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Sample records for sex combs asx

  1. A Logical OR Redundancy Within the Asx-Pro-Asx-Gly Type I beta-Turn Motif

    SciTech Connect

    Lee,J.; Dubey, V.; Longo, L.; Blaber, M.

    2008-01-01

    Turn secondary structure is essential to the formation of globular protein architecture. Turn structures are, however, much more complex than either ?-helix or ?-sheet, and the thermodynamics and folding kinetics are poorly understood. Type I ?-turns are the most common type of reverse turn, and they exhibit a statistical consensus sequence of Asx-Pro-Asx-Gly (where Asx is Asp or Asn). A comprehensive series of individual and combined Asx mutations has been constructed within three separate type I 3:5 G1 bulge ?-turns in human fibroblast growth factor-1, and their effects on structure, stability, and folding have been determined. The results show a fundamental logical OR relationship between the Asx residues in the motif, involving H-bond interactions with main-chain amides within the turn. These interactions can be modulated by additional interactions with residues adjacent to the turn at positions i + 4 and i + 6. The results show that the Asx residues in the turn motif make a substantial contribution to the overall stability of the protein, and the Asx logical OR relationship defines a redundant system that can compensate for deleterious point mutations. The results also show that the stability of the turn is unlikely to be the prime determinant of formation of turn structure in the folding transition state.

  2. A Logical OR Redundancy within the Asx-Pro-Asx-Gly Type 1 {Beta}-Turn Motif

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jihun; Dubey, Vikash Kumar; Longo, Lian M.; Blaber, Michael

    2008-04-19

    Turn secondary structure is essential to the formation of globular protein architecture. Turn structures are, however, much more complex than either {alpha}-helix or {beta}-sheet, and the thermodynamics and folding kinetics are poorly understood. Type I {beta}-turns are the most common type of reverse turn, and they exhibit a statistical consensus sequence of Asx-Pro-Asx-Gly (where Asx is Asp or Asn). A comprehensive series of individual and combined Asx mutations has been constructed within three separate type I 3:5 G1 bulge {beta}-turns in human fibroblast growth factor-1, and their effects on structure, stability, and folding have been determined. The results show a fundamental logical OR relationship between the Asx residues in the motif, involving H-bond interactions with main-chain amides within the turn. These interactions can be modulated by additional interactions with residues adjacent to the turn at positions i + 4 and i + 6. The results show that the Asx residues in the turn motif make a substantial contribution to the overall stability of the protein, and the Asx logical OR relationship defines a redundant system that can compensate for deleterious point mutations. The results also show that the stability of the turn is unlikely to be the prime determinant of formation of turn structure in the folding transition state.

  3. The Homeotic Gene Sex Combs Reduced of Drosophila Melanogaster Is Differentially Regulated in the Embryonic and Imaginal Stages of Development

    PubMed Central

    Pattatucci, A. M.; Kaufman, T. C.

    1991-01-01

    The Sex combs reduced (Scr) locus is unique among the genes contained within the Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) of Drosophila melanogaster in that it directs functions that are required for both cephalic and thoracic development in the embryo and the adult. Antibodies raised against protein encoded by Scr were used to follow the distribution of this gene product in embryos and imaginal discs of third instar larvae. Analysis of Scr protein accumulation in embryos hemizygous for breakpoint lesions mapping throughout the locus has allowed us to determine that sequences required for establishment of the Scr embryonic pattern are contained within a region of DNA that overlaps with the identified upstream regulatory region of the segmentation gene fushi tarazu (ftz). Gain-of-function mutations in Scr result in the presence of ectopic sex comb teeth on the first tarsal segment of mesothoracic and metathoracic legs of adult males. Heterozygous combinations of gain-of-function alleles with a wild-type Scr gene exhibit no evidence of ectopic protein localization in the second and third thoracic segments of embryos. However, mesothoracic and metathoracic leg imaginal discs can be shown to accumulate ectopically expressed Scr protein, implying a differential regulation of the Scr gene during these two periods of development. Additionally, we have found that the spatial pattern of Scr gene expression in imaginal tissues involved in the development of the adult thorax is governed in part by synapsis of homologous chromosomes in this region of the ANT-C. However, those imaginal discs that arise anteriorly to the prothorax do not appear to be sensitive to this form of gene regulation. Finally, we have demonstrated that the extent of Scr expression is influenced by mutations at the Polycomb (Pc) locus but not by mutant alleles of the zeste (z) gene. Taken together, our data suggests that Scr gene expression is differentially regulated both temporally and spatially in a manner that is

  4. Distinct self-interaction domains promote Multi Sex Combs accumulation in and formation of the Drosophila histone locus body

    PubMed Central

    Terzo, Esteban A.; Lyons, Shawn M.; Poulton, John S.; Temple, Brenda R. S.; Marzluff, William F.; Duronio, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear bodies (NBs) are structures that concentrate proteins, RNAs, and ribonucleoproteins that perform functions essential to gene expression. How NBs assemble is not well understood. We studied the Drosophila histone locus body (HLB), a NB that concentrates factors required for histone mRNA biosynthesis at the replication-dependent histone gene locus. We coupled biochemical analysis with confocal imaging of both fixed and live tissues to demonstrate that the Drosophila Multi Sex Combs (Mxc) protein contains multiple domains necessary for HLB assembly. An important feature of this assembly process is the self-interaction of Mxc via two conserved N-terminal domains: a LisH domain and a novel self-interaction facilitator (SIF) domain immediately downstream of the LisH domain. Molecular modeling suggests that the LisH and SIF domains directly interact, and mutation of either the LisH or the SIF domain severely impairs Mxc function in vivo, resulting in reduced histone mRNA accumulation. A region of Mxc between amino acids 721 and 1481 is also necessary for HLB assembly independent of the LisH and SIF domains. Finally, the C-terminal 195 amino acids of Mxc are required for recruiting FLASH, an essential histone mRNA-processing factor, to the HLB. We conclude that multiple domains of the Mxc protein promote HLB assembly in order to concentrate factors required for histone mRNA biosynthesis. PMID:25694448

  5. Sex comb on midleg (Scm) is a functional link between PcG-repressive complexes in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyuckjoon; McElroy, Kyle A.; Jung, Youngsook Lucy; Alekseyenko, Artyom A.; Zee, Barry M.; Park, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are key regulators of development in Drosophila and are strongly implicated in human health and disease. How PcG complexes form repressive chromatin domains remains unclear. Using cross-linked affinity purifications of BioTAP-Polycomb (Pc) or BioTAP-Enhancer of zeste [E(z)], we captured all PcG-repressive complex 1 (PRC1) or PRC2 core components and Sex comb on midleg (Scm) as the only protein strongly enriched with both complexes. Although previously not linked to PRC2, we confirmed direct binding of Scm and PRC2 using recombinant protein expression and colocalization of Scm with PRC1, PRC2, and H3K27me3 in embryos and cultured cells using ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation [ChIP] combined with deep sequencing). Furthermore, we found that RNAi knockdown of Scm and overexpression of the dominant-negative Scm-SAM (sterile α motif) domain both affected the binding pattern of E(z) on polytene chromosomes. Aberrant localization of the Scm-SAM domain in long contiguous regions on polytene chromosomes revealed its independent ability to spread on chromatin, consistent with its previously described ability to oligomerize in vitro. Pull-downs of BioTAP-Scm captured PRC1 and PRC2 and additional repressive complexes, including PhoRC, LINT, and CtBP. We propose that Scm is a key mediator connecting PRC1, PRC2, and transcriptional silencing. Combined with previous structural and genetic analyses, our results strongly suggest that Scm coordinates PcG complexes and polymerizes to produce broad domains of PcG silencing. PMID:26063573

  6. Inhibition of chromatin remodeling by Polycomb Group protein Posterior Sex Combs is mechanistically distinct from nucleosome binding1

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Stanley M.; Francis, Nicole J.

    2010-01-01

    Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins are essential regulators of development that maintain gene silencing in Drosophila and mammals through alterations of chromatin structure. One key PcG protein, Posterior Sex Combs (PSC), is part of at least two complexes: Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) and dRING Associated Factors (dRAF). PRC1-class complexes compact chromatin and inhibit chromatin remodeling, while dRAF has E3 ligase activity for ubiquitylation of histone H2A; activities of both complexes can inhibit transcription. The noncovalent effects of PRC1-class complexes on chromatin can be recapitulated by PSC alone, and the region of PSC required for these activities is essential for PSC function in vivo. To understand how PSC interacts with chromatin to exert its repressive effects, we compared the ability of PSC to bind to and inhibit remodeling of various nucleosomal templates, and determined which regions of PSC are required for mononucleosome binding and inhibition of chromatin remodeling. We find that PSC binds mononucleosome templates but inhibits their remodeling poorly. Addition of linker DNA to mononucleosomes allows their remodeling to be inhibited, although higher concentrations of PSC are required than for inhibition of multi-nucleosome templates. The C-terminal region of PSC (aa 456-1603) is important for inhibition of chromatin remodeling, and we identified aa 456-909 as sufficient for stable nucleosome binding but not for inhibition of chromatin remodeling. Our data suggest distinct mechanistic steps between nucleosome binding and inhibition of chromatin remodeling. PMID:20873869

  7. The gap gene Krüppel of Rhodnius prolixus is required for segmentation and for repression of the homeotic gene sex comb-reduced.

    PubMed

    Lavore, Andrés; Esponda-Behrens, Natalia; Pagola, Lucía; Rivera-Pomar, Rolando

    2014-03-01

    The establishment of the anterior-posterior segmentation in insects requires the concerted action of a hierarchical gene network. Here, we study the orthologue of Krüppel gap gene in the hemipteran Rhodnius prolixus (Rp-Kr). We characterized its structure, expression pattern and function. The genomic sequence upstream of the Rp-Kr transcriptional unit shows a putative regulatory region conserved in the orthologue genes from Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castaneum. Rp-Kr expression is zygotic and it is expressed in the anterior half of the embryo (the posterior half of the egg) during the blastoderm stage and germ band formation; later, during germ band extension, it is expressed in a central domain, from T2 to A3. The Rp-Kr loss of function phenotypes shows disrupted thoracic and abdominal segmentation. Embryos with weak segmentation phenotypes show homeotic transformations, in which an ectopic tibial comb, typical of T1 leg, appears in T2, which correlates with the ectopic expression of Rp-sex-comb reduced in this leg. PMID:24406318

  8. Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie

    Much of modern research in the field of atomic, molecular, and optical science relies on lasers, which were invented some 50 years ago and perfected in five decades of intense research and development. Today, lasers and photonic technologies impact most fields of science and they have become indispensible in our daily lives. Laser frequency combs were conceived a decade ago as tools for the precision spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen. Through the development of optical frequency comb techniques, technique a setup of the size 1 ×1 m2, good for precision measurements of any frequency, and even commercially available, has replaced the elaborate previous frequency-chain schemes for optical frequency measurements, which only worked for selected frequencies. A true revolution in optical frequency measurements has occurred, paving the way for the creation of all-optical clocks clock with a precision that might approach 10-18. A decade later, frequency combs are now common equipment in all frequency metrology-oriented laboratories. They are also becoming enabling tools for an increasing number of applications, from the calibration of astronomical spectrographs to molecular spectroscopy. This chapter first describes the principle of an optical frequency comb synthesizer. Some of the key technologies to generate such a frequency comb are then presented. Finally, a non-exhaustive overview of the growing applications is given.

  9. Drosophila O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is encoded by the Polycomb group (PcG) gene, super sex combs (sxc)

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Donald A. R.; Syrzycka, Monika; Macauley, Matthew S.; Rastgardani, Tara; Komljenovic, Ivana; Vocadlo, David J.; Brock, Hugh W.; Honda, Barry M.

    2009-01-01

    O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) reversibly modifies serine and threonine residues of many intracellular proteins with a single β-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine residue (O-GlcNAc), and has been implicated in insulin signaling, neurodegenerative disease, cellular stress response, and other important processes in mammals. OGT also glycosylates RNA polymerase II and various transcription factors, which suggests that it might be directly involved in transcriptional regulation. We report here that the Drosophila OGT is encoded by the Polycomb group (PcG) gene, super sex combs (sxc). Furthermore, major sites of O-GlcNAc modification on polytene chromosomes correspond to PcG protein binding sites. Our results thus suggest a direct role for O-linked glycosylation by OGT in PcG-mediated epigenetic gene silencing, which is important in developmental regulation, stem cell maintenance, genomic imprinting, and cancer. In addition, we observe rescue of sxc lethality by a human Ogt cDNA transgene; thus Drosophila may provide an ideal model to study important functional roles of OGT in mammals. PMID:19666537

  10. Drosophila O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is encoded by the Polycomb group (PcG) gene, super sex combs (sxc).

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Donald A R; Syrzycka, Monika; Macauley, Matthew S; Rastgardani, Tara; Komljenovic, Ivana; Vocadlo, David J; Brock, Hugh W; Honda, Barry M

    2009-08-11

    O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) reversibly modifies serine and threonine residues of many intracellular proteins with a single beta-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine residue (O-GlcNAc), and has been implicated in insulin signaling, neurodegenerative disease, cellular stress response, and other important processes in mammals. OGT also glycosylates RNA polymerase II and various transcription factors, which suggests that it might be directly involved in transcriptional regulation. We report here that the Drosophila OGT is encoded by the Polycomb group (PcG) gene, super sex combs (sxc). Furthermore, major sites of O-GlcNAc modification on polytene chromosomes correspond to PcG protein binding sites. Our results thus suggest a direct role for O-linked glycosylation by OGT in PcG-mediated epigenetic gene silencing, which is important in developmental regulation, stem cell maintenance, genomic imprinting, and cancer. In addition, we observe rescue of sxc lethality by a human Ogt cDNA transgene; thus Drosophila may provide an ideal model to study important functional roles of OGT in mammals. PMID:19666537

  11. Molecular Genetics of the Posterior Sex Combs/Suppressor 2 of Zeste Region of Drosophila: Aberrant Expression of the Suppressor 2 of Zeste Gene Results in Abnormal Bristle Development

    PubMed Central

    Brunk, B. P.; Martin, E. C.; Adler, P. N.

    1991-01-01

    We report the molecular characterization of the Posterior sex combs-Suppressor 2 of zeste region of Drosophila melanogaster. The distal breakpoint of the Aristapedioid inversion divides the region into two parts. We have molecularly mapped the lesions associated with several loss of function mutations in the Polycomb group gene Posterior sex combs (Psc) proximal to this breakpoint. In addition, we have found that lesions associated with several loss of function mutations in the Suppressor 2 of zeste [Su(z)2] gene lie distal to this breakpoint. Since the breakpoint does not cause a loss of function in either gene, no essential sequences are shared by these two neighboring genes. There are three dominant gain of function mutations in the region that result in abnormal bristle development. We find that all three juxtapose foreign DNA sequences upstream of the Su(z)2 gene, and that at least two of these mutations (Arp(1) and vg(D)) behave genetically as gain of function mutations in Su(z)2. Northern and in situ hybridization analyses show that the mutations result in increased accumulation of the Su(z)2 mRNA, which we argue is responsible for the bristle loss phenotype. PMID:1905661

  12. Modeling Frequency Comb Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Yuan, Jinhui; Kang, Zhe; Li, Qian; Wai, P. K. A.

    2016-06-01

    Frequency comb sources have revolutionized metrology and spectroscopy and found applications in many fields. Stable, low-cost, high-quality frequency comb sources are important to these applications. Modeling of the frequency comb sources will help the understanding of the operation mechanism and optimization of the design of such sources. In this paper,we review the theoretical models used and recent progress of the modeling of frequency comb sources.

  13. Compact electrostatic comb actuator

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Burg, Michael S.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.; Barnes, Stephen M.

    2000-01-01

    A compact electrostatic comb actuator is disclosed for microelectromechanical (MEM) applications. The actuator is based upon a plurality of meshed electrostatic combs, some of which are stationary and others of which are moveable. One or more restoring springs are fabricated within an outline of the electrostatic combs (i.e. superposed with the moveable electrostatic combs) to considerably reduce the space required for the actuator. Additionally, a truss structure is provided to support the moveable electrostatic combs and prevent bending or distortion of these combs due to unbalanced electrostatic forces or external loading. The truss structure formed about the moveable electrostatic combs allows the spacing between the interdigitated fingers of the combs to be reduced to about one micron or less, thereby substantially increasing the number of active fingers which can be provided in a given area. Finally, electrostatic shields can be used in the actuator to substantially reduce unwanted electrostatic fields to further improve performance of the device. As a result, the compact electrostatic comb actuator of the present invention occupies only a fraction of the space required for conventional electrostatic comb actuators, while providing a substantial increase in the available drive force (up to one-hundred times).

  14. The optical spectrum of ternary alloy BBi1‑xAsx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalcin, Battal G.; Aslan, M.; Ozcan, M. H.; Rahnamaye Aliabad, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    Among the III–V semiconductors, boron BBi and BAs as well as their alloys have attracted both scientific and technological interest in recent years. We present a calculation of the structural, electronic and optical properties of ternary alloy BBi1‑xAsx by means of the WIEN2k software package. The exchange–correlation potential is treated by the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) within the schema of Wu and Cohen. Also, we have used the modified Becke–Johnson (mBJ) formalism to improve the band gap results. All the calculations have been performed after geometry optimization. In this study, we have investigated structural properties such as the lattice constant (a0), bulk modulus (B0) and its pressure derivative (B‧), and calculated the electronic band structures of the studied materials. Accurate calculation of linear optical properties, such as real (ε 1) and imaginary (ε 2) dielectric functions, reflectivity (R), electron energy loss spectrum, absorption coefficient (α), refractive index (n) and sum rule (Neff) are investigated. Our obtained results for studied binary compounds, BBi and BAs, fairly coincide with other theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. According to the best of our knowledge, no experimental or theoretical data are presently available for the studied ternary alloy BBi1‑xAsx (0 < x < 1). The role of electronic band structure calculation with regards to the linear optical properties of BBi1‑xAsx is discussed. The effect of the spin–orbit interaction (SOI) is also investigated and found to be quite small.

  15. Comb and brush acne.

    PubMed

    Petrozzi, J W

    1980-12-01

    Frequent combing or brushing of the hair may result in an exacerbation of existing acne or be the cause of localized acne. Because of today's hair styling habits and methods, this type of acne is commonly encountered but poorly appreciated by physicians. Patient education is the most important factor in the management of this condition. Comb and brush acne is another external factor to be added to the list of causes of "acne mechanica." PMID:6449356

  16. Butelase 1 is an Asx-specific ligase enabling peptide macrocyclization and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Giang K T; Wang, Shujing; Qiu, Yibo; Hemu, Xinya; Lian, Yilong; Tam, James P

    2014-09-01

    Proteases are ubiquitous in nature, whereas naturally occurring peptide ligases, enzymes catalyzing the reverse reactions of proteases, are rare occurrences. Here we describe the discovery of butelase 1, to our knowledge the first asparagine/aspartate (Asx) peptide ligase to be reported. This highly efficient enzyme was isolated from Clitoria ternatea, a cyclic peptide-producing medicinal plant. Butelase 1 shares 71% sequence identity and the same catalytic triad with legumain proteases but does not hydrolyze the protease substrate of legumain. Instead, butelase 1 cyclizes various peptides of plant and animal origin with yields greater than 95%. With Kcat values of up to 17 s(-1) and catalytic efficiencies as high as 542,000 M(-1) s(-1), butelase 1 is the fastest peptide ligase known. Notably, butelase 1 also displays broad specificity for the N-terminal amino acids of the peptide substrate, thus providing a new tool for C terminus-specific intermolecular peptide ligations. PMID:25038786

  17. Dynamics of comb-of-comb networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongxiao; Lin, Yuan; Dolgushev, Maxim; Zhang, Zhongzhi

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of complex networks, a current hot topic in many scientific fields, is often coded through the corresponding Laplacian matrix. The spectrum of this matrix carries the main features of the networks' dynamics. Here we consider the deterministic networks which can be viewed as "comb-of-comb" iterative structures. For their Laplacian spectra we find analytical equations involving Chebyshev polynomials whose properties allow one to analyze the spectra in deep. Here, in particular, we find that in the infinite size limit the corresponding spectral dimension goes as ds→2 . The ds leaves its fingerprint on many dynamical processes, as we exemplarily show by considering the dynamical properties of polymer networks, including single monomer displacement under a constant force, mechanical relaxation, and fluorescence depolarization.

  18. Tellurium n-type doping of highly mismatched amorphous GaN1-xAsx alloys in plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Novikov, S. V.; Ting, M.; Yu, K. M.; Sarney, W. L.; Martin, R. W.; Svensson, S. P.; Walukiewicz, W.; Foxon, C. T.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we report our study on n-type Te doping of amorphous GaN1-xAsx layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. We have used a low temperature PbTe source as a source of tellurium. Reproducible and uniform tellurium incorporation in amorphous GaN1-xAsx layers has been successfully achieved with a maximum Te concentration of 9×10²⁰ cm⁻³. Tellurium incorporation resulted in n-doping of GaN1-xAsx layers with Hall carrier concentrations up to 3×10¹⁹ cm⁻³ and mobilities of ~1 cm²/V s. The optimal growth temperature window for efficient Te doping of the amorphous GaN1-xAsx layers has been determined.

  19. Tellurium n-type doping of highly mismatched amorphous GaN1-xAsx alloys in plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, S. V.; Ting, M.; Yu, K. M.; Sarney, W. L.; Martin, R. W.; Svensson, S. P.; Walukiewicz, W.; Foxon, C. T.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we report our study on n-type Te doping of amorphous GaN1-xAsx layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. We have used a low temperature PbTe source as a source of tellurium. Reproducible and uniform tellurium incorporation in amorphous GaN1-xAsx layers has been successfully achieved with a maximum Te concentration of 9×1020 cm-3. Tellurium incorporation resulted in n-doping of GaN1-xAsx layers with Hall carrier concentrations up to 3×1019 cm-3 and mobilities of ~1 cm2/V s. The optimal growth temperature window for efficient Te doping of the amorphous GaN1-xAsx layers has been determined.

  20. Optical frequency comb spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Foltynowicz, A; Masłowski, P; Ban, T; Adler, F; Cossel, K C; Briles, T C; Ye, J

    2011-01-01

    Optical frequency combs offer enormous potential in the detection and control of atoms and molecules by combining their vast spectral coverage with the extremely high spectral resolution of each individual comb component. Sensitive and multiplexed trace gas detection via cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy has been demonstrated for various molecules and applications; however, previous demonstrations have been confined to the visible and near-infrared wavelength range. Future spectroscopic capabilities are created by developing comb sources and spectrometers for the deep ultraviolet and mid-infrared spectral regions. Here we present a broadband high resolution mid-infrared frequency comb-based Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the important molecular fingerprint spectral region of 2100-3600 cm(-1) (2.8-4.8 microm). The spectrometer, employing a multipass cell, allows simultaneous acquisition of broadband, high resolution spectra (down to 0.0035 cm(-1) of many molecular species at concentrations in the part-per-billion range in less than 1 min acquisition time. The system enables precise measurements of concentration even in gas mixtures that exhibit continuous absorption bands. The current sensitivity, 2 x 10(-8) cm(-1) Hz-1/2 per spectral element, is expected to improve by two orders of magnitude with an external enhancement cavity. We have demonstrated this sensitivity increase by combining cavity-enhanced frequency comb spectroscopy with a scanning Fourier transform spectrometer in the near-infrared region and achieving a sensitivity of 4.7 x 10(-10) cm(-1) Hz(-1/2). A cavity-enhanced mid-infrared comb spectrometer will provide a near real-time, high sensitivity, high resolution, precisely frequency calibrated, broad bandwidth system for many applications. PMID:22457942

  1. Microwave Comb Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigman, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    Stable reference tones aid testing and calibration of microwave receivers. Signal generator puts out stable tones in frequency range of 2 to 10 GHz at all multiples of reference input frequency, at any frequency up to 1 MHz. Called "comb generator" because spectral plot resembles comb. DC reverse-bias current switched on and off at 1 MHz to generate sharp pulses in step-recovery diode. Microwave components mounted on back of special connector containing built-in attenuator. Used in testing microwave and spread-spectrum wide-band receivers.

  2. Coarse frequency comb interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwider, J.

    2008-08-01

    Real wedge interferometers of the Fizeau-type do not allow for fringes in case of a spectral broad band source - or in short: for white light fringes. Here, the use of a suitable frequency comb source will help to overcome this limitation on the one hand and on the other will offer the capability for enhanced phase sensitivity in high precision measurements of surface deviations. Frequency combs can be produced either by using a pulse train from a fs-laser or by passive filtering of the light emitted by a broad band source as a superlum-diode or a fs-laser. The frequency comb produced by a common fs-laser is extremely fine, i.e., the frequency difference of consecutive peaks is very small or the distance of consecutive pulses of the pulse train might be of the order of 1m. Therefore, the coarse pulse train produced by passive filtering of a broad band source is better adapted to the needs of surface testing interferometers. White light fringes are either applied for the profiling of discontinuous surfaces and/or can serve as an indication for the correct choice of multiplication factors in superposition interferometry. During the last decennium it became more and more clear that spatially incoherent sources provide better measuring accuracy in surface measurements due to the reduced influence of dust diffraction patterns. The advantage of laser illumination can nevertheless be maintained if the laser light is made spatially incoherent through moving scatterers in the light path. Here, we will discuss the application of spatially incoherent broad band light frequency filtered through a Fabry-Perot filter. The main applications are in the following fields: (1) surface profiling applications using two-beam Fizeau interferometers, (2) selection of single cavities out of a series of interlaced cavities, and (3) sensitivity enhancement for multi-beam interferometers for planeness or sphericity measurements. Some of the discussed possibilities will be experimentally

  3. Laser Spectroscopy and Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie

    2013-12-01

    The spectrum of a frequency comb, commonly generated by a mode-locked femtosecond laser consists of several hundred thousand precisely evenly spaced spectral lines. Such laser frequency combs have revolutionized the art measuring the frequency of light, and they provide the long-missing clockwork for optical atomic clocks. The invention of the frequency comb technique has been motivated by precision laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom. The availability of commercial instruments is facilitating the evolution of new applications far beyond the original purpose. Laser combs are becoming powerful instruments for broadband molecular spectroscopy by dramatically improving the resolution and recording speed of Fourier spectrometers and by creating new opportunities for highly multiplexed nonlinear spectroscopy, such as two-photon spectroscopy or coherent Raman spectroscopy. Other emerging applications of frequency combs range from fundamental research in astronomy, chemistry, or attosecond science to telecommunications and satellite navigation.

  4. Molecular Comb Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, T.L.; Thundat, G.T.; Witkowski, C.E., III

    2007-07-17

    This CRADA was developed to enable ORNL to assist Protein Discovery, Inc. to develop a novel biomolecular separation system based on an ORNL patent application 'Photoelectrochemical Molecular Comb' by Thundat, Ferrell, and Brown. The Molecular Comb concept is based on creating light-induced charge carriers at a semiconductor-liquid interface, which is kept at a potential control such that a depletion layer is formed in the semiconductor. Focusing light from a low-power illumination source creates electron-hole pairs, which get separated in the depletion layer. The light-induced charge carriers reaching the surface attract oppositely charged biomolecules present in the solution. The solution is a buffer solution with very small concentrations of biomolecules. As the focused light is moved across the surface of the semiconductor-liquid interface, the accumulated biomolecules follow the light beam. A thin layer of gel or other similar material on the surface of the semiconductor can act as a sieving medium for separating the biomolecules according to their sizes.

  5. Quantum spin Hall insulators in functionalized arsenene (AsX, X = F, OH and CH3) monolayers with pronounced light absorption.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Li, Yanle; Ma, Jing

    2016-05-14

    The search for new two-dimensional topological insulators (2D-TIs) with large band gaps is of great interest and importance. Our first-principles calculations predicted three candidates for 2D-TIs, arsenene functionalized with F, OH and CH3 groups (AsX, X = F, OH and CH3), which preserved large bulk band gaps from 100 to 160 meV (up to 260 meV) derived from the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) within the px,y orbitals. This picture is similar to what was reported for an AsH monolayer with a band gap of 193 meV. Ab initio molecular dynamic (AIMD) simulations demonstrated the thermal stabilities of the AsX monolayers even at 500 K. The nontrivial topological phase was confirmed by the topological invariant Z2 and topological edge state. The topological electronic bandgap of the AsF monolayer can be effectively modulated by biaxial tensile strain and vertical external electric field. In addition, pronounced light absorption in the near-infrared and visible range of the solar spectrum was expected for the AsX (X = H, F) monolayers from the adsorption peaks at 0.45-1.6 eV, which is attractive for light harvesting. The nontrivial quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulators AsX could be promising candidates for practical room-temperature applications in dissipationless transport devices and photovoltaics. PMID:27101795

  6. Mid-infrared frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schliesser, Albert; Picqué, Nathalie; Hänsch, Theodor W.

    2012-07-01

    Laser frequency combs are coherent light sources that emit a broad spectrum of discrete, evenly spaced narrow lines whose absolute frequency can be measured to within the accuracy of an atomic clock. Their development in the near-infrared and visible domains has revolutionized frequency metrology while also providing numerous unexpected opportunities in other fields such as astronomy and attosecond science. Researchers are now exploring how to extend frequency comb techniques to the mid-infrared spectral region. Versatile mid-infrared frequency comb generators based on novel laser gain media, nonlinear frequency conversion or microresonators promise to significantly expand the applications of frequency combs. In particular, novel approaches to molecular spectroscopy in the 'fingerprint region', with dramatically improved precision, sensitivity, recording time and/or spectral bandwidth may lead to new discoveries in the various fields relevant to molecular science.

  7. Quantum Cascade Laser Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faist, Jérôme; Villares, Gustavo; Scalari, Giacomo; Rösch, Markus; Bonzon, Christopher; Hugi, Andreas; Beck, Mattias

    2016-06-01

    It was recently demonstrated that broadband quantum cascade lasers can operate as frequency combs. As such, they operate under direct electrical pumping at both mid-infrared and THz frequencies, making them very attractive for dual-comb spectroscopy. Performance levels are continuously improving, with average powers over 100mW and frequency coverage of 100 cm-1 in the mid-infrared region. In the THz range, 10mW of average power and 600 GHz of frequency coverage are reported. As a result of the very short upper state lifetime of the gain medium, the mode proliferation in these sources arises from four-wave mixing rather than saturable absorption. As a result, their optical output is characterized by the tendency of small intensity modulation of the output power, and the relative phases of the modes to be similar to the ones of a frequency modulated laser. Recent results include the proof of comb operation down to a metrological level, the observation of a Schawlow-Townes broadened linewidth, as well as the first dual-comb spectroscopy measurements. The capability of the structure to integrate monothically nonlinear optical elements as well as to operate as a detector shows great promise for future chip integration of dual-comb systems.

