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Sample records for sex hormone concentrations

  1. SEX-STEROID AND THYROID HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) FROM CONTAMINATED AND REFERENCE LAKES IN FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sex-steroid and thyroid hormones are critical regulators of growth and reproduction in all vertebrates, and several recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can alter circulating concentrations of these hormones. This study examines plasma concentrations of estradiol-...

  2. Associations between Serum Sex Hormone Concentrations and Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiles in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Homuth, Georg; Steil, Leif; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Keevil, Brian G.; Nauck, Matthias; Wallaschofski, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite observational evidence from epidemiological and clinical studies associating sex hormones with various cardiometabolic risk factors or diseases, pathophysiological explanations are sparse to date. To reveal putative functional insights, we analyzed associations between sex hormone levels and whole blood gene expression profiles. Methods We used data of 991 individuals from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) with whole blood gene expression levels determined by array-based transcriptional profiling and serum concentrations of total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free testosterone (free T), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione (AD), estradiol (E2), and estrone (E1) measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and immunoassay. Associations between sex hormone concentrations and gene expression profiles were analyzed using sex-specific regression models adjusted for age, body mass index, and technical covariables. Results In men, positive correlations were detected between AD and DDIT4 mRNA levels, as well as between SHBG and the mRNA levels of RPIA, RIOK3, GYPB, BPGM, and RAB2B. No additional significant associations were observed. Conclusions Besides the associations between AD and DDIT4 expression and SHBG and the transcript levels of RPIA, RIOK3, GYPB, BPGM, and RAB2B, the present study did not indicate any association between sex hormone concentrations and whole blood gene expression profiles in men and women from the general population. PMID:26001193

  3. Prospective inverse associations of sex hormone concentrations in men with biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Haring, Robin; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Völzke, Henry; Dörr, Marcus; Kocher, Thomas; Nauck, Matthias; Wallaschofski, Henri

    2012-01-01

    The suggested associations between sex hormone concentrations and inflammatory biomarkers in men originate from cross-sectional studies and small-scale clinical trials. But prior studies have not investigated longitudinal associations. Overall, 1344 men aged 20-79 years from the population-based cohort Study of Health in Pomerania were followed up for 5.0 (median) years. We used multivariable regression models to analyze cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of serum sex hormone concentrations (total testosterone [TT], sex hormone-binding globulin [SHBG], calculated free testosterone [free T], and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEAS]) with biomarkers of inflammation (fibrinogen, high-sensitive C-reactive protein [hsCRP], and white blood cell count [WBC]) and oxidative stress (γ-glutamyl transferase [GGT]) using ordinary least square regression and generalized estimating equation models, respectively. Cross-sectional models revealed borderline associations of sex hormone concentrations with hsCRP, WBC, and GGT levels that were not retained after multivariable adjustment. Longitudinal multivariable analyses revealed an inverse association of baseline TT, free T, and DHEAS concentrations with change in fibrinogen levels (per SD decrement in TT, 0.25 [95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.45]; in free T, 0.30 [0.09-0.51]; and in DHEAS, 0.23 [0.11-0.36]). Furthermore, baseline DHEAS concentrations were inversely associated with change in WBC levels (per SD decrement, 0.53 [0.24-0.82]). Baseline TT, SHBG, free T, and DHEAS concentrations were also inversely associated with change in GGT after multivariable adjustment. The present study is the first to demonstrate prospective inverse associations between sex hormone concentrations and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in men. Additional studies are warranted to elucidate potential mechanisms underlying the revealed associations. PMID:22207707

  4. The impact of sex hormone concentrations on decision-making in females and males.

    PubMed

    Derntl, Birgit; Pintzinger, Nina; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; Schöpf, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Human decision-making has been frequently studied and sex differences have been reported. Interestingly, previous results of hormone concentration on decision-making are somewhat inconsistent, regarding the impact of menstrual cycle phase in women or the influence of testosterone concentration on decision-making in women and men. However, the influence of the female sex hormone concentration (estradiol, progesterone) and the impact of oral contraceptive intake have rarely been examined and data regarding the effect of daytime variations of male testosterone are lacking. Moreover if personality factors such as sensation seeking, impulsivity, and anxiety influence decision-making, sex-specific effects, act as modulators is unclear. In the present study 71 women and 45 men were enrolled. All participants performed an evaluated decision-making task measuring risk-taking behavior on the basis of contingencies (Haegler et al., 2010), which can be carried out several times without a learning effect. Saliva samples were collected to obtain estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone levels. Additionally, all participants completed questionnaires measuring various personality factors. Data analysis revealed no sex differences in decision-making and no significant impact of testosterone concentration on behavioral performance in women or men. However, a significant negative correlation between progesterone concentration of women in the luteal phase and their performance in the risk-averse condition was obtained. Interestingly, a significant correlation between trait anxiety and decision-making occurred in females and males. Despite similar risky decision-making of women and men and no influence of testosterone concentration, menstrual cycle phase showed an effect on risk taking in women. In contrary to other studies, our findings provide rather subtle evidence for hormonal influences in decision-making, which may be primarily explained by task factors. PMID:25414632

  5. The impact of sex hormone concentrations on decision-making in females and males

    PubMed Central

    Derntl, Birgit; Pintzinger, Nina; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; Schöpf, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Human decision-making has been frequently studied and sex differences have been reported. Interestingly, previous results of hormone concentration on decision-making are somewhat inconsistent, regarding the impact of menstrual cycle phase in women or the influence of testosterone concentration on decision-making in women and men. However, the influence of the female sex hormone concentration (estradiol, progesterone) and the impact of oral contraceptive intake have rarely been examined and data regarding the effect of daytime variations of male testosterone are lacking. Moreover if personality factors such as sensation seeking, impulsivity, and anxiety influence decision-making, sex-specific effects, act as modulators is unclear. In the present study 71 women and 45 men were enrolled. All participants performed an evaluated decision-making task measuring risk-taking behavior on the basis of contingencies (Haegler et al., 2010), which can be carried out several times without a learning effect. Saliva samples were collected to obtain estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone levels. Additionally, all participants completed questionnaires measuring various personality factors. Data analysis revealed no sex differences in decision-making and no significant impact of testosterone concentration on behavioral performance in women or men. However, a significant negative correlation between progesterone concentration of women in the luteal phase and their performance in the risk-averse condition was obtained. Interestingly, a significant correlation between trait anxiety and decision-making occurred in females and males. Despite similar risky decision-making of women and men and no influence of testosterone concentration, menstrual cycle phase showed an effect on risk taking in women. In contrary to other studies, our findings provide rather subtle evidence for hormonal influences in decision-making, which may be primarily explained by task factors. PMID:25414632

  6. CIRCULATING CONCENTRATIONS OF THYROID HORMONE IN BELUGA WHALES (DELPHINAPTERUS LEUCAS): INFLUENCE OF AGE, SEX, AND SEASON.

    PubMed

    Flower, Jennifer E; Allender, Matthew C; Giovanelli, Richard P; Summers, Sandra D; Spoon, Tracey R; St Leger, Judy A; Goertz, Caroline E C; Dunn, J Lawrence; Romano, Tracy A; Hobbs, Roderick C; Tuttle, Allison D

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid hormones play a critical physiologic role in regulating protein synthesis, growth, and metabolism. To date, because no published compilation of baseline values for thyroid hormones in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) exists, assessment of thyroid hormone concentrations in this species has been underused in clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to document the concentrations of total thyroxine (tT4) and total triiodothyronine (tT3) in healthy aquarium-maintained and free-ranging beluga whales and to determine the influence of age, sex, and season on the thyroid hormone concentrations. Archived serum samples were collected from healthy aquarium-maintained (n=43) and free-ranging (n=39) belugas, and serum tT4 and tT3 were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay. The mean tT4 concentration in aquarium-maintained belugas was 5.67±1.43 μg/dl and the mean tT3 concentration was 70.72±2.37 ng/dl. Sex comparisons showed that aquarium-maintained males had significantly greater tT4 and tT3 (9.70±4.48 μg/dl and 92.65±30.55 ng/dl, respectively) than females (7.18±2.82 μg/dl and 77.95±20.37 ng/dl) (P=0.004 and P=0.013). Age comparisons showed that aquarium-maintained whales aged 1-5 yr had the highest concentrations of tT4 and tT3 (8.17±0.17 μg/dl and 105.46±1.98 ng/dl, respectively) (P=0.002 and P<0.001). tT4 concentrations differed significantly between seasons, with concentrations in winter (4.59±1.09 μg/dl) being significantly decreased compared with spring (P=0.009), summer (P<0.0001), and fall (P<0.0001) concentrations. There was a significant difference in tT4 and tT3 concentrations between aquarium-maintained whales (5.67±1.43 μg/dl and 70.72±15.57 ng/dl, respectively) and free-ranging whales (11.71±3.36 μg/dl and 103.38±26.45 ng/dl) (P<0.0001 and P<0.001). Clinicians should consider biologic and environmental influences (age, sex, and season) for a more accurate interpretation of thyroid hormone concentrations in belugas

  7. EFFECT OF ACUTE STRESS ON PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF SEX AND STRESS HORMONES IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS LIVING IN CONTROL AND CONTAMINATED LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants can act as stressors, inducing elevated circulating concentrations of stress hormones such as corticosterone and cortisol. Development in contaminated eggs has been reported to modify circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations in alligators (Alligat...

  8. Birth characteristics and female sex hormone concentrations during adolescence: results from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Terryl J.; Rovine, Michael J.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Birth characteristics and adult hormone concentrations influence breast cancer risk, but little is known about the influence of birth characteristics on hormone concentrations, particularly during adolescence. Methods We evaluated the association of birth characteristics (birth weight, birth length, and gestational age) with serum sex hormone concentrations during late childhood and adolescence in 278 female participants of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children. Repeated measures analysis of variance models were used to assess the relationships of birth characteristics and serum estrogens and androgens at five different time points over a mean period of 7 years. Results In analyses that did not take into account time from blood draw until menarche, birth weight was inversely associated with pre-menarche concentrations of estradiol, estrone sulfate, androstenedione, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). In the post-menarche analyses, birth weight was not significantly associated with concentration of any of the hormones under investigation. Birth length and gestational age were not associated with hormone concentrations before or after menarche. Conclusion Birth weight is inversely associated with sex hormone concentrations before menarche in the model unadjusted for time from blood draw until menarche. Impact The in utero environment has long-term influences on the hormonal milieu, which could potentially contribute to breast cancer risk. PMID:21327460

  9. Effect of dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids on urinary eicosanoids and sex hormone concentrations in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled feeding trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substantial evidence relates increased sex hormone concentrations with increased breast cancer risk. Varying omega-3 fatty acid (n-3) intake may lead to alterations in eicosanoid balance and subsequent changes in circulating sex hormones that reduce risk. To clarify effects of dietary fat and n-3 i...

  10. Concentrations of Sex Hormones in Umbilical-Cord Blood: Their Relations to Sex and Birth Order of Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maccoby, Eleanor E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Results showed that concentrations of testosterone were significantly greater in the umbilical blood of newborn males than females. In both sexes, firstborns had significantly more progesterone and estrogens than later borns, and among males, firstborns had higher concentrations of testosterone. Temporal spacing of childbirths had greater effects…

  11. Sex-steroid and thyroid hormone concentrations in juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from contaminated and reference lakes in Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grain, D.A.; Guillette, L.J., Jr.; Pickford, D.B.; Percival, H.F.; Woodward, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    Sex-steroid and thyroid hormones are critical regulators of growth and reproduction in all vertebrates, and several recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can alter circulating concentrations of these hormones. This study examines plasma concentrations of estradiol-171?? (E2), testosterone (T), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) in juvenile alligators (60-140 cm total length) from two contaminated lakes and one reference lake in Florida. First, the data were analyzed by comparing hormone concentrations among males and females from the different lakes. Whereas there were no differences in plasma E2 concentrations among animals of the three lakes, male alligators from the contaminated lakes (Lake Apopka and Lake Okeechobee) had significantly lower plasma T concentrations compared 10 males from the reference take (Lake Woodruff). Concentrations of thyroid hormones also differed in animals of the three lakes, with T4 concentrations being elevated in Lake Okeechobee males compared to Lake Woodruff males. Second, the relationship between body size and hormone concentration was examined using regression analysis. Most notably for steroid hormones, no clear relationship was detected between E2 and total length in Apopka females (r2 0.09, p = 0.54) or between T and total length in Apopka males (r2 = 0.007, p = 0.75). Females from Apopka (r2 = 0.318, p = 0.09) and Okeechobee (r2 = 0.222, p = 0.09) exhibited weak correlations between T3 and total length. Males from Apopka (r2 = 0.015, p = 0.66) and Okeechobee (r2 = 0.128, p = 0.19) showed no correlation between T4 and total length. These results indicate: some of the previously reported abnormalities in steroid hormones of hatchling alligators persist, at least, through the juvenile years; steroid and thyroid hormones are related to body size in juvenile alligators from the reference lake, whereas alligators living in lakes Apopka and Okeechobee experience alterations in circulating thyroid and steroid

  12. Thyroid hormone concentrations in relation to age, sex, pregnancy, and perinatal loss in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    West, Kristi L; Ramer, Jan; Brown, Janine L; Sweeney, Jay; Hanahoe, Erin M; Reidarson, Tom; Proudfoot, Jeffry; Bergfelt, Don R

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated circulating concentrations of thyroid hormones in relation to age, sex, pregnancy status, and perinatal loss in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) under human care. A total of 373 blood samples were collected from 60 individual dolphins housed at nine aquariums/oceanariums. Serum concentrations of total and free thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were analyzed with commercial RIA kits validated for use with dolphins. While the effect of age was indicated by higher (P<0.0001) concentrations of total and free T4 and T3 in juveniles than adults, the effect of sex on thyroid hormones was inconclusive. The effect of pregnancy was indicated by higher (P<0.035) total and free T4 and T3 during early pregnancy compared to non-pregnancy. For both successful and unsuccessful pregnancy outcomes, maternal concentrations of thyroid hormones were highest during early, intermediate during mid, and lowest during late pregnancy (P<0.07 to P<0.0001). Compared to live and thriving births, concentrations of total and free T4 and total T3 were lower (P<0.08 to P<0.001) in dolphins with perinatal loss. Lower concentrations ranged from 10% to 14% during early, 11% to 18% during mid, and 23% to 37% during late pregnancy. In conclusion, the effects of age, reproductive status and stage of pregnancy on thyroid hormone concentrations are necessary factors to take into account when assessing thyroid gland function. Since perinatal loss may be associated with hypothyroidism in dolphins, analysis of serum T4 and T3 should be considered for those dolphins that have a history of pregnancy loss. PMID:24321177

  13. Characterization of plasma vitellogenin and sex hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle of the endangered razorback sucker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Papoulias, Diana M.; Annis, Mandy L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Marr, Carrie; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Nachtmann, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Population declines of the endangered razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus in the Colorado River basin have been attributed to predation by and competition with nonnative fishes, habitat alteration, and dam construction. The reproductive health and seasonal variation of the reproductive end points of razorback sucker populations are currently unknown. Using nonlethal methods, we characterized the plasma hormonal fluctuations of reproductively mature female and male razorback suckers over a 12-month period in a hatchery by measuring their vitellogenin (VTG) and three sex hormones: 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (KT). Fish were identified as reproductive or nonreproductive based on their body weight, VTG, and sex hormone profiles. In reproductive females, the E2 concentration increased in the fall and winter, and increases in T and VTG concentrations were generally associated with the spawning period. Mean T concentrations were consistently greater in reproductive females than in nonreproductive females, but this pattern was even more pronounced during the spawning period (spring). Consistently low T concentrations (<3 ng/mL) in adult females during the spawning period may indicate reproductive impairment. In reproductive males, spring increases in KT and T concentrations were associated with spawning; concentrations of E2 (<0.48 ng/mL) and VTG (<0.001 mg/mL) were low in males throughout the study. In addition, the E2 : KT ratio and T were the best metrics by which to distinguish female from male adult razorback suckers throughout the year. These metrics of reproductive health and condition may be particularly important to recovery efforts of razorback suckers given that the few remaining wild populations are located in a river where water quality and quantity issues are well documented. In addition to the size, age, and recruitment information currently considered in the recovery goals of this endangered species, reproductive end points

  14. Inflammation and sex hormone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Martin; Naumann, Heidrun; Weidler, Claudia; Schellenberg, Martina; Anders, Sven; Straub, Rainer H

    2006-06-01

    The incidence of autoimmune diseases is higher in females than in males. In both sexes, adrenal hormones, that is, glucocorticoids, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and androgens, are inadequately low in patients when compared to healthy controls. Hormonally active androgens are anti-inflammatory, whereas estrogens are pro-inflammatory. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the alterations of steroid profiles in inflammation are of major interest. The local metabolism of androgens and estrogens may determine whether a given steroid profile found in a subject's blood results in suppression or promotion of inflammation. The steroid metabolism in mixed synovial cells, fibroblasts, macrophages, and monocytes was assessed. Major focus was on cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), while cells from patients with osteoarthritis served as controls. Enzymes directly or indirectly involved in local sex steroid metabolism in RA are: DHEA-sulfatase, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase (CYP19), which are required for the synthesis of sex steroids from precursors, 5alpha-reductase and 16alpha-hydroxylase, which can be involved either in the generation of more active steroids or in the pathways leading to depletion of active hormones, and 3alpha-reductase and 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7B), which unidirectionally are involved in the depletion of active hormones. Androgens inhibit aromatization in synovial cells when their concentration is sufficiently high. As large amounts of estrogens are formed in synovial tissue, there may be a relative lack of androgens. Production of 5alpha-reduced androgens should increase the local anti-inflammatory activity; however, it also opens a pathway for the inactivation of androgens. The data discussed here suggest that therapy of RA patients may benefit from the use of nonaromatizable androgens and/or the use of aromatase inhibitors. PMID:16855150

  15. "Sex Hormones" in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term "sex hormone" is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term "sex hormone" is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called "sex hormones" are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found…

  16. Concentration Addition, Independent Action and Generalized Concentration Addition Models for Mixture Effect Prediction of Sex Hormone Synthesis In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hadrup, Niels; Taxvig, Camilla; Pedersen, Mikael; Nellemann, Christine; Hass, Ulla; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Humans are concomitantly exposed to numerous chemicals. An infinite number of combinations and doses thereof can be imagined. For toxicological risk assessment the mathematical prediction of mixture effects, using knowledge on single chemicals, is therefore desirable. We investigated pros and cons of the concentration addition (CA), independent action (IA) and generalized concentration addition (GCA) models. First we measured effects of single chemicals and mixtures thereof on steroid synthesis in H295R cells. Then single chemical data were applied to the models; predictions of mixture effects were calculated and compared to the experimental mixture data. Mixture 1 contained environmental chemicals adjusted in ratio according to human exposure levels. Mixture 2 was a potency adjusted mixture containing five pesticides. Prediction of testosterone effects coincided with the experimental Mixture 1 data. In contrast, antagonism was observed for effects of Mixture 2 on this hormone. The mixtures contained chemicals exerting only limited maximal effects. This hampered prediction by the CA and IA models, whereas the GCA model could be used to predict a full dose response curve. Regarding effects on progesterone and estradiol, some chemicals were having stimulatory effects whereas others had inhibitory effects. The three models were not applicable in this situation and no predictions could be performed. Finally, the expected contributions of single chemicals to the mixture effects were calculated. Prochloraz was the predominant but not sole driver of the mixtures, suggesting that one chemical alone was not responsible for the mixture effects. In conclusion, the GCA model seemed to be superior to the CA and IA models for the prediction of testosterone effects. A situation with chemicals exerting opposing effects, for which the models could not be applied, was identified. In addition, the data indicate that in non-potency adjusted mixtures the effects cannot always be

  17. INFLUENCE OF GENDER, SEX HORMONES AND TEMPERATURE ON PLASMA IGF-I CONCENTRATIONS IN SUNSHINE BASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations in male and female sunshine bass were determined in March, early April and late April in outdoor ponds at a commercial farm. Growth and IGF-I concentrations in sunshine bass fed with estrogen, testosterone, methyl testosterone or a control ...

  18. The orexigenic effect of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is influenced by sex and stage of the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Santollo, Jessica; Eckel, Lisa A

    2008-03-18

    Recently, it was shown that the orexigenic effect of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is attenuated by estradiol treatment in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. This suggests that female rats may be less responsive than male rats to the behavioral effects of MCH. To investigate this hypothesis, the effects of lateral ventricular infusions of MCH on food intake, water intake, meal patterns, and running wheel activity were examined in male and female rats. To further characterize the impact of estradiol on MCH-induced food intake, female rats were OVX and tested with and without 17-beta-estradiol benzoate (EB) replacement. In support of our hypothesis, food and water intakes following MCH treatment were greater in male rats, relative to female rats. Specifically, the orexigenic effect of MCH was maximal in male rats and minimal in EB-treated OVX rats. In both sexes, the orexigenic effect of MCH was mediated by a selective increase in meal size, which was attenuated in EB-treated OVX rats. MCH-induced a short-term (2 h) decrease in wheel running that, unlike its effects on ingestive behavior, was similar in males and females. Thus, estradiol decreases some, but not all, of the behavioral effects of MCH. To examine the influence of endogenous estradiol, food intake was monitored following MCH treatment in ovarian-intact, cycling rats. As predicted by our findings in OVX rats, the orexigenic effect of MCH was attenuated in estrous rats, relative to diestrous rats. We conclude that the female rat's reduced sensitivity to the orexigenic effect of MCH may contribute to sex- and estrous cycle-related differences in food intake. PMID:18191424

  19. CYP19A1 genetic variation in relation to prostate cancer risk and circulating sex hormone concentrations in men from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.

    PubMed

    Travis, Ruth C; Schumacher, Fredrick; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Kraft, Peter; Allen, Naomi E; Albanes, Demetrius; Berglund, Goran; Berndt, Sonja I; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Calle, Eugenia E; Chanock, Stephen; Dunning, Alison M; Hayes, Richard; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Gaziano, J Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N; Ma, Jing; Rodriguez, Laudina; Riboli, Elio; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Daniel O; Thun, Michael J; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Le Marchand, Loïc; Hunter, David J

    2009-10-01

    Sex hormones, particularly the androgens, are important for the growth of the prostate gland and have been implicated in prostate cancer carcinogenesis, yet the determinants of endogenous steroid hormone levels remain poorly understood. Twin studies suggest a heritable component for circulating concentrations of sex hormones, although epidemiologic evidence linking steroid hormone gene variants to prostate cancer is limited. Here we report on findings from a comprehensive study of genetic variation at the CYP19A1 locus in relation to prostate cancer risk and to circulating steroid hormone concentrations in men by the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), a large collaborative prospective study. The BPC3 systematically characterized variation in CYP19A1 by targeted resequencing and dense genotyping; selected haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNP) that efficiently predict common variants in U.S. and European whites, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians; and genotyped these htSNPs in 8,166 prostate cancer cases and 9,079 study-, age-, and ethnicity-matched controls. CYP19A1 htSNPs, two common missense variants and common haplotypes were not significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer. However, several htSNPs in linkage disequilibrium blocks 3 and 4 were significantly associated with a 5% to 10% difference in estradiol concentrations in men [association per copy of the two-SNP haplotype rs749292-rs727479 (A-A) versus noncarriers; P = 1 x 10(-5)], and with inverse, although less marked changes, in free testosterone concentrations. These results suggest that although germline variation in CYP19A1 characterized by the htSNPs produces measurable differences in sex hormone concentrations in men, they do not substantially influence risk of prostate cancer. PMID:19789370

  20. CYP19A1 genetic variation in relation to prostate cancer risk and circulating sex hormone concentrations in men from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Ruth C.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Kraft, Peter; Allen, Naomi E.; Albanes, Demetrius; Berglund, Goran; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Calle, Eugenia E.; Chanock, Stephen; Dunning, Alison M.; Hayes, Richard; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Ma, Jing; Rodriguez, Laudina; Riboli, Elio; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Daniel O.; Thun, Michael J.; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Le Marchand, Loïc; Hunter, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Sex hormones, in particular the androgens, are important for the growth of the prostate gland and have been implicated in prostate cancer carcinogenesis, yet the determinants of endogenous steroid hormone levels remain poorly understood. Twin studies suggest a heritable component for circulating concentrations of sex hormones, although epidemiological evidence linking steroid hormone gene variants to prostate cancer is limited. Here we report on findings from a comprehensive study of genetic variation at the CYP19A1 locus in relation to prostate cancer risk and to circulating steroid hormone concentrations in men by the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), a large collaborative prospective study. The BPC3 systematically characterised variation in CYP19A1 by targeted resequencing and dense genotyping; selected haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) that efficiently predict common variants in U.S. and European whites, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians; and genotyped these htSNPs in 8,166 prostate cancer cases and 9,079 study-, age-, and ethnicity-matched controls. CYP19A1 htSNPs, two common missense variants and common haplotypes were not significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer. However, several htSNPs in linkage disequilibrium blocks 3 and 4 were significantly associated with a 5–10% difference in estradiol concentrations in men (association per copy of the two-SNP haplotype rs749292–rs727479 (A–A) versus noncarriers; P=1 × 10−5), and withinverse, although less marked changes, in free testosterone concentrations. These results suggest that although germline variation in CYP19A1 characterised by the htSNPs produces measurable differences in sex hormone concentrations in men, they do not substantially influence risk for prostate cancer. PMID:19789370

  1. Sex steroids and growth hormone interactions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; Guerra, Borja; Díaz, Mario; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos

    2016-04-01

    GH and sex hormones are critical regulators of body growth and composition, somatic development, intermediate metabolism, and sexual dimorphism. Deficiencies in GH- or sex hormone-dependent signaling and the influence of sex hormones on GH biology may have a dramatic impact on liver physiology during somatic development and in adulthood. Effects of sex hormones on the liver may be direct, through hepatic receptors, or indirect by modulating endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions of GH. Sex hormones can modulate GH actions by acting centrally, regulating pituitary GH secretion, and peripherally, by modulating GH signaling pathways. The endocrine and/or metabolic consequences of long-term exposure to sex hormone-related compounds and their influence on the GH-liver axis are largely unknown. A better understanding of these interactions in physiological and pathological states will contribute to preserve health and to improve clinical management of patients with growth, developmental, and metabolic disorders. PMID:26775014

  2. Sex Hormones and Macronutrient Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Comitato, Raffaella; Saba, Anna; Turrini, Aida; Arganini, Claudia; Virgili, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The biological differences between males and females are determined by a different set of genes and by a different reactivity to environmental stimuli, including the diet, in general. These differences are further emphasized and driven by the exposure to a different hormone flux throughout the life. These differences have not been taken into appropriate consideration by the scientific community. Nutritional sciences are not immune from this “bias” and when nutritional needs are concerned, females are considered only when pregnant, lactating or when their hormonal profile is returning back to “normal,” i.e., to the male-like profile. The authors highlight some of the most evident differences in aspects of biology that are associated with nutrition. This review presents and describes available data addressing differences and similarities of the “reference man” vs. the “reference woman” in term of metabolic activity and nutritional needs. According to this assumption, available evidences of sex-associated differences of specific biochemical pathways involved in substrate metabolism are reported and discussed. The modulation by sexual hormones affecting glucose, amino acid and protein metabolism and the metabolization of nutritional fats and the distribution of fat depots, is considered targeting a tentative starting up background for a gender concerned nutritional science. PMID:24915409

  3. SEASONAL VARIATION IN PLASMA SEX STEROID CONCENTRATION IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variation in plasma sex steroid concentrations is common in mature vertebrates, and is occasionally seen in juvenile animals. In this study, we examine the seasonal pattern of sex hormone concentration in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and make...

  4. Adiposity and sex hormones in girls.

    PubMed

    Baer, Heather J; Colditz, Graham A; Willett, Walter C; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2007-09-01

    Greater body fatness during childhood is associated with reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer, but few studies have addressed the relation of adiposity with sex hormones in girls. We prospectively examined associations between adiposity and circulating levels of sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) among 286 girls in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children. Participants were 8 to 10 years old at baseline and were followed for an average of 7 years. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and at subsequent annual visits, and blood samples were collected every 2 years. Concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) during follow-up were higher among girls with greater body mass index (BMI) at baseline. The mean for the lowest BMI quartile was 63.0 microg/dL compared with 78.8 microg/dL for the highest quartile, and each kg/m(2) increment in baseline BMI was associated with a 4.3% increase (95% confidence interval, 1.6-7.0%) in DHEAS levels during follow-up (P(trend) = 0.002). Concentrations of SHBG during follow-up were lower among girls with greater BMI at baseline. The mean for the lowest BMI quartile was 94.8 nmol compared with 57.5 nmol for the highest quartile, and each kg/m(2) increment in baseline BMI was associated with an 8.8% decrease (95% confidence interval, 7.0-10.6%) in SHBG levels during follow-up (P(trend) < 0.0001). Estrogen and progesterone concentrations were similar across BMI quartiles. These findings suggest that adiposity may alter DHEAS and SHBG levels in girls. Whether and how these differences affect breast development and carcinogenesis requires further research. PMID:17855709

  5. Effects of intraperitoneal insulin versus subcutaneous insulin administration on sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Boering, M; Logtenberg, S J J; Groenier, K H; Wolffenbuttel, B H R; Gans, R O B; Kleefstra, N; Bilo, H J G

    2016-01-01

    Aims Elevated sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations have been described in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), probably due to low portal insulin concentrations. We aimed to investigate whether the route of insulin administration, continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII), or subcutaneous (SC), influences SHBG concentrations among T1DM patients. Methods Post hoc analysis of SHBG in samples derived from a randomized, open-labeled crossover trial was carried out in 20 T1DM patients: 50% males, mean age 43 (±13) years, diabetes duration 23 (±11) years, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 8.7 (±1.1) (72 (±12) mmol/mol). As secondary outcomes, testosterone, 17-β-estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were analyzed. Results Estimated mean change in SHBG was −10.3nmol/L (95% CI: −17.4, −3.2) during CIPII and 3.7nmol/L (95% CI: −12.0, 4.6) during SC insulin treatment. Taking the effect of treatment order into account, the difference in SHBG between therapies was −6.6nmol/L (95% CI: −17.5, 4.3); −12.7nmol/L (95% CI: −25.1, −0.4) for males and −1.7nmol/L (95% CI: −24.6, 21.1) for females, respectively. Among males, SHBG and testosterone concentrations changed significantly during CIPII; −15.8nmol/L (95% CI: −24.2, −7.5) and −8.3nmol/L (95% CI: −14.4, −2.2), respectively. The difference between CIPII and SC insulin treatment was also significant for change in FSH 1.2U/L (95% CI: 0.1, 2.2) among males. Conclusions SHBG concentrations decreased significantly during CIPII treatment. Moreover, the difference in change between CIPII and SC insulin therapy was significant for SHBG and FSH among males. These findings support the hypothesis that portal insulin administration influences circulating SHBG and sex steroids. PMID:27287189

  6. [Sex Specificity in Age-Related Thyroid Hormone Responsiveness].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Similar to other systems, the endocrine system is affected by aging. Thyroid hormone, the action of which is affected by many factors, has been shown to be associated with longevity. The most useful marker for assessment of the thyroid hormone action is the TSH level. Although age and sex are believed to modify the pituitary set point or response to the free thyroid hormone concentration, the precise age- and sex-dependent responses to thyroid hormone have yet to be reported. In this lecture, molecular aspects of resistance to thyroid hormone are initially overviewed. After presentation of the evidence that the TSH-thyroid hormone axis is evolutionarily modified, and that negative feedback mechanisms may start to play roles in homeostatic regulation at the time of delivery, the rationale of age-dependent thyroid hormone resistance is introduced. To assess the age- and sex-dependent resistance to thyroid hormone, the index is provided by the formula based on the relationship between thyroid hormone and TSH levels. The index is calculated by the results of thyroid function tests obtained from the two individual clinical groups. From the results, there were negative relationships between the free T3 resistance index and age in males of both groups, while there were no apparent relationships in females. These findings indicate that there is a male-specific response to thyroid hormone with aging. Furthermore, the specific features of the response may not be affected by environmental factors such as the presence of disorders or medical treatments. PMID:27192800

  7. Association between vitamin D status and serum parathyroid hormone concentration and calcaneal stiffness in Japanese adolescents: sex differences in susceptibility to vitamin D deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tsugawa, Naoko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Hiromi; Ozaki, Reo; Takase, Tomoki; Minekami, Takuya; Uchino, Yuri; Kamao, Maya; Okano, Toshio

    2016-07-01

    There is currently insufficient information on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, and bone mineral status in healthy adolescents to allow reference values to be set. This study aimed to provide comparable data on vitamin D status in Japanese adolescents and to assess sex differences in susceptibility to vitamin D insufficiency. Serum 25OHD and PTH concentrations were measured in 1,380 healthy adolescents (aged 12-18 years). Subjects completed a questionnaire on exercise history, diet, and lifestyle factors. Calcaneal stiffness was evaluated by quantitative ultrasound. Serum 25OHD concentrations in boys and girls were 60.8 ± 18.3 and 52.8 ± 17.0 nmol/L, respectively. Approximately 30 % of boys and 47 % of girls had suboptimal 25OHD concentrations (<50 nmol/L). Serum PTH concentration was negatively correlated with serum 25OHD concentration in boys, but negatively correlated with calcium intake rather than serum 25OHD in girls. In contrast, the increment in calcaneal stiffness as a result of elevation of serum 25OHD was higher in girls than in boys. As vitamin D deficiency is common in Japanese adolescents, it was estimated that intakes of ≥12 and ≥14 μg/day vitamin D would be required to reach 25OHD concentrations of 50 nmol/L in boys and girls, respectively. Moreover, the results of the present study indicate that vitamin D deficiency has a greater association with calcaneal stiffness in girls than in boys. PMID:26260151

  8. ``Sex Hormones'' in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-11-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term “sex hormone” is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term “sex hormone” is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called “sex hormones” are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found that: (1) all the texts employed the term “sex hormone”; (2) in all texts estrogen is characterized as restricted to females and testosterone is characterized as restricted to males; and (3) in all texts testosterone and estrogen are discussed as exclusively involved in sex-related physiological roles. We conclude that (1) contemporary science textbooks preserve sex-dualistic models of steroid hormones (one sex, one “sex hormone”) that were rejected by medical science in the early 20th century and (2) use of the term “sex hormone” is associated with misconceptions regarding the presence and functions of steroid hormones in male and female bodies.

  9. A portion of heifers attaining “early puberty” do not display estrus, are anovulatory and have altered sex hormone binding globulin concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cows with excess androstenedione (High A4) in the follicular fluid of dominant follicles attain puberty earlier than their low androstenedione counterparts. Furthermore, High A4 cows are anovulatory (chronic or sporadic) and have lower Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) compared to Low A4 ovulator...

  10. Sex hormone exposure during pregnancy and malformations.

    PubMed

    Briggs, M H; Briggs, M

    1979-01-01

    This general review of the effects of exposure to sex hormones during pregnancy and subsequent fetal malformation presents summaries of animal studies, develops the data indicating virilization and feminization in humans, documents chromosome abnormalities, and presents data on the connection of steroid exposure in utero and somatic malformations. Fetal exposure can occur 3 different ways, through hormonal pregnancy test, via obstetrical use of hormones, or because of continued maternal use of oral contraceptives after conception. In the latter case, an ongoing prospective study indicates that accidental ingestion of oral contraceptives after conception is not harmful to the fetus if taken during early pregnancy. Tables present summaries of numerous large surveys and retrospective studies linking particular sex hormones (exogenous) to particular fetal malformations including neural tube defects and other constellations of developmental problems. The question of exogenous hormone effects on the personality of infants who were exposed in utero is addressed. PMID:400321

  11. Health of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in pesticide-sprayed apple orchards in Ontario, Canada. II. Sex and thyroid hormone concentrations and testes development.

