosphorus (P) is an element vital for all living organisms, yet the world's reserves of phosphate rock are becoming depleted. This study investigated an effective P recovery method from sludge ash via struvite precipitation. Results showed that more than 95% of the total P content was extracted from sludge ash by applying 0.5 mol/L HCl at a liquid/solid ratio of 50 mL/g. Although heavy metal leaching also occurred during P extraction, cation exchange resin efficiently removed the heavy metals from the P-rich solution. Orthogonal tests showed that the optimal parameters for P precipitation as struvite would be a Mg:N:P molar ratio of 1.6:1.6:1 at pH 10.0. X-ray diffraction analysis validated the formation of struvite. Further investigations revealed that the harvested precipitate had a high struvite content (97%), high P bioavailability (94%), and low heavy metal content, which could be considered a high quality fertilizer. PMID:23513698

Xu, Huacheng; He, Pinjing; Gu, Weimei; Wang, Guanzhao; Shao, Liming



Sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil: Ecotoxicological effects on representative soil organisms.  


Application of sewage sludge to agricultural lands is a current practice in EU. European legislation permits its use when concentrations of metals in soil do not increase above the maximum permissible limits. In order to assess the fate and the effects on representative soil organisms of sewage sludge amendments on agricultural lands, a soil microcosm (multi-species soil system-MS3) experiment was performed. The MS3 columns were filled with spiked soil at three different doses: 30, 60 and 120tha(-1) fresh wt. Seed plants (Triticum aestivum, Vicia sativa and Brassica rapa) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were introduced into the systems. After a 21-d exposure period, a statistically significant increase for Cd, Cu, Zn and Hg concentrations was found for the soils treated with the highest application rate. Dose-related increase was observed for nickel concentrations in leachates. Plants and earthworm metal body burden offer much more information than metal concentrations and help to understand the potential for metal accumulation. Bioaccumulation factor (BAF(plant-soil)) presented a different behavior among species and large differences for BAF(earthworm-soil), from control or sewage-amended soil, for Cd and Hg were found. B. rapa seed germination was reduced. Statistically significant decrease in fresh biomass was observed for T. aestivum and V. sativa at the highest application rate, whereas B. rapa biomass decreased at any application rate. Enzymatic activities (dehydrogenase and phosphatase) as well as respiration rate on soil microorganisms were enlarged. PMID:19261330

Carbonell, G; Pro, J; Gómez, N; Babín, M M; Fernández, C; Alonso, E; Tarazona, J V



Effect of cofiring coal and biofuel with sewage sludge on alkali problems in a circulating fluidized bed boiler  

SciTech Connect

Cofiring experiments were performed in a 12 MW circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuel combinations were biofuel (wood+straw), coal+biofuel, coal+sewage sludge+biofuel, and sewage sludge+biofuel. Limestone or chlorine (PVC) was added in separate experiments. Effects of feed composition on bed ash and fly ash were examined. The composition of flue gas was measured, including on-line measurement of alkali chlorides. Deposits were collected on a probe simulating a superheater tube. It was found that the fuel combination, as well as addition of limestone, has little effect on the alkali fraction in bed ash, while chlorine decreases the alkali fraction in bed ash. Sewage sludge practically eliminates alkali chlorides in flue gas and deposits. Addition of enough limestone to coal and sludge for elimination of the SO{sub 2} emission does not change the effect of chlorine. Chlorine addition increases the alkali chloride in flue gas, but no chlorine was found in the deposits with sewage sludge as a cofuel. Cofiring of coal and biofuel lowers the alkali chloride concentration in the flue gas to about a third compared with that of pure biofuel. This is not affected by addition of lime or chlorine. It is concluded that aluminum compounds in coal and sludge are more important than sulfur to reduce the level of KCl in flue gas and deposits. 24 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

K.O. Davidsson; L.-E. Aamand; A.-L. Elled; B. Leckner [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Department of Energy and Environment