  8. Quantum spin Hall insulators in functionalized arsenene (AsX, X = F, OH and CH3) monolayers with pronounced light absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Li, Yanle; Ma, Jing

    2016-05-01

    The search for new two-dimensional topological insulators (2D-TIs) with large band gaps is of great interest and importance. Our first-principles calculations predicted three candidates for 2D-TIs, arsenene functionalized with F, OH and CH3 groups (AsX, X = F, OH and CH3), which preserved large bulk band gaps from 100 to 160 meV (up to 260 meV) derived from the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) within the px,y orbitals. This picture is similar to what was reported for an AsH monolayer with a band gap of 193 meV. Ab initio molecular dynamic (AIMD) simulations demonstrated the thermal stabilities of the AsX monolayers even at 500 K. The nontrivial topological phase was confirmed by the topological invariant Z2 and topological edge state. The topological electronic bandgap of the AsF monolayer can be effectively modulated by biaxial tensile strain and vertical external electric field. In addition, pronounced light absorption in the near-infrared and visible range of the solar spectrum was expected for the AsX (X = H, F) monolayers from the adsorption peaks at 0.45-1.6 eV, which is attractive for light harvesting. The nontrivial quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulators AsX could be promising candidates for practical room-temperature applications in dissipationless transport devices and photovoltaics.The search for new two-dimensional topological insulators (2D-TIs) with large band gaps is of great interest and importance. Our first-principles calculations predicted three candidates for 2D-TIs, arsenene functionalized with F, OH and CH3 groups (AsX, X = F, OH and CH3), which preserved large bulk band gaps from 100 to 160 meV (up to 260 meV) derived from the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) within the px,y orbitals. This picture is similar to what was reported for an AsH monolayer with a band gap of 193 meV. Ab initio molecular dynamic (AIMD) simulations demonstrated the thermal stabilities of the AsX monolayers even at 500 K. The nontrivial topological phase was confirmed by the topological

  9. Charge carrier localization effects on the quantum efficiency and operating temperature range of InAsxP1-x/InP quantum well detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashisht, Geetanjali; Dixit, V. K.; Porwal, S.; Kumar, R.; Sharma, T. K.; Oak, S. M.

    2016-03-01

    The effect of charge carrier localization resulting in "S-shaped" temperature dependence of the photoluminescence peak energy of InAsxP1-x/InP quantum wells (QWs) is distinctly revealed by the temperature dependent surface photo voltage (SPV) and photoconductivity (PC) processes. It is observed that the escape efficiency of carriers from QWs depends on the localization energy, where the carriers are unable to contribute in SPV/PC signal below a critical temperature. Below the critical temperature, carriers are strongly trapped in the localized states and are therefore unable to escape from the QW. Further, the critical temperature increases with the magnitude of localization energy of carriers. Carrier localization thus plays a pivotal role in defining the operating temperature range of InAsxP1-x/InP QW detectors.

  10. [The skull of Combe Capelle].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Almut; Wegner, Dietrich

    2002-12-01

    Since the end of World War II two of the most important anthropological artefacts of the Museum für Vor- und Frühgeschichte in Berlin, the skulls and skeletons of Le Moustier and Combe Capelle, were believed to be missing or destroyed, respectively. The postcrania were severely damaged during a fire after the museum was bombed in February 1945, while the skulls were brought to the Soviet Union in 1945. In 1965, the skull of the Neanderthal man from Le Moustier and the chain of the grave of Combe Capelle were found amongst the art objects returned by the Soviet Union into the German Democratic Republic in 1958. However, the Combe Capelle skull was still missing. In the end of 2001 this skull could be found and identified in a store-house of the museum. Now, one the oldest known representatives of Homo sapiens sapiens is again available for scientific research and public exhibitions. PMID:12529957

  11. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    DOEpatents

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  12. On Frequency Combs in Monolithic Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenkov, A. A.; Matsko, A. B.; Maleki, L.

    2016-06-01

    Optical frequency combs have become indispensable in astronomical measurements, biological fingerprinting, optical metrology, and radio frequency photonic signal generation. Recently demonstrated microring resonator-based Kerr frequency combs point the way towards chip scale optical frequency comb generator retaining major properties of the lab scale devices. This technique is promising for integrated miniature radiofrequency and microwave sources, atomic clocks, optical references and femtosecond pulse generators. Here we present Kerr frequency comb development in a historical perspective emphasizing its similarities and differences with other physical phenomena. We elucidate fundamental principles and describe practical implementations of Kerr comb oscillators, highlighting associated solved and unsolved problems.

  13. Correlation between structure and physical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the AsxSe1-x system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Bureau, Bruno; Rouxel, Tanguy; Gueguen, Yann; Gulbiten, Ozgur; Roiland, Claire; Soignard, Emmanuel; Yarger, Jeffery L.; Troles, Johann; Sangleboeuf, Jean-Christophe; Lucas, Pierre

    2010-11-01

    Physical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the AsxSe1-x system have been measured as a function of composition including the Young’s modulus E , shear modulus G , bulk modulus K , Poisson’s ratio ν , the density ρ , and the glass transition Tg . All these properties exhibit a relatively sharp extremum at the average coordination number ⟨r⟩=2.4 . The structural origin of this trend is investigated by Raman spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. It is shown that the reticulation of the glass structure increases continuously until x=0.4 following the “chain crossing model” and then undergoes a transition toward a lower dimension pyramidal network containing an increasing number of molecular inclusions at x>0.4 . Simple theoretical estimates of the network bonding energy confirm a mismatch between the values of mechanical properties measured experimentally and the values predicted from a continuously reticulated structure, therefore corroborating the formation of a lower dimension network at high As content. The evolution of a wide range of physical properties is consistent with this sharp structural transition and suggests that there is no intermediate phase in these glasses at room temperature.

  14. Red, Green, and Blue Astro-combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, David; Glenday, Alex; Li, Chih-Hao; Korzennik, Sylvain; Noah Chang, Guoqing; Chen, Li-Jin; Benedick, Andrew; Kaertner, Franz; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald

    2011-06-01

    Searches for extrasolar planets using the periodic Doppler shift of stellar lines are approaching Earth-like planet sensitivity. Astro-combs, a combination of an octave spanning femtosecond laser and a mode-filtering cavity provide a likely route to increased calibration precision and accuracy. We present results from three astro-combs operating in the red/near-IR, green and blue spectral ranges. Light from a 1-GHz, octave-spanning Ti:Sapphire laser is filtered by a Fabry-Perot Cavity (FPC) constructed from Doubly-Chirped Mirrors to produce a red astro-comb with 100 nm of optical bandwidth. This astro-comb has calibrated an astrophysical spectrograph at the 1 m/s level. In the blue astro-comb, Ti:Sapphire comb light, doubled in a BBO crystal is filtered to 50 GHz mode spacing with an FPC. The blue astro-comb has performed 50 cm/s calibrations. In the ``green'' astro-comb, light from the 1 GHz Ti:Sapphire comb laser is broadened in a photonic crystal fiber optimized to produce light in the green. This 1-GHz spaced green light is then filtered to roughly 40 GHz via an FPC with zero group delay dispersion mirrors, providing approximately 50 nm of astro-comb light centered near 550 nm.

  15. A Josephson radiation comb generator

    PubMed Central

    Solinas, P.; Gasparinetti, S.; Golubev, D.; Giazotto, F.

    2015-01-01

    We propose the implementation of a Josephson Radiation Comb Generator (JRCG) based on a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) driven by an external magnetic field. When the magnetic flux crosses a diffraction node of the critical current interference pattern, the superconducting phase undergoes a jump of π and a voltage pulse is generated at the extremes of the SQUID. Under periodic drive this allows one to generate a sequence of sharp, evenly spaced voltage pulses. In the frequency domain, this corresponds to a comb-like structure similar to the one exploited in optics and metrology. With this device it is possible to generate up to several hundreds of harmonics of the driving frequency. For example, a chain of 50 identical high-critical-temperature SQUIDs driven at 1 GHz can deliver up to a 0.5 nW at 200 GHz. The availability of a fully solid-state radiation comb generator such as the JRCG, easily integrable on chip, may pave the way to a number of technological applications, from metrology to sub-millimeter wave generation. PMID:26193628

  16. A Josephson radiation comb generator.

    PubMed

    Solinas, P; Gasparinetti, S; Golubev, D; Giazotto, F

    2015-01-01

    We propose the implementation of a Josephson Radiation Comb Generator (JRCG) based on a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) driven by an external magnetic field. When the magnetic flux crosses a diffraction node of the critical current interference pattern, the superconducting phase undergoes a jump of π and a voltage pulse is generated at the extremes of the SQUID. Under periodic drive this allows one to generate a sequence of sharp, evenly spaced voltage pulses. In the frequency domain, this corresponds to a comb-like structure similar to the one exploited in optics and metrology. With this device it is possible to generate up to several hundreds of harmonics of the driving frequency. For example, a chain of 50 identical high-critical-temperature SQUIDs driven at 1 GHz can deliver up to a 0.5 nW at 200 GHz. The availability of a fully solid-state radiation comb generator such as the JRCG, easily integrable on chip, may pave the way to a number of technological applications, from metrology to sub-millimeter wave generation. PMID:26193628

  17. On-chip dual-comb based on quantum cascade laser frequency combs

    SciTech Connect

    Villares, G. Wolf, J.; Kazakov, D.; Süess, M. J.; Beck, M.; Faist, J.; Hugi, A.

    2015-12-21

    Dual-comb spectroscopy is emerging as an appealing application of mid-infrared frequency combs for high-resolution molecular spectroscopy, as it leverages on the unique coherence properties of frequency combs. Here, we present an on-chip dual-comb source based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser frequency combs. Control of the combs repetition and offset frequencies is obtained by integrating micro-heaters next to each laser. We show that a full control of the dual-comb system is possible, by measuring a multi-heterodyne beating corresponding to an optical bandwidth of 32 cm{sup −1} centered at 1330 cm{sup −1} (7.52 μm), demonstrating that this device represents a critical step towards compact dual-comb systems.

  18. Ultrafast electrooptic dual-comb interferometry.

    PubMed

    Durán, Vicente; Tainta, Santiago; Torres-Company, Victor

    2015-11-16

    Dual-comb interferometry is a particularly compelling technique that relies on the phase coherence of two laser frequency combs for measuring broadband complex spectra. This method is rapidly advancing the field of optical spectroscopy and empowering new applications, from nonlinear microscopy to laser ranging. Up to now, most dual-comb interferometers were based on modelocked lasers, whose repetition rates have restricted the measurement speed to ~kHz. Here we demonstrate a dual-comb interferometer that is based on electrooptic frequency combs and measures consecutive complex spectra at an ultra-high refresh rate of 25 MHz. These results pave the way for novel scientific and metrology applications of frequency comb generators beyond the realm of molecular spectroscopy, where the measurement of ultrabroadband waveforms is of paramount relevance. PMID:26698533

  19. Scaling of Yb-Fiber Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruehl, Axel; Marcinkevicius, Andrius; Fermann, Martin E.; Hartl, Ingmar

    2010-06-01

    Immediately after their introduction in 1999, femtosecond laser frequency combs revolutionized the field of precision optical frequency metrology and are key elements in many experiments. Frequency combs based on femtosecond Er-fiber lasers based were demonstrated in 2005, allowing additionally rugged, compact set-ups and reliable unattended long-term operation. The introduction of Yb-fiber technology led to an dramatic improvement in fiber-comb performance in various aspects. Low-noise Yb-fiber femtosecond oscillators enabled a reduction of relative comb tooth linewidth to the sub-Hz level as well as scaling of the fundamental comb spacings up to 1 GHz. This is beneficial for any frequency-domain comb application due to the higher power per comb-mode. Many spectroscopic applications require, however, frequency combs way beyond the wavelength range accessible with broad band laser materials, so nonlinear conversion and hence higher peak intensity is required. We demonstrated power scaling of Yb-fiber frequency combs up to 80 W average power in a strictly linear chirped-pulse amplification schemes compatible with low-noise phase control. These high-power Yb-fiber-frequency combs facilitated not only the extension to the mid-IR spectral region. When coupled to a passive enhancement cavity, the average power can be further scaled to the kW-level opening new capabilities for XUV frequency combs via high-harmonic generation. All these advances of fiber-based frequency combs will trigger many novel applications both in fundamental and applied sciences. Schibli et al., Nature Photonics 2 355 (2008). Hartl et al., MF9 in Advanced Solid-State Photonics. 2009, Optical Society of America. Ruehl et al., AWC7 in Advanced Solid-State Photonics. 2010, Optical Society of America. Adler et al., Optics Letters 34 1330 (2009). Yost et al., Nature Physics 5 815 (2009).

  20. Efficient optical frequency-comb generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, A. S.; McFarlane, G. M.; Riis, E.; Ferguson, A. I.

    1995-06-01

    We have demonstrated a method that efficiently transfers the power from a single-frequency laser into a wideband frequency comb. The comb was produced by a 2.7-GHz electro-optic modulator in a resonant optical cavity. A coupled cavity technique was used to transfer 8.5% of the laser power into a comb with a span of 400 modes, or more than 1 THz.

  1. Calculation of tunable type-II band alignments in InAsxSbyP1-x-y/InAs heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Kyurhee

    2016-01-01

    The energy band gaps of the alloy InAsxSbyP1-x-y are calculated using the correlated function expansion (CFE) technique over the entire composition space x and y, for which the CFE band gap composition contour for the mid-infrared (MIR) spectral region of 2 (0.62)-5 µm (0.25 eV) is presented. The composition dependence of the valence-band maximum (VBM) is obtained using the universal tight binding (UTB) method, and the corresponding conduction-band minimum (CBM) can be computed from the difference between the band gap and the VBM. By organizing the relative positions of the VBM and CBM between the quaternary alloy InAsSbP and the binary compound InAs, the band alignments and band types of InAsSbP/InAs heterojunctions (HJs) along the lattice-matching conditions x and y [i.e., y = 0.311(1 - x)] are determined. It is found that the VBMs of the alloy InAsxSbyP1-x-y are located within the band gap of InAs, whereas the CBMs of the alloy lie outside the band gap of InAs over the entire composition range. This implies that the InAsxSbyP1-x-y/InAs HJs exhibit composition-tunable, type-II (staggered) band alignments. In addition, the conduction-band offset (CBO) and valence-band offset (VBO) of InAsSbP/InAs HJs both present the upward bowing trend, with the CBO curves appearing sharp and the VBO curves appearing smooth.

  2. Normal-dispersion microresonator Kerr frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xiaoxiao; Qi, Minghao; Weiner, Andrew M.

    2016-06-01

    Optical microresonator-based Kerr frequency comb generation has developed into a hot research area in the past decade. Microresonator combs are promising for portable applications due to their potential for chip-level integration and low power consumption. According to the group velocity dispersion of the microresonator employed, research in this field may be classified into two categories: the anomalous dispersion regime and the normal dispersion regime. In this paper, we discuss the physics of Kerr comb generation in the normal dispersion regime and review recent experimental advances. The potential advantages and future directions of normal dispersion combs are also discussed.

  3. Bichromatically pumped microresonator frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, T.; Wabnitz, S.

    2014-07-01

    A study is made of the nonlinear dynamics of bichromatically pumped microresonator Kerr frequency combs described by a driven and damped nonlinear Schrödinger equation, with an additional degree of freedom in the form of the modulation frequency. A truncated four-wave model is derived for the pump modes and the dominant sideband pair, which is found to be able to describe much of the essential dynamical behavior of the full equation. The stability of stationary states within the four-wave model is investigated, and numerical simulations are made to demonstrate that a large range of solutions, including cavity solitons, are possible beyond previously considered low-intensity patterns.

  4. Arthur Wright Combs: A Humanistic Pioneer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Arthur Wright Combs (1912-1999) championed humanistic counseling and education. He proposed a theory that incorporated humanistic values and cognitive factors. This article features a review of his contributions, an overview of his theory, a synthesis of stories about Combs that were acquired during research interviews, and my commentary on his…

  5. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, Gordon J.; Kaskey, Jeffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics.

  6. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.

    1992-11-24

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics. 2 figs.

  7. Ultrabroadband coherent supercontinuum frequency comb

    SciTech Connect

    Ruehl, Axel; McKay, Hugh; Thomas, Brian; Dong, Liang; Fermann, Martin E.; Hartl, Ingmar; Martin, Michael J.; Cossel, Kevin C.; Chen Lisheng; Benko, Craig; Ye Jun; Dudley, John M.

    2011-07-15

    We present detailed studies of the coherence properties of an ultrabroadband supercontinuum, enabled by a comprehensive approach involving continuous-wave laser sources to independently probe both the amplitude and phase noise quadratures across the entire spectrum. The continuum coherently spans more than 1.5 octaves, supporting Hz-level comparison of ultrastable lasers at 698 nm and 1.54 {mu}m. We present a complete numerical simulation of the accumulated comb coherence in the limit of many pulses, in contrast to the single-pulse level, with systematic experimental verification. The experiment and numerical simulations reveal the presence of quantum-seeded broadband amplitude noise without phase coherence degradation, including the discovery of a dependence of the supercontinuum coherence on the fiber fractional Raman gain.

  8. Comb-Net: a high-density WDM network with centralized wavelength combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerla, Mario; Chiaretti, Guido; Rotolo, Salvatore

    1993-11-01

    In this paper, we propose Comb-Net, a tree PON architecture in which several laser combs at the root of the tree supply wavelengths to all stations in the PON. Namely, each station receives several wavelengths from comb laser sources located at the root of the PON, via a Comb Distribution network. It then selects (by fixed or tunable filters) some predefined or agreed upon wavelengths, and uses these as sources; i.e., it modulates them (in amplitude or phase) using an external modulator. The modulated wavelengths are then transmitted on the Multiaccess Communications network, which is separate from the Comb Distribution network. The novelty of Comb-Net is to replace the individual (fixed or tunable) lasers at the station with a set of centralized comb generators. The advantages are better stability control, lower noise and potentially lower cost since each station does not require a dedicated source. In the paper, we describe an example of Comb-Net architecture in which the Multiaccess Data network is based on a physical tree topology and on two separate virtual topologies embedded within the physical topology using WDM: a single hop topology used for circuit switched connections; and a multihop topology used for packet switched traffic. We illustrate the Comb-Net architecture with a simple case study.

  9. Tracking Comb Filter Suppresses Welder Harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delcher, Ray C.

    1992-01-01

    Tracking comb filter includes charge-coupled-device delay line and phase-locked loop. Filter removes harmonics of frequency of repetition of welding-current pulses from acoustic-emission signal. Spurious signals reduced almost to fundamental limit.

  10. Frequency Comb Generation in Superconducting Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, David; Erickson, Robert; Vissers, Michael; Ku, Hsiang-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    We have generated frequency combs spanning 0.5 to 20 GHz in superconducting λ = 2 resonators at T =3 K. Thin films of niobium-titanium nitride enabled this development due to their low loss, high nonlinearity, low frequency dispersion, and high critical temperature. The combs nucleate as sidebands around multiples of the pump frequency. Selection rules for the allowed frequency emission are calculated using perturbation theory, and the measured spectrum is shown to agree with the theory. Sideband spacing is measured to be accurate to 1 part in 108 The sidebands coalesce into a continuous comb structure observed to cover at least several frequency octaves. Generation of combs in this frequency range allows for unprecedented analysis of this non-linear phenomena in the time domain. We acknowledge DARPA and the NIST Quantum Information program.

  11. Frequency comb transferred by surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xiao Tao; Chun, Byung Jae; Seo, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kwanyong; Yoon, Hana; Kim, Dong-Eon; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seungchul

    2016-01-01

    Frequency combs, millions of narrow-linewidth optical modes referenced to an atomic clock, have shown remarkable potential in time/frequency metrology, atomic/molecular spectroscopy and precision LIDARs. Applications have extended to coherent nonlinear Raman spectroscopy of molecules and quantum metrology for entangled atomic qubits. Frequency combs will create novel possibilities in nano-photonics and plasmonics; however, its interrelation with surface plasmons is unexplored despite the important role that plasmonics plays in nonlinear spectroscopy and quantum optics through the manipulation of light on a subwavelength scale. Here, we demonstrate that a frequency comb can be transformed to a plasmonic comb in plasmonic nanostructures and reverted to the original frequency comb without noticeable degradation of <6.51 × 10(-19) in absolute position, 2.92 × 10(-19) in stability and 1 Hz in linewidth. The results indicate that the superior performance of a well-defined frequency comb can be applied to nanoplasmonic spectroscopy, quantum metrology and subwavelength photonic circuits. PMID:26898307

  12. Frequency comb transferred by surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xiao Tao; Chun, Byung Jae; Seo, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kwanyong; Yoon, Hana; Kim, Dong-Eon; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seungchul

    2016-02-01

    Frequency combs, millions of narrow-linewidth optical modes referenced to an atomic clock, have shown remarkable potential in time/frequency metrology, atomic/molecular spectroscopy and precision LIDARs. Applications have extended to coherent nonlinear Raman spectroscopy of molecules and quantum metrology for entangled atomic qubits. Frequency combs will create novel possibilities in nano-photonics and plasmonics; however, its interrelation with surface plasmons is unexplored despite the important role that plasmonics plays in nonlinear spectroscopy and quantum optics through the manipulation of light on a subwavelength scale. Here, we demonstrate that a frequency comb can be transformed to a plasmonic comb in plasmonic nanostructures and reverted to the original frequency comb without noticeable degradation of <6.51 × 10-19 in absolute position, 2.92 × 10-19 in stability and 1 Hz in linewidth. The results indicate that the superior performance of a well-defined frequency comb can be applied to nanoplasmonic spectroscopy, quantum metrology and subwavelength photonic circuits.

  13. Frequency comb transferred by surface plasmon resonance

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xiao Tao; Chun, Byung Jae; Seo, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kwanyong; Yoon, Hana; Kim, Dong-Eon; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seungchul

    2016-01-01

    Frequency combs, millions of narrow-linewidth optical modes referenced to an atomic clock, have shown remarkable potential in time/frequency metrology, atomic/molecular spectroscopy and precision LIDARs. Applications have extended to coherent nonlinear Raman spectroscopy of molecules and quantum metrology for entangled atomic qubits. Frequency combs will create novel possibilities in nano-photonics and plasmonics; however, its interrelation with surface plasmons is unexplored despite the important role that plasmonics plays in nonlinear spectroscopy and quantum optics through the manipulation of light on a subwavelength scale. Here, we demonstrate that a frequency comb can be transformed to a plasmonic comb in plasmonic nanostructures and reverted to the original frequency comb without noticeable degradation of <6.51 × 10−19 in absolute position, 2.92 × 10−19 in stability and 1 Hz in linewidth. The results indicate that the superior performance of a well-defined frequency comb can be applied to nanoplasmonic spectroscopy, quantum metrology and subwavelength photonic circuits. PMID:26898307

  14. Frequency Comb Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossel, Kevin C.; Sinclair, Laura C.; Coffey, Tyler; Cornell, Eric; Ye, Jun

    2011-06-01

    We have developed a novel technique for rapid ion-sensitive spectroscopy over a broad spectral bandwidth by combining the high sensitivity of velocity modulation spectroscopy (VMS) with the parallel nature and high frequency accuracy of cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy. Prior to this research, no techniques have been capable of high sensitivity velocity modulation spectroscopy on every parallel detection channel over such a broad spectral range. We have demonstrated the power of this technique by measuring the A^2Π_u - X^2Σ_g^+ (4,2) band of N_2^+ at 830 nm with an absorption sensitivity of 1×10-6 for each of 1500 simultaneous measurement channels spanning 150 Cm-1. A densely sampled spectrum consisting of interleaved measurements to achieve 75 MHz spacing is acquired in under an hour. This technique is ideally suited for high resolution survey spectroscopy of molecular ions with applications including chemical physics, astrochemistry, and precision measurement. Currently, this system is being used to map the electronic transitions of HfF^+ for the JILA electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) experiment. The JILA eEDM experiment uses trapped molecular ions to significantly increase the coherence time of the measurement in addition to utilizing the strong electric field enhancement available from molecules. Previous theoretical work has shown that the metastable ^3Δ_1 state in HfF^+ and ThF^+ provides high sensitivity to the eEDM and good cancellation of systematic effects; however, the electronic level structure of these species have not previously been measured, and the theoretical uncertainties are hundreds to thousands of wavenumbers. This necessitates broad-bandwidth, high-resolution survey spectroscopy provided by frequency comb VMS in the 700-900 nm spectral window. F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, K. C. Cossel, and J. Ye. Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175-205 (2010) A. E. Leanhardt, et. al. arXiv:1008.2997v2 E. Meyer, J. L. Bohn, and M. P. Deskevich

  15. Phase steps and resonator detuning measurements in microresonator frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Del'Haye, Pascal; Coillet, Aurélien; Loh, William; Beha, Katja; Papp, Scott B; Diddams, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Experiments and theoretical modelling yielded significant progress toward understanding of Kerr-effect induced optical frequency comb generation in microresonators. However, the simultaneous Kerr-mediated interaction of hundreds or thousands of optical comb frequencies with the same number of resonator modes leads to complicated nonlinear dynamics that are far from fully understood. An important prerequisite for modelling the comb formation process is the knowledge of phase and amplitude of the comb modes as well as the detuning from their respective microresonator modes. Here, we present comprehensive measurements that fully characterize optical microcomb states. We introduce a way of measuring resonator dispersion and detuning of comb modes in a hot resonator while generating an optical frequency comb. The presented phase measurements show unpredicted comb states with discrete π and π/2 steps in the comb phases that are not observed in conventional optical frequency combs. PMID:25565467

  16. George Combe and common sense.

    PubMed

    Dyde, Sean

    2015-06-01

    This article examines the history of two fields of enquiry in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Scotland: the rise and fall of the common sense school of philosophy and phrenology as presented in the works of George Combe. Although many previous historians have construed these histories as separate, indeed sometimes incommensurate, I propose that their paths were intertwined to a greater extent than has previously been given credit. The philosophy of common sense was a response to problems raised by Enlightenment thinkers, particularly David Hume, and spurred a theory of the mind and its mode of study. In order to succeed, or even to be considered a rival of these established understandings, phrenologists adapted their arguments for the sake of engaging in philosophical dispute. I argue that this debate contributed to the relative success of these groups: phrenology as a well-known historical subject, common sense now largely forgotten. Moreover, this history seeks to question the place of phrenology within the sciences of mind in nineteenth-century Britain. PMID:25921681

  17. Laboratory duplication of comb layering in the Rhum pluton. [igneous rocks with comb layered texture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    A description is provided of the texture of harrisite comb layers, taking into account the results of crystallization experiments at controlled cooling rates, which have reproduced the textural change from 'cumulate' to comb-layered harrisite. Melted samples of harrisite were used in the dynamic crystallization experiments considered. The differentiation of a cooling rate run with respect to olivine grain size and shape is shown and three possible origins of hopper olivine in differentiated crystallization runs are considered. It is found that olivine nucleation occurred throughout cooling, except for the incubation period during early cooling. The elongate combed olivines in harrisite apparently grew as the magma locally supercooled to at least 30 C. It is suggested that the branching crystals in most comb layers, including comb-layered harrisite, probably grew along thermal gradients.

  18. Optical Frequency Comb Generation based on Erbium Fiber Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droste, Stefan; Ycas, Gabriel; Washburn, Brian R.; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R.

    2016-06-01

    Optical frequency combs have revolutionized optical frequency metrology and are being actively investigated in a number of applications outside of pure optical frequency metrology. For reasons of cost, robustness, performance, and flexibility, the erbium fiber laser frequency comb has emerged as the most commonly used frequency comb system and many different designs of erbium fiber frequency combs have been demonstrated. We review the different approaches taken in the design of erbium fiber frequency combs, including the major building blocks of the underlying mode-locked laser, amplifier, supercontinuum generation and actuators for stabilization of the frequency comb.

  19. Low noise electro-optic comb generation by fully stabilizing to a mode-locked fiber comb.

    PubMed

    Kuse, Naoya; Schibli, Thomas R; Fermann, Martin E

    2016-07-25

    A fully stabilized EO comb is demonstrated by phase locking the two degrees of freedom of an EO comb to a low noise mode-locked fiber comb. Division/magnification of residual phase noise of locked beats is observed by measuring an out-of-loop beat. By phase locking the 200 th harmonics of the EO comb and a driving cw frequency to a fiber comb, a record low phase noise EO comb across +/- 200 harmonics (from 1544.8 nm to 1577.3 nm) is demonstrated. PMID:27464140

  20. Electrostatic comb drive for vertical actuation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A. P., LLNL

    1997-07-10

    The electrostatic comb finger drive has become an integral design for microsensor and microactuator applications. This paper reports on utilizing the levitation effect of comb fingers to design vertical-to-the-substrate actuation for interferometric applications. For typical polysilicon comb drives with 2 {micro}m gaps between the stationary and moving fingers, as well as between the microstructures and the substrate, the equilibrium position is nominally 1-2 {micro}m above the stationary comb fingers. This distance is ideal for many phase shifting interferometric applications. Theoretical calculations of the vertical actuation characteristics are compared with the experimental results, and a general design guideline is derived from these results. The suspension flexure stiffnesses, gravity forces, squeeze film damping, and comb finger thicknesses are parameters investigated which affect the displacement curve of the vertical microactuator. By designing a parallel plate capacitor between the suspended mass and the substrate, in situ position sensing can be used to control the vertical movement, providing a total feedback-controlled system. Fundamentals of various capacitive position sensing techniques are discussed. Experimental verification is carried out by a Zygo distance measurement interferometer.

  1. Ultrasonic comb transducer for smart materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, J. L.

    1998-04-01

    Installation of a small multi-element comb type ultrasonic transducer is proposed as a component of a smart structure. It can be used in either an active or passive mode in carrying out ultrasonic bulk or guided wave nondestructive evaluation. Theoretical methods are developed and experimental results are presented for guided wave generation and mode control with this very efficient and versatile novel comb type ultrasonic transducer. Excitation and probe design is crucial in mode selection. The comb transducer generates waves that are influenced by such parameters as number of elements, spacing between elements, dimension, pulsing sequence, and pressure distribution. The excited elastic field depends on the excitation frequency, plate thickness, and elastic properties. Techniques are studied to optimize the applied loading and the comb transducer design parameters so that only modes that are most sensitive to particular material characteristics can be generated. Complete understanding of the comb transducer parameters and their impact on the elastic field allows us to efficiently generate higher order modes as well as low phase velocity modes which are valuable in composite material characterization. Sample experiments are presented for various plate and tube like structures.

  2. Nonlinear transmission spectroscopy with dual frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Rachel; Mukamel, Shaul

    2014-08-01

    We show how two frequency combs E1, E2 can be used to measure single-photon, two-photon absorption (TPA), and Raman resonances in a molecule with three electronic bands, by detecting the radio frequency modulation of the nonlinear transmission signal. Some peaks are independent of the carrier frequency of the comb and others shift with that frequency and have a width close to the comb width. TPA and Raman resonances independent of the carrier frequency are selected by measuring the transmission signal ˜E12E22 and the single-photon resonances are selected by measuring the transmission signal ˜E13E2. Sinusoidal spectral phase shaping strongly affects the TPA, but not the Raman resonances.