    PubMed

    Bishop, C A; Van Der Kraak, G J; Ng, P; Smits, J E; Hontela, A

    1998-12-25

    To investigate the effects of pesticides on wild birds, sex (17beta-estradiol; testosterone) and thyroid (triiodothyronine (T3) hormone concentrations, body mass, and testes mass were measured and the development of testes was evaluated in wild tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in four sprayed apple orchards and three nonsprayed sites in southern Ontario, Canada, in 1995-1996. In orchards, birds were exposed to asmany as 11 individual spray events and five sprays of mixtures of chemicals. Residues of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, lead, and arsenic concentrations were low and not variable among sites except p,p'-DDE concentrations, which ranged from 0.36 to 2.23 microg/g wet weight in eggs. These persistent compounds were not correlated with any endocrine response measured in tree swallows. In 16-d-old male tree swallow chicks, body mass and concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (estradiol), testosterone, and T3 in plasma showed no significant differences between sprayed and nonsprayed groups and among sites within those groups. However, T3 concentrations were slightly elevated in the sprayed group compared to the nonsprayed group, and there was a significant and positive correlation between T3 and the number of mixtures of sprays applied during egg incubation through chick rearing. In 16-d-old female chicks, there were no significant differences among spray treatments or sites and no correlations with spray exposure for testosterone, estradiol, or T3 in plasma. Body mass was correlated positively with T3 and negatively with estradiol but showed no differences among spray exposure groups or sites. Histology of testes of 16-d-old male chicks indicated there were no significant differences among sprayed and nonsprayed birds in testes mass, area, or diameter, or the presence of Leydig cells in the interstitium, the distribution of the Sertoli cells, or the occurrence of heterophils in the testicular interstitium. For the percentage of spermatogonia present on

  12. Interactions Between Genome-wide Significant Genetic Variants and Circulating Concentrations of Insulin-like Growth Factor 1, Sex Hormones, and Binding Proteins in Relation to Prostate Cancer Risk in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Travis, Ruth C.; Appleby, Paul N.; Allen, Naomi E.; Lindstrom, Sara; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Cox, David; Hsing, Ann W.; Ma, Jing; Severi, Gianluca; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Johansson, Mattias; Quirós, J. Ramón; Riboli, Elio; Siddiq, Afshan; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Hunter, David J.; Kraft, Peter; Stampfer, Meir J.; Giles, Graham G.; Andriole, Gerald L.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hayes, Richard B.; Key, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with prostate cancer risk. There is limited information on the mechanistic basis of these associations, particularly about whether they interact with circulating concentrations of growth factors and sex hormones, which may be important in prostate cancer etiology. Using conditional logistic regression, the authors compared per-allele odds ratios for prostate cancer for 39 GWAS-identified SNPs across thirds (tertile groups) of circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), testosterone, androstenedione, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) for 3,043 cases and 3,478 controls in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. After allowing for multiple testing, none of the SNPs examined were significantly associated with growth factor or hormone concentrations, and the SNP-prostate cancer associations did not differ by these concentrations, although 4 interactions were marginally significant (MSMB-rs10993994 with androstenedione (uncorrected P = 0.008); CTBP2-rs4962416 with IGFBP-3 (uncorrected P = 0.003); 11q13.2-rs12418451 with IGF-1 (uncorrected P = 0.006); and 11q13.2-rs10896449 with SHBG (uncorrected P = 0.005)). The authors found no strong evidence that associations between GWAS-identified SNPs and prostate cancer are modified by circulating concentrations of IGF-1, sex hormones, or their major binding proteins. PMID:22459122

  13. Sex hormones and brain dopamine functions.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor-Zarate, Ramon; Cruz, Gonzalo; Renard, Georgina M; Espinosa, Pedro; Ramirez, Victor D

    2014-01-01

    Sex hormones exert differential effects on a variety of sensitive tissues like the reproductive tract, gonads, liver, bone and adipose tissue, among others. In the brain, sex hormones act as neuroactive steroids regulating the function of neuroendocrine diencephalic structures like the hypothalamus. In addition, steroids can exert physiological effects upon cortical, limbic and midbrain structures, influencing different behaviors such as memory, learning, mood and reward. In the last three decades, the role of sex hormones on monoamine neurotransmitters in extra-hypothalamic areas related to motivated behaviors, learning and locomotion has been the focus of much research. The purpose of this thematic issue is to present the state of art concerning the effects of sex hormones on the neurochemical regulation of dopaminergic midbrain areas involved in neurobiological and pathological processes, such as addiction to drugs of abuse. We also discuss evidence of how neonatal exposure to sex hormones or endocrine disrupting chemicals can produce long-term changes on the neurochemical regulation of dopaminergic neurons in the limbic and midbrain areas. PMID:25540983

  14. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D. ); Gutai, J.P. ); Powell, J.G. )

    1989-06-01

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks.

  15. Sex hormone replacement in disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Wiebke; Bertelloni, Silvano

    2014-01-01

    People with disorders of sex development (DSD) may have impaired sex steroid production or their gonads removed before, during or after adolescence, thus requiring hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to induce puberty and/or maintain secondary sexual characteristics, to optimize bone health, and to promote physical and social well-being. Oestrogens are usually used for this purpose in persons reared as females (eventually combined with progestins if a uterus is present) and androgens in those reared as males. An alternative therapy for women with ascertained complete androgen insensitivity syndrome could be testosterone, because this is the main sex steroid hormone secreted by their gonads, but this approach remains to be better explored. Few sound evidence-based data are available to guide HRT administration at puberty and in adulthood in individuals with DSD, but recent data and new formulations may give better perspectives for the future. PMID:25247652

  16. Sex Hormone Receptor Repertoire in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Gerald M.; Fell, Ryan G.

    2013-01-01

    Classification of breast cancer as endocrine sensitive, hormone dependent, or estrogen receptor (ER) positive refers singularly to ERα. One of the oldest recognized tumor targets, disruption of ERα-mediated signaling, is believed to be the mechanistic mode of action for all hormonal interventions used in treating this disease. Whereas ERα is widely accepted as the single most important predictive factor (for response to endocrine therapy), the presence of the receptor in tumor cells is also of prognostic value. Even though the clinical relevance of the two other sex hormone receptors, namely, ERβ and the androgen receptor remains unclear, two discordant phenomena observed in hormone-dependent breast cancers could be causally related to ERβ-mediated effects and androgenic actions. Nonetheless, our understanding of regulatory molecules and resistance mechanisms remains incomplete, further compromising our ability to develop novel therapeutic strategies that could improve disease outcomes. This review focuses on the receptor-mediated actions of the sex hormones in breast cancer. PMID:24324894

  17. How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration efficiency declines with age for both men and women. This decline impacts on functional capabilities in the elderly and limits their ability to engage in regular physical activity and to maintain independence. Aging is associated with a decline in sex hormone production. Therefore, elucidating the effects of sex hormone substitution on skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury or disuse is highly relevant for the aging population, where sarcopenia affects more than 30 % of individuals over 60 years of age. While the anabolic effects of androgens are well known, the effects of estrogens on skeletal muscle anabolism have only been uncovered in recent times. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of skeletal muscle regenerative processes by both androgens and estrogens. Animal studies using estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists and receptor subtype selective agonists have revealed that estrogens act through both genomic and non-genomic pathways to reduce leukocyte invasion and increase satellite cell numbers in regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. Although animal studies have been more conclusive than human studies in establishing a role for sex hormones in the attenuation of muscle damage, data from a number of recent well controlled human studies is presented to support the notion that hormonal therapies and exercise induce added positive effects on functional measures and lean tissue mass. Based on the fact that aging human skeletal muscle retains the ability to adapt to exercise with enhanced satellite cell activation, combining sex hormone therapies with exercise may induce additive effects on satellite cell accretion. There is evidence to suggest that there is a 'window of opportunity' after the onset of a hypogonadal state such as menopause, to initiate a hormonal therapy in order to achieve maximal benefits for skeletal muscle health. Novel receptor subtype selective

  18. Brain sex differences and hormone influences

    PubMed Central

    Tobet, Stuart; Knoll, J. Gabriel; Hartshorn, Cheryl; Aurand, Emily; Stratton, Matthew; Kumar, Pankaj; Searcy, Brian; McClellan, Kristy

    2009-01-01

    Sex differences in the nervous system come in many forms. Although a majority of sexually dimorphic characteristics in brain have been described in older animals, mechanisms that determine sexually differentiated brain characteristics often operate during critical perinatal periods. Both genetic and hormonal factors likely contribute to physiological mechanisms in development to generate the ontogeny of sexual dimorphisms in brain. Relevant mechanisms may include neurogenesis, cell migration, cell differentiation, cell death, axon guidance and synaptogenesis. On a molecular level, there are several ways to categorize factors that drive brain development. These range from the actions of transcription factors in cell nuclei that regulate the expression of genes that control cell development and differentiation, to effector molecules that directly contribute to signaling from one cell to another. In addition, several peptides or proteins in these and other categories might be referred to as “biomarkers” of sexual differentiation with undetermined functions in development or adulthood. While a majority of sex differences are revealed as a direct consequence of hormone actions, some may only be revealed following genetic or environmental disruption. Sex differences in cell positions in the developing hypothalamus, and steroid hormone influences on cell movements in vitro, suggest that cell migration may be one target for early molecular actions that impact brain development and sexual differentiation. PMID:19207813

  19. Sex hormone profiles of premenarcheal athletes.

    PubMed

    Peltenburg, A L; Erich, W B; Thijssen, J J; Veeman, W; Jansen, M; Bernink, M J; Zonderland, M L; van den Brande, J L; Huisveld, I A

    1984-01-01

    Female gymnasts have a delayed onset and probably retarded progression of puberty. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the delay in onset of puberty in gymnasts as compared to girl swimmers is modulated by a lower estrone level due to a smaller amount of body fat. The sex-hormone and gonadotropin levels of 46 gymnasts and 37 girl swimmers of the same biological maturation (breast development: M = 1 or M = 2) were studied. In each subject the following hormones were measured in plasma: estrone, 17-beta-estradiol, DHEAS, testosterone, androstenedione, LH, and FSH. In prepubertal children (M = 1) the levels of estrone, testosterone, and androstenedione were lower in the gymnastic group as compared to the swimming group. In the early pubertal (M = 2) gymnastic and swimming groups these hormone levels were no longer different. The other hormone levels were not significantly different in either the prepubertal groups or the early pubertal ones. Within the total prepubertal group there is a clear relationship between the estrone levels and the levels of testosterone and androstenedione, but not between estrone and 17-beta-estradiol, nor between the calculated fat mass and any of the hormone levels. It appears that the androstenedione and testosterone levels are responsible for the difference in estrone level, rather than the amount of body fat. PMID:6236076

  20. Expression of the androgen receptor in the testes and the concentrations of gonadotropins and sex steroid hormones in male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) during growth and development.

    PubMed

    Kiezun, J; Leska, A; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L

    2015-04-01

    Androgens, including testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4), are essential for puberty, fertility and sexual functions. The biological activity of those hormones is mediated via the androgen receptor (AR). The regulation of androgen action in birds is poorly understood. Therefore, the present study analysed mRNA and protein expression of AR in the testes, plasma concentrations of the luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), T, A4 and oestradiol (E2), as well as the levels of T, A4 and E2 in testicular homogenates of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. Plasma concentrations of LH and FSH, as well as plasma and testicular levels of T and A4 began to increase at 20weeks of age. The lowest plasma levels of E2 were noted at 20weeks relative to other growth stages. The 20th week of life seems to be the key phase in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys. The AR protein was found in the nuclei of testicular cells in all examined growth stages. Higher expression of AR protein in the testes beginning at 20weeks of age was accompanied by high plasma concentrations of LH and high plasma and testicular levels of androgens. This relationship seems to be necessary to regulate male sexual function. PMID:25072891

  1. Interactive effects of culture and sex hormones on the sex role self-concept

    PubMed Central

    Pletzer, Belinda; Petasis, Ourania; Ortner, Tuulia M.; Cahill, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Sex role orientation, i.e., a person's masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use), the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal status as well as sex hormone levels in three samples of participants from two different cultures (Northern American, Middle European). Menstrual cycle phase did not affect participant's masculinity or femininity, but had a significant impact on reference group. While women in their follicular phase (low levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to men, women in their luteal phase (high levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to women. Hormonal contraceptive users rated themselves as significantly more feminine and less masculine than naturally cycling women. Furthermore, the impact of biological sex on the factorial structure of sex role orientation as well as the relationship of estrogen to masculinity/femininity was modulated by culture. We conclude that culture and sex hormones interactively affect sex role orientation and hormonal status of participants should be controlled for when assessing masculinity and/or femininity. PMID:26236181

  2. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ghisleni, Carmen; Bollmann, Steffen; Biason-Lauber, Anna; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Michels, Lars; Hersberger, Martin; Suckling, John

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women). Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women. PMID:26356576

  3. Sex hormones, sex hormone binding globulin, and vertebral fractures in older men.

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Schousboe, John T; Harrison, Stephanie L; Ensrud, Kristine E; Black, Dennis; Cauley, Jane A; Cummings, Steven R; LeBlanc, Erin S; Laughlin, Gail A; Nielson, Carrie M; Broughton, Augusta; Kado, Deborah M; Hoffman, Andrew R; Jamal, Sophie A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Orwoll, Eric S

    2016-03-01

    The association between sex hormones and sex hormone binding globin (SHBG) with vertebral fractures in men is not well studied. In these analyses, we determined whether sex hormones and SHBG were associated with greater likelihood of vertebral fractures in a prospective cohort study of community dwelling older men. We included data from participants in MrOS who had been randomly selected for hormone measurement (N=1463, including 1054 with follow-up data 4.6years later). Major outcomes included prevalent vertebral fracture (semi-quantitative grade≥2, N=140, 9.6%) and new or worsening vertebral fracture (change in SQ grade≥1, N=55, 5.2%). Odds ratios per SD decrease in sex hormones and per SD increase in SHBG were estimated with logistic regression adjusted for potentially confounding factors, including age, bone mineral density, and other sex hormones. Higher SHBG was associated with a greater likelihood of prevalent vertebral fractures (OR: 1.38 per SD increase, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.72). Total estradiol analyzed as a continuous variable was not associated with prevalent vertebral fractures (OR per SD decrease: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.68 to 1.10). Men with total estradiol values ≤17pg/ml had a borderline higher likelihood of prevalent fracture than men with higher values (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.99, 2.16). There was no association between total testosterone and prevalent fracture. In longitudinal analyses, SHBG (OR: 1.42 per SD increase, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.95) was associated with new or worsening vertebral fracture, but there was no association with total estradiol or total testosterone. In conclusion, higher SHBG (but not testosterone or estradiol) is an independent risk factor for vertebral fractures in older men. PMID:26778261

  4. Phthalate Exposure and Reproductive Hormone Concentrations in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Barrett, Emily; Butts, Samantha; Wang, Christina; Swan, Shanna Helen

    2014-01-01

    Background Some phthalate chemicals can affect hormone physiology in utero resulting in adverse reproductive health outcomes in animal models. It is unknown whether these exposures are related to circulating maternal hormone concentrations during pregnancy. Methods We used multivariate linear regression to estimate associations between phthalate metabolite concentrations and concurrent serum free and total testosterone and estradiol levels in 180 pregnant women within the Study for Future Families. We also examined associations between prenatal serum hormone concentrations and anogenital outcome in infants. All analyses were adjusted for appropriate confounding variables. Results Total testosterone, free testosterone, and estradiol concentrations ranged from 8 to 406 ng/dl, 0.03 to 1.2 ng/dl, and 529 to 40600 pg/ml, respectively. We observed an inverse association between log sum di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolite concentrations and lower log total testosterone concentrations (−0.15, 95% CI −0.26, −0.04) and log free testosterone (−0.15, 95% CI −0.27, −0.03). This relationship persisted regardless of fetal sex. Similarly, we observed an inverse association between log mono-butyl phthalate (MBP) concentrations and log total and free testosterone concentrations in women carrying male fetuses. Mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations were positively associated with log total and free testosterone concentrations in women carrying male fetuses (0.09, 95%CI 0.003, 0.17 and 0.10, 95% CI 0.01, 0.19 respectively). Prenatal hormone concentrations were not significantly associated with infant anogenital outcomes. Conclusions Our preliminary data suggest that DEHP metabolite, MBP, and MEP exposures during pregnancy are associated with prenatal sex steroid hormone concentrations, but sex steroid hormone concentrations were not associated with infant reproductive outcomes. PMID:24196015

  5. Concentrations of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and sex steroid hormones and the expression of the androgen receptor in the pituitary and adrenal glands of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) during growth and development.

    PubMed

    Kiezun, J; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L

    2015-01-01

    Androgens take part in the regulation of puberty and promote growth and development. They play their biological role by binding to a specific androgen receptor (AR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of AR mRNA and protein in the pituitary and adrenal glands, to localize AR protein in luteinizing hormone (LH)-producing pituitary and adrenocortical cells, to determine plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone and the concentrations of corticosterone, testosterone (T), androstenedione (A4) and oestradiol (E2) in the adrenal glands of male turkeys at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. The concentrations of hormones and the expression of AR varied during development. The expression of AR mRNA and protein in pituitary increased during the growth. The increase of AR mRNA levels in pituitary occurred earlier than increase of AR protein. The percentage of pituitary cells expressing ARs in the population of LH-secreting cells increased in week 20. It suggests that AR expression in LH-producing pituitary cells is determined by the phase of development. The drop in adrenal AR mRNA and protein expression was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of adrenal androgens. Those results could point to the presence of a compensatory mechanism that enables turkeys to avoid the potentially detrimental effects of high androgen concentrations. Our results will expand our knowledge of the role of steroids in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys from the first month of age until maturity. PMID:25776460

  6. Environmental hormones and their impacts on sex differentiation in fathead minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    Runoff from lands fertilized with animal manure from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is a source of hormones to surface water. To test the hypothesis that juvenile fathead minnows exposed to sex steroids singly and in a “typical” CAFO mixture while undergoing sex...

  7. Sex hormones in women in rural China and in Britain.

    PubMed Central

    Key, T. J.; Chen, J.; Wang, D. Y.; Pike, M. C.; Boreham, J.

    1990-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of certain hormones linked to breast cancer risk were measured in age-pooled samples from 3,250 rural Chinese women in 65 counties, and 300 British women, all aged 35-64. In age-groups 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 respectively, mean oestradiol concentrations were 36% (P = 0.043), 90% (P less than 0.001) and 171% (P = 0.001) higher in the British than in the Chinese women, and mean testosterone concentrations were 48% (P less than 0.001), 68% (P less than 0.001) and 53% (P = 0.001) higher in the British than in the Chinese women. The difference in testosterone concentrations between the two countries appeared to be due largely to the lower average body weight in the Chinese women. Sex hormone binding globulin did not differ significantly between the two countries in age groups 35-44 and 45-54, but was 15% (P = 0.002) lower in the British than in the Chinese women at ages 55-64. Prolactin concentrations did not differ significantly between the two countries in any age group. PMID:2223580

  8. The Endocannabinoid System and Sex Steroid Hormone-Dependent Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Anthony H.; Marczylo, Timothy H.; Willets, Jonathon M.; Konje, Justin C.

    2013-01-01

    The “endocannabinoid system (ECS)” comprises the endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their synthesis and degradation, the prototypical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), some noncannabinoid receptors, and an, as yet, uncharacterised transport system. Recent evidence suggests that both cannabinoid receptors are present in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancer tissues and potentially play an important role in those malignancies. Sex steroid hormones regulate the endocannabinoid system and the endocannabinoids prevent tumour development through putative protective mechanisms that prevent cell growth and migration, suggesting an important role for endocannabinoids in the regulation of sex hormone-dependent tumours and metastasis. Here, the role of the endocannabinoid system in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancers is described and the potential for novel therapies assessed. PMID:24369462

  9. Responses of sex steroid hormones to different intensities of exercise in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Koji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Katayama, Keisho; Ishida, Koji; Kanao, Yoji; Saito, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that acute exercise elevates sex steroid hormone concentrations in rodents and that sprint exercise increases circulating testosterone in healthy young men. However, the effect of different exercise intensities on sex steroid hormone responses at different levels of physical fitness is still unclear. In this study, we compared circulating sex steroid hormone responses at different exercise intensities in athletes and non-athletes. Eight male endurance athletes and 11 non-athletes performed two 15 min sessions of submaximal exercise at 40 and 70% peak oxygen uptake (V̇(O2peak)), respectively, and exercised at 90% V̇(O2peak) until exhaustion. Venous blood samples were collected during the last minute of each submaximal exercise session and immediately after exhaustion. Acute exercise at 40, 70 and 90% V̇(O2peak) induced significant increases in serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and free testosterone concentrations in non-athletes. On the contrary, only 90% V̇O2 peak exercise led to an increase in serum DHEA and free testosterone concentrations in athletes. Serum 5α-dihydrotestosterone concentrations increased with 90% V̇(O2peak) exercise in both athletes and non-athletes. Additionally, serum estradiol concentrations were significantly increased at moderate and high exercise intensities in both athletes and non-athletes. These results indicate that in endurance athletes, serum sex steroid hormone concentrations, especially serum DHEA and 5α-dihydrotestosterone concentrations, increased only with high-intensity exercise, suggesting that different responses of sex steroid hormone secretion are induced by different exercise intensities in individuals with low and high levels of physical fitness. In athletes, therefore, high-intensity exercise may be required to increase circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations. PMID:26518151

  10. Microwave-accelerated derivatization prior to GC-MS determination of sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Yupu; Li, Dan; Su, Rui; Yang, Qiuling; Li, Xueyuan; Zhang, Huihui; Zhang, Hanqi; Wang, Ziming

    2011-06-01

    A new microwave-accelerated derivatization method was developed for rapid determination of 13 natural sex hormones in feeds. Sex hormones were isolated from the sample matrix by ultrasonic extraction, followed by solid-phase extraction, derivatized under microwave irradiation, and then analyzed directly by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The key parameters affecting derivatization efficiency, including microwave irradiation time, microwave power, and reaction solvent were studied. Under microwave power of 360 W and microwave irradiation for 3 min, 13 natural sex hormones were simultaneously derivatized using heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride (HFBA) as derivatization reagent. This method was applied to the determination of 13 natural sex hormones in different feed samples, and the obtained results were compared with those obtained by the traditional thermal derivatization. The recoveries from 58.1 to 111% were obtained at sex hormone concentrations of 10-300 μg/kg with RSDs ≤12.0%. The results showed that the proposed method was fast, simple, efficient and can be applied to the determination of 13 natural sex hormones in different feed samples. PMID:21567948

  11. Role of Sex Steroid Hormones in Bacterial-Host Interactions

    PubMed Central

    García-Gómez, Elizabeth; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones play important physiological roles in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues, including immune cells. These hormones exert their functions by binding to either specific intracellular receptors that act as ligand-dependent transcription factors or membrane receptors that stimulate several signal transduction pathways. The elevated susceptibility of males to bacterial infections can be related to the usually lower immune responses presented in males as compared to females. This dimorphic sex difference is mainly due to the differential modulation of the immune system by sex steroid hormones through the control of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines expression, as well as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expression and antibody production. Besides, sex hormones can also affect the metabolism, growth, or virulence of pathogenic bacteria. In turn, pathogenic, microbiota, and environmental bacteria are able to metabolize and degrade steroid hormones and their related compounds. All these data suggest that sex steroid hormones play a key role in the modulation of bacterial-host interactions. PMID:23509808

  12. Neuronal correlates of extinction learning are modulated by sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Merz, Christian J; Tabbert, Katharina; Schweckendiek, Jan; Klucken, Tim; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf; Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-10-01

    In emotional learning tasks, sex differences, stress effects and an interaction of these two moderators have often been observed. The sex hormones estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) vary over the menstrual cycle. We tested groups with different sex hormone status: 39 men, 30 women in the luteal phase (LU, high E2+P4) and 29 women taking oral contraceptives (OC, low E2+P4). They received either 30 mg cortisol or placebo prior to instructed differential fear conditioning consisting of neutral conditioned stimuli (CS) and an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus; UCS). One figure (CS+) was paired with the UCS, the other figure (CS-) never. During extinction, no electrical stimulation was administered. Regarding fear acquisition, results showed higher skin conductance and higher brain responses to the CS+ compared to the CS- in several structures that were not modulated by cortisol or sex hormones. However, OC women exhibited higher CS+/CS- differentiations than men and LU women in the amygdala, thalamus, anterior cingulate and ventromedial prefrontal cortex during extinction. The suppression of endogenous sex hormones by OC seems to alter neuronal correlates of extinction. The observation that extinction is influenced by the current sex hormone availability is relevant for future studies and might also be clinically important. PMID:21990419

  13. Sex hormones in the modulation of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette; Larauche, Muriel

    2014-03-14

    Compelling evidence indicates sex and gender differences in epidemiology, symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Based on the female predominance as well as the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status, several models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function including differences in GI symptoms expression in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle, in pre- and post-menopausal women, during pregnancy, hormonal treatment or after oophorectomy. Sex hormones may influence peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of the brain-gut axis involved in the pathophysiology of IBS contributing to the alterations in visceral sensitivity, motility, intestinal barrier function, and immune activation of intestinal mucosa. Sex differences in stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system, neuroimmune interactions triggered by stress, as well as estrogen interactions with serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor signaling systems are being increasingly recognized. A concept of "microgenderome" related to the potential role of sex hormone modulation of the gut microbiota is also emerging. Significant differences between IBS female and male patients regarding symptomatology and comorbidity with other chronic pain syndromes and psychiatric disorders, together with differences in efficacy of serotonergic medications in IBS patients confirm the necessity for more sex-tailored therapeutic approach in this disorder. PMID:24627581

  14. Sex hormones in early infancy seem to predict aspects of later language development.

    PubMed

    Schaadt, Gesa; Hesse, Volker; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-02-01

    Sex differences in the development of cognitive behavior such as language have long been of great research interest. Lately, researchers have started to associate language function and brain differences with diverse sex hormones (e.g., testosterone/estradiol). However, results concerning the impact of early postnatal sex hormone concentration on the child's later language development are rare. Here, we analyze the impact of testosterone and estradiol in girls and boys as well as their neurophysiological phonemic discrimination at age 5months on language development at age 4years. Interestingly, we found strong positive estradiol and negative testosterone impact on later language performance at age 4years, which was true for both girls and boys. These results demonstrate that postnatal sex hormone surge might be viewed as one factor determining later language development, independent of gender. PMID:25540858

  15. Sex hormones and the female urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Miodrag, A; Castleden, C M; Vallance, T R

    1988-10-01

    Symptomatic clinical changes and urodynamic changes are apparent in the female urinary tract system during pregnancy, the menstrual cycle and following the menopause. The sex hormones exert physiological effects on the female urinary tract, from the ureters to the urethra, with oestrogens having an additional influence on the structures of the pelvic floor. High affinity oestrogen receptors have been identified in bladder, trigone, urethra and pubococcygeus muscle of women. Oestrogen pretreatment enhances the contractile response of animal detrusor muscle to alpha-adrenoceptor agonists, cholinomimetics and prostaglandins, as well as enhancing the contractile response to alpha-agonists in ureter and urethra. Progesterone on the other hand decreases tone in the ureter, bladder and urethra by enhancing beta-adrenergic responses. The dependence on oestrogens of the tissues of the lower urinary tract contributes to increased urinary problems in postmenopausal women. Urinary symptoms due to atrophic mucosal changes respond well to oestrogen replacement therapy. However, because they recur when treatment is stopped, continuous therapy with low dose natural oestrogens is recommended. Oestrogens may be of benefit in postmenopausal women with stress incontinence, but the doses necessary for clinical effect are higher than for the treatment of atrophic urethritis. The practice of adding a progestagen to long term oestrogen therapy to reduce the risk of endometrial carcinoma may, however, exacerbate stress incontinence by decreasing urethral pressure. Cyclical therapy with oestrogens may therefore be more appropriate particularly in women who are not suitable for surgery or have a mild degree of stress incontinence, along with other conservative measures such as pelvic floor exercises and alpha-adrenoceptor agonists. The place of oestrogen therapy in motor urge incontinence has not been determined. The risk of developing endometrial carcinoma as a result of long term high dose

  16. Influence of reproductive status sex hormones and temperature on plasma IGF-I concentrations in sunshine bass (Morone Chrysops X Morone Saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations in male and female sunshine bass (Morone chrysops X Morone saxatilis) were determined in March, early April, and late April in outdoor ponds at a commercial farm. Female fish were always larger than male fish, however plasma IGF-I concentrations w...

  17. Sex hormones predict the sensory strength and vividness of mental imagery.

    PubMed

    Wassell, Jacinta; Rogers, Sebastian L; Felmingam, Kim L; Bryant, Richard A; Pearson, Joel

    2015-04-01

    Mystery surrounds the cause of large individual differences in mental imagery vividness and strength, and how these might map onto mental disorders. Here, we report the concentration of sex hormones predicts the strength and vividness of visual mental imagery. We employed an objective measure of imagery utilizing binocular rivalry and a subjective questionnaire to assess imagery. The strength and vividness of imagery was greater for females in the mid luteal phase than both females in the late follicular phase and males. Further, imagery strength and vividness were significantly correlated with salivary progesterone concentration. For the same participants, performance on visual and verbal working memory tasks was not predicted by progesterone concentration. These results suggest sex hormones might influence visual imagery, but not general working memory. As hormone concentration changes over time, this implies a partial dynamic basis for individual differences in visual mental imagery, any dependent cognition and mental disorders. PMID:25703930

  18. Clustering of sex hormone disruptors in Singapore's marine environment.

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yinhan; Chin, Hong Soon; Lim, Lis Sa Elissa; Loy, Chong Jin; Obbard, Jeffrey P; Yong, E L

    2003-01-01

    Abnormal sexual differentiation and other reproductive abnormalities in marine animals indicate the presence in seawater of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) that perturb the function of the sex hormone signaling pathways. However, most studies to date have reported on EDC effects in freshwater and sewage samples, and there is a paucity of bioassay data on the effects of EDCs in marine waters. Our aims in this study were to devise robust methodologies suitable for extracting potential EDCs and to measure their summated effects on activities of androgen receptors (ARs) and estrogen receptors (ER-alpha and ER-beta) in marine samples from Singapore's coastal waters. In this study, we examined the ability of C18, hydrophilic and lipophilic balance, and diol cartridges to extract potential EDCs from seawater samples. Extracts from C18 cartridges exhibited the highest sex hormone bioactivities in reporter gene assays based on a human cell line expressing AR, ER-alpha, and ER-beta. Examination of extracts from 20 coastal locations showed high androgenic and estrogenic agonist activities in confined clusters closest to the main island of Singapore. Sex hormone activity declined rapidly in clusters farther from the main coastline and in more open waters. Unexpectedly, surface and mid-depth samples from the confined high-activity clusters, in the presence of hormone, exhibited AR and ER-alpha activities that were 200-900% higher than those observed for the cognate hormone alone. This enhanced sex hormone activity suggests that analyses of complex seawater mixtures may uncover unusual bioactivities that may not be obvious by studying individual compounds. Our data present a "snapshot" of the sex hormone disruptor activity in Singapore's marine environment and indicate that C18 extraction for EDCs used in conjunction with reporter gene bioassays represents a robust and sensitive methodology for measuring summated androgenic and estrogenic activities in seawater. PMID

  19. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward.

    PubMed

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja; Jensen, Peter; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2016-03-01

    Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg, postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here, we examine how women's vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo or the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin, which causes a net decrease in sex-steroid levels. Fifty-eight women performed a gambling task while undergoing functional MRI at baseline, during the mid-follicular phase, and again following the intervention. The gambling task enabled us to map regional brain activity related to the magnitude of risk during choice and to monetary reward. The GnRHa intervention caused a net reduction in ovarian sex steroids (estradiol and testosterone) and increased depression symptoms. Compared with placebo, GnRHa reduced amygdala's reactivity to high monetary rewards. There was a positive association between the individual changes in testosterone and changes in bilateral insula response to monetary rewards. Our data provide evidence for the involvement of sex-steroid hormones in reward processing. A blunted amygdala response to rewarding stimuli following a rapid decline in sex-steroid hormones may reflect a reduced engagement in positive experiences. Abnormal reward processing may constitute a neurobiological mechanism by which sex-steroid fluctuations provoke mood disorders in susceptible women. PMID:26245498

  20. Gender and sex hormones in multiple sclerosis pathology and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nicot, Arnaud B.

    2009-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that gender affects the susceptibility and course of multiple sclerosis (MS) with a higher disease prevalence and overall better prognosis in women than men. This sex dimorphism may be explained by sex chromosome effects and effects of sex steroid hormones on the immune system, blood brain barrier or parenchymal central nervous system (CNS) cells. The well known improvement in disease during late pregnancy has also been linked to hormonal changes and has stimulated recent clinical studies to determine the efficacy of and tolerance to sex steroid therapeutic approaches. Both clinical and experimental studies indicate that sex steroid supplementation may be beneficial for MS. This could be related to anti-inflammatory actions on the immune system or CNS and to direct neuroprotective properties. Here, clinical and experimental data are reviewed with respect to the effects of sex hormones or gender in the pathology or therapy of MS or its rodent disease models. The different cellular targets as well as some molecular mechanisms likely involved are discussed. PMID:19273365

  1. Gonads and strife: Sex hormones vary according to sexual orientation for women and stress indices for both sexes.

    PubMed

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Almeida, Daniel; Cardoso, Christopher; Raymond, Catherine; Johnson, Philip Jai; Pfaus, James G; Mendrek, Adrianna; Duchesne, Annie; Pruessner, Jens C; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-10-01

    This study assessed sexual orientation and psychobiological stress indices in relation to salivary sex hormones as part of a well-validated laboratory-based stress paradigm. Participants included 87 healthy adults that were on average 25 years old who self-identified as lesbian/bisexual women (n=20), heterosexual women (n=21), gay/bisexual men (n=26), and heterosexual men (n=20). Two saliva samples were collected fifteen minutes before and fifteen minutes after exposure to a modified Trier Social Stress Test to determine testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone concentrations via enzyme-immune assaying. Mean sex hormones were further tested in association to stress indices related to cortisol systemic output (area under the curve with respect to ground) based on ten measures throughout the two-hour visit, allostatic load indexed using 21 biomarkers, and perceived stress assessed using a well-validated questionnaire. Results revealed that lesbian/bisexual women had higher overall testosterone and progesterone concentrations than heterosexual women, while no differences were found among gay/bisexual men in comparison to heterosexual men. Lesbian/bisexual women and heterosexual men showed positive associations between mean estradiol concentrations and allostatic load, while gay/bisexual men and heterosexual women showed positive associations between mean testosterone and cortisol systemic output. In summary, sex hormone variations appear to vary according to sexual orientation among women, but also as a function of cortisol systemic output, allostatic load, and perceived stress for both sexes. PMID:27398882

  2. Dietary Fat, Tamoxifen Use and Circulating Sex Hormones in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Neuhouser, Marian L.; Nojomi, Marzieh; Baumgartner, Richard N.; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Gilliland, Frank; Bernstein, Leslie; Stanczyk, Frank; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; McTiernan, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is inconsistent regarding whether dietary fat influences sex hormone concentrations. This issue is important for breast cancer survivors since clinical recommendations suggest maintaining low hormone levels primarily via pharmacologic agents. This study examines associations between dietary fat and circulating sex hormones among participants in the HEAL (Health, Eating, Activity and Lifestyle) Study, a cohort of breast cancer survivors (n=511). During a post-diagnosis interview, detailed data were collected on diet, physical activity, lifestyle habits, and medication use (including tamoxifen). Staff measured height and weight and collected fasting bloods. Multivariate linear regression modeled associations of dietary fat with serum sex hormones. Among women using tamoxifen, we observed modest inverse associations of dietary fat with estrone (p< 0.01), estradiol (p< 0.05), testosterone (p< 0.01), free testosterone (p< 0.01), and DHEA (p< 0.01) for higher vs. lower fat intake, but there was no evidence for a trend. Associations were consistent across measures (percent energy from fat, total, saturated and polyunsaturated fat) and modest effect modification was observed between fat intake and tamoxifen in relation to hormones. Among women not using tamoxifen, fat intake was not associated with hormone concentrations. Further work is needed to confirm the findings and to understand the clinical implications of these observations. PMID:20099190

  3. Sex Hormones Are Associated with Right Ventricular Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Ventetuolo, Corey E.; Ouyang, Pamela; Bluemke, David A.; Tandri, Harikrishna; Barr, R. Graham; Bagiella, Emilia; Cappola, Anne R.; Bristow, Michael R.; Johnson, Craig; Kronmal, Richard A.; Kizer, Jorge R.; Lima, Joao A. C.; Kawut, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Sex hormones have effects on the left ventricle, but hormonal influences on the right ventricle (RV) are unknown. Objectives: We hypothesized that sex hormones would be associated with RV morphology in a large cohort free of cardiovascular disease. Methods: Sex hormones were measured by immunoassay and RV ejection fraction (RVEF), stroke volume (RVSV), mass, end-diastolic volume, and end-systolic volume (RVESV) were measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in 1,957 men and 1,738 postmenopausal women. The relationship between each hormone and RV parameter was assessed by multivariate linear regression. Measurements and Main Results: Higher estradiol levels were associated with higher RVEF (β per 1 ln[nmol/L], 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32 to 1.43; P = 0.002) and lower RVESV (β per 1 ln[nmol/L], −0.87; 95% CI, −1.67 to −0.08; P = 0.03) in women using hormone therapy. In men, higher bioavailable testosterone levels were associated with higher RVSV (β per 1 ln[nmol/L], 1.97; 95% CI, 0.20 to 3.73; P = 0.03) and greater RV mass and volumes (P ≤ 0.01). Higher dehydroepiandrosterone levels were associated with higher RVSV (β per 1 ln[nmol/L], 1.37; 95% CI, 0.15 to 2.59; P = 0.03) and greater RV mass (β per 1 ln[nmol/L], 0.25; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.49; P = 0.05) and volumes (P ≤ 0.001) in women. Conclusions: Higher estradiol levels were associated with better RV systolic function in women using hormone therapy. Higher levels of androgens were associated with greater RV mass and volumes in both sexes. PMID:20889903

  4. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Sacher, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo. PMID:25750611

  5. Hormonal and behavioral determinants of the secondary sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Martin, J F

    1995-01-01

    The timing of insemination relative to ovulation and the frequency of insemination appear prominently in analyses of variations in human secondary sex ratios. Explanations invoking these variables are shown to be inadequate. A new synthetic model of sex determination is proposed in which the sex of offspring is powerfully determined by the state of the cervical mucus. The cervical state is then shown to be a function of hormonal factors endogenous to the female in interaction with the effects of previous inseminations. PMID:8738548

  6. Variation in serum biomarkers with sex and female hormonal status: implications for clinical tests

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Jordan M.; Cooper, Jason D.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Bahn, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Few serum biomarker tests are implemented in clinical practice and recent reports raise concerns about poor reproducibility of biomarker studies. Here, we investigated the potential role of sex and female hormonal status in this widespread irreproducibility. We examined 171 serum proteins and small molecules measured in 1,676 participants from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Concentrations of 96 molecules varied with sex and 66 molecules varied between oral contraceptive pill users, postmenopausal females, and females in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle (FDR-adjusted p-value <0.05). Simulations of biomarker studies yielded up to 40% false discoveries when patient and control groups were not matched for sex and up to 41% false discoveries when premenopausal females were not matched for oral contraceptive pill use. High accuracy (over 90%) classification tools were developed to label samples with sex and female hormonal status where this information was not collected. PMID:27240929

  7. Variation in serum biomarkers with sex and female hormonal status: implications for clinical tests.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Jordan M; Cooper, Jason D; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Bahn, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Few serum biomarker tests are implemented in clinical practice and recent reports raise concerns about poor reproducibility of biomarker studies. Here, we investigated the potential role of sex and female hormonal status in this widespread irreproducibility. We examined 171 serum proteins and small molecules measured in 1,676 participants from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Concentrations of 96 molecules varied with sex and 66 molecules varied between oral contraceptive pill users, postmenopausal females, and females in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle (FDR-adjusted p-value <0.05). Simulations of biomarker studies yielded up to 40% false discoveries when patient and control groups were not matched for sex and up to 41% false discoveries when premenopausal females were not matched for oral contraceptive pill use. High accuracy (over 90%) classification tools were developed to label samples with sex and female hormonal status where this information was not collected. PMID:27240929