Sewage sludge as an amendment for calcareous bauxite mine spoils reclamation  

SciTech Connect

Dried aerobically digested sewage sludge applied at seven rates (0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 120 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}) in a field experiment on calcareous bauxite mine spoils significantly increased the available water capacity, concentrations of organic matter, total N, extractable P (Olsen), exchangeable Mg{sup 2+}, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cu, Mn, Zn, and Pb of mine spoils. Total N and extractable P concentrations decreased with time after sludge application. The DTPA-extractable Cu concentration was high 4 yr after application at sludge rates of 80 and 120 Mg Ha{sup {minus}1}. Extractable Cu and Zn concentrations correlated significantly and positively with Cu and Zn concentrations in burnet (Sanguisorba minor subsp. minor) and fiddleneck (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth) tissue. Sludge application depressed plant Mn uptake. Plant biomass, plant density, and foliar cover significantly increased with treatment rates in the first and fourth growing seasons but decreased with time. Fiddleneck and burnet were the species favored by the high rate of sludge application.

Brofas, G.; Michopoulos, P.; Alifragis, D.



Strategic management of non-point source pollution from sewage sludge.  


In the UK, the recycling of sewage sludge to land is expected to double by 2006 but the security of this route is threatened by environmental concerns and health scares. Strategic investment is needed to ensure sustainable and secure sludge recycling outlets. At present, the security of this landbank for sludge recycling is determined by legislation relating to nutrient rather than potentially toxic elements (PTEs) applications to land--especially the environmental risk linked to soil phosphorus (P) saturation. We believe that not all land has an equal risk of contributing nutrients derived from applications to land to receiving waters. We are currently investigating whether it is possible to minimise nutrient loss by applying sludge to land outside Critical Source Areas (CSAs) regardless of soil P Index status. Research is underway to develop a predictive and spatially-sensitive, semi-distributed model of critical thresholds for sludge application that goes beyond traditional "end-of-pipe" or "edge-of-field" modelling, to include hydrological flow paths and delivery mechanisms to receiving waters from non-point sources at the catchment scale. PMID:12793694

Burke, S; Heathwaite, L; Quinn, P; Merrett, S; Whitehead, P; Preedy, N; Lerner, D; Saul, A



Fecal coliform population dynamics associated with the thermophilic stabilization of treated sewage sludge.  


The inactivation of fecal coliforms in anaerobic batch reactors has been investigated at the thermophilic temperatures of 50, 55 and 60 °C. Throughout inactivation experiments at each temperature, individual colonies were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA gene sequencing to illustrate how the diversity of fecal coliforms is affected by thermophilic treatment. Results indicate that even though fecal coliforms in raw sewage sludge are comprised of several different bacterial species, each with variable temperature induced decay rates, the overall inactivation of fecal coliforms in raw sewage sludge was found to follow a first-order relationship. No tailing was observed across the range of fecal coliform concentrations measured. Fecal coliforms in raw sludge contained six different genera of bacteria and were 62% enriched in E. coli. Within 1.5 log removal of fecal coliform concentration by thermophilic treatment, the populations had shifted to, and remained at 100% E. coli. Subsequent inactivation rates measured in isolated fecal coliform strains confirmed that E. coli cells isolated post-treatment were more thermotolerant than E. coli and non-E coli bacteria isolated prior to thermal treatment. Overall, this study describes the potential enrichment of thermotolerant E. coli in biosolids fecal coliforms and demonstrates that while thermotolerant species are present at the end of treatment, pure first-order approximations are appropriate for estimating residence times to reduce fecal coliforms to levels promulgated in U.S. Class A biosolids standards. PMID:22955448

Ziemba, Chris; Peccia, Jordan



Concentrations and sources of an emerging pollutant, decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), in sewage sludge for land application.  


The presence of an emerging brominated flame retardant, decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), has been confirmed in Spanish sewage sludge. Thirty one samples from different urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for this brominated flame retardant. DBDPE was positively identified and quantified in all samples at lower concentrations (47.0 +/- 29.7 ng/g dry weight (dw); mean +/- SD) than those obtained for decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) (290 +/- 236 ng/g dw; mean +/- SD) in a previous study. Influence of the WWTP characteristics in the pollutant levels was evaluated. No significant correlations were obtained between DBDPE concentrations and the population or sewage sludge production rate associated with the plants, neither wastewater treatment method. Sources of DBDPE in the sludge were also evaluated. Data indicate a common origin for DBDPE and BDE-209, which may be related to leaching processes during the use and disposal of consumer products containing these chemicals. Nevertheless, DBDPE contents are not influenced by industrial activities, which suggests that the infusion of DBDPE commercial mixture is not a source of this chemical into the environment, and indicates that the use of DBDPE in the Spanish industry is still low compared to deca-BDE. PMID:22655373

De la Torre, A; Concejero, M A; Martínez, M A



Chemical and toxicological characterization of the bricks produced from clay/sewage sludge mixture.  