  3. Generation of ultra-low-noise optical parametric combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ping P.; Radic, Stojan

    2016-03-01

    Generation of wideband optical frequency combs requires precise balance between nonlinear photon interaction and parasitic effects. While near-octave combs can be generated in both silica and silicon waveguides, it is not always possible to suppress the noise across the operational bandwidth. Principles and challenges of noiseinhibited, tunable frequency comb generation in cavity-free parametric mixers are described and discussed.

  4. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of the Solid–Solution Zintl Phase Eu11Cd6Sb12–xAsx (x < 3)

    SciTech Connect

    Kazem, Nasrin; Xie, Weiwei; Ohno, Saneyuki; Zevalkink, Alexandra; Miller, Gordon J; Snyder, G Jeffrey; Kauzlarich, Susan M

    2014-02-11

    Zintl phases are compounds that have shown promise for thermoelectric applications. The title solid–solution Zintl compounds were prepared from the elements as single crystals using a tin flux for compositions x = 0, 1, 2, and 3. Eu11Cd6Sb12–xAsx (x < 3) crystallize isostructurally in the centrosymmetric monoclinic space group C2/m (no. 12, Z = 2) as the Sr11Cd6Sb12 structure type (Pearson symbol mC58). Efforts to make the As compositions for x exceeding ~3 resulted in structures other than the Sr11Cd6Sb12 structure type. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction indicates that As does not randomly substitute for Sb in the structure but is site specific for each composition. The amount of As determined by structural refinement was verified by electron microprobe analysis. Electronic structures and energies calculated for various model structures of Eu11Cd6Sb10As2 (x = 2) indicated that the preferred As substitution pattern involves a mixture of three of the six pnicogen sites in the asymmetric unit. In addition, As substitution at the Pn4 site opens an energy gap at the Fermi level, whereas substitution at the other five pnicogen sites remains semimetallic with a pseudo gap. Thermoelectric properties of these compounds were measured on hot-pressed, fully densified pellets. Samples show exceptionally low lattice thermal conductivities from room temperature to 775 K: 0.78–0.49 W/mK for x = 0; 0.72–0.53 W/mK for x = 1; and 0.70–0.56 W/mK for x = 2. Eu11Cd6Sb12 shows a high p-type Seebeck coefficient (from +118 to 153 μ V/K) but also high electrical resistivity (6.8 to 12.8 mΩ·cm). The value of zT reaches 0.23 at 774 K. The properties of Eu11Cd6Sb12–xAsx are interpreted in discussion with the As site substitution.

  5. Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Villares, Gustavo; Hugi, Andreas; Blaser, Stéphane; Faist, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Dual-comb spectroscopy performed in the mid-infrared-where molecules have their strongest rotovibrational absorption lines-offers the promise of high spectral resolution broadband spectroscopy with very short acquisition times (μs) and no moving parts. Recently, we demonstrated frequency comb operation of a quantum-cascade-laser. We now use that device in a compact, dual-comb spectrometer. The noise properties of the heterodyne beat are close to the shot noise limit. Broadband (15 cm(-1)) high-resolution (80 MHz) absorption spectroscopy of both a GaAs etalon and water vapour is demonstrated, showing the potential of quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs as the basis for a compact, all solid-state, broadband chemical sensor. PMID:25307936

  6. Direct-comb molecular spectroscopy with accurate, resolved comb teeth over 43 THz.

    PubMed

    Zolot, A M; Giorgetta, F R; Baumann, E; Nicholson, J W; Swann, W C; Coddington, I; Newbury, N R

    2012-02-15

    We demonstrate a dual-comb spectrometer using stabilized frequency combs spanning 177 to 220 THz (1360 to 1690 nm) in the near infrared. Comb-tooth-resolved measurements of amplitude and phase generate over 4×10(5) individually resolved spectral elements at 100 MHz point spacing and kilohertz-level resolution and accuracy. The signal-to-noise ratio is 100 to 3000 per comb tooth. Doppler-broadened phase and amplitude spectra of CO(2), CH(4), C(2)H(2), and H(2)O in a 30 m multipass cell agree with established spectral parameters, achieving high-resolution measurements with optical bandwidth generally associated with blackbody sources. PMID:22344132

  7. Inter-comb synchronization by mode-to-mode locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Byung Jae; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Two combs of fiber femtosecond lasers are synchronized through the optical frequency reference created by injection-locking of a diode laser to a single comb mode. Maintaining a mHz-level narrow linewidth, the optical frequency reference permits two combs to be stabilized by mode-to-mode locking with a relative stability of 1.52  ×  10‑16 at 10 s with a frequency slip of 2.46 mHz. This inter-comb synchronization can be utilized for applications such as dual-comb spectroscopy or ultra-short pulse synthesis without extra narrow-linewidth lasers.

  8. Time sequence photography of Roosters Comb

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of understanding natural landscape changes is key in properly determining rangeland ecology. Time sequence photography allows a landscape snapshot to be documented and enables the ability to compare natural changes overtime. Photographs of Roosters Comb were taken from the same vantag...

  9. Spectroscopy with Comb-Referenced Diode Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cich, Matthew; Lopez, Gary V.; Johnson, Philip M.; Sears, Trevor J.; McRaven, Christopher P.

    2010-06-01

    Extended cavity diode lasers have been stabilized by locking to components of an erbium-doped fiber laser-based frequency comb with a 250 MHz comb spacing centered at 1.5μ m. We find the Allan variance of the diode laser frequency relative to the single comb component to which it is locked is of the order of a few Hz. For the system as a whole, the absolute frequency accuracy is approximately 1.5 parts in 1012. In order to characterize the system more completely, we have recorded saturation dip absorption spectra of several transitions in the ν_1 + ν_3 combination band of acetylene near 6530 cm-1. We find good agreement with published absolute frequency measurements for these transitions, which have been used as secondary frequency standards in the past. Aside from extremely precise saturation dip measurements such as these, comb-stabilized lasers should permit excellent measurements of Doppler-broadened lineshapes, both to compare with theory and for analytical applications. Progress along these lines will be reported at the meeting. Acknowledgments: T. J. Sears gratefully acknowledges support from a Brookhaven National Laboratory program development grant that enabled this work and also support for research at Brookhaven National Laboratory which was carried out under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy and supported by its Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences.

  10. Phase separation of comb polymer nanocomposite melts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qinzhi; Feng, Yancong; Chen, Lan

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the spinodal phase demixing of branched comb polymer nanocomposite (PNC) melts is systematically investigated using the polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) theory. To verify the reliability of the present method in characterizing the phase behavior of comb PNCs, the intermolecular correlation functions of the system for nonzero particle volume fractions are compared with our molecular dynamics simulation data. After verifying the model and discussing the structure of the comb PNCs in the dilute nanoparticle limit, the interference among the side chain number, side chain length, nanoparticle-monomer size ratio and attractive interactions between the comb polymer and nanoparticles in spinodal demixing curves is analyzed and discussed in detail. The results predict two kinds of distinct phase separation behaviors. One is called classic fluid phase boundary, which is mediated by the entropic depletion attraction and contact aggregation of nanoparticles at relatively low nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength. The second demixing transition occurs at relatively high attraction strength and involves the formation of an equilibrium physical network phase with local bridging of nanoparticles. The phase boundaries are found to be sensitive to the side chain number, side chain length, nanoparticle-monomer size ratio and attractive interactions. As the side chain length is fixed, the side chain number has a large effect on the phase behavior of comb PNCs; with increasing side chain number, the miscibility window first widens and then shrinks. When the side chain number is lower than a threshold value, the phase boundaries undergo a process from enlarging the miscibility window to narrowing as side chain length increases. Once the side chain number overtakes this threshold value, the phase boundary shifts towards less miscibility. With increasing nanoparticle-monomer size ratio, a crossover of particle size occurs, above which the phase separation

  11. Broadband high-resolution X-ray frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaletto, Stefano M.; Harman, Zoltán; Ott, Christian; Buth, Christian; Pfeifer, Thomas; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2014-07-01

    Optical frequency combs have had a remarkable impact on precision spectroscopy. Enabling this technology in the X-ray domain is expected to result in wide-ranging applications, such as stringent tests of astrophysical models and quantum electrodynamics, a more sensitive search for the variability of fundamental constants, and precision studies of nuclear structure. Ultraprecise X-ray atomic clocks may also be envisaged. In this work, an X-ray pulse-shaping method is proposed to generate a comb in the absorption spectrum of an ultrashort high-frequency pulse. The method employs an optical-frequency-comb laser, manipulating the system's dipole response to imprint a comb on an excited transition with a high photon energy. The described scheme provides higher comb frequencies and requires lower optical-comb peak intensities than currently explored methods, preserves the overall width of the optical comb, and may be implemented using currently available X-ray technology.

  12. The Rose-comb Mutation in Chickens Constitutes a Structural Rearrangement Causing Both Altered Comb Morphology and Defective Sperm Motility

    PubMed Central

    Boije, Henrik; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Fillon, Valérie; Dorshorst, Ben; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Liu, Ranran; Gao, Yu; Gu, Xiaorong; Wang, Yanqiang; Gourichon, David; Zody, Michael C.; Zecchin, William; Vieaud, Agathe; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Hallböök, Finn; Li, Ning; Andersson, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Rose-comb, a classical monogenic trait of chickens, is characterized by a drastically altered comb morphology compared to the single-combed wild-type. Here we show that Rose-comb is caused by a 7.4 Mb inversion on chromosome 7 and that a second Rose-comb allele arose by unequal crossing over between a Rose-comb and wild-type chromosome. The comb phenotype is caused by the relocalization of the MNR2 homeodomain protein gene leading to transient ectopic expression of MNR2 during comb development. We also provide a molecular explanation for the first example of epistatic interaction reported by Bateson and Punnett 104 years ago, namely that walnut-comb is caused by the combined effects of the Rose-comb and Pea-comb alleles. Transient ectopic expression of MNR2 and SOX5 (causing the Pea-comb phenotype) occurs in the same population of mesenchymal cells and with at least partially overlapping expression in individual cells in the comb primordium. Rose-comb has pleiotropic effects, as homozygosity in males has been associated with poor sperm motility. We postulate that this is caused by the disruption of the CCDC108 gene located at one of the inversion breakpoints. CCDC108 is a poorly characterized protein, but it contains a MSP (major sperm protein) domain and is expressed in testis. The study illustrates several characteristic features of the genetic diversity present in domestic animals, including the evolution of alleles by two or more consecutive mutations and the fact that structural changes have contributed to fast phenotypic evolution. PMID:22761584

  13. Genome-Wide Association Studies for Comb Traits in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Shen, Manman; Qu, Liang; Ma, Meng; Dou, Taocun; Lu, Jian; Guo, Jun; Hu, Yuping; Yi, Guoqiang; Yuan, Jingwei; Sun, Congjiao; Wang, Kehua; Yang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    The comb, as a secondary sexual character, is an important trait in chicken. Indicators of comb length (CL), comb height (CH), and comb weight (CW) are often selected in production. DNA-based marker-assisted selection could help chicken breeders to accelerate genetic improvement for comb or related economic characters by early selection. Although a number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and candidate genes have been identified with advances in molecular genetics, candidate genes underlying comb traits are limited. The aim of the study was to use genome-wide association (GWA) studies by 600 K Affymetrix chicken SNP arrays to detect genes that are related to comb, using an F2 resource population. For all comb characters, comb exhibited high SNP-based heritability estimates (0.61-0.69). Chromosome 1 explained 20.80% genetic variance, while chromosome 4 explained 6.89%. Independent univariate genome-wide screens for each character identified 127, 197, and 268 novel significant SNPs with CL, CH, and CW, respectively. Three candidate genes, VPS36, AR, and WNT11B, were determined to have a plausible function in all comb characters. These genes are important to the initiation of follicle development, gonadal growth, and dermal development, respectively. The current study provides the first GWA analysis for comb traits. Identification of the genetic basis as well as promising candidate genes will help us understand the underlying genetic architecture of comb development and has practical significance in breeding programs for the selection of comb as an index for sexual maturity or reproduction. PMID:27427764

  14. Genome-Wide Association Studies for Comb Traits in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Meng; Dou, Taocun; Lu, Jian; Guo, Jun; Hu, Yuping; Yi, Guoqiang; Yuan, Jingwei; Sun, Congjiao; Wang, Kehua; Yang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    The comb, as a secondary sexual character, is an important trait in chicken. Indicators of comb length (CL), comb height (CH), and comb weight (CW) are often selected in production. DNA-based marker-assisted selection could help chicken breeders to accelerate genetic improvement for comb or related economic characters by early selection. Although a number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and candidate genes have been identified with advances in molecular genetics, candidate genes underlying comb traits are limited. The aim of the study was to use genome-wide association (GWA) studies by 600 K Affymetrix chicken SNP arrays to detect genes that are related to comb, using an F2 resource population. For all comb characters, comb exhibited high SNP-based heritability estimates (0.61–0.69). Chromosome 1 explained 20.80% genetic variance, while chromosome 4 explained 6.89%. Independent univariate genome-wide screens for each character identified 127, 197, and 268 novel significant SNPs with CL, CH, and CW, respectively. Three candidate genes, VPS36, AR, and WNT11B, were determined to have a plausible function in all comb characters. These genes are important to the initiation of follicle development, gonadal growth, and dermal development, respectively. The current study provides the first GWA analysis for comb traits. Identification of the genetic basis as well as promising candidate genes will help us understand the underlying genetic architecture of comb development and has practical significance in breeding programs for the selection of comb as an index for sexual maturity or reproduction. PMID:27427764

  15. Mesoscopic description of random walks on combs.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Vicenç; Iomin, Alexander; Campos, Daniel; Horsthemke, Werner

    2015-12-01

    Combs are a simple caricature of various types of natural branched structures, which belong to the category of loopless graphs and consist of a backbone and branches. We study continuous time random walks on combs and present a generic method to obtain their transport properties. The random walk along the branches may be biased, and we account for the effect of the branches by renormalizing the waiting time probability distribution function for the motion along the backbone. We analyze the overall diffusion properties along the backbone and find normal diffusion, anomalous diffusion, and stochastic localization (diffusion failure), respectively, depending on the characteristics of the continuous time random walk along the branches, and compare our analytical results with stochastic simulations. PMID:26764637

  16. Mesoscopic description of random walks on combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, Vicenç; Iomin, Alexander; Campos, Daniel; Horsthemke, Werner

    2015-12-01

    Combs are a simple caricature of various types of natural branched structures, which belong to the category of loopless graphs and consist of a backbone and branches. We study continuous time random walks on combs and present a generic method to obtain their transport properties. The random walk along the branches may be biased, and we account for the effect of the branches by renormalizing the waiting time probability distribution function for the motion along the backbone. We analyze the overall diffusion properties along the backbone and find normal diffusion, anomalous diffusion, and stochastic localization (diffusion failure), respectively, depending on the characteristics of the continuous time random walk along the branches, and compare our analytical results with stochastic simulations.

  17. Radiation comb generation with extended Josephson junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Solinas, P.; Bosisio, R.; Giazotto, F.

    2015-09-21

    We propose the implementation of a Josephson radiation comb generator based on an extended Josephson junction subject to a time dependent magnetic field. The junction critical current shows known diffraction patterns and determines the position of the critical nodes when it vanishes. When the magnetic flux passes through one of such critical nodes, the superconducting phase must undergo a π-jump to minimize the Josephson energy. Correspondingly, a voltage pulse is generated at the extremes of the junction. Under periodic driving, this allows us to produce a comb-like voltage pulses sequence. In the frequency domain, it is possible to generate up to hundreds of harmonics of the fundamental driving frequency, thus mimicking the frequency comb used in optics and metrology. We discuss several implementations through a rectangular, cylindrical, and annular junction geometries, allowing us to generate different radiation spectra and to produce an output power up to 10 pW at 50 GHz for a driving frequency of 100 MHz.

  18. Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, Guy; Pitois, Stéphane; Yan, Ming; Hovhannisyan, Tatevik; Bendahmane, Abdelkrim; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Spectroscopic gas sensing and its applications to, for example, trace detection or chemical kinetics, require ever more demanding measurement times, acquisition rates, sensitivities, precisions and broad tuning ranges. Here, we propose a new approach to near-infrared molecular spectroscopy, utilizing advanced concepts of optical telecommunications and supercontinuum photonics. We generate, without mode-locked lasers, two frequency combs of slightly different repetition frequencies and moderate, but rapidly tunable, spectral span. The output of a frequency-agile continuous-wave laser is split and sent into two electro-optic intensity modulators. Flat-top low-noise frequency combs are produced by wave-breaking in a nonlinear optical fibre of normal dispersion. With a dual-comb spectrometer, we record Doppler-limited spectra spanning 60 GHz within 13 μs and an 80 kHz refresh rate, at a tuning speed of 10 nm s-1. The sensitivity for weak absorption is enhanced by a long gas-filled hollow-core fibre. New opportunities for real-time diagnostics may be opened up, even outside the laboratory.

  19. Optical study of narrow band gap InAsxSb1 -x (x =0 , 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namjoo, Shirin; Rozatian, Amir S. H.; Jabbari, Iraj; Puschnig, Peter

    2015-05-01

    The structural, electronic, and optical properties of InAs, InSb, and their ternary alloys InAsxSb1 -x (x =0.25 , 0.5, 0.75) are investigated within density functional theory utilizing the wien2k package. We find that the lattice constants and bulk moduli as a function of x are in best agreement with Vegard's linear rule. When computing the electronic band structures with the modified Becke-Johnson exchange-correlation functional (mBJLDA), our results for the band gaps of InAs, InSb, and their ternary alloys are in good agreement with the available experimental results while the conventional Wu-Cohen generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional leads to zero or close to zero band gaps. In particular, our mBJLDA results confirm experimental evidence that the minimum band gap occurs for As concentrations around x ≈0.3 . Furthermore, we investigate the dielectric function of these compounds within the random phase approximation using both the Wu-Cohen GGA and the mBJLDA functionals. While the mBJLDA results of our fully first-principles calculations show good agreement of the peak positions in ɛ2(ω ) with experiments, the peaks in the optical spectra based on the Wu-Cohen GGA band structure appear redshifted compared to experiment. We further identify the interband transitions responsible for the structures in the spectra. Looking at the optical matrix element, we note that the major peaks are dominated by transition from the Sb 5 p (As 4 p ) states to In s states for InSb and InAs0.25Sb0.75 (InAs, InAs0.75Sb0.25 , and InAs0.5Sb0.5 ).

  20. Demonstration of optical multicasting using Kerr frequency comb lines.

    PubMed

    Bao, Changjing; Liao, Peicheng; Kordts, Arne; Karpov, Maxim; Pfeiffer, Martin H P; Zhang, Lin; Yan, Yan; Xie, Guodong; Cao, Yinwen; Almaiman, Ahmed; Ziyadi, Morteza; Li, Long; Zhao, Zhe; Mohajerin-Ariaei, Amirhossein; Wilkinson, Steven R; Tur, Moshe; Fejer, Martin M; Kippenberg, Tobias J; Willner, Alan E

    2016-08-15

    We experimentally demonstrate optical multicasting using Kerr frequency combs generated from a Si3N4 microresonator. We obtain Kerr combs in two states with different noise properties by varying the pump wavelength in the resonator and investigate the effect of Kerr combs on multicasting. Seven-fold multicasting of 20 Gbaud quadrature phase-shift-keyed signals and four-fold multicasting of 16-quadrature amplitude modulation signals have been achieved when low-phase-noise combs are input into a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide. In addition, we find that the wavelength conversion efficiency in the PPLN waveguide for chaotic combs with high noise is similar to that for low-noise combs, while the signal quality of the multicast copy is significantly degraded. PMID:27519112

  1. Recent advances in ultrafast optical parametric oscillator frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, Richard A.; Zhang, Zhaowei; Reid, Derryck T.

    2014-12-01

    We discuss recent advances in the stabilization and application of femtosecond frequency combs based on optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) pumped by femtosecond lasers at 800 and 1060 nm. A method for locking to zero the carrier-envelope-offset of a Ti:sapphire-pumped OPO comb is described. The application of Yb:KYW-laser-pumped dual-combs for mid-infrared spectroscopy is detailed, specifically methane spectroscopy at approximately a 0.7% concentration at 1 atm.

  2. Thermally controlled comb generation and soliton modelocking in microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Chaitanya; Jang, Jae K.; Luke, Kevin; Ji, Xingchen; Miller, Steven A.; Klenner, Alexander; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L.

    2016-06-01

    We report the first demonstration of thermally controlled soliton modelocked frequency comb generation in microresonators. By controlling the electric current through heaters integrated with silicon nitride microresonators, we demonstrate a systematic and repeatable pathway to single- and multi-soliton modelocked states without adjusting the pump laser wavelength. Such an approach could greatly simplify the generation of modelocked frequency combs and facilitate applications such as chip-based dual-comb spectroscopy.

  3. Wet combing for the eradication of head lice.

    PubMed

    2013-03-01

    Manual removal (using conditioner and comb or a wet comb) can be used in the treatment of head lice. Head lice infestation (Pediculosis humanus capitis) is a common problem. It is diagnosed by visualising the lice. As half of people infested with head lice will not scratch, all people in contact with a person affected with head lice should be manually checked for infestations. Wet combing is easily and safely performed at home, but persistence is needed. This article describes the process of head lice removal using a wet comb. It has NHMRC Level 2 evidence of efficacy and no serious adverse effects have been reported. PMID:23529522

  4. Microresonator-based comb generation without an external laser source.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Adrea R; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Lamont, Michael R E; Levy, Jacob S; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2014-01-27

    We demonstrate a fiber-microresonator dual-cavity architecture with which we generate 880 nm of comb bandwidth without the need for a continuous-wave pump laser. Comb generation with this pumping scheme is greatly simplified as compared to pumping with a single frequency laser, and the generated combs are inherently robust due to the intrinsic feedback mechanism. Temporal and radio frequency (RF) characterization show a regime of steady comb formation that operates with reduced RF amplitude noise. The dual-cavity design is capable of being integrated on-chip and offers the potential of a turn-key broadband multiple wavelength source. PMID:24515147

  5. Frequency comb from a microresonator with engineered spectrum.

    PubMed

    Grudinin, Ivan S; Baumgartel, Lukas; Yu, Nan

    2012-03-12

    We demonstrate that by varying the ratio between the linewidth and dispersion of a whispering gallery mode resonator we are able to control the number N of free spectral ranges separating the first generated comb sidebands from the pump. We observed combs with N = 19 and N = 1. For the comb with N = 1 we have achieved a span of over 200 nm using a 0.4 mm MgF₂ resonator pumped with 50 mW at 1560 nm. This pump power is a factor of 10 lower than previously reported for combs with comparable bandwidth. PMID:22418543

  6. Dual-comb spectroscopy with a phase-modulated probe comb for sub-MHz spectral sampling.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Nicolas Bourbeau; Michaud-Belleau, Vincent; Magnan-Saucier, Sébastien; Deschênes, Jean-Daniel; Genest, Jérôme

    2016-05-15

    We present a straightforward and efficient method to reduce the mode spacing of a frequency comb based on binary pseudo-random phase modulation of its pulse train. As a proof of concept, we use such a densified comb to perform dual-comb spectroscopy of a long-delay Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a high-quality-factor microresonator with sub-MHz spectral sampling. Since this approach is based on binary phase modulation, it combines all the advantages of other densification techniques: simplicity, single-step implementation, and conservation of the initial comb's power. PMID:27176983

  7. Integrated Photonic Comb Generation: Applications in Coherent Communication and Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, John S.

    Integrated photonics combines many optical components including lasers, modulators, waveguides, and detectors in close proximity via homogeneous (monolithic) or heterogeneous (using multiple materials) integration. This improves stability for interferometers and lasers, reduces the occurrence of unwanted reflections, and it avoids coupling losses between different components as they are on the same chip. Thus, less power is needed to compensate for these added losses, and less heat needs to be removed due to these power savings. In addition, integration allows the many components that comprise a system to be fabricated together, thereby reducing the cost per system and allowing rapid scaling in production throughput. Integrated optical combs have many applications including: metrology, THz frequency generation, arbitrary waveform generation, optical clocks, photonic analog-to-digital converters, sensing (imaging), spectroscopy, and data communication. A comb is a set of optical sources evenly spaced in frequency. Several methods of comb generation including mode-locking and optical parametric oscillation produce phase-matched optical outputs with a fixed phase relationship between the frequency lines. When the absolute frequency of a single comb line is stabilized along with the frequency spacing between comb lines, absolute phase and frequency precision can be achieved over the entire comb bandwidth. This functionality provides tremendous benefits to many applications such as coherent communication and optical sensing. The goals for this work were achieving a broad comb bandwidth and noise reduction, i.e., frequency and phase stability. Integrated mode-locked lasers on the InGaAsP/InP material platform were chosen, as they could be monolithically integrated with the wide range of highly functional and versatile photonic integrated circuits (PICs) previously demonstrated on this platform at UCSB. Gain flattening filters were implemented to increase the comb

  8. Photonic generation of linearly chirped millimeter wave based on comb-spacing tunable optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zongyang; Xie, Weilin; Sun, Dongning; Shi, Hongxiao; Dong, Yi; Hu, Weisheng

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrated a photonic approach to generate a phase-continuous frequency-linear-chirped millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal with high linearity based on continuous-wave phase modulated optical frequency comb and cascaded interleavers. Through linearly sweeping the frequency of the radio frequency (RF) driving signal, high-order frequency-linear-chirped optical comb lines are generated and then extracted by the cascaded interleavers. By beating the filtered high-order comb lines, center frequency and chirp range multiplied linear-chirp microwave signals are generated. Frequency doubled and quadrupled linear-chirp mm-wave signals of range 48.6 to 52.6 GHz and 97.2 to 105.2 GHz at chirp rates of 133.33 and 266.67 GHz/s are demonstrated with the ±1st and ±2nd optical comb lines, respectively, while the RF driving signal is of chirp range 24.3 to 26.3 GHz and chirp time 30 ms.

  9. Spectrally interleaved, comb-mode-resolved spectroscopy using swept dual terahertz combs

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Iyonaga, Yuki; Sakaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Yokoyama, Shuko; Inaba, Hajime; Minoshima, Kaoru; Hindle, Francis; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Optical frequency combs are innovative tools for broadband spectroscopy because a series of comb modes can serve as frequency markers that are traceable to a microwave frequency standard. However, a mode distribution that is too discrete limits the spectral sampling interval to the mode frequency spacing even though individual mode linewidth is sufficiently narrow. Here, using a combination of a spectral interleaving and dual-comb spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) region, we achieved a spectral sampling interval equal to the mode linewidth rather than the mode spacing. The spectrally interleaved THz comb was realized by sweeping the laser repetition frequency and interleaving additional frequency marks. In low-pressure gas spectroscopy, we achieved an improved spectral sampling density of 2.5 MHz and enhanced spectral accuracy of 8.39 × 10−7 in the THz region. The proposed method is a powerful tool for simultaneously achieving high resolution, high accuracy, and broad spectral coverage in THz spectroscopy. PMID:24448604

  10. Efficiency optimization for atomic frequency comb storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bonarota, M.; Ruggiero, J.; Le Goueet, J.-L.; Chaneliere, T.

    2010-03-15

    We study the efficiency of the atomic frequency comb storage protocol. We show that for a given optical depth, the preparation procedure can be optimize to significantly improve the retrieval. Our prediction is well supported by the experimental implementation of the protocol in a Tm{sup 3+}:YAG crystal. We observe a net gain in efficiency from 10 to 17% by applying the optimized preparation procedure. In the perspective of high bandwidth storage, we investigate the protocol under different magnetic fields. We analyze the effect of the Zeeman and superhyperfine interaction.

  11. Superdiffusion of cancer on a comb structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iomin, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The influence of cell fission on transport properties of the vessel network is studied. A simple mathematical model is proposed by virtue of heuristic arguments on tumor development. The constructed model is a modification of a so-called comb structure. In the framework of this model we are able to show that the tumor development corresponds to fractional transport of cells. A possible answer to the question how the malignant neoplasm cells appear at an arbitrary distance from the primary tumor is proposed. The model could also be a possible mechanism for diffusive cancers.

  12. Dislocations in mismatched layers of GaAsxP1 - x in between GaP as observed by low-temperature cathodoluminescence: Part I. Grown on (001) oriented substrates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, A.; Pistol, M.-E.; Gerling, M.; Samuelson, L.; Leys, M. R.; Titze, H.

    1991-08-01

    The possibility of growing lattice-mismatched layers and quantum wells becomes more and more interesting for the fabrication of devices. For device performance it is necessary to control the formation of misfit dislocations within the mismatched layers. It is therefore essential to study the onset of misfit dislocations versus amount of mismatch and layer thickness. A preliminary cathodoluminescence (CL) investigation, performed on layers of GaAsxP1-x mismatched to GaP barriers, was presented [A. Gustafsson, J. Jönsson, M. Gerling, M. R. Leys, M.-E. Pistol, L. Samuelson, and H. Titze, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. No 100, 771 (1989)]. In this paper the critical thickness with respect to the composition, x, in GaAsxP1-x, is studied from a determination of the onset of the formation of dislocations as observed in the monochromatic CL images. The experimental values of the critical thickness are compared to theoretical predictions for the critical thickness, according to different theories. The best agreement is found with the mechanical equilibrium theory, which assumes that the barrier for the formation of dislocations is negligible.

  13. Coherent Raman dual-comb spectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ideguchi, Takuro; Holzner, Simon; Bernhardt, Birgitta; Guelachvili, Guy; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie

    2014-11-01

    The invention of the optical frequency comb technique has revolutionized the field of precision spectroscopy, providing a way to measure the absolute frequency of any optical transition. Since, frequency combs have become common equipment for frequency metrology. In the last decade, novel applications for the optical frequency comb have been demonstrated beyond its original purpose. Broadband molecular spectroscopy is one of those. One such technique of molecular spectroscopy with frequency combs, dual-comb Fourier transform spectroscopy provides short measurement times with resolution and accuracy. Two laser frequency combs with slightly different repetition frequencies generate pairs of pulses with a linearly-scanned delay between pulses in a pair. The system without moving parts mimics a fast scanning Fourier transform interferometer. The measurement speed may be several orders of magnitude faster than that of a Michelson-based Fourier transform spectrometer, which opens up new opportunities for broadband molecular spectroscopy. Recently, dual-comb spectroscopy has been extended to nonlinear phenomena. A broadband Raman spectrum of molecular fingerprints may be measured within a few tens of microseconds with coherent Raman dual-comb spectroscopy. Raster scanning the sample leads to hyperspectral images. This rapid and broadband label-free vibrational spectroscopy and imaging technique might provide new diagnostic methods in a variety of scientific and industrial fields.