  8. Sex bias in paediatric autoimmune disease - Not just about sex hormones?

    PubMed

    Chiaroni-Clarke, Rachel C; Munro, Jane E; Ellis, Justine A

    2016-05-01

    Autoimmune diseases affect up to 10% of the world's population, and approximately 80% of those affected are female. The majority of autoimmune diseases occur more commonly in females, although some are more frequent in males, while others show no bias by sex. The mechanisms leading to sex biased disease prevalence are not well understood. However, for adult-onset autoimmune disease, at least some of the cause is usually ascribed to sex hormones. This is because levels of sex hormones are one of the most obvious physiological differences between adult males and females, and their impact on immune system function is well recognised. While for paediatric-onset autoimmune diseases a sex bias is not as common, there are several such diseases for which one sex predominates. For example, the oligoarticular subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) occurs in approximately three times more girls than boys, with a peak age of onset well before the onset of puberty, and at a time when levels of androgen and oestrogen are low and not strikingly different between the sexes. Here, we review potential explanations for autoimmune disease sex bias with a particular focus on paediatric autoimmune disease, and biological mechanisms outside of sex hormone differences. PMID:26970680

  9. SEX DIFFERENCES AND REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE INFLUENCES ON HUMAN ODOR PERCEPTION

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Richard L.; Cameron, E. Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether men and women differ in their ability to smell has been the topic of scientific investigation for over a hundred years. Although conflicting findings abound, most studies suggest that, for at least some odorants, women outperform men on tests of odor detection, identification, discrimination, and memory. Most functional imaging and electrophysiological studies similarly imply that, when sex differences are present, they favor women. In this review we examine what is known about sex-related alterations in human smell function, including influences of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, gonadectomy, and hormone replacement therapy on a range of olfactory measures. We conclude that the relationship between reproductive hormones and human olfactory function is complex and that simple associations between circulating levels of gonadal hormones and measures of olfactory function are rarely present. PMID:19272398

  10. Endogenous sex hormones and breast density in young women

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seungyoun; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Egleston, Brian L.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Stevens, Victor J.; Shepherd, John A.; Van Horn, Linda; LeBlanc, Erin S.; Paris, Kenneth; Klifa, Catherine; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer and reflects epithelial and stromal content. Breast tissue is particularly sensitive to hormonal stimuli before it fully differentiates following the first full-term pregnancy. Few studies have examined associations between sex hormones and breast density among young women. Methods We conducted cross-sectional study among 180 women aged 25-29 years old who participated in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children 2006 Follow-up Study. Eighty-five percent of participants attended a clinic visit during their luteal phase of menstrual cycle. Magnetic resonance imaging measured the percentage of dense breast volume (%DBV), absolute dense breast volume (ADBV), and absolute nondense breast volume (ANDBV). Multiple-linear mixed-effect regression models were used to evaluate the association of sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with %DBV, ADBV, and ANDBV. Results Testosterone was significantly positively associated with %DBV and ADBV. The multivariable geometric mean of %DBV and ADBV across testosterone quartiles increased from 16.5% to 20.3% and from 68.6cm3 to 82.3cm3, respectively (Ptrend ≤ 0.03). There was no association of %DBV or ADBV with estrogens, progesterone, non-SHBG bound testosterone or SHBG (Ptrend ≥ 0.27). Neither sex hormones nor SHBG was associated with ANDBV except progesterone; however, the progesterone result was nonsignificant in analysis restricted to women in the luteal phase. Conclusions These findings suggest a modest positive association between testosterone and breast density in young women. Impact Hormonal influences at critical periods may contribute to morphological differences in the breast associated with breast cancer risk later in life. PMID:25371447

  11. Pain and sex hormones: a review of current understanding.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Adrian J; Lissounov, Alexei; Knezevic, Ivana; Candido, Kenneth D; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2016-05-01

    Multiple epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an increased prevalence for women in several chronic pain disorders. Clinical and experimental investigations have consistently demonstrated sex-specific differences in pain sensitivity and pain threshold. Even though the underlying mechanisms responsible for these differences have not yet been elucidated, the logical possibility of gonadal hormone influence on nociceptive processing has garnered recent attention. In this review, we evaluated the complex literature regarding gonadal hormones and their influence on pain perception. We reviewed the numerous functions of gonadal hormones, discussed the influence of these hormones on several common chronic pain syndromes (migraine, tension and cluster headaches, fibromyalgia, temporomandibular syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and back pain, among others), and have attempted to draw conclusions from the available data. PMID:26983893

  12. Genes and sex hormones interaction in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Romano, Emilia; Cosentino, Livia; Laviola, Giovanni; De Filippis, Bianca

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence, age of onset and symptomatology of many neurodevelopmental disorders strongly differ between genders. This review examines sex biases in human neurodevelopmental disorders and in validated animal models. A focus is made on disorders of well-established genetic origin, such as Rett syndrome, CDKL5-associated disorders, Fragile X and Down syndrome. Autism is also addressed, given its paradigmatic role as a sex-biased neurodevelopmental disorder. Reviewed literature confirms that a complex interaction between genetic factors and sex hormones may underlie the differential susceptibility of genders and may impact the severity of symptoms in most of the analyzed neurodevelopmental disorders. Even though further studies addressing the advantages and disadvantages conferred by biological sex in this class of disorders are needed to disentangle the underlying mechanisms, present findings suggest that modulation of sex steroid-related pathways may represent an innovative approach for these diseases. Much effort is now expected to unravel the potential therapeutic efficacy of drugs targeting sex hormones-related signaling pathways in neurodevelopmental disorders of well-established genetic origin. PMID:26952805

  13. Sex hormonal modulation of interhemispheric transfer time.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, M; Hamm, J P; Waldie, K E; Kirk, I J

    2013-08-01

    It is still a matter of debate whether functional cerebral asymmetries (FCA) of many cognitive processes are more pronounced in men than in women. Some evidence suggests that the apparent reduction in women's FCA is a result of the fluctuating levels of gonadal steroid hormones over the course of the menstrual cycle, making their FCA less static than for men. The degree of lateralization has been suggested to depend on interhemispheric communication that may be modulated by gonadal steroid hormones. Here, we employed visual-evoked EEG potentials to obtain a direct measure of interhemispheric communication during different phases of the menstrual cycle. The interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT) was estimated from the interhemispheric latency difference of the N170 component of the visual-evoked potential from either left or right visual field presentation. Nineteen right-handed women with regular menstrual cycles were tested twice, once during the menstrual phase, when progesterone and estradiol levels are low, and once during the luteal phase when progesterone and estradiol levels are high. Plasma steroid levels were determined by blood-based immunoassay at each session. It was found that IHTT, in particular from right-to-left, was generally longer during the luteal phase relative to the menstrual phase. This effect occurred as a consequence of a slowed absolute N170 latency of the indirect pathway (i.e. left hemispheric response after LVF stimulation) and, in particular, a shortened latency of the direct pathway (i.e. right hemispheric response after LVF stimulation) during the luteal phase. These results show that cycle-related effects are not restricted to modulation of processes between hemispheres but also apply to cortical interactions, especially within the right hemisphere. The findings support the view that plastic changes in the female brain occur during relatively short-term periods across the menstrual cycle. PMID:23727572

  14. Effects of Anesthetic Agent Propofol on Postoperative Sex Hormone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H.; Ku, S.-Y.; Kim, H. C.; Suh, C. S.; Kim, S. H.; Choi, Y. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies have found anesthetic agents including propofol in ovarian follicular fluid. However, little is known about the effect of anesthetic agents on ovarian function. We aimed to investigate whether there were differences in the postoperative levels of sex hormones when propofol was used as the anesthetic agent. Methods: A retrospective review was done of 80 patients who underwent ovarian surgery, with 72 infertile women serving as controls. Patients were included in the study if their serum estradiol (E2) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were measured during their first postoperative menstrual cycle. Results: Patients were grouped according to the use or non-use of propofol as follows: propofol group (n = 39) and non-propofol group (n = 41). The control group did not undergo surgery. Postoperative E2 levels did not differ between the three groups, but FSH levels were significantly higher in the patients who had undergone surgery compared to controls (p < 0.05). Post-hoc analysis of E2 and FSH levels in the propofol and non-propofol groups did not show any significant differences. Conclusions: The use of propofol did not result in any differences compared to other anesthetic agents in terms of postoperative sex hormone levels after gynecologic surgery. The type of anesthetic agent does not seem to affect the postoperative levels of female sex hormones. PMID:27134297

  15. Sex steroid hormones and circulating IgE levels.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Mathur, R S; Goust, J M; Williamson, H O; Fudenberg, H H

    1977-12-01

    The possible influence of sex steroid hormones on circulating IgE levels in general and IgE anti-Candida antibodies in particular was studied by quantification of plasma levels of progesterone, estradiol and IgE (total and anti-Candida-specific) in females during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, and during pregnancy. IgE levels during the follicular and luteal phases were not significantly different, although the mean values for the luteal phase were slightly lower. This trend was apparent in daily samples from two normal females during one menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, when the levels of circulating sex steroids were high, IgE levels were only slightly higher than in the follicular and luteal phases. In men and in gonadal dysgenetics, circulating progesterone levels were similar to those of women during the follicular phase (i.e., lower than in the luteal phase or in pregnancy), but the IgE levels were not different. The apparently low levels of IgE during the luteal phase may therefore be due to physiological factors other than fluctuations in the sex steroid hormones. From the present studies, it is apparent that sex steroid hormones have little or no effect on humoral IgE levels, in marked contrast to previously described correlations for other immunoglobulins, especially anti-Candida antibodies. PMID:606452

  16. Sex Hormones and Cognition: Neuroendocrine Influences on Memory and Learning.

    PubMed

    Hamson, Dwayne K; Roes, Meighen M; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in neurological disease exist in incidence, severity, progression, and symptoms and may ultimately influence treatment. Cognitive disturbances are frequent in neuropsychiatric disease with men showing greater cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, but women showing more severe dementia and cognitive decline with Alzheimer's disease. Although there are no overall differences in intelligence between the sexes, men, and women demonstrate slight but consistent differences in a number of cognitive domains. These include a male advantage, on average, in some types of spatial abilities and a female advantage on some measures of verbal fluency and memory. Sex differences in traits or behaviors generally indicate the involvement of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens. We review the literature on whether adult levels of testosterone and estradiol influence spatial ability in both males and females from rodent models to humans. We also include information on estrogens and their ability to modulate verbal memory in men and women. Estrone and progestins are common components of hormone therapies, and we also review the existing literature concerning their effects on cognition. We also review the sex differences in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex as they relate to cognitive performance in both rodents and humans. There has been greater recognition in the scientific literature that it is important to study both sexes and also to analyze study findings with sex as a variable. Only by examining these sex differences can we progress to finding treatments that will improve the cognitive health of both men and women. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1295-1337, 2016. PMID:27347894

  17. Sex Hormones in Allergic Conjunctivitis: Altered Levels of Circulating Androgens and Estrogens in Children and Adolescents with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Sacchetti, Marta; Lambiase, Alessandro; Moretti, Costanzo; Bonini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic allergic disease mainly affecting boys in prepubertal age and usually recovering after puberty. To evaluate a possible role of sex hormones in VKC, serum levels of sex hormones in children and adolescents with VKC were assessed. Methods. 12 prepubertal and 7 early pubertal boys with active VKC and 6 male patients with VKC in remission phase at late pubertal age and 48 healthy age and sex-matched subjects were included. Serum concentration of estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, total testosterone and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), cortisol, delta-4-androstenedione, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex-hormones binding globuline (SHBG) were evaluated. Results. Serum levels of Estrone were significantly increased in all groups of patients with VKC when compared to healthy controls (P < 0.001). Prepubertal and early pubertal VKC showed a significant decrease in DHT (P = 0.007 and P = 0.028, resp.) and SHBG (P = 0.01 and P = 0.002, resp.) when compared to controls and serum levels of SHBG were increased in late pubertal VKC in remission phase (P = 0.007). Conclusions and Relevance. VKC patients have different circulating sex hormone levels in different phases of the disease and when compared to nonallergic subjects. These findings suggest a role played by sex hormones in the pathogenesis and/or activity of VKC. PMID:25756057

  18. Sex disparity in colonic adenomagenesis involves promotion by male hormones, not protection by female hormones.

    PubMed

    Amos-Landgraf, James M; Heijmans, Jarom; Wielenga, Mattheus C B; Dunkin, Elisa; Krentz, Kathy J; Clipson, Linda; Ederveen, Antwan G; Groothuis, Patrick G; Mosselman, Sietse; Muncan, Vanesa; Hommes, Daniel W; Shedlovsky, Alexandra; Dove, William F; van den Brink, Gijs R

    2014-11-18

    It recently has been recognized that men develop colonic adenomas and carcinomas at an earlier age and at a higher rate than women. In the Apc(Pirc/+) (Pirc) rat model of early colonic cancer, this sex susceptibility was recapitulated, with male Pirc rats developing twice as many adenomas as females. Analysis of large datasets revealed that the Apc(Min/+) mouse also shows enhanced male susceptibility to adenomagenesis, but only in the colon. In addition, WT mice treated with injections of the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) showed increased numbers of colonic adenomas in males. The mechanism underlying these observations was investigated by manipulation of hormonal status. The preponderance of colonic adenomas in the Pirc rat model allowed a statistically significant investigation in vivo of the mechanism of sex hormone action on the development of colonic adenomas. Females depleted of endogenous hormones by ovariectomy did not exhibit a change in prevalence of adenomas, nor was any effect observed with replacement of one or a combination of female hormones. In contrast, depletion of male hormones by orchidectomy (castration) markedly protected the Pirc rat from adenoma development, whereas supplementation with testosterone reversed that effect. These observations were recapitulated in the AOM mouse model. Androgen receptor was undetectable in the colon or adenomas, making it likely that testosterone acts indirectly on the tumor lineage. Our findings suggest that indirect tumor-promoting effects of testosterone likely explain the disparity between the sexes in the development of colonic adenomas. PMID:25368192

  19. SEX HORMONES FROM POULTRY LITTER-THEIR FATE AND TRANSPORT IN RUNOFF AND DRAINAGE FROM CROPPED TILL- AND NO-TILL PLOTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The millions of tons of poultry litter that are applied to agricultural fields annually are a source of the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone. Our objective was to determine if the concentrations of these two sex hormones in runoff and drainage from till and no-till soils receiving broiler lit...

  20. Sexually dimorphic actions of glucocorticoids: beyond chromosomes and sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Matthew; Ramamoorthy, Sivapriya; Cidlowski, John A

    2014-05-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a well-documented phenomenon that is observed at all levels of the animal kingdom. Historically, sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) have been implicated as key players in a wide array of pathologies displaying sexual dimorphism in their etiology and progression. While these hormones clearly contribute to sexually dimorphic diseases, other factors may be involved in this phenomenon as well. In particular, the stress hormone cortisol exerts differential effects in both males and females. The underlying molecular basis for the sexually dimorphic actions of glucocorticoids is unknown but clearly important to understand, since synthetic glucocorticoids are the most widely prescribed medication for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases and hematological cancers in humans. PMID:24739020

  1. Sex differences and hormonal modulation of deep tissue pain

    PubMed Central

    Traub, Richard J.; Ji, Yaping

    2013-01-01

    Women disproportionately suffer from many deep tissue pain conditions. Experimental studies show that women have lower pain thresholds, higher pain ratings and less tolerance to a range of painful stimuli. Most clinical and epidemiological reports suggest female gonadal hormones modulate pain for some, but not all, conditions. Similarly, animal studies support greater nociceptive sensitivity in females in many deep tissue pain models. Gonadal hormones modulate responses in primary afferents, dorsal horn neurons and supraspinal sites, but the direction of modulation is variable. This review will examine sex differences in deep tissue pain in humans and animals focusing on the role of gonadal hormones (mainly estradiol) as an underlying component of the modulation of pain sensitivity. PMID:23872333

  2. Risk Preferences and Prenatal Exposure to Sex Hormones for Ladinos

    PubMed Central

    Aycinena, Diego; Baltaduonis, Rimvydas; Rentschler, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Risk preferences drive much of human decision making including investment, career and health choices and many more. Thus, understanding the determinants of risk preferences refines our understanding of choice in a broad array of environments. We assess the relationship between risk preferences, prenatal exposure to sex hormones and gender for a sample of Ladinos, which is an ethnic group comprising 62.86% of the population of Guatemala. Prenatal exposure to sex hormones has organizational effects on brain development, and has been shown to partially explain risk preferences for Caucasians. We measure prenatal exposure to sex hormones using the ratio of the length of the index finger to the length of the ring finger (2D:4D), which is negatively (positively) correlated with prenatal exposure to testosterone (estrogen). We find that Ladino males are less risk averse than Ladino females, and that Ladino males have lower 2D:4D ratios than Ladino females on both hands. We find that the 2D:4D ratio does not explain risk preferences for Ladinos. This is true for both genders, and both hands. Our results highlight the importance of exploring the behavioral significance of 2D:4D in non-Caucasian racial groups. PMID:25084091

  3. Risk preferences and prenatal exposure to sex hormones for ladinos.

    PubMed

    Aycinena, Diego; Baltaduonis, Rimvydas; Rentschler, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Risk preferences drive much of human decision making including investment, career and health choices and many more. Thus, understanding the determinants of risk preferences refines our understanding of choice in a broad array of environments. We assess the relationship between risk preferences, prenatal exposure to sex hormones and gender for a sample of Ladinos, which is an ethnic group comprising 62.86% of the population of Guatemala. Prenatal exposure to sex hormones has organizational effects on brain development, and has been shown to partially explain risk preferences for Caucasians. We measure prenatal exposure to sex hormones using the ratio of the length of the index finger to the length of the ring finger (2D:4D), which is negatively (positively) correlated with prenatal exposure to testosterone (estrogen). We find that Ladino males are less risk averse than Ladino females, and that Ladino males have lower 2D:4D ratios than Ladino females on both hands. We find that the 2D:4D ratio does not explain risk preferences for Ladinos. This is true for both genders, and both hands. Our results highlight the importance of exploring the behavioral significance of 2D:4D in non-Caucasian racial groups. PMID:25084091

  4. Sex Hormones Regulate Cytoskeletal Proteins Involved in Brain Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Piña-Medina, Ana Gabriela; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    In the brain of female mammals, including humans, a number of physiological and behavioral changes occur as a result of sex hormone exposure. Estradiol and progesterone regulate several brain functions, including learning and memory. Sex hormones contribute to shape the central nervous system by modulating the formation and turnover of the interconnections between neurons as well as controlling the function of glial cells. The dynamics of neuron and glial cells morphology depends on the cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. Cytoskeletal proteins are necessary to form neuronal dendrites and dendritic spines, as well as to regulate the diverse functions in astrocytes. The expression pattern of proteins, such as actin, microtubule-associated protein 2, Tau, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, changes in a tissue-specific manner in the brain, particularly when variations in sex hormone levels occur during the estrous or menstrual cycles or pregnancy. Here, we review the changes in structure and organization of neurons and glial cells that require the participation of cytoskeletal proteins whose expression and activity are regulated by estradiol and progesterone. PMID:26635640

  5. Sex Hormones Regulate Cytoskeletal Proteins Involved in Brain Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Piña-Medina, Ana Gabriela; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    In the brain of female mammals, including humans, a number of physiological and behavioral changes occur as a result of sex hormone exposure. Estradiol and progesterone regulate several brain functions, including learning and memory. Sex hormones contribute to shape the central nervous system by modulating the formation and turnover of the interconnections between neurons as well as controlling the function of glial cells. The dynamics of neuron and glial cells morphology depends on the cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. Cytoskeletal proteins are necessary to form neuronal dendrites and dendritic spines, as well as to regulate the diverse functions in astrocytes. The expression pattern of proteins, such as actin, microtubule-associated protein 2, Tau, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, changes in a tissue-specific manner in the brain, particularly when variations in sex hormone levels occur during the estrous or menstrual cycles or pregnancy. Here, we review the changes in structure and organization of neurons and glial cells that require the participation of cytoskeletal proteins whose expression and activity are regulated by estradiol and progesterone. PMID:26635640

  6. The Effect of Camphor on Sex Hormones Levels in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahabi, Sima; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholam Ali; Akbar Moghadamnia, Ali; Barghi, Effat; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Golsorkhtabar Amiri, Masoumeh; Maliji, Ghorban; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Abdi Boora, Maryam; Ghazinejad, Neda; Shamsai, Hajar

    2014-01-01

    In some traditional therapies, it has been claimed that camphor (a crystalline ketone obtained from cinnamomum camphora) would be a suppressor of sexual behaviors and sex hormones. This study evaluated the effects of camphor on sex hormones, like luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone. In this experimental study, 56 male rats were divided into 5 groups, including control (n=12), sham (n=11) and three treatment groups (n=11) in three different doses. The sham groups received daily intra peritoneal (IP) injections of the vehicle (ethanol 10%) for 30 days. Three treatment groups received different daily IP injections of the camphor (1, 2 and 5 mg/Kg) for 30 days and the control groups didn’t received anything. Serums were used for assaying LH, FSH and testosterone. The level of LH significantly increased in all doses of camphor among the treatment groups as compared to the control (p<0.05), but camphor in doses 2 and 5 mg/Kg significantly reduced the FSH level as compared to control group (p<0.05). No significant changes were seen in testosterone levels. Camphor increased level of LH, decreased level of FSH, whereas it failed to change level of testosterone. The claim of inhibitory effect of camphor on sexual activity could not be confirmed by this study. More investigations in this field are suggested. PMID:24567939

  7. The effect of camphor on sex hormones levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Shahabi, Sima; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholam Ali; Akbar Moghadamnia, Ali; Barghi, Effat; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Golsorkhtabar Amiri, Masoumeh; Maliji, Ghorban; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Abdi Boora, Maryam; Ghazinejad, Neda; Shamsai, Hajar

    2014-01-01

    In some traditional therapies, it has been claimed that camphor (a crystalline ketone obtained from cinnamomum camphora) would be a suppressor of sexual behaviors and sex hormones. This study evaluated the effects of camphor on sex hormones, like luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone. In this experimental study, 56 male rats were divided into 5 groups, including control (n=12), sham (n=11) and three treatment groups (n=11) in three different doses. The sham groups received daily intra peritoneal (IP) injections of the vehicle (ethanol 10%) for 30 days. Three treatment groups received different daily IP injections of the camphor (1, 2 and 5 mg/Kg) for 30 days and the control groups didn't received anything. Serums were used for assaying LH, FSH and testosterone. The level of LH significantly increased in all doses of camphor among the treatment groups as compared to the control (p<0.05), but camphor in doses 2 and 5 mg/Kg significantly reduced the FSH level as compared to control group (p<0.05). No significant changes were seen in testosterone levels. Camphor increased level of LH, decreased level of FSH, whereas it failed to change level of testosterone. The claim of inhibitory effect of camphor on sexual activity could not be confirmed by this study. More investigations in this field are suggested. PMID:24567939

  8. The Importance of the Derivative in Sex-Hormone Cycles: A Reason Why Behavioural Measures in Sex-Hormone Studies Are So Mercurial

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Adam; Moakes, Kaylee; Aston, Philip; Gavin, Christine; Sterr, Annette

    2014-01-01

    To study the dynamic changes in cognition across the human menstrual cycle, twenty, healthy, naturally-cycling women undertook a lateralized spatial figural comparison task on twelve occasions at approximately 3–4 day intervals. Each session was conducted in laboratory conditions with response times, accuracy rates, eye movements, salivary estrogen and progesterone concentrations and Profile of Mood states questionnaire data collected on each occasion. The first two sessions of twelve for the response variables were discarded to avoid early effects of learning thereby providing 10 sessions spread across each participant's complete menstrual cycle. Salivary progesterone data for each participant was utilized to normalize each participant's data to a standard 28 day cycle. Data was analysed categorically by comparing peak progesterone (luteal phase) to low progesterone (follicular phase) to emulate two-session repeated measures typical studies. Neither a significant difference in reaction times or accuracy rates was found. Moreover no significant effect of lateral presentation was observed upon reaction times or accuracy rates although inter and intra individual variance was sizeable. We demonstrate that hormone concentrations alone cannot be used to predict the response times or accuracy rates. In contrast, we constructed a standard linear model using salivary estrogen, salivary progesterone and their respective derivative values and found these inputs to be very accurate for predicting variance observed in the reaction times for all stimuli and accuracy rates for right visual field stimuli but not left visual field stimuli. The identification of sex-hormone derivatives as predictors of cognitive behaviours is of importance. The finding suggests that there is a fundamental difference between the up-surge and decline of hormonal concentrations where previous studies typically assume all points near the peak of a hormonal surge are the same. How contradictory

  9. The importance of the derivative in sex-hormone cycles: a reason why behavioural measures in sex-hormone studies are so mercurial.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Adam; Moakes, Kaylee; Aston, Philip; Gavin, Christine; Sterr, Annette

    2014-01-01

    To study the dynamic changes in cognition across the human menstrual cycle, twenty, healthy, naturally-cycling women undertook a lateralized spatial figural comparison task on twelve occasions at approximately 3-4 day intervals. Each session was conducted in laboratory conditions with response times, accuracy rates, eye movements, salivary estrogen and progesterone concentrations and Profile of Mood states questionnaire data collected on each occasion. The first two sessions of twelve for the response variables were discarded to avoid early effects of learning thereby providing 10 sessions spread across each participant's complete menstrual cycle. Salivary progesterone data for each participant was utilized to normalize each participant's data to a standard 28 day cycle. Data was analysed categorically by comparing peak progesterone (luteal phase) to low progesterone (follicular phase) to emulate two-session repeated measures typical studies. Neither a significant difference in reaction times or accuracy rates was found. Moreover no significant effect of lateral presentation was observed upon reaction times or accuracy rates although inter and intra individual variance was sizeable. We demonstrate that hormone concentrations alone cannot be used to predict the response times or accuracy rates. In contrast, we constructed a standard linear model using salivary estrogen, salivary progesterone and their respective derivative values and found these inputs to be very accurate for predicting variance observed in the reaction times for all stimuli and accuracy rates for right visual field stimuli but not left visual field stimuli. The identification of sex-hormone derivatives as predictors of cognitive behaviours is of importance. The finding suggests that there is a fundamental difference between the up-surge and decline of hormonal concentrations where previous studies typically assume all points near the peak of a hormonal surge are the same. How contradictory findings

  10. Gender disparity in chronic hepatitis B: Mechanisms of sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Han; Chen, Pei-Jer; Yeh, Shiou-Hwei

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a common human pathogen transmitted worldwide, and its chronic infection is a well-known risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The sex disparity of HBV-related liver diseases has been noticed for a long time, which could be attributed to sex hormone effects, other than gender behaviors or environmental impact. This difference is experimentally confirmed in HBV transgenic mice, as well as in immunocompetent mice receiving hydrodynamic delivery of HBV. Androgen and estrogen pathways were identified to play opposite regulations of HBV transcription by targeting viral enhancer I at molecular level. In addition to the direct effects on HBV life cycle, sex hormones may be also involved in the immune response to HBV infection and the progression of associated liver diseases, although the detailed mechanisms are still unclear. Besides, several unaddressed issues such as HBV entry, microRNA profiles, viral integration, and adaptability in which androgen and estrogen axes might be involved are warranted to be delineated. The comprehensive understanding of the sex disparity in HBV virology and pathogenesis will be helpful to provide newly biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and develop novel drugs to manage HBV-related HCC patients. PMID:25708186

  11. Sex assignment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fluvescens) based on plasma sex hormone and vitellogenin levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, J.M.; Papoulias, D.M.; Thomas, M.V.; Annis, M.L.; Boase, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on identifying the sex of lake sturgeon by measuring the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and the phosphoprotein vitellogenin (Vtg) in blood plasma by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and evaluating these techniques as tools in lake sturgeon population management. Surveys of the St Clair River (SCR) lake sturgeon population have characterized it as rebounding by having steady or increasing recruitment since 1997. However, researchers have not been able to effectively determine the sex for most of the sturgeon they capture because few fish caught during surveys are releasing gametes. A total of 115 fish were sampled from May through June in 2004 and 2005 from the SCR, Michigan, USA. Of these, only four females and eight males were verified (i.e. they were releasing gametes at time of capture), resulting in very few fish with which to validate blood hormone and Vtg biomarkers of sex. Fifty-six percent of the fish were assigned a sex designation based on biomarker criteria. Correspondence between actual gonadal sex and biomarker-directed classification was good for the small subset of fish for which gonadal sex was definitively determined. Moreover, application of the steroid values in a predictive sex assignment model developed for white sturgeon misclassified only the same two fish that were misclassified with the steroid and Vtg biomarkers. The experimental results suggest a sex ratio of 1 : 2.7 (F:M), however more conclusive methods are needed to confirm this ratio because so few fish were available for sex validation. Of the 43 males, 14 were within the legal slot limit, 11 were smaller than 1067 mm total length (TL), and 18 were larger than 1270 mm TL. All 15 females were larger than 1270 mm TL, and thus protected by the slot limit criteria. Considering that lake sturgeon are threatened in Michigan, an advantage to using blood plasma assays was that fish were not harmed, and sample collection was

  12. Sex hormones have pervasive effects on thymic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Dumont-Lagacé, Maude; St-Pierre, Charles; Perreault, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The goal of our study was to evaluate at the systems-level, the effect of sex hormones on thymic epithelial cells (TECs). To this end, we sequenced the transcriptome of cortical and medullary TECs (cTECs and mTECs) from three groups of 6 month-old mice: males, females and males castrated at four weeks of age. In parallel, we analyzed variations in the size of TEC subsets in those three groups between 1 and 12 months of age. We report that sex hormones have pervasive effects on the transcriptome of TECs. These effects were exquisitely TEC-subset specific. Sexual dimorphism was particularly conspicuous in cTECs. Male cTECs displayed low proliferation rates that correlated with low expression of Foxn1 and its main targets. Furthermore, male cTECs expressed relatively low levels of genes instrumental in thymocyte expansion (e.g., Dll4) and positive selection (Psmb11 and Ctsl). Nevertheless, cTECs were more abundant in males than females. Accumulation of cTECs in males correlated with differential expression of genes regulating cell survival in cTECs and cell differentiation in mTECs. The sexual dimorphism of TECs highlighted here may be mechanistically linked to the well-recognized sex differences in susceptibility to infections and autoimmune diseases. PMID:26250469

  13. Sex Hormones and Their Receptors Regulate Liver Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Minqian; Shi, Haifei

    2015-01-01

    The liver is one of the most essential organs involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Hepatic steatosis, a major manifestation of metabolic syndrome, is associated with imbalance between lipid formation and breakdown, glucose production and catabolism, and cholesterol synthesis and secretion. Epidemiological studies show sex difference in the prevalence in fatty liver disease and suggest that sex hormones may play vital roles in regulating hepatic steatosis. In this review, we summarize current literature and discuss the role of estrogens and androgens and the mechanisms through which estrogen receptors and androgen receptors regulate lipid and glucose metabolism in the liver. In females, estradiol regulates liver metabolism via estrogen receptors by decreasing lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and fatty acid uptake, while enhancing lipolysis, cholesterol secretion, and glucose catabolism. In males, testosterone works via androgen receptors to increase insulin receptor expression and glycogen synthesis, decrease glucose uptake and lipogenesis, and promote cholesterol storage in the liver. These recent integrated concepts suggest that sex hormone receptors could be potential promising targets for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. PMID:26491440

  14. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie; Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Samsioe, Göran; Halldin, Krister; Åkesson, Agneta

    2014-10-15

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.

  15. The type of implicit motive enactment is modulated by sex hormones in naturally cycling women.

    PubMed

    Ball, Anna; Wolf, Claudia C; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Brüne, Martin; Wolf, Oliver T; Güntürkün, Onur; Pinnow, Marlies

    2014-01-17

    Sex hormones have been reported to dynamically modulate the expression of implicit motives, a concept that has previously been thought to be relatively stable over time. This study investigates to what extent the need for affiliation, power, and achievement, as well as the form of enactment of these needs as measured with the Operant Motive Test (OMT), is affected by cycle-phase dependent sex hormone fluctuations. In addition to measuring the strength of motive expression, the OMT also captures different forms of motive enactment. In an intra-subject design with repeated measures, no evidence for cycle-phase related variation in overall motive scores was found. However, when different forms of motive enactment were considered, an effect of menstrual cycle was observed. The incentive-based inhibition of the power motive was significantly reduced at the time of ovulation, compared to the menstrual and to the mid-luteal phase, in naturally cycling women. In women with relatively stable hormone concentrations (due to using hormonal contraceptives), no significant changes in the form of motive enactment were evident. The results indicate a specific hormonal influence on motive-related cognitive processes that are related to inhibitive processes in behavior control. PMID:24113170

  16. Sex hormone receptors in the hypothalamus and their role in sexual differentiation of the male rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Shishkina, I.V.; Babichev, V.N.; Ozol', L.Yu.

    1986-09-01

    In this investigation, changes in the level of receptors for sex hormones in the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex of male rats were studied on the first through fifth days of postnatal life, and the results obtained were compared with the levels of luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in the peripheral blood in order to discover any correlation between these parameters. 2,4,6,7,-/sup 3/H-estradiol-17..beta.. and 1,2,6,7-/sup 3/H-testosterone were used as labeled hormones. The values of the association constant and concentration of specific binding sites for estradiol and testosterone in hypothalamus and cerebral cortex of male rats during neonatal development is shown. It is found that in male rats on the first day after birth, receptors for estradiol and testosterone are present and they enable the action both of the testicular hormone and that of estradiol to be realized.