The present study aimed to characterize chemical properties of clay bricks containing 20 % of sewage sludge. After detection of potentially hazardous metals, we simulated precipitation exposure of such material to determine the amount of heavy metals that could leach out of the bricks. Metals, such as copper, zinc, nickel, cobalt, chromium, etc., were detected in leachate in low concentrations. Moreover, human peripheral blood lymphocytes were exposed to brick leachate for 24 h in order to evaluate its possible negative impact on human cells and genome in vitro. Cytotoxicity tests showed no effect on human peripheral blood lymphocytes viability after exposure to brick's leachate. On the contrary, the alkaline comet assay showed slight but significant increase in DNA damage with all three parameters tested. As we might predict, interactions of several heavy metals in low concentrations could be responsible for DNA damaging effect. In that manner, our findings suggest that leachates from sewage sludge-produced bricks may lead to adverse effects on the exposed human population, and that more stabile bricks should be developed to minimize leaching of heavy metals into the environment. Bricks with lower percentage of the sludge may be one of the solutions to reduce the toxic effect of the final product. PMID:22702811

Geri?, Marko; Gajski, Goran; Oreš?anin, Višnja; Kollar, Robert; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera



A statistical comparison of protein and carbohydrate characterisation methodology applied on sewage sludge samples.  


Biochemical characterization of organic matter is becoming of key importance in wastewater treatment. The main objectives are to predict organic matter properties, such as granulation or flocculation, and hence treatment performance. Although standardized methods do exist for some organic molecules, such as volatile fatty acids or lipids, there are no standard methods to measure proteins and carbohydrates content, both biochemical families being the main components of sewage sludge. Consequently, the aim of the present work is to investigate the efficiency of several colorimetric methods to determine proteins and carbohydrates content as well as their compatibility with the sludge matrices. The different methods have been evaluated based on statistical criteria such as sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, rightness, and specificity using standard molecules such as Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), glucose, cellulose and a certified reference product. The Lowry and the Dubois methods have been shown to be the best compromise for the considered criteria after having been tested on sewage sludge samples obtained from different locations in a wastewater treatment plant. In average, the measured volatile fatty acids, lipids, proteins and carbohydrates contents represented 80 ± 7% (% volatile solids) of the organic matter. Proteins and carbohydrates represented in average 69 ± 3%. This study underlined that the choice of a relevant methodology is of great importance for organic matter measurement. PMID:23357791

Jimenez, Julie; Vedrenne, Fabien; Denis, Cécile; Mottet, Alexis; Déléris, Stephane; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Cacho Rivero, Jesús Andrés



Occurrence and analysis of parabens in municipal sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Madrid (Spain).  


A rapid method for determination of seven parabens and two chlorinated by-products in sewage sludge was developed based on matrix solid-phase dispersion and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The analytical procedure showed good recoveries that ranged from 80 to 125%, with relative standard deviations lower than 12% and low detection limits, ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 ng g(-1) dry weight. The developed method was applied to the analysis of sewage sludge collected during 2010 in 19 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in various urban, industrial or rural zones in Madrid (Spain). Methylparaben was found in most of the WWTPs sampled (95%) at levels between 5.1 and 26.2 ng g(-1) dry weight and propylparaben was detected in 74% of the WWTPs at levels up to 44.1 ng g(-1) dry weight. In order to study the temporal variation of parabens and two chlorinated parabens during a four-year period, sludge samples were collected from 3 selected WWTPs. The levels of methylparaben encountered were rather constant throughout the sampling period whereas propylparaben levels slightly increased. In one of the WWTPs monitored, isopropylparaben was found at the beginning of the sampling period but its content decreased and was not detected in the 2010 sampling. PMID:22640822