  14. Dynamics of microresonator frequency comb generation: models and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, Tobias; Wabnitz, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Microresonator frequency combs hold promise for enabling a new class of light sources that are simultaneously both broadband and coherent, and that could allow for a profusion of potential applications. In this article, we review various theoretical models for describing the temporal dynamics and formation of optical frequency combs. These models form the basis for performing numerical simulations that can be used in order to better understand the comb generation process, for example helping to identify the universal combcharacteristics and their different associated physical phenomena. Moreover, models allow for the study, design and optimization of comb properties prior to the fabrication of actual devices. We consider and derive theoretical formalisms based on the Ikeda map, the modal expansion approach, and the Lugiato-Lefever equation. We further discuss the generation of frequency combs in silicon resonators featuring multiphoton absorption and free-carrier effects. Additionally, we review comb stability properties and consider the role of modulational instability as well as of parametric instabilities due to the boundary conditions of the cavity. These instability mechanisms are the basis for comprehending the process of frequency comb formation, for identifying the different dynamical regimes and the associated dependence on the comb parameters. Finally, we also discuss the phenomena of continuous wave bi- and multistability and its relation to the observation of mode-locked cavity solitons.

  15. Dual-Comb Spectroscopy in the Open Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieker, Greg B.; Klose, Andrew; Diddams, Scott; Coddington, Ian; Giorgetta, Fabrizio; Sinclair, Laura; Baumann, Esther; Truong, Gar-Wing; Ycas, Gabriel; Swann, William C.; Newbury, Nathan R.

    2015-06-01

    Dual-comb spectroscopy is arguably the natural successor to FTIR. Based on the interference between two frequency combs, this technique can record broadband spectra with a resolution better than 0.0003 wn. Like FTIR, dual-comb spectroscopy measures an entire spectrum simultaneously, allowing for suppression of systematic errors related to temporal dynamics of the sample. Unlike FTIR it records the entire spectrum with virtually no instrument lineshape or error in the frequency axis. The lack of moving parts in dual-comb spectroscopy means that spectra can be recorded in milliseconds to microseconds with the desired signal-to-noise being the only real constrain on the minimum recording time. Finally the high spacial beam quality of the frequency combs allows for increased sensitivity through long interaction paths either in free-space, multi-pass cells or enhancement cavities. This talk will explore the recent use of dual-comb spectroscopy in the near-infrared to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide, methane and water concentrations over a 2-km outdoor open-air path. Due to many of the strengths just mentioned, precisions of <1 ppm for CO_2 and <3 ppb for CH_4 in 5 min are achieved making this system very attractive for carbon monitoring at length scales relevant to carbon transport models. Additionally this presentation will address recent work on robust, compact, and portable dual-comb spectrometers as well as dual-comb spectroscopy further into the IR.

  16. Theory and applications of sampled analog recursive CTD comb filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, T. F.; Holmes, S. V.; Ejaz, A.; Piazza, F.; Saetre, L. T.; Freund, B.

    1976-01-01

    Sampled analog comb filter using a recursive filter implementation was studied. Charge transfer device delay lines were used as the delay elements. The similarities and differences between sampled analog recursive filter and digital recursive filter were pointed out. Both canceller type and integrator type comb filter using the first order or the second order canonical circuits were studied. Experimental results of frequency response are presented to show their difference from that of digital filters. A theoretical analysis was presented based essentially on the digital filter theory but modified to take into account the differences described above. The usefulness of this theory in analyzing the comb filter characteristics was discussed. Several applications of both the canceller type comb filter and the integrator type comb filter were demonstrated.

  17. Comparative analysis of spectral coherence in microresonator frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Torres-Company, Victor; Castelló-Lurbe, David; Silvestre, Enrique

    2014-02-24

    Microresonator combs exploit parametric oscillation and nonlinear mixing in an ultrahigh-Q cavity. This new comb generator offers unique potential for chip integration and access to high repetition rates. However, time-domain studies reveal an intricate spectral coherence behavior in this type of platform. In particular, coherent, partially coherent or incoherent combs have been observed using the same microresonator under different pumping conditions. In this work, we provide a numerical analysis of the coherence dynamics that supports the above experimental findings and verify particular design rules to achieve spectrally coherent microresonator combs. A particular emphasis is placed in understanding the differences between so-called Type I and Type II combs. PMID:24663786

  18. Does combing the scalp reduce scalp electrode impedances?

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Yatin; McArthur, Genevieve

    2010-05-15

    Electrical activity from the human brain can be recorded via electrodes on the scalp. It is important to reduce the impedance of each electrode to minimize unwanted noise in the recording. Electrode impedance can be improved by abrading the skin to remove dead skin cells. In this experiment, we tested if abrading the skin by combing the scalp leads to a significant reduction in electrode impedance. We compared the mean electrode impedance values of 20 subjects whose scalps were combed prior to electrode cap placement, with 20 subjects whose scalps were not combed. Combing significantly reduced the impedances at central, right, and left areas of the scalp. This finding supports the use of scalp combing to reduce the time and subject discomfort that can be associated with placing scalp electrodes. This is particularly important for experiments testing children. PMID:20211649

  19. Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Davide; Gotti, Riccardo; Gambetta, Alessio; Belmonte, Michele; Galzerano, Gianluca; Laporta, Paolo; Marangoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Overcoming the Doppler broadening limit is a cornerstone of precision spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the achievement of a Doppler-free regime is severely hampered by the need of high field intensities to saturate absorption transitions and of a high signal-to-noise ratio to detect tiny Lamb-dip features. Here we present a novel comb-assisted spectrometer ensuring over a broad range from 1.5 to 1.63 μm intra-cavity field enhancement up to 1.5 kW/cm(2), which is suitable for saturation of transitions with extremely weak electric dipole moments. Referencing to an optical frequency comb allows the spectrometer to operate with kHz-level frequency accuracy, while an extremely tight locking of the probe laser to the enhancement cavity enables a 10(-11) cm(-1) absorption sensitivity to be reached over 200 s in a purely dc direct-detection-mode at the cavity output. The particularly simple and robust detection and operating scheme, together with the wide tunability available, makes the system suitable to explore thousands of lines of several molecules never observed so far in a Doppler-free regime. As a demonstration, Lamb-dip spectroscopy is performed on the P(15) line of the 01120-00000 band of acetylene, featuring a line-strength below 10(-23) cm/mol and an Einstein coefficient of 5 mHz, among the weakest ever observed. PMID:27263858

  20. Tunable Surface Properties from Bioinspired Comb Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zoelen, Wendy; Buss, Hilda; Ellebracht, Nathan; Zuckermann, Ronald; Segalman, Rachel

    2013-03-01

    A modular polymer system which incorporates multiple functionalities simultaneously while keeping an identical backbone chemistry is a useful tool in determining necessary functionalities for marine antifouling properties. We have investigated the surface properties and antifouling behavior of polypeptoids, a class of non-natural biomimetic polymers based on an N-substituted glycine backbone, that combine many of the advantageous properties of bulk polymers with those of synthetically produced proteins, including controllable chain shape, sequence, and self-assembled structure. Using thiol-ene click chemistry, thiol functionalized amphiphilic peptoid sequences consisting of hydrophilic methoxyethyl and hydrophobic heptafluorobutyl side chains were attached to polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide-stat-allyl glycidyl ether), creating comb-shaped molecules. Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) was used to study the surface characteristics as a function of peptoid length and composition. Only 20% of fluorinated groups in the peptoid were sufficient for promoting surface display of the otherwise hydrophilic PEO/peptoid comb block. Antifouling experiments with spores of the green algae Ulva indicated an influence of sequence.

  1. Cavity-Enhanced Optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jun; Thorpe, Michael J.; Adler, Florian; Cossel, Kevin C.

    2009-06-01

    Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy is a new technique that realizes simultaneously broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution provided by an optical frequency comb as well as ultrahigh detection sensitivities enabled with a high-finesse optical cavity [1]. These powerful capabilities have been demonstrated in a series of experiments where real-time detection and identification of many different molecular states or species are achieved in a massively parallel fashion [2,3]. We will discuss the principle, technical requirements, and various implementations for this spectroscopic approach, as well as applications that include trace gas detections, human breath analysis, and characterization of cold and ultracold molecules [4,5,6]. References: [1] M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, Science 311, 1595 (2006). [2] M. J. Thorpe, D. D. Hudson, K. D. Moll, J. Lasri, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 32, 307 (2007). [3] C. Gohle, B. Stein, A. Schliesser, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263902 (2007). [4] M. J. Thorpe, D. Balslev-Clausen, M. Kirchner, and J. Ye, Opt. Express. 16, 2387 (2008). [5] M. J. Thorpe and J. Ye, Appl. Phys. B 91, 397 (2008). [6] M. J. Thorpe, F. Adler, K. C. Cossel, M. H. G. de Miranda, and J. Ye, Chem. Phys. Lett. 468, 1 (2009).

  2. Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Davide; Gotti, Riccardo; Gambetta, Alessio; Belmonte, Michele; Galzerano, Gianluca; Laporta, Paolo; Marangoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Overcoming the Doppler broadening limit is a cornerstone of precision spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the achievement of a Doppler-free regime is severely hampered by the need of high field intensities to saturate absorption transitions and of a high signal-to-noise ratio to detect tiny Lamb-dip features. Here we present a novel comb-assisted spectrometer ensuring over a broad range from 1.5 to 1.63 μm intra-cavity field enhancement up to 1.5 kW/cm2, which is suitable for saturation of transitions with extremely weak electric dipole moments. Referencing to an optical frequency comb allows the spectrometer to operate with kHz-level frequency accuracy, while an extremely tight locking of the probe laser to the enhancement cavity enables a 10−11 cm−1 absorption sensitivity to be reached over 200 s in a purely dc direct-detection-mode at the cavity output. The particularly simple and robust detection and operating scheme, together with the wide tunability available, makes the system suitable to explore thousands of lines of several molecules never observed so far in a Doppler-free regime. As a demonstration, Lamb-dip spectroscopy is performed on the P(15) line of the 01120-00000 band of acetylene, featuring a line-strength below 10−23 cm/mol and an Einstein coefficient of 5 mHz, among the weakest ever observed. PMID:27263858

  3. Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, Davide; Gotti, Riccardo; Gambetta, Alessio; Belmonte, Michele; Galzerano, Gianluca; Laporta, Paolo; Marangoni, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Overcoming the Doppler broadening limit is a cornerstone of precision spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the achievement of a Doppler-free regime is severely hampered by the need of high field intensities to saturate absorption transitions and of a high signal-to-noise ratio to detect tiny Lamb-dip features. Here we present a novel comb-assisted spectrometer ensuring over a broad range from 1.5 to 1.63 μm intra-cavity field enhancement up to 1.5 kW/cm2, which is suitable for saturation of transitions with extremely weak electric dipole moments. Referencing to an optical frequency comb allows the spectrometer to operate with kHz-level frequency accuracy, while an extremely tight locking of the probe laser to the enhancement cavity enables a 10‑11 cm‑1 absorption sensitivity to be reached over 200 s in a purely dc direct-detection-mode at the cavity output. The particularly simple and robust detection and operating scheme, together with the wide tunability available, makes the system suitable to explore thousands of lines of several molecules never observed so far in a Doppler-free regime. As a demonstration, Lamb-dip spectroscopy is performed on the P(15) line of the 01120-00000 band of acetylene, featuring a line-strength below 10‑23 cm/mol and an Einstein coefficient of 5 mHz, among the weakest ever observed.

  4. Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Austin G; Lau, Ryan K W; Cardenas, Jaime; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Mohanty, Aseema; Fain, Romy; Lee, Yoon Ho Daniel; Yu, Mengjie; Phare, Christopher T; Poitras, Carl B; Gaeta, Alexander L; Lipson, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Optical frequency combs are a revolutionary light source for high-precision spectroscopy because of their narrow linewidths and precise frequency spacing. Generation of such combs in the mid-infrared spectral region (2-20 μm) is important for molecular gas detection owing to the presence of a large number of absorption lines in this wavelength regime. Microresonator-based frequency comb sources can provide a compact and robust platform for comb generation that can operate with relatively low optical powers. However, material and dispersion engineering limitations have prevented the realization of an on-chip integrated mid-infrared microresonator comb source. Here we demonstrate a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible platform for on-chip comb generation using silicon microresonators, and realize a broadband frequency comb spanning from 2.1 to 3.5 μm. This platform is compact and robust and offers the potential to be versatile for use outside the laboratory environment for applications such as real-time monitoring of atmospheric gas conditions. PMID:25708922

  5. Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Pfeifle, Joerg; Brasch, Victor; Lauermann, Matthias; Yu, Yimin; Wegner, Daniel; Herr, Tobias; Hartinger, Klaus; Schindler, Philipp; Li, Jingshi; Hillerkuss, David; Schmogrow, Rene; Weimann, Claudius; Holzwarth, Ronald; Freude, Wolfgang; Leuthold, Juerg; Kippenberg, Tobias J; Koos, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Optical frequency combs have the potential to revolutionize terabit communications(1). Generation of Kerr combs in nonlinear microresonators(2) represents a particularly promising option(3) enabling line spacings of tens of GHz. However, such combs may exhibit strong phase noise(4-6), which has made high-speed data transmission impossible up to now. Here we demonstrate that systematic adjustment of pump conditions for low phase noise(4,7-9) enables coherent data transmission with advanced modulation formats that pose stringent requirements on the spectral purity of the comb. In a first experiment, we encode a data stream of 392 Gbit/s on a Kerr comb using quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) and 16-state quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM). A second experiment demonstrates feedback-stabilization of the comb and transmission of a 1.44 Tbit/s data stream over up to 300 km. The results show that Kerr combs meet the highly demanding requirements of coherent communications and thus offer an attractive solution towards chip-scale terabit/s transceivers. PMID:24860615

  6. Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifle, Joerg; Brasch, Victor; Lauermann, Matthias; Yu, Yimin; Wegner, Daniel; Herr, Tobias; Hartinger, Klaus; Schindler, Philipp; Li, Jingshi; Hillerkuss, David; Schmogrow, Rene; Weimann, Claudius; Holzwarth, Ronald; Freude, Wolfgang; Leuthold, Juerg; Kippenberg, Tobias J.; Koos, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Optical frequency combs have the potential to revolutionize terabit communications1. Generation of Kerr combs in nonlinear microresonators2 represents a particularly promising option3 enabling line spacings of tens of GHz. However, such combs may exhibit strong phase noise4-6, which has made high-speed data transmission impossible up to now. Here we demonstrate that systematic adjustment of pump conditions for low phase noise4,7-9 enables coherent data transmission with advanced modulation formats that pose stringent requirements on the spectral purity of the comb. In a first experiment, we encode a data stream of 392 Gbit/s on a Kerr comb using quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) and 16-state quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM). A second experiment demonstrates feedback-stabilization of the comb and transmission of a 1.44 Tbit/s data stream over up to 300 km. The results show that Kerr combs meet the highly demanding requirements of coherent communications and thus offer an attractive solution towards chip-scale terabit/s transceivers. PMID:24860615

  7. Frequency comb metrology with an optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Balskus, K; Schilt, S; Wittwer, V J; Brochard, P; Ploetzing, T; Jornod, N; McCracken, R A; Zhang, Z; Bartels, A; Reid, D T; Südmeyer, T

    2016-04-18

    We report on the first demonstration of absolute frequency comb metrology with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) frequency comb. The synchronously-pumped OPO operated in the 1.5-µm spectral region and was referenced to an H-maser atomic clock. Using different techniques, we thoroughly characterized the frequency noise power spectral density (PSD) of the repetition rate frep, of the carrier-envelope offset frequency fCEO, and of an optical comb line νN. The comb mode optical linewidth at 1557 nm was determined to be ~70 kHz for an observation time of 1 s from the measured frequency noise PSD, and was limited by the stability of the microwave frequency standard available for the stabilization of the comb repetition rate. We achieved a tight lock of the carrier envelope offset frequency with only ~300 mrad residual integrated phase noise, which makes its contribution to the optical linewidth negligible. The OPO comb was used to measure the absolute optical frequency of a near-infrared laser whose second-harmonic component was locked to the F = 2→3 transition of the 87Rb D2 line at 780 nm, leading to a measured transition frequency of νRb = 384,228,115,346 ± 16 kHz. We performed the same measurement with a commercial fiber-laser comb operating in the 1.5-µm region. Both the OPO comb and the commercial fiber comb achieved similar performance. The measurement accuracy was limited by interferometric noise in the fibered setup of the Rb-stabilized laser. PMID:27137274

  8. Comb entanglement in quantum spin chains

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, J. P.; Mezzadri, F.; Novaes, M.

    2006-07-15

    Bipartite entanglement in the ground state of a chain of N quantum spins can be quantified either by computing pairwise concurrence or by dividing the chain into two complementary subsystems. In the latter case the smaller subsystem is usually a single spin or a block of adjacent spins and the entanglement differentiates between critical and noncritical regimes. Here we extend this approach by considering a more general setting: our smaller subsystem S{sub A} consists of a comb of L spins, spaced p sites apart. Our results are thus not restricted to a simple area law, but contain nonlocal information, parametrized by the spacing p. For the XX model we calculate the von Neumann entropy analytically when N{yields}{infinity} and investigate its dependence on L and p. We find that an external magnetic field induces an unexpected length scale for entanglement in this case.

  9. Sensitivity of coherent dual-comb spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Newbury, Nathan R; Coddington, Ian; Swann, William

    2010-04-12

    Coherent dual comb spectroscopy can provide high-resolution, high-accuracy measurements of a sample response in both magnitude and phase. We discuss the achievable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) due to both additive white noise and multiplicative noise, and the corresponding sensitivity limit for trace gas detection. We show that sequential acquisition of the overall spectrum through a tunable filter, or parallel acquisition of the overall spectrum through a detector array, can significantly improve the SNR under some circumstances. We identify a useful figure of merit as the quality factor, equal to the product of the SNR, normalized by the square root of the acquisition time, and the number of resolved frequency elements. For a single detector and fiber-laser based system, this quality factor is 10(6) - 10(7) Hz(1/2). PMID:20588636

  10. Phase Stabilization of a Frequency Comb using Multipulse Quantum Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadarso, Andrea; Mur-Petit, Jordi; García-Ripoll, Juan José

    2014-02-01

    From the interaction between a frequency comb and an atomic qubit, we derive quantum protocols for the determination of the carrier-envelope offset phase, using the qubit coherence as a reference, and without the need of frequency doubling or an octave spanning comb. Compared with a trivial interference protocol, the multipulse protocol results in a polynomial enhancement of the sensitivity O(N-2) with the number N of laser pulses involved. We specialize the protocols using optical or hyperfine qubits, Λ schemes, and Raman transitions, and introduce methods where the reference is another phase-stable cw laser or frequency comb.

  11. Third-order chromatic dispersion stabilizes Kerr frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Parra-Rivas, Pedro; Gomila, Damià; Leo, François; Coen, Stéphane; Gelens, Lendert

    2014-05-15

    Using numerical simulations of an extended Lugiato-Lefever equation we analyze the stability and nonlinear dynamics of Kerr frequency combs generated in microresonators and fiber resonators, taking into account third-order dispersion effects. We show that cavity solitons underlying Kerr frequency combs, normally sensitive to oscillatory and chaotic instabilities, are stabilized in a wide range of parameter space by third-order dispersion. Moreover, we demonstrate how the snaking structure organizing compound states of multiple cavity solitons is qualitatively changed by third-order dispersion, promoting an increased stability of Kerr combs underlined by a single cavity soliton. PMID:24978250

  12. Thermally controlled comb generation and soliton modelocking in microresonators.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Chaitanya; Jang, Jae K; Luke, Kevin; Ji, Xingchen; Miller, Steven A; Klenner, Alexander; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2016-06-01

    We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of thermally controlled soliton mode-locked frequency comb generation in microresonators. By controlling the electric current through heaters integrated with silicon nitride microresonators, we demonstrate a systematic and repeatable pathway to single- and multi-soliton mode-locked states without adjusting the pump laser wavelength. Such an approach could greatly simplify the generation of mode-locked frequency combs and facilitate applications such as chip-based dual-comb spectroscopy. PMID:27244415

  13. Phase stabilization of a frequency comb using multipulse quantum interferometry.

    PubMed

    Cadarso, Andrea; Mur-Petit, Jordi; García-Ripoll, Juan José

    2014-02-21

    From the interaction between a frequency comb and an atomic qubit, we derive quantum protocols for the determination of the carrier-envelope offset phase, using the qubit coherence as a reference, and without the need of frequency doubling or an octave spanning comb. Compared with a trivial interference protocol, the multipulse protocol results in a polynomial enhancement of the sensitivity O(N-2) with the number N of laser pulses involved. We specialize the protocols using optical or hyperfine qubits, Λ schemes, and Raman transitions, and introduce methods where the reference is another phase-stable cw laser or frequency comb. PMID:24579598

  14. Safe sex

    MedlinePlus

    Safe sex means taking steps before and during sex that can prevent you from getting an infection, or from ... the skin around the genital area. Before having sex: Get to know your partner and discuss your ...

  15. Combing gravitational hair in 2 + 1 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, William; Marolf, Donald; Mintun, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The gravitational Gauss law requires any addition of energy to be accompanied by the addition of gravitational flux. The possible configurations of this flux for a given source may be called gravitational hair, and several recent works discuss gravitational observables (‘gravitational Wilson lines’) which create this hair in highly collimated ‘combed’ configurations. We construct and analyze time-symmetric classical solutions of 2 + 1 Einstein-Hilbert gravity such as might be created by smeared versions of such operators. We focus on the AdS3 case, where this hair is characterized by the profile of the boundary stress tensor; the desired solutions are those where the boundary stress tensor at initial time t = 0 agrees precisely with its vacuum value outside an angular interval [-α ,α ]. At linear order in source strength the energy is independent of the combing parameter α, but nonlinearities cause the full energy to diverge as α \\to 0. In general, solutions with combed gravitational flux also suffer from what we call displacement from their naive location. For weak sources and large α one may set the displacement to zero by further increasing the energy, though for strong sources and small α we find no preferred notion of a zero-displacement solution. In the latter case we conclude that naively expected gravitational Wilson lines do not exist. In the zero-displacement case, taking the AdS scale ℓ to infinity gives finite-energy flux-directed solutions that may be called asymptotically flat.

  16. A genomic duplication is associated with ectopic eomesodermin expression in the embryonic chicken comb and two duplex-comb phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Dorshorst, Ben; Harun-Or-Rashid, Mohammad; Bagherpoor, Alireza Jian; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Ashwell, Chris; Gourichon, David; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Hallböök, Finn; Andersson, Leif

    2015-03-01

    Duplex-comb (D) is one of three major loci affecting comb morphology in the domestic chicken. Here we show that the two Duplex-comb alleles, V-shaped (D*V) and Buttercup (D*C), are both associated with a 20 Kb tandem duplication containing several conserved putative regulatory elements located 200 Kb upstream of the eomesodermin gene (EOMES). EOMES is a T-box transcription factor that is involved in mesoderm specification during gastrulation. In D*V and D*C chicken embryos we find that EOMES is ectopically expressed in the ectoderm of the comb-developing region as compared to wild-type embryos. The confinement of the ectopic expression of EOMES to the ectoderm is in stark contrast to the causal mechanisms underlying the two other major comb loci in the chicken (Rose-comb and Pea-comb) in which the transcription factors MNR2 and SOX5 are ectopically expressed strictly in the mesenchyme. Interestingly, the causal mutations of all three major comb loci in the chicken are now known to be composed of large-scale structural genomic variants that each result in ectopic expression of transcription factors. The Duplex-comb locus also illustrates the evolution of alleles in domestic animals, which means that alleles evolve by the accumulation of two or more consecutive mutations affecting the phenotype. We do not yet know whether the V-shaped or Buttercup allele correspond to the second mutation that occurred on the haplotype of the original duplication event. PMID:25789773

  17. A Genomic Duplication is Associated with Ectopic Eomesodermin Expression in the Embryonic Chicken Comb and Two Duplex-comb Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Dorshorst, Ben; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Ashwell, Chris; Gourichon, David; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Hallböök, Finn; Andersson, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Duplex-comb (D) is one of three major loci affecting comb morphology in the domestic chicken. Here we show that the two Duplex-comb alleles, V-shaped (D*V) and Buttercup (D*C), are both associated with a 20 Kb tandem duplication containing several conserved putative regulatory elements located 200 Kb upstream of the eomesodermin gene (EOMES). EOMES is a T-box transcription factor that is involved in mesoderm specification during gastrulation. In D*V and D*C chicken embryos we find that EOMES is ectopically expressed in the ectoderm of the comb-developing region as compared to wild-type embryos. The confinement of the ectopic expression of EOMES to the ectoderm is in stark contrast to the causal mechanisms underlying the two other major comb loci in the chicken (Rose-comb and Pea-comb) in which the transcription factors MNR2 and SOX5 are ectopically expressed strictly in the mesenchyme. Interestingly, the causal mutations of all three major comb loci in the chicken are now known to be composed of large-scale structural genomic variants that each result in ectopic expression of transcription factors. The Duplex-comb locus also illustrates the evolution of alleles in domestic animals, which means that alleles evolve by the accumulation of two or more consecutive mutations affecting the phenotype. We do not yet know whether the V-shaped or Buttercup allele correspond to the second mutation that occurred on the haplotype of the original duplication event. PMID:25789773

  18. Optimal Sharpening of Compensated Comb Decimation Filters: Analysis and Design

    PubMed Central

    Troncoso Romero, David Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Comb filters are a class of low-complexity filters especially useful for multistage decimation processes. However, the magnitude response of comb filters presents a droop in the passband region and low stopband attenuation, which is undesirable in many applications. In this work, it is shown that, for stringent magnitude specifications, sharpening compensated comb filters requires a lower-degree sharpening polynomial compared to sharpening comb filters without compensation, resulting in a solution with lower computational complexity. Using a simple three-addition compensator and an optimization-based derivation of sharpening polynomials, we introduce an effective low-complexity filtering scheme. Design examples are presented in order to show the performance improvement in terms of passband distortion and selectivity compared to other methods based on the traditional Kaiser-Hamming sharpening and the Chebyshev sharpening techniques recently introduced in the literature. PMID:24578674

  19. Measurement of microresonator frequency comb coherence by spectral interferometry.

    PubMed

    Webb, K E; Jang, J K; Anthony, J; Coen, S; Erkintalo, M; Murdoch, S G

    2016-01-15

    We experimentally investigate the spectral coherence of microresonator optical frequency combs. Specifically, we use a spectral interference method, typically used in the context of supercontinuum generation, to explore the variation of the magnitude of the complex degree of first-order coherence across the full comb bandwidth. We measure the coherence of two different frequency combs and observe wholly different coherence characteristics. In particular, we find that the observed dynamical regimes are similar to the stable and unstable modulation instability regimes reported in previous theoretical studies. Results from numerical simulations are found to be in good agreement with experimental observations. In addition to demonstrating a new technique to assess comb stability, our results provide strong experimental support for previous theoretical analyses. PMID:26766693

  20. Propagators of random walks on comb lattices of arbitrary dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illien, Pierre; Bénichou, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    We study diffusion on comb lattices of arbitrary dimension. Relying on the loopless structure of these lattices and using first-passage properties, we obtain exact and explicit formulae for the Laplace transforms of the propagators associated to nearest-neighbour random walks in both cases where either the first or the last point of the random walk is on the backbone of the lattice, and where the two extremities are arbitrarily chosen. As an application, we compute the mean-square displacement of a random walker on a comb of arbitrary dimension. We also propose an alternative and consistent approach of the problem using a master equation description, and obtain simple and generic expressions of the propagators. This method is more general and is extended to study the propagators of random walks on more complex comb-like structures. In particular, we study the case of a two-dimensional comb lattice with teeth of finite length.

  1. High density terahertz frequency comb produced by coherent synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Tammaro, S.; Pirali, O.; Roy, P.; Lampin, J.-F.; Ducournau, G.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.

    2015-01-01

    Frequency combs have enabled significant progress in frequency metrology and high-resolution spectroscopy extending the achievable resolution while increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. In its coherent mode, synchrotron radiation is accepted to provide an intense terahertz continuum covering a wide spectral range from about 0.1 to 1 THz. Using a dedicated heterodyne receiver, we reveal the purely discrete nature of this emission. A phase relationship between the light pulses leads to a powerful frequency comb spanning over one decade in frequency. The comb has a mode spacing of 846 kHz, a linewidth of about 200 Hz, a fractional precision of about 2 × 10−10 and no frequency offset. The unprecedented potential of the comb for high-resolution spectroscopy is demonstrated by the accurate determination of pure rotation transitions of acetonitrile. PMID:26190043

  2. Microstructural properties of {InAs}/{InAsxSb1 - x} superlattices and InAs xSb 1 - x ordered alloys grown by modulated molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.-H.; Lew, A.; Yu, E.; Chen, Y.

    1997-05-01

    Modulated molecular beam epitaxy (MMBE) has been demonstrated to be useful in controlling group-V alloys such as InAs xSb 1 - x and AlAs xSb 1 - x. Further studies of the MMBE grown InAs xSb 1 - x ordered alloys and {InAs}/{InAsxSb1 - x} superlattices by using cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy show well defined interfaces between InAs xSb 1 - x ordered alloys and InAs. Clear composition modulation is observed in the InAs xSb 1 - x ordered alloy layers. Transmission electron diffraction and microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and low temperature photoluminescence experiments show no obvious sign of CuPt orderings. These results suggest that MMBE provides a possible means to bypass the ordering problem of InAs xSb 1 - x random alloys.

  3. Stabilization of femtosecond laser frequency combs with subhertz residual linewidths.

    PubMed

    Bartels, A; Oates, C W; Hollberg, L; Diddams, S A

    2004-05-15

    We demonstrate that femtosecond laser frequency combs (FLFCs) can have a subhertz linewidth across their entire emission spectra when they are phase locked to a reference laser with a similarly narrow linewidth. Correspondingly, the coherence time of the comb components relative to the reference laser can be of the order of a few seconds. Thus we are able to detect high-contrast spectral interferograms at up to 10-s integration time between two FLFCs locked to a common optical reference. PMID:15181992

  4. Kerr optical frequency combs: theory, applications and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chembo, Yanne K.

    2016-06-01

    The optical frequency comb technology is one of the most important breakthrough in photonics in recent years. This concept has revolutionized the science of ultra-stable lightwave and microwave signal generation. These combs were originally generated using ultrafast mode-locked lasers, but in the past decade, a simple and elegant alternativewas proposed,which consisted in pumping an ultra-high-Q optical resonator with Kerr nonlinearity using a continuous-wave laser. When optimal conditions are met, the intracavity pump photons are redistributed via four-wave mixing to the neighboring cavity modes, thereby creating the so-called Kerr optical frequency comb. Beyond being energy-efficient, conceptually simple, and structurally robust, Kerr comb generators are very compact devices (millimetric down to micrometric size) which can be integrated on a chip. They are, therefore, considered as very promising candidates to replace femtosecond mode-locked lasers for the generation of broadband and coherent optical frequency combs in the spectral domain, or equivalently, narrow optical pulses in the temporal domain. These combs are, moreover, expected to provide breakthroughs in many technological areas, such as integrated photonics, metrology, optical telecommunications, and aerospace engineering. The purpose of this review article is to present a comprehensive survey of the topic of Kerr optical frequency combs.We provide an overview of the main theoretical and experimental results that have been obtained so far. We also highlight the potential of Kerr combs for current or prospective applications, and discuss as well some of the open challenges that are to be met at the fundamental and applied level.