  17. Interactions between preparations containing female sex hormones and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Zabłocka-Słowińska, Katarzyna; Jawna, Katarzyna; Grajeta, Halina; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of premenopausal women use contraception whereas postmenopausal women use hormone replacement therapy (HRT). This long-term hormone therapy poses a high risk of interactions with dietary supplements. Taking estrogens at the same time as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), biologically-active compounds of glycine soja, Ginkgo biloba or Pimpinella anisum, may distort the final effect of the hormone agent. On the other hand, estrogen therapy coupled with melatonin or retinol supplementation may lead to an increased level of dietary supplements in the serum as studies have proved a concomitant beneficial effect of HRT and vitamin E supplementation on lipid profiles. In turn, taking preparations containing St John's wort during hormone therapy may lead to a reduction in hormone concentrations in serum and debilitation of the pharmacological effect. It results from the inductive effect of the biologically-active compounds of St John's wort on the metabolism of hormones as a result of the enhanced activity of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4. PMID:25166453

  18. Serum sex hormone levels in different severity of male adult obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in East Asians.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jia-Qi; Chen, Xiong; Xiao, Ying; Zhang, Rui; Niu, Xun; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2015-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a serious health issue, which can impact the hormone secretion. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between serum sex hormone concentrations and different severity degree of OSAHS, and to evaluate the influence of OSAHS on sex hormone levels. We enrolled 116 subjects who were subjected to polysomnography (PSG). They were divided into three groups: control group (n=10) [apnea hypopnea index (AHI) <5/h], mild-moderate OSAHS group (n=15) (5≤AHI<30/h), and severe OSAHS group (n=91) (AHI≥30/h). The patients in OSAHS group were subdivided into obesity and non-obesity subgroups. The parameters such as AHI, body mass index (BMI), lowest oxygen saturation (LSaO2), and mean oxygen saturation (MSaO2) were recorded. Serum levels of testosterone, polactin, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined in the morning immediately after waking up. Mean levels of hormones were compared among groups. The correlation between hormone levels and sleep-breathing parameters was analyzed. No significant differences in serum sex hormone levels were found among control, mild-moderate OSAHS, and severe OSAHS groups (P>0.05). There was no correlation between AHI and sex hormone levels (P>0.05). Testosterone was significantly negatively correlated with BMI (P<0.05). These results suggested that BMI might have a direct effect on testosterone level, and it might be an important factor affecting testosterone level in male OSAHS patients, and there may be no correlation between severity of OSAHS and sex hormones levels. PMID:26223926

  19. Nipple Aspirate Fluid Hormone Concentrations and Breast Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Chatterton, Robert T; Heinz, Richard E; Fought, Angela J; Ivancic, David; Shappell, Claire; Allu, Subhashini; Gapstur, Susan; Scholtens, Denise M; Gann, Peter H; Khan, Seema A

    2016-04-01

    Prior reports identify higher serum concentrations of estrogens and androgens as risk factors for breast cancer, but steroids in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) may be more related to risk. Incident breast cancer cases and mammography controls were recruited. Sex steroids were measured in NAF from the unaffected breasts of cases and one breast of controls. Menopausal status and menstrual cycle phase were determined. NAF steroids were purified by HPLC and quantified by immunoassays. Conditional logistic regression models were used to examine associations between NAF hormones and case-control status. NAF samples from 160 cases and 157 controls were evaluable for hormones. Except for progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the NAF and serum concentrations were not significantly correlated. NAF estradiol and estrone were not different between cases and controls. Higher NAF (but not serum) DHEA concentrations were associated with cases, particularly among estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cases (NAF odds ratio (OR) = 1.18, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02, 1.36). NAF DHEA was highly correlated with NAF estradiol and estrone but not with androstenedione or testosterone. Higher progesterone concentrations in both NAF and serum were associated with a lower risk of ER-negative cancer (NAF OR = 0.69, 95 % CI 0.51, 0.92). However, this finding may be explained by case-control imbalance in the number of luteal phase subjects (2 cases and 19 controls). The significantly higher concentration of DHEA in NAF of cases and its correlation with NAF estradiol indicates a potentially important role of this steroid in breast cancer risk; however, the negative association of progesterone with risk is tentative. PMID:26902826

  20. Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Banu; Winters, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a circulating glycoprotein that transports testosterone and other steroids in the blood. Interest in SHBG has escalated in recent years because of its inverse association with obesity and insulin resistance, and because many studies have linked lower circulating levels of SHBG to metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, and early puberty. The purpose of this review is to summarize molecular, clinical, endocrine, and epidemiological findings to illustrate how measurement of plasma SHBG may be useful in clinical medicine in children. PMID:26761949

  1. Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Banu; Winters, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a circulating glycoprotein that transports testosterone and other steroids in the blood. Interest in SHBG has escalated in recent years because of its inverse association with obesity and insulin resistance, and because many studies have linked lower circulating levels of SHBG to metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, and early puberty. The purpose of this review is to summarize molecular, clinical, endocrine, and epidemiological findings to illustrate how measurement of plasma SHBG may be useful in clinical medicine in children. PMID:26761949

  2. Neural Growth Hormone Implicated in Body Weight Sex Differences

    PubMed Central

    Bonthuis, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    As for many human diseases, the incidence of obesity and its associated health risks are sexually dimorphic: worldwide the rate of obesity is higher in women. Sex differences in metabolism, appetite, body composition, and fat deposition are contributing biological factors. Gonadal hormones regulate the development of many sexually dimorphic traits in humans and animals, and, in addition, studies in mice indicate a role for direct genetic effects of sex chromosome dosage on body weight, deposition of fat, and circadian timing of feeding behavior. Specifically, mice of either sex with 2 X chromosomes, typical of normal females, have heavier body weights, gain more weight, and eat more food during the light portion of the day than mice of either sex with a single X chromosome. Here we test the effects of X chromosome dosage on body weight and report that gonadal females with 2 X chromosomes express higher levels of GH gene (Gh) mRNA in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus than females with 1 X chromosome and males. Furthermore, Gh expression in the POA of the hypothalamus of mice with 2 X chromosomes correlated with body weight; GH is known to have orexigenic properties. Acute infusion of GH into the POA increased immediate food intake in normal (XY) males. We propose that X inactivation–escaping genes modulate Gh expression and food intake, and this is part of the mechanism by which individuals with 2 X chromosomes are heavier than individuals with a single X chromosome. PMID:23861378

  3. Linking physiological approaches to marine vertebrate conservation: using sex steroid hormone determinations in demographic assessments

    PubMed Central

    Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Mangel, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Sex, age and sexual maturation are key biological parameters for aspects of life history and are fundamental information for assessing demographic changes and the reproductive viability and performance of natural populations under exploitation pressures or in response to environmental influences. Much of the information available on the reproductive condition, length at sexual maturity and sex determinations of endangered species has been derived from direct examination of the gonads in dead animals, either intentionally or incidentally caught, or from stranded individuals. However, morphological data, when used alone, do not provide accurate demographic information in sexually monomorphic marine vertebrate species (e.g. sharks, sea turtles, seabirds and cetaceans). Hormone determination is an accurate and non-destructive method that provides indirect information about sex, reproductive condition and sexual maturity of free-ranging individuals. Correlations between sex steroid concentrations and biochemical parameters, gonadal development and state, reproductive behaviour and secondary external features have been already demonstrated in many species. Different non-lethal approaches (e.g. surgical and mark–recapture procedures), with intrinsic advantages and disadvantages when applied on free-ranging organisms, have been proposed to asses sex, growth and reproductive condition. Hormone determination from blood samples will generate valuable additional demographic information needed for stock assessment and biological conservation. PMID:27293619

  4. Sex hormones and adult hippocampal neurogenesis: Regulation, implications, and potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Rand; Wainwright, Steven R; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-04-01

    Neurogenesis within the adult hippocampus is modulated by endogenous and exogenous factors. Here, we review the role of sex hormones in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in males and females. The review is framed around the potential functional implications of sex hormone regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, with a focus on cognitive function and mood regulation, which may be related to sex differences in incidence and severity of dementia and depression. We present findings from preclinical studies of endogenous fluctuations in sex hormones relating to reproductive function and ageing, and from studies of exogenous hormone manipulations. In addition, we discuss the modulating roles of sex, age, and reproductive history on the relationship between sex hormones and neurogenesis. Because sex hormones have diverse targets in the central nervous system, we overview potential mechanisms through which sex hormones may influence hippocampal neurogenesis. Lastly, we advocate for a more systematic consideration of sex and sex hormones in studying the functional implications of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:26988999

  5. Associations of Testosterone and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin with Adipose Tissue Hormones in Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Wildman, Rachel P.; Wang, Dan; Fernandez, Ivonne; Mancuso, Peter; Santoro, Nanette; Scherer, Philipp E.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Regulators of adipose tissue hormones remain incompletely understood, but may include sex hormones. As adipose tissue hormones have been shown to contribute to numerous metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, understanding their regulation in midlife women is of clinical importance. Therefore, we assessed the associations between testosterone (T) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) with leptin, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, and the soluble form of the leptin receptor (sOB-R) in healthy midlife women. Design and Methods Cross-sectional analyses were performed using data from 1,881 midlife women (average age 52.6 (±2.7) years) attending the sixth Annual follow-up visit of the multiethnic Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Results T was weakly negatively associated with both HMW adiponectin and sOB-R (r = −0.12 and r = −0.10, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), and positively associated with leptin (r = 0.17; P < 0.001). SHBG was more strongly and positively associated with both HMW adiponectin and sOB-R (r = 0.29 and r = 0.24, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), and more strongly and negatively associated with leptin (r = −0.27; P < 0.001). Adjustment for fat mass, insulin resistance, or waist circumference only partially diminished associations with HMW adiponectin and sOB-R, but attenuated associations with leptin. In conclusion, in these midlife women, lower SHBG values, and to a lesser extent, higher T levels, were associated with lower, or less favorable, levels of adiponectin and sOB-R, independent of fat mass. Conclusions These data suggest that variation in these adipose hormones resulting from lower SHBG levels, and possibly, though less likely, greater androgenicity, may contribute to susceptibility for metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes during midlife in women. PMID:23592672

  6. Animal models of absence epilepsies: what do they model and do sex and sex hormones matter?

    PubMed

    van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz; Gallagher, Martin J

    2014-12-01

    While epidemiological data suggest a female prevalence in human childhood- and adolescence-onset typical absence epilepsy syndromes, the sex difference is less clear in adult-onset syndromes. In addition, although there are more females than males diagnosed with typical absence epilepsy syndromes, there is a paucity of studies on sex differences in seizure frequency and semiology in patients diagnosed with any absence epilepsy syndrome. Moreover, it is unknown if there are sex differences in the prevalence or expression of atypical absence epilepsy syndromes. Surprisingly, most studies of animal models of absence epilepsy either did not investigate sex differences, or failed to find sex-dependent effects. However, various rodent models for atypical syndromes such as the AY9944 model (prepubertal females show a higher incidence than prepubertal males), BN model (also with a higher prevalence in males) and the Gabra1 deletion mouse in the C57BL/6J strain offer unique possibilities for the investigation of the mechanisms involved in sex differences. Although the mechanistic bases for the sex differences in humans or these three models are not yet known, studies of the effects of sex hormones on seizures have offered some possibilities. The sex hormones progesterone, estradiol and testosterone exert diametrically opposite effects in genetic absence epilepsy and pharmacologically-evoked convulsive types of epilepsy models. In addition, acute pharmacological effects of progesterone on absence seizures during proestrus are opposite to those seen during pregnancy. 17β-Estradiol has anti-absence seizure effects, but it is only active in atypical absence models. It is speculated that the pro-absence action of progesterone, and perhaps also the delayed pro-absence action of testosterone, are mediated through the neurosteroid allopregnanolone and its structural and functional homolog, androstanediol. These two steroids increase extrasynaptic thalamic tonic GABAergic

  7. Animal models of absence epilepsies: What do they model and do sex and sex hormones matter?

    PubMed Central

    van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz; Gallagher, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    While epidemiological data suggest a female prevalence in human childhood- and adolescence-onset typical absence epilepsy syndromes, the sex difference is less clear in adult-onset syndromes. In addition, although there are more females than males diagnosed with typical absence epilepsy syndromes, there is a paucity of studies on sex differences in seizure frequency and semiology in patients diagnosed with any absence epilepsy syndrome. Moreover, it is unknown if there are sex differences in the prevalence or expression of atypical absence epilepsy syndromes. Surprisingly, most studies of animal models of absence epilepsy either did not investigate sex differences, or failed to find sex-dependent effects. However, various rodent models for atypical syndromes such as the AY9944 model (prepubertal females show a higher incidence than prepubertal males), BN model also with a higher prevalence in males and the Gabra1 deletion mouse in the C57BL/6J strain offer unique possibilities for the investigation of the mechanisms involved in sex differences. Although the mechanistic bases for the sex differences in humans or these three models are not yet known, studies of the effects of sex hormones on seizures have offered some possibilities. The sex hormones progesterone, estradiol and testosterone exert diametrically opposite effects in genetic absence epilepsy and pharmacologically-evoked convulsive types of epilepsy models. In addition, acute pharmacological effects of progesterone on absence seizures during proestrus are opposite to those seen during pregnancy. 17β-Estradiol has anti-absence seizure effects, but it is only active in atypical absence models. It is speculated that the pro-absence action of progesterone, and perhaps also the delayed pro-absence action of testosterone, are mediated through the neurosteroid allopregnanolone and its structural and functional homolog, androstanediol. These two steroids increase extrasynaptic thalamic tonic GABAergic inhibition

  8. Cardiovascular Fat, Menopause, and Sex Hormones in Women: The SWAN Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Kelly J.; Janssen, Imke; Hanley, Carrie; Budoff, Matthew J.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Powell, Lynda H.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Cardiovascular risk increases in women after menopause. Mounting evidence demonstrates a role of cardiovascular fat (CF) in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, but no research has examined CF in relation to sex hormones or menopausal status in women. Objective: The objective was to determine the relationship between CF depots, menopausal status, and endogenous sex hormones. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs were used. Setting: The setting included the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Heart and Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study. Participants: A total of 456 women (mean age, 50.75 y); 62% premenopausal/early perimenopausal, and 38% late peri-/postmenopausal. Intervention: Menopausal status, endogenous sex hormones measured simultaneously with CF volumes, and circulating estradiol available 4.80 years (median) before CF measures. Main Outcome Measures: Volumes of CF (epicardial adipose tissue [EAT], paracardial adipose tissue [PAT], total heart adipose tissue [TAT = EAT + PAT], and aortic perivascular adipose tissue [PVAT]). Results: In final models, late peri-/postmenopausal women had 9.88% more EAT, 20.72% more PAT, and 11.69% more TAT volumes than pre-/early perimenopausal women (P < .05). PVAT was not associated with menopausal status. In final models, lower estradiol concentrations were associated with greater volumes of PAT and TAT (P < .05). Women with the greatest reduction in estradiol since baseline had greater volumes of PAT compared to women with the least reduction (P = .02). Conclusions: Late peri-/postmenopausal women have greater volumes of heart fat compared with pre-/early perimenopausal women independent of age, obesity, and other covariates. Endogenous sex hormones are associated with CF. Perhaps CF plays a role in the higher risk of coronary heart disease reported in women after menopause. PMID:26176800

  9. Evolutionary Changes in Sensitivity to Hormonally Induced Gonadal Sex Reversal in a Frog Species.

    PubMed

    Miura, Ikuo; Ohtani, Hiromi; Ogata, Mitsuaki; Ezaz, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese frog Glandirana rugosa is unique in that it shows geographic variation in sex chromosome differentiation and heterogametic sex determination. To elucidate the cause of interpopulation differences in gonadal sex differentiation, we investigated hormonally induced sex reversal and the expression patterns of genes associated with sex determination during early tadpole development. We found that sex reversal was easily induced in XX females and XY males of 2 forms (West-Japan and East-Japan) of G. rugosa with the ancestral homomorphic sex chromosomes under male heterogametic sex determination. During sex reversal, expression of CYP19 and/or FOXL2 was dependent on the phenotypic sex of the gonad. In contrast, sex reversal was not induced in ZW females of a population with a heteromorphic ZW sex chromosome system or in XX females or XY males in a population with a heteromorphic XY sex chromosome system. The latter 2 populations are evolutionarily derived forms. These results indicate an evolutionary direction for the gonadal sex differentiation mechanism. The original system was highly sensitive to sex hormones and allowed almost complete sex reversal. From this ancestral form, a new system evolved that was resistant to hormones and showed a change in the heterogametic sex and the sex chromosome differentiation mechanism. PMID:27160089

  10. Sex differences in the brain-an interplay of sex steroid hormones and sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Grgurevic, Neza; Majdic, Gregor

    2016-09-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of brain function, many questions remain unanswered. The ultimate goal of studying the brain is to understand the connection between brain structure and function and behavioural outcomes. Since sex differences in brain morphology were first observed, subsequent studies suggest different functional organization of the male and female brains in humans. Sex and gender have been identified as being a significant factor in understanding human physiology, health and disease, and the biological differences between the sexes is not limited to the gonads and secondary sexual characteristics, but also affects the structure and, more crucially, the function of the brain and other organs. Significant variability in brain structures between individuals, in addition to between the sexes, is factor that complicates the study of sex differences in the brain. In this review, we explore the current understanding of sex differences in the brain, mostly focusing on preclinical animal studies. PMID:27433022

  11. Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenmai, A.K.; Nielsen, F.K.; Pedersen, M.; Hadrup, N.; Trier, X.; Christensen, J.H.; Vinggaard, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid hormones, generally showed that 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH led to decreases in androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione) in the H295R steroidogenesis assay. Decreases were observed for progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone as well. These observations indicated that a step prior to progestagen and androgen synthesis had been affected. Gene expression analysis of StAR, Bzrp, CYP11A, CYP17, CYP21 and CYP19 mRNA showed a decrease in Bzrp mRNA levels for 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH indicating interference with cholesterol transport to the inner mitochondria. Cortisol, estrone and 17β-estradiol levels were in several cases increased with exposure. In accordance with these data CYP19 gene expression increased with 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH exposures indicating that this is a contributing factor to the decreased androgen and the increased estrogen levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that fluorochemicals present in food packaging materials and their metabolites can affect steroidogenesis through decreased Bzrp and increased CYP19 gene expression leading to lower androgen and higher estrogen levels. -- Highlights: ► Fluorochemicals found in 57% of paper and board food packaging were tested. ► Collectively six fluorochemicals were tested for antiandrogenic potential in vitro. ► Three out of six tested fluorochemicals inhibited

  12. Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.

    1983-01-01

    Dolk's (1936) finding that more growth hormone diffuses from the lower side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot than from the upper side is presently confirmed by means of both an isotope dilution assay and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and it is established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physicochemical demonstration that there is more IAA on the lower sides of a geostimulated plant shoot. It is also found that free IAA primarily occurs in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, while IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. A highly sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay shows that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the nonvascular tissue.

  13. Regulatory roles of sex hormones in cutaneous biology and immunology.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Naoko; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2005-04-01

    Recent studies have revealed that sex hormones manifest a variety of biological and immunological effects in the skin. Pregnancy, menstruation and the menopause modulate the natural course of psoriasis, indicating a female hormone-induced regulation of skin inflammation. Estrogen in vitro down-regulates the production of the neutrophil, type 1 T cell and macrophage-attracting chemokines, CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL5, by keratinocytes, and suppresses IL-12 production and antigen-presenting capacity while enhancing anti-inflammatory IL-10 production by dendritic cells. These data indicate that estrogen may attenuate inflammation in psoriatic lesions. Estrogen, alone or together with progesterone, prevents or reverses skin atrophy, dryness and wrinkles associated with chronological or photo-aging. Estrogen and progesterone stimulate proliferation of keratinocytes while estrogen suppresses apoptosis and thus prevents epidermal atrophy. Estrogen also enhances collagen synthesis, and estrogen and progesterone suppress collagenolysis by reducing matrix metalloproteinase activity in fibroblasts, thereby maintaining skin thickness. Estrogen maintains skin moisture by increasing acid mucopolysaccharide or hyaluronic acid levels in the dermis. Progesterone increases sebum secretion. Estrogen accelerates cutaneous wound healing stimulating NGF production in macrophages, GM-CSF production in keratinocytes and bFGF and TGF-beta1 production in fibroblasts, leading to the enhancement of wound re-innervation, re-epithelialization and granulation tissue formation. In contrast, androgens prolong inflammation, reduce deposition of extracellular matrix in wounds, and reduce the rate of wound healing. Estrogen enhances VEGF production in macrophages, an effect that is antagonized by androgens and which may be related to the development of granuloma pyogenicum during pregnancy. These regulatory effects of sex steroids may be manipulated as therapeutic or prophylactic measures in psoriasis, aging

  14. Embryonic sex steroid hormones accumulate in the eggshell of loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shohei; Saito, Yoshimichi; Osawa, Akihisa; Katsumata, Etsuko; Karaki, Isuke; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Gen

    2015-12-01

    Steroids hormones such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) are involved in gonadal differentiation of oviparous animals with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), and are greatly distributed. This hypothesizes that these embryonic steroid hormones probably accumulate in the eggshell throughout blood or/and chorioallantoic fluid in sea turtle species with TSD, producing females at higher temperature. To demonstrate this hypothesis, concentrations of E2 and T in the blood plasma from the hatchling loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) and in their eggshells were measured by radioimmunoassay. In the present study we propose that both concentrations of E2 and T in the blood plasma are correlated with amounts of these sex steroids in the eggshell. Moreover, contents of E2 in the eggshell showed a significant positive correlation with mean incubation temperatures during a thermosensitive period in the experimental nests, whereas T contents in the eggshell did not. Taken together, these findings indicated that embryonic E2 and T that accumulated in the eggshell can be extracted and measured. Furthermore, the present study suggested that contents of E2 in the eggshell may differ between male and female, and monitoring of these steroids is a useful method to identify the sex of loggerhead sea turtle hatchling. PMID:26050561

  15. Conservative Christianity, partnership, hormones, and sex in late life.

    PubMed

    Das, Aniruddha; Nairn, Stephanie

    2014-10-01

    Using nationally representative data from the 2005-2006 U.S. National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, this study queried relationship, sexual, and sex hormone patterns among married evangelical women and men aged 57-85, relative to those in other religions. Results suggested that despite potentially more unequal gender roles, evangelical older women may have better marital quality, perhaps due to the recent transformation of their male counterparts into authoritative, yet-supportive, "soft patriarchs." Correspondingly, these women, especially those with greater subjective religiosity or more support from a spouse, reported consistently better sexual outcomes than their counterparts in other religions. In addition, they also had lower estradiol, whether due to psychobiological effects of their better relationships or self-selection of those with differential hormone levels into particular partnership patterns. While older men in these communities also experienced more satisfactory marriages, and had lower androgens (testosterone, DHEA), their relational assets were less uniformly matched by better sexual outcomes, perhaps reflecting a gender disparity in the linkage between these factors. PMID:24595917

  16. Sex hormone binding globulin in the rat olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Ploss, V; Gebhart, V M; Dölz, W; Jirikowski, G F

    2014-05-01

    Ovarian steroids are known to act on the olfactory system. Their mode of action, however, is mostly unclear to date since nuclear receptors are lacking in sensory neurons. Here we used immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR to study expression and distribution of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in the rat olfactory system. Single sensory cells in the olfactory mucosa and their projections in the olfactory bulb showed specific SHBG immunostaining as determined by double immunofluorescence with olfactory marker protein OMP. Larger groups of SHBG stained sensory cells occurred in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). A portion of the olfactory glomeruli in the accessory olfactory bulb showed large networks of SHBG positive nerve fibres. Some of the mitral cells showed SHBG immune fluorescence. RT-PCR revealed SHBG encoding mRNA in the olfactory mucosa, in the VNO and in the olfactory bulbs indicating intrinsic expression of the binding globulin. The VNO and its related projections within the limbic system are known to be sensitive to gonadal steroid hormones. We conclude that SHBG may be of functional importance for rapid effects of olfactory steroids on limbic functions including the control of reproductive behaviours through pheromones. PMID:24681170

  17. Impact of Sex Hormone Metabolism on the Vascular Effects of Menopausal Hormone Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Durr-e-Nayab; Roach, Emir C.; Beauregard, Katie G.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less common in pre-menopausal women (Pre-MW) compared to men of the same age or post-menopausal women (Post-MW), suggesting cardiovascular benefits of estrogen. Estrogen receptors (ERs) have been identified in the vasculature, and experimental studies have demonstrated vasodilator effects of estrogen/ER on the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and extracellular matrix. Several natural and synthetic estrogenic preparations have been developed for relief of menopausal vasomotor symptoms. However, whether menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is beneficial in postmenopausal CVD remains controversial. Despite reports of vascular benefits of MHT from observational and experimental studies, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), such as the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) and the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), have suggested that, contrary to expectations, MHT may increase the risk of CVD. These discrepancies could be due to age-related changes in sex hormone synthesis and metabolism, which would influence the effective dose of MHT and the sex hormone environment in Post-MW. Age-related changes in the vascular ER subtype, structure, expression, distribution, and post-ER signaling pathways in the endothelium and VSM, along with factors related to the design of RCTs, preexisting CVD condition, and structural changes in the blood vessels architecture have also been suggested as possible causes of MHT failure in CVD. Careful examination of these factors should help in identifying the causes of the changes in the vascular effects of estrogen with age. The sex hormone metabolic pathways, the active versus inactive estrogen metabolites, and their effects on vascular function, the mitochondria, the inflammatory process and angiogenesis should be further examined. Also, the genomic and non-genomic effects of estrogenic compounds should be viewed as integrated rather than discrete

  18. Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandurski, Robert S.; Schulze, Aga

    Numerous studies, particularly those of H. Dolk in the 1930's, established by means of bio-assay, that more growth hormone diffused from the lower, than from the upper side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot. Now, using an isotope dilution assay, with 4,5,6,7 tetradeutero indole-3-acetic acid as internal standard, and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as the method of determination, we have confirmed Dolk's finding and established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is, in fact, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physico-chemical demonstration that there is more free IAA on the lower sides of a geo-stimulated plant shoot. We have also shown that free IAA occurs primarily in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, whereas IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. Now, using an especially sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay we have found that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the non-vascular tissue. Currently, efforts are directed to developing isotope dilution assays, with picogram sensitivity, to determine how this asymmetry of IAA distribution is attained so as to better understand how the plant perceives the geo-stimulus.

  19. Genetic effects on serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in men: a Korean twin and family study.

    PubMed

    Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study to evaluate the role of genetics in determining the individual difference in total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels. Study participants comprised 730 Korean men consisting of 142 pairs of monozygotic twins, 191 pairs of siblings, and 259 father-offspring pairs from 270 families who participated in the Healthy Twin study. Serum concentration of total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay, and free testosterone and bioavailable testosterone were calculated using Vermeulen's method. Quantitative genetic analysis based on a variance decomposition model showed that the heritability of total testosterone, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were 0.56, 0.45, 0.44, and 0.69, respectively after accounting for age and body mass index. Proportions of variance explained by age and body mass index varied across different traits, from 8% for total testosterone to 31% for sex hormone-binding globulin. Bivariate analysis showed a high degree of additive genetic correlation (ρG = 0.67) and a moderate degree of individual-specific environmental correlation (ρE = 0.42) between total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin. The findings confirmed the important role of genetics in determining the individually different levels of testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin during adulthood in Korean men as found in non-Asian populations, which may suggest that common biologic control for determining testosterone level directly or indirectly through binding protein are largely shared among different populations. PMID:26486061

  20. Genetic effects on serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in men: a Korean twin and family study

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study to evaluate the role of genetics in determining the individual difference in total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels. Study participants comprised 730 Korean men consisting of 142 pairs of monozygotic twins, 191 pairs of siblings, and 259 father-offspring pairs from 270 families who participated in the Healthy Twin study. Serum concentration of total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay, and free testosterone and bioavailable testosterone were calculated using Vermeulen's method. Quantitative genetic analysis based on a variance decomposition model showed that the heritability of total testosterone, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were 0.56, 0.45, 0.44, and 0.69, respectively after accounting for age and body mass index. Proportions of variance explained by age and body mass index varied across different traits, from 8% for total testosterone to 31% for sex hormone-binding globulin. Bivariate analysis showed a high degree of additive genetic correlation (ρG = 0.67) and a moderate degree of individual-specific environmental correlation (ρE = 0.42) between total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin. The findings confirmed the important role of genetics in determining the individually different levels of testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin during adulthood in Korean men as found in non-Asian populations, which may suggest that common biologic control for determining testosterone level directly or indirectly through binding protein are largely shared among different populations. PMID:26486061

  1. Effect of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Batool; Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Khalili, Mohsen; Enayati, Ehsan; Maleki, Maryam; Rezaeei, Saeedeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Opioid consumption has been widely increasing across the globe; how- ever, it can cause adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid, can reduce sex hor- mones and fertility. Withania somnifera (WS) is a traditional herb used to improve sexual activities. This study strives to investigate the effect of WS on sex hormones and gonado- tropins in addicted male rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, forty-eight male National Maritime Research Institute (NMRI) rats were randomly divided into four groups: i. Control group, ii. WS-treated control group, iii. Addicted group, and iv. WS-treated addicted group. Wa- ter-soluble morphine was given to rats for 21 days to induce addiction, concurrently the treated groups (2 and 4) also received WS plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%). At the end of the treatment, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of the rats’ sera were deter- mined in all the groups. Results Except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropin and sex hormone levels. Whereas WS caused a considerable increase in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in the treated control group. Conclusion WS increased sex hormones and gonadotropins-especially testosterone, es- trogen, and luteinizing hormone-in the addicted male rats and even increased the proges- terone level, a stimulant of most sex hormones in addicted male rats. PMID:27441058

  2. The role of sex and sex-related hormones in cognition, mood and well-being in older men and women.

    PubMed

    Castanho, Teresa Costa; Moreira, Pedro Silva; Portugal-Nunes, Carlos; Novais, Ashley; Costa, Patrício Soares; Palha, Joana Almeida; Sousa, Nuno; Santos, Nadine Correia

    2014-12-01

    Alterations in hormone levels during aging impact on cognition and mood. Serum concentration levels of testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and prolactin (PRL) were assessed in 120 community-dwellers (51+ years of age, males and females), in a cross-sectional approach. Performance clusters based on executive functioning (GENEXEC), memory (MEM), mood and well-being were obtained. In males, higher PRL levels associated with worse cognitive performance, lower well-being, and higher scores in depression scales, and lower E2 with poorer cognition and higher depressive mood. DHEAS positively associated with GENEXEC and MEM. Nutritional status significantly associated with PRL (positively) and with DHEAS (negatively). Findings indicate that besides the more exhaustively studied E2 and TT, variations in the levels of sex-related hormones such as PRL, FSH, LH and DHEAS are of interest for the mental health aging profile particularly in men. PMID:25196100

  3. Interrelationship between alcohol intake and endogenous sex-steroid hormones on diabetes risk in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Rohwer, Rachelle D.; Liu, Simin; You, Nai-Chieh; Buring, Julie E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Song, Yiqing

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined whether circulating concentrations of sex hormones, including estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), were associated with alcohol intake or mediated the alcohol-type 2 diabetes (T2D) association. Methods Among women not using hormone replacement therapy and free of baseline cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes in the Women’s Health Study, 359 incident cases of T2D and 359 matched controls were chosen during 10 years of follow-up. Results Frequent alcohol intake (≥1 drink/day) was positively and significantly associated with higher plasma estradiol concentrations in an age-adjusted model (β=0.14, 95% CI, 0.03, 0.26), as compared with rarely/never alcohol intake. After adjusting for additional known covariates, this alcohol-estradiol association remained significant (β=0.19, 95% CI, 0.07, 0.30). Testosterone (β=0.13, 95% CI, −0.05, 0.31), SHBG (β=0.07, 95% CI, −0.07, 0.20), and DHEAS (β=0.14, 95% CI, −0.04, 0.31) showed positive associations without statistical significance. Estradiol alone or in combination with SHBG appeared to influence the observed protective association between frequent alcohol consumption and T2D risk, with a 12–21% reduction in OR in the multivariate-adjusted models. Conclusions Our cross-sectional analysis showed positive associations between alcohol intake and endogenous estradiol concentrations. Our prospective data suggested that baseline concentrations of estradiol, with or without SHBG, might influence the alcohol-T2D association in postmenopausal women. PMID:25759186

  4. Gender-related differences in irritable bowel syndrome: Potential mechanisms of sex hormones

    PubMed Central

    Meleine, Mathieu; Matricon, Julien

    2014-01-01

    According to epidemiological studies, twice as many women as men are affected by irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in western countries, suggesting a role for sex hormones in IBS pathophysiology. Despite growing evidence about the implications of sex hormones in IBS symptom modulation, data on mechanisms by which they influence disease development are sparse. This review aims to determine the state of knowledge about the role of sex hormones in sensorimotor dysfunctions and to address the possible interplay of sex hormones with common risk factors associated with IBS. The scientific bibliography was searched using the following keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, sex, gender, ovarian hormone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, symptoms, pain, sensitivity, motility, permeability, stress, immune system, brain activity, spinal, supraspinal, imaging. Ovarian hormones variations along the menstrual cycle affect sensorimotor gastrointestinal function in both healthy and IBS populations. They can modulate pain processing by interacting with neuromodulator systems and the emotional system responsible for visceral pain perception. These hormones can also modulate the susceptibility to stress, which is a pivotal factor in IBS occurrence and symptom severity. For instance, estrogen-dependent hyper-responsiveness to stress can promote immune activation or impairments of gut barrier function. In conclusion, whereas it is important to keep in mind that ovarian hormones cannot be considered as a causal factor of IBS, they arguably modulate IBS onset and symptomatology. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited and studies assessing the link between IBS symptoms and ovarian hormone levels are needed to improve our knowledge of the disease evolution with regard to gender. Further studies assessing the role of male hormones are also needed to understand fully the role of sex hormones in IBS. Finally, investigation of brain-gut interactions is critical

  5. Gender-related differences in irritable bowel syndrome: potential mechanisms of sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Meleine, Mathieu; Matricon, Julien

    2014-06-14

    According to epidemiological studies, twice as many women as men are affected by irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in western countries, suggesting a role for sex hormones in IBS pathophysiology. Despite growing evidence about the implications of sex hormones in IBS symptom modulation, data on mechanisms by which they influence disease development are sparse. This review aims to determine the state of knowledge about the role of sex hormones in sensorimotor dysfunctions and to address the possible interplay of sex hormones with common risk factors associated with IBS. The scientific bibliography was searched using the following keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, sex, gender, ovarian hormone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, symptoms, pain, sensitivity, motility, permeability, stress, immune system, brain activity, spinal, supraspinal, imaging. Ovarian hormones variations along the menstrual cycle affect sensorimotor gastrointestinal function in both healthy and IBS populations. They can modulate pain processing by interacting with neuromodulator systems and the emotional system responsible for visceral pain perception. These hormones can also modulate the susceptibility to stress, which is a pivotal factor in IBS occurrence and symptom severity. For instance, estrogen-dependent hyper-responsiveness to stress can promote immune activation or impairments of gut barrier function. In conclusion, whereas it is important to keep in mind that ovarian hormones cannot be considered as a causal factor of IBS, they arguably modulate IBS onset and symptomatology. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited and studies assessing the link between IBS symptoms and ovarian hormone levels are needed to improve our knowledge of the disease evolution with regard to gender. Further studies assessing the role of male hormones are also needed to understand fully the role of sex hormones in IBS. Finally, investigation of brain-gut interactions is critical

  6. Annual cycle of plasma luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donham, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons between 'wild'and 'game farm' mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were made to assess the differences in the temporal changes of plasma hormones. Seasonal variation in the levels of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, 5 -dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone, estradiol-17i?? and progesterone were measured in male and female mallards. In all birds there was a vernal increase in the concentrations of LH and testosterone in plasma which were correlated with the development of the testes and ovaries prior to and during the nesting season. The concentrations of estrogens in the plasma of the females were, in general, slightly higher during the nesting season but were much lower than the levels of testosterone. The highest levels of LH and testosterone in the females coincided precisely with the period of egg laying which occurred approximately one month earlier in game farm females than in wild females. The concentrations of LH and testosterone in the plasma of females decreased rapidly during incubation. In wild males, the decline in levels of these hormones temporally coincided with that of females. In contrast, plasma levels of LH and testosterone of males of the game farm stock remained elevated after the beginning of incubation in females to which they were paired. On the basis of these results and an examination of the literature, it appears that domestication results in: 1) increased reproductive potential through earlier initiation of nesting and by delay of the termination of reproduction until later in the summer; and 2) a decrease in the synchronization of the hormonal events supporting reproduction between the male and female of a pair. Testicular weights and plasma levels of testosterone become higher in game farm and domestic males than in the wild stock but levels of LH are similar.

  7. Sex ratios and hormones in HLA related rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed Central

    James, W H

    1991-01-01

    The major diseases associated with HLA-B27 (Reiter's disease, ankylosing spondylitis, acute anterior uveitis, and psoriatic arthritis) all occur much more commonly in men. Published evidence indicates that the antigen HLA-B27 is associated with high testosterone concentrations in men. Moreover, the antigen HLA-B44 exerts a protective effect on one of these diseases (psoriatic arthritis), and there are external grounds for supposing that HLA-B44 indexes an antiandrogenic process. These data are interpreted as support for the hypothesis (first adumbrated nearly 20 years ago) that HLA antigens index unusual hormone concentrations, which in turn are causally related to the diseases. An examination of published reports suggests that sibs of probands with ankylosing spondylitis (and perhaps Reiter's disease) contain an excess of men, and that sibs of probands with rheumatoid arthritis contain an excess of women. These data lend further support to the hypothesis. PMID:2059084

  8. Environmental hormones and their impacts on sex differentiation in fathead minnows.

    PubMed

    Leet, Jessica K; Sassman, Stephen; Amberg, Jon J; Olmstead, Allen W; Lee, Linda S; Ankley, Gerald T; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2015-01-01

    Runoff from lands fertilized with animal manure from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is a source of hormones to surface water. In this study we tested the hypothesis that larval fathead minnows exposed to sex steroids singly or in a "typical" CAFO mixture during sex differentiation would respond with changes in the expression of a set of target genes, leading to gonadal abnormalities later in life. In the first experiment, a static daily-renewal system was used to expose larvae during the period of 10-20 days post-hatch (dph) to either 5 ng/L 17β-trenbolone (17β-TRB) or 5 ng/L 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). In a second experiment, fish were exposed from 0 to 45 dph in a flow-through system to a CAFO mixture composed of steroids and degradates (2-16 ng/L), atrazine and degradates (15-250 ng/L), and nitrate (3-11 mg/L). In the single hormone experiment, expression of genes involved in steroidogenesis (cyp19a, cyp17, and star) was decreased in females. In contrast, no differences in gene expression were observed in fish exposed to the CAFO mixture. However, the majority (84%) of treated males had testes containing an ovarian cavity, indicative of feminization, compared to 0% in the control males. Overall, our results show that: (1) changes in gene expression after single hormone exposures are sex-specific, with females more responsive than males; and (2) phenotypic alterations in testicular development can be elicited by a simulated "CAFO" mixture when fathead minnows are exposed during the first 45 days of development. More research is needed to further discern the complex response of fish to steroid mixtures, especially those associated with runoff from land-applied CAFO waste. PMID:25671225

  9. Serum sex hormones and endurance performance after a lacto-ovo vegetarian and a mixed diet.

    PubMed

    Raben, A; Kiens, B; Richter, E A; Rasmussen, L B; Svenstrup, B; Micic, S; Bennett, P

    1992-11-01

    Serum sex hormones and endurance performance after a lacto-ovo vegetarian and a mixed diet. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 24, No. 11, pp. 1290-1297, 1992. The effect of a lacto-ovo vegetarian (V) and a mixed, meat-rich (M) diet on the level of serum sex hormones, gonadotropins, and endurance performance of eight male endurance athletes was investigated in a 2 x 6 wk cross-over study. The energy contribution from carbohydrate, fat, and protein was 58%, 27%, and 15% on the V diet and 58%, 28%, and 14 E% on the M diet. For total fasting serum testosterone (T) there was a significant interaction between diet and time (P < 0.01). Thus, the V diet resulted in a lower total T level (13.7, 9.8-32.4 nmol.l-1) (median and range) compared with the M diet (17.4, 11.8-33.5 nmol.l-1). During exercise after 6 wk on the diets total T was also significantly lower on the V than on the M diet (P < 0.05). Serum free testosterone, however, did not differ significantly during the 6 wk dietary intervention periods and neither did serum concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin, dihydrotestosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, 4-androstenedione, estrone, estradiol, estrone sulphate, or gonadotropins. Endurance performance time was higher for six and lower for two after the mixed diet compared with the vegetarian diet. This was not significant, however. In conclusion, 6 wk on a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet caused a minor decrease in total testosterone and no significant changes in physical performance in male endurance athletes compared with 6 wk on a mixed, meatrich diet. PMID:1435181

  10. Sex Differences in Seoul Virus Infection Are Not Related to Adult Sex Steroid Concentrations in Norway Rats

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Sabra L.; Bird, Brian H.; Glass, Gregory E.

    2000-01-01

    Field studies of hantavirus infection in rodents report that a higher percentage of infected individuals are males than females. To determine whether males were more susceptible to hantavirus infection than females, adult male and female Long Evans rats (Rattus norvegicus) were inoculated with doses of Seoul virus ranging from 10−4 to 106 PFU. The 50% infective doses (ID50) were not significantly different for male and female rats (100.05 and 100.8 PFU, respectively). To determine whether sex differences in response to infection were related to circulating sex steroid hormones, sex steroid concentrations were manipulated and antibody responses and virus shedding were assessed following inoculation with the ID90. Regardless of hormone treatment, males had higher anti-Seoul virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG2a (i.e., Th1) responses than females and IgG1 (i.e., Th2) responses similar to those of females. Males also shed virus in saliva and feces longer than females. Manipulation of sex steroids in adulthood did not alter immune responses or virus shedding, suggesting that sex steroids may organize adult responses to hantavirus earlier during ontogeny. PMID:10933735

  11. Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Monkeys after Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Mukku, V. R.; Dotsenko, R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Bigbee, A. J.; Helwig, D.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 12.5 day spaceflight on the endocrine status of Rhesus monkeys. Male monkeys (three to four years old; 4 kg) were adapted to chair restraint and trained for 20 months. Blood samples were obtained from four control (C) and two flight (F) monkeys preflight (PF), post-flight (Recovery-R; days 0, 3, 11, and 17), and before and after a mission length simulation (S). Cortisol, T4, T3, testosterone (T), and IGF-1 were measured by RIA (radioimmunassay). Growth hormone (GH) was measured by an in vitro bioassay. Cortisol (16-34 ug/dl), T4 (3.9-7.4 ug/dl), and T (0.2-0.4 mg/ml) did not differ between F and C or between PF, R, and S samples. The low T values reflect the immaturity of the animals. In F, T3 fell from C levels of 208 +/- 4 ng/dl to 44 on R+0 and 150 on R+3, then returned to C. F showed a 55% decrease in GH at R+0 and decreases of 93, 89, and 80%, respectively, at R+3, 11, and 17. IGF-1 decreased from PF levels of 675 ng/ml to 365 (R+0) and 243 (R+3), but returned to C at R+11. GH and IGF-1 levels before and after S did not differ from each other or from C. The cause of the transitory decrease in T3 is unknown. The suppressed GH levels for 17 days after flight may reflect reduced proprioceptive input during flight. The faster recovery of IGF-1 suggests that factors other than reduced GH secretion are involved.