Albero, Beatriz; Pérez, Rosa Ana; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Tadeo, José Luis



Extraction of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates from sewage sludge using the pressurized fluid extraction method and the supercritical fluid extraction method  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish endocrine disruptor (ED) monitoring and control methods for wastewater treatment plants, it is necessary to clarify the fate of EDs in each process of a sludge treatment system. However, the ED analysis method for sewage sludge containing large quantities of organic matters has not been established. So, a highly reliable analytical method that accurately measures EDs in sewage

M. Minamiyama; S. Ochi; Y. Suzuki



The effect of long-term sewage sludge application on Zn, Cu, Ni and Pb levels in a clay loam soil under pasture grass in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although sewage sludge provides nutrients for plant growth, its continual use over extended periods can result in the accumulation of heavy metals to levels detrimental to the environment. A study was conducted to determine the concentration of EDTA-extractable Zn, Cu, Ni and Pb in a Gleyic Lixisol that had been amended with sewage sludge for more than 19 years in

J. Nyamangara; J. Mzezewa



Environmental and Potential Health Effects of Growing Leafy Vegetables on Soil Irrigated Using Sewage Sludge and Effluent: A Case of Zn and Cu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of sewage sludge and effluent as a source of nutrients and water for crop production is increasing worldwide. A study was conducted in 2001 at Pension farm (near Harare) to determine the effect of long term (>30 yrs) application of sewage sludge and effluent on Zn and Cu accumulation in top soil, uptake of these metals by lettuce

N. K. Tandi; J. Nyamangara; C. Bangira



Performance evaluation of an UASB reactor used for combined treatment of domestic sewage and excess aerobic sludge from a trickling filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aimed at evaluating the influence of the excess sludge produced in a trickling filter (TF) on the performance of a UASB reactor used for the combined treatment of domestic sewage and aerobic sludge. During phase 1 of the research, the UASB reactor\\/TF system was fed with domestic sewage pumped directly from the sewer collector of Arrudas stream, in

P. P. Pontes; C. A. L. Chernicharo; E. C. Frade; M. T. R. Porto



Phytotoxicity and speciation of copper, zinc and lead during the aerobic composting of sewage sludge.  


The content and speciation of heavy metals in composted sewage sludge is the main cause of negative impacts on environment and health of animal and human. An aerobic composting procedure was conducted to investigate the influences of some key parameters on phytotoxicity and speciation of Cu, Zn and Pb during sewage sludge composting. The pH value reached the optimal range for development of microorganisms, and content of organic matter (OM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) decreased with the composting age. The total amounts of Cu, Zn and Pb were much lower in the final compost. The results from sequential extraction procedure of heavy metals showed that composting process changed the distribution of five fractions of Cu, Zn and Pb, and reduced the total contents and sum percentages of four mobile fractions (exchangeable (EXCH), carbonate (CAR), reducible iron and manganese (FeMnOX), and organic matter bound (OMB)), indicating that the metal mobility and phytotoxicity decreased after aerobic composting. The seed germination and root growth of Pakchoi (Brassica Chinensis L.) were enhanced with composting age and reached the highest value at the end of compost. The decrease of OM and DOC was significantly correlated to changes of metal distribution and germination index (GI) of Pakchoi. Only for Cu in the compost, the GI could be predictable from the sum mobile metal fractions (EXCH+CAR+FeMnOX+OMB) (R=-0.814(*)). For Zn and Pb, R value was significantly increased by use of other components, such as pH, OM and DOC, which suggested that the transformation of heavy metal speciation and phytotoxicity of sewage sludge during an aerobic composting was rather strongly dependent on multiple components than a single element. PMID:18703282

He, Miao-miao; Tian, Guang-ming; Liang, Xin-qiang



Uptake of dioxin-like compounds from sewage sludge into various plant species – assessment of levels using a sensitive bioassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioassay for the detection of dioxin-like compounds was used to estimate uptake of dioxin-like compounds in carrots, oil seed rape seeds, zucchinis and cucumbers grown in soil amended with sewage sludge from Swedish sewage treatment plants (STP). This sensitive bioassay is based on 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD)-induction in cultured chicken embryo livers and reflects the combined biological effect of all

Magnus Engwall; Katarina Hjelm