  5. Disorder and order in unfolded and disordered peptides and proteins: a view derived from tripeptide conformational analysis. II. Tripeptides with short side chains populating asx and β-type like turn conformations.

    PubMed

    Rybka, Karin; Toal, Siobhan E; Verbaro, Daniel J; Mathieu, Daniel; Schwalbe, Harald; Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard

    2013-06-01

    In the preceding paper, we found that ensembles of tripeptides with long or bulky chains can include up to 20% of various turns. Here, we determine the structural and thermodynamic characteristics of GxG peptides with short polar and/or ionizable central residues (D, N, C), whose conformational distributions exhibit higher than average percentage (>20%) of turn conformations. To probe the side-chain conformations of these peptides, we determined the (3)J(H(α),H(β)) coupling constants and derived the population of three rotamers with χ1 -angles of -60°, 180° and 60°, which were correlated with residue propensities by DFT-calculations. For protonated GDG, the rotamer distribution provides additional evidence for asx-turns. A comparison of vibrational spectra and NMR coupling constants of protonated GDG, ionized GDG, and the protonated aspartic acid dipeptide revealed that side chain protonation increases the pPII content at the expense of turn populations. The charged terminal groups, however, have negligible influence on the conformational properties of the central residue. Like protonated GDG, cationic GCG samples asx-turns to a significant extent. The temperature dependence of the UVCD spectra and (3)J(H(N)H(α)) constants suggest that the turn populations of GDG and GNG are practically temperature-independent, indicating enthalpic and entropic stabilization. The temperature-independent J-coupling and UVCD spectra of GNG require a three-state model. Our results indicate that short side chains with hydrogen bonding capability in GxG segments of proteins may serve as hinge regions for establishing compact structures of unfolded proteins and peptides. PMID:23229867

  6. Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ideguchi, Takuro; Poisson, Antonin; Guelachvili, Guy; Picqué, Nathalie; Hänsch, Theodor W.

    2014-01-01

    The spectrum of a laser frequency comb consists of several hundred thousand equally spaced lines over a broad spectral bandwidth. Such frequency combs have revolutionized optical frequency metrology and they now hold much promise for significant advances in a growing number of applications including molecular spectroscopy. Despite an intriguing potential for the measurement of molecular spectra spanning tens of nanometres within tens of microseconds at Doppler-limited resolution, the development of dual-comb spectroscopy is hindered by the demanding stability requirements of the laser combs. Here we overcome this difficulty and experimentally demonstrate a concept of real-time dual-comb spectroscopy, which compensates for laser instabilities by electronic signal processing. It only uses free-running mode-locked lasers without any phase-lock electronics. We record spectra spanning the full bandwidth of near-infrared fibre lasers with Doppler-limited line profiles highly suitable for measurements of concentrations or line intensities. Our new technique of adaptive dual-comb spectroscopy offers a powerful transdisciplinary instrument for analytical sciences. PMID:24572636

  7. Dynamics of the modulational instability in microresonator frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, T.; Modotto, D.; Wabnitz, S.

    2013-08-01

    A study is made of frequency-comb generation described by the driven and damped nonlinear Schrödinger equation on a finite interval. It is shown that frequency-comb generation can be interpreted as a modulational instability of the continuous-wave pump mode, and a linear stability analysis, taking into account the cavity boundary conditions, is performed. Further, a truncated three-wave model is derived, which allows one to gain additional insight into the dynamical behavior of the comb generation. This formalism describes the pump mode and the most unstable sideband and is found to connect the coupled mode theory with the conventional theory of modulational instability. An in-depth analysis is done of the nonlinear three-wave model. It is demonstrated that stable frequency-comb states can be interpreted as attractive fixed points of a dynamical system. The possibility of soft and hard excitation states in both the normal and the anomalous dispersion regime is discussed. Investigations are made of bistable comb states and the dependence of the final state on the way the comb has been generated. The analytical predictions are verified by means of direct comparison with numerical simulations of the full equation and the agreement is discussed.

  8. Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ideguchi, Takuro; Poisson, Antonin; Guelachvili, Guy; Picqué, Nathalie; Hänsch, Theodor W

    2014-01-01

    The spectrum of a laser frequency comb consists of several hundred thousand equally spaced lines over a broad spectral bandwidth. Such frequency combs have revolutionized optical frequency metrology and they now hold much promise for significant advances in a growing number of applications including molecular spectroscopy. Despite an intriguing potential for the measurement of molecular spectra spanning tens of nanometres within tens of microseconds at Doppler-limited resolution, the development of dual-comb spectroscopy is hindered by the demanding stability requirements of the laser combs. Here we overcome this difficulty and experimentally demonstrate a concept of real-time dual-comb spectroscopy, which compensates for laser instabilities by electronic signal processing. It only uses free-running mode-locked lasers without any phase-lock electronics. We record spectra spanning the full bandwidth of near-infrared fibre lasers with Doppler-limited line profiles highly suitable for measurements of concentrations or line intensities. Our new technique of adaptive dual-comb spectroscopy offers a powerful transdisciplinary instrument for analytical sciences. PMID:24572636

  9. Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ideguchi, Takuro; Poisson, Antonin; Guelachvili, Guy; Picqué, Nathalie; Hänsch, Theodor W.

    2014-02-01

    The spectrum of a laser frequency comb consists of several hundred thousand equally spaced lines over a broad spectral bandwidth. Such frequency combs have revolutionized optical frequency metrology and they now hold much promise for significant advances in a growing number of applications including molecular spectroscopy. Despite an intriguing potential for the measurement of molecular spectra spanning tens of nanometres within tens of microseconds at Doppler-limited resolution, the development of dual-comb spectroscopy is hindered by the demanding stability requirements of the laser combs. Here we overcome this difficulty and experimentally demonstrate a concept of real-time dual-comb spectroscopy, which compensates for laser instabilities by electronic signal processing. It only uses free-running mode-locked lasers without any phase-lock electronics. We record spectra spanning the full bandwidth of near-infrared fibre lasers with Doppler-limited line profiles highly suitable for measurements of concentrations or line intensities. Our new technique of adaptive dual-comb spectroscopy offers a powerful transdisciplinary instrument for analytical sciences.

  10. Parentage and relatedness in polyandrous comb-crested jacanas using ISSRs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Mace, Terrence R.; Mullins, Thomas D.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we present the first analysis of parentage and relatedness in a natural vertebrate population, using Intersimple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers. Thus, 28 ISSR markers were used in a study of a sex-role reversed, simultaneously polyandrous shorebird from northeastern Australia, the comb-crested jacana (Irediparra gallinacea). Assessment of parentage was based on comparison of field observations, novel bands, individual-specific bands found in 7/9 males and 4/6 females, and a 99% CI exclusion criteria. Integrating results from these approaches resulted in confirmation of paternity in all 36 chicks. In only one case (2.8% of chicks) was a co-mate assigned paternity. Thus, comb-crested jacanas appear to be genetically monogamous. These results showed resemblance to sequentially polyandrous birds but differed from the simultaneously polyandrous wattled jacana ( Jacana jacana; Emlen et al. 1998). A significant relationship between relatedness and ISSR similarity resulted in recognition that 14/15 adults sampled may be related to at least one other adult by 0.25 or more. Lack of dispersal may be explained by physical limitations and adequate regional habitat. ISSRs proved to be simple and helpful in resolving these issues.

  11. Treatment of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) infestation: is regular combing alone with a special detection comb effective at all levels?

    PubMed

    Kurt, Özgür; Balcıoğlu, I Cüneyt; Limoncu, M Emin; Girginkardeşler, Nogay; Arserim, Süha K; Görgün, Serhan; Oyur, Tuba; Karakuş, Mehmet; Düzyol, Didem; Gökmen, Aysegül Aksoy; Kitapçıoğlu, Gül; Özbel, Yusuf

    2015-04-01

    Head lice infestation (HLI) caused by Pediculus humanus capitis has been a public health problem worldwide. Specially designed combs are used to identify head lice, while anti-lice products are applied on the scalp for treatment. In the present study, we aimed to test whether combing only by precision detection comb (PDC) or metal pin comb (MPC) could be effective alternatives to the use of anti-lice products in children. A total of 560 children from two rural schools in Turkey were screened. In the PDC trial, children were combed every second day for 14 days, while in the MPC trial, combing was performed once in every four days for 15 days. Children were divided into two groups (dry combing and wet combing) for both trials and results were compared. The results showed no significant differences between dry and wet combing strategies for both combs for the removal of head lice (p > 0.05). The number of adult head lice declined significantly on each subsequent combing day in both approaches, except on day 15 in the MPC trial. In the end, no louse was found in 54.1 and 48.9% of children in the PDC and MPC trials, respectively. Since family members of infested children were not available, they were not checked for HLI. Four times combing within 2 weeks with MPC combs was found effective for both treatment of low HLI and prevention of heavy HLI. In conclusion, regular combing by special combs decreases HLI level in children and is safely applicable as long-term treatment. PMID:25604670

  12. Self-injection locking and phase-locked states in microresonator-based optical frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Del'Haye, Pascal; Beha, Katja; Papp, Scott B; Diddams, Scott A

    2014-01-31

    Microresonator-based optical frequency combs have been a topic of extensive research during the last few years. Several theoretical models for the comb generation have been proposed; however, they do not comprehensively address experimental results that show a variety of independent comb generation mechanisms. Here, we present frequency-domain experiments that illuminate the transition of microcombs into phase-locked states, which show characteristics of injection locking between ensembles of comb modes. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of equidistant optical frequency combs that are phase stable but have nondeterministic phase relationships between individual comb modes. PMID:24580454

  13. Self-Injection Locking and Phase-Locked States in Microresonator-Based Optical Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del'Haye, Pascal; Beha, Katja; Papp, Scott B.; Diddams, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Microresonator-based optical frequency combs have been a topic of extensive research during the last few years. Several theoretical models for the comb generation have been proposed; however, they do not comprehensively address experimental results that show a variety of independent comb generation mechanisms. Here, we present frequency-domain experiments that illuminate the transition of microcombs into phase-locked states, which show characteristics of injection locking between ensembles of comb modes. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of equidistant optical frequency combs that are phase stable but have nondeterministic phase relationships between individual comb modes.

  14. Versatile and Sensitive Dual Comb Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquey, M.; Jacquet, P.; Mandon, J.; Thon, R.; Guelachvili, G.; Hänsch, T. W.; Picqué, N.

    2010-06-01

    Fourier transform spectroscopy based on time-domain interferences between two slightly detuned frequency comb sources holds much promise for the real-time diagnostic of gaseous, liquid or solid-state samples. In one very recent example, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with two infrared frequency combs has demonstrated a dramatically enhanced sensitivity, compared to conventional Fourier spectroscopy, with intriguing implications for instantaneous trace gas analysis. It however remains challenging to match continuously the comb and cavity modes across a broad spectral bandwidth during the time of a measurement. An obvious alternative for reaching a long interaction path is a conventional multipass cell. Additionally, differential detection schemes may be devised to increase the dynamic range of the interferometric measurements, thus providing enhanced signal to noise ratio. Experimental demonstrations will be given in the 1.5 μm region with a dual comb set-up based on two Er-doped fiber femtosecond lasers. The versatility and performances of these solutions will be compared to the cavity-enhanced dual comb technique and other state-of-the-art alternatives. P. Jacquet, J. Mandon, B. Bernhardt, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, Frequency Comb Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with kHz Optical Resolution, The Optical Society of America, Washington, DC 2009, paper FMB2 (2009). B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T.W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy, Nature Photonics 4, 55-57 (2010),

  15. Nonlinear Dual-Comb Spectroscopy with Two-Photon Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meek, S. A.; Hipke, A.; Hansch, T. W.; Picque, N.

    2013-06-01

    Dual frequency comb spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful method for acquiring broadband, high resolution spectra with measurement times that are much shorter than in traditional moving-mirror Fourier transform spectroscopy. Because the measurements are carried out with femtosecond lasers, this technique has great potential for decreasing the measurement times and improving the signal-to-noise ratio of nonlinear spectroscopic measurements, such as two-photon excitation or Raman processes. In the case of two-photon excitation, an entire spectrum can be obtained at a given signal level using dual-comb spectroscopy in the same time that a measurement of a single transition frequency would be obtained with a continuous laser of the same average power. In this presentation, I will show the latest results in extending the dual-comb technique to two-photon excitation spectroscopy, with measurements on gas-phase rubidium and liquid-phase dye samples. In our realization of dual-comb spectroscopy, two frequency combs with slightly different repetition rates are combined on a beam splitter and directed into a sample, and we measure the intensity of the resulting fluorescence as a function of time. Because of the different repetition rates, the time delay between a pulse from the first comb and the next pulse from the second comb changes linearly with time, simulating the action of the moving mirror in a traditional Michelson interferometer. The Fourier transform of the measured time-domain interferogram produces a radio-frequency spectrum that can be directly converted to a broadband optical spectrum through a linear scaling of the frequency. To achieve the highest possible resolution, it is necessary to compensate the residual relative fluctuations of the repetition rate and the carrier-envelope offset frequency of the frequency combs. Measuring RF beatnotes of each comb with two CW lasers provides two error signals that can be used to correct the recorded interferograms

  16. Broadband Comb-Resolved Cavity Enhanced Spectrometer with Graphene Modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kevin; Mohr, Christian; Jiang, Jie; Fermann, Martin; Lee, Chien-Chung; Schibli, Thomas R.; Kowzan, Grzegorz; Maslowski, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    Optical cavities enhance sensitivity in absorption spectroscopy. While this is commonly done with single wavelengths, broad bandwidths can be coupled into the cavity using frequency combs. The combination of cavity enhancement and broad bandwidth allows simultaneous measurement of tens of transitions with high signal-to-noise for even weak near-infrared transitions. This removes the need for time-consuming sequencing acquisition or long-term averaging, so any systematic errors from long-term drifts of the experimental setup or slow changes of sample composition are minimized. Resolving comb lines provides a high accuracy, absolute frequency axis. This is of great importance for gas metrology and data acquisition for future molecular lines databases, and can be applied to simultaneous trace-gas detection of gas mixtures. Coupling of a frequency comb into a cavity can be complex, so we introduce and demonstrate a simplification. The Pound-Drever-Hall method for locking a cavity and a frequency comb together requires a phase modulation of the laser output. We use the graphene modulator that is already in the Tm fiber laser cavity for controlling the carrier envelope offset of the frequency comb, rather than adding a lossy external modulator. The graphene modulator can operate at frequencies of over 1~ MHz, which is sufficient for controlling the laser cavity length actuator which operates below 100~kHz. We match the laser cavity length to fast variations of the enhancement cavity length. Slow variations are stabilized by comparison of the pulse repetition rate to a GPS reference. The carrier envelope offset is locked to a constant value chosen to optimize the transmitted spectrum. The transmitted pulse train is a stable frequency comb suitable for long measurements, including the acquisition of comb-resolved Fourier transform spectra with a minimum absorption coefficient of about 2×10-7 wn. For our 38 cm long enhancement cavity, the comb spacing is 394~MHz. With our

  17. Laser frequency comb techniques for precise astronomical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Michael T.; Locke, Clayton R.; Light, Philip S.; Luiten, Andre N.; Lawrence, Jon S.

    2012-05-01

    Precise astronomical spectroscopic analyses routinely assume that individual pixels in charge-coupled devices (CCDs) have uniform sensitivity to photons. Intra-pixel sensitivity (IPS) variations may already cause small systematic errors in, for example, studies of extra-solar planets via stellar radial velocities and cosmological variability in fundamental constants via quasar spectroscopy, but future experiments requiring velocity precisions approaching ˜1 cm s-1 will be more strongly affected. Laser frequency combs have been shown to provide highly precise wavelength calibration for astronomical spectrographs, but here we show that they can also be used to measure IPS variations in astronomical CCDs in situ. We successfully tested a laser frequency comb system on the Ultra-High-Resolution Facility spectrograph at the Anglo-Australian Telescope. By modelling the two-dimensional comb signal recorded in a single CCD exposure, we find that the average IPS deviates by <8 per cent if it is assumed to vary symmetrically about the pixel centre. We also demonstrate that a series of comb exposures with absolutely known offsets between them can yield tighter constraints on symmetric IPS variations from ˜100 pixels. We discuss measurement of asymmetric IPS variations and absolute wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs and CCDs using frequency combs.

  18. Structure and effective interactions of comb polymer nanocomposite melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qinzhi; Xu, Mengjin; Feng, Yancong; Chen, Lan

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the structure and effective interactions of branched comb polymer nanocomposite (PNC) melts are investigated by using the polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) integral equation theory. It is observed that the nanoparticle contact (bridging) aggregation is formed when the nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength is relatively weak (large) in comb PNCs. The organization states of aggregation for the moderate nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength can be well suppressed by the comb polymer architecture, while the bridging structure for relatively large attraction is obviously promoted. With the increase of the particle volume fraction, the organization states of bridging-type structure become stronger and tighter; however, this effect is weaker than that of the nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength. When the particle volume fraction and moderate nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength are fixed, the effects of degree of polymerization, side chain number, side chain length, and nanoparticle-monomer size ratio on the organization states of PNC melts are not prominent and the nanoparticles can well disperse in comb polymer. All the observations indicate that the present PRISM theory can give a detailed description of the comb PNC melts and assist in future design control of new nanomaterials.

  19. Brood comb as a humidity buffer in honeybee nests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Michael B.; Nicolson, Sue W.; Crewe, Robin M.; Dietemann, Vincent

    2010-04-01

    Adverse environmental conditions can be evaded, tolerated or modified in order for an organism to survive. During their development, some insect larvae spin cocoons which, in addition to protecting their occupants against predators, modify microclimatic conditions, thus facilitating thermoregulation or reducing evaporative water loss. Silk cocoons are spun by honeybee ( Apis mellifera) larvae and subsequently incorporated into the cell walls of the wax combs in which they develop. The accumulation of this hygroscopic silk in the thousands of cells used for brood rearing may significantly affect nest homeostasis by buffering humidity fluctuations. This study investigates the extent to which the comb may influence homeostasis by quantifying the hygroscopic capacity of the cocoons spun by honeybee larvae. When comb containing cocoons was placed at high humidity, it absorbed 11% of its own mass in water within 4 days. Newly drawn comb composed of hydrophobic wax and devoid of cocoons absorbed only 3% of its own mass. Therefore, the accumulation of cocoons in the comb may increase brood survivorship by maintaining a high and stable humidity in the cells.

  20. Adsorption of comb copolymers on weakly attractive solid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Striolo, A; Jayaraman, A; Genzer, J; Hall, C K

    2005-08-01

    In this work continuum and lattice Monte Carlo simulation methods are used to study the adsorption of linear and comb polymers on flat surfaces. Selected polymer segments, located at the tips of the side chains in comb polymers or equally spaced along the linear polymers, are attracted to each other and to the surface via square-well potentials. The rest of the polymer segments are modeled as tangent hard spheres in the continuum model and as self-avoiding random walks in the lattice model. Results are presented in terms of segment-density profiles, distribution functions, and radii of gyration of the adsorbed polymers. At infinite dilution the presence of short side chains promotes the adsorption of polymers favoring both a decrease in the depletion-layer thickness and a spreading of the polymer molecule on the surface. The presence of long side chains favors the adsorption of polymers on the surface, but does not permit the spreading of the polymers. At finite concentration linear polymers and comb polymers with long side chains readily adsorb on the solid surface, while comb polymers with short side chains are unlikely to adsorb. The simple models of comb copolymers with short side chains used here show properties similar to those of associating polymers and of globular proteins in aqueous solutions, and can be used as a first approximation to investigate the mechanism of adsorption of proteins onto hydrophobic surfaces. PMID:16122338

  1. Phrenology, heredity and progress in George Combe's Constitution of Man.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Bill

    2015-09-01

    The Constitution of Man by George Combe (1828) was probably the most influential phrenological work of the nineteenth century. It not only offered an exposition of the phrenological theory of the mind, but also presented Combe's vision of universal human progress through the inheritance of acquired mental attributes. In the decades before the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species, the Constitution was probably the single most important vehicle for the dissemination of naturalistic progressivism in the English-speaking world. Although there is a significant literature on the social and cultural context of phrenology, the role of heredity in Combe's thought has been less thoroughly explored, although both John van Wyhe and Victor L. Hilts have linked Combe's views on heredity with the transformist theories of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. In this paper I examine the origin, nature and significance of his ideas and argue that Combe's hereditarianism was not directly related to Lamarckian transformism but formed part of a wider discourse on heredity in the early nineteenth century. PMID:25998794

  2. Sex Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francoeur, Robert T.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a new concept in sex education, the sexual attitudes reassessment workshop. This workshop satiates, saturates, desensitizes, and demythologizes sex. It bypasses the intellect and forces people to deal with feeling and attitudes. (Author/AM)

  3. Honeybee combs: construction through a liquid equilibrium process?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirk, C. W. W.; Hepburn, H. R.; Radloff, S. E.; Tautz, J.

    Geometrical investigations of honeycombs and speculations on how honeybees measure and construct the hexagons and rhombi of their cells are centuries old. Here we show that honeybees neither have to measure nor construct the highly regular structures of a honeycomb, and that the observed pattern of combs can be parsimoniously explained by wax flowing in liquid equilibrium. The structure of the combs of honeybees results from wax as a thermoplastic building medium, which softens and hardens as a result of increasing and decreasing temperatures. It flows among an array of transient, close-packed cylinders which are actually the self-heated honeybees themselves. The three apparent rhomboids forming the base of each cell do not exist but arise as optical artefacts from looking through semi-transparent combs.

  4. Characterization of a partially-stabilized frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold Dahl, M. E.; Erikson, Alex; Woodbury, Daniel; Bergeson, Scott

    2015-05-01

    We present measurements of well-known frequency intervals in Cs, Rb, and Ca. These measurements are used to determine the accuracy of a partially-stabilized ti:sapphire frequency comb. One mode of our frequency comb is offset-locked to a Rb-stabilized diode laser. The comb's repetition rate is counted but not locked. A second laser is used to probe well-known atomic transitions in Cs, Rb, and Ca. We describe our offset locking and scanning techniques and demonstrate a frequency precision of 10 kHz in a 30 second measurement time. The accuracy of our laser frequency interval measurements is approximately 40 kHz. However, cell-based frequency references can be off by several hundred kHz. Research supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. PHY-0969856) and the Air Force (Grant No. FA9950-12-1-0308).

  5. Direct Measurement of the XUV Frequency Comb Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benko, Craig; Allison, Thomas; Cingoz, Arman; Yost, Dylan; Ye, Jun

    2013-05-01

    We present the first demonstration of XUV radiation with phase coherence capable of reaching sub-kHz resolution. The XUV comb is produced by frequency up conversion of a near-infrared frequency comb by intra-cavity high harmonic generation (HHG). Using an 80 W Yb:fiber fs frequency comb, we simultaneously pump two femtosecond enhancement cavities to reach intensities suitable for HHG. The harmonics are out-coupled from the cavities using sapphire plates placed at Brewster angle for the pump laser. We developed an interferometer capable of operating in the XUV and measured a heterodyne beat between the two sources at different harmonics. Despite being insensitive to common-mode pump laser noise, the heterodyne beats will reveal any noise added by the intra-cavity HHG process. This will allow us to probe the fundamental limit on the coherence properties of HHG. We acknowledge support for this work from NIST, AFOSR, and NSF.

  6. Astro-comb calibration of an Echelle Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.-H.; Phillips, D. F.; Glenday, A. G.; Benedick, A. J.; Chang, G.; Chen, L.-J.; Cramer, C.; Furesz, G.; Kärtner, F. X.; Sasselov, D.; Szentgyorgyi, A.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2010-07-01

    We describe recent work calibrating a cross-dispersed spectrograph with an "astro-comb" i.e., a high repetition rate, octave spanning femtosecond laser frequency comb; and a filter cavity suppressing laser modes to match the resolution of the spectrograph. Our astro-comb provides ~1500 evenly spaced (~0.6 A) calibration lines of roughly 100 nW per line between 7800 and 8800 Angstroms. The calibration lines of the laser are stabilized to atomic clocks which can be referenced to GPS providing intrinsic stability of the source laser below 1 cm/s in stellar radial velocity sensitivity, as well as long term stability and reproducibility over years. We present calibration of the TRES spectrograph at the 1.5 m telescope at the Fred L Whipple Observatory below 1 m/s radial velocity sensitivity in six orders from 7800-8800 A.

  7. Quantum cascade laser combs: effects of modulation and dispersion.

    PubMed

    Villares, Gustavo; Faist, Jérôme

    2015-01-26

    Frequency comb formation in quantum cascade lasers is studied theoretically using a Maxwell-Bloch formalism based on a modal decomposition, where dispersion is considered. In the mid-infrared, comb formation persists in the presence of weak cavity dispersion (500 fs2 mm-1) but disappears when much larger values are used (30'000 fs2 mm-1). Active modulation at the round-trip frequency is found to induce mode-locking in THz devices, where the upper state lifetime is in the tens of picoseconds. Our results show that mode-locking based on four-wave mixing in broadband gain, low dispersion cavities is the most promising way of achieving broadband quantum cascade laser frequency combs. PMID:25835922

  8. Nonlinear amplification of side-modes in frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Probst, R A; Steinmetz, T; Wilken, T; Hundertmark, H; Stark, S P; Wong, G K L; Russell, P St J; Hänsch, T W; Holzwarth, R; Udem, Th

    2013-05-20

    We investigate how suppressed modes in frequency combs are modified upon frequency doubling and self-phase modulation. We find, both experimentally and by using a simplified model, that these side-modes are amplified relative to the principal comb modes. Whereas frequency doubling increases their relative strength by 6 dB, the growth due to self-phase modulation can be much stronger and generally increases with nonlinear propagation length. Upper limits for this effect are derived in this work. This behavior has implications for high-precision calibration of spectrographs with frequency combs used for example in astronomy. For this application, Fabry-Pérot filter cavities are used to increase the mode spacing to exceed the resolution of the spectrograph. Frequency conversion and/or spectral broadening after non-perfect filtering reamplify the suppressed modes, which can lead to calibration errors. PMID:23736390

  9. Methods and apparatus for broadband frequency comb stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Jonathan A; Kaertner, Franz X

    2015-03-17

    Feedback loops can be used to shift and stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of a frequency comb from a mode-locked fibers laser or other optical source. Compared to other frequency shifting and stabilization techniques, feedback-based techniques provide a wideband closed-loop servo bandwidth without optical filtering, beam pointing errors, or group velocity dispersion. It also enables phase locking to a stable reference, such as a Ti:Sapphire laser, continuous-wave microwave or optical source, or self-referencing interferometer, e.g., to within 200 mrad rms from DC to 5 MHz. In addition, stabilized frequency combs can be coherently combined with other stable signals, including other stabilized frequency combs, to synthesize optical pulse trains with pulse durations of as little as a single optical cycle. Such a coherent combination can be achieved via orthogonal control, using balanced optical cross-correlation for timing stabilization and balanced homodyne detection for phase stabilization.

  10. Green astro-comb for HARPS-N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langellier, Nicholas; Li, Chih-Hao; Glenday, Alexander G.; Chang, Guoqing; Chen, Hung-Wen; Lim, Jinkang; Furesz, Gabor; Kärtner, Franz; Phillips, David F.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald

    2014-08-01

    We report the design, installation and testing of a broadband green astro-comb on the HARPS-N spectrograph at the TNG telescope. The astro-comb consists of over 7000 narrow lines (<10-6 nm width) spaced by 16 GHz (0.02 nm at 550 nm) with wavelengths stabilized to the Global Positioning System (GPS) and with flat power from 500 to 620 nm. The narrow lines are used to calibrate the spectrograph and measure its line profile. The short term sensitivity of HARPS-N is measured to be less than 2 cm/s and the long-term drift of the spectrograph is approximately 10 cm/s/day. The astrocomb has been partially automated with future work planned to turn the astro-comb into a fully automated, push button instrument.

  11. Software reconfigurable highly flexible gain switched optical frequency comb source.

    PubMed

    Pascual, M Deseada Gutierrez; Zhou, Rui; Smyth, Frank; Anandarajah, Prince M; Barry, Liam P

    2015-09-01

    The authors present the performance and noise properties of a software reconfigurable, FSR and wavelength tunable gain switched optical frequency comb source. This source, based on the external injection of a temperature tuned Fabry-Pérot laser diode, offers quasi-continuous wavelength tunability over the C-band (30nm) and FSR tunability ranging from 6 to 14GHz. The results achieved demonstrate the excellent spectral quality of the comb tones (RIN ~-130dB/Hz and low phase noise of 300kHz) and its outstanding stability (with fluctuations of the individual comb tones of less than 0.5dB in power and 5pm in wavelength, characterized over 24hours) highlighting its suitability for employment in next generation flexible optical transmission networks. PMID:26368425

  12. Brillouin filtering of optical combs for narrow linewidth frequency synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo-Santos, Juan; Velasco, Aitor V.; Carrasco-Sanz, Ana; Corredera, Pedro

    2016-05-01

    We report a tunable monochromatic source generation scheme, based on Brillouin filtering of a self-referenced optical frequency comb. The system benefits from the high stability and mode linewidth of the frequency comb, significantly improving the performance of the original laser source used as Brillouin pump. A synthesized frequency with stability under 4×10-11 and a linewidth under 75 kHz was experimentally demonstrated for two separate pump lasers in the C-band. The proposed monochromatic source can be tuned with high precision in a very broad band by combining a coarse control with the pumping source and a fine control with the optical frequency comb references. In our experimental setup, coarse and fine tuning resolutions were 4 MHz and 20 Hz, respectively. Influence of Brillouin pump fluctuations in the synthesized signal stability were also analyzed for observation times up to 104 s.