  12. Sex hormone-binding globulin and female reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Botwood, N; Hamilton-Fairley, D; Kiddy, D; Robinson, S; Franks, S

    1995-06-01

    Although sex steroids have long been known to influence serum concentrations of SHBG, it is now recognized that nutritional factors may be more important in the regulation of SHBG in women. Thus, SHBG concentrations are negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) and, more particularly, to indices of central adiposity. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common cause of anovulatory infertility, is associated with truncal obesity, hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinaemia. There is evidence that insulin may be the humoral mediator of the weight-dependent changes in SHBG. Serum SHBG concentrations are inversely correlated with both fasting and glucose-stimulated insulin levels, and insulin has been shown to have a direct inhibitory effect on SHBG synthesis and secretion by hepatocytes in culture. However, the interrelationship of BMI, insulin and SHBG appears to be different in women with PCOS from that in normal subjects. The clinical importance of the weight-related suppression of SHBG is illustrated by the finding of a greater prevalence of hirsutism in obese women PCOS compared with their lean counterparts. Obese subjects with PCOS have similar total testosterone concentrations to lean PCO women but have lower SHBG and reciprocally higher free testosterone levels. Calorie restriction results in reduction of serum insulin followed by an increase in SHBG and a fall in free testosterone but an isocaloric, low-fat diet has no significant effect on SHBG concentrations. Weight reduction in obese, hyperandrogenaemic women with PCO is an important approach to the management of both anovulation and hirsutism. PMID:7626505

  13. Sleep regulation and sex hormones exposure in men and women across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lord, C; Sekerovic, Z; Carrier, J

    2014-10-01

    This review aims to discuss how endogenous and exogenous testosterone exposures in men and estrogens/progesterone exposures in women interact with sleep regulation. In young men, testosterone secretion peaks during sleep and is linked to sleep architecture. Animal and human studies support the notion that sleep loss suppresses testosterone secretion. Testosterone levels decline slowly throughout the aging process, but relatively few studies investigate its impact on age-related sleep modifications. Results suggest that poorer sleep quality is associated with lower testosterone concentrations and that sleep loss may have a more prominent effect on testosterone levels in older individuals. In women, sex steroid levels are characterized by a marked monthly cycle and reproductive milestones such as pregnancy and menopause. Animal models indicate that estrogens and progesterone influence sleep. Most studies do not show any clear effects of the menstrual cycle on sleep, but sample sizes are too low, and research designs often inhibit definitive conclusions. The effects of hormonal contraceptives on sleep are currently unknown. Pregnancy and the postpartum period are associated with increased sleep disturbances, but their relation to the hormonal milieu still needs to be determined. Finally, studies suggest that menopausal transition and the hormonal changes associated with it are linked to lower subjective sleep quality, but results concerning objective sleep measures are less conclusive. More research is necessary to unravel the effects of vasomotor symptoms on sleep. Hormone therapy seems to induce positive effects on sleep, but key concerns are still unresolved, including the long-term effects and efficacy of different hormonal regimens. PMID:25218407

  14. Neural Activation During Mental Rotation in Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: The Influence of Sex Hormones and Sex Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    van Hemmen, Judy; Veltman, Dick J; Hoekzema, Elseline; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B; Bakker, Julie

    2016-03-01

    Sex hormones, androgens in particular, are hypothesized to play a key role in the sexual differentiation of the human brain. However, possible direct effects of the sex chromosomes, that is, XX or XY, have not been well studied in humans. Individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who have a 46,XY karyotype but a female phenotype due to a complete androgen resistance, enable us to study the separate effects of gonadal hormones versus sex chromosomes on neural sex differences. Therefore, in the present study, we compared 46,XY men (n = 30) and 46,XX women (n = 29) to 46,XY individuals with CAIS (n = 21) on a mental rotation task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Previously reported sex differences in neural activation during mental rotation were replicated in the control groups, with control men showing more activation in the inferior parietal lobe than control women. Individuals with CAIS showed a female-like neural activation pattern in the parietal lobe, indicating feminization of the brain in CAIS. Furthermore, this first neuroimaging study in individuals with CAIS provides evidence that sex differences in regional brain function during mental rotation are most likely not directly driven by genetic sex, but rather reflect gonadal hormone exposure. PMID:25452569

  15. FATE OF SEX HORMONES IN TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS: CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of seven sex hormones (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone) was determined in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment plants operated under conventional loading conditions. The levels of hormon...

  16. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival12

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Skovbjerg Arildsen, Nicolai; Malander, Susanne; Måsbäck, Anna; Hartman, Linda; Nilbert, Mef; Hedenfalk, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival in epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: Immunohistochemical stainings for ERα, ERβ, PR, and AR were assessed in relation to survival in 118 serous and endometrioid ovarian cancers. Expression of the genes encoding the four receptors was studied in relation to prognosis in the molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer in an independent data set, hypothesizing that the expression levels and prognostic impact may differ between the subtypes. Results: Expression of PR or AR protein was associated with improved 5-year progression-free (P = .001 for both) and overall survival (P < .001 for both, log-rank test). ERα and ERβ did not provide prognostic information. Patients whose tumors coexpressed PR and AR had the most favorable prognosis, and this effect was retained in multivariable analyses. Analyses of the corresponding genes using an independent data set revealed differences among the molecular subtypes, but no clear relationship between high coexpression of PGR and AR and prognosis. Conclusions: A favorable outcome was seen for patients whose tumors coexpressed PR and AR. Gene expression data suggested variable effects in the different molecular subtypes. These findings demonstrate a prognostic role for PR and AR in ovarian cancer and support that tumors should be stratified based on molecular as well as histological subtypes in future studies investigating the role of endocrine treatment in ovarian cancer. PMID:26500033

  17. Acute effects of sex-specific sex hormones on heat shock proteins in fast muscle of male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Romani, William A; Russ, David W

    2013-10-01

    Heat shock protein (HSP) expression and sex hormone levels have been shown to influence several aspects of skeletal muscle physiology (e.g., hypertrophy, resistance to oxidative stress), suggesting that sex hormone levels can effect HSP expression. This study evaluated the effects of differing levels of sex-specific sex hormones (i.e., testosterone in males and estrogen in females) on the expression of 4: HSP70, HSC70, HSP25, and αB-crystallin in the quadriceps muscles of male and female rats. Animals were assigned to 1 of 3 groups (n = 5 M and F/group). The first group (Ctl) consisted of typically cage-housed animals that served as controls. The second group (H) was gonadectomized and received either testosterone (males) or estradiol (females) via injection for 12 consecutive days. The third group (Gx) was gonadectomized and injected as above, but with vehicle only, rather than hormones. Significant sex by condition interactions (P < 0.05 by two-way MANOVA) were found for all 4 proteins studied, except for HSP70, which exhibited a significant effect of condition only. The expression of all HSPs was greater (1.9-2.5-fold) in males vs. females in the Ctl group, except for HSP70, which was no different. Generally, gonadectomy appeared to have greater effects in males than females, but administration of the exogenous sex hormones tended to produce more robust relative changes in females than males. There were no differences in myosin composition in any of the groups, suggesting that changes in fiber type were not a factor in the differential protein expression. These data may have implications for sex-related differences in muscular responses to exercise, disuse, and injury. PMID:23821238

  18. Effects of exercise intensity on plasma concentrations of appetite-regulating hormones: Potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hazell, Tom J; Islam, Hashim; Townsend, Logan K; Schmale, Matt S; Copeland, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    The physiological control of appetite regulation involves circulating hormones with orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) and anorexigenic (appetite-inhibiting) properties that induce alterations in energy intake via perceptions of hunger and satiety. As the effectiveness of exercise to induce weight loss is a controversial topic, there is considerable interest in the effect of exercise on the appetite-regulating hormones such as acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Research to date suggests short-term appetite regulation following a single exercise session is likely affected by decreases in acylated ghrelin and increases in PYY, GLP-1, and PP. Further, this exercise-induced response may be intensity-dependent. In an effort to guide future research, it is important to consider how exercise alters the circulating concentrations of these appetite-regulating hormones. Potential mechanisms include blood redistribution, sympathetic nervous system activity, gastrointestinal motility, cytokine release, free fatty acid concentrations, lactate production, and changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. This review of relevant research suggests blood redistribution during exercise may be important for suppressing ghrelin, while other mechanisms involving cytokine release, changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, SNS activity, and muscle metabolism likely mediate changes in the anorexigenic signals PYY and GLP-1. Overall, changes in appetite-regulating hormones following acute exercise appear to be intensity-dependent, with increasing intensity leading to a greater suppression of orexigenic signals and greater stimulation of anorexigenic signals. However, there is less research on how exercise-induced responses in appetite-regulating hormones differ between sexes or different age groups. A better understanding of how exercise intensity and workload affect appetite across the sexes and life

  19. Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:24685768

  20. Effect of dietary protein levels on sex hormones in growing male rats kept under constant darkness.

    PubMed

    Hanai, Miho; Esashi, Takatoshi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to clarify the effects of dietary protein levels on the gonadal development and sex hormones in male rats kept under constant darkness as a model of disturbed daily rhythm. Four-week-old male rats (Fischer 344 strain) were kept under constant darkness or normal lighting (12-h light/dark cycle). Two kinds of experimental diet were prepared, one with low dietary protein levels (9% casein) and one with normal levels (18% casein). Harper mineral mixture and Panvitan were used as mineral and vitamin sources, respectively. After 4 weeks, gonadal weight, serum testosterone, and other hormone contents were evaluated. The gonadal weight in the constant darkness groups (D-groups) was lower than that in the normal lighting groups (N-groups). Although the low-protein diet in the D-groups significantly reduced gonadal weight, the normal-protein diet mitigated the reduction of gonadal weight in rats kept under constant darkness. Serum testosterone and androstenedione concentrations were lower in D-group rats fed the low-protein diet. There were no effects of lighting condition or protein levels on serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH), or progesterone concentrations. These results indicate that the suppression of gonadal development in D-group rats fed the low-protein diet was caused by low testosterone, which we attribute to the inhibition of synthesized androstenedione, a precursor of testosterone. The present study showed that constant darkness and the low- protein diet inhibited the synthetic pathway from progesterone to androstenedione. PMID:23095819

  1. Effects of Sex Hormones on Ocular Surface Epithelia: Lessons Learned From Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mantelli, Flavio; Moretti, Costanzo; Macchi, Ilaria; Massaro-Giordano, Giacomina; Cozzupoli, Grazia Maria; Lambiase, Alessandro; Bonini, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality in women of reproductive age. Although its clinical consequences have been known for a long time to extend beyond the reproductive system, with type-2 diabetes and obesity being the most common, the involvement of the ocular surface in PCOS has been described only more recently. The ocular surface is a morphofunctional unit comprising eyelid margin, tear film, cornea, and conjunctiva. Increasing evidence indicates that these structures are under a sex hormone control and relevant diseases such as ocular allergy and dry eye are often caused by alterations in circulating or local steroid hormones levels. Novel treatments targeting sex hormone receptors on ocular surface epithelial cells are also being developed. In this review we aim to describe the current knowledge on the effects of sex hormones at the ocular surface, with a special focus on the effects of androgen imbalance in PCOS. PMID:26491950

  2. Athletic Activity and Hormone Concentrations in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wojtys, Edward M.; Jannausch, Mary L.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physical activity may affect the concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones in female athletes. Understanding the relationship between athletic and physical activity and circulating female hormone concentrations is critical. Objective: To test the hypotheses that (1) the estradiol-progesterone profile of high school adolescent girls participating in training, conditioning, and competition would differ from that of physically inactive, age-matched adolescent girls throughout a 3-month period; and (2) athletic training and conditioning would alter body composition (muscle, bone), leading to an increasingly greater lean–body-mass to fat–body-mass ratio with accompanying hormonal changes. Design: Cohort study. Settings: Laboratory and participants' homes. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 106 adolescent girls, ages 14–18 years, who had experienced at least 3 menstrual cycles in their lifetime. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants were prospectively monitored throughout a 13-week period, with weekly physical activity assessments and 15 urine samples for estrogen, luteinizing hormone, creatinine, and progesterone concentrations. Each girl underwent body-composition measurements before and after the study period. Results: Seventy-four of the 98 girls (76%) who completed the study classified themselves as athletes. Body mass index, body mass, and fat measures remained stable, and 17 teenagers had no complete menstrual cycle during the observation period. Mean concentrations of log(estrogen/creatinine) were slightly greater in nonathletes who had cycles of <24 or >35 days. Mean log(progesterone/creatinine) concentrations in nonathletes were less in the first half and greater in the second half of the cycle, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: A moderate level of athletic or physical activity did not influence urine concentrations of estrogen, progesterone, or luteinizing hormones. However, none of the

  3. Suppressed Sex Hormone Biosynthesis by Alkylresorcinols: A Possible Link to Chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Oskarsson, Agneta; Ohlsson Andersson, Åsa

    2016-01-01

    Alkylresorcinols (ARs, 5-n-alkylresorcinols) are amphiphilic phenolic lipids in whole grain rye and wheat, with a long odd-numbered carbon chain. A preventive effect of whole grain diet on sex hormone-dependent cancers has been recognized, but the active component(s) or mechanisms are not known. We have investigated the effects of the ARs C15:0, C19:0, and C21:0, individually and in combination, on steroid hormone production by using the human adrenocortical cell line H295R. Decreased synthesis of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone, and estradiol was demonstrated at low concentrations of C15:0 and C19:0. There were no indications of additive effects on steroid secretion from the combined treatment with equimolar concentrations of the three ARs. Gene expressions of CYP21A2, HSD3B2, and CYP19A1 were downregulated and CYP11A1 was upregulated by the ARs. The results on gene expression could not explain the effects on steroidogenesis, which may be due to direct effects on enzyme activities, such as inhibition of CYP17A1. Our results demonstrate suppressed synthesis of testosterone and estradiol by ARs suggesting a novel mechanism for ARs in the chemoprevention of prostate and breast cancer. PMID:27352233

  4. Testicular fine-needle aspiration for the assessment of intratesticular hormone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ada P; Roth, Mara Y; Nya-Ngatchou, Jean-Jacques; Lin, Kat; Walsh, Thomas J; Page, Stephanie T; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Bremner, William J; Amory, John K; Anawalt, Bradley D

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of intratesticular sex steroid concentrations in men informs both the development of male hormonal contraceptives and the understanding of male infertility. Given the challenges of using invasive techniques to measure testicular hormone physiology, our group has used a minimally-invasive fine-needle aspiration technique to measure intratesticular hormones in normal healthy men. Herein, we present a post-hoc analysis of the safety and efficacy of testicular fine-needle aspiration (FNA) completed as part of six clinical trials. From 2001 through 2011, a total of 404 procedures were conducted among 163 research volunteers, 85.9% of which were successful in obtaining sufficient fluid for the measurement of intratesticular steroid concentrations. Pain was the most common side effect, with 36.8% of procedures associated with moderate procedural pain and 4.7% with severe procedural pain. Postprocedural pain was uncommon and abated within a few days. Mild local bruising occurred with 14.9% of procedures. Two serious adverse events (0.5%) required surgical intervention. The risk of an adverse event was not associated with age, body mass index, testicular size, or the volume of fluid aspirated. Testicular FNA to obtain fluid for measurement of intratesticular steroid concentrations frequently causes mild to moderate procedural pain, but serious adverse events occur rarely. Testicular FNA has been instrumental for defining human intratesticular hormone physiology and is a minimally-invasive, safe, effective method for obtaining fluid for research on testicular physiology and pathology. PMID:26208394

  5. Testicular fine-needle aspiration for the assessment of intratesticular hormone concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ada P; Roth, Mara Y; Nya-Ngatchou, Jean-Jacques; Lin, Kat; Walsh, Thomas J; Page, Stephanie T; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Bremner, William J; Amory, John K; Anawalt, Bradley D

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of intratesticular sex steroid concentrations in men informs both the development of male hormonal contraceptives and the understanding of male infertility. Given the challenges of using invasive techniques to measure testicular hormone physiology, our group has used a minimally-invasive fine-needle aspiration technique to measure intratesticular hormones in normal healthy men. Herein, we present a post-hoc analysis of the safety and efficacy of testicular fine-needle aspiration (FNA) completed as part of six clinical trials. From 2001 through 2011, a total of 404 procedures were conducted among 163 research volunteers, 85.9% of which were successful in obtaining sufficient fluid for the measurement of intratesticular steroid concentrations. Pain was the most common side effect, with 36.8% of procedures associated with moderate procedural pain and 4.7% with severe procedural pain. Postprocedural pain was uncommon and abated within a few days. Mild local bruising occurred with 14.9% of procedures. Two serious adverse events (0.5%) required surgical intervention. The risk of an adverse event was not associated with age, body mass index, testicular size, or the volume of fluid aspirated. Testicular FNA to obtain fluid for measurement of intratesticular steroid concentrations frequently causes mild to moderate procedural pain, but serious adverse events occur rarely. Testicular FNA has been instrumental for defining human intratesticular hormone physiology and is a minimally-invasive, safe, effective method for obtaining fluid for research on testicular physiology and pathology. PMID:26208394

  6. Sex hormone-binding globulin and lipid profile in pubertal children.

    PubMed

    Garcés, Carmen; Oya, Iría de; Lasunción, Miguel A; López-Simón, Laura; Cano, Beatriz; de Oya, Manuel

    2010-02-01

    Men and women have different lipid profiles throughout life, related to changes in sex hormones; and this has been associated with sex-related differences in the prevalence of coronary heart disease. The influence of sex hormone changes during puberty on the lipid profile has been reported, but levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) (the specific plasma binding protein of sex hormones) have not been evaluated even though its regulatory role might be crucial. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between sex hormones and SHBG and changes in plasma lipid levels during puberty. Our population-based sample included 370 healthy schoolchildren (175 male and 195 female), ranging from 12 to 15 years old. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were significantly lower in 15-year-olds than in younger boys, and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I levels steeply decreased across the studied age groups. Parallel to these changes, testosterone levels increased whereas SHBG decreased as age increases in boys. In girls, no significant differences were observed in these variables among the age groups. Testosterone and SHBG were highly correlated with anthropometric variables. Sex hormone-binding globulin was negatively associated with triglycerides (TG) in both sexes, remaining statistically significant after further adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI) in girls. Sex hormone-binding globulin was the only predictive variable for HDL-C and TG in multiple linear regression analysis, after adjustment by BMI, in both sexes, accounting for 10% of the variance of HDL-C in boys and for around 5% of the variance of TG in both sexes. In boys, testosterone and SHBG remained significantly correlated to apo A-I levels, even after adjusting for age and BMI, and were the most important predictive variables for apo A-I in multiple linear regression analysis. In conclusion, SHBG levels are related to a decrease in HDL-C and apo A-I levels during puberty in boys and

  7. Hormonal sex manipulation and evidence for female homogamety in channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Davis, K B; Simco, B A; Goudie, C A; Parker, N C; Cauldwell, W; Snellgrove, R

    1990-05-01

    The mechanism of sex determination in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated by hormonal and genetic methods. Aromatizable and nonaromatizable androgens, as well as an estrogen, caused feminization in fish fed steroids for 21 days after yolk-sac absorption. The effectiveness of 60 micrograms of ethynyltestosterone/g food decreased markedly when the experimental feeding period was shortened and was ineffective when the treatment lasted less than 12 days. Females from all-female populations produced by treatment with sex hormones were mated with normal males resulting in nine spawns with a sex ratio different from 1:1. The sex ratios were statistically similar to 3 male: 1 female in five spawns, both 2:1 and 3:1 in two spawns, and 2:1 in two spawns. These data are consistent with a model for female homogametic sex determination in channel catfish and suggest that the YY equivalent genotype is viable. PMID:2354764

  8. Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells express functional pituitary and gonadal sex hormone receptors: Therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Poniewierska-Baran, Agata; Schneider, Gabriela; Sun, Wenyue; Abdelbaset-Ismail, Ahmed; Barr, Frederic G; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2016-05-01

    Evidence has accumulated that sex hormones play an important role in several types of cancer. Because they are also involved in skeletal muscle development and regeneration, we were therefore interested in their potential involvement in the pathogenesis of human rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a skeletal muscle tumor. In the present study, we employed eight RMS cell lines (three fusion positive and five fusion negative RMS cell lines) and mRNA samples obtained from RMS patients. The expression of sex hormone receptors was evaluated by RT-PCR and their functionality by chemotaxis, adhesion and direct cell proliferation assays. We report here for the first time that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors are expressed in established human RMS cell lines as well as in primary tumor samples isolated from RMS patients. We also report that human RMS cell lines responded both to pituitary and gonadal sex hormone stimulation by enhanced proliferation, chemotaxis, cell adhesion and phosphorylation of MAPKp42/44 and AKT. In summary, our results indicate that sex hormones are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of RMS, and therefore, their therapeutic application should be avoided in patients that have been diagnosed with RMS. PMID:26983595

  9. Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells express functional pituitary and gonadal sex hormone receptors: Therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    PONIEWIERSKA-BARAN, AGATA; SCHNEIDER, GABRIELA; SUN, WENYUE; ABDELBASET-ISMAIL, AHMED; BARR, FREDERIC G.; RATAJCZAK, MARIUSZ Z.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that sex hormones play an important role in several types of cancer. Because they are also involved in skeletal muscle development and regeneration, we were therefore interested in their potential involvement in the pathogenesis of human rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a skeletal muscle tumor. In the present study, we employed eight RMS cell lines (three fusion positive and five fusion negative RMS cell lines) and mRNA samples obtained from RMS patients. The expression of sex hormone receptors was evaluated by RT-PCR and their functionality by chemotaxis, adhesion and direct cell proliferation assays. We report here for the first time that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors are expressed in established human RMS cell lines as well as in primary tumor samples isolated from RMS patients. We also report that human RMS cell lines responded both to pituitary and gonadal sex hormone stimulation by enhanced proliferation, chemotaxis, cell adhesion and phosphorylation of MAPKp42/44 and AKT. In summary, our results indicate that sex hormones are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of RMS, and therefore, their therapeutic application should be avoided in patients that have been diagnosed with RMS. PMID:26983595

  10. Peripheral vs. Central Sex Steroid Hormones in Experimental Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Simon; Gillies, Glenda E.

    2011-01-01

    The nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) pathway degenerates in Parkinson’s disease (PD), which occurs with approximately twice the incidence in men than women. Studies of the influence of systemic estrogens in females suggest sex hormones contribute to these differences. In this review we analyze the evidence revealing great complexity in the response of the healthy and injured NSDA system to hormonal influences, and emphasize the importance of centrally generated estrogens. At physiological levels, circulating estrogen (in females) or estrogen precursors (testosterone in males, aromatized to estrogen centrally) have negligible effects on dopaminergic neuron survival in experimental PD, but can modify striatal dopamine levels via actions on the activity or adaptive responses of surviving cells. However, these effects are sexually dimorphic. In females, estradiol promotes adaptive responses in the partially injured NSDA pathway, preserving striatal dopamine, whereas in males gonadal steroids and exogenous estradiol have a negligible or even suppressive effect, effectively exacerbating dopamine loss. On balance, the different effects of gonadal factors in males and females contribute to sex differences in experimental PD. Fundamental sex differences in brain organization, including the sexually dimorphic networks regulating NSDA activity are likely to underpin these responses. In contrast, estrogen generated locally appears to preserve striatal dopamine in both sexes. The available data therefore highlight the need to understand the biological basis of sex-specific responses of the NSDA system to peripheral hormones, so as to realize the potential for sex-specific, hormone-based therapies in PD. Furthermore, they suggest that targeting central steroid generation could be equally effective in preserving striatal dopamine in both sexes. Clarification of the relative roles of peripheral and central sex steroid hormones is thus an important challenge for future studies

  11. Longitudinal monitoring of sex steroid hormones in excrement of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, Abigail; Buck, C Loren; Atkinson, Shannon; Hollmén, Tuula

    2014-03-01

    From the 1970s to the 1990s, the breeding population of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) in western Alaska declined by 96%, which led to the listing of this species as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1993. Since then, the population has stabilized, but has not recovered to pre-decline numbers. While little is known about reproductive endocrinology in spectacled eiders, in other avian species, estrogen and testosterone are known to initiate and modulate various reproductive processes including yolk protein synthesis, reproductive behaviors and secondary sex characteristics. Measurement of the metabolites of estrogen and testosterone (EM and TM, respectively) in excrement reflect circulating hormone concentrations and provide a non-invasive method to monitor reproductive physiology. We measured concentrations of excreted EM in captive females and TM in males to (1) determine the efficacy of commercially available radioimmunoassay kits to detect EM and TM, (2) describe annual profiles of EM and TM concentrations, and (3) define the reproductive season of captive spectacled eiders using endocrine status. Excrement samples were collected from captive female and male spectacled eiders three times per week throughout 1 year. Female EM and male TM levels were quantified using radioimmunoassay. Mean female EM profile exhibited values exceeding the threshold for "peak" values (EM>193.3 ng/g) from mid-February to early July, and again in September. Additionally, the highest average concentrations of EM were seen in March, May and September. Elevated TM concentrations occurred in mid March, mid May and late June. These data suggest that levels of excreted sex steroids reflect patterns predicted by breeding landmarks in the annual cycle and will assist in field monitoring and captive breeding programs for spectacled eiders. PMID:24406512

  12. Prefrontal GABA concentration changes in women-Influence of menstrual cycle phase, hormonal contraceptive use, and correlation with premenstrual symptoms.

    PubMed

    De Bondt, Timo; De Belder, Frank; Vanhevel, Floris; Jacquemyn, Yves; Parizel, Paul M

    2015-02-01

    Prefrontal regions are involved in processing emotional stimuli and are a topic of interest in clinical and neurological research. Although sex steroids are potent neuromodulators, the influence of menstrual cycle phase and hormonal contraceptive use is rarely taken into account in neuroimaging studies. Our purpose was to evaluate changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in women, as measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), with phases of the menstrual cycle and use of hormonal contraceptives, and to assess correlations with premenstrual symptoms.Three MRI sessions per cycle were obtained in the natural cycle group, and two sessions in the hormonal contraceptives group. In addition to an anatomical scan, single voxel MRS in the prefrontal area was performed. After quality control, 10 women with natural cycle and 21 women taking hormonal contraceptives were included for analysis. Peripheral blood samples were obtained to determine endogenous hormone concentrations. Subjects were asked to complete a daily rating of severity of problems questionnaire, to quantify premenstrual symptoms. In the natural cycle group, we found a significant increase in prefrontal GABA concentration at the time of ovulation. Conversely, in the hormonal contraceptives group, no differences were found between the pill phase and pill-free phase. GABA concentrations did not significantly correlate with endogenous hormone levels, nor with premenstrual symptoms. Our results indicate that spectroscopically measured GABA concentrations are higher during ovulation in women with a natural menstrual cycle. We suggest that neuroimaging studies should take into account this variability. PMID:25481417

  13. Effects of sex hormone disturbances on craniofacial growth in newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Fujita, T; Ohtani, J; Shigekawa, M; Kawata, T; Kaku, M; Kohno, S; Tsutsui, K; Tenjo, K; Motokawa, M; Tohma, Y; Tanne, K

    2004-03-01

    It is well-known that sex hormones influence bone metabolism. However, it remains unclear as to how sex hormones affect bone growth in newborn mice. In this study, we performed orchiectomy (ORX) and ovariectomy (OVX) on newborn mice, and examined the effects on craniofacial growth morphometrically. ORX and OVX were performed on five-day-old C57BL/6J mice. Four weeks after surgery, lateral cephalograms were taken of all of the mice, with the use of a rat and mouse cephalometer. Cephalometric analysis of the craniofacial skeleton was performed by means of a personal computer. Inhibition of craniofacial growth was found in the experimental groups but not in the sham-operated groups. In the nasomaxillary bone and mandible, the amount of growth was significantly reduced. These results suggest that craniofacial growth is inhibited by sex hormone disturbances not only in puberty but also immediately after birth. PMID:14981129

  14. Do sex hormones play a role in ankylosing spondylitis?

    PubMed

    Masi, A T

    1992-02-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has a striking disease marker, i.e., HLA-B27, indicating the major genetic predisposition; however, expression of disease is also strongly influenced by age- and sex-related factors. Sex steroids studies suggest greater androgenicity in AS than normal control persons. Therapeutic interventions that normalize such sex steroid status have shown clinical improvements in males and females. Muscle histopathology in AS shows frequent changes early in disease consistent with neuropathic and myopathic mechanisms of a noninflammatory nature. Accepting the available, aggregate data, one may infer that sex steroid imbalance in persons susceptible to AS may target axial and proximal muscle tissues, resulting in relative functional hypertonicity. Such phenomenon, developing in preteen and younger adult ages, may contribute to peripheral and axial manifestations of enthesopathy in this disease by complex and currently unknown mechanisms. PMID:1561401

  15. Association of perfluoroalkyl substances exposure with reproductive hormone levels in adolescents: By sex status.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Hu, Li-Wen; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Chang, Jen-Jen; King, Chris; Paul, Gunther; Lin, Shao; Chen, Pau-Chung; Lee, Yungling Leo; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of common chemicals that ubiquitously exist in wildlife and humans. However, few studies have researched the effect of PFASs on reproductive hormones in adolescents. To provide information in this regard, we recruited 225 Taiwanese adolescents aged 13-15years from 2009 to 2010 to investigate the relationship between serum PFASs (PFOS, PFOA, PFBS, PFDA, PFDoA, PFHxA, PFHxS, PFNA and PFTA) and reproductive hormone concentrations using a cross-sectional study design. Results showed PFOS and PFTA levels were highest among the PFASs, with a median concentrations of 29.9 (interquartile range: 13.0-43.8) ng/mL and 6.0 (0.6-25.9) ng/mL in males, and a median concentrations of 28.8 (14.8-42.6) ng/mL and 4.5 (0.3-18.4) ng/mL in females. After adjustment for confounding factors, nonsignificant associations between PFASs and reproductive hormone were found except for PFNA with ln(estradiol) (β=0.2060, 95%CI: 0.0016, 0.4105). When stratified by sex, more significant associations were found in males than in females. Among males, PFASs were negatively associated with ln(testosterone) level for PFOS (β=-0.0029, 95%CI: -0.0055, -0.0003), PFDA (β=-0.2565, 95%CI: -0.4135, -0.0994), PFHxA (β=-0.3095, 95%CI: -0.5942, -0.0248), and PFNA (β=-0.4233, 95%CI: -0.6998, -0.1467). Furthermore, male participant ln(estradiol) levels were positively associated with PFOA (β=0.0921, 95%CI: 0.0186, 0.1656), and PFHxS (β=0.0462, 95%CI: 0.0020, 0.0905). Among females, a significant relationship was found only for PFDoA with ln(testosterone) (β=-0.0119, 95%CI: -0.0227, -0.0010). In conclusion, this study showed higher levels of PFASs coincide with lower testosterone and higher estradiol levels, and more significant associations of PFASs with reproductive hormone were found in males than in females. PMID:27258660

  16. Sex hormones modulate the immune response to Plasmodium berghei ANKA in CBA/Ca mice.

    PubMed

    Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Mosqueda-Romo, Néstor Aarón; Nava-Castro, Karen Elizabeth; Morales-Rodríguez, Ana Laura; Buendía-González, Fidel Orlando; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    Susceptibility to malaria differs between females and males, and this sexual dimorphism may have important implications for the effects of vaccines and drugs. However, little is known about the mechanisms mediating these sexual differences. Because the main differences between sexes are dictated by sex hormones, we studied the effect of gonadal steroids on immune responses to malaria in CBA/Ca mice. We decreased sex hormones levels by gonadectomy and evaluated the splenic index and the cells involved in the immune response, including T cells (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) and NK(+)), B cells and macrophages (Mac-3(+)) in the spleens of female and male mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. In addition, we measured antibody and cytokine levels in blood. Gonadectomy increased T(+) and B(+) splenic cells in both sexes but increased Mac-3(+) cells only in male mice. By contrast, gonadectomy decreased the NK(+) cell population only in male mice. In general, female mice developed higher antibody levels than males. Contrary to our expectations, gonadectomy increased the synthesis of IgG1, IgG2b, IgG3, and total IgG in female mice, indicating negative regulation of antibody production by female sex hormones. Gonadectomy increased the synthesis of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) only in female mice, suggesting that female sex hormones have anti-inflammatory properties. This work demonstrates that the levels of sex hormones affect the immune response and should be considered when designing malaria vaccines. PMID:25876048

  17. Sex differences, gonadal hormones and the fear extinction network: implications for anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Lebron-Milad, Kelimer; Milad, Mohammed R

    2012-01-01

    Convergent data from rodents and human studies have led to the development of models describing the neural mechanisms of fear extinction. Key components of the now well-characterized fear extinction network include the amygdala, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortical regions. These models are fueling novel hypotheses that are currently being tested with much refined experimental tools to examine the interactions within this network. Lagging far behind, however, is the examination of sex differences in this network and how sex hormones influence the functional activity and reactivity of these brain regions in the context of fear inhibition. Indeed, there is a large body of literature suggesting that sex hormones, such as estrogen, do modulate neural plasticity within the fear extinction network, especially in the hippocampus.After a brief overview of the fear extinction network, we summarize what is currently known about sex differences in fear extinction and the influence of gonadal hormones on the fear extinction network. We then go on to propose possible mechanisms by which sex hormones, such as estrogen, may influence neural plasticity within the fear extinction network. We end with a discussion of how knowledge to be gained from developing this line of research may have significant ramifications towards the etiology, epidemiology and treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:22738383

  18. Sex differences, gonadal hormones and the fear extinction network: implications for anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Convergent data from rodents and human studies have led to the development of models describing the neural mechanisms of fear extinction. Key components of the now well-characterized fear extinction network include the amygdala, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortical regions. These models are fueling novel hypotheses that are currently being tested with much refined experimental tools to examine the interactions within this network. Lagging far behind, however, is the examination of sex differences in this network and how sex hormones influence the functional activity and reactivity of these brain regions in the context of fear inhibition. Indeed, there is a large body of literature suggesting that sex hormones, such as estrogen, do modulate neural plasticity within the fear extinction network, especially in the hippocampus. After a brief overview of the fear extinction network, we summarize what is currently known about sex differences in fear extinction and the influence of gonadal hormones on the fear extinction network. We then go on to propose possible mechanisms by which sex hormones, such as estrogen, may influence neural plasticity within the fear extinction network. We end with a discussion of how knowledge to be gained from developing this line of research may have significant ramifications towards the etiology, epidemiology and treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:22738383

  19. Should cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual subjects vary with ethnic group?

    PubMed Central

    Gooren, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    Guidelines for cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual people have been developed, but no attention has been paid to the specifics of ethnic groups. South East (SE) Asian male-to-female (MtoF) transsexual people may be able to transition to the female sex with lower doses of estrogens/progestins than Caucasians thus reducing health risks. Female-to-male (FtoM) may virilize less profoundly with standard doses of androgens, but this is probably sufficient to pass acceptably as men in view of the less pronounced sex differences in physique in Asians compared with Caucasians. It is timely that studies in Asians are conducted to get a better insight into their specific needs and risks of cross-sex hormone treatment. PMID:25038187

  20. Gestational urinary bisphenol A and maternal and newborn thyroid hormone concentrations: The HOME Study

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, Megan E.; Webster, Glenys M.; Vuong, Ann M.; Thomas Zoeller, R.; Chen, Aimin; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Braun, Joseph M.

    2015-04-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor used in consumer products, may perturb thyroid function. Prenatal BPA exposure may have sex-specific effects on thyroid hormones (THs). Our objectives were to investigate whether maternal urinary BPA concentrations during pregnancy were associated with THs in maternal or cord serum, and whether these associations differed by newborn sex or maternal iodine status. We measured urinary BPA concentrations at 16 and 26 weeks gestation among pregnant women in the HOME Study (2003–2006, Cincinnati, Ohio). Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free and total thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) were measured in maternal serum at 16 weeks (n=181) and cord serum at delivery (n=249). Associations between BPA concentrations and maternal or cord serum TH levels were estimated by multivariable linear regression. Mean maternal urinary BPA was not associated with cord THs in all newborns, but a 10-fold increase in mean BPA was associated with lower cord TSH in girls (percent change=−36.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): −58.4, −1.7%), but not boys (7.8%; 95% CI: −28.5, 62.7%; p-for-effect modification=0.09). We observed no significant associations between 16-week BPA and THs in maternal or cord serum, but 26-week maternal BPA was inversely associated with TSH in girls (−42.9%; 95% CI: −59.9, −18.5%), but not boys (7.6%; 95% CI: −17.3, 40.2%; p-for-effect modification=0.005) at birth. The inverse BPA–TSH relation among girls was stronger, but less precise, among iodine deficient versus sufficient mothers. Prenatal BPA exposure may reduce TSH among newborn girls, particularly when exposure occurs later in gestation. - Highlights: • Examined associations of BPA with thyroid hormones in pregnant women and newborns. • Assessed effect modification of BPA–thyroid hormone associations by newborn sex. • Greater BPA related to decreased thyroid stimulating hormone in girls' cord serum. • Results may

  1. Prediagnostic circulating follicle stimulating hormone concentrations and ovarian cancer risk.

    PubMed

    McSorley, Meghan A; Alberg, Anthony J; Allen, Diane S; Allen, Naomi E; Brinton, Louise A; Dorgan, Joanne F; Kaaks, Rudolf; Rinaldi, Sabina; Helzlsouer, Kathy J

    2009-08-01

    Gonadotropins have been indicted in ovarian carcinogenesis but direct evidence has been limited and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to determine the association between prediagnostic levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and subsequent development of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. A nested case-control study was conducted using cases and controls drawn from three cohorts: CLUE I and CLUE II of Washington County, MD, and the Island of Guernsey Study, United Kingdom. In total, 67 incident invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases were each matched to 1 to 2 controls on age, menopausal status, time since last menstrual period, current hormone use and other relevant factors. FSH concentrations were classified into ranked thirds of low, medium or high based on the distribution among controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) across increasing thirds of FSH concentrations. Results of the analysis showed that ovarian cancer risk decreased with higher FSH concentrations (p-trend = 0.005). Compared with the lowest third of FSH concentrations, the OR among those in the middle and highest thirds were 0.45 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.20-1.00] and 0.26 (95% CI: 0.10-0.70), respectively. Associations persisted after excluding cases diagnosed within 5 years of follow-up. In conclusion, a reduction in subsequent risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer was observed among women with higher circulating FSH concentrations. These findings contradict the hypothesized role of FSH as a risk factor in ovarian carcinogenesis. PMID:19444906

  2. Effects of n3 Intake on Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Sex Hormone Profiles in Postmenopausal Women: Potential for Breast Cancer Risk Reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breast cancer risk is associated with dietary fat intake. Omega-6 fatty acids (n6) promote while omega-3 fatty acids (n3) inhibit tumorigenesis. Increased sex hormone (SH) concentrations are associated with risk of breast cancer. The effects of total fat and n3 on SH and PLFA were assessed in a f...

  3. Sex steroids, growth hormone, leptin and the pubertal growth spurt.

    PubMed

    Rogol, Alan D

    2010-01-01

    A normal rate for the linear growth of a child or adolescent is a strong statement for the good general health of that child. Normal growth during childhood is primarily dependent on adequate nutrition, an adequate psychosocial environment, the absence of disease and adequate amounts thyroid hormone and growth hormone (and its downstream product, IGF-1). At adolescence there is the reawakening of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its interaction with the GH/IGF-1 axis to subserve the pubertal growth spurt. The fat tissue-derived hormone, leptin and its receptor are likely involved in at least two aspects of pubertal development - sexual development itself and the alterations in body composition including the regional distribution of fat and bone mineralization. During the prepubertal years the male female differences in body composition are quite modest, but change remarkably during pubertal development with boys showing a relative decrement in fat percentage and girls a marked increase in concert with rising levels of circulating leptin. The boys show a much greater increase in lean body tissue and the relative proportions of water, muscle and bone. These may be observed as the differential growth of the shoulders and hips. The net effect of these pubertal changes is that the young adult woman has approximately 25% body fat in the 'gynoid' distribution while the male has much more muscle, especially in the shoulders and upper body but only approximately 13% body fat. PMID:19955758

  4. Sex hormone effects on autonomic mechanisms of thermoregulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Stachenfeld, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Autonomic mechanisms are fundamental to human physiological thermoregulation, and female reproductive hormones have substantial influences on several aspects of these mechanisms. Of these, the best recognized are the thermoregulatory responses that occur at menopause (hot flushes) and the changes in body temperature within the menstrual cycle which may help couples predict ovulation. Our goal in this brief review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the influences of reproductive hormones on autonomic mechanisms in human thermoregulation. In general, estrogens tend to promote lower body temperatures via augmentation of heat dissipation responses, whereas progesterone tends to promote higher body temperatures. Recent evidence suggests specific influences of estrogens on central autonomic nuclei involved in control of skin blood flow and sweating. Estrogens also augment vasodilation by direct effects on peripheral blood vessels. Influences of progesterone are less well understood, but include both centrally regulated changes in thermoregulatory set-point as well as and peripheral effects, including augmented vasoconstriction in the skin. We conclude with a brief discussion of thermoregulatory adjustments associated with changing hormone levels during menopause, pregnancy and polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:26674572

  5. Sex hormones, sexual activity and plasma anticonvulsant levels in male epileptics.

    PubMed Central

    Toone, B K; Wheeler, M; Nanjee, M; Fenwick, P; Grant, R

    1983-01-01

    Testosterone, LH, FSH, PRL, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in 72 male epileptic patients on chronic anticonvulsant drug regimes. Sexual activity was estimated and plasma anticonvulsants measured. Total testosterone (TT), LH, FSH, PRL, and SHBG were increased; free testosterone (FT) was decreased. Sexual activity appeared diminished particularly in relation to reduced FT. PMID:6413659

  6. Stroke sensitivity in the aged: sex chromosome complement vs. gonadal hormones

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Louise D.; Mirza, Mehwish A.; Xu, Yan; Bentivegna, Kathryn; Steffens, Eleanor B.; Ritzel, Rodney; Liu, Fudong

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a sexually dimorphic disease. Elderly women not only have higher stroke incidence than age-matched men, but also have poorer recovery and higher morbidity and mortality after stroke. In older, post-menopausal women, gonadal hormone levels are similar to that of men. This suggests that tissue damage and functional outcomes are influenced by biologic sex (XX vs. XY) rather than the hormonal milieu at older ages. We employed the Four Core Genotype (FCG) mouse model to study the contribution of sex chromosome complement and gonadal hormones to stroke sensitivity in aged mice in which the testis determining gene (Sry) is removed from the Y chromosome, allowing for the generation of XX males and XY females. XXF, XXM, XYF, XYM and XYwt aged mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). XXF and XXM mice had significantly larger infarct volumes than XYF and XYM cohorts respectively. There was no significant difference in hormone levels among aged FCG mice. XXF/XXM mice also had more robust microglial activation and higher serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines than XYF/XYM cohort respectively. We concluded that the sex chromosome complement contributes to ischemic sensitivity in aged animals and leads to sex differences in innate immune responses. PMID:27405096

  7. Histological and sex steroid hormone receptor changes in testes of immature, mature, and aged chickens.

    PubMed

    González-Morán, María Genoveva; Guerra-Araiza, Christian; Campos, María G; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2008-11-01

    Sex steroid hormone receptors play a central role in the regulation of reproduction in male chickens. In this work, we evaluated by histomorphometric methods and Western blot analysis changes in the number of the different cell populations and in the content of sex steroid hormone receptors in testes from immature (1.5-month-old), mature (12-month-old), and aged (48-month-old) chickens. The number of Sertoli cells, germ cells, and Leydig cells per area of testicular tissue markedly changed according to chicken age. The highest number of Sertoli and Leydig cells was found in testes of immature chickens, with a dramatic decrease in those of mature chickens; however, the number of germ cells was the highest in mature chickens in comparison with other ages. The content of androgen receptor diminished in testes of mature and aged animals in comparison with that of immature chickens. In contrast, the content of estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor was higher in testes of mature animals than in other ages. Both progesterone receptor isoforms were expressed in a similar proportion in testes of immature and mature animals. Interestingly, progesterone receptor isoform A was the predominant isoform in aged animals. These results suggest that there are marked age-dependent changes in chicken testes histology and in sex steroid hormone receptors content that should contribute to sex steroid hormone actions, in this tissue throughout the lifespan of chickens. PMID:18815005

  8. Sex Hormones Regulate Tenofovir-Diphosphate in Female Reproductive Tract Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zheng; Fahey, John V.; Bodwell, Jack E.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Kashuba, Angela D. M.; Wira, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    The conflicting results of recent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials utilizing tenofovir (TFV) to prevent HIV infection in women led us to evaluate the accumulation of intracellular TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) in cells from the female reproductive tract (FRT) and whether sex hormones influence the presence of TFV-DP in these cells. Following incubation with TFV, isolated epithelial cells, fibroblasts, CD4+ T cells and CD14+ cells from the FRT as well as blood CD4+ T cells and monocyte-derived macrophages convert TFV to TFV-DP. Unexpectedly, we found that TFV-DP concentrations (fmol/million cells) vary significantly with the cell type analyzed and the site within the FRT. Epithelial cells had 5-fold higher TFV-DP concentrations than fibroblasts; endometrial epithelial cells had higher TFV-DP concentrations than cells from the ectocervix. Epithelial cells had 125-fold higher TFV-DP concentrations than FRT CD4+ T cells, which were comparable to that measured in peripheral blood CD4+ T cells. These findings suggest the existence of a TFV-DP gradient in the FRT where epithelial cells > fibroblasts > CD4+ T cells and macrophages. In other studies, estradiol increased TFV-DP concentrations in endometrial and endocervical/ectocervical epithelial cells, but had no effect on fibroblasts or CD4+ T cells from FRT tissues. In contrast, progesterone alone and in combination with estradiol decreased TFV-DP concentrations in FRT CD4+ T cells. Our results suggest that epithelial cells and fibroblasts are a repository of TFV-DP that is under hormonal control. These cells might act either as a sink to decrease TFV availability to CD4+ T cells and macrophages in the FRT, or upon conversion of TFV-DP to TFV increase TFV availability to HIV-target cells. In summary, these results indicate that intracellular TFV-DP varies with cell type and location in the FRT and demonstrate that estradiol and/or progesterone regulate the intracellular concentrations of TFV-DP in FRT epithelial cells

  9. Mercury concentrations of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) vary by sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Francis, James T.; Braunscheidel, Jeffrey J.; Bohr, Joseph R.; Geiger, Matthew J.; Knottnerus, G. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Patterns in relative differences in contaminant concentrations between the sexes across many species of fish may reveal clues for important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes, and may also be useful in developing fish consumption advisories and efficient designs for programs meant to monitor contaminant levels in fish. We determined skin-off fillet and whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 28 adult female and 26 adult male bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) from Squaw Lake, Oakland County, Michigan (MI), USA. Bioenergetics modeling was used to quantify the effect of growth dilution on the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. On average, skin-off fillet and whole-fish Hg concentrations were 25.4% higher and 26.6% higher, respectively, in females compared with males. Thus, the relative difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes for skin-off fillets was nearly identical to that for whole fish. However, mean skin-off fillet Hg concentration (363 ng/g) was 2.3 times greater than mean whole-fish Hg concentration (155 ng/g). Males grew substantially faster than females, and bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for females having 14.4% higher Hg concentrations than males. Our findings should be useful in revising fish consumption advisories.

  10. Hormone Concentrations and Variability: Associations with Self-Reported Moods and Energy in Early Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Christy Miller

    Examined were relations between concentrations and variability of hormones (testosterone, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, and leutenizing hormone) and mood intensity, mood variability (within and across days), energy, and restlessness in early adolescent girls. The study also considered the issue of whether hormones have effects on mood…

  11. The influence of sex hormones on seizures in dogs and humans.

    PubMed

    Van Meervenne, Sofie A E; Volk, Holger A; Matiasek, Kaspar; Van Ham, Luc M L

    2014-07-01

    Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disorder in both humans and dogs. The effect of sex hormones on seizures is well documented in human medicine. Catamenial epilepsy is defined as an increase in frequency and severity of seizures during certain periods of the menstrual cycle. Oestradiol increases seizure activity and progesterone is believed to exhibit a protective effect. The role of androgens is controversial and there is a lack of research focusing on androgens and epilepsy. Indeed, little is known about the influence of sex hormones on epilepsy in dogs. Sterilisation is believed to improve seizure control, but no systematic research has been conducted in this field. This review provides an overview of the current literature on the influence of sex hormones on seizures in humans. The literature on idiopathic epilepsy in dogs was assessed to identify potential risk factors related to sex and sterilisation status. In general, there appears to be an over-representation of male dogs with idiopathic epilepsy but no explanation for this difference in prevalence between sexes has been reported. In addition, no reliable conclusions can be drawn on the effect of sterilisation due to the lack of focused research and robust scientific evidence. PMID:24878266

  12. Sex, stress, and mood disorders: at the intersection of adrenal and gonadal hormones.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Guasti, A; Fiedler, J L; Herrera, L; Handa, R J

    2012-07-01

    The risk for neuropsychiatric illnesses has a strong sex bias, and for major depressive disorder (MDD), females show a more than 2-fold greater risk compared to males. Such mood disorders are commonly associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Thus, sex differences in the incidence of MDD may be related with the levels of gonadal steroid hormone in adulthood or during early development as well as with the sex differences in HPA axis function. In rodents, organizational and activational effects of gonadal steroid hormones have been described for the regulation of HPA axis function and, if consistent with humans, this may underlie the increased risk of mood disorders in women. Other developmental factors, such as prenatal stress and prenatal overexposure to glucocorticoids can also impact behaviors and neuroendocrine responses to stress in adulthood and these effects are also reported to occur with sex differences. Similarly, in humans, the clinical benefits of antidepressants are associated with the normalization of the dysregulated HPA axis, and genetic polymorphisms have been found in some genes involved in controlling the stress response. This review examines some potential factors contributing to the sex difference in the risk of affective disorders with a focus on adrenal and gonadal hormones as potential modulators. Genetic and environmental factors that contribute to individual risk for affective disorders are also described. Ultimately, future treatment strategies for depression should consider all of these biological elements in their design. PMID:22581646

  13. Sex, Stress, and Mood Disorders: At the Intersection of Adrenal and Gonadal Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Guasti, A.; Fiedler, J. L.; Herrera, L.; Handa, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    The risk for neuropsychiatric illnesses has a strong sex bias, and for major depressive disorder (MDD), females show a more than 2-fold greater risk compared to males. Such mood disorders are commonly associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Thus, sex differences in the incidence of MDD may be related with the levels of gonadal steroid hormone in adulthood or during early development as well as with the sex differences in HPA axis function. In rodents, organizational and activational effects of gonadal steroid hormones have been described for the regulation of HPA axis function and, if consistent with humans, this may underlie the increased risk of mood disorders in women. Other developmental factors, such as prenatal stress and prenatal overexposure to glucocorticoids can also impact behaviors and neuroendocrine responses to stress in adulthood and these effects are also reported to occur with sex differences. Similarly, in humans, the clinical benefits of antidepressants are associated with the normalization of the dysregulated HPA axis, and genetic polymorphisms have been found in some genes involved in controlling the stress response. This review examines some potential factors contributing to the sex difference in the risk of affective disorders with a focus on adrenal and gonadal hormones as potential modulators. Genetic and environmental factors that contribute to individual risk for affective disorders are also described. Ultimately, future treatment strategies for depression should consider all of these biological elements in their design. PMID:22581646

  14. Increased fat deposition in injured skeletal muscle is regulated by sex-specific hormones.

    PubMed

    McHale, Matthew J; Sarwar, Zaheer U; Cardenas, Damon P; Porter, Laurel; Salinas, Anna S; Michalek, Joel E; McManus, Linda M; Shireman, Paula K

    2012-02-01

    Sex differences in skeletal muscle regeneration are controversial; comparisons of regenerative events between sexes have not been rigorously defined in severe injury models. We comprehensively quantified inflammation and muscle regeneration between sexes and manipulated sex-specific hormones to determine effects on regeneration. Cardiotoxin injury was induced in intact, castrated and ovariectomized female and male mice; ovariectomized mice were replaced with low- or high-dose 17-β estradiol (E(2)) or progesterone (P4). Extent of injury was comparable between intact mice, but females were more efficient in removal of necrotic debris, despite similar tissue levels of inflammatory cells and chemokines. Myofiber size during regeneration was equivalent between intact mice and after castration or ovariectomy (OVX) but was decreased (P < 0.001) in ovariectomized mice with high-dose E(2) replacement. Intermuscular adipocytes were absent in uninjured muscle, whereas adipocyte area was increased among regenerated myofibers in all groups. Interestingly, intermuscular fat was greater (P = 0.03) in intact females at day 14 compared with intact males. Furthermore, castration increased (P = 0.01) and OVX decreased adipocyte accumulation. After OVX, E(2), but not P4, replacement decreased (P ≤ 0.03) fat accumulation. In conclusion, sex-dependent differences in regeneration consisted of more efficient removal of necrosis and increased fat deposition in females with similar injury, inflammation, and regenerated myofiber size; high-dose E(2) decreased myofiber size and fat deposition. Adipocyte accumulation in regenerating muscle was influenced by sex-specific hormones. Recovery following muscle injury was different between males and females, and sex-specific hormones contributed to these differences, suggesting that sex-specific treatments could be beneficial after injury. PMID:22116509

  15. Increased fat deposition in injured skeletal muscle is regulated by sex-specific hormones

    PubMed Central

    McHale, Matthew J.; Sarwar, Zaheer U.; Cardenas, Damon P.; Porter, Laurel; Salinas, Anna S.; Michalek, Joel E.; McManus, Linda M.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in skeletal muscle regeneration are controversial; comparisons of regenerative events between sexes have not been rigorously defined in severe injury models. We comprehensively quantified inflammation and muscle regeneration between sexes and manipulated sex-specific hormones to determine effects on regeneration. Cardiotoxin injury was induced in intact, castrated and ovariectomized female and male mice; ovariectomized mice were replaced with low- or high-dose 17-β estradiol (E2) or progesterone (P4). Extent of injury was comparable between intact mice, but females were more efficient in removal of necrotic debris, despite similar tissue levels of inflammatory cells and chemokines. Myofiber size during regeneration was equivalent between intact mice and after castration or ovariectomy (OVX) but was decreased (P < 0.001) in ovariectomized mice with high-dose E2 replacement. Intermuscular adipocytes were absent in uninjured muscle, whereas adipocyte area was increased among regenerated myofibers in all groups. Interestingly, intermuscular fat was greater (P = 0.03) in intact females at day 14 compared with intact males. Furthermore, castration increased (P = 0.01) and OVX decreased adipocyte accumulation. After OVX, E2, but not P4, replacement decreased (P ≤ 0.03) fat accumulation. In conclusion, sex-dependent differences in regeneration consisted of more efficient removal of necrosis and increased fat deposition in females with similar injury, inflammation, and regenerated myofiber size; high-dose E2 decreased myofiber size and fat deposition. Adipocyte accumulation in regenerating muscle was influenced by sex-specific hormones. Recovery following muscle injury was different between males and females, and sex-specific hormones contributed to these differences, suggesting that sex-specific treatments could be beneficial after injury. PMID:22116509

  16. Intramuscular sex steroid hormones are associated with skeletal muscle strength and power in women with different hormonal status

    PubMed Central

    Pöllänen, Eija; Kangas, Reeta; Horttanainen, Mia; Niskala, Paula; Kaprio, Jaakko; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Mouly, Vincent; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen (E2)-responsive peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle, may suffer from hormone deficiency after menopause potentially contributing to the aging of muscle. However, recently E2 was shown to be synthesized by muscle and its systemic and intramuscular hormone levels are unequal. The objective of the study was to examine the association between intramuscular steroid hormones and muscle characteristics in premenopausal women (n = 8) and in postmenopausal monozygotic twin sister pairs (n = 16 co-twins from eight pairs) discordant for the use of E2-based hormone replacement. Isometric skeletal muscle strength was assessed by measuring knee extension strength. Explosive lower body muscle power was assessed as vertical jump height. Due to sequential nature of enzymatic conversion of biologically inactive dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to testosterone (T) and subsequently to E2 or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), separate linear regression models were used to estimate the association of each hormone with muscle characteristics. Intramuscular E2, T, DHT, and DHEA proved to be significant, independent predictors of strength and power explaining 59–64% of the variation in knee extension strength and 80–83% of the variation of vertical jumping height in women (P < 0.005 for all models). The models were adjusted for age, systemic E2, and total body fat mass. The statistics used took into account the lack of statistical independence of twin sisters. Furthermore, muscle cells were shown to take up and actively synthesize hormones. Present study suggests intramuscular sex steroids to associate with strength and power regulation in female muscle providing novel insight to the field of muscle aging. PMID:25645687

  17. Sex differences in anxiety disorders: Interactions between fear, stress, and gonadal hormones.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Lisa Y; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Women are more vulnerable to stress- and fear-based disorders, such as anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing literature on this topic, the neural basis of these sex differences remains unclear, and the findings appear inconsistent. The neurobiological mechanisms of fear and stress in learning and memory processes have been extensively studied, and the crosstalk between these systems is beginning to explain the disproportionate incidence and differences in symptomatology and remission within these psychopathologies. In this review, we discuss the intersect between stress and fear mechanisms and their modulation by gonadal hormones and discuss the relevance of this information to sex differences in anxiety and fear-based disorders. Understanding these converging influences is imperative to the development of more effective, individualized treatments that take sex and hormones into account. PMID:25888456

  18. The role of nutrition and insulin in the regulation of sex hormone binding globulin.

    PubMed

    Franks, S; Kiddy, D S; Hamilton-Fairley, D; Bush, A; Sharp, P S; Reed, M J

    1991-11-01

    In an analysis of 263 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), 91 (35%) of whom were obese (body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2), it was found that obese women with PCOS were more likely to be anovulatory and had a higher prevalence of hirsutism than the non-obese subgroup. Although serum concentrations of gonadotrophins, androstenedione and total testosterone were similar in obese and lean women with PCO, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were significantly lower, and free testosterone correspondingly higher, in obese women. Serum concentrations of SHBG were inversely correlated with those of both fasting and glucose-stimulated insulin. A short-term, very-low-calorie diet resulted in a 2-fold increase in SHBG which was mirrored by a fall in serum insulin. Similar biochemical changes were also observed during a long-term (6-7 months) 1000 kcal diet and were associated with an improvement of menstrual function and fertility. This encourages the view that calorie restriction has an important part to play in the management of obese women with PCOS. PMID:1954173

  19. Age, sex, and reproductive hormone effects on brain serotonin-1A and serotonin-2A receptor binding in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Price, Julie C; Shah, Nilesh; Berga, Sarah; Sereika, Susan M; Fisher, Patrick M; Coleman, Rhaven; Becker, Carl; Mason, N Scott; Loucks, Tammy; Meltzer, Carolyn C

    2011-12-01

    There is a need for rigorous positron emission tomography (PET) and endocrine methods to address inconsistencies in the literature regarding age, sex, and reproductive hormone effects on central serotonin (5HT) 1A and 2A receptor binding potential (BP). Healthy subjects (n=71), aged 20-80 years, underwent 5HT1A and 2A receptor imaging using consecutive 90-min PET acquisitions with [(11)C]WAY100635 and [(18)F]altanserin. Logan graphical analysis was used to derive BP using atrophy-corrected distribution volume (V(T)) in prefrontal, mesiotemporal, occipital cortices, and raphe nucleus (5HT1A only). We used multivariate linear regression modeling to examine BP relationships with age, age(2), sex, and hormone concentrations, with post hoc regional significance set at p<0.008. There were small postsynaptic 5HT1A receptor BP increases with age and estradiol concentration in women (p=0.004-0.005) and a tendency for small 5HT1A receptor BP declines with age and free androgen index in men (p=0.05-0.06). Raphe 5HT1A receptor BP decreased 4.5% per decade of age (p=0.05), primarily in men. There was a trend for 15% receptor reductions in prefrontal cortical regions in women relative to men (post hoc p=0.03-0.10). The significant decline in 5HT2A receptor BP relative to age (8% per decade; p<0.001) was not related to sex or hormone concentrations. In conclusion, endocrine standardization minimized confounding introduced by endogenous hormonal fluctuations and reproductive stage and permitted us to detect small effects of sex, age, and endogenous sex steroid exposures upon 5HT1A binding. Reduced prefrontal cortical 5HT1A receptor BP in women vs men, but increased 5HT1A receptor BP with aging in women, may partially explain the increased susceptibility to affective disorders in women during their reproductive years that is mitigated in later life. 5HT1A receptor decreases with age in men might contribute to the known increased risk for suicide in men over age 75 years. Low

  20. Association Between Sex Hormones and Adiposity: Qualitative Differences in Women and Men in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Cheryl A. M.; Allison, Matthew A.; Ouyang, Pamela; Szklo, Moyses; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Woodward, Mark; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-01-01

    Context: Sex hormones may influence adipose tissue deposition, possibly contributing to sex disparities in cardiovascular disease risk. Objective: We hypothesized that associations of sex hormone levels with visceral and subcutaneous fat differ by sex. Design, Setting, and Participants: Participants were from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with sex hormone levels at baseline and visceral and subcutaneous fat measurements from computed tomography at visit 2 or 3 (n = 1835). Main Outcome Measures: Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the relationships between sex hormones and adiposity. Testing for interaction by sex, race/ethnicity, and age was conducted. Results: In adjusted models, there was a modest significant positive association between estradiol and visceral fat in both sexes (percent difference in visceral fat for 1% difference in hormone [95% confidence interval] in women, 5.44 [1.82, 9.09]; and in men, 8.22 [0.61, 16.18]). Higher bioavailable T was significantly associated with higher visceral and subcutaneous fat in women and with the reverse in men (women, 14.38 [10.23, 18.69]; men, −7.69 [−13.06, −1.00]). Higher dehydroepiandrosterone was associated with higher visceral fat in women (7.57 [1.71, 13.88]), but not in men (−2.47 [−8.88, 4.29]). Higher SHBG was associated with significantly lower levels of adiposity in both sexes (women, −24.42 [−28.11, −20.55]; men, −27.39 [−32.97, −21.34]). There was no significant interaction by race/ethnicity or age. Conclusion: Sex hormones are significantly associated with adiposity, and the associations of androgens differ qualitatively by sex. This heterogeneity may help explain the complexity of the contribution of sex hormones to sex differences in cardiovascular disease. PMID:25636047

  1. Sex differences and hormonal effects on gut microbiota composition in mice

    PubMed Central

    Org, Elin; Mehrabian, Margarete; Parks, Brian W.; Shipkova, Petia; Liu, Xiaoqin; Drake, Thomas A.; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously reported quantitation of gut microbiota in a panel of 89 different inbred strains of mice, and we now examine the question of sex differences in microbiota composition. When the total population of 689 mice was examined together, several taxa exhibited significant differences in abundance between sexes but a larger number of differences were observed at the single strain level, suggesting that sex differences can be obscured by host genetics and environmental factors. We also examined a subset of mice on chow and high fat diets and observed sex-by-diet interactions. We further investigated the sex differences using gonadectomized and hormone treated mice from 3 different inbred strains. Principal coordinate analysis with unweighted UniFrac distances revealed very clear effects of gonadectomy and hormone replacement on microbiota composition in all 3 strains. Moreover, bile acid analyses showed gender-specific differences as well as effects of gonodectomy, providing one possible mechanism mediating sex differences in microbiota composition. PMID:27355107

  2. Divergence in Sex Steroid Hormone Signaling between Sympatric Species of Japanese Threespine Stickleback

    PubMed Central

    Kitano, Jun; Kawagishi, Yui; Mori, Seiichi; Peichel, Catherine L.; Makino, Takashi; Kawata, Masakado; Kusakabe, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Sex steroids mediate the expression of sexually dimorphic or sex-specific traits that are important both for mate choice within species and for behavioral isolation between species. We investigated divergence in sex steroid signaling between two sympatric species of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus): the Japan Sea form and the Pacific Ocean form. These sympatric forms diverge in both male display traits and female mate choice behaviors, which together contribute to asymmetric behavioral isolation in sympatry. Here, we found that plasma levels of testosterone and 17β-estradiol differed between spawning females of the two sympatric forms. Transcript levels of follicle-stimulating hormone-β (FSHβ) gene were also higher in the pituitary gland of spawning Japan Sea females than in the pituitary gland of spawning Pacific Ocean females. By contrast, none of the sex steroids examined were significantly different between nesting males of the two forms. However, combining the plasma sex steroid data with testis transcriptome data suggested that the efficiency of the conversion of testosterone into 11-ketotestosterone has likely diverged between forms. Within forms, plasma testosterone levels in males were significantly correlated with male body size, a trait important for female mate choice in the two sympatric species. These results demonstrate that substantial divergence in sex steroid signaling can occur between incipient sympatric species. We suggest that investigation of the genetic and ecological mechanisms underlying divergence in hormonal signaling between incipient sympatric species will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of speciation in animals. PMID:22216225

  3. Effects of Cross-Sex Hormone Treatment on Transgender Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Bhakri, Vipra; Kubicek, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe weight, body mass index, blood pressure, lipids, and hormone levels in transgender women and men presenting for initiation of cross-sex hormone therapy at a community clinic in the United States. Methods Twenty three transgender women (persons assigned male at birth who identify as women and want to use estrogen to develop female secondary sex characteristics) and 34 transgender men (persons assigned female at birth who identify as women and want to use testosterone to develop male secondary sex characteristics) presenting for initiation of hormone therapy at a community health center were enrolled. Body mass index, blood pressure, lipids, and sex hormone levels were measured at baseline and 6 months. Persistence of menses at 6 months in transgender men was recorded. Results Sixteen transgender women and 31 transgender men completed the study. Baseline and 6 month median blood pressures and lipid values were within a normal clinical range. Median systolic blood pressure in transgender women dropped from baseline 130.5 mmHg (IQR 11.5) to 120.5 mmHg (IQR 15.5) at 6 months (p=.006). Testosterone levels remained elevated in 33% and estradiol levels were supratherapeutic in 19% of transgender women at 6 months. Median body mass index for transgender men was 29.1 kg/m2 (IQR 11.2) at baseline and (30.0 kg/m2 (IQR 11.4) at 6 months (p=.024). Six month total testosterone levels were subtherapeutic in 32% and estradiol levels remained elevated in 71% of transgender men. Conclusions In transgender women, estrogen therapy, with or without anti-androgen therapy, was associated with lower blood pressure. In transgender men, testosterone therapy was associated with increased body mass index. The study had insufficient power to detect other associations. Monitoring of hormone levels to guide therapy appears to be useful. PMID:25730222

  4. Sex differences and ovarian hormones in animal models of drug dependence.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Anker, Justin J

    2010-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the presence of sex differences in many aspects of drug abuse. Most studies reveal that females exceed males during the initiation, escalation, extinction, and reinstatement (relapse) of drug-seeking behavior, but males are more sensitive than females to the aversive effects of drugs such as drug withdrawal. Findings from human and animal research indicate that circulating levels of ovarian steroid hormones account for these sex differences. Estrogen (E) facilitates drug-seeking behavior, while progesterone (P) and its metabolite, allopregnanalone (ALLO), counteract the effects of E and reduce drug seeking. Estrogen and P influence other behaviors that are affiliated with drug abuse such as drug-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference. The enhanced vulnerability to drug seeking in females vs. males is also additive with the other risk factors for drug abuse (e.g., adolescence, sweet preference, novelty reactivity, and impulsivity). Finally, treatment studies using behavioral or pharmacological interventions, including P and ALLO, also indicate that females show greater treatment effectiveness during several phases of the addiction process. The neurobiological basis of sex differences in drug abuse appears to be genetic and involves the influence of ovarian hormones and their metabolites, the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, dopamine (DA), and gamma-hydroxy-butyric acid (GABA). Overall, sex and hormonal status along with other biological risk factors account for a continuum of addiction-prone and -resistant animal models that are valuable for studying drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:19818789

  5. Effect Modification of Obesity on Associations between Endogenous Steroid Sex Hormones and Arterial Calcification in Women at Midlife

    PubMed Central

    El Khoudary, Samar R.; Wildman, Rachel P.; Matthews, Karen; Powell, Lynda; Hollenberg, Steven M.; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine whether obesity modify the effects of endogenous steroid sex hormones on arterial calcification in women at midlife. Methods Associations between estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and free androgen index and the presence and extent of coronary and aortic calcification were evaluated in 187 obese (body mass index ≥30) and 281 non-obese (body mass index <30) women from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Logistic and linear regressions were used as appropriate. Results Prevalence rates of coronary and aortic calcification were significantly higher among obese compared to non-obese (P <0.001, for both). In multivariable analyses, steroid sex hormones were not associated with presence of coronary calcification. However, for extent of coronary calcification, significant interactions were found between obesity and both sex hormone binding globulin (P<0.0001) and free androgen index (P=0.008). In non-obese women, higher sex hormone binding globulin (P=0.0006) and lower free androgen index (P=0.01) were associated with greater extent of coronary calcification while lower sex hormone binding globulin was associated with greater extent of coronary calcification in obese women (P=0.05). For aortic calcification outcomes, higher sex hormone binding globulin was associated with presence of aortic calcification among non-obese (OR:1.64, 95%CI:1.16, 2.32, for each 1-SD greater sex hormone binding globulin). Conclusions Associations between endogenous steroid sex hormones and arterial calcification vary by obesity status among perimenopausal women. Further research is needed to better understand the possible mechanisms. PMID:21471825

  6. Sex differences in contaminant concentrations of fish: a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Rediske, Richard R; Krabbenhoft, David P; Stapanian, Martin A; Chernyak, Sergei M; O'Keefe, James P

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and total mercury (Hg) concentrations in mature males with those in mature females may provide insights into sex differences in behavior, metabolism, and other physiological processes. In eight species of fish, we observed that males exceeded females in whole-fish PCB concentration by 17 to 43 %. Based on results from hypothesis testing, we concluded that these sex differences were most likely primarily driven by a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from higher resting metabolic rate (or standard metabolic rate (SMR)) and higher swimming activity, in males compared with females. A higher rate of energy expenditure led to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, resulted in a higher rate of PCB accumulation. For two fish species, the growth dilution effect also made a substantial contribution to the sex difference in PCB concentrations, although the higher energy expenditure rate for males was still the primary driver. Hg concentration data were available for five of the eight species. For four of these five species, the ratio of PCB concentration in males to PCB concentration in females was substantially greater than the ratio of Hg concentration in males to Hg concentration in females. In sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a very primitive fish, the two ratios were nearly identical. The most plausible explanation for this pattern was that certain androgens, such as testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, enhanced Hg-elimination rate in males. In contrast, long-term elimination of PCBs is negligible for both sexes. According to this explanation, males not only ingest Hg at a higher rate than females but also eliminate Hg at a higher rate than females, in fish species other than sea lamprey. Male sea lamprey do not possess either of the above-specified androgens. These apparent sex differences in SMRs, activities, and Hg-elimination rates in teleost fishes may also apply, to some degree, to

  7. Hormones and sex differences: changes in cardiac electrophysiology with pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bett, Glenna C L

    2016-05-01

    Disruption of cardiac electrical activity resulting in palpitations and syncope is often an early symptom of pregnancy. Pregnancy is a time of dramatic and dynamic physiological and hormonal changes during which numerous demands are placed on the heart. These changes result in electrical remodelling which can be detected as changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG). This gestational remodelling is a very under-researched area. There are no systematic large studies powered to determine changes in the ECG from pre-pregnancy, through gestation, and into the postpartum period. The large variability between patients and the dynamic nature of pregnancy hampers interpretation of smaller studies, but some facts are consistent. Gestational cardiac hypertrophy and a physical shift of the heart contribute to changes in the ECG. There are also electrical changes such as an increased heart rate and lengthening of the QT interval. There is an increased susceptibility to arrhythmias during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Some changes in the ECG are clearly the result of changes in ion channel expression and behaviour, but little is known about the ionic basis for this electrical remodelling. Most information comes from animal models, and implicates changes in the delayed-rectifier channels. However, it is likely that there are additional roles for sodium channels as well as changes in calcium homoeostasis. The changes in the electrical profile of the heart during pregnancy and the postpartum period have clear implications for the safety of pregnant women, but the field remains relatively undeveloped. PMID:27128800

  8. Are hormonal contraceptive users more likely to misreport unprotected sex? Evidence from a biomarker validation study in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Sandra I.; Ralph, Lauren J.; Padian, Nancy S.; Minnis, Alexandra M.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed biomarker validation data of unprotected sex from women in Zimbabwe to determine whether condom and sexual behavior misreporting differs between users of different contraceptive methods. Self-reported sexual behavior was compared with the presence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in vaginal fluid, a biomarker of semen exposure. Of the 195 women who were PSA positive, 94 (48%) reported no sex or only condom-protected sex. Hormonal contraceptive users misreported sexual behavior less than women using non-hormonal methods (45% vs. 67%, P=0.03). This misclassification pattern could have implications on the elevated risk of HIV infection associated with hormonal contraception in some studies. PMID:24619603

  9. Are hormonal contraceptive users more likely to misreport unprotected sex? Evidence from a biomarker validation study in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Sandra I; Ralph, Lauren J; Padian, Nancy S; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2014-12-01

    We analyzed biomarker validation data of unprotected sex from women in Zimbabwe to determine whether condom and sexual behavior misreporting differs between users of different contraceptive methods. Self-reported sexual behavior was compared with the presence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in vaginal fluid, a biomarker of semen exposure. Of the 195 women who were PSA positive, 94 (48 %) reported no sex or only condom-protected sex. Hormonal contraceptive users misreported sexual behavior less than women using non-hormonal methods (45 vs. 67 %, P = 0.03). This misclassification pattern could have implications on the elevated risk of HIV infection associated with hormonal contraception in some studies. PMID:24619603

  10. Serum sex hormone levels are related to breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed Central

    Dorgan, J F; Longcope, C; Stephenson, H E; Falk, R T; Miller, R; Franz, C; Kahle, L; Campbell, W S; Tangrea, J A; Schatzkin, A

    1997-01-01

    We conducted a nested case-control study to prospectively evaluate the relationship of serum estrogens and androgens to risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. From 1977 to 1987, 3375 postmenopausal women free of cancer and not taking replacement estrogens donated blood to the Breast Cancer Serum Bank in Columbia, Missouri. Of these, 72 were subsequently diagnosed with breast cancer. For each case, two controls matched on age and date and time of day of blood collection were selected using incidence density matching. The median age of subjects at blood collection was 62 years; the time from blood collection to diagnosis ranged from less than 1 to 9.5 years with a median of 2.9 years. Risk of breast cancer was positively and significantly associated with serum levels of estrogens and androgens. Compared to women in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile for non-sex hormone-binding globulin (non-SHBG) bound (bioavailable) estradiol had a relative risk of 5.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-18.5) and those in the highest quartile for testosterone had a relative risk of 6.2 (95% CI = 2.0-19.0). Our results lend considerable support to the hypothesis that serum concentrations of estrogens and androgens are related to the subsequent diagnosis of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. PMID:9167999

  11. In silico identification of anthropogenic chemicals as ligands of zebrafish sex hormone binding globulin

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsteinson, Nels; Ban, Fuqiang; Santos-Filho, Osvaldo; Tabaei, Seyed M.H.; Miguel-Queralt, Solange; Underhill, Caroline; Cherkasov, Artem Hammond, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic compounds with the capacity to interact with the steroid-binding site of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) pose health risks to humans and other vertebrates including fish. Building on studies of human SHBG, we have applied in silico drug discovery methods to identify potential binders for SHBG in zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model aquatic organism. Computational methods, including; homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, virtual screening, and 3D QSAR analysis, successfully identified 6 non-steroidal substances from the ZINC chemical database that bind to zebrafish SHBG (zfSHBG) with low-micromolar to nanomolar affinities, as determined by a competitive ligand-binding assay. We also screened 80,000 commercial substances listed by the European Chemicals Bureau and Environment Canada, and 6 non-steroidal hits from this in silico screen were tested experimentally for zfSHBG binding. All 6 of these compounds displaced the [{sup 3}H]5{alpha}-dihydrotestosterone used as labeled ligand in the zfSHBG screening assay when tested at a 33 {mu}M concentration, and 3 of them (hexestrol, 4-tert-octylcatechol, and dihydrobenzo(a)pyren-7(8H)-one) bind to zfSHBG in the micromolar range. The study demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale in silico screening of anthropogenic compounds that may disrupt or highjack functionally important protein:ligand interactions. Such studies could increase the awareness of hazards posed by existing commercial chemicals at relatively low cost.