  13. The generation of continuous-variable entanglement frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Yu, Youbin; Cheng, Xiaomin; Wang, Huaijun; Shi, Zhongtao; Zhao, Junwei; Ji, Fengmin; Yin, Zhi; Wang, Yajuan

    2015-01-01

    Continuous-variable (CV) entanglement frequency comb can be produced by enhanced Raman scattering in an above-threshold optical oscillator cavity in which a hexagonally-poled LiTaO3 crystal resides as a Raman gain medium. The Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman signals are enhanced by a coupled quasi-phase-matching optical parametric process and the entanglement natures among these Raman signals and pump are demonstrated by applying a sufficient inseparability criterion for CV entanglement. Such entanglement frequency comb source with different frequencies and continuously tunable frequency interval may be very significant for the applications in quantum communication and networks. PMID:25600617

  14. Spatiotemporal dynamics of Kerr-Raman optical frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chembo, Yanne K.; Grudinin, Ivan S.; Yu, Nan

    2015-10-01

    Optical frequency combs generated with ultrahigh-Q whispering-gallery-mode resonators are expected to provide a compact, versatile, and energy-efficient source for the generation of coherent lightwave and microwave signals. So far, Kerr and Raman nonlinearities in these resonators have predominantly been investigated separately, even though both effects originate from the same third-order susceptibility. We present a spatiotemporal formalism for the theoretical understanding of these Kerr-Raman combs, which allows us to describe the complex interplay between both nonlinearities and all-order dispersion. These theoretical findings are successfully compared with experiments performed with ultrahigh-Q calcium and magnesium fluoride resonators.

  15. The generation of Continuous-Variable Entanglement Frequency Comb

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Youbin; Cheng, Xiaomin; Wang, Huaijun; Shi, Zhongtao; Zhao, Junwei; Ji, Fengmin; Yin, Zhi; Wang, Yajuan

    2015-01-01

    Continuous-variable (CV) entanglement frequency comb can be produced by enhanced Raman scattering in an above-threshold optical oscillator cavity in which a hexagonally-poled LiTaO3 crystal resides as a Raman gain medium. The Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman signals are enhanced by a coupled quasi-phase-matching optical parametric process and the entanglement natures among these Raman signals and pump are demonstrated by applying a sufficient inseparability criterion for CV entanglement. Such entanglement frequency comb source with different frequencies and continuously tunable frequency interval may be very significant for the applications in quantum communication and networks. PMID:25600617

  16. Monolithic device for modelocking and stabilization of frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Lee, C-C; Hayashi, Y; Silverman, K L; Feldman, A; Harvey, T; Mirin, R P; Schibli, T R

    2015-12-28

    We demonstrate a device that integrates a III-V semiconductor saturable absorber mirror with a graphene electro-optic modulator, which provides a monolithic solution to modelocking and noise suppression in a frequency comb. The device offers a pure loss modulation bandwidth exceeding 5 MHz and only requires a low voltage driver. This hybrid device provides not only compactness and simplicity in laser cavity design, but also small insertion loss, compared to the previous metallic-mirror-based modulators. We believe this work paves the way to portable and fieldable phase-coherent frequency combs. PMID:26831973

  17. Routes to spatiotemporal chaos in Kerr optical frequency combs

    SciTech Connect

    Coillet, Aurélien; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2014-03-15

    We investigate the various routes to spatiotemporal chaos in Kerr optical frequency combs, obtained through pumping an ultra-high Q-factor whispering-gallery mode resonator with a continuous-wave laser. The Lugiato–Lefever model is used to build bifurcation diagrams with regards to the parameters that are externally controllable, namely, the frequency and the power of the pumping laser. We show that the spatiotemporal chaos emerging from Turing patterns and solitons display distinctive dynamical features. Experimental spectra of chaotic Kerr combs are also presented for both cases, in excellent agreement with theoretical spectra.

  18. Coherent combs in ionization by intense and short laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewska, K.; Kamiński, J. Z.

    2016-03-01

    Photoionization of positive ions by a train of intense, short laser pulses is investigated within the relativistic strong field approximation, using the velocity gauge. The formation of broad peak structures in the high-energy domain of photoelectrons is observed and interpreted. The emergence of coherent photoelectron energy combs within these structures is demonstrated, and it is interpreted as the consequence of the Fraunhofer-type interference/diffraction of probability amplitudes of ionization from individual pulses comprising the train. Extensions to the coherent angular combs are also studied, and effects related to the radiation pressure are presented.

  19. 80 W, 120 fs Yb-fiber frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Ruehl, Axel; Marcinkevicius, Andrius; Fermann, Martin E; Hartl, Ingmar

    2010-09-15

    We report on a high-power fiber frequency comb exhibiting linear chirped-pulse amplification up to 80 W and generating 120 fs pulses. By proper matching of the group delay between the fiber stretcher and compressor, a compression ratio of 3100 could be achieved. Carrier envelope offset self-referencing and long-term phase locking to an rf reference is demonstrated, exemplifying the suitability of this system for generating vacuum and extreme-UV frequency combs via enhancement in passive cavities and high harmonic generation. PMID:20847763

  20. The generation of Continuous-Variable Entanglement Frequency Comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Youbin; Cheng, Xiaomin; Wang, Huaijun; Shi, Zhongtao; Zhao, Junwei; Ji, Fengmin; Yin, Zhi; Wang, Yajuan

    2015-01-01

    Continuous-variable (CV) entanglement frequency comb can be produced by enhanced Raman scattering in an above-threshold optical oscillator cavity in which a hexagonally-poled LiTaO3 crystal resides as a Raman gain medium. The Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman signals are enhanced by a coupled quasi-phase-matching optical parametric process and the entanglement natures among these Raman signals and pump are demonstrated by applying a sufficient inseparability criterion for CV entanglement. Such entanglement frequency comb source with different frequencies and continuously tunable frequency interval may be very significant for the applications in quantum communication and networks.

  1. Comparative reproduction of Varroa destructor in different types of Russian and Italian honey bee combs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied whether or not older comb supported less varroa reproduction in both Russian and Italian honey bees, whether Russian bees produced comb which inhibited varroa reproduction and whether comb foundation contained enough acaricides to influence varroa reproduction. The major differences foun...

  2. Calibration of an echelle spectrograph with an astro-comb: a laser frequency comb with very high repetition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, David F.; Glenday, Alex; Li, Chih-Hao; Furesz, Gabor; Benedick, Andrew J.; Chang, Guoqing N.; Chen, Li-Jin; Korzennik, Sylvain; Sasselov, Dimitar; Kaertner, Franz X.; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2012-09-01

    Searches for extrasolar planets using precision radial velocity (PRV) techniques are approaching Earth-like planet sensitivity, however require an improvement of one order of magnitude to identify earth-mass planets in the habitable zone of sun-like stars. A key limitation is spectrograph calibration. An astro-comb, an octave-spanning laser frequency comb and a Fabry-Pérot cavity, producing evenly spaced frequencies with large wavelength coverage, is a promising tool for improved wavelength calibration. We demonstrate the calibration of a high-resolution astrophysical spectrograph below the 1 m/s level in the 8000-9000 Å and 4200 Å spectral bands.

  3. A stable frequency comb directly referenced to rubidium electromagnetically induced transparency and two-photon transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Dong; Wu, Jiutao; Zhang, Shuangyou; Ren, Quansheng; Zhang, Zhigang; Zhao, Jianye

    2014-03-17

    We demonstrate an approach to create a stable erbium-fiber-based frequency comb at communication band by directly locking the combs to two rubidium atomic transitions resonances (electromagnetically induced transparency absorption and two-photon absorption), respectively. This approach directly transfers the precision and stability of the atomic transitions to the comb. With its distinguishing feature of compactness by removing the conventional octave-spanning spectrum and f-to-2f beating facilities and the ability to directly control the comb's frequency at the atomic transition frequency, this stable optical comb can be widely used in optical communication, frequency standard, and optical spectroscopy and microscopy.

  4. Spectral and temporal characterization of a fused-quartz-microresonator optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, Scott B.; Diddams, Scott A.

    2011-11-01

    We report on the fabrication of high-Q, fused-quartz microresonators and the parametric generation of a frequency comb with 36-GHz line spacing using them. We have characterized the intrinsic stability of the comb in both the time and frequency domains to assess its suitability for future precision metrology applications. Intensity autocorrelation measurements and line-by-line comb control reveal near-transform-limited picosecond pulse trains that are associated with good relative phase and amplitude stability of the comb lines. The comb's 36-GHz line spacing can be readily photodetected, which enables measurements of its intrinsic and absolute phase fluctuations.

  5. Target micro-displacement measurement by a "comb" structure of intensity distribution in laser plasma propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Z. Y.; Zhang, S. Q.; Gao, L.; Gao, H.

    2015-05-01

    A "comb" structure of beam intensity distribution is designed and achieved to measure a target displacement of micrometer level in laser plasma propulsion. Base on the "comb" structure, the target displacement generated by nanosecond laser ablation solid target is measured and discussed. It is found that the "comb" structure is more suitable for a thin film target with a velocity lower than tens of millimeters per second. Combing with a light-electric monitor, the `comb' structure can be used to measure a large range velocity.

  6. Pretreatment of amphiphilic comb polymer surfaces dramatically affects protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhanping; Ma, Hongwei; Hausner, Douglas B; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Beebe, Thomas P

    2005-01-01

    New applications in regenerative biotechnology require the ability to understand and control protein-surface interactions on micrometer and submicrometer length scales. Evidence presented here shows that micropatterned amphiphilic comb polymer films exhibit a pretreatment-dependent behavior with respect to protein adsorption for the proteins fibronectin, laminin, and for serum. A micropatterned surface, consisting of protein-reactive regions, separated by comb polymer, was created and tested for protein adsorption using the surface-sensitive imaging tool TOF-SIMS. Immersion of micropatterned surfaces in solutions of fibronectin or laminin resulted in uniform protein coverage on both the comb polymer and protein-reactive regions. However, preimmersion of similarly patterned surfaces in water for 2 h prior to protein incubation was found to dramatically improve the protein-resistant properties of the comb polymer regions. These results are consistent with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) side chain reorientation and/or hydration and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) backbone segregation away from the interface region. PMID:16283770

  7. Bonding of silicon scanning mirror having vertical comb fingers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Ko, Young-Chul; Choi, Byoung-So; Kim, Jong-Min; Jeon, Duk Young

    2002-09-01

    A 1500 μm × 1200 μm silicon scanning mirror has been fabricated by using anodic bonding and flip chip bonding. This scanning mirror is mainly composed of two structures having vertical comb fingers. By anodic bonding between the silicon wafer and the Pyrex glass substrate, and following deep inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICPRIE), isolated comb electrodes were fabricated at the lower structure. However, gold signal lines for electrical connection to the electrodes, which were inserted between silicon and Pyrex glass, were damaged during anodic bonding. This problem was solved by using the proposed processes and signal lines were successfully fabricated with the contact resistance below several tens of ohms. By flip chip bonding, the upper and lower structures having vertical comb fingers were assembled. Vertical comb fingers of two structures were aligned with a microscope and the frames of two structures were bonded at 300 °C for 20 s using the eutectic bonding material - electroplated AuSn. Finally, the scanning mirror was successfully fabricated and could be used for laser display as a galvanometric vertical scanner.

  8. Invited Article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, L. C.; Deschênes, J.-D.; Sonderhouse, L.; Swann, W. C.; Khader, I. H.; Baumann, E.; Newbury, N. R.; Coddington, I.

    2015-08-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and performance of a self-referenced, optically coherent frequency comb. The system robustness is derived from a combination of an optics package based on polarization-maintaining fiber, saturable absorbers for mode-locking, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) detection of the control signals, and digital feedback control for frequency stabilization. The output is phase-coherent over a 1-2 μm octave-spanning spectrum with a pulse repetition rate of ˜200 MHz and a residual pulse-to-pulse timing jitter <3 fs well within the requirements of most frequency-comb applications. Digital control enables phase coherent operation for over 90 h, critical for phase-sensitive applications such as timekeeping. We show that this phase-slip free operation follows the fundamental limit set by the SNR of the control signals. Performance metrics from three nearly identical combs are presented. This laptop-sized comb should enable a wide-range of applications beyond the laboratory.

  9. Dislocations in mismatched layers of GaAsxP1 - x in between GaP as observed by low-temperature cathodoluminescence: Part II. Grown on (111) oriented substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, A.; Pistol, M.-E.; Gerling, M.; Samuelson, L.; Titze, H.

    1991-08-01

    Spectrally resolved low-temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging has been performed on thin, 250 Å, mismatched layers of GaAsxP1-x in between bulk GaP. The layers were grown on (111) oriented substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, with layers ranging from perfectly strained to totally relaxed. CL imaging has proven to be a very sensitive technique for the study of the onset of the formation of misfit dislocations and is therefore useful for determination of the critical thickness [A. Gustafsson, M.-E. Pistol, M. Gerling, L. Samuelson, M. R. Leys and H. Titze, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1660 (1991)]. For the use of perfectly strained layers, growth on (111) oriented substrates can be of interest since the critical thickness predicted by the mechanical equilibrium theory [J. W. Matthews and A. E. Blakeslee, J. Cryst. Growth 27, 118 (1974)] is about twice that for growth on (001) oriented substrates. In this work we show that the dislocations involved in the strain relief for the growth of mismatched layers on (111) oriented substrates are of the perfect 60° type and that the experimental critical thickness agrees well with the value expected from the mechanical equilibrium theory.

  10. A frequency comb calibrated solar atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaro, P.; Esposito, M.; Monai, S.; Lo Curto, G.; González Hernández, J. I.; Hänsch, T. W.; Holzwarth, R.; Manescau, A.; Pasquini, L.; Probst, R. A.; Rebolo, R.; Steinmetz, T.; Udem, Th.; Wilken, T.

    2013-12-01

    Context. The solar spectrum is a primary reference for the study of physical processes in stars and their variation during activity cycles. High resolution spectra of the Sun are easily obtained from spatially selected regions of the solar disk, while those taken over the integrated disk are more problematic. However, a proxy can be obtained by using solar light reflected by small bodies of the solar system. Aims: In November 2010 an experiment with a prototype of a laser frequency comb (LFC) calibration system was performed with the HARPS spectrograph of the 3.6m ESO telescope at La Silla during which high signal-to-noise spectra of the Moon were obtained. We exploit those Echelle spectra to study a portion of the optical integrated solar spectrum and in particular to determine the solar photospheric line positions. Methods: The DAOSPEC program is used to measure solar line positions through Gaussian fitting in an automatic way. The solar spectra are calibrated both with an LFC and a Th-Ar. Results: We first apply the LFC solar spectrum to characterize the CCDs of the HARPS spectrograph. The comparison of the LFC and Th-Ar calibrated spectra reveals S-type distortions on each order along the whole spectral range with an amplitude of ±40 m s-1 . This confirms the pattern found in the first LFC experiment on a single order and extends the detection of the distortions to the whole analyzed region revealing that the precise shape varies with wavelength. A new data reduction is implemented to deal with CCD pixel inequalities to obtain a wavelength corrected solar spectrum. By using this spectrum we provide a new LFC calibrated solar atlas with 400 line positions in the range of 476-530, and 175 lines in the 534-585 nm range corresponding to the LFC bandwidth. The new LFC atlas is consistent on average with that based on FTS solar spectra, but it improves the accuracy of individual lines by a significant factor reaching a mean value of ≈10 m s-1 . Conclusions: The

  11. Comparative efficacy of commercial combs in removing head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Anabella; Toloza, Ariel; Vassena, Claudia; Picollo, María Inés; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón

    2013-03-01

    The use of a fine comb for removing lice from the head of the human host is a relevant tool both in the diagnosis of infestations and as part of an integrated control strategy of head lice. The effectiveness of a fine comb depends, in part, on the design and material they are built. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the efficacy of metal and plastic combs that are currently used in the removal of head lice and eggs worldwide. The space between comb teeth and the length was 0.23 and 13 mm in KSL® plastic, 0.3 and 10.7 mm in NOPUCID® plastic, 0.15 and 31 mm in KSL® metal and 0.09 and 37 mm in ASSY® metal. The assays were performed comparing the combs in pairs: (a) KSL® vs. NOPUCID® plastic combs, (b) KSL® vs. ASSY® metal combs and (c) KSL® plastic comb vs. ASSY® metal comb. The most effective plastic comb was KSL®, removing a higher number of individuals of all stages. The most effective metal comb was ASSY®, removing more insects of all stages (except adults). The comparative test between KSL® plastic and ASSY® metal showed that ASSY® was the most effective in removing head lice and their eggs. PMID:23212391

  12. Mycological examinations on the fungal flora of the chicken comb.

    PubMed

    Gründer, S; Mayser, P; Redmann, T; Kaleta, E F

    2005-03-01

    A total of 500 combs of adult chickens from two different locations in Germany (Hessen and Schleswig-Holstein) were clinically and mycologically examined. The chickens came from three battery cages (n = 79), one voliere system (n=32), six flocks maintained on deep litter (n = 69) and 12 flocks kept on free outdoor range (n=320). Twenty-two of the 500 chicken combs (4.4%) were found to have clinical signs: only non-specific lesions neither typical of mycosis nor of avian pox such as desquamation with crust formation, yellow to brown or black dyschromic changes, alopecia in the surrounding area and moist inflammation. Only seven of the 22 clinically altered combs showed a positive mycological result; the non-pathogenic and geophilic Trichophyton terrestre in one case and non-pathogenic yeast in six cases. The following fungi were seen in the different housing systems: 13 dermatophytes (2.6% of 500 samples): 12 x T. terrestre, 1 x Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 11 isolates of Chrysosporium georgiae (2.2% of 500 samples) and 149 isolates of yeasts (29.8%): Malassezia sympodialis: n = 52, Kloeckera apiculata: n = 33, Trichosporon capitatum (syn. Geotrichum capitatum): n = 23, Trichosporon cutaneum/Trichosporon mucoides: n = 12, Trichosporon inkin (syn. Sarcinosporon inkin): n = 8 and Candida spp.: n = 21, including pathogenic or possibly pathogenic species: Candida albicans: n = 3, Candida famata: n = 4, Candida guilliermondii: n = 3, Candida lipolytica: n = 3, Candida dattila: n = 2 and one isolate each of Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida aaseri, Candida catenulata sive brumpti, Candida fructus and Candida kefyr sive pseudotropicalis. There is no stringent correlation between the clinical symptoms diagnosed on the chicken combs and the species of yeasts isolated. The causative agent of favus in chickens, Trichophyton gallinae, and the saprophytic yeast in pigeons, Cr. neoformans were not isolated. The most frequently isolated yeasts M. sympodialis and

  13. Dual Comb Fourier Transform Spectroscopy in the Green Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knize, R. J.; Bernhardt, B.; Picqué, N.; Hänsch, T. W.

    2010-06-01

    Laser combs in combination with other advancing tools of laser science, nonlinear optics, photonics, and electronic signal processing have the potential to vastly enhance the range and capabilities of molecular laser spectroscopy. The high versatility of frequency comb sources can indeed harness new techniques for ultra-rapid and ultra-sensitive recording of complex molecular spectra. The recent proof-of-principle demonstrations of dual comb Fourier transform spectroscopy have mostly been carried out in the near-infrared region, around 1.0 and 1.5 μm. The mode-locked ytterbium- or erbium-doped fiber femtosecond laser systems emitting in this range indeed require few adjustment thanks to their guided light and permit reliable unattended operation. With expanded wavelength coverage and continued improvements in speed and sensitivity, dual comb spectroscopy should find use as a novel, time-domain spectroscopic analytical tool. As far as molecular spectroscopy is concerned, the mid-infrared and visible-ultraviolet wavelength regions show both the potential for specificity and sensitivity for tracing molecules. In particular, the visible-ultraviolet region complements the mid-infrared molecular fingerprint range, as it provides access to many electronic transitions, in particular belonging to reactive species. In this contribution, we report on our progress in the implementation of dual comb spectroscopy in the 520 nm green region. We present preliminary results on a powerful new sensitive ultra-rapid tool for linear rovibronic absorption spectroscopy, based on frequency-doubled ytterbium-doped fiber lasers and we discuss its intriguing prospects for spectroscopy of short lived transient species.

  14. Investigation on electro-optic optical comb generation with higher spectral resolution and bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Takahide; Morohashi, Isao

    2016-03-01

    With a use of electro-optic modulator based comb generator, ultra-wideband optical comb is stably and flexibly synthesized from a continuous-wave light. Larger modulation depth at a higher repetition rate would proportionally enhance bandwidth of the generated comb. Practically, however, achievable modulation depth is limited by available output power of microwave amplifiers. In addition, the repetition rate, i.e. comb spacing, is determined by system-side requirements. For example, frequency spacing of the generated comb should fit to the wavelength grid of optical fiber networks. Narrower frequency spacing is requested for photonic measurements assisted by advanced electrical signal processing based on low-speed electronics. In this paper, through numerical analysis, we propose and discuss configurations of serially cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulator-based flat comb generators, aiming for optical comb generation satisfying both higher bandwidth and narrower frequency spacing.

  15. Dynamics of dual-polarization VCSEL-based optical frequency combs under optical injection locking.

    PubMed

    Prior, E; de Dios, C; Criado, R; Ortsiefer, M; Meissner, P; Acedo, P

    2016-09-01

    The present experimental work studies the dynamics of dual-polarization optical frequency combs (OFCs) based on gain switching (GS) vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) diodes under optical injection locking (OIL). This study presents two main results. First, we have obtained an overall comb formed by two orthogonally polarized sub-combs with comparable span and power. The overall comb shows enhanced optical span and flatness and high coherence between its modes. The second result is that we have been able to control the polarization state of the overall comb by tuning the polarization state of the injected light by locking the same single teeth of the comb. This produces an overall comb with single polarization that is parallel or orthogonal. These are novel findings that provide for the development of efficient and compact OFCs based on GS VCSEL sources with versatile polarization dynamics. PMID:27607978

  16. Stabilized chip-scale Kerr frequency comb via a high-Q reference photonic microresonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jinkang; Huang, Shu-Wei; Vinod, Abhinav K.; Mortazavian, Parastou; Yu, Mingbin; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Savchenkov, Anatoliy A.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Maleki, Lute; Wong, Chee Wei

    2016-08-01

    We stabilize a chip-scale Si3N4 phase-locked Kerr frequency comb via locking the pump laser to an independent stable high-Q reference microresonator and locking the comb spacing to an external microwave oscillator. In this comb, the pump laser shift induces negligible impact on the comb spacing change. This scheme is a step towards miniaturization of the stabilized Kerr comb system as the microresonator reference can potentially be integrated on-chip. Fractional instability of the optical harmonics of the stabilized comb is limited by the microwave oscillator used for comb spacing lock below 1 s averaging time and coincides with the pump laser drift in the long term.

  17. Sex Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Douglas

    1977-01-01

    Notes that no single theory of psychotherapy dominates the field of sex therapy. On one hand, sex therapy is not subject to the rigid dogmas of many areas of psychotherapy. But on the other hand, many techniques are invented at the whim of clinicians with no basis in theory. (Author/AM)

  18. Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan

    1991-01-01

    This paper on the problem of sex offending among individuals with intellectual disabilities examines the incidence of this problem, characteristics of intellectually disabled sex offenders, determination of whether the behavior is a paraphilia or functional age-related behavior, and treatment options, with emphasis on the situation in New South…

  19. [Sex education, sex behavior, contraception].

    PubMed

    Borkenstein, M; Schwingshandl, J; Kuttnig, M; Limbert, C

    1991-01-01

    Sexual behavior has changed during the last decades. Teenage fertility rate, and the number of gonococcal infections are both extremely high; the incidence of HIV-infections is increasing. Preventive measures include sex education. Sex education may help the adolescents to identify their own goals for sexual behavior, to avoid unintended and unwanted pregnancy, and to avoid sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:1945474

  20. Safe sex.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, G; Ghosh, T K

    1994-01-01

    The main objectives of health care for people with AIDS are to help them adjust to changing sexual status and to provide them with information on safe sex. Sections consider the risks of various types of sexual activity and safe sex education. With regard to the risk of transmitting or contracting HIV, sexual activities may be high risk, medium risk, low risk, or no risk. High-risk activities include unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse, oral-anal sexual contact, sharing sex toys, and traumatic sexual activity. Medium-risk activities include anal and vaginal intercourse using a latex condom with or without spermicide, and sex using a vaginal diaphragm or contraceptive vaginal sponge. Oral sex on a woman or oral sex on a man without ejaculation into the mouth are low-risk activities. Mutual masturbation, erotic touching, caressing and massage, kissing and non-genital licking pose no risk of infection. All general practitioners and family physicians should teach about safe sex. Prevention messages may be conveyed through individual and social counseling as well as with printed media and other forms of mass media. Messages should definitely reach prostitutes and brothel owners, as well as pre-pubertal children and older youths. PMID:8207282

  1. Local comb generation in nonlinear TiN superconducting resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, David; Vissers, Michael R.; Erickson, Robert; Sandberg, Martin; Gao, Jiansong

    2014-03-01

    Low loss superconducting nonlinear resonators are extensively used for qubit readout as well as photon detectors. These devices are typically capacitively coupled to a launch line. When driven at high power, a shift in resonant frequency is observed due to the kinetic inductance of the TiN superconductor. At higher power, the resonant frequency mixes with the drive tone to produce a series of peaks that are observed to be equally spaced at the detuning frequency, i.e. a ``local comb.'' The full circuit analysis of this system is derived. The renormalized resonant frequency is obtained and the local comb is derived from a first order successive approximation. Work suppported by DARPA, ARO, and NIST.

  2. Calibration of an Astrophysical Spectrograph with an Astro-comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, David F.; Glenday, Alex; Li, Chih-Hao; Cramer, Claire; Korzennik, Sylvain; Noah Chang, Guoqing; Chen, Li-Jin; Benedick, Andrew; Kaertner, Franz X.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2010-03-01

    Searches for extrasolar planets using the periodic Doppler shift of stellar lines are approaching Earth-like planet sensitivity. To find a 1-Earth-mass planet in an Earth-like orbit, an order of magnitude improvement in state-of-the-art radial velocity spectroscopy is necessary. An astro-comb, the combination of an ocatve-spanning laser frequency comb with a Fabry-Perot cavity, producing evenly spaced frequency markers with the potential for large wavelength coverage is a promising avenue towards improved wavelength calibration. Here we demonstrate the calibration of a high-resolution astrophysical spectrograph below the 1 m/s level in the 800-900 nm spectral band using an octave-spanning Ti:Sapphire laser and an ultra-low dispersion Fabry-Perot filter cavity adjusted for a mode spacing of approximately 31 GHz. Modeling of spectrograph response function and overall system stability and reproducibility will be described.

  3. Optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy of Rare Earth Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiatlowski, Jerlyn; Palm, Christopher; Joshi, Trinity; Montcrieffe, Caitlin; Jackson Kimball, Derek

    2013-05-01

    We discuss progress in our experimental program to employ optical-frequency-comb-based spectroscopy to understand the complex spectra of rare-earth atoms. We plan to carry out systematic measurements of atomic transitions in rare-earth atoms to elucidate the energy level structure and term assignment and determine presently unknown atomic state parameters. This spectroscopic information is important in view of the increasing interest in rare-earth atoms for atomic frequency standards, in astrophysical investigations of chemically peculiar stars, and in tests of fundamental physics (tests of parity and time-reversal invariance, searches for time variation of fundamental constants, etc.). We are presently studying the use of hollow cathode lamps as atomic sources for two-photon frequency comb spectroscopy. Supported by the National Science Foundation under grant PHY-0958749.

  4. Active laser ranging with frequency transfer using frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongyuan; Wei, Haoyun; Yang, Honglei; Li, Yan

    2016-05-01

    A comb-based active laser ranging scheme is proposed for enhanced distance resolution and a common time standard for the entire system. Three frequency combs with different repetition rates are used as light sources at the two ends where the distance is measured. Pulse positions are determined through asynchronous optical sampling and type II second harmonic generation. Results show that the system achieves a maximum residual of 379.6 nm and a standard deviation of 92.9 nm with 2000 averages over 23.6 m. Moreover, as for the frequency transfer, an atom clock and an adjustable signal generator, synchronized to the atom clock, are used as time standards for the two ends to appraise the frequency deviation introduced by the proposed system. The system achieves a residual fractional deviation of 1.3 × 10-16 for 1 s, allowing precise frequency transfer between the two clocks at the two ends.

  5. Envelope, group and phase velocities in a nested frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Koji; Hendrie, James; Diels, Jean-Claude; Arissian, Ladan

    2016-04-01

    Fabry–Pérot etalons have been traditionally used in a laser cavity to tune the optical frequency. In this work we present the generation of interwoven frequency combs with insertion of an intracavity Fabry–Pérot in a mode-locked laser. A high frequency comb is generated by insertion of an uncoated (low finesse) Fabry–Pérot inside the laser cavity. The intracavity Fabry–Pérot acquires a high finesse from the laser cavity and the velocity of the pulses in the Fabry–Pérot is affected by the laser cavity length, gain and losses, with the dielectric group velocity dk/dΩ playing only a minor role. The output characteristics are explained by the condition that the radiation is simultaneously resonant with the etalon and the laser cavity.

  6. Envelope, group and phase velocities in a nested frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Koji; Hendrie, James; Diels, Jean-Claude; Arissian, Ladan

    2016-05-01

    Fabry–Pérot etalons have been traditionally used in a laser cavity to tune the optical frequency. In this work we present the generation of interwoven frequency combs with insertion of an intracavity Fabry–Pérot in a mode-locked laser. A high frequency comb is generated by insertion of an uncoated (low finesse) Fabry–Pérot inside the laser cavity. The intracavity Fabry–Pérot acquires a high finesse from the laser cavity and the velocity of the pulses in the Fabry–Pérot is affected by the laser cavity length, gain and losses, with the dielectric group velocity dk/dΩ playing only a minor role. The output characteristics are explained by the condition that the radiation is simultaneously resonant with the etalon and the laser cavity.

  7. Safe sex

    MedlinePlus

    ... and discuss your sexual histories Don't feel forced into having sex Don't have sexual contact ... or polyurethane condoms. Use condoms for all vaginal, anal, and oral intercourse. The condom should be in ...

  8. Precision Spectroscopy of Hydrogen and Femtosecond Laser Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udem, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    A femtosecond frequency comb is a simple and compact tool that allows the phase coherent connection of the radio frequency domain (below 100 GHz) with the optical domain (above 200 THz). It greatly simplified high precision optical frequency measurements and provides the long awaited clockwork mechanism for an all-optical atomic clock. We have used such a frequency comb to measure the absolute frequency of the 1S-2S two-photon transition in atomic hydrogen, i.e. comparing it with the Cs ground state hyperfine splitting. By comparing data taken in 2003 with earlier measurements in 1999 we can set an upper limit on the variation of the 1S-2S transition frequency of (-29 ±57) Hz within 44 months. To derive limits on the drift rates of fundamental constant such as the fine structure constant, we combine these measurements with other optical frequency measurements in Hg^+ and in Yb^+ performed at NIST, Boulder/USA and at PTB, Braunschweig/Germany respectively. This combined method gives precise and separate restrictions for the fractional time variation of the fine structure constant and the Cs nuclear magnetic moment measured in Bohr magnetons. The latter is a measure of the drift rate of the strong interaction. We also report on efforts to convert the frequency comb technology to much shorter wavelength. Based on intra cavity high harmonic generation an XUV (up to 60 nm) frequency comb is generated with a repetition rate of more than 100 MHz useful for high resolution laser spectroscopy in this region.