  12. Effect of tamoxifen on sex steroid concentrations in chicken ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Rzasa, Janusz; Sechman, Andrzej; Paczoska-Eliasiewicz, Helena; Hrabia, Anna

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of tamoxifen (TAM), an oestrogen receptor antagonist, on the concentrations of sex hormones in chicken ovarian follicles. The experiment was carried out on Hy-line hens which were randomly divided into two groups (control and experimental). TAM was given at a dose of 4 mg/hen (per os) at first once a day for 7 consecutive days, and subsequently four times a day for the next 6 days. Control hens received placebo. Birds were killed on the day after the last TAM treatment. From the dissected ovaries the following compartments were isolated: stroma with follicles < 1 mm, white non-hierarchical (1-4 mm and 4-8 mm) and yellow hierarchical follicles (F6-F1; 18-35 mm). The concentrations of the sex steroids progesterone (P4), testosterone (T) and oestradiol (E2) in the ovarian follicles were determined by radioimmunoassay. In the TAM-treated group, a gradual decrease in egg-laying rate was observed from the 4th day of the experiment. Eventually, egg laying stopped entirely on the 12th day of the experiment. TAM significantly decreased the weight of the ovary and affected the sex hormone concentrations in the ovarian follicles. Following TAM treatment (1) a significant increase in E2 and T concentrations in the stroma, white follicles and the F4 and F1 follicles, (2) a significant decrease in E2 and T concentrations in the F2 follicle, and (3) a significant decline of P4 in the F4 to F1 follicles were observed. The results indicate that the blockade of oestrogen receptors by TAM significantly modulates the process of chicken ovarian steroidogenesis. PMID:19457777

  13. The influence of sex hormones on UVB induced erythema in man.

    PubMed

    Jemec, G B; Heidenheim, M

    1995-05-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that sex hormones can modify the inflammatory response in a number of diseases. In a pilot study the influence of sex hormones on UV-induced inflammation, testing was done with oestradiol-17beta, testosterone and progesterone, as a double-blind vehicle-controlled study in 47 healthy volunteers. Inflammation was graded using laser-doppler velocimetry. Oestradiol (5 mg/100 g) was found to increase the inflammatory response significantly when compared with placebo or testosterone treated areas (P < 0.03). These findings support previous experimental and epidemiological observations of an increased inflammation following oestrogenic stimulation, and suggest that non-lymphocyte-mediated mechanisms may be involved as well. PMID:8664221

  14. Role of neuroinflammation and sex hormones in war-related PTSD.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Cristhian; Barreto, George E; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Echeverria, Valentina

    2016-10-15

    The susceptibility to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is greatly influenced by both innate and environmental risk factors. One of these factors is gender, with women showing higher incidence of trauma-related mental health disorders than their male counterparts. The evidence so far links these differences in susceptibility or resilience to trauma to the neuroprotective actions of sex hormones in reducing neuroinflammation after severe stress exposure. In this review, we discuss the impact of war-related trauma on the incidence of PTSD in civilian and military populations as well as differences associated to gender in the incidence and recovery from PTSD. In addition, the mutually influencing role of inflammation, genetic, and sex hormones in modulating the consequences derived from exposure to traumatic events are discussed in light of current evidence. PMID:27216917

  15. Influence of sex hormones and phytoestrogens on heart disease in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Bhupathy, Poornima; Haines, Christopher Dean; Leinwand, Leslie Anne

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in men and women worldwide. According to the WHO, by 2015, almost 20 million people will die from CVD each year. It is well established that men and women differ not only in baseline cardiac parameters, but also in the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment outcomes of CVD. Women tend to develop heart disease later in life than men. This difference has been attributed to the loss of estrogen during the menopausal transition; however, the biological explanations for the sexual dimorphism in CVD are more complex and seem unlikely to be due to estrogen alone. The current controversy that has arisen regarding the effects of HRT on CVD in women is a case in point. In this review, the sex-based differences in cardiac (patho-) physiology are discussed with emphasis on the impact of sex hormones, hormone receptors and diet on heart disease. PMID:20088732

  16. [Effects of sex hormone on the dilatation of urinary tubule and acidophil body in NON mice].

    PubMed

    Sahata, H; Suzuki, S; Ago, A; Mifune, H; Sakamoto, H

    1994-10-01

    The influences of sex hormones on the dilatation of the urinary tubules and acidophil bodies were histologically investigated in NON (Non-Obese Non-diabetic) mice. Although the dilatation of the proximal tubules and acidophil bodies in NON mice were observed only in female but not in male, a slight dilatation and a few bodies were also observed in castrated male NON mice. Moreover, in ovariectomized female NON mice the dilatation and bodies were less compared with intact female NON mice. Estradiol administration induced prominent dilatation and numerous acidophil bodies, while the administration of testosterone showed a complete preventive effect. Therefore, it is suggested that the dilatation of the tubules and the acidophil bodies can be profoundly influenced by sex hormones. PMID:7805803

  17. Prenatal and peripubertal phthalates and bisphenol A in relation to sex hormones and puberty in boys.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kelly K; Peterson, Karen E; Lee, Joyce M; Mercado-García, Adriana; Blank-Goldenberg, Clara; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M; Meeker, John D

    2014-08-01

    Phthalates and BPA are known endocrine disruptors and exposure in pregnant mothers and children is ubiquitous. We explored the relationship of prenatal and childhood exposures with pubertal onset and sex hormones in boys (ages 8-14). Phthalate metabolites and BPA were measured in maternal 3rd trimester or childhood urine. Sex hormones DHEAS, estradiol, inhibin B, SHBG, and total testosterone were measured in serum. Adrenarche and puberty were assessed by pediatrician. Prenatal exposure to some phthalates was associated with decreased DHEAS and inhibin B levels, and with increased SHBG. Prenatal exposure to most phthalates and BPA was associated with greatly reduced odds of adrenarche (odds ratios [OR]=0.12-0.65) and slightly reduced odds of puberty (OR=0.50-0.98). Childhood exposure was not associated with adrenarche or puberty, but some phthalates and BPA were associated with increased SHBG levels and decreased total and free testosterone levels. PMID:24945889

  18. Sex hormone therapy and progression of cardiovascular disease in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Alhurani, Rabe E; Chahal, C Anwar A; Ahmed, Ahmed T; Mohamed, Essa A; Miller, Virginia M

    2016-07-01

    One of the most controversial health decisions facing women is deciding upon the use of hormonal treatments for symptoms of menopause. This brief review focuses on the historical context of use of menopausal hormone treatments (MHT), summarizes results of major observational, primary and secondary prevention studies of MHT and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, provides evidence for how sex steroids modulate CV function and identifies challenges for future research. As medicine enters an era of personalization of treatment options, additional research into sex differences in the aetiology of CV diseases will lead to better risk identification for CV disease in women and identify whether a woman might receive CV benefit from specific formulations and doses of MHT. PMID:27215679

  19. Effect of increased photoperiod on hormone concentrations in thoroughbred stallions.

    PubMed

    Burns, P J; Jawad, M J; Edmundson, A; Cahill, C; Boucher, J K; Wilson, E A; Douglas, R H

    1982-01-01

    Stallions on two Central Kentucky farms (9/farm) were studied during the 1980 breeding season. On one farm stallions were exposed to an increased photoperiod (16 h light/day) from 1 December 1979; on the second farm the stallions were maintained in an ambient photoperiod. On the basis of matings per conception (total mating/mares in foal) stallions on each farm were assigned to a high fertility (1 . 9-2 . 4 matings per conception, N = 4) or low fertility (2 . 6-5 . 6 matings per conception, N = 5) group. Exposure of stallions to increased photoperiod significantly increased serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA), androstenedione, testosterone and oestrone by the start of the breeding season (16 February) while concentrations of oestradiol-17 beta and total oestrogens were similar in the two groups. LH was the only hormone significantly affected by the fertility of stallions, with LH concentrations consistently higher in the 'increased light-high fertility' stallions compared to the low basal concentration observed in the other 3 groups during the early breeding season (16 Feb.-31 March). FSH concentrations were not significantly affected by photoperiod or fertility, but appeared to be consistently higher in the 'increased light-high fertility' stallions than in the 'increased light-low fertility' stallions. The 'increased light-high fertility' stallions were mated to more mares than were stallions in the other 3 groups and differences in LH and FSH concentrations may therefore have been confounded with frequency of mating. Seasonal conception rates were unaffected by increased photoperiod. PMID:6820058

  20. Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations in Relation to Serum Thyroid and Reproductive Hormone Levels in Men from an Infertility Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, John D.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

    2010-01-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is widespread. Animal studies have demonstrated that BPA can alter endocrine function, but human studies are limited. For the present study, we measured urinary BPA concentrations and serum thyroid and reproductive hormone levels in 167 men recruited through an infertility clinic. BPA was detected in 89% of urine samples with a median (range) of 1.3 (<0.4 – 36.4) ng/mL. In multivariable regression models adjusted for potential confounders, BPA concentrations in urine collected on the same day as a blood sample were inversely associated with serum levels of inhibin B and estradiol:testosterone ratio (E2:T) and positively associated with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and FSH:inhibin B ratio. Because BPA is metabolized quickly and multiple urine measures may better reflect exposure than a single measure, we also considered among a subset of the men the BPA concentrations in repeated urine samples collected weeks or months following serum sample collection. In these analyses, the effect estimates remained consistent for FSH and E2:T but were somewhat weakened for inhibin B; in addition, we observed inverse relationships between urinary BPA and free androgen index (ratio of testosterone to sex hormone binding globulin), estradiol, and thyroid stimulating hormone. Our results suggest that BPA exposure may be associated with altered hormone levels in men, but these findings need to be substantiated through further research. PMID:20030380

  1. Relationships between age, body weight, physical fitness and sex-hormone-binding globulin capacity.

    PubMed

    Semmens, J B; Rouse, I L; Beilin, L J; Masarei, J R

    1983-10-14

    The associations between sex-hormone-binding globulin capacity (SHBG), age, body mass index (BMI), and physical fitness have been studied in 34 men and 36 women. Multivariate analysis was used to look for independent associations with SHBG. The data indicate that when controlled for a number of other factors SHBG levels are related, in men but not in women, to age (positively, p less than 0.001) and BMI (negatively, p less than 0.001). PMID:6685004

  2. Optical properties of two types of sex hormones of the cyclopentenephenanthrene series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshalkin, Yu. P.; Artyukhov, V. Ya.; Pomogaev, V. A.

    2003-09-01

    The spectral and luminescent characteristics of estradiol and testosterone—two basic sex hormones of the cyclopentenephenanthrene series—are calculated by employing quantum-chemical methods. The results of calculations are in good agreement with experimental data. It is shown that fluorescence observed in estrogens is associated with the occurrence of the lowest ππ state, while the absence of fluorescence in androgens is attributed to the existence of the lowest nπ state, from which fluorescence is forbidden.

  3. Growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone regulation by neuropeptide Y in both sexes of the cichlid fish, Cichlasoma dimerus.

    PubMed

    Di Yorio, M P; Delgadin, T H; Pérez Sirkin, D I; Vissio, P G

    2015-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is considered the most potent orexigenic peptide, increasing before meal time and during fasting. In teleost, most studies on NPY action upon growth hormone (GH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were conducted in females or group of animals without sex discrimination. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether NPY modulates the expression and release of GH and gonadotropins in both sexes of Cichlasoma dimerus. By double-label immunofluorescence, we first determined the association between NPY fibers and pituitary cells. In addition, we performed in vitro studies to evaluate the effect of NPY on GH and gonadotropins expression by real-time PCR, and release by Western blot, in males and females separately. Contacts between NPY fibers and GH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-producing cells were detected, indicating possible functional relationships. We observed an increase in GH release in the culture medium at 2 nM for males (p = 0.043) and 20 nM for females (p = 0.028). Pituitary FSH release was stimulated at 20 nM (p = 0.026) and 200 nM (p = 0.033) for males and females, respectively. Finally, NPY only increased β-LH mRNA expression at 20 nM in females (p = 0.028) and its release at 2 nM (p = 0.049) and 200 nM for males (p = 0.005) and 200 nM for females (p = 0.018). In conclusion, NPY acts as a GH-, LH- and FSH-releasing factor, in a dose- and sex-dependent way. PMID:25869217

  4. Caloric Restriction Effect on Proinflammatory Cytokines, Growth Hormone, and Steroid Hormone Concentrations during Exercise in Judokas.

    PubMed

    Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Souissi, Nizar; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction on the immune and hormonal responses during exercise in judo athletes. In a randomised order, 11 male judokas (age: 20.45 ± 0.51; height: 1.71 ± 0.3 m; and body weight: 75.9 ± 3.1 kg) participate in this study during a period of weight maintenance (baseline) and after 7 days of caloric restriction (CR). All subjects performed the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) during the two conditions. Values for nutrient intakes were obtained from a 7 d food record kept during a period of weight maintenance and after a 7-day food restriction (-5~6 MJ/day). Our results showed that CR resulted in significant decreases in body weight (P < 0.05) and performance (P < 0.05). However, heart rate and SJFT index (P < 0.05) increase significantly during CR in comparison to baseline. Moreover, exercise leads to a significant increase in testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), leukocytes, neutrophils, TNF-α, and IL-6, in both CR and baseline conditions. Compared to baseline, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher during CR condition (P < 0.05). Additionally, CR leads to an increase in cortisol and GH (P < 0.05) and a decrease in testosterone concentrations (P < 0.05). PMID:26075039

  5. Caloric Restriction Effect on Proinflammatory Cytokines, Growth Hormone, and Steroid Hormone Concentrations during Exercise in Judokas

    PubMed Central

    Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Souissi, Nizar; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction on the immune and hormonal responses during exercise in judo athletes. In a randomised order, 11 male judokas (age: 20.45 ± 0.51; height: 1.71 ± 0.3 m; and body weight: 75.9 ± 3.1 kg) participate in this study during a period of weight maintenance (baseline) and after 7 days of caloric restriction (CR). All subjects performed the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) during the two conditions. Values for nutrient intakes were obtained from a 7 d food record kept during a period of weight maintenance and after a 7-day food restriction (−5~6 MJ/day). Our results showed that CR resulted in significant decreases in body weight (P < 0.05) and performance (P < 0.05). However, heart rate and SJFT index (P < 0.05) increase significantly during CR in comparison to baseline. Moreover, exercise leads to a significant increase in testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), leukocytes, neutrophils, TNF-α, and IL-6, in both CR and baseline conditions. Compared to baseline, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher during CR condition (P < 0.05). Additionally, CR leads to an increase in cortisol and GH (P < 0.05) and a decrease in testosterone concentrations (P < 0.05). PMID:26075039

  6. Plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in mares treated with gondotropin-releasing hormone and estradiol.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M C; Ginther, O J

    1975-11-01

    Three experiments were performed to study the luteinizing hormone (LH) and ovulatory responses to various doses and methods of administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in estrous pony mares and the influence of estradiol-17beta (E2-17beta) on LH response to GnRH treatment. In experiment 1, single injections of synthetic GnRH were subcutaneously given to 5 groups of estrous (day 2) mares (3 mares/group) on a body weight basis as follows: group A--isotonic saline solution; group B--GnRH, 0.14 mug/kg; group C--GnRH, 0.28 mug/kg; group D--KGnRH, 0.59 mug/kg; and group E--GnRH, 2.37 mug/kg. Significant increase of plasma LH concentration lasting for approximately 2 hours occurred only in mares of group E given the largest dose of GnRH (2.37 mug/kg). Plasma LH concentration increase at 1 hour after treatment approached significane (P less than 0.10) in mares of group D given the next smaller dose. In experiment 2, GnRH (2.37 mug/kg) was intravenously infused for 24 hours to a group of 6 mares (group F); 6 other mares (group G) were given saline solution infusion. Mean plasma LH concentration was increased at 3 hours, continued to increase until 6 hours, and remained at approximately the 6-hour concentration throughout the period of GnRH infusion. In the 3rd experiment, 3 groups of mares (4 mares/group) were subcutaneously given the following treatments on days 2 and 3 of estrus, respectively: group H--corn oil and saline solution; group I--corn oil and GnRH, 0.59 mug/kg; and group J--estradiol-17beta, 0.5 mg, and GnRH, 0.59 mug/kg. Plasma LH response was not seen in group H mares given corn oil and saline solution. Mean plasma LH concentration at 1 hour after administration of GnRH approached significance (P less than 0.10) in group I mares given corn oil and GnRH. For the mares in group J given E2-17beta and GnRH, E2-17beta pretreatment increased plasma LH after 24 horus; significnat increases of plasma LH concentration were seen from 1 to 6 hours after

  7. Sex and stress hormone influences on the expression and activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Carbone, D L; Handa, R J

    2013-06-01

    The neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is recognized as a key component in the regulation of CNS ontogeny, homeostasis and adult neuroplasticity. The importance of BDNF in CNS development and function is well documented by numerous reports from animal studies linking abnormal BDNF signaling to metabolic disturbances and anxiety or depressive-like behavior. Despite the diverse roles for BDNF in nearly all aspects of CNS physiology, the regulation of BDNF expression, as well as our understanding of the signaling mechanisms associated with this neurotrophin, remains incomplete. However, links between sex hormones such as estradiol and testosterone, as well as endogenous and synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs), have emerged as important mediators of BDNF expression and function. Examples of such regulation include brain region-specific induction of Bdnf mRNA in response to estradiol. Additional studies have also documented regulation of the expression of the high-affinity BDNF receptor Tropomyosin-Related Kinase B by estradiol, thus implicating sex steroids not only in the regulation of BDNF expression, but also in mechanisms of signaling associated with it. In addition to gonadal steroids, further evidence also suggests functional interaction between BDNF and GCs, such as in the regulation of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and other important neuropeptides. In this review, we provide an overview of the roles played by selected sex or stress hormones in the regulation of BDNF expression and signaling in the CNS. PMID:23211562

  8. Effect of Cross-Sex Hormonal Replacement on Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Retroperitoneal Fat Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez Espejel, Rodrigo; Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Pavón, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    We report the effect of cross-sex hormonal replacement on antioxidant enzymes from rat retroperitoneal fat adipocytes. Eight rats of each gender were assigned to each of the following groups: control groups were intact female or male (F and M, resp.). Experimental groups were ovariectomized F (OvxF), castrated M (CasM), OvxF plus testosterone (OvxF + T), and CasM plus estradiol (CasM + E2) groups. After sacrifice, retroperitoneal fat was dissected and processed for histology. Adipocytes were isolated and the following enzymatic activities were determined: Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). Also, glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured. In OvxF, retroperitoneal fat increased and adipocytes were enlarged, while in CasM rats a decrease in retroperitoneal fat and small adipocytes are observed. The cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats was associated with larger adipocytes and a further decreased activity of Cu-Zn SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, and GSH, in addition to an increase in LPO. CasM + E2 exhibited the opposite effects showing further activation antioxidant enzymes and decreases in LPO. In conclusion, E2 deficiency favors an increase in retroperitoneal fat and large adipocytes. Cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats aggravates the condition by inhibiting antioxidant enzymes.

  9. Sex and Stress Hormone Influences on the Expression and Activity of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, David L.; Handa, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is recognized as a key component in the regulation of central nervous system ontogeny, homeostasis and adult neuroplasticity. The importance of BDNF in central nervous system development and function is well documented by numerous reports from animal studies linking abnormal BDNF signaling to metabolic disturbances and anxiety or depressive-like behavior. Despite the diverse roles for BDNF in nearly all aspects of central nervous system physiology, the regulation of BDNF expression, as well as our understanding of the signaling mechanisms associated with this neurotrophin, remains incomplete. However, links between sex hormones such as estradiol and testosterone, as well as endogenous and synthetic glucocorticoids, have emerged as important mediators of BDNF expression and function. Examples of such regulation include brain region-specific induction of Bdnf mRNA in response to estradiol. Additional studies have also documented regulation of the expression of the high-affinity BDNF receptor TrkB by estradiol, thus implicating sex steroids not only in the regulation of BDNF expression, but on mechanisms of signaling associated with it. In addition to gonadal steroids, further evidence also suggests functional interaction between BDNF and glucocorticoids, such as in the regulation of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and other important neuropeptides. In this review, we provide an overview of the roles played by selected sex or stress hormones in the regulation of BDNF expression and signaling in the central nervous system PMID:23211562

  10. Sex-specific regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion by synaptotagmin 9

    PubMed Central

    Roper, Lindsey K.; Briguglio, Joseph S.; Evans, Chantell S.; Jackson, Meyer B.; Chapman, Edwin R.

    2015-01-01

    The anterior pituitary releases six different hormones that control virtually all aspects of vertebrate physiology, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying their Ca2+-triggered release remain unknown. A subset of the synaptotagmin (syt) family of proteins serve as Ca2+ sensors for exocytosis in neurons and neuroendocrine cells, and are thus likely to regulate pituitary hormone secretion. Here we show that numerous syt isoforms are highly expressed in the pituitary gland in a lobe, and sex-specific manner. We further investigated a Ca2+-activated isoform, syt-9, and found that it is expressed in a subpopulation of anterior pituitary cells, the gonadotropes. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and syt-9 are highly co-localized in female, but not male, mice. Loss of syt-9 results in diminished basal and stimulated FSH secretion only in females, resulting in alterations in the oestrus cycle. This work uncovers a new function for syt-9 and reveals a novel sex difference in reproductive hormone secretion. PMID:26482442

  11. Effects of α-zearalanol on spermatogenesis and sex hormone levels of male mice

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Cunxiang; Zhao, Wei; Jia, Qiang; Yang, Zhifeng; Sai, Linlin; Zhang, Fang; Du, Zhongjun; Yu, Gongchang; Xie, Lin; Zhang, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the mechanisms of α-zearalanol (Zeranol)-induced male reproductive toxicity, the effects of Zeranol on spermatogenesis and sex hormone levels of male mice were studied. Methods: Forty healthy sexually mature male Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups. The mice were mock-treated or treated with Zeranol 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg via oral gavage for 35 days. The epididymal sperms were counted and their morphology and motility were analyzed. The testicles were examined by light and electron microscopy. The levels of serum/testicular testosterone (T), serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and serum luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined by radioimmunoassay. Results: Zeranol decreased the epididymal sperm count and sperm motility in a dose depend manner. While there were not significant differences in the sperm malformation rates between the Zeranol treated groups and the control group. Furthermore, Zeranol could decrease the weight and the organ coefficient of the seminal vesicles and the testicles and lead to significant pathological changes of the testicles. Zeranol could also decrease the levels of serum T, FSH, LH as well as the levels of testicular T of male mice. Conclusions: Zeranol induced reproductive toxicity in adult male mice. It could damage spermatogenesis via its direct effects on the testicles and interfere with sex hormone levels of male mice through its effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. PMID:26884912

  12. Sex steroid hormones regulate constitutive expression of Cyp2e1 in female mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jie; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    CYP2E1 is of paramount toxicological significance because it metabolically activates a large number of low-molecular-weight toxicants and carcinogens. In this context, factors that interfere with Cyp2e1 regulation may critically affect xenobiotic toxicity and carcinogenicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of female steroid hormones in the regulation of CYP2E1, as estrogens and progesterone are the bases of contraceptives and hormonal replacement therapy in menopausal women. Interestingly, a fluctuation in the hepatic expression pattern of Cyp2e1 was revealed in the different phases of the estrous cycle of female mice, with higher Cyp2e1 expression at estrus (E) and lower at methestrus (ME), highly correlated with that in plasma gonadal hormone levels. Depletion of sex steroids by ovariectomy repressed Cyp2e1 expression to levels similar to those detected in males and cyclic females at ME. Hormonal supplementation brought Cyp2e1 expression back to levels detected at E. The role of progesterone appeared to be more prominent than that of 17β-estradiol. Progesterone-induced Cyp2e1 upregulation could be attributed to inactivation of the insulin/PI3K/Akt/FOXO1 signaling pathway. Tamoxifen, an anti-estrogen, repressed Cyp2e1 expression potentially via activation of the PI3K/Akt/FOXO1 and GH/STAT5b-linked pathways. The sex steroid hormone-related changes in hepatic Cyp2e1 expression were highly correlated with those observed in Hnf-1α, β-catenin, and Srebp-1c. In conclusion, female steroid hormones are clearly involved in the regulation of CYP2E1, thus affecting the metabolism of a plethora of toxicants and carcinogenic agents, conditions that may trigger several pathologies or exacerbate the outcomes of various pathophysiological states. PMID:23548611

  13. Age, Sex, and Reproductive Hormone Effects on Brain Serotonin-1A and Serotonin-2A Receptor Binding in a Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Price, Julie C; Shah, Nilesh; Berga, Sarah; Sereika, Susan M; Fisher, Patrick M; Coleman, Rhaven; Becker, Carl; Mason, N Scott; Loucks, Tammy; Meltzer, Carolyn C

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for rigorous positron emission tomography (PET) and endocrine methods to address inconsistencies in the literature regarding age, sex, and reproductive hormone effects on central serotonin (5HT) 1A and 2A receptor binding potential (BP). Healthy subjects (n=71), aged 20–80 years, underwent 5HT1A and 2A receptor imaging using consecutive 90-min PET acquisitions with [11C]WAY100635 and [18F]altanserin. Logan graphical analysis was used to derive BP using atrophy-corrected distribution volume (VT) in prefrontal, mesiotemporal, occipital cortices, and raphe nucleus (5HT1A only). We used multivariate linear regression modeling to examine BP relationships with age, age2, sex, and hormone concentrations, with post hoc regional significance set at p<0.008. There were small postsynaptic 5HT1A receptor BP increases with age and estradiol concentration in women (p=0.004–0.005) and a tendency for small 5HT1A receptor BP declines with age and free androgen index in men (p=0.05–0.06). Raphe 5HT1A receptor BP decreased 4.5% per decade of age (p=0.05), primarily in men. There was a trend for 15% receptor reductions in prefrontal cortical regions in women relative to men (post hoc p=0.03–0.10). The significant decline in 5HT2A receptor BP relative to age (8% per decade; p<0.001) was not related to sex or hormone concentrations. In conclusion, endocrine standardization minimized confounding introduced by endogenous hormonal fluctuations and reproductive stage and permitted us to detect small effects of sex, age, and endogenous sex steroid exposures upon 5HT1A binding. Reduced prefrontal cortical 5HT1A receptor BP in women vs men, but increased 5HT1A receptor BP with aging in women, may partially explain the increased susceptibility to affective disorders in women during their reproductive years that is mitigated in later life. 5HT1A receptor decreases with age in men might contribute to the known increased risk for suicide in men over age 75 years. Low

  14. Sex and gonadal hormones in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease: what is relevant to the human condition?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Biologic sex and gonadal hormones matter in human aging and diseases of aging such as Alzheimer’s – and the importance of studying their influences relates directly to human health. The goal of this article is to review the literature to date on sex and hormones in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with an exclusive focus on interpreting the relevance of findings to the human condition. To this end, we highlight advances in AD and in sex and hormone biology, discuss what these advances mean for merging the two fields, review the current mouse model literature, raise major unresolved questions, and offer a research framework that incorporates human reproductive aging for future studies aimed at translational discoveries in this important area. Unraveling human relevant pathways in sex and hormone-based biology may ultimately pave the way to novel and urgently needed treatments for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23126652

  15. Electro-mechanical dysfunction in long QT syndrome: Role for arrhythmogenic risk prediction and modulation by sex and sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Lang, C N; Menza, M; Jochem, S; Franke, G; Perez Feliz, S; Brunner, M; Koren, G; Zehender, M; Bugger, H; Jung, B A; Foell, D; Bode, C; Odening, K E

    2016-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a congenital arrhythmogenic channelopathy characterized by impaired cardiac repolarization. Increasing evidence supports the notion that LQTS is not purely an "electrical" disease but rather an "electro-mechanical" disease with regionally heterogeneously impaired electrical and mechanical cardiac function. In the first part, this article reviews current knowledge on electro-mechanical (dys)function in LQTS, clinical consequences of the observed electro-mechanical dysfunction, and potential underlying mechanisms. Since several novel imaging techniques - Strain Echocardiography (SE) and Magnetic Resonance Tissue Phase Mapping (TPM) - are applied in clinical and experimental settings to assess the (regional) mechanical function, advantages of these non-invasive techniques and their feasibility in the clinical routine are particularly highlighted. The second part provides novel insights into sex differences and sex hormone effects on electro-mechanical cardiac function in a transgenic LQT2 rabbit model. Here we demonstrate that female LQT2 rabbits exhibit a prolonged time to diastolic peak - as marker for contraction duration and early relaxation - compared to males. Chronic estradiol-treatment enhances these differences in time to diastolic peak even more and additionally increases the risk for ventricular arrhythmia. Importantly, time to diastolic peak is particularly prolonged in rabbits exhibiting ventricular arrhythmia - regardless of hormone treatment - contrasting with a lack of differences in QT duration between symptomatic and asymptomatic LQT2 rabbits. This indicates the potential added value of the assessment of mechanical dysfunction in future risk stratification of LQTS patients. PMID:26718598

  16. Effects of 17 α-methyltestosterone on transcriptome, gonadal histology and sex steroid hormones in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiancao; Liu, Shaozhen; Zhang, Yingying; Yang, Yanping; Yuan, Cong; Chen, Shu; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-09-01

    The 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), a synthetic androgen, is known for its interference effects on the endocrine system. Aiming to investigate the transcriptome profiling of gonads induced by MT and to understand the molecular mechanism by which MT causes adverse effects in fish, transcriptome profiling of gonads, gonadal histology and the sex steroid hormones in response to MT were analyzed in Gobiocypris rarus. Eight libraries, 4 from the ovary and 4 from the testis, were constructed and sequenced and then a total number of clean reads per sample ranging from 7.03 to 9.99 million were obtained. In females, a total of 191 transcripts were differentially regulated by MT, consisting of 102 up-regulated transcripts and 89 down-regulated transcripts. In males, 268 differentially expressed genes with 108 up-regulated and 160 down-regulated were detected upon MT exposure. Testosterone serves as the major sex steroid hormone content in G. rarus of both sexes. The concentrations of 17β-estradiol, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone were significantly increased in females and decreased in males after MT exposure. Interestingly, MT caused a decreased number of vitellogenic oocytes in the ovary and spermatozoa in the testis. After MT exposure, four differentially expressed genes (ndufa4, slc1a3a, caskin-2 and rpt3) were found in G. rarus of both sexes. Overall, we suggest that MT seemed to affect genes involved in pathways related to physiological processes in the gonads of G. rarus. These processes include the electron transfer of Complex IV, endothelial cell activation, axon growth and guidance, and proteasome assembly and glutamate transport metabolic. PMID:26070167

  17. Lower sex hormone levels are associated with more chronic musculoskeletal pain in community-dwelling elderly women.

    PubMed

    de Kruijf, Marjolein; Stolk, Lisette; Zillikens, M Carola; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Hofman, Albert; Huygen, Frank J P M; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Meurs, Joyce B J

    2016-07-01

    Chronic pain is more prevalent in women than in men, with increasing differences between sexes in advanced age. This could be caused by differences in sex hormone levels. We therefore studied the relationship between sex hormones and the prevalence and incidence of chronic pain. The association between sex hormone levels and chronic pain was examined in 9717 participants aged 45 years and older from the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study. Chronic pain was defined as pain in the lower back, hands, knees and/or hips for at least 3 months. Sex hormone levels included estrogen, testosterone, androstenedione, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone. Relationships between hormones and prevalent and new onset chronic pain were analyzed using linear and logistic regression, stratified by gender. Women with androstenedione or estradiol levels in the lowest tertile had more chronic pain (odds ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03-1.39 and odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.10-1.48, respectively). Mean estradiol levels were lower among men with chronic pain (mean difference -3.88 pmol/L; P = 0.005). Lowest tertile 17-hydroxyprogesterone in women was associated with 38% more new onset pain. All these associations were independent from age, body mass index, health and lifestyle factors, and osteoarthritis. Lower sex hormone levels are associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain, independent from lifestyle and health-related factors, in community-dwelling elderly women. These results suggest that sex hormones play a role in chronic pain and should be taken into account when a patient presents with chronic pain. Therefore, sex hormones may be a potential treatment target for these patients. PMID:27331348

  18. [Regulation of the differentiation and proliferation of smooth muscle cells by the sex hormones].

    PubMed

    Guiochon-Mantel, A

    2000-06-01

    Steroids effects are mediated by their receptors. These proteins define the large family of steroid hormone receptors, characterized by the presence of 3 functional domains: a transactivation domain, a DNA-binding domain and a ligand-binding domain. Receptor activation induces the modulation of transcription of specific genes, and as a consequence, the modulation of production of specific proteins. Sex steroid receptors are located in the nucleus. This nuclear localization is in fact a dynamic situation, resulting from a continuous shuttling of the receptor between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. The recent discovery that an additional estrogen receptor is present in various tissues has advanced our understanding of the mechanism underlying estrogen signalling. Non genomic effects of steroids have also been described. Sex steroids inhibit proliferation of smooth muscle cells. On the contrary, they stimulate proliferation of tumoral muscle cells. The mechanisms of sex steroid effects on cellular proliferation are complex, and may involve transcriptional or non transcriptional phenomena. PMID:10939122

  19. Exposure to Bisphenol AF disrupts sex hormone levels and vitellogenin expression in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Yuchen; Li, Jia; Chen, Minjie; Peng, Di; Liang, Yong; Song, Maoyong; Zhang, Jie; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-03-01

    Bisphenol AF (BPAF) is widely used in food-contact products, electronic devices, and as a cross-linking reagent in fluoroelastomers. There are growing concerns about its toxicity and endocrine-disrupting effects based on its structural similarity with bisphenol A (BPA). The endocrine-disrupting effects of BPAF were studied by exposing 2-month-old zebrafish to 0, 0.05, 0.25, or 1 mg/L BPAF for 28 days and evaluating the effect on growth, histopathology, hormone levels, enzyme activity, and gene expression. The overall fitness was not significantly affected. There were no apparent alterations in the gills and intestine tissues of both sexes after BPAF exposure. However, exposure to 1 mg/L BPAF caused damage to the liver in the male fish, characterized by hepatocellular swelling and vacuolation. There was no obvious effect in the liver of female fish, suggesting that the hepatic toxicity of BPAF is gender dependent. Gonadal examination indicated that exposure to 1 mg/L BPAF caused induction of acellular areas in the testis and retardation of oocyte development in the ovary. BPAF exposure increased free triiodothyronine levels of females in a dose-dependent manner. In males, the testosterone levels decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, estradiol levels increased in a concentration-dependent manner and were significantly higher in males exposed to 1 mg/L BPAF compared with the controls. In females, 0.05 and 0.25 mg/L BPAF caused an increase in testosterone levels. Furthermore, the estradiol levels increased in females exposed to 0.05 and 1 mg/L. We observed an upregulation of hepatic vitellogenin in both sexes and significantly higher levels in males exposed to 1 mg/L BPAF and females exposed to 0.25 mg/L BPAF, suggesting that BPAF has an estrogenic activity. Our results indicate that BPAF is an endocrine-disrupting chemical that exerts reproductive toxicity and estrogenic effects on zebrafish. PMID:25213402

  20. Time required for sex change in teleost fishes: Hormonal dynamics shaped by selection.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Sachi

    2016-10-21

    Bidirectional sex change is observed in many teleost fish. When social conditions change, the sex transition may take place over a period of several days to a few months. To understand temporal differences for sex change in either direction, I propose a simple mathematical model for the hormone-enzyme dynamics. Aromatase (P450arom) catalyses the synthesis of estradiol from testosterone. I assume that a change in social conditions for individuals affects the rates of production and degradation of P450arom. I then consider the evolution of parameters in the dynamics. Optimal parameter values are those that minimize total fitness cost, defined as the sum of fitness losses due to delay in being a functional male or female, and the cost of accelerated degradation of P450arom in changing from female to male sex. The model predicts that, in haremic species, sex change promotes a faster degradation of P450arom, resulting in a faster female-to-male transition than male-to-female transition. In contrast, in monogamous species, or with a small number of females, there is no benefit in a faster degradation of P450arom when changing to male, resulting in approximately equal timespans for sex change in either direction. PMID:27422138

  1. Sex Steroid Hormones Matter for Learning and Memory: Estrogenic Regulation of Hippocampal Function Inmale and Female Rodents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Karyn M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17ß-estradiol (E[subscript 2]), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes…

  2. The Role of Sex Hormone Replacement Therapy on Self-Perceived Competence in Adolescents with Delayed Puberty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Jacqueline; Kulin, Howard E.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Finkelstein, Jordan W.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Kunselman, Susan J.; Liben, Lyye S.; D'Arcangelo, M. Rose; Demers, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined role of sex steroids in development of self-perceived competence among adolescents receiving hormone therapy for delayed puberty. Found that hormone treatments had a significant positive effect for both males and females in perceived job competence. Significant positive effects were also obtained for perceptions of romantic appeal and…

  3. Sex differences in diurnal rhythms of food intake in mice caused by gonadal hormones and complement of sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuqi; Wang, Lixin; Loh, Dawn H; Colwell, Christopher S; Taché, Yvette; Reue, Karen; Arnold, Arthur P

    2015-09-01

    We measured diurnal rhythms of food intake, as well as body weight and composition, while varying three major classes of sex-biasing factors: activational and organizational effects of gonadal hormones, and sex chromosome complement (SCC). Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice, comprising XX and XY gonadal males and XX and XY gonadal females, were either gonad-intact or gonadectomized (GDX) as adults (2.5months); food intake was measured second-by-second for 7days starting 5weeks later, and body weight and composition were measured for 22weeks thereafter. Gonadal males weighed more than females. GDX increased body weight/fat of gonadal females, but increased body fat and reduced body weight of males. After GDX, XX mice had greater body weight and more fat than XY mice. In gonad-intact mice, males had greater total food intake and more meals than females during the dark phase, but females had more food intake and meals and larger meals than males during the light phase. GDX reduced overall food intake irrespective of gonad type or SCC, and eliminated differences in feeding between groups with different gonads. Diurnal phase of feeding was influenced by all three sex-biasing variables. Gonad-intact females had earlier onset and acrophase (peak) of feeding relative to males. GDX caused a phase-advance of feeding, especially in XX mice, leading to an earlier onset of feeding in GDX XX vs. XY mice, but earlier acrophase in GDX males relative to females. Gonadal hormones and SCC interact in the control of diurnal rhythms of food intake. PMID:26226656

  4. PCB concentrations of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) vary by sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Ebener, Mark P.; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 26 female lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and 34 male lake whitefish from northern Lake Huron. In 5 of the 26 female lake whitefish, we also determined PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 60 ng/g and 80 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 34% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Based on the PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 2.5%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain, to any degree, the higher PCB concentrations observed in males compared with females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being only 0.7% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the growth dilution effect contributed very little to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. We conclude that males were higher than females in PCB concentration most likely due to a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate. A higher rate of energy expenditure leads to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, leads to a higher PCB accumulation rate.

  5. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of estrogens and androgens in

  6. Gonadal steroid hormone receptors and sex differences in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Handa, R J; Burgess, L H; Kerr, J E; O'Keefe, J A

    1994-12-01

    The rapid activation of stress-responsive neuroendocrine systems is a basic reaction of animals to perturbations in their environment. One well-established response is that of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In rats, corticosterone is the major adrenal steroid secreted and is released in direct response to adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secreted from the anterior pituitary gland. ACTH in turn is regulated by the hypothalamic factor, corticotropin-releasing hormone. A sex difference exists in the response of the HPA axis to stress, with females reacting more robustly than males. It has been demonstrated that in both sexes, products of the HPA axis inhibit reproductive function. Conversely, the sex differences in HPA function are in part due to differences in the circulating gonadal steroid hormone milieu. It appears that testosterone can act to inhibit HPA function, whereas estrogen can enhance HPA function. One mechanism by which androgens and estrogens modulate stress responses is through the binding to their cognate receptors in the central nervous system. The distribution and regulation of androgen and estrogen receptors within the CNS suggest possible sites and mechanisms by which gonadal steroid hormones can influence stress responses. In the case of androgens, data suggest that the control of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus is mediated trans-synaptically. For estrogen, modulation of the HPA axis may be due to changes in glucocorticoid receptor-mediated negative feedback mechanisms. The results of a variety of studies suggest that gonadal steroid hormones, particularly testosterone, modulate HPA activity in an attempt to prevent the deleterious effects of HPA activation on reproductive function. PMID:7729815

  7. Sex difference in polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations of walleyes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Trombka, Autumn W.; Rediske, Richard R.; Jude, David J.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations were determined for mature male and mature female walleyes (Sander vitreus) sampled from the Saginaw Bay population during 2007. PBDE concentrations in prey fish caught in the Saginaw River, the primary tributary to Saginaw Bay, and in Saginaw Bay during 2005 and 2007 also were determined. Mature male and mature female walleyes averaged 70.3 ng/g and 24.8 ng/g, respectively, in ΣPBDE, which was equal to the sum of concentrations of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, and BDE-154). This sex difference was likely due to males spending more time in the Saginaw River system than females. Prey fish captured in the Saginaw River were roughly ten times higher in ΣPBDE than those caught in Saginaw Bay. BDE-47 was the predominant congener in both walleyes and prey fish, and this congener contributed about 50%, on average, to ΣPBDE. Congener profiles differed significantly between the two sexes of walleyes. In contrast, congener profiles of the prey fish did not differ significantly between the river-caught fish and the bay-caught fish. One plausible explanation for these congener profile results was that net trophic transfer efficiencies of PBDEs to walleyes from their prey were similar for all congeners except BDE-28, and that diet composition differed between the two sexes of walleyes.

  8. Sex differences, hormones, and fMRI stress response circuitry deficits in psychoses

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Jill M.; Lancaster, Katie; Longenecker, Julia M.; Abbs, Brandon; Holsen, Laura M.; Cherkerzian, Sara; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Makris, Nicolas; Tsuang, Ming T.; Buka, Stephen L.; Seidman, Larry J.; Klibanski, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Psychosis involves dysregulation of response to stress, particularly to negative valence stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of psychosis have shown hyperactivity in hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices. Sex differences in these deficits may be associated with steroid hormone pathway abnormalities, i.e., dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal and -gondal axes. We predicted abnormal steroid hormone levels in psychosis cases would be associated with hyperactivity in hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus, and hypoactivity in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices in a sex-dependent way, with more severe deficits in men than women with psychosis. We studied 32 psychosis cases (50.0% women) and 39 controls (43.6% women) using a novel visual stress challenge while collecting blood throughout functional magnetic resonance imaging procedures. Males with psychosis showed hyperactivity across all hypothesized regions, including the hypothalamus and anterior cingulate cortex by family-wise corrected significance. Females showed hyperactivity in the hippocampus and amygdala and hypoactivity in orbital and medial prefrontal cortices, the latter by family-wise correction. Interaction of case status by sex was significant in the medial prefrontal cortex and, marginally so, in the left orbitofrontal cortex, with female cases (vs. healthy females and males) exhibiting the lowest activity. Male and female cases compared with their healthy counterparts were hypercortisolemic, which was associated with hyperactivity in prefrontal cortices in male cases and hypoactivity in female cases. This was further associated, respectively, with low bioavailable testosterone in male cases and low estradiol in female cases. Findings suggest disruptions in neural-hormone associations in response to stress are sex-dependent in psychosis, particularly in the prefrontal cortex. PMID

  9. The Influence of Sex Steroid Hormones in the Immunopathology of Experimental Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bini, Estela Isabel; Mata Espinosa, Dulce; Marquina Castillo, Brenda; Barrios Payán, Jorge; Colucci, Darío; Cruz, Alejandro Francisco; Zatarain, Zyanya Lucía; Alfonseca, Edgar; Pardo, Marta Romano; Bottasso, Oscar; Pando, Rogelio Hernández

    2014-01-01

    The relation between men and women suffering pulmonary tuberculosis is 7/3 in favor to males. Sex hormones could be a significant factor for this difference, considering that testosterone impairs macrophage activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines production, while estrogens are proinflammatory mediator’s inducer. The aim of this work was to compare the evolution of tuberculosis in male and female mice using a model of progressive disease. BALB/c mice, male and female were randomized into two groups: castrated or sham-operated, and infected by the intratracheal route with a high dose of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv. Mice were euthanized at different time points and in their lungs were determined bacilli loads, inflammation, cytokines expression, survival and testosterone levels in serum. Non-castrated male mice showed significant higher mortality and bacilli burdens during late disease than female and castrated male animals. Compared to males, females and castrated males exhibited significant higher inflammation in all lung compartments, earlier formation of granulomas and pneumonia, while between castrated and non-castrated females there were not significant differences. Females and castrated males expressed significant higher TNF-α, IFN γ, IL12, iNOS and IL17 than non-castrated males during the first month of infection. Serum Testosterone of males showed higher concentration during late infection. Orchidectomy at day 60 post-infection produced a significant decrease of bacilli burdens in coexistence with higher expression of TNFα, IL-12 and IFNγ. Thus, male mice are more susceptible to tuberculosis than females and this was prevented by castration suggesting that testosterone could be a tuberculosis susceptibility factor. PMID:24722144

  10. Enhanced transdermal delivery of sex hormones in swine with a novel topical aerosol.

    PubMed

    Morgan, T M; Parr, R A; Reed, B L; Finnin, B C

    1998-10-01

    This study investigated the enhanced transdermal delivery of testosterone (Tes) and estradiol (E2) in swine in vivo with novel metered-dose topical aerosols containing the penetration enhancer padimate O (PadO) and predicted the dose deliverable in humans from the calculated drug flux across the skin. Weanling swine were catheterized and castrated under general anaesthesia and used as a conscious hypogonadal model. Tes and E2 (with and without PadO) were applied once, and venous blood samples were taken over 24 h. Tes and E2 plasma levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. After daily topical dosing of Tes for 6 days, the plasma Tes levels were determined and the transdermal flux was calculated by correcting the pseudo steady-state plasma concentration versus time profile with the clearance of an iv dose within the same swine. After a single application of the E2 aerosol over 30 cm2, or the Tes aerosol over 180 cm2, the mean AUC0-24 h when PadO was included in the spray was 14.1- and 2.0-fold greater than control, respectively (p < 0.03). After the sixth application of the Tes spray with PadO, the mean flux (+/-SE, n = 4) across swine skin in vivo was 2.12 +/- 0.35 microg/cm2.h, which gave a predicted flux in humans of 0.95 microg/cm2.h. From these data the expected plasma levels of Tes in hypogonadal men would compare well with the normal diurnal Tes profile in healthy men. These novel topical aerosols are capable of enhanced transdermal delivery of sex hormones in vivo, and they have the potential to deliver clinically relevant doses to humans. PMID:9758680

  11. Diverse Roles for Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin in Reproduction1

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Geoffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) transports androgens and estrogens in blood and regulates their access to target tissues. Hepatic production of SHBG fluctuates throughout the life cycle and is influenced primarily by metabolic and hormonal factors. Genetic differences also contribute to interindividual variations in plasma SHBG levels. In addition to controlling the plasma distribution, metabolic clearance, and bioavailability of sex steroids, SHBG accumulates in the extravascular compartments of some tissues and in the cytoplasm of specific epithelial cells, where it exerts novel effects on androgen and estrogen action. In mammals, the gene-encoding SHBG is expressed primarily in the liver but also at low levels in other tissues, including the testis. In subprimate species, Shbg expression in Sertoli cells is under the control of follicle-stimulating hormone and produces the androgen-binding protein that influences androgen actions in the seminiferous tubules and epididymis. In humans, the SHBG gene is not expressed in Sertoli cells, but its expression in germ cells produces an SHBG isoform that accumulates in the acrosome. In fish, Shbg is produced by the liver but has a unique function in the gill as a portal for natural steroids and xenobiotics, including synthetic steroids. However, salmon have retained a second, poorly conserved Shbg gene that is expressed only in ovary, muscle, and gill and that likely exerts specialized functions in these tissues. The present review compares the production and functions of SHBG in different species and its diverse effects on reproduction. PMID:21613632

  12. Light exposure at night, sleep duration and sex hormone levels in pregnant Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Wada, Keiko; Nagata, Chisato; Nakamura, Kozue; Iwasa, Shinichi; Shiraki, Makoto; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    The association between light exposure at night and sex hormone levels in utero has scarcely reported. We assessed the associations between sleep duration or being awake in the late evening hours, which can be as indicator of light exposure at night, and the maternal and umbilical blood hormone levels during pregnancy and at delivery among Japanese women. The data for 236 women and their newborns who visited a maternal clinic in Gifu, Japan, between May 2000 and October 2001 were analyzed. Maternal blood samples were obtained at approximately the 10th weeks, 29th weeks of gestation, and at delivery. Umbilical cord artery blood was immediately drawn after birth. Information for sleep during pregnancy was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The levels of estradiol and testosterone were measured using radioimmunoassay. Maternal serum testosterone level in the 10th week was higher among those who were awake at or after 1:00 a.m. than among those who were asleep at that time (P = 0.032). Maternal estradiol level in the 29th week was inversely associated with sleep duration on weekends (P = 0.043). Umbilical testosterone level at delivery inversely correlated with sleep duration on weekdays (P = 0.030). These associations were somewhat stronger among mothers with female offspring than those with male offspring. These results suggested that exposure to light at night might increase sex hormone levels during pregnancy. PMID:22333297

  13. Race and Sex Differences in Small-Molecule Metabolites and Metabolic Hormones in Overweight and Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mahesh J.; Batch, Bryan C.; Svetkey, Laura P.; Bain, James R.; Turer, Christy Boling; Haynes, Carol; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Stevens, Robert D.; Newgard, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In overweight/obese individuals, cardiometabolic risk factors differ by race and sex categories. Small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormone levels might also differ across these categories and contribute to risk factor heterogeneity. To explore this possibility, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of fasting plasma levels of 69 small-molecule metabolites and 13 metabolic hormones in 500 overweight/obese adults who participated in the Weight Loss Maintenance trial. Principal-components analysis (PCA) was used for reduction of metabolite data. Race and sex-stratified comparisons of metabolite factors and metabolic hormones were performed. African Americans represented 37.4% of the study participants, and females 63.0%. Of thirteen metabolite factors identified, three differed by race and sex: levels of factor 3 (branched-chain amino acids and related metabolites, p<0.0001), factor 6 (long-chain acylcarnitines, p<0.01), and factor 2 (medium-chain dicarboxylated acylcarnitines, p<0.0001) were higher in males vs. females; factor 6 levels were higher in Caucasians vs. African Americans (p<0.0001). Significant differences were also observed in hormones regulating body weight homeostasis. Among overweight/obese adults, there are significant race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones; these differences may contribute to risk factor heterogeneity across race and sex subgroups and should be considered in future investigations with circulating metabolites and metabolic hormones. PMID:24117402

  14. Genome-wide association study with 1000 genomes imputation identifies signals for nine sex hormone-related phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ruth, Katherine S; Campbell, Purdey J; Chew, Shelby; Lim, Ee Mun; Hadlow, Narelle; Stuckey, Bronwyn GA; Brown, Suzanne J; Feenstra, Bjarke; Joseph, John; Surdulescu, Gabriela L; Zheng, Hou Feng; Richards, J Brent; Murray, Anna; Spector, Tim D; Wilson, Scott G; Perry, John RB

    2016-01-01

    Genetic factors contribute strongly to sex hormone levels, yet knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms remains incomplete. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified only a small number of loci associated with sex hormone levels, with several reproductive hormones yet to be assessed. The aim of the study was to identify novel genetic variants contributing to the regulation of sex hormones. We performed GWAS using genotypes imputed from the 1000 Genomes reference panel. The study used genotype and phenotype data from a UK twin register. We included 2913 individuals (up to 294 males) from the Twins UK study, excluding individuals receiving hormone treatment. Phenotypes were standardised for age, sex, BMI, stage of menstrual cycle and menopausal status. We tested 7 879 351 autosomal SNPs for association with levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), oestradiol, free androgen index (FAI), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, progesterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Eight independent genetic variants reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8), with minor allele frequencies of 1.3–23.9%. Novel signals included variants for progesterone (P=7.68 × 10−12), oestradiol (P=1.63 × 10−8) and FAI (P=1.50 × 10−8). A genetic variant near the FSHB gene was identified which influenced both FSH (P=1.74 × 10−8) and LH (P=3.94 × 10−9) levels. A separate locus on chromosome 7 was associated with both DHEAS (P=1.82 × 10−14) and progesterone (P=6.09 × 10−14). This study highlights loci that are relevant to reproductive function and suggests overlap in the genetic basis of hormone regulation. PMID:26014426

  15. Creative musical behavior and sex hormones: musical talent and spatial ability in the two sexes.

    PubMed

    Hassler, M

    1992-01-01

    Creative musical behavior, musical intelligence, and spatial ability were investigated in relation to salivary testosterone (T). In a cross-sectional study with 117 adults and in an 8-yr longitudinal study with 120 adolescents, composers, instrumentalists, and nonmusicians of both sexes were compared by analyses of variance. Results indicate that an optimal T range may exist for the expression of creative musical behavior. This range may be at the bottom of normal male T range and at the top of normal female T range. In addition, musicians were found to attain significantly higher spatial test scores than nonmusicians, both, in an 8-yr-period of adolescent development and in adulthood. PMID:1609017

  16. Association of Sex Hormones, Aging and Atrial Fibrillation in Men: The Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, Jared W.; Moser, Carlee B.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Wang, Na; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Coviello, Andrea D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Endogenous sex hormones have been related to cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. We hypothesized that sex hormones are related to atrial fibrillation (AF) in a community-based cohort of middle-aged to older men. Methods and Results We examined testosterone, estradiol, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEA-S]) in relation to incident AF in men participating in the Framingham Heart Study. We assessed the 10-year risk of AF in multivariable-adjusted hazard models. The cohort consisted of 1251 men (age 68.0±8.2), of whom 275 developed incident AF. We identified a significant interaction between age and testosterone, and therefore stratified men into age 55–69 (n=786), 70–79 (n=351), and ≥80 (n=114). In men 55–69 each 1-standard deviation (SD) decrease in testosterone was associated with hazard ratio (HR) 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 1.59) for incident AF. The association between testosterone and 10-year incident AF in men 70–79 did not reach statistical significance. In men ≥80 years a 1-SD decrease in testosterone was associated with HR 3.53 (95% CI, 1.96 to 6.37) for AF risk. Estradiol was associated with incident AF (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.26). DHEA-S had a borderline association with risk of AF that was not statistically significant (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.28). Conclusions Testosterone and estradiol are associated with incident AF in a cohort of older men. Testosterone deficiency in men ≥80 is strongly associated with AF risk. The clinical and electrophysiologic mechanisms underlying the associations between sex hormones and AF in older men merit continued investigation. PMID:24610804

  17. Hormone-dependence of sarin lethality in rats: Sex differences and stage of the estrous cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Carl D. Wright, Linnzi K.M.; Garcia, Gregory E.; Lee, Robyn B.; Lumley, Lucille A.

    2015-09-15

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are highly toxic compounds that cause a cascade of symptoms and death, if exposed casualties are left untreated. Numerous rodent models have investigated the toxicity and mechanisms of toxicity of CWNAs, but most are limited to male subjects. Given the profound physiological effects of circulating gonadal hormones in female rodents, it is possible that the daily cyclical fluctuations of these hormones affect females' sensitivity to the lethal effects of CWNAs, and previous reports that included female subjects did not control for the stage of the hormonal cycle. The aim of the current study was to determine the 24-hour median lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) of the CWNA sarin in male, ovariectomized (OVEX) female, and female rats during different stages of the estrous cycle (diestrus, proestrus, and estrus). Additionally, baseline activity levels of plasma acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and carboxylesterase were measured to determine differences among the groups. Results indicated that females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD{sub 50} of sarin compared to OVEX and estrous females. Although some sex differences were observed in the activity levels of plasma esterases, they were not consistent and likely not large enough to significantly affect the LD{sub 50}s. These results suggest that hormonal cyclicity can influence the outcome of CWNA-related studies using female rodents, and that this variability can be minimized by controlling for the stage of the cycle. Additional research is necessary to determine the precise mechanism of the observed differences because it is unlikely to be solely explained by plasma esterase activity. - Highlights: • The LD{sub 50} of sarin was determined in female rats throughout the stages of the estrous cycle. • Females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD{sub 50} compared to estrous or ovariectomized females. • No sex differences were observed between male and female rats

  18. Contribution of sex hormones to gender differences in schizophrenia: A review.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Tricia L; Ravindran, Arun V

    2015-12-01

    Female patients with schizophrenia tend to have a more benign course and better outcomes than males. One proposed explanation is the differential influence of male and female sex hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS). Such benefit may be mediated by their effects on neurotransmitters and neuroprotection. Besides altered estrogen and DHEA/DHEAS levels in female patients, data is equivocal on hormonal differences between patients and controls. However, several reports note a mostly negative correlation between estrogen levels and symptom severity in both genders, and a positive correlation between estrogen levels and neurocognition but mainly in females. Adjunctive estrogen appears to improve symptoms in both genders. Progesterone levels have inconsistent links to symptom severity in both genders, and correlate positively with neurocognition but only in males. Estrogen-progesterone combination shows preliminary benefits as augmentation for both symptoms and neurocognition in females. Testosterone levels correlate inversely with negative symptoms in males and have inconsistent associations with neurocognition in both genders. Testosterone augmentation reduced negative symptoms in male patients in a pilot investigation, but has not been evaluated for neurocognition in either gender. DHEA/DHEAS have mixed results for their association with, and clinical utility for, symptoms and neurocognition in both genders. Overall, data on the impact of sex hormones on clinical course or as treatment for schizophrenia is limited, but estrogen has most evidence for positive influence and clinical benefit. The possibly greater tolerability and broader impact of these hormones versus existing medications support further exploration of their use. PMID:26321672

  19. Melanin-Concentrating Hormone: A New Sleep Factor?

    PubMed Central

    Torterolo, Pablo; Lagos, Patricia; Monti, Jaime M.

    2011-01-01

    Neurons containing the neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) are mainly located in the lateral hypothalamus and the incerto-hypothalamic area, and have widespread projections throughout the brain. While the biological functions of this neuropeptide are exerted in humans through two metabotropic receptors, the MCHR1 and MCHR2, only the MCHR1 is present in rodents. Recently, it has been shown that the MCHergic system is involved in the control of sleep. We can summarize the experimental findings as follows: (1) The areas related to the control of sleep and wakefulness have a high density of MCHergic fibers and receptors. (2) MCHergic neurons are active during sleep, especially during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. (3) MCH knockout mice have less REM sleep, notably under conditions of negative energy balance. Animals with genetically inactivated MCHR1 also exhibit altered vigilance state architecture and sleep homeostasis. (4) Systemically administered MCHR1 antagonists reduce sleep. (5) Intraventricular microinjection of MCH increases both slow wave sleep (SWS) and REM sleep; however, the increment in REM sleep is more pronounced. (6) Microinjection of MCH into the dorsal raphe nucleus increases REM sleep time. REM seep is inhibited by immunoneutralization of MCH within this nucleus. (7) Microinjection of MCH in the nucleus pontis oralis of the cat enhances REM sleep time and reduces REM sleep latency. All these data strongly suggest that MCH has a potent role in the promotion of sleep. Although both SWS and REM sleep are facilitated by MCH, REM sleep seems to be more sensitive to MCH modulation. PMID:21516258

  20. Age- and sex-associated plasma proteomic changes in growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted mice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Juan; Berryman, Darlene E; Jara, Adam; Kopchick, John J

    2012-08-01

    Growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted (GHR-/-) mice are dwarf, insulin sensitive, and long lived despite being obese. In order to identify characteristics associated with their increased longevity, we studied age-related plasma proteomic changes in these mice. Male and female GHR-/- mice and their littermate controls were followed longitudinally at 8, 16, and 24 months of ages for plasma proteomic analysis. Relative to control littermates, GHR-/- mice had increased levels of apolipoprotein A-4 and retinol-binding protein-4 and decreased levels of apolipoprotein E, haptoglobin, and mannose-binding protein-C. Female GHR-/- mice showed decreased inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Additionally, sex differences were found in specific isoforms of apolipoprotein E, RBP-4, haptoglobin, albumin, and hemoglobin subunit beta. In conclusion, we find plasma proteomic changes in GHR-/- mice that favor a longer life span as well as sex differences indicative of an improved health span in female mice. PMID:22156438

  1. Exogenous leptin administered intramuscularly induces sex hormone disorder and Ca loss via downregulation of Gnrh and PI3K expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lihong; Liu, Wen; Bayaer, Nashun; Gu, Weiwang; Song, Jieli

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a public health problem that increases the risk of metabolic disease, infertility, and other chronic health problems. The present study aimed to develop a new rat model for sex hormone disorder with overweight and Ca loss by intramuscular injection of exogenous leptin (LEP). Thirty female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (40 days old) were injected thrice intramuscularly with LEP or keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunogen. The following analyses were performed to determine the development of appetite, overweight, reproductive related-hormones, and calcium (Ca)/phosphorus (Pi) in SD rats: measurement of Lee's index, body weight, food intake; serum Ca, Pi, and hormone tests by enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis; histological analysis of abdominal fat; real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of neuropeptide Y, pro-opiomelanocortin, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gnrh) mRNA, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr) mRNA expression; and western blotting analysis of enzyme phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). Rats injected with LEP immunogen displayed significantly increased body weight, food intake, Lee's index, serum LEP, serum cortisol, fat deposition in the abdomen, and decreased hormones including follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, cholecystokinin, and Ca. Exogenous LEP administered intramuscularly also downregulate Gnrh and PI3K. In conclusion, exogenous LEP administered intramuscularly is a novel animal model for sex hormones disorder with overweight and Ca loss in SD rats. The downregulation of PI3K and Gnrh may be involved in the development of this animal model. PMID:25048263

  2. Exogenous Leptin Administered Intramuscularly Induces Sex Hormone Disorder and Ca Loss via Downregulation of Gnrh and PI3K Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lihong; Liu, Wen; Bayaer, Nashun; Gu, Weiwang; Song, Jieli

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a public health problem that increases the risk of metabolic disease, infertility, and other chronic health problems. The present study aimed to develop a new rat model for sex hormone disorder with overweight and Ca loss by intramuscular injection of exogenous leptin (LEP). Thirty female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (40 days old) were injected thrice intramuscularly with LEP or keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunogen. The following analyses were performed to determine the development of appetite, overweight, reproductive related-hormones, and calcium (Ca)/phosphorus (Pi) in SD rats: measurement of Lee’s index, body weight, food intake; serum Ca, Pi, and hormone tests by enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis; histological analysis of abdominal fat; real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of neuropeptide Y, pro-opiomelanocortin, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gnrh) mRNA, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr) mRNA expression; and western blotting analysis of enzyme phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). Rats injected with LEP immunogen displayed significantly increased body weight, food intake, Lee’s index, serum LEP, serum cortisol, fat deposition in the abdomen, and decreased hormones including follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, cholecystokinin, and Ca. Exogenous LEP administered intramuscularly also downregulate Gnrh and PI3K. In conclusion, exogenous LEP administered intramuscularly is a novel animal model for sex hormones disorder with overweight and Ca loss in SD rats. The downregulation of PI3K and Gnrh may be involved in the development of this animal model. PMID:25048263

  3. Role of female sex hormones in neuronal nitric oxide release and metabolism in rat mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Minoves, Nuria; Balfagón, Gloria; Ferrer, Mercedes

    2002-09-01

    This study examines the effects of female sex hormones on the vasoconstrictor response to electrical field stimulation (EFS), as well as the modulation of this response by neuronal NO. For this purpose, segments of denuded superior mesenteric artery from ovariectomized (OvX) female Sprague-Dawley rats and from control rats (in oestrus phase) were used. EFS induced frequency-dependent contractions, which were greater in segments from OvX rats than in those from control rats. The NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester strengthened EFS-elicited contractions to a greater extent in arteries from OvX rats than in those from control rats. Similar results were observed with the preferential neuronal NO synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole. The sensorial neurotoxin capsaicin did not modify EFS-induced contractions in segments from either group. In noradrenaline-precontracted segments, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced concentration-dependent relaxation, which was greater in segments from control rats than in those from OvX rats. 8-Bromo-cGMP induced similar concentration-dependent relaxation in noradrenaline-precontracted segments from both OvX and control rats. Diethyldithiocarbamate, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor, reduced the relaxation induced by SNP in segments from both groups of rats. SOD, a superoxide anion scavenger, enhanced the relaxation induced by SNP in segments from OvX rats, but did not modify it in segments from control rats. EFS induced NO(-)(2) formation, which was greater in segments from OvX than in those from control rats, and pretreatment with tetrodotoxin, a blocker of nerve impulse propagation, abolished release in both cases. These results suggest that EFS induces greater neuronal NO release in mesenteric segments from OvX rats than in those from control rats and, although NO metabolism is also higher, the contribution of net neuronal NO in the vasomotor response to EFS is greater in segments from OvX rats than in those

  4. The Influence of Alcohol Consumption in Conjunction with Sex Hormone Deficiency on Ca/P Ratio in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lodi, Karina Bortolin; Marchini, Adriana Mathias Pereira da Silva; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Rode, Sigmar de Mello; Marchini, Leonardo; da Rocha, Rosilene Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of sex hormones and excessive alcohol consumption are factors that have been related to alterations in the pattern of bone mineralization and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible alterations in the calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio in the femur of rats subjected to sex hormone deficiency and/or alcohol consumption. Methods. Female and male Wistar rats (n = 108) were divided into ovariectomized (Ovx), orchiectomized (Orx), or sham-operated groups and subdivided according to diet: alcoholic diet (20% alcohol solution), isocaloric diet, and ad libitum diet. The diets were administered for 8 weeks. The Ca/P ratio in the femur was analyzed by energy dispersive micro-X-ray spectrometer (μEDX). Results. Consumption of alcohol reduced the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. The isocaloric diet reduced the Ca/P ratio in females. In groups with the ad libitum diet, the deficiency of sex hormones did not change the Ca/P ratio in females or males. However, the combination of sex hormone deficiency and alcoholic diet presented the lowest values for the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. Conclusions. There was a reduced Ca/P ratio in the femur of rats that consumed alcohol, which was exacerbated when combined with a deficiency of sex hormones. PMID:27073396

  5. Transcriptomic Analyses of Sexual Dimorphism of the Zebrafish Liver and the Effect of Sex Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiling; Xu, Hongyan; Lam, Siew Hong; Luo, Huaien; Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2013-01-01

    The liver is one of the most sex-dimorphic organs in both oviparous and viviparous animals. In order to understand the molecular basis of the difference between male and female livers, high-throughput RNA-SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) sequencing was performed for zebrafish livers of both sexes and their transcriptomes were compared. Both sexes had abundantly expressed genes involved in translation, coagulation and lipid metabolism, consistent with the general function of the liver. For sex-biased transcripts, from in addition to the high enrichment of vitellogenin transcripts in spawning female livers, which constituted nearly 80% of total mRNA, it is apparent that the female-biased genes were mostly involved in ribosome/translation, estrogen pathway, lipid transport, etc, while the male-biased genes were enriched for oxidation reduction, carbohydrate metabolism, coagulation, protein transport and localization, etc. Sexual dimorphism on xenobiotic metabolism and anti-oxidation was also noted and it is likely that retinol x receptor (RXR) and liver x receptor (LXR) play central roles in regulating the sexual differences of lipid and cholesterol metabolisms. Consistent with high ribosomal/translational activities in the female liver, female-biased genes were significantly regulated by two important transcription factors, Myc and Mycn. In contrast, Male livers showed activation of transcription factors Ppargc1b, Hnf4a, and Stat4, which regulate lipid and glucose metabolisms and various cellular activities. The transcriptomic responses to sex hormones, 17β-estradiol (E2) or 11-keto testosterone (KT11), were also investigated in both male and female livers and we found that female livers were relatively insensitive to sex hormone disturbance, while the male livers were readily affected. E2 feminized male liver by up-regulating female-biased transcripts and down-regulating male-biased transcripts. The information obtained in this study provides comprehensive

  6. Sex hormones affect language lateralisation but not cognitive control in normally cycling women.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Sophie; Weis, Susanne; Hausmann, Markus

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and Cognition". Natural fluctuations of sex hormones during the menstrual cycle have been shown to modulate language lateralisation. Using the dichotic listening (DL) paradigm, a well-established measurement of language lateralisation, several studies revealed that the left hemispheric language dominance was stronger when levels of estradiol were high. A recent study (Hjelmervik et al., 2012) showed, however, that high levels of follicular estradiol increased lateralisation only in a condition that required participants to cognitively control (top-down) the stimulus-driven (bottom-up) response. This finding suggested that sex hormones modulate lateralisation only if cognitive control demands are high. The present study investigated language lateralisation in 73 normally cycling women under three attention conditions that differed in cognitive control demands. Saliva estradiol and progesterone levels were determined by luminescence immunoassays. Women were allocated to a high or low estradiol group. The results showed a reduced language lateralisation when estradiol and progesterone levels were high. The effect was independent of the attention condition indicating that estradiol marginally affected cognitive control. The findings might suggest that high levels of estradiol especially reduce the stimulus-driven (bottom-up) aspect of lateralisation rather than top-down cognitive control. PMID:26145565

  7. Induction of calcium-dependent nitric oxide synthases by sex hormones.

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, C P; Lizasoain, I; Baylis, S A; Knowles, R G; Charles, I G; Moncada, S

    1994-01-01

    We have examined the effects of pregnancy and sex hormones on calcium-dependent and calcium-independent nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) in the guinea pig. Pregnancy (near term) caused a > 4-fold increase in the activity of calcium-dependent NOS in the uterine artery and at least a doubling in the heart, kidney, skeletal muscle, esophagus, and cerebellum. The increase in NOS activity in the cerebellum during pregnancy was inhibited by the estrogen-receptor antagonist tamoxifen. Treatment with estradiol (but not progesterone) also increased calcium-dependent NOS activity in the tissues examined from both females and males. Testosterone increased calcium-dependent NOS only in the cerebellum. No significant change in calcium-independent NOS activity was observed either during pregnancy or after the administration of any sex hormone. Both pregnancy and estradiol treatment increased the amount of mRNAs for NOS isozymes eNOS and nNOS in skeletal muscle, suggesting that the increases in NOS activity result from enzyme induction. Thus both eNOS and nNOS are subject to regulation by estrogen, an action that could explain some of the changes that occur during pregnancy and some gender differences in physiology and pathophysiology. Images PMID:7515189

  8. Sex hormones establish a reserve pool of adult muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Han, Gi-Chan; Seo, Ji-Yun; Park, Inkuk; Park, Wookjin; Jeong, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Su Hyeon; Bae, Sung-Hwan; Seong, Jinwoo; Yum, Min-Kyu; Hann, Sang-Hyeon; Kwon, Young-Guen; Seo, Daekwan; Choi, Man Ho; Kong, Young-Yun

    2016-09-01

    Quiescent satellite cells, known as adult muscle stem cells, possess a remarkable ability to regenerate skeletal muscle following injury throughout life. Although they mainly originate from multipotent stem/progenitor cells of the somite, the mechanism underlying the establishment of quiescent satellite cell populations is unknown. Here, we show that sex hormones induce Mind bomb 1 (Mib1) expression in myofibres at puberty, which activates Notch signalling in cycling juvenile satellite cells and causes them to be converted into adult quiescent satellite cells. Myofibres lacking Mib1 fail to send Notch signals to juvenile satellite cells, leading to impaired cell cycle exit and depletion. Our findings reveal that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis drives Mib1 expression in the myofibre niche. Moreover, the same axis regulates the re-establishment of quiescent satellite cell populations following injury. Our data show that sex hormones establish adult quiescent satellite cell populations by regulating the myofibre niche at puberty and re-establish them during regeneration. PMID:27548913

  9. Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity: The Role of Sex Hormones in Gonadectomized Male and Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir; Moslemi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background. Gentamicin (GM) induced nephrotoxicity may be sex hormones related. The effects of sex hormones on GM induced nephrotoxicity in gonadectomized rats were investigated. Methods. Ovariectomized rats received 0.25, 0.5, or 1 mg/kg/week of estradiol (ES) alone or accompanied with 10 mg/kg/week of progesterone (Pro) for two weeks followed by GM (100 mg/kg/day) for 9 days. Castrated rats were also treated with 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg/week of testosterone (TS) for two weeks and then received GM. In addition, a single castrated group received 0.25 mg/kg/week of ES plus GM. Results. GM increased the serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) and kidney tissue damage score (KTDS) (P < 0.05). TS had no effect on the serum levels of BUN and Cr and KTDS, while low dose of ES intensified these parameters in male (P < 0.05). ES (0.5 mg/kg) without Pro ameliorated KTDS in female (P < 0.05) while ES (1 mg/kg) with or without Pro exacerbated the BUN values and Cr values, KTDS, and body weight loss (P < 0.05). Conclusion. ES (0.5 mg/kg) without Pro ameliorated kidney damage induced by GM in female while neither TS nor ES had beneficial effect on nephrotoxicity induced by GM in male, although ES aggravated it. PMID:27213082

  10. Enhanced skin permeation of sex hormones with novel topical spray vehicles.

    PubMed

    Morgan, T M; Reed, B L; Finnin, B C

    1998-10-01

    The feasibility of using some novel topical spray vehicles for enhanced transdermal delivery of the sex hormones, testosterone (Tes), estradiol (E2), progesterone (Prog), and norethindrone acetate (NA) has been investigated. The new penetration enhancers, padimate O (PadO) and octyl salicylate (OSal) were used and compared with laurocapram (AZ) and oleic acid (OA). A finite dose (5 microL/cm2) of each vehicle was applied to either shed snake skin or swine skin in vitro, and the amount penetrated was measured with flow-through diffusion cells. Partitioning into swine skin was determined after an exposure time of 1 min. Rapid partitioning of Tes and PadO into swine skin occurred after 1 min with 70% and 60% of the applied dose, respectively, remaining in the skin after the unabsorbed dose was removed by rinsing with absolute ethanol. The cumulative amount at 24 h (Q24 h) of Tes penetrating across the snake skin was significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) up to 6-fold for OSal, 3-fold for OA and AZ, and 2-fold for PadO compared to control. Using PadO or AZ, the Q24 h ranged from three- to thirteen-fold over control (p < 0.05) for E2, Prog, and NA. Extrapolation of these data to predict what would happen in humans suggests that it should be possible to deliver clinically relevant amounts of sex hormones in this manner with once daily dosing. PMID:9758679