  9. Chemical detection with hyperspectral lidar using dual frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Sylvain; Levasseur, Simon; Perilla, Carlos; Roy, Simon; Genest, Jérôme

    2013-03-25

    High-resolution spectral lidar measurements using dual frequency combs as a source is presented. The technique enables the range-resolved measurement of fine spectral features, such as gas absorption lines, provided that a suitable scatterer is present in the scene. Measurements of HCN absorption lines at 20 meters are presented, with a water droplet cloud and a diffusely reflective surface as scatterers. PMID:23546124

  10. A Novel Nit Comb Concept Using Ultrasound Actuation: Preclinical Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Mark N; Brunton, Elizabeth R; Burgess, Ian F

    2016-01-01

    Nit combing and removal of head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae), eggs is a task made more difficult because "nit combs" vary in efficiency. There is currently no evidence that the binding of the eggshell to the hair can be loosened chemically and few hair treatments improve the slip of the louse eggs along the hair. Ultrasound, applied through the teeth of a nit comb, may facilitate the flow of fluids into the gap between the hair shaft and the tube of fixative holding louse eggs in place to improve lubrication. Ultrasound alone had little effect to initiate sliding, requiring a force of 121.5 ± 23.8 millinewtons (mN) compared with 125.8 ± 18.0 mN without ultrasound, but once the egg started to move it made the process easier. In the presence of a conditioner-like creamy lotion, ultrasound reduced the Peak force required to start movement to 24.3 ± 8.8 mN from 50.4 ± 13.0 mN without ultrasound. In contrast, some head louse treatments made removal of eggs more difficult, requiring approximately twice the Peak force to initiate movement compared with dry hair in the absence of ultrasound. However, following application of ultrasound, the forces required to initiate movement increased for an essential oil product, remained the same for isopropyl myristate and cyclomethicone, and halved for 4% dimeticone lotion. Fixing the nit comb at an estimated angle of 16.5° to the direction of pull gave an optimum effect to improve the removal process when a suitable lubricant was used. PMID:26545717

  11. Generation of a frequency comb and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hagmann, Mark J; Yarotski, Dmitry A

    2013-12-03

    Apparatus for generating a microwave frequency comb (MFC) in the DC tunneling current of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) by fast optical rectification, cause by nonlinearity of the DC current vs. voltage curve for the tunneling junction, of regularly-spaced, short pulses of optical radiation from a focused mode-locked, ultrafast laser, directed onto the tunneling junction, is described. Application of the MFC to high resolution dopant profiling in semiconductors is simulated. Application of the MFC to other measurements is described.

  12. Sex work and sex trafficking.

    PubMed

    Ditmore, M; Saunders, P

    1998-01-01

    Preventing HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), as well as sexual and physical violence, are major occupational health and safety concerns for prostitutes. Considerable evidence shows that anti-prostitution laws facilitate violence and abuse against prostitutes and may increase their risk of contracting HIV/STDs. For example, police often take advantage of existing laws against prostitution to demand money or sex. In general, the strict enforcement of anti-prostitution laws marginalizes prostitutes from services which could help them avoid abuse and promotes an environment in which prostitutes must take risks to avoid detection and arrest. One strategy to improve prostitutes' lives would therefore be to remove laws which prevent them from working safely and from travelling abroad to work legally. Projects in which prostitutes are actively involved have helped break down stereotypes against prostitutes, while police-sex worker liaison projects in Scotland and Australia have led to higher levels of reporting of crimes against prostitutes. The Network of Sex Work Projects (NSWP), an organization which links sex worker health programs around the world, has found that the incidence of HIV/STDs among prostitutes is lowest when they have control over their work conditions; access to condoms, lubricants, and other safe sex materials; and respect of their basic human and legal rights. People need to understand that consensual involvement in sex work is different from forced sex trafficking. PMID:12348692

  13. A portable dual frequency comb spectrometer for atmospheric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossel, Kevin; Waxman, Eleanor; Truong, Gar-Wing; Giorgetta, Fabrizio; Swann, William; Rieker, Gregory; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Dual frequency comb (DFC) spectroscopy is a new technique that combines broad spectral bandwidth, high spectral resolution, rapid data acquisition, and high sensitivity. In addition, unlike standard Fourier-transform spectroscopy, it has an almost ideal instrument lineshape function, does not require recalibration, and has no moving parts. These features make DFC spectroscopy well suited for accurate measurements of multiple species simultaneously. Because the frequency comb lasers can be well collimated, such a system can be used for long open-path measurements with path lengths ranging from hundreds of meters to several kilometers. This length scale bridges the gap between point measurements and satellite-based measurements and is ideal for providing information about local sources and quanitfying emissions. Here we show a fully portable DFC spectrometer operating over a wide spectral region in the near-infrared (about 1.5-2.1 μm or 6670-4750 cm‑1 sampled at 0.0067 cm‑1) and across several different open-air paths. The current spectrometer fits in about a 500 L volume and has low power consumption. It provides simultaneous measurements of CO2, CH4, and water isotopes with a time resolution of seconds to minutes. We will provide an introduction to dual frequency comb spectroscopy and then discuss the design and performance of the system.

  14. Applications of Cavity-Enhanced Direct Frequency Comb Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossel, Kevin C.; Adler, Florian; Maslowski, Piotr; Ye, Jun

    2010-06-01

    Cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy (CE-DFCS) is a unique technique that provides broad bandwidth, high resolution, and ultra-high detection sensitivities. This is accomplished by combining a femtosecond laser based optical frequency comb with an enhancement cavity and a broadband, multichannel imaging system. These systems are capable of simultaneously recording many terahertz of spectral bandwidth with sub-gigahertz resolution and absorption sensitivities of 1×10-7 cm-1 Hz-1/2. In addition, the ultrashort pulses enable efficient nonlinear processes, which makes it possible to reach spectral regions that are difficult to access with conventional laser sources. We will present an application of CE-DFCS for trace impurity detection in the semiconductor processing gas arsine near 1.8 μm and the development of a high-power, mid-infrared frequency comb for breath analysis in the 2.8-4.8 μm region. M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye. Science 311, 1595-1599 (2006) F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, K. C. Cossel, and J. Ye. Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175-205 (2010) F. Adler, K. C. Cossel, M. J. Thorpe, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye. Opt. Lett. 34, 1330-1332 (2009)

  15. Comb-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, Davide; Sala, Tommaso; Gotti, Riccardo; Cocola, Lorenzo; Poletto, Luca; Prevedelli, Marco; Laporta, Paolo; Marangoni, Marco

    2015-02-01

    Extreme frequency accuracy and high sensitivity are obtained with a novel comb-locked cavity-ring-down spectrometer operating in the near-infrared from 1.5 to 1.63 μm. A key feature of our approach is the tight frequency locking of the probe laser to the comb, ensuring very high reproducibility and accuracy to the frequency axis upon scanning the comb repetition rate, as well as an efficient light injection into a length-swept high-finesse passive cavity containing the gas sample. Spectroscopic tests on the (30012) ← (00001) P14e line of CO2 at ˜1.57 μm demonstrate an accuracy of ˜17 kHz on the line center frequency in a Doppler broadening regime over the time scale of about 5 min, corresponding to four consecutive spectral scans of the absorption line. Over a single scan, which consists of 1500 spectral points over 75 s, the limit of detection is as low as 5.7 × 10-11 cm-1.

  16. Dual-Colored DNA Comb Polymers for Single Molecule Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Danielle; Marciel, Amanda; Schroeder, Charles

    2014-03-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of branched biopolymers for single molecule rheology. In our work, we utilize a hybrid enzymatic-synthetic approach to graft ``short'' DNA branches to ``long'' DNA backbones, thereby producing macromolecular DNA comb polymers. The branches and backbones are synthesized via polymerase chain reaction with chemically modified deoxyribonucleotides (dNTPs): ``short'' branches consist of Cy5-labeled dNTPs and a terminal azide group, and ``long'' backbones contain dibenzylcyclooctyne-modified (DBCO) dNTPs. In this way, we utilize strain-promoted, copper-free cycloaddition ``click'' reactions for facile grafting of azide-terminated branches at DBCO sites along backbones. Copper-free click reactions are bio-orthogonal and nearly quantitative when carried out under mild conditions. Moreover, comb polymers can be labeled with an intercalating dye (e.g., YOYO) for dual-color fluorescence imaging. We characterized these materials using gel electrophoresis, HPLC, and optical microscopy, with atomic force microscopy in progress. Overall, DNA combs are suitable for single molecule dynamics, and in this way, our work holds the potential to improve our understanding of topologically complex polymer melts and solutions.

  17. Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Ideguchi, Takuro; Holzner, Simon; Bernhardt, Birgitta; Guelachvili, Guy; Picqué, Nathalie; Hänsch, Theodor W

    2013-10-17

    Advances in optical spectroscopy and microscopy have had a profound impact throughout the physical, chemical and biological sciences. One example is coherent Raman spectroscopy, a versatile technique interrogating vibrational transitions in molecules. It offers high spatial resolution and three-dimensional sectioning capabilities that make it a label-free tool for the non-destructive and chemically selective probing of complex systems. Indeed, single-colour Raman bands have been imaged in biological tissue at video rates by using ultra-short-pulse lasers. However, identifying multiple, and possibly unknown, molecules requires broad spectral bandwidth and high resolution. Moderate spectral spans combined with high-speed acquisition are now within reach using multichannel detection or frequency-swept laser beams. Laser frequency combs are finding increasing use for broadband molecular linear absorption spectroscopy. Here we show, by exploring their potential for nonlinear spectroscopy, that they can be harnessed for coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and spectro-imaging. The method uses two combs and can simultaneously measure, on the microsecond timescale, all spectral elements over a wide bandwidth and with high resolution on a single photodetector. Although the overall measurement time in our proof-of-principle experiments is limited by the waiting times between successive spectral acquisitions, this limitation can be overcome with further system development. We therefore expect that our approach of using laser frequency combs will not only enable new applications for nonlinear microscopy but also benefit other nonlinear spectroscopic techniques. PMID:24132293

  18. Progress Report on a Portable TI:SAPPHIRE Comb Laser with Frequencies Referring to Cesium Atom Two-Photon Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wang-Yau; Wu, Chien-Ming; Liu, Tz-Wei; Chen, Yo-Huan

    2010-06-01

    A portable Ti:sapphire comb laser would contribute significantly to generalize comb-laser applications, such as the astro-comb missions or other interdisciplinary collaborations. To develop a portable comb laser, three barriers lie ahead: one is to miniaturize and robotize the frequency reference system of the comb laser; the second is to ensure the long-term frequency accuracy without satellite connection, and the third is to miniaturize the pumping laser system. We developed two hand-size cesium-stabilized diode lasers at 822 nm and 884 nm to serve as frequency references for a comb laser and we carried out a comb-laser-based CPT experiment with one single cesium cell that might offer a locking procedure for long-term comb laser accuracy. We will also report our plans and progress on a fiber laser pumped Ti:sapphire comb laser.

  19. Direct generation of optical frequency combs in χ(2) nonlinear cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosca, Simona; Ricciardi, Iolanda; Parisi, Maria; Maddaloni, Pasquale; Santamaria, Luigi; De Natale, Paolo; De Rosa, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    Quadratic nonlinear processes are currently exploited for frequency comb transfer and extension from the visible and near infrared regions to other spectral ranges where direct comb generation cannot be accomplished. However, frequency comb generation has been directly observed in continuously pumped quadratic nonlinear crystals placed inside an optical cavity. At the same time, an introductory theoretical description of the phenomenon has been provided, showing a remarkable analogy with the dynamics of third-order Kerr microresonators. Here, we give an overview of our recent work on χ(2) frequency comb generation. Furthermore, we generalize the preliminary three-wave spectral model to a many-mode comb and present a stability analysis of different cavity field regimes. Although our work is a very early stage, it lays the groundwork for a novel class of highly efficient and versatile frequency comb synthesizers based on second-order nonlinear materials.

  20. Solar oscillations and the search for Venus enabled by a laser frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, David F.; Glenday, Alexander G.; Li, Chih-Hao; Langellier, Nicholas; Chang, Guoqing; Furesz, Gabor; Kaertner, Franz X.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2015-05-01

    We have recently demonstrated sub-m/s sensitivity in measuring the radial velocity (RV) between the Earth and Sun using a simple, home-built solar telescope feeding the HARPS-N spectrograph at the Italian National Telescope calibrated with our green astro-comb. The green astro-comb is a laser frequency comb optimized for calibrating astrophysical spectrographs. We plan, in the coming year, to use the astro-comb calibrated spectrograph and solar telescope to detect the solar RV signal induced by Venus and thus demonstrate sensitivity of these instruments to detect terrestrial exoplanets. Here, we will present the astro-comb, results from the astro-comb calibrating the HARPS-N exoplanet searcher spectrograph, solar RV stability and plans for observing the signature of Venus.

  1. Direct fiber comb stabilization to a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shun; Wang, Chenchen; Fourcade-Dutin, Coralie; Washburn, Brian R; Benabid, Fetah; Corwin, Kristan L

    2014-09-22

    We have isolated a single tooth from a fiber laser-based optical frequency comb for nonlinear spectroscopy and thereby directly referenced the comb. An 89 MHz erbium fiber laser frequency comb is directly stabilized to the P(23) (1539.43 nm) overtone transition of (12)C(2)H(2) inside a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. To do this, a single comb tooth is isolated and amplified from 20 nW to 40 mW with sufficient fidelity to perform saturated absorption spectroscopy. The fractional stability of the comb, ~7 nm away from the stabilized tooth, is shown to be 6 × 10(-12) at 100 ms gate time, which is over an order of magnitude better than that of a comb referenced to a GPS-disciplined Rb oscillator. PMID:25321837

  2. Redescription of Synthesium pontoporiae n. comb. with notes on S. tursionis and S. seymouri n. comb. (Digenea: Brachycladiidae Odhner, 1905).

    PubMed

    Marigo, Juliana; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo; Valente, Ana Luisa Schifino; Measures, Lena; Santos, Cláudia Portes

    2008-04-01

    Synthesium pontoporiae n. comb. is redescribed, together with Synthesium tursionis and Synthesium seymouri n. comb.; the parasites were obtained from stranded and accidentally caught cetaceans. The sucker ratio (ratio between widths of the oral and ventral suckers) in S. pontoporiae was 1:1.8-3.0 (mean 1:2.2); in S. tursionis was 1:0.8-1.2; and in S. seymouri was 1:0.5-0.7. Synthesium pontoporiae differed from its congeners by additional diagnostic characters, including: oval to lobed testes; small cirrus with pyriform proximal region and flexible, tubular distal region formed by evagination of ejaculatory duct; and vitellarium in small follicles extending from the level of the seminal vesicle to the posterior extremity of the body and not forming dendritic radial bunches. Data on the morphology of adult S. pontoporiae and S. tursionis were inferred from confocal laser microscopical observations. PMID:18564752

  3. Coherent mid-infrared frequency combs in silicon-microresonators in the presence of Raman effects.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Austin G; Yu, Mengjie; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Cardenas, Jaime; Mohanty, Aseema; Gaeta, Alexander L; Lipson, Michal

    2016-06-13

    We demonstrate the first low-noise mid-IR frequency comb source using a silicon microresonator. Our observation of strong Raman scattering lines in the generated comb suggests that interplay between Raman and four-wave mixing plays a role in the generated low-noise state. In addition, we characterize, the intracavity comb generation dynamics using an integrated PIN diode, which takes advantage of the inherent three-photon absorption process in silicon. PMID:27410323

  4. Broadband Mid-Infrared Comb-Resolved Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kevin; Mills, Andrew; Mohr, Christian; Jiang, Jie; Fermann, Martin; Maslowski, Piotr

    2014-06-01

    We report on a comb-resolved, broadband, direct-comb spectroscopy system in the mid-IR and its application to the detection of trace gases and molecular line shape analysis. By coupling an optical parametric oscillator (OPO), a 100 m multipass cell, and a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), sensitive, comb-resolved broadband spectroscopy of dilute gases is possible. The OPO has radiation output at 3.1-3.7 and 4.5-5.5 μm. The laser repetition rate is scanned to arbitrary values with 1 Hz accuracy around 417 MHz. The comb-resolved spectrum is produced with an absolute frequency axis depending only on the RF reference (in this case a GPS disciplined oscillator), stable to 1 part in 10^9. The minimum detectable absorption is 1.6x10-6 wn Hz-1/2. The operating range of the experimental setup enables access to strong fundamental transitions of numerous molecular species for applications based on trace gas detection such as environmental monitoring, industrial gas calibration or medical application of human breath analysis. In addition to these capabilities, we show the application for careful line shape analysis of argon-broadened CO band spectra around 4.7 μm. Fits of the obtained spectra clearly illustrate the discrepancy between the measured spectra and the Voigt profile (VP), indicating the need to include effects such as Dicke narrowing and the speed-dependence of the collisional width and shift in the line shape model, as was shown in previous cw-laser studies. In contrast to cw-laser based experiments, in this case the entire spectrum (˜ 250 wn) covering the whole P and R branches can be measured in 16 s with 417 MHz resolution, decreasing the acquisition time by orders of magnitude. The parallel acquisition allows collection of multiple lines simultaneously, removing the correlation of possible temperature and pressure drifts. While cw-systems are capable of measuring spectra with higher precision, this demonstration opens the door for fast

  5. Aluminum nitride as nonlinear optical material for on-chip frequency comb generation and frequency conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hojoong; Tang, Hong X.

    2016-06-01

    A number of dielectric materials have been employed for on-chip frequency comb generation. Silicon based dielectrics such as silicon dioxide (SiO2) and silicon nitride (SiN) are particularly attractive comb materials due to their low optical loss and maturity in nanofabrication. They offer third-order Kerr nonlinearity (χ(3)), but little second-order Pockels (χ(2)) effect. Materials possessing both strong χ(2) and χ(3) are desired to enable selfreferenced frequency combs and active control of comb generation. In this review, we introduce another CMOS-compatible comb material, aluminum nitride (AlN),which offers both second and third order nonlinearities. A review of the advantages of AlN as linear and nonlinear optical material will be provided, and fabrication techniques of low loss AlN waveguides from the visible to infrared (IR) region will be discussed.We will then show the frequency comb generation including IR, red, and green combs in high-Q AlN micro-rings from single CW IR laser input via combination of Kerr and Pockels nonlinearity. Finally, the fast speed on-off switching of frequency comb using the Pockels effect of AlN will be shown,which further enriches the applications of the frequency comb.

  6. Kilohertz-Resolution Spectroscopy of Cold Atoms with an Optical Frequency Comb

    SciTech Connect

    Fortier, T. M.; Le Coq, Y.; Stalnaker, J. E.; Diddams, S. A.; Oates, C. W.; Hollberg, L.; Ortega, D.

    2006-10-20

    We have performed sub-Doppler spectroscopy on the narrow intercombination line of cold calcium atoms using the amplified output of a femtosecond laser frequency comb. Injection locking of a 657-nm diode laser with a femtosecond comb allows for two regimes of amplification, one in which many lines of the comb are amplified, and one where a single line is predominantly amplified. The output of the laser in both regimes was used to perform kilohertz-level spectroscopy. This experiment demonstrates the potential for high-resolution absolute-frequency spectroscopy over the entire spectrum of the frequency comb output using a single high-finesse optical reference cavity.

  7. Calibration of an astrophysical spectrograph below 1 m/s using a laser frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, David F.; Glenday, Alexander G.; Li, Chih-Hao; Cramer, Claire; Furesz, Gabor; Chang, Guoqing; Benedick, Andrew J.; Chen, Li-Jin; Kärtner, Franz X.; Korzennik, Sylvain; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2012-06-01

    We deployed two wavelength calibrators based on laser frequency combs ("astro-combs") at an astronomical telescope. One astro-comb operated over a 100 nm band in the deep red (∼ 800 nm) and a second operated over a 20 nm band in the blue (∼ 400 nm). We used these red and blue astro-combs to calibrate a high-resolution astrophysical spectrograph integrated with a 1.5 m telescope, and demonstrated calibration precision and stability suffici ent to enable detection of changes in stellar radial velocity < 1 m/s.

  8. Calibration of an astrophysical spectrograph below 1 m/s using a laser frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Phillips, David F; Glenday, Alexander G; Li, Chih-Hao; Cramer, Claire; Furesz, Gabor; Chang, Guoqing; Benedick, Andrew J; Chen, Li-Jin; Kärtner, Franz X; Korzennik, Sylvain; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald L

    2012-06-18

    We deployed two wavelength calibrators based on laser frequency combs ("astro-combs") at an astronomical telescope. One astro-comb operated over a 100 nm band in the deep red (∼ 800 nm) and a second operated over a 20 nm band in the blue (∼ 400 nm). We used these red and blue astro-combs to calibrate a high-resolution astrophysical spectrograph integrated with a 1.5 m telescope, and demonstrated calibration precision and stability sufficient to enable detection of changes in stellar radial velocity < 1 m/s. PMID:22714437

  9. Static FBG strain sensor with high resolution and large dynamic range by dual-comb spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kuse, Naoya; Ozawa, Akira; Kobayashi, Yohei

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensor with optical frequency combs. To precisely characterize the optical response of the FBG when strain is applied, dual-comb spectroscopy is used. Highly sensitive dual-comb spectroscopy of the FBG enabled strain measurements with a resolution of 34 nε. The optical spectral bandwidth of the measurement exceeds 1 THz. Compared with conventional FBG strain sensor using a continuous-wave laser that requires rather slow frequency scanning with a limited range, the dynamic range and multiplexing capability are significantly improved by using broadband dual-comb spectroscopy. PMID:23669971

  10. Spectral linewidth preservation in parametric frequency combs seeded by dual pumps.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhi; Wiberg, Andreas O J; Myslivets, Evgeny; Kuo, Bill P P; Alic, Nikola; Radic, Stojan

    2012-07-30

    We demonstrate new technique for generation of programmable-pitch, wideband frequency combs with low phase noise. The comb generation was achieved using cavity-less, multistage mixer driven by two tunable continuous-wave pump seeds. The approach relies on phase-correlated continuous-wave pumps in order to cancel spectral linewidth broadening inherent to parametric comb generation. Parametric combs with over 200-nm bandwidth were obtained and characterized with respect to phase noise scaling to demonstrate linewidth preservation over 100 generated tones. PMID:23038314

  11. Kilohertz-resolution spectroscopy of cold atoms with an optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Fortier, T M; Coq, Y Le; Stalnaker, J E; Ortega, D; Diddams, S A; Oates, C W; Hollberg, L

    2006-10-20

    We have performed sub-Doppler spectroscopy on the narrow intercombination line of cold calcium atoms using the amplified output of a femtosecond laser frequency comb. Injection locking of a 657-nm diode laser with a femtosecond comb allows for two regimes of amplification, one in which many lines of the comb are amplified, and one where a single line is predominantly amplified. The output of the laser in both regimes was used to perform kilohertz-level spectroscopy. This experiment demonstrates the potential for high-resolution absolute-frequency spectroscopy over the entire spectrum of the frequency comb output using a single high-finesse optical reference cavity. PMID:17155398

  12. A preliminary investigation of the potential mechanical sensitivity of vertical comb drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, E.; Moussa, W.

    2014-10-01

    This article describes a preliminary step taken in investigating the potential of vertical comb drives to be used as force-compensation mechanisms in interfacial force microscopes, by exploring the lower limit of the stiffness of the springs the comb drives can be fabricated with. The stiffness of their springs will affect the sensitivity of the microscope. Six vertical comb drives were fabricated for this study; the dimensions of their spring beams were chosen with the intention of giving them stiffnesses of three different orders of magnitude. During fabrication it was found that etching the tops of some of the teeth down to create the vertical offset between the combs can be done using only photoresist to mask the rest of the teeth. The stiffnesses of the fabricated springs were estimated by applying loads to them and measuring their resulting deflections. Weights were applied to the two comb drives with the stiffest springs. Voltages were also applied to them so as to determine the force-voltage relationship for their comb design. Since the other four comb drives had the same comb design, the stiffnesses of their springs could be estimated from the displacements of their movable combs when voltages were applied to them.

  13. Effect of a breather soliton in Kerr frequency combs on optical communication systems.

    PubMed

    Bao, Changjing; Liao, Peicheng; Zhang, Lin; Yan, Yan; Cao, Yinwen; Xie, Guodong; Mohajerin-Ariaei, Amirhossein; Li, Long; Ziyadi, Morteza; Almaiman, Ahmed; Kimerling, Lionel C; Michel, Jurgen; Willner, Alan E

    2016-04-15

    In this study, we numerically investigate the effect of Kerr-comb-generated breather soliton pulses on optical communication systems. The breather soliton pulse amplitude and spectrum envelope oscillate periodically in time. Simulations show that the spectrum of each comb line in the breather soliton state has multiple sub-teeth due to the periodic oscillation of the comb spectrum. In the simulation, the comb output is modulated with different formats. We find that the sub-teeth distort quadrature phase-shift-keyed signals but have less of an effect on on-off-keyed signals. PMID:27082339

  14. Damping effects of capacitive comb fingers on biomimetic MEMS directional microphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, John; Touse, Michael; Sinibaldi, Jose; Karunasiri, Gamani

    2011-03-01

    MEMS directional sound sensors that use two coupled wings moving in air are subjected to viscous damping. The amplitude of oscillation of the sensors is read out by measuring the capacitance of interdigitated comb fingers along the edges of the wings. In this presentation, effects of damping on MEMS sensors with and without comb fingers will be described. It was found that the sensors with comb fingers have a significantly larger damping indicating that the longer perimeter due to combs is responsible for the observed increase. However, the increase in damping reduces the quality factor which improves the response time of the device. This work is supported by NSF.

  15. The Tribolium castaneum ortholog of Sex combs reduced controls dorsal ridge development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In insects, the boundary between the embryonic head and thorax is formed by the dorsal ridge, a fused structure composed of portions of the maxillary and labial segments. However, the mechanisms that promote development of this unusual structure remain a mystery. In Drosophila, mutations in the Hox ...

  16. Multiple beam Fizeau interferometer with filtered frequency comb illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwider, J.

    2009-08-01

    Real wedge interferometers of the Fizeau-type do not allow for fringes in case of a spectral broadband source - or in short: for white light fringes. Here, the use of a suitable frequency comb source will help to overcome this limitation on the one hand and on the other will offer the capability for enhanced phase sensitivity in high precision measurements of surface deviations. Frequency combs can be produced either by using a pulse train from a fs-laser or by passive filtering of the light emitted by a broadband source as a superlum-diode or a fs-laser. The frequency comb produced by a common fs-laser is extremely fine, i.e., the frequency difference of consecutive peaks is very small or the distance of consecutive pulses of the pulse train might be of the order of 1 m. Therefore, the pulse train produced by passive filtering of a broadband source is better adapted to the needs of surface testing interferometers. White light fringes are either applied for the profiling of discontinuous surfaces and/or can serve as an indication for the correct choice of multiplication factors in superposition interferometry. During the last decennium it became more and more clear that spatially incoherent sources provide better measuring accuracy in surface measurements due to the reduced influence of dust diffraction patterns. The advantage of laser illumination can nevertheless be maintained if the laser light is made spatially incoherent through moving scatterers in the light path. Here, we will discuss the application of spatially incoherent broadband light frequency filtered through a Fabry-Perot filter. The main applications are in the following fields: (1) surface profiling applications using two-beam Fizeau interferometers, (2) selection of single cavities out of a series of interlaced cavities, and (3) sensitivity enhancement for multi-beam interferometers for planeness or sphericity measurements. Some of the discussed possibilities will be experimentally demonstrated.

  17. Precision measurements and applications of femtosecond frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. Jason

    2002-05-01

    The merging of femtosecond (fs) laser physics with the field of optical f requency metrology over recent years has had a profound impact on both di sciplines. Precision control of the broad frequency bandwidth from fs la sers has enabled new areas of exploration in ultrafast physics and revolu tionized optical frequency measurement and precision spectroscopy. Most recently, the transition frequency of the length standard at 514.7 nm,^ 127I2 P(13) 43-0 a3 has been measured in our lab with an improvement of more than 100 times in precision. Interesting molecular dynamics and s tructure are being explored using absolute frequency map of molecular tra nsitions over a large wavelength range. The iodine transition at 532 nm h as been used to establish an optical atomic clock with a fs comb providin g both an RF standard with stability comparable to the best atomic clocks and millions of optical frequencies across the visible and near IR spect rum, each stable to the Hz level. Work is presently underway to directly compare the iodine optical clocks at JILA with the Hg and Ca optical cloc ks currently being refined at NIST via a direct optical fiber link. A wi dely tunable single frequency laser in combination with a fs comb has bee n employed to realize an optical frequency synthesizer. Frequency combs of two independent ultrafast lasers have been coherently locked, enablin g several different avenues of application such as synthesis of arbitrary waveforms, coherent control of quantum systems, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. This talk will review these recent accompl ishments from our lab and discuss plans for further improving the control and precision of fs laser based measurements. te

  18. Curcumin reduces injury progression in a rat comb burn model.

    PubMed

    Singer, Adam J; Taira, Breena R; Lin, Fubao; Lim, Taeho; Anderson, Ryon; McClain, Steve A; Clark, Richard A F

    2011-01-01

    The oriental spice curcumin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. When given orally before injury, curcumin reduces burn progression in a rat comb burn model. The authors hypothesized that intravenous administration of curcumin after injury would reduce burn progression and that its effects are mediated through iron chelation. Two comb burns were created on the dorsum of Sprague-Dawley rats (weight, 300 g) using a brass comb with four rectangular prongs preheated in boiling water and applied for 30 seconds resulting in four rectangular 10 × 20 mm full-thickness burns separated by three 5 × 20 mm unburned interspaces (zone of ischemia). Animals were randomized to receive one of four doses of crude curcumin or one of six doses of purified curcumin intravenously 1 and 24 hours after injury. Another set of animals were randomized to deferoxamine or control vehicle. Wounds were observed at 7 days after injury for visual evidence of necrosis in the unburned interspaces. Full-thickness biopsies from the interspaces were evaluated with Hematoxylin and Eosin staining 7 days after injury for evidence of necrosis. The percentage of unburned interspaces undergoing necrosis at 1 week by purified curcumin doses was 0 μg/kg, 74%; 0.3 μg/kg, 58%; 1 μg/kg, 53%; 3 μg/kg, 37%; 10 μg/kg, 63%; 30 μg/kg, 53%; and 100 μg/kg, 26%. The differences among the groups were significant (P = .03). When compared with controls, the 1 and 3 μg/kg curcumin treatment groups had significantly less progression of interspaces to necrosis (P = .04 and .002) as did the 30 and 100 μg/kg treatment groups (P = .03 and <.001). Deferoxamine did not reduce burn progression. When administered intravenously 1 and 24 hours after injury, both crude and purified curcumin reduce the percentage of unburned interspaces that undergo necrosis in a rat hot comb burn model. The effects of purified curcumin appear to be bimodal, suggesting more than one mechanism of action. The effects of curcumin do not

  19. Frequency combs with weakly lasing exciton-polariton condensates.

    PubMed

    Rayanov, K; Altshuler, B L; Rubo, Y G; Flach, S

    2015-05-15

    We predict the spontaneous modulated emission from a pair of exciton-polariton condensates due to coherent (Josephson) and dissipative coupling. We show that strong polariton-polariton interaction generates complex dynamics in the weak-lasing domain way beyond Hopf bifurcations. As a result, the exciton-polariton condensates exhibit self-induced oscillations and emit an equidistant frequency comb light spectrum. A plethora of possible emission spectra with asymmetric peak distributions appears due to spontaneously broken time-reversal symmetry. The lasing dynamics is affected by the shot noise arising from the influx of polaritons. That results in a complex inhomogeneous line broadening. PMID:26024173

  20. Parametric seeding of a microresonator optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Papp, Scott B; Del'Haye, Pascal; Diddams, Scott A

    2013-07-29

    We have investigated parametric seeding of a microresonator frequency comb (microcomb) by way of a pump laser with two electro-optic-modulation sidebands. We show that the pump-sideband spacing is precisely replicated throughout the microcomb's optical spectrum, and we demonstrate a record absolute line-spacing stability for microcombs of 1.6 × 10(-13) at 1 s. The spectrum of a microcomb is complex, and often non-equidistant subcombs are observed. Our results demonstrate that parametric seeding can not only control the subcombs, but can lead to the generation of a strictly equidistant microcomb spectrum. PMID:23938634

  1. Entanglement of Atomic Qubits Using an Optical Frequency Comb

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, D.; Matsukevich, D. N.; Maunz, P.; Hucul, D.; Quraishi, Q.; Olmschenk, S.; Campbell, W.; Mizrahi, J.; Senko, C.; Monroe, C.

    2010-04-09

    We demonstrate the use of an optical frequency comb to coherently control and entangle atomic qubits. A train of off-resonant ultrafast laser pulses is used to efficiently and coherently transfer population between electronic and vibrational states of trapped atomic ions and implement an entangling quantum logic gate with high fidelity. This technique can be extended to the high field regime where operations can be performed faster than the trap frequency. This general approach can be applied to more complex quantum systems, such as large collections of interacting atoms or molecules.

  2. Entanglement of atomic qubits using an optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Hayes, D; Matsukevich, D N; Maunz, P; Hucul, D; Quraishi, Q; Olmschenk, S; Campbell, W; Mizrahi, J; Senko, C; Monroe, C

    2010-04-01

    We demonstrate the use of an optical frequency comb to coherently control and entangle atomic qubits. A train of off-resonant ultrafast laser pulses is used to efficiently and coherently transfer population between electronic and vibrational states of trapped atomic ions and implement an entangling quantum logic gate with high fidelity. This technique can be extended to the high field regime where operations can be performed faster than the trap frequency. This general approach can be applied to more complex quantum systems, such as large collections of interacting atoms or molecules. PMID:20481925

  3. Microwave photonic comb filter with ultra-fast tunability.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H Y; Yan, L S; Pan, Y; Pan, W; Luo, B; Zou, X H; Eggleton, B J

    2015-11-01

    A microwave comb filter with ultra-fast tunability is proposed based on the fundamental delay-line microwave photonic filter. The central frequency of the passband or stopband in such a filter can be rapidly adjusted, along with the independent tunability of the free spectral range (FSR). Experimental results show that the central frequency of the transfer function is electronically tuned with a frequency difference of half of the FSR at a speed of <100  ps. Such high-speed tunability is vital for high-speed microwave switching, frequency hopping, cognitive radio, and next-generation radar systems. PMID:26512477

  4. Full Multipartite Entanglement of Frequency-Comb Gaussian States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, S.; Sperling, J.; Vogel, W.; Cai, Y.; Roslund, J.; Treps, N.; Fabre, C.

    2015-02-01

    An analysis is conducted of the multipartite entanglement for Gaussian states generated by the parametric down-conversion of a femtosecond frequency comb. Using a recently introduced method for constructing optimal entanglement criteria, a family of tests is formulated for mode decompositions that extends beyond the traditional bipartition analyses. A numerical optimization over this family is performed to achieve maximal significance of entanglement verification. For experimentally prepared 4-, 6-, and 10-mode states, full entanglement is certified for all of the 14, 202, and 115 974 possible nontrivial partitions, respectively.

  5. Frequency stabilized optical comb source with high finesse intracavity etalon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdur, Ibrahim; Ozharar, Sarper; Akbulut, Mehmetcan; Mandridis, Dimitrios; Quinlan, Franklyn; Delfyett, Peter J.

    2009-05-01

    Mode-locked lasers have applications in signal processing and communications such as analog to digital conversion, arbitrary waveform generation and wavelength division multiplexing. For such applications low noise and phase coherent frequency stabilized optical combs are needed. In this work we report a low noise, Pound-Drever Hall frequency stabilized, semiconductor mode-locked laser at 10.287GHz centered at 1550nm with 1000-Finesse sealed, ultralow insertion loss intracavity etalon. The output optical power of the mode locked laser is ~5mW.

  6. Hair combing to collect organic gunshot residues (OGSR).

    PubMed

    MacCrehan, William A; Layman, Malinda J; Secl, Janelle D

    2003-08-12

    A protocol is presented for the collection and analysis of gunshot residues (GSR) from hair. A fine-toothed comb is used for collection of the residues. A small zip-closure bag serves as a container for both sample storage and extraction of the characteristic organic powder additives. The success of this residue recovery approach was tested on simulated shooters and victims using mannequin-supported human wig hair as well as on human shooters. Residues were collected from four weapons: a revolver and semi-automatic pistol, rifle and shotgun. One characteristic additive, nitroglycerin, was detected by capillary electrophoresis (CE) in the majority of the collection experiments. PMID:12927420

  7. Dual-frequency comb generation with differing GHz repetition rates by parallel Fabry–Perot cavity filtering of a single broadband frequency comb source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mildner, Jutta; Meiners-Hagen, Karl; Pollinger, Florian

    2016-07-01

    We present a dual-comb-generator based on a coupled Fabry–Perot filtering cavity doublet and a single seed laser source. By filtering a commercial erbium-doped fiber-based optical frequency comb with CEO-stabilisation and 250 MHz repetition rate, two broadband coherent combs of different repetition rates in the GHz range are generated. The filtering doublet consists of two Fabry–Perot cavities with a tunable spacing and Pound–Drever–Hall stabilisation scheme. As a prerequisite for the development of such a filtering unit, we present a method to determine the actual free spectral range and transmission bandwidth of a Fabry–Perot cavity in situ. The transmitted beat signal of two diode lasers is measured as a function of their tunable frequency difference. Finally, the filtering performance and resulting beat signals of the heterodyned combs are discussed as well as the optimisation measures of the whole system.

  8. High resolution atomic coherent control via spectral phase manipulation of an optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Matthew C; Cruz, Flavio C; Marian, Adela; Ye, Jun

    2006-04-21

    We demonstrate high resolution coherent control of cold atomic rubidium utilizing spectral phase manipulation of a femtosecond optical frequency comb. Transient coherent accumulation is directly manifested by the enhancement of signal amplitude and spectral resolution via the pulse number. The combination of frequency comb technology and spectral phase manipulation enables coherent control techniques to enter a new regime with natural linewidth resolution. PMID:16712153

  9. High Resolution Atomic Coherent Control via Spectral Phase Manipulation of an Optical Frequency Comb

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, Matthew C.; Cruz, Flavio C.; Marian, Adela; Ye Jun

    2006-04-21

    We demonstrate high resolution coherent control of cold atomic rubidium utilizing spectral phase manipulation of a femtosecond optical frequency comb. Transient coherent accumulation is directly manifested by the enhancement of signal amplitude and spectral resolution via the pulse number. The combination of frequency comb technology and spectral phase manipulation enables coherent control techniques to enter a new regime with natural linewidth resolution.

  10. Astronomical optical frequency comb generation and test in a fiber-fed MUSE spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez Boggio, J. M.; Fremberg, T.; Moralejo, B.; Rutowska, M.; Hernandez, E.; Zajnulina, M.; Kelz, A.; Bodenmüller, D.; Sandin, C.; Wysmolek, M.; Sayinc, H.; Neumann, J.; Haynes, R.; Roth, M. M.

    2014-07-01

    We here report on recent progress on astronomical optical frequency comb generation at innoFSPEC-Potsdam and present preliminary test results using the fiber-fed Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) spectrograph. The frequency comb is generated by propagating two free-running lasers at 1554.3 and 1558.9 nm through two dispersionoptimized nonlinear fibers. The generated comb is centered at 1590 nm and comprises more than one hundred lines with an optical-signal-to-noise ratio larger than 30 dB. A nonlinear crystal is used to frequency double the whole comb spectrum, which is efficiently converted into the 800 nm spectral band. We evaluate first the wavelength stability using an optical spectrum analyzer with 0.02 nm resolution and wavelength grid of 0.01 nm. After confirming the stability within 0.01 nm, we compare the spectra of the astro-comb and the Ne and Hg calibration lamps: the astro-comb exhibits a much larger number of lines than lamp calibration sources. A series of preliminary tests using a fiber-fed MUSE spectrograph are subsequently carried out with the main goal of assessing the equidistancy of the comb lines. Using a P3d data reduction software we determine the centroid and the width of each comb line (for each of the 400 fibers feeding the spectrograph): equidistancy is confirmed with an absolute accuracy of 0.4 pm.

  11. Noise dynamics of a prism-based Cr:forsterite laser frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shun; Washburn, Brian; Corwin, Kristan; Tillman, Karl

    2010-03-01

    Mode-locked Cr:forsterite lasers are of significant interest as infrared frequency combs due to their ability to generate stable high repetition rate femtosecond pulses. However, self-referenced Cr:forsterite frequency combs tend to exhibit wide carrier-envelope offset frequency (f0) linewidths. These large f0 linewidths can be attributed to significant frequency noise across the comb's spectral bandwidth and result in broad comb teeth. We have stabilized a prism-based Cr:forsterite frequency comb and observed narrowing of the f0 linewidth from ˜1 MHz down to <100 kHz when a knife edge is inserted into the intracavity beam as a spectral filter. This can also be further reduced after phase-locking the comb to a low-phase noise rf oscillator. Thus, the introduction of an intracavity knife edge significantly reduces the frequency noise of the system and enables more effective stabilization of the entire comb. A theoretical model has been used to investigate the noise dynamics of the phase-stabilized comb system. It includes: the pump laser power (P), the frequency dependence of the f0 response to pump power changes ((df0/dP)(ν)), and the frequency dependence of the femtosecond laser's relative intensity noise, RIN(ν). Supported by AFOSR FA9950-05-1-0304 and NSF ECS-0449295

  12. Frequency-divide-and-conquer approach to creating frequency combs in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodopyanov, K.; Leindecker, N.; Marandi, A.; Byer, R.; Pervak, V.

    2010-10-01

    The technique of optical Frequency Combs - a broadband series of some million sharp equidistant phase-locked frequency spikes from mode-locked femtosecond lasers - has revolutionized optical frequency metrology and led to creation of optical atomic clocks. Also, frequency combs opened new capabilities in molecular spectroscopy since they provide a unique combination of large wavelength coverage, high spectral resolution, and the ability of parallel spectral data acquisition. Practical comb sources based on Ti:sapphire, Yb- and Er- fiber lasers, are limited to the near-IR spectral region, λ< 2 μm, while to take the full advantage of frequency combs for molecular spectroscopy, one would need operation at longer ( > 2.5 μm) wavelengths, that is in the region of fundamental rotational-vibrational absorption bands. Here we implement a new approach for creating broadband mid-infrared frequency combs based on a subharmonic optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The source conveniently down converts the frequency comb of an erbium fiber laser with a center wavelength of 1560nm and produces a 2/3-octaves-wide frequency comb centered at λ = 3.1 μm with 40% quantum efficiency. The frequency comb is phase-locked to the pump laser and has other remarkable coherence properties which we studied by interfering the outputs of two identical OPOs pumped by the same laser.

  13. Optimally Coherent Kerr Combs Generated with Crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators for Ultrahigh Capacity Fiber Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifle, Joerg; Coillet, Aurélien; Henriet, Rémi; Saleh, Khaldoun; Schindler, Philipp; Weimann, Claudius; Freude, Wolfgang; Balakireva, Irina V.; Larger, Laurent; Koos, Christian; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2015-03-01

    Optical Kerr frequency combs are known to be effective coherent multiwavelength sources for ultrahigh capacity fiber communications. These combs are the frequency-domain counterparts of a wide variety of spatiotemporal dissipative structures, such as cavity solitons, chaos, or Turing patterns (rolls). In this Letter, we demonstrate that Turing patterns, which correspond to the so-called primary combs in the spectral domain, are optimally coherent in the sense that for the same pump power they provide the most robust carriers for coherent data transmission in fiber communications using advanced modulation formats. Our model is based on a stochastic Lugiato-Lefever equation which accounts for laser pump frequency jitter and amplified spontaneous emission noise induced by the erbium-doped fiber amplifier. Using crystalline whispering-gallery-mode resonators with quality factor Q ˜109 for the comb generation, we show that when the noise is accounted for, the coherence of a primary comb is significantly higher than the coherence of their solitonic or chaotic counterparts for the same pump power. In order to confirm this theoretical finding, we perform an optical fiber transmission experiment using advanced modulation formats, and we show that the coherence of the primary comb is high enough to enable data transmission of up to 144 Gbit /s per comb line, the highest value achieved with a Kerr comb so far. This performance evidences that compact crystalline photonic systems have the potential to play a key role in a new generation of coherent fiber communication networks, alongside fully integrated systems.

  14. Sub-Lethal Effects of Pesticide Residues in Brood Comb on Worker Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Development and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Judy Y.; Anelli, Carol M.; Sheppard, Walter S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous surveys reveal high levels of pesticide residue contamination in honey bee comb. We conducted studies to examine possible direct and indirect effects of pesticide exposure from contaminated brood comb on developing worker bees and adult worker lifespan. Methodology/Principal Findings Worker bees were reared in brood comb containing high levels of known pesticide residues (treatment) or in relatively uncontaminated brood comb (control). Delayed development was observed in bees reared in treatment combs containing high levels of pesticides particularly in the early stages (day 4 and 8) of worker bee development. Adult longevity was reduced by 4 days in bees exposed to pesticide residues in contaminated brood comb during development. Pesticide residue migration from comb containing high pesticide residues caused contamination of control comb after multiple brood cycles and provided insight on how quickly residues move through wax. Higher brood mortality and delayed adult emergence occurred after multiple brood cycles in contaminated control combs. In contrast, survivability increased in bees reared in treatment comb after multiple brood cycles when pesticide residues had been reduced in treatment combs due to residue migration into uncontaminated control combs, supporting comb replacement efforts. Chemical analysis after the experiment confirmed the migration of pesticide residues from treatment combs into previously uncontaminated control comb. Conclusions/Significance This study is the first to demonstrate sub-lethal effects on worker honey bees from pesticide residue exposure from contaminated brood comb. Sub-lethal effects, including delayed larval development and adult emergence or shortened adult longevity, can have indirect effects on the colony such as premature shifts in hive roles and foraging activity. In addition, longer development time for bees may provide a reproductive advantage for parasitic Varroa destructor mites. The impact of

  15. Phase-locking transition in Raman combs generated with whispering gallery mode resonators.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guoping; Chembo, Yanne K

    2016-08-15

    We investigate the mechanisms leading to phase locking in Raman optical frequency combs generated with ultrahigh Q crystalline whispering gallery mode disk resonators. We show that several regimes can be triggered depending on the pumping conditions, such as single-frequency Raman lasing, multimode operation involving more than one family of cavity eigenmodes, and Kerr-assisted Raman frequency comb generation. The phase locking and coherence of the combs are experimentally monitored through the measurement of beat signal spectra. These phase-locked combs, which feature high coherence and wide spectral spans, are obtained with pump powers in the range of a few tens of mW. In particular, Raman frequency combs with multiple free-spectral range spacings are reported, and the measured beat signal in the microwave domain features a 3 dB linewidth smaller than 50 Hz, thereby indicating phase locking. PMID:27519071

  16. High-performance, vibration-immune, fiber-laser frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Esther; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R; Nicholson, Jeffrey W; Swann, William C; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R

    2009-03-01

    We demonstrate an environmentally robust optical frequency comb based on a polarization-maintaining, all-fiber, figure-eight laser. The comb is phase locked to a cavity-stabilized cw laser by use of an intracavity electro-optic phase modulator yielding 1.6 MHz feedback bandwidth. This high bandwidth provides close to shot-noise-limited residual phase noise between the comb and cw reference laser of -94 dBc/Hz from 20 Hz to 200 kHz and an integrated in-loop phase noise of 32 mrad from 1 Hz to 1 MHz. Moreover, the comb remains phase locked under significant mechanical vibrations of over 1 g. This level of environmental robustness is an important step toward a fieldable fiber frequency comb. PMID:19252577

  17. Photothermally driven fast responding photo-actuators fabricated with comb-type hydrogels and magnetite nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunsu; Kim, Dowan; Kim, Haneul; Yoon, Jinhwan

    2015-01-01

    To overcome the slow kinetics of the volume phase transition of stimuli-responsive hydrogels as platforms for soft actuators, thermally responsive comb-type hydrogels were prepared using synthesized poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) macromonomers bearing graft chains. Fast responding light-responsive hydrogels were fabricated by combining a comb-type hydrogel matrix with photothermal magnetite nanoparticles (MNP). The MNPs dispersed in the matrix provide heat to stimulate the volume change of the hydrogel matrix by converting absorbed visible light to thermal energy. In this process, the comb-type hydrogel matrix exhibited a rapid response due to the free, mobile grafted chains. The comb-type hydrogel exhibited significantly enhanced light-induced volume shrinkage and rapid recovery. The comb-type hydrogels containing MNP were successfully used to fabricate a bilayer-type photo-actuator with fast bending motion. PMID:26459918

  18. Fabrication of comb interdigitated electrodes array (IDA) for a microbead-based electrochemical assay system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Kyung; Hesketh, Peter J; Li, Changming; Thomas, Jennifer H; Halsall, H Brian; Heineman, William R

    2004-11-01

    This research is directed towards developing a more sensitive and rapid electrochemical sensor for enzyme labeled immunoassays by coupling redox cycling at interdigitated electrode arrays (IDA) with the enzyme label beta-galactosidase. Coplanar and comb IDA electrodes with a 2.4 microm gap were fabricated and their redox cycling currents were measured. ANSYS was used to model steady state currents for electrodes with different geometries. Comb IDA electrodes enhanced the signal about three times more than the coplanar IDAs, which agreed with the results of the simulation. Magnetic microbead-based enzyme assay, as a typical example of biochemical detection, was done using the comb and coplanar IDAs. The enzymes could be placed close to the sensing electrodes (approximately 10 microm for the comb IDAs) and detection took less than 1 min with a limit of detection of 70 amol of beta-galactosidase. We conclude that faster and more sensitive assays can be achieved with the comb IDA. PMID:15522606

  19. Characterization of a DFG comb showing quadratic scaling of the phase noise with frequency.

    PubMed

    Puppe, Thomas; Sell, Alexander; Kliese, Russell; Hoghooghi, Nazanin; Zach, Armin; Kaenders, Wilhelm

    2016-04-15

    We characterize an Er:fiber laser frequency comb that is passively carrier envelope phase-stabilized via difference frequency generation at a wavelength of 1550 nm. A generic method to measure the comb linewidth at different wavelengths is demonstrated. By transferring the properties of a comb line to a cw external cavity diode laser, the phase noise is subsequently measured by tracking the delayed self-heterodyne beat note. This relatively simple characterization method is suitable for a broad range of optical frequencies. Here, it is used to characterize our difference frequency generation (DFG) comb over nearly an optical octave. With repetition-rate stabilization, a radiofrequency reference oscillator limited linewidth is achieved. A lock to an optical reference shows out-of-loop linewidths of the comb at the hertz level. The phase noise measurements are in excellent agreement with the elastic tape model with a fix point at zero frequency. PMID:27082368

  20. When Sex Is Painful

    MedlinePlus

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...

  1. Octave-wide frequency comb centered at 4 μm based on a subharmonic OPO with Hz-level relative comb linewidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolski, V. O.; Xu, J.; Schunemann, P. G.; Vodopyanov, K. L.

    2016-03-01

    We study coherence properties of a more-than-octave-wide (2.6-7.5 μm) mid-IR frequency comb based on a 2-μm Tmfiber- laser-pumped degenerate (subharmonic) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) that uses orientation-patterned gallium arsenide (OP-GaAs) as gain element. By varying intracavity dispersion, we observed a 'phase' transition from a singlecomb state (at exactly OPO degeneracy) to a two-comb state (near-degenerate operation), characterized by two spectrally overlapping combs (signal and idler) with distinct carrier-envelope offset frequencies. We achieve this by generating a supercontinuum (SC) from the mode-locked Tm laser that spans most of the near-IR range, and observing RF beats between the SC and parasitic sum-frequency light (pump + OPO) that also falls into the near-IR. We found RF linewidth to be <15 Hz (a resolution of our spectrum analyzer), which proves that coherence of the pump laser comb is preserved to a high degree in a subharmonic OPO. Transition to a two-comb state was characterized by a symmetric splitting of the RF peak. Low pump threshold (down to 7 mW), high (73 mW) average power and high (up to 90%) pump depletion make this comb source very attractive for numerous applications including trace molecular detection and chemical sensing with massively parallel spectral data acquisition.

  2. Comb-referenced laser distance interferometer for industrial nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yoon-Soo; Wang, Guochao; Hyun, Sangwon; Kang, Hyun Jay; Chun, Byung Jae; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    A prototype laser distance interferometer is demonstrated by incorporating the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser for mass-production of optoelectronic devices such as flat panel displays and solar cell devices. This comb-referenced interferometer uses four different wavelengths simultaneously to enable absolute distance measurement with the capability of comprehensive evaluation of the measurement stability and uncertainty. The measurement result reveals that the stability reaches 3.4 nm for a 3.8 m distance at 1.0 s averaging, which further reduces to 0.57 nm at 100 s averaging with a fractional stability of 1.5 × 10(-10). The uncertainty is estimated to be in a 10(-8) level when distance is measured in air due to the inevitable ambiguity in estimating the refractive index, but it can be enhanced to a 10(-10) level in vacuum. PMID:27558016

  3. A Fine-Tooth Comb to Measure the Accelerating Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-09-01

    Astronomical instruments needed to answer crucial questions, such as the search for Earth-like planets or the way the Universe expands, have come a step closer with the first demonstration at the telescope of a new calibration system for precise spectrographs. The method uses a Nobel Prize-winning technology called a 'laser frequency comb', and is published in this week's issue of Science. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 26a/08 A Laser Comb for Astronomy "It looks as if we are on the way to fulfil one of astronomers' dreams," says team member Theodor Hänsch, director at the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics (MPQ) in Germany. Hänsch, together with John Hall, was awarded the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physics for work including the frequency comb technique. Astronomers use instruments called spectrographs to spread the light from celestial objects into its component colours, or frequencies, in the same way water droplets create a rainbow from sunlight. They can then measure the velocities of stars, galaxies and quasars, search for planets around other stars, or study the expansion of the Universe. A spectrograph must be accurately calibrated so that the frequencies of light can be correctly measured. This is similar to how we need accurate rulers to measure lengths correctly. In the present case, a laser provides a sort of ruler, for measuring colours rather than distances, with an extremely accurate and fine grid. New, extremely precise spectrographs will be needed in experiments planned for the future European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), which is being designed by ESO, the European Southern Observatory. These new spectrographs will need to be calibrated with even more accurate 'rulers'. In fact, they must be accurate to about one part in 30 billions - a feat equivalent to measuring the circumference of the Earth to about a millimetre! "We'll need something beyond what current technology can offer, and that's where the laser frequency comb comes in. It is

  4. Comb-referenced laser distance interferometer for industrial nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yoon-Soo; Wang, Guochao; Hyun, Sangwon; Kang, Hyun Jay; Chun, Byung Jae; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    A prototype laser distance interferometer is demonstrated by incorporating the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser for mass-production of optoelectronic devices such as flat panel displays and solar cell devices. This comb-referenced interferometer uses four different wavelengths simultaneously to enable absolute distance measurement with the capability of comprehensive evaluation of the measurement stability and uncertainty. The measurement result reveals that the stability reaches 3.4 nm for a 3.8 m distance at 1.0 s averaging, which further reduces to 0.57 nm at 100 s averaging with a fractional stability of 1.5 × 10−10. The uncertainty is estimated to be in a 10−8 level when distance is measured in air due to the inevitable ambiguity in estimating the refractive index, but it can be enhanced to a 10−10 level in vacuum. PMID:27558016

  5. pH-dependent specific binding and combing of DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Allemand, J F; Bensimon, D; Jullien, L; Bensimon, A; Croquette, V

    1997-01-01

    Recent developments in the rapid sequencing, mapping, and analysis of DNA rely on the specific binding of DNA to specially treated surfaces. We show here that specific binding of DNA via its unmodified extremities can be achieved on a great variety of surfaces by a judicious choice of the pH. On hydrophobic surfaces the best binding efficiency is reached at a pH of approximately 5.5. At that pH a approximately 40-kbp DNA is 10 times more likely to bind by an extremity than by a midsegment. A model is proposed to account for the differential adsorption of the molecule extremities and midsection as a function of pH. The pH-dependent specific binding can be used to align anchored DNA molecules by a receding meniscus, a process called molecular combing. The resulting properties of the combed molecules will be discussed. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:9336201

  6. Development of femtosecond optical frequency comb laser tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ju-qing; Zhou, Wei-hu; Dong, Deng-feng; Zhang, Zi-li; Lao, Da-bao; Ji, Rong-yi; Wang, Da-yong

    2016-01-01

    A new type femtosecond laser tracker is one high precision measurement instrument with urgent need in science research region and industrial manufacture field. This paper focuses on the operational principle and the structure development of the femtosecond laser tracer, and the method of error compensation as well. The system modules were studied and constructed. The femtosecond frequency comb module was firstly analyzed and developed. The femtosecond laser frequency comb performed perfectly high precise distance measurement for laser tracker. The experimental result showed that the stability of repetition rate reached 3.0×10-12@1s and the stability of carrier envelop offset reached 1.0×10-10@1s. The initial experiment showed that measurement error was less than 1ppm. Later the error compensation module was introduced, and the optoelectronic aiming and tracking control module was built. The actual test result showed that the stability of miss distance was better than 2.0 μm, the tracking speed could reach 2m/s.

  7. Harnessing high-dimensional hyperentanglement through a biphoton frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhenda; Zhong, Tian; Shrestha, Sajan; Xu, Xinan; Liang, Junlin; Gong, Yan-Xiao; Bienfang, Joshua C.; Restelli, Alessandro; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Wong, Franco N. C.; Wei Wong, Chee

    2015-08-01

    Quantum entanglement is a fundamental resource for secure information processing and communications, and hyperentanglement or high-dimensional entanglement has been separately proposed for its high data capacity and error resilience. The continuous-variable nature of the energy-time entanglement makes it an ideal candidate for efficient high-dimensional coding with minimal limitations. Here, we demonstrate the first simultaneous high-dimensional hyperentanglement using a biphoton frequency comb to harness the full potential in both the energy and time domain. Long-postulated Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum revival is exhibited, with up to 19 time-bins and 96.5% visibilities. We further witness the high-dimensional energy-time entanglement through Franson revivals, observed periodically at integer time-bins, with 97.8% visibility. This qudit state is observed to simultaneously violate the generalized Bell inequality by up to 10.95 standard deviations while observing recurrent Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt S-parameters up to 2.76. Our biphoton frequency comb provides a platform for photon-efficient quantum communications towards the ultimate channel capacity through energy-time-polarization high-dimensional encoding.

  8. A single comb laser source for short reach WDM interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Gregory L.; Yin, Dongliang; Kovsh, Alexey R.; Gubenko, Alexey E.; Krestnikov, Igor L.; Mikhrin, Sergey S.; Livshits, Daniil A.; Fattal, David A.; Fiorentino, Marco; Beausoleil, Raymond G.

    2009-02-01

    High-channel-count WDM will eventually be used for short reach optical interconnects since it maximizes link bandwidth and efficiency. An impediment to adoption is the fact that each WDM wavelength currently requires its own DFB laser. The alternative is a single, multi-wavelength laser, but noise, size and/or expense make existing options impractical. In contrast, a new low-noise, diode comb laser based on InAs/GaAs quantum dots provides a practical and timely alternative, albeit in the O-band. Samples are being evaluated in short reach WDM development systems. Tests show this type of Fabry-Perot laser permits >10 Gb/s error-free modulation of 10 to over 50 separate channels, as well as potential for 1.25 Gb/s direct modulation. The paper describes comb laser requirements, noise measurements for external and direct modulation, O-band issues, transmitter photonic circuitry and components, future CMP applications, and optical couplers that may help drive down packaging costs to below a dollar.

  9. Lévy processes on a generalized fractal comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandev, Trifce; Iomin, Alexander; Méndez, Vicenç

    2016-09-01

    Comb geometry, constituted of a backbone and fingers, is one of the most simple paradigm of a two-dimensional structure, where anomalous diffusion can be realized in the framework of Markov processes. However, the intrinsic properties of the structure can destroy this Markovian transport. These effects can be described by the memory and spatial kernels. In particular, the fractal structure of the fingers, which is controlled by the spatial kernel in both the real and the Fourier spaces, leads to the Lévy processes (Lévy flights) and superdiffusion. This generalization of the fractional diffusion is described by the Riesz space fractional derivative. In the framework of this generalized fractal comb model, Lévy processes are considered, and exact solutions for the probability distribution functions are obtained in terms of the Fox H-function for a variety of the memory kernels, and the rate of the superdiffusive spreading is studied by calculating the fractional moments. For a special form of the memory kernels, we also observed a competition between long rests and long jumps. Finally, we considered the fractal structure of the fingers controlled by a Weierstrass function, which leads to the power-law kernel in the Fourier space. This is a special case, when the second moment exists for superdiffusion in this competition between long rests and long jumps.

  10. [Lethal sex].

    PubMed

    Rabinerson, David; Ben-Shitrit, Gadi; Glezerman, Marek

    2011-03-01

    Asphyxiophilic sex is a form of autoerotic activity, in which the user creates mechanical means (such as hanging or bondage) in order to achieve cerebral hypoxia, which, in turn, enhances sexual, as well as orgasmic, stimulus. Failure of safety mechanisms, created by the user, may lead to instant death as a result of asphyxiation or strangulation. This kind of sexual practice is more prevalent among men than in women. In cases of death, it is difficult to relate it to the sexual practice itself. Suicide and homicide are the main differential diagnoses. Closely related derivatives of asphyxiophilic sex are anesthesiophilia (inhalation of variable volatile substances) and electrophilia (use of electric current during sexual activity)--both also intended to enhance the sexual stimulation. These forms of sexual practice are less prevalent than asphyxiophilia. PMID:21